Agnė Garlauskaitė; Rasa Zabarauskaitė
The aim of this article is to identify the factors that determine aging of Lithuania’s population and to assess the influence of these factors. The article shows Lithuanian population aging factors analysis, which consists of two main parts: the first describes the aging of the population and its characteristics in theoretical terms. Second part is dedicated to the assessment of trends that influence the aging population and demographic factors and also to analyse the determinants of the agin...
As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in
Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Yen, Tung-Wen
The study was designed to validate a model for a successful aging process and examine the gender differences in the aging process. Three hundred twelve participants who were 65 or older completed a Taiwan Social Change Survey that measures four factors that define successful aging process: including physical, psychological, social support, and…
Hühne, Rolf; Thalheim, Torsten; Sühnel, Jürgen
AgeFactDB (http://agefactdb.jenage.de) is a database aimed at the collection and integration of ageing phenotype data including lifespan information. Ageing factors are considered to be genes, chemical compounds or other factors such as dietary restriction, whose action results in a changed lifespan or another ageing phenotype. Any information related to the effects of ageing factors is called an observation and is presented on observation pages. To provide concise access to the complete info...
Kocić Sanja S.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis χ2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.
Connell, Paul P
Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.
In the second language acquisition, the study focus of linguistics is the influence of age factors which has always been considered as one of the most controversial issues. Some experts hold that the younger the better and would get good compe⁃tence to learn language well, meanwhile others believe that adult have more strong motivation and competence.Based on the Brain Plasticity Theory and the Critical Period Hypothesis, and the intention of this thesis is to reveal such a hypothesis that the younger the learner who starts to learn a second language, the greater performance that he will achieve like a native does, through the comparative research between children and adults. The subjects are 100 Chinese learners who begin learning at different levels and ages. According to the results of integrated scores and a collection of the data in the questionnaire, an analysis show that the results acquired would be consistent with the hypothesis.The intention of this research is not only to argue which is better, earlier or later, but also an trial, through investigation and study, to provide some insights and suggestion to the existent issues, especially the children second language education and college English study in China.
Discusses a number of recent developments in the literature on aging. The classic distinction between generalized and process-specific cognitive changes with old age has reappeared in the distinctions between the frontal lobe hypothesis and more differentiated views of neurocognitive aging. The auth
Balasubramanian, Priya; Longo, Valter D
Simple organisms including yeast and flies with mutations in the IGF-1 and Tor-S6K pathways are dwarfs, are highly protected from toxins, and survive up to 3 times longer. Similarly, dwarf mice with deficiencies in the growth hormone-IGF-I axis are also long lived and protected from diseases. We recently reported that humans with Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency (GHRD) rarely develop cancer or diabetes. These findings are in agreement with the effect of defects in the Tor-S6K pathways in causing dwarfism and protection of DNA. Because protein restriction reduces both GHR-IGF-1 axis and Tor-S6K activity, we examined links between protein intake, disease, and mortality in over 6000 US subjects in the NHANES CDC database. Respondents aged 50-65 reporting a high protein intake displayed an increase in IGF-I levels, a 75% increased risk of overall mortality and a 3-4 fold increased risk of cancer mortality in agreement with findings in mouse experiments. These studies point to a conserved link between proteins and amino acids, GHR-IGF-1/insulin, Tor-S6k signaling, aging, and diseases. PMID:26883276
Bista, Krishna K.
This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…
Keywords: dietary quality, dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, smoking, physical activity, elderly, mortality, Mediterranean Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, healthy ageing, self-rated health, functional statusThe contribution of diet and lifestyle factors to healthy ageing was
Bredenkamp, N.; Nowell, C. S.; Blackburn, C C
Thymic involution is central to the decline in immune system function that occurs with age. By regenerating the thymus, it may therefore be possible to improve the ability of the aged immune system to respond to novel antigens. Recently, diminished expression of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC)-specific transcription factor Forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) has been implicated as a component of the mechanism regulating age-related involution. The effects of upregulating FOXN1 function in the aged thymu...
Golshiri, Parastoo; Abdollahzadeh, Mohammad Reza
Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the age at natural menopause and related factors among women in a population based study in 2015 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study 960 menopausal women were selected by cluster sampling. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle behavior and reproductive history aspects were collected using a structured questionnaire. Woman and her husband's educational level and occupation with family income were the variables to construct socioeconomic status using principal component analysis. Results Mean and median of natural menopause age were 48.66 and 48 years, respectively. Women body mass index (BMI) more than 30 kg/m2 had significantly higher menopausal age than women with lower BMI (P value = 0.022). The mean of menopausal age was not statistically significant in regard to marital status, physical activity, smoking status, menarche age, age at first pregnancy and history of abortion. Menopause age with pregnancy numbers and age at last pregnancy had a significant positive association. Women with better socioeconomic status had significantly higher natural menopause age. Multiple linear regression shows significant relationship between lower age at menopause with higher age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Age at menopause in our studied sample is similar to previous estimates reported for other Iranian populations. Age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status were the significant factors in relations to age at menopause. PMID:27617243
Calcium deficiency is a constant menace to land-abiding animals, including mammals. Humans enjoying exceptional longevity on earth are especially susceptible to calcium deficiency in old age. Low calcium and vitamin D intake, short solar exposure, decreased intestinal absorption, and falling renal function with insufficient 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D biosynthesis all contribute to calcium deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss and possibly calcium shift from the bone to soft tissue, and from the extracellular to the intracellular compartment, blunting the sharp concentration gap between these compartments. The consequences of calcium deficiency might thus include not only osteoporosis, but also arteriosclerosis and hypertension due to the increase of calcium in the vascular wall, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and senile dementia due to calcium deposition in the central nervous system, and a decrease in cellular function, because of blunting of the difference in extracellular-intracellular calcium, leading to diabetes mellitus, immune deficiency and others (Fig. 6). PMID:2943880
... national economy. (2) If the claimant is close to retirement age (60-64) and has a severe impairment, the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Age as a vocational factor. 220.128 Section 220.128 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...
María Eugenia Nano
Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.
In present-day world foregrounding the booming globalization, there is possibly no one who still doubts the formida-ble position of English as an international language, who still questions the immense necessity and urgency of learning English as a second language. Therefore, nothing is more rewarding than a clear-cut perception of age factor in second language acquisition that help learners young or old improve their English proficiency if not a native-like level. Among the full repertoire of ideas and arguments concerning age factor in second language acquisition, the critical period hypothesis is undoubtedly the chief character in the center of the stage.
Manolescu Suzana; Rada Cornelia
Objectives: Identifying biological and socio-demographic factors influencing old people’s health stateand their impact on their life; psychological evaluation of a third-age (60-90 years) cohort.Methods: The sample was made up of 120 urban subjects of both sexes, aged between 60-90 years,evenly distributed into 3 age groups: 60-70, 70-80 and 80-90. Subjects were randomly selected from noninstitutionalisedpopulation (with no claims of representativeness). Two instruments were used: aquestionna...
Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna
A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to...
Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N
By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452
Full Text Available Aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass, increased adiposity and fibrosis that leads to sarcopenia. At the molecular level, muscle aging is known to alter the expression of a variety of genes but very little is known about the molecular effectors involved. SRF (Serum Response Factor is a crucial transcription factor for muscle-specific gene expression and for post-natal skeletal muscle growth. To assess its role in adult skeletal muscle physiology, we developed a post-mitotic myofiber-specific and tamoxifen-inducible SRF knockout model. Five months after SRF loss, no obvious muscle phenotype was observed suggesting that SRF is not crucial for myofiber maintenance. However, mutant mice progressively developed IIB myofiber-specific atrophy accompanied by a metabolic switch towards a more oxidative phenotype, muscular lipid accumulation, sarcomere disorganization and fibrosis. After injury, mutant muscles exhibited an altered regeneration process, showing smaller regenerated fibers and persistent fibrosis. All of these features are strongly reminiscent of abnormalities encountered in aging skeletal muscle. Interestingly, we also observed an important age associated decrease in SRF expression in mice and human muscles. Altogether, these results suggest that a naturally occurring SRF down-regulation precedes and contributes to the muscle aging process. Indeed, triggering SRF loss in the muscles of mutant mice results in an accelerated aging process.
Monsell, Ellen; McLuskey, John
Research has shown that individuals aged 45-64, or the 'middle-aged' population, are at an increasing risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). An exploration of the factors that may influence STIs in this age group was carried out to ascertain how to reduce the risk. A critical review identified 14 research papers that considered STIs in middle-aged people. The available evidence base highlighted an under-representation of women, the absence of a consistent definition of 'middle age', and a paucity of specific information on the sexual health needs of this group. Low condom use was found to be a possible contributor to increasing STI rates; men were shown to report particularly low use. Behaviours such as contact with sex workers and sexual encounters abroad were found to be additional risk factors in men, requiring further consideration. The breakdown and formation of relationships during middle age was also identified as a possible area to investigate, as were the behavioural traits of women and associated STI risk. Further research into these areas could facilitate the development of attitudes, knowledge, policy and practice that could help provide better support for individuals affected. PMID:27345071
Full Text Available Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an “ageist” approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons.
Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele
Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an "ageist" approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons. PMID:26828516
Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele
Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an "ageist" approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons.
Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele
Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an “ageist” approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons. PMID:26828516
Normal aging is associated with significant changes in the function of most organs and tissues. In this regard, the gastrointestinal tract is no exception. The purpose of this review is to detail the important age-related changes in motor function of the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract and to highlight some of the important motility changes that may occur, either in relation to common age-related disorders, or as a result of certain drugs commonly prescribed in the aged. A major confounding factor in the interpretation of motor phenomena throughout the gastrointestinal tract in this age group is the frequent coexistence of neurological, endocrinological and other disease states, which may be independently associated with dysmotility. Overall, current data are insufficient to implicate normal aging as a cause of dysmotility in the elderly. Normal aging is associated with various changes in gastrointestinal motility, but the clinical significance of such changes remains unclear. More important is the impact of various age-related diseases on gastrointestinal motility in the elderly: for example, long-standing diabetes mellitus may reduce gastric emptying in up to 50% of patients; depression significantly prolongs whole-gut transit time; hypothyroidism may prolong oro-caecal transit time; and chronic renal failure is associated with impaired gastric emptying. In addition, various, frequently used drugs in the elderly cause disordered gastrointestinal motility. These drugs include anticholinergics, especially antidepressants with an anticholinergic effect, opioid analgesics and calcium antagonists.
Francesco Landi; Emanuele Marzetti; Matteo Tosato; Elena Ortolani; Graziano Onder; Davide Liborio Vetrano; Anna Maria Martone
Anorexia of aging, defined as a loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, affects a significant number of elderly people and is far more prevalent among frail individuals. Anorexia recognizes a multifactorial origin characterized by various combinations of medical, environmental and social factors. Given the interconnection between weight loss, sarcopenia and frailty, anorexia is a powerful, independent predictor of poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality in older persons. One of the...
肖能明; 张焱明; 郑权; 顾军
Background Does klotho (KL) protein exist in human serum, and is there any correlation between KL protein in serum with human aging? In order to answer those questions, we identified KL protein in human serum and established the correlation between KL protein in human serum and aging.Methods We prepared a polyclonal antibody against human KL protein that was able to recognize the C-terminal of human secreted KL protein. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to identify KL protein in human serum.Results In Western blot, the antibody specifically recognized a 60-kD KL protein in both human and mice serum. The population aged from 0 to 91 years screened by ELISA revealed that the level of serum KL declined while age increased, though each individual level was variable and that the trend of decreasing in serum KL had no difference in sex.Conclusion Our data suggest that KL is a serum factor related to human aging.
... retirement age (age 60 or older). See § 416.968(d)(4). (f) Information about your age. We will usually not... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Your age as a vocational factor. 416.963... age as a vocational factor. (a) General. “Age” means your chronological age. When we decide...
Phillipson, Oliver T
The aging risk factor for Parkinson's disease is described in terms of specific disease markers including mitochondrial and gene dysfunctions relevant to energy metabolism. This review details evidence for the ability of nutritional agents to manage these aging risk factors. The combination of alpha lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, and melatonin supports energy metabolism via carbohydrate and fatty acid utilization, assists electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis, counters oxidative and nitrosative stress, and raises defenses against protein misfolding, inflammatory stimuli, iron, and other endogenous or xenobiotic toxins. These effects are supported by gene expression via the antioxidant response element (ARE; Keap/Nrf2 pathway), and by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha), a transcription coactivator, which regulates gene expression for energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, and maintains the structural integrity of mitochondria. The effectiveness and synergies of the combination against disease risks are discussed in relation to gene action, dopamine cell loss, and the accumulation and spread of pathology via misfolded alpha-synuclein. In addition there are potential synergies to support a neurorestorative role via glial derived neurotrophic factor expression.
Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna
A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries. PMID:24672198
Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna
A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.
ZHANG Yong-li; LIU Jun-tao; GAO Jin-song; YANG Jian-qiu; BIAN Xu-ming
Background Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are associated with a high rate of oligohydramnios, stillbirth and cesarean delivery. Among SGA patients there is a higher risk of neonatal complications, such as polycythemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and hypothermia. Additionally, the SGA infant is prone to suffer from major neurologic sequelae, as well as cardiovascular system disease, in later life. Proper monitoring and therapy during pregnancy are, therefore, of utmost importance. The present study aimed to investigate the influential and prognostic factors of SGA infants.Methods From January 2001 to June 2007, a total of 55 SGA neonatal infants were included in a study group. All were born at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, with regular formal antenatal examinations. In addition, a total of 122 cases of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants were bom at the same time and were registered into a control group. All cases were singleton pregnancies with detailed information of the maternal age, gravidity, parity, maternal height and weight, complications, uterine height and abdominal circumference, results from transabdominal ultrasonography between 32-38 gestational weeks, pregnancy duration, delivery manner, placenta, umbilical cord, and neonatal complications.Results Significant differences were observed in placenta weight and neonatal malformations between the study and control groups. Multivariate analysis revealed increased parity, maternal hyperthyroidism and hyperthyroidism history as risk factors. Fetal abdominal circumferences less than 30 and 32 cm at 32-38 gestational weeks respectively, as determined by ultrasonography, resulted in a Youden index of 0.62.Conclusions SGA infants were associated with a greater risk of smaller placentas and infant malformations. Increased parity, maternal hyperthyroidism, and a hyperthyroid history were risk factors for SGA infants. Fetal abdominal circumference less than 30 cm at 32 gestational weeks and less
Rosenthal, D A; Smith, A M; de Visser, R
Early initiation of sexual activity is a concern, in part because of increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancies among young people. In this study, 241 high schoolers were administered a questionnaire to establish the relationships between age at first sexual intercourse and personal qualities (sexual style, attractiveness, physical maturity, restraint, autonomy expectations, and attitudes to gender roles), smoking and drug use, and aspects of the social context (social activities, media impact, peer norms). There were few effects of sex of respondent and none in which respondents' sex impacted on age of initiation. Overall (and among the male sample), perceptions of greater physical maturity, greater use of uncommon (mostly illicit) drugs, and expectations of earlier autonomy significantly differentiated between early and later initiators. This group of factors tends to confirm the view that early experience of sexual intercourse is correlated with problem behaviors and a press toward "adult" behaviors. For girls, this pattern was even clearer, with use of uncommon drugs being replaced as a significant contributor to early sexual experience by relative lack of restraint. We conclude that the desire to achieve the transition to adulthood at an earlier age than their peers constitutes a powerful incentive for young people to become sexually active. PMID:10553493
Full Text Available David E VanceCenter for Nursing Research, School of Nursing, Edward R Roybal Center for Translational Research in Aging and Mobility, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: With the unprecedented number of older adults worldwide, it is important to consider ways of facilitating successful cognitive aging. One way to think of this is by augmenting or bolstering cognitive reserve. Loosely defined, cognitive reserve is considered a neurological reservoir that can be depleted by physiological insults (eg, white matter hyperintensities, oxidative stress to the brain but yet maintain optimal cognitive functioning. Cognitive reserve is built up or depleted by processes of positive and negative neuroplasticity, respectively. Lifestyle factors such as physical exercise (+, mental stimulation (+, good sleep hygiene (+, substance abuse (-, sedentary lifestyle (-, chronic stress and depression (-, social isolation (-, and poor health (- can either promote or discourage positive and negative neuroplasticity, which in turn impacts cognitive reserve. Nurses are encouraged to understand these processes so they can help facilitate successful cognitive aging in their patients.Keywords: cognitive reserve, Alzheimer's disease, neuroplasticity
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: reasonable factors other than age. 35.13 Section 35.13 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Standards for Determining...
E. M. Bogatyreva
Full Text Available Aim. Hyperandrogenism is a common cause of infertility in women. The onset of symptoms of hyperandrogenism takes place during puberty in the majority of women. Hyperandrogenism reduces reproductive potential,so early detection and development of its prognostic factors, allows us to solve serious problems of puberty and prevent infertility.Materials and methods. 113 adolescent girls with hyperandrogenism from 14 to 19 years were included. The control group consists of 25 healthy girls of a similar age. To confirm the prediction of decreased reproductive capacity were examined 35 women with hyperandrogenism from 19 to 36 years. In addition to routine methods of examination (anamnesis, physical examination, anthropometry, assessment of the hairline using Ferriman – Gallwey scale, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, the definition of the hormonal status (LH, FSH, prolactin, 17-OHP, estradiol, TSH, DHEAS-s, GHPG, testosterone, glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance test and dexamethasone suppression test when necessary.Results. We have proved the reduction of reproductive potential of adolescent girls with high free androgen index (FAI. When the FAI has increased from 36 to 100 conventional units it caused reduction of the reproductive capacity in 9.7 times in comparison with control group (χ2=56,24; p < 0.001; overall prediction accuracy of 92.8%.Conclusion. Free androgen index more than 36 conventional units is a high risk factor of reduced fertility.
Martone, Anna Maria; Onder, Graziano; Vetrano, Davide Liborio; Ortolani, Elena; Tosato, Matteo; Marzetti, Emanuele; Landi, Francesco
Anorexia of aging, defined as a loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, affects a significant number of elderly people and is far more prevalent among frail individuals. Anorexia recognizes a multifactorial origin characterized by various combinations of medical, environmental and social factors. Given the interconnection between weight loss, sarcopenia and frailty, anorexia is a powerful, independent predictor of poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality in older persons. One of the most important goals in the management of older, frail people is to optimize their nutritional status. To achieve this objective it is important to identify subjects at risk of anorexia and to provide multi-stimulus interventions that ensure an adequate amount of food to limit and/or reverse weight loss and functional decline. Here, we provide a brief overview on the relevance of anorexia in the context of sarcopenia and frailty. Major pathways supposedly involved in the pathogenesis of anorexia are also illustrated. Finally, the importance of treating anorexia to achieve health benefits in frail elders is highlighted.
Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.; Grunert, Klaus G.;
3200) were above 65 years of age and living in their ownhomes. The samples were quota samples, eight groups of fifty in each country, based on gender, age and living circumstances, reflecting the diversity of each of the national populations based on education, income and urbanization of living...
... United States Supreme Court's decision in Smith v. City of Jackson.\\1\\ 73 FR 16807, Mar. 31, 2008. The... (``ADEA'') \\2\\ but that liability is precluded when the impact is attributable to a reasonable factor... address the meaning ] of ``reasonable factors other than age.'' 75 FR 7212, Feb. 18, 2010. The...
SHENG Qian-qian; WANG Meng
Various characteristics play very important role in the process of students’second language acquisition and language development, including age, gender, personality, cognitive ability, motivation, learning strategies and so on. Among all these fac-tors mentioned, age factor received much attention in second language research. In this essay, two opposing views on age factor are discussed. In the last part , on the basis of the theory, some strategies on the real classroom teaching are provided after the discussion.
Drugli, May Britt; Hjemdal, Odin
The validity of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) was examined in a national sample of 863 Norwegian schoolchildren in grades 1-7 (aged 6-13). The original factor structure of the STRS was tested by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The CFA results did not support the original three-factor structure of the STRS. Subsequent CFA of the…
Hildebrandt, Susan A.; Eom, Minhee
This study examines motivational factors of teachers who have achieved a national standard of professionalization. Data were collected from National Board certified teachers in the United States (N = 453) using a two-part, web-based survey. Exploratory factor analysis found five motivators: improved teaching, financial gain, collaborative…
Valcárcel-Ocete, Leire; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Iriondo, Mikel;
Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp) in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim...
Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.
Peek, S.T.M.; Wouters, E.J.M.; Hoof, J. van; Luijkx, K.G.; Boeije, H.R.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.
Purpose: To provide an overview of factors influencing the acceptance of electronic technologies that support aging in place by community-dwelling older adults. Since technology acceptance factors fluctuate over time, a distinction was made between factors in the pre-implementation stage and factors
Peek, Sebastiaan T M; Wouters, Eveline J M; van Hoof, Joost; Luijkx, Katrien G.; Boeije, Hennie R.; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M
Purpose: To provide an overview of factors influencing the acceptance of electronic technologies that support aging in place by community-dwelling older adults. Since technology acceptance factors fluctuate over time, a distinction was made between factors in the pre-implementation stage and factors
Janssen, A.W.M.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Janssen, M.C.H.
To analyze risk factors for ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in young adults under the age of 50. To make recommendations for additional research and practical consequences. From 97 patients with ischemic stroke or TIA under the age of 50, classical cardiovascular risk factors, co
Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M
Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.
It has been held for a long time that the young are more susceptible than adults to the induction of cancer by radiation. The data in support of that contention are accumulating especially from human studies. In an exposed population a significant fraction of the total population risk may be attributed to the risk associated with those who were young at the time of exposure. Since cancer may not appear for decades after exposure estimates of risk may require models for projecting the lifetime risk. Two such models, additive or absolute risk and multiplicative or relative risk have been used. The appropriateness of the latter model is supported by the finding in mice of a positive relationship between natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction by radiation of solid cancer. The choice of model for leukemias is not clear cut. The incidence of cancer increases with age, but the susceptibility for induction decreases. The incidence of cancers increases to a peak and then begins to decline at different ages, dependent on the type of cancer. Sex-dependent differences in both the natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction of cancer are not restricted to sex organs. For example, the susceptibility for the induction by radiation for myeloid leukemia is greater in males than females, whereas in the case of thymic lymphoma it is vice versa. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs
Wang, Yi-Na; Fang, Hong; Zhu, Wei-Fang
Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing factors. Methods: Eight hundred and forty-eight Hangzhou residents received the survey between March 2004 and September 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the ...
E. M. Bogatyreva; G. A. Novik; G. F. Kutusheva
Aim. Hyperandrogenism is a common cause of infertility in women. The onset of symptoms of hyperandrogenism takes place during puberty in the majority of women. Hyperandrogenism reduces reproductive potential,so early detection and development of its prognostic factors, allows us to solve serious problems of puberty and prevent infertility.Materials and methods. 113 adolescent girls with hyperandrogenism from 14 to 19 years were included. The control group consists of 25 healthy girls of a sim...
Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.
Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.
Stazi, A V; Mantovani, A
In the past coeliac disease, or intolerance to gluten, has been considered a rare disease in infancy, whose most important signs were chronic diarrhea with malabsorption and reduced growth. However, besides this classical form, there are a number of other clinical and subclinical forms which may appear even in the adult life and without any overt intestinal sign. The alterations may affect, e.g., the liver, thyroid, skin and the female and male reproductive system. The overall prevalence of the different forms of coeliac disease in Western Europe is at least 1:300. The aim of the present paper is to describe and evaluate the effects of coeliac disease on female reproduction. Such effects include delayed menarche, amenorrhea, infertility and early menopause. Epidemiological studies show that besides reduced fertility, affected women are at higher risk of reproductive problems such as pregnancy loss, low birthweight of offspring and reduced duration of breastfeeding. There are no adequate studies to evidentiate a possible increase of birth defects; nevertheless, coeliac disease induces malabsorption, with deficiencies of nutritional factors essential to prenatal development such as iron, folic acid and vitamin K. The mechanisms underlying the reproductive alterations are still awaiting clarification; however, an interaction among specific nutritional deficiencies, endocrine imbalances and immune disturbances is suspected. As for the other effects associated to the coeliac disease, the possible prevention or treatment of the reproductive effects is only the lifelong maintenance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:11048475
Andrew E Mayes
Full Text Available Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with 'looking young for one's age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25-70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001, fewer household members (p=0.027, menopausal status (p=0.020, frequency of visiting one's doctor (p=0.013, working indoors (p<0.001, spending less time in the sun (p=0.015, moderate levels of physical activity (p=0.004, higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001 and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001; moisturiser (p=0.016 or night cream (p=0.016. Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations.
Lindeberg, S; Berntorp, E; Nilsson-Ehle, P; Terént, A; Vessby, B
This study examined cross-sectional age relations of blood pressure, anthropometric indexes, serum lipids, and hemostatic variables in 203 subsistence horticulturists aged 20-86 y in Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea. The population is characterized by extreme leanness (despite food abundance), low blood pressure, low plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 activity, and rarity of cardiovascular disease. Tubers, fruit, fish, and coconut are dietary staples whereas dairy products, refined fat and sugar, cereals, and alcohol are absent and salt intake is low. Although diastolic blood pressure was not associated with age in Kitavans, systolic blood pressure increased linearly after 50 y of age in both sexes. Body mass index decreased with age in both sexes. Serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B increased in males between 20 and 50 y of age, whereas high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I decreased. There were no significant differences in these indexes with age in the few females studied. A slight linear age-related increase of lipoprotein(a) was present in males. Plasma fibrinogen, factor VII clotting activity, factor VIII clotting activity, and von Willebrand factor antigen increased with age in both sexes but plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 activity did not. The modest or absent relations between the indexes measured and age are apparently important explanations of the virtual nonexistence of stroke and ischemic heart disease in Kitava.
Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise;
Aging is associated with oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA and this could be related to metabolic disturbances. This study investigated the association between levels of oxidatively damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and metabolic risk factors in 1,019 subjects, aged......, cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In the group of men, there were significant positive associations between alcohol intake, HbA1c and FPG-sensitive sites in multivariate analysis. The levels of metabolic risk factors were positively associated with age, yet only few subjects fulfilled all...... metabolic syndrome criteria. In summary, positive associations between age and levels of oxidatively damaged DNA appeared mediated by age-related increases in metabolic risk factors....
Speyer, B E; Abramov, B; Saab, W; Doshi, A; Sarna, U; Harper, J C; Serhal, P
The aim was to investigate the influence of various biological factors upon the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI). The total IUI history (856 cycles) of 352 couples was studied. Live-birth showed a strong negative correlation with female age but no correlation with male age. Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) correlated negatively with female age, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) correlated positively. Significant thresholds were found for all three variables, and also for total motile count (TMC) in the prepared sperm. Calculating pregnancy losses per positive pregnancy showed a strong correlation with increasing female age. This was highly significant for biochemical losses but not for fetal heart miscarriages. Male age had no effect on rate of pregnancy loss. In conclusion, female age, FSH, AMH and TMC are good predictive factors for live-birth and therefore relate to essential in vivo steps in the reproductive process. PMID:24127958
WANG Wei; WANG Kun-zheng; DANG Xiao-qian; BAI Chuan-yi; WANG Chun-sheng; SHI ZHi-bin; MA Shu-qiang
Objective:To explore the prevalence rate of knee joint osteoarthritis and its pathogenetic features among the middle-aged and old aged people in the urban and rural area of Xi'an. Methods: From May to October 2005, 1 538 Han nationality above 40 years in Xi'an were investigated according to stratified and cluster random sampling. The same questionnaire was delivered to subjects who had been given normotopia and lateral position radiographic examination in both knees. Excluded from etiological arthritis, some subjects with clinical symptoms and a radiographic grade (beyond Kellgren & Lawrence grade Ⅱ ) were finally diagnosed as spontaneous knee joint osteoarthritis. All analyses were performed with SPSS 13.0 and t test, U test. Single factor analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze dates. Results: The total prevalence of spontaneous knee joint osteoarthritis was 12. 1% with 2.5% and 2.1% for right and left knees, respectively. The prevalence of knee joint osteoarthritis in women was 2.5 times of that in men (17.2% vs 6.8%, P=0.000). the osteophyte prevalence in women was 2.3 times of that in men (26.5% vs 11.4%, P=0.000). The prevalence of knee joint osteoarthritis and osteophyte increased with the growth of age. So did the symptomatic knee, except for the age group of 56-60 years and 66-70 years. The prevalence of symptomatic knee joint for urban area was significantly higher than that for rural area (56. 3% vs 45.3%, P=0.003). In women, the prevalence of knee joint osteoarthritis increased significantly with the increasing of body mass index, which had not been observed in men. Female and obesity are the risk factors for osteoarthritis, but bean and its products and meat could prevent the osteoarthritis. Conclusion: Old age, female and obesity serve as risk factors for knee joint osteoarthritis.
Ching-Ju Chiu, PhD; Linda A. Wray, PhD
Introduction Few studies have prospectively assessed the explanatory effects of demographics, clinical conditions, treatment modality, and general lifestyle behaviors on glycemic control in large heterogeneous samples of middle-aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes. We hierarchically examined these factors, focused especially on the effects of modifiable factors (ie, general lifestyle behaviors), and compared predictive patterns between middle-aged and older adults. Methods We used natio...
Sung, Ho Jin; Han, Jung Il; Lee, Ji Won; Uhm, Ki Bang; Heo, Kyun
Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the major cause of blindness among persons aged 60 years and older. The current approved therapies for AMD are exclusively limited to inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor. However, substantial improvement in vision occurs in only one-third of patients treated with vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists, and one-sixth of treated patients still progress to legal blindness. Therefore, more specific targets are needed to treat AMD...
Wang, Xiangling; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Avula, Ramesh T.; Walters, Leah R.; Chakkera, Harini A.; Kremers, Walter K.; Lerman, Lilach O; Rule, Andrew D
The kidney atrophies in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) but factors influencing kidney size in normal adults are less clear. To help define this we measured kidney volumes on contrast-enhanced CT images from 1344 potential kidney donors (ages 18 to 75 years). Cortical volume per body surface area progressively declined in both genders with increased age. Statistically, this was primarily dependent on the age-related decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Independent ...
Speyer, B.; Abramov, B.; Saab, W.; Doshi, A.; Sarna, U.; Harper, J. C.; Serhal, P
The aim was to investigate the influence of various biological factors upon the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI). The total IUI history (856 cycles) of 352 couples was studied. Live-birth showed a strong negative correlation with female age but no correlation with male age. Antimullerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) correlated negatively with female age, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) correlated positively. Significant thresholds were found for all three var...
Moraitou, Despina; Kolovou, Chrysa; Papasozomenou, Chrysa; Paschoula, Catherine
This study examined the relationship between hope as disposition, adaptation to old age, and individual-demographic factors. One hundred and fifty older adults, aged 60-93 years old, completed the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale developed by Snyder et AL. [1991, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, pp. 570-585], and the Adaptation to…
Haveman-Nies, A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.
Objective: to identify dietary and lifestyle factors that contribute to healthy ageing. Subjects: for the analyses, data of the longitudinal SENECA study were used. The study population consisted of 1091 men and 1109 women aged 70-75 years from Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands, Portu
McPherron, Alexandra C
In an intriguing new study, Loffredo et al., report that joining the circulation of old mice with that of young mice reduces age-related cardiac hypertrophy. They also found that the growth factor GDF11 is a circulating negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy which suggests that raising GDF11 levels may be useful to treat cardiac hypertrophy associated with aging.
Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Suda, Kenichi; Soh, Junichi; Yatabe, Yasushi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya
Aging is one of the best, but rarely referred, risk factors for various types of cancer including lung cancer, because age could be a surrogate for accumulation of genetic events in cancers. Smoking inversely associates with the presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in lung cancer, but its strong confounding with age and sex makes it difficult to evaluate sole impact of age. To clarify an impact of age on EGFR mutation, we conducted a cross-sectional study based on data of 1262 lung cancer patients. The associations between EGFR mutation and age, considering sex, smoking and histology, were evaluated using logistic regression models. In multivariate analysis, we found a significant increase of EGFR mutation prevalence by increase of age (p-trend=0.0004). Consistent trend was observed among never-smoking females (p-trend=0.011) and never-smoking males also showed similar trend although not significant. These were consistently observed when we limit the subject to those with adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, age independently associates with EGFR mutation among lung cancer. Positive association between EGFR mutation and age among never-smokers regardless of sex might indicate that EGFR mutation occurs cumulatively by unidentified internal/external factors other than smoking. PMID:23036155
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors start early, track through the young age and manifest in middle age in most societies. We conducted epidemiological studies to determine prevalence and age-specific trends in cardiovascular risk factors among adolescent and young urban Asian Indians. Methods Population based epidemiological studies to identify cardiovascular risk factors were performed in North India in 1999–2002. We evaluated major risk factors-smoking or tobacco use, obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension, dysglycemia and dyslipidemia using pre-specified definitions in 2051 subjects (male 1009, female 1042 aged 15–39 years of age. Age-stratified analyses were performed and significance of trends determined using regression analyses for numerical variables and Χ2 test for trend for categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to identify univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR for correlation of age and risk factors. Results In males and females respectively, smoking or tobacco use was observed in 200 (11.8% and 18 (1.4%, overweight or obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in 12.4% and 14.3%, high waist-hip ratio, WHR (males > 0.9, females > 0.8 in 15% and 32.3%, hypertension in 5.6% and 3.1%, high LDL cholesterol (≥ 130 mg/dl in 9.4% and 8.9%, low HDL cholesterol ( Conclusion Low prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adolescents and rapid escalation of these risk factors by age of 30–39 years is noted in urban Asian Indians. Interventions should focus on these individuals.
Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester
Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…
T. Schneider; D. Marschall-Kehrel; J.U. Hanisch; M.C. Michel
P>Aims: Gender, age, obesity, smoking and alcohol or caffeine intake have been shown or proposed to be risk factors for the prevalence and/or severity of the overactive bladder symptom complex (OAB) or related parameters. We have explored whether any of these factors affect the therapeutic response
Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.
Objective: To examine the factor structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1,373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1,772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and…
Csiszar, Anna; Labinskyy, Nazar; Smith, Kira; Rivera, Aracelie; Orosz, Zsuzsanna; Ungvari, Zoltan
Vascular aging is associated with dysregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression. TNF-α is a master regulator of vascular proatherogenic phenotypic changes, and it has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. To test the hypothesis that anti-TNF-α treatment exerts vasculoprotective effects in aging, aged (29 months old) F344 rats were treated with etanercept (1 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks), which binds and inactivates TNF-α. In aged carotid arteries, relaxations to acetylch...
Smith, Richard J; Lehning, Amanda J; Dunkle, Ruth E
Accurate conceptualization and measurement of age-friendly community characteristics would help to reduce barriers to documenting the effects on elders of interventions to create such communities. This article contributes to the measurement of age-friendly communities through an exploratory factor analysis of items reflecting an existing US Environmental Protection Agency policy framework. From a sample of urban elders (n = 1,376), we identified 6 factors associated with demographic and health characteristics: access to business and leisure, social interaction, access to health care, neighborhood problems, social support, and community engagement. Future research should explore the effects of these factors across contexts and populations.
Yi-na WANG; Hong FANG; Wei-fang ZHU
Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the ac-celerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only Fitzpatrick types Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and Fitzpatrick type Ⅱ seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Conclusion: Age, solar-exposure time, Fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China.
Yang, Hongyu; Huang, Di; Wang, Yunhong; Wang, Heng; Tang, Yuanyan
Face aging simulation has received rising investigations nowadays, whereas it still remains a challenge to generate convincing and natural age-progressed face images. In this paper, we present a novel approach to such an issue by using hidden factor analysis joint sparse representation. In contrast to the majority of tasks in the literature that handle the facial texture integrally, the proposed aging approach separately models the person-specific facial properties that tend to be stable in a relatively long period and the age-specific clues that change gradually over time. It then merely transforms the age component to a target age group via sparse reconstruction, yielding aging effects, which is finally combined with the identity component to achieve the aged face. Experiments are carried out on three aging databases, and the results achieved clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method in rendering a face with aging effects. Additionally, a series of evaluations prove its validity with respect to identity preservation and aging effect generation.
HARDY, R.; Lawlor, D A; Black, S.; Mishra, G D; Kuh, D.
Objective: To assess the associations between parental age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in men and women. To investigate whether the associations are explained by childhood predictors of age at parenthood or adult lifestyle factors related to child rearing. Methods: Data from 2540 men and women, with CHD risk factors measured at age 53 years, from a birth cohort study of individuals born in Britain in 1946 (Medical Research Council National Survey of H...
Beaber, Elisabeth F.; Holt, Victoria L.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Porter, Peggy L.; Daling, Janet R.; Li, Christopher I.
Numerous studies have evaluated the association between factors related to maturation and reproduction and breast cancer risk, but few have assessed how these factors are related to different histologic types of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. We used polytomous logistic regression to assess the effect of age at maximum height and reproductive factors on risk of invasive breast cancer by histologic type in three case groups (524 ductal, 324 lobular, 196 ductal-lobular) and 469 contr...
Wong, Tzyy Yue; Solis, Mairim Alexandra; Chen, Ying-Hui; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei
Scientific evidence suggests that stem cells possess the anti-aging ability to self-renew and maintain differentiation potentials, and quiescent state. The objective of this review is to discuss the micro-environment where stem cells reside in vivo, the secreted factors to which stem cells are exposed, the hypoxic environment, and intracellular factors including genome stability, mitochondria integrity, epigenetic regulators, calorie restrictions, nutrients, and vitamin D. Secreted tumor growth factor-β and fibroblast growth factor-2 are reported to play a role in stem cell quiescence. Extracellular matrices may interact with caveolin-1, the lipid raft on cell membrane to regulate quiescence. N-cadherin, the adhesive protein on niche cells provides support for stem cells. The hypoxic micro-environment turns on hypoxia-inducible factor-1 to prevent mesenchymal stem cells aging through p16 and p21 down-regulation. Mitochondria express glucosephosphate isomerase to undergo glycolysis and prevent cellular aging. Epigenetic regulators such as p300, protein inhibitors of activated Stats and H19 help maintain stem cell quiescence. In addition, calorie restriction may lead to secretion of paracrines cyclic ADP-ribose by intestinal niche cells, which help maintain intestinal stem cells. In conclusion, it is crucial to understand the anti-aging phenomena of stem cells at the molecular level so that the key to solving the aging mystery may be unlocked.
Full Text Available In order to maintain health during middle age and achieve successful aging, it is important to elucidate and prevent risk factors of middle-age stroke. This study investigated high risk groups of stroke in middle age population of Korea and provides basic material for establishment of stroke prevention policy by analyzing sudden perception of speech/language problems and clusters of multiple risk factors. This study analyzed 2,751 persons (1,191 males and 1,560 females aged 40–59 who participated in the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Outcome was defined as prevalence of stroke. Set as explanatory variables were age, gender, final education, income, marital status, at-risk drinking, smoking, occupation, subjective health status, moderate physical activity, hypertension, and sudden perception of speech and language problems. A prediction model was developed by the use of a C4.5 algorithm of data-mining approach. Sudden perception of speech and language problems, hypertension, and marital status were significantly associated with stroke in Korean middle aged people. The most preferentially involved predictor was sudden perception of speech and language problems. In order to prevent middle-age stroke, it is required to systematically manage and develop tailored programs for high-risk groups based on this prediction model.
M. Yu. Vasilyev
Full Text Available Objective: the investigation of some modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors and poor explored as well of non-convectional diseases among men of working age.Subjects and methods. Seven thousand thirty five men in age of 18 to 60 years were examined. History data included age, gender, nationality,high blood pressure (BP episodes, antihypertensive drugs taking in case of arterial hypertension, smoking. Instrumental examination included BP measurement when seated after 5 minutes of the rest with mean BP calculation. Total cholesterol and creatinine in blood, clearance of creatinine calculation by Cockcroft–Gault formula, microalbuminuria were assayed; depression level was estimated by Beck score. With purpose to analyze the risk factors structure all examined subjects were divided into three groups according to SCORE scale.Results. Cholesterol level analysis revealed the increasing of parameter in 41.7 % of examined patients (n = 307. Microalbuminuria was revealed in 13.8 % (n = 102 of men, and 19.3 % of them (n = 80 had increased blood pressure. Some levels of depression were revealed in 42.5 % (n = 312, among them the arterial hypertension was observed in 62,5 % (n = 195. The group with low and moderate cardiovascular risk consisted of 594 persons (80.8 %. High cardiovascular risk was determined in 15.2 % men of working age (n = 112. Very high cardiovascular risk was revealed in 3.9 % (n = 29 of responders.Conclusion. Increasing of traditional risk factors rate is associated with increasing of additional risk factors. Received data are widening the perception about risk factors structure in population. Particularly the question about renal filtration function role, depressive syndrome, trophologic insufficiency is raised. Consideration of those in prophylaxis system consideration requires a specific education of general practitioners.
Proust-Lima, Cecile; Amieva, Hélène; Letenneur, Luc; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François
This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record. International audience In cognitive aging research, the study of a general cognitive factor has been shown to have a substantial explanatory power over the study of isolated tests. The authors aimed at differentiating the impact of gender and education on global cognitive change with age from their differential impact on 4 psychometric tests using a new latent process app...
Hess, Thomas M.; Leclerc, Christina M.; Swaim, Elizabeth; Weatherbee, Sarah R.
It has been hypothesized that reductions in cognitive resources might result in older adults engaging in less systematic processing than younger adults when making everyday judgments. In two experiments, we tested individuals aged from 24 to 89 years to examine the degree to which task-related information associated with more superficial versus complex processing differentially influenced performance. We also examined the hypothesis that motivational factors would moderate age differences in ...
Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun
Abstract Early menarche is strongly associated with adulthood obesity; however, the relationship between age at menarche and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean women remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the association between early menarche and risk factors for developing CVD during adulthood using a nationwide population database. In total, 12,336 women (weighted n = 17,483,406; weighted age, 45.7 years) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examinatio...
Konstantina Mitrousi; Gregory Y H Lip; Stavros Apostolakis
Atrial fibrillation is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is a strong relationship between atrial fibrillation and aging, thromboembolism, stroke, congestive heart failure and hypertension. On the other hand, advanced age confers a powerful risk factor for stroke and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. For many years, vitamin K antagonists were the only approved anticoagulants for the management of atrial fibrillation. Lately new anticoagulants ma...
This doctorial thesis concerns the role of psychiatric and somatic factors in aging and dementia. Five studies are included, all based on data from the Kungsholmen Project, a population-based longitudinal study of aging and dementia that was conducted in Stockholm, Sweden during 1987-2000. Of the five studies, all but one mainly dealt with cognitive functioning in groups of participants that were diagnosed with dementia, whereas one study focused on cognitive functioning...
Haveman-Nies, A.; De Groot,, P.A.J.; Staveren, van, M.J.
Objective: to identify dietary and lifestyle factors that contribute to healthy ageing. Subjects: for the analyses, data of the longitudinal SENECA study were used. The study population consisted of 1091 men and 1109 women aged 70-75 years from Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and Poland. Methods: this European study started with baseline measurements in 1988-1989 and lasted until 30 April 1999. The study includes data on diet, lifestyle and heal...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing is associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction, which can have a major impact on quality of life of the elderly. A number of changes in the innervation of the gut during ageing have been reported, including neuronal loss and degenerative changes. Evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS are elevated in ageing enteric neurons, but that neurotrophic factors may reduce generation of neuronal ROS. Two such factors, glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 have also been found to protect enteric neurons against oxidative stress induced cell death of enteric ganglion cells in vitro. We have investigated the possible roles of neurotrophic factors further, by examining their expression in the gut during ageing, and by analysing their effects on antioxidant enzyme production in cultures of enteric ganglion cells. Results Analysis of the expression of GDNF and its receptors c-Ret and GFR α − 1 in rat gut by RT-PCR showed that expression continues throughout life and into ageing, in both ad libitum(AL and calorically-restricted (CR animals. Levels of expression of GDNF and GFR α − 1 were elevated in 24 month AL animals compared to 24 month CR animals, and to 24 CR and 6 month control animals respectively. The related factor Neurturin and its receptor GFR α − 2 were also expressed throughout life, the levels of the GFR – α-2(b isoform were reduced in 24 m AL animals. Immunolabelling showed that c-Ret and GFR α − 1 proteins were expressed by myenteric neurons in ageing animals. GDNF, but not NT-3, was found to increase expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase by cultured enteric ganglion cells. Conclusions The neurotrophic factors GDNF and neurturin and their receptors continue to be expressed in the ageing gut. Changes in the levels of expression of GDNF , GFR α-1 and GFR α-2(b isoform occurred in 24 m AL animals. GDNF, but not
Amy H.Y. Chan
Full Text Available Adherence to preventive asthma treatment is poor, particularly in children, yet the factors associated with adherence in this age group are not well understood. Adherence was monitored electronically over 6 months in school-aged children who attended a regional emergency department in New Zealand for an asthma exacerbation and were prescribed twice-daily inhaled corticosteroids. Participants completed questionnaires including assessment of family demographics, asthma responsibility and learning style. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with adherence was conducted. 101 children (mean (range age 8.9 (6–15 years, 51% male participated. Median (interquartile range preventer adherence was 30% (17–48% of prescribed. Four explanatory factors were identified: female sex (+12% adherence, Asian ethnicity (+19% adherence, living in a smaller household (−3.0% adherence per person in the household, and younger age at diagnosis (+2.7% for every younger year of diagnosis (all p<0.02. In school-aged children attending the emergency department for asthma, males and non-Asian ethnic groups were at high risk for poor inhaled corticosteroid adherence and may benefit most from intervention. Four factors explained a small proportion of adherence behaviour indicating the difficulty in identifying adherence barriers. Further research is recommended in other similar populations.
Malone, K M
Aims. Youth and young adult suicide has increasingly appeared on international vital statistics as a rising trend of concern in age-specific mortality over the past 50 years. The reporting of suicide deaths in 5-year age bands, which has been the international convention to date, may mask a greater understanding of year-on-year factors that may accelerate or ameliorate the emergence of suicidal thoughts, acts and fatal consequences. The study objective was to identify any year-on-year period of increased risk for youth and young adult suicide in the UK and Ireland. Methods. Collation and examination of international epidemiological datasets on suicide (aged 18-35) for the UK and Ireland 2000-2006 (N = 11 964). Outcome measures included the age distribution of suicide mortality in international datasets from the UK and Ireland, 2000-2006. Results. An accelerated pattern of risk up to the age of 20 for the UK and Ireland which levels off moderately thereafter was uncovered, thus identifying a heretofore unreported age-related epidemiological transition for suicide. Conclusions. The current reporting of suicide in 5-year age bands may conceal age-related periods of risk for suicide. This may have implications for suicide prevention programmes for young adults under age 21.
Lygren, Tone; Hansen, Sanni; Langberg, Henning;
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has important roles in anabolic processes in the musculoskeletal system and has been reported to decrease with age in both people and horses. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine serum IGF-1 levels in the aging horse from early...... to late adulthood (age range 5-27 years). METHODS: Healthy horses (n = 72) were used in a cross-sectional study, while 37 paired serum samples were available for a longitudinal study. Serum IGF-1 protein was determined using an ELISA kit validated for use in equine samples. RESULTS: No association...... was found between serum IGF-1 levels and age in the cross-sectional study. In the longitudinal study, a latent variable model fitted to the data revealed that horses in general experienced a 5.2% increase of serum IGF-1 levels over a 5-year period, but horses crossing a change point around 9 years of age...
Sabbah, Wael; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sheiham, Aubrey;
to examine the association between oral health and premature death among middle-aged men and to test whether it was explained by socioeconomic position and behaviours. METHODS: Data were from the Vietnam Experience Study, a prospective cohort study of Vietnam War-era (1965-1971), American male army personnel....... The authors examined risk of cause-specific and all-cause mortality in relation to poor oral health in middle age, adjusting for age, ethnicity, socioeconomic position, IQ, behavioural factors and systemic conditions. RESULTS: Men with poor oral health experienced a higher risk of cause-specific and all...
Prashant Bhave MD
Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation affects approximately 3 million people in the United States and creates a huge burden on the health care system, both in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost.1 The prevalence of atrial fibrillation rises sharply with increases in age. It is estimated that 8% of people above 70 years of age have atrial fibrillation.2-4 Atrial fibrillation has long been recognized as a powerful risk factor for stroke,5 heart failure,6 and mortality.7 Advancing age amplifies the risk of all of these sequelae of atrial fibrillation.
Prashant Bhave MD; Rod Passman MD, MSCE
Atrial fibrillation affects approximately 3 million people in the United States and creates a huge burden on the health care system, both in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost.1 The prevalence of atrial fibrillation rises sharply with increases in age. It is estimated that 8% of people above 70 years of age have atrial fibrillation.2-4 Atrial fibrillation has long been recognized as a powerful risk factor for stroke,5 heart failure,6 and mortality.7 Advancing age amplifies the risk of al...
This study examines, using multiple regression analyses, production at nuclear power plants, the variable costs involved, and estimate to dismantle reactors. Variable costs generally follow U-shaped curves as reactors age. Performance is modelled with polynomial equations, using chiefly intercept, age and age.5 terms, interacting with various reactor characteristics, plus time and operating experience. US nuclear capacity factors (actual output/possible) averaged 60% for 13 of 15 years during 1971-1985. Output generally peaked during ages 3-12. Capacity factors were much lower, or aging was faster, for reactors that are-from the worst-non-light water types, prototypes, salt water cooled, expensive to build, large, and boiling water reactors (BWRs). Expected nuclear capacity factors average 56% and reactor lives average 30 years. Outside America, generally capacity factors are much higher and reactor aging is slower. Heavy water reactors perform best, gas cooled ones worst, and BWRs do as well as pressurized water reactors. Capital addition costs have risen fastest and were most affected by aging. Fuel costs were almost constant. Repairs and O and M led the 15.3% real annual increase in nuclear variable costs/kW during 1978-1984. Forecast variable costs rise more slowly. If owners retire reactors when variable costs exceed alternatives, the last reactor should close about 2010. Then expected future lifetime levelized real variable costs range, by reactor, from 2 to 8 cents/kWh, median 4.4 (twice 1983 levels). Expected reactor lives average 24 years. At closed reactors, owners estimate costs to dismantle averaging $760/kW (1985$), or 53% of construction cost. Analysis of owner opinions for all American reactors suggests actual costs may average $200/kW. Higher burial prices could increase that substantially
Arday, David R.; Arday, Susan L.; Bolen, Julie; Rhodes, Luann; Chin, Joseph; Minor, Patrick
The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing State-based telephone survey of adults, administered through State health departments. The survey estimates health status and the prevalence of various risk factors among respondents, who include both fee-for-service and managed care Medicare beneficiaries. In this article the authors present an overview of the BRFSS and report 1995 regional results among respondents who were 65 years of age or over and who had health insura...
Rachel Finck; Alyssa Ziman; Matthew Hoffman; Michelle Phan-Tang; Shan Yuan
Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. ...
Full Text Available Few studies have examined the risk factors of serious psychological distress (SPD and behavioral factors for heart disease separately stratified as young (18–44 years, middle aged (45–64 years, and elderly (65 years or older. A total of 3,540 adults with heart disease and 37,703 controls were selected from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential undercoverage and nonresponse biases. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of the factors with heart disease at different ages. The prevalence of SPD was 8% in cases and 4% in controls, respectively. For young adults, SPD and higher federal poverty level (FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease while for middle-aged adults, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, and unemployment were associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In addition, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, unemployment, White, and lower FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease in elderly. Our findings indicate that risk factors for heart disease vary across all ages. Intervention strategies that target risk reduction of heart disease may be tailored accordingly.
Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise;
, cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In the group of men, there were significant positive associations between alcohol intake, HbA1c and FPG-sensitive sites in multivariate analysis. The levels of metabolic risk factors were positively associated with age, yet only few subjects fulfilled all...
Children, unlike adults, have an innate ability for learning language with great facility and minimal effort. This idea that early age is a major factor in native-proficient second language acquisition is a widely held and popular belief. Such views have been supported by many theories that were first proposed in the middle of the 20th century. This paper examines the
Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development…
Yeoh, Joyce S. G.; de Haan, Gerald
Organ and tissue dysfunction which is readily observable during aging results from a loss of cellular homeostasis and reduced stem cell self-renewal. Over the past 10 years, studies have been aimed at delineating growth factors that will sustain and promote the self-renewal potential of stem cells a
... Section 404.1563 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations § 404.1563 Your... evaluating the overall impact of all the factors of your case. (c) Younger person. If you are a...
Full Text Available Aim: To explore the relationship between pathophysiological factors and premature lung ageing in a cohort of community-dwelling subjects in a health-screening setting. Methods: 16,107 pharmacy customers in Germany (5954 males, 10153 females; mean age 59.7 years participated in a lung function screening project by providing demographic data including smoking status and known airway conditions and performing spirometry with a Vitalograph, a spirometry screening device. Lung age was calculated from the spirometric findings, and the difference between chronological age and calculated lung age was analyzed in its relationship to the demographic data in general linear models. Results: In the overall cohort, calculated lung age exceeded chronological age by 10.0 years. Based on the subset of non-smokers not reporting any airway conditions, Vitalograph data in this setting may underestimate FEV1 to some degree but this apparently had little impact on the detection of association of lung age with pathophysiological factors or the corresponding effect sizes. The most important factors associated with greater lung age based on strength of association were presence of dyspnea, being a smoker and reporting a history of COPD or asthma. Corresponding effect sizes for the difference between age and lung age were 6.5, 5.7, 13.9 and 8.3 years over the chronological age. Discussion and Conclusions: These data confirm the usefulness of screening devices of lung function testing for epidemiological but potentially also for pharmaco-epidemiological studies.
Masahide Hamaguchi; Takao Kojima; Akihiro Ohbora; Noriyuki Takeda; Michiaki Fukui; Takahiro Kato
AIM: To clarify the relationship between age, menopause, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women.METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by using abdominal ultrasonography, and investigated the relationship of age and menopause with the development of NAFLD in women. We followed 1829 women and 2572 men (response rate, 86%) selected in 2001 to represent the non-institutionalized adult population of Gifu, Japan. Data collected included self-reported medical history, lifestyle factors, and menopausal status. The postmenopausal state was defined as beginning 1 year after the cessation of menses. We diagnosed NAFLD with the aid of abdominal ultrasonography by using diagnostic criteria described previously.RESULTS: The prevalence of NAFLD in women increases with age, but does not alter with age in men. Furthermore, the prevalence of NAFLD in premenopausal women (6%) was lower than that in men (24%) and in postmenopausal women (15%). The associations of the postmenopausal state and hormone replacement therapy with NAFLD were statistically significant in a univariate logistic regression model. At the follow-up examination, 67 women (5%) were newly diagnosed with NAFLD. The incidence of NAFLD was 3.5% (28/802) in premenopausal women, 7.5% (4/53) in menopausal women, 6.1% (24/392) in postmenopausal women, and 5.3% (11/206) in women receiving hormone replacement therapy. The weight gain in premenopausal women was equal to that in postmenopausal women. Metabolic syndrome and weight gain were independent risk factors for NAFLD in pre- and postmenopausal women, but age was an independent risk factor in premenopausal women only.CONCLUSION: Aging is a risk factor for NAFLD in premenopausal women, independent of weight gain or influence of metabolic syndrome.
Ching-Ju Chiu, PhD
Full Text Available IntroductionFew studies have prospectively assessed the explanatory effects of demographics, clinical conditions, treatment modality, and general lifestyle behaviors on glycemic control in large heterogeneous samples of middle-aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes. We hierarchically examined these factors, focused especially on the effects of modifiable factors (ie, general lifestyle behaviors, and compared predictive patterns between middle-aged and older adults.MethodsWe used nationally representative data from the 1998 and 2000 Health and Retirement Study (HRS and the HRS 2003 Diabetes Study. We analyzed data from 379 middle-aged adults (aged 51-64 y and 430 older adults (aged ≥65 y who self-reported having type 2 diabetes at baseline.ResultsAmong middle-aged adults, demographic factors and clinical conditions were the strongest predictors of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels. However, among older adults, treatment modality (diet only, oral medication, or insulin only or in combination with other regimens significantly affected HbA1c levels. Lifestyle (physical activity, smoking, drinking, and body weight control, independent of the effects of demographics, clinical conditions, and treatment modality, significantly affected HbA1c levels. An increase of 1 healthy behavior was associated with a decrease in HbA1c levels of more than 1 percentage point.ConclusionOur findings provide support for current diabetes guidelines that recommend a lifestyle regimen across the entire span of diabetes care and highlight the need to help both sociodemographically and clinically disadvantaged middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes as well as older adults who exhibit poor adherence to medication recommendations to achieve better glycemic control.
Full Text Available This study evaluated the psychometric properties of an on-line version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ by sex and age. The questionnaire was responded by 1598 people, 474 males and 1124 females, with a mean age of 32.57 (SD = 11.72. Males and females differed in their responses to all personality dimensions evaluated by this instrument, in a similar way as that reported in past research. In addition, younger people scored higher in the Aggressiveness factor, especially concerning the Physical Aggression facet, whereas older people scored higher in the Activity factor. Besides, younger people scored higher in the Neuroticism and the Sensation Seeking factors, even though there were no age differences in the Extraversion factor. The ZKA-PQ five-factor structure was clear and yielded high congruence coefficients with the original Spanish validation sample. Altogether, the findings support the validity of the online version of this instrument. The ZKAPQ online version is therefore helpful in both, basic and applied research settings about human personality and individual differences.
Inhalation dose commitment factors are presented for selected radionuclides for exposure of individuals in four age groups: infant, child, teen and adult. Radionuclides considered are 35S, 36Cl, 45Ca, 67Ga, 75Se, 85Sr, 109Cd, 113Sn, 125I, 133Ba, 170Tm, 169Yb, 182Ta, 192Ir, 198Au, 201Tl, 204Tl, and 236Pu. The calculational method is based on the human metabolic model of ICRP as defined in Publication 2 (ICRP 1959) and as used in previous age-specific dose factor calculations by Hoenes and Soldat (1977). Dose commitment factors are presented for the following organs of reference: total body, bone, liver, kidney, thyroid, lung and lower large intestine
Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Kornexl, Elmar; Raschner, Christian
The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over-representation of selected athletes born early in the selection year, was proven to be present in alpine ski racing in all age categories at both national and international levels. However, the influential factors on, or the causal mechanisms of, the RAE are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine three possible influential factors on the relative age effect in alpine skiing: physical performance, anthropometric characteristics and biological maturational status. The study included the investigation of 282 elite Austrian youth ski racers and 413 non-athletes (comparison group) of the same age (10-13 years) and region. Six physical performance tests were performed, body mass and height were assessed, and the age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated. A significant RAE was present in the ski racers. No differences were shown in the physical performance characteristics or in the calculated APHV between the relative age quarters. These results suggest that ski racers born in the last quarter can counteract the relative age disadvantages if they already present the same level of physical performance and maturational status as those born at the beginning of the year. The height and weight of ski racers born at the beginning of the year were significantly higher compared to the non-athletes, and ski racers born in relative age quarter 1 were taller and heavier compared to the ski racers of the other quarters. This indicates that the anthropometric characteristics influence the selection process in alpine ski racing, and that relatively older athletes are more likely to be selected if they exhibit advanced anthropometric characteristics.
Koopman, Karen; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Vroomen, Patrick C A J; van der Meer, Jannes; De Keyser, Jacques; Luijckx, Gert-Jan
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) and deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE) are associated with many risk factors. It is unclear why CVT occurs less often than DVT/PE. Age dependent risk factors may play a role. The aim of our study was to compare risk factors in a uniform age group of
Stemple, Joseph C; Andreatta, Richard D; Seward, Tanya S; Angadi, Vrushali; Dietrich, Maria; McMullen, Colleen A
Clinical evidence suggests that laryngeal muscle dysfunction is associated with human aging. Studies in animal models have reported morphological changes consistent with denervation in laryngeal muscles with age. Life-long laryngeal muscle activity relies on cytoskeletal integrity and nerve-muscle communication at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). It is thought that neurotrophins enhance neuromuscular transmission by increasing neurotransmitter release. We hypothesized that treatment with neurotrophin 4 (NTF4) would modify the morphology and functional innervation of aging rat laryngeal muscles. Fifty-six Fischer 344xBrown Norway rats (6- and 30-mo age groups) were used to evaluate to determine if NTF4, given systemically (n = 32) or directly (n = 24), would improve the morphology and functional innervation of aging rat thyroarytenoid muscles. Results demonstrate the ability of rat laryngeal muscles to remodel in response to neurotrophin application. Changes were demonstrated in fiber size, glycolytic capacity, mitochondrial, tyrosine kinase receptors (Trk), NMJ content, and denervation in aging rat thyroarytenoid muscles. This study suggests that growth factors may have therapeutic potential to ameliorate aging-related laryngeal muscle dysfunction.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in Western countries. Numerous risk factors have been reported but the evidence and strength of association is variable. We aimed to identify those risk factors with strong levels of evidence which could be easily assessed by physicians or ophthalmologists to implement preventive interventions or address current behaviours. Methods A systematic review identified 18 prospective and cross-sectional studies and 6 case control studies involving 113,780 persons with 17,236 cases of late AMD that included an estimate of the association between late AMD and at least one of 16 pre-selected risk factors. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were conducted for each factor to combine odds ratio (OR and/or relative risk (RR outcomes across studies by study design. Overall raw point estimates of each risk factor and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results Increasing age, current cigarette smoking, previous cataract surgery, and a family history of AMD showed strong and consistent associations with late AMD. Risk factors with moderate and consistent associations were higher body mass index, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and higher plasma fibrinogen. Risk factors with weaker and inconsistent associations were gender, ethnicity, diabetes, iris colour, history of cerebrovascular disease, and serum total and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Conclusions Smoking, previous cataract surgery and a family history of AMD are consistent risk factors for AMD. Cardiovascular risk factors are also associated with AMD. Knowledge of these risk factors that may be easily assessed by physicians and general ophthalmologists may assist in identification and appropriate referral of persons at risk of AMD.
Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L
Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weightToken Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity. PMID:24858787
Priscila Martins Foroni
Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review, in SciELO and PubMed databases, about the cognitive and linguistic changes associated with aging, focusing on risk and protective factors. Methods: Articles conducted with people aged 60 or more and published between 2002 and 2008 were searched in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Results: 72 studies were reviewed in 38 different journals, being 9.7% (7 from national journals and 90.3% (65 from international ones, and 26.3% (10 in the area of Neurology, 23.7% (9 Geriatrics and Aging, 13.2% (5 Epidemiology and Public Health, 10.5% (4 Psychiatry and the rest from magazines of different health issues. The longitudinal design was used in 51.3% (37 and the cross-sectional one, in 36.1% (26. About the data collection instruments, 48.6% (35 of the works used the Mini-Mental State Examination, 15.1% (11 used the Verbal Fluency Test, 12.5% (9 the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 9.7% (7 the Boston Naming Test and 13.8% (10 Geriatric Depression Scale. We identified relationships between cognition in aging and biological factors in 69.4% (50 of the researches. Some studies have indicated increased likelihood of cognitive impairment among elderly people with depressive symptoms and among smokers. Studies have shown a positive effect of education and participation in physical and social activities on cognition. Conclusions: Studies in the analyzed period specifically investigated the relationship between biological risk factors and cognitive decline. Little attention was given to linguistic changes and protective factors associated with aging.
Finck, Rachel; Ziman, Alyssa; Hoffman, Matthew; Phan-Tang, Michelle; Yuan, Shan
Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives. PMID:27293985
Full Text Available Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.
郭清; 梁浩材; 吴亚君; 温汉华
CHINA HAS REACHED the stage where its soci-ety is aging. In 2000, the population of people overage 60 was 130 million, which represented 10 % ofthe total population in China.1 The majority—100million—live in rural areas. Moreover, in the coastalopen areas of China, the over-sixty population hasreached 15%. Therefore, providing health care foraging people has become an important challenge forChina in this century. The purpose of this investi-gation is to define the factors that influence therural aging popul...
Ajla Rahimić Ćatić
Full Text Available Introduction: Intima-media thickness (IMT measurement of the common carotid artery (CCA is considered as useful indicator of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors is important to prevent stroke and heart diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate which risk factors are better determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by common carotidartery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT.Methods: A total of 74 subjects were randomly selected in this cross – sectional study. Information on the patient’s medical history and laboratory fi ndings were obtained from their clinical records. Risk factors relevant to this study were age, gender, cigarette smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ultrasound scanning of carotid arteries was performed with a 7,5 MHz linear array transducer (GE Voluson730 pro. The highest value of six common carotid artery measurements was taken as the fi nal IMT. Increased CCA-IMT was defi ned when it was > 1 mm.Results: Our data demonstrated higher CCA-IMT values in male patients compared with female patients. Increased CCA-IMT was the most closely related to age (PConclusion: Age, gender and hypertension are the most important risk factors in development of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis among high-risk populations is important in order to prevent stroke and heart diseases, which are leading causes of death worldwide.
Generally, the rules of good practice in transfusion medicine apply also to the pediatric age group. However, the frequency of specific diseases that might necessitate the administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) differs from that in adults. Physiologic differences to the later age exist in the neonatal period and in young infants, especially with respect to the hemostatic system, that must be recognized when considering administration of FFP. The plasma levels of many procoagulant factors and important anticoagulants are lower in neonates than in other age groups. Despite these findings, healthy neonates show no easy bruising, no increased bleeding during surgery, and excellent wound healing. The same discrepancy obtains between in vitro and clinical findings with primary hemostasis in neonates. The good primary hemostasis in neonates despite poor in vitro platelet function seems to be due mainly to a very high von Willebrand factor and the presence of more high-multimeric subunits of von Willebrand factor than later in life. We must assume that these particular plasma levels of procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins are essential for the correct function of neonatal hemostasis. Evidence that the hemostatic system of neonates works best with physiologic concentrations of procoagulants and anticoagulants can also be inferred from studies where the administration of clotting factor concentrates gave poor results.Since healthy neonates and young infants have excellent hemostasis, there is absolutely no indication to 'correct' these values to adult's norms prior to invasive procedures by administering FFP. Indications for FFP, met more frequently in the pediatric age group than later in life, are exchange transfusion and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Indications applying equally to adults are other extracorporeal life support systems, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatic coagulopathy, and 'complex unclear coagulopathies'. In congenital clotting
Macut Đuro P.
Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is considered a metabolic disorder closely related to obesity, insulin resistance (IR, hyperinsulinemia and unfavorable lipid profile, all increasing the risk for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to assess age and body mass index (BMI related changes of cardiovascular risk factors in 90 women with PCOS. The cut-off age point was 30 years and for BMI 27.8 kg/m2. In all patients systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, metabolic parameters comprising values of glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and basal lipid values were determined. Significant increase in blood pressure (BP indices, basal insulin values and insulin resistance (IR assessed by HOMA model were observed with aging and the increase of BMI, while the parameters of glucose metabolism, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly elevated only with aging. However, the correlation between the indices of arterial blood pressure, and lipid and glucose metabolism parameters occurred only in patients over 30 years of age, pointing to the causative relation and the consequent deterioration of IR and lipid profile with aging, influencing cardiovascular function in women with PCOS.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1958 many, but not all studies have demonstrated that paternal age is a risk factor for schizophrenia. There may be many different explanations for differences between studies, including study design, sample size, collection criteria, heterogeneity and the confounding effects of environmental factors that can for example perturb epigenetic programming and lead to an increase in disease risk. The small number of children in Western families makes risk comparisons between siblings born at different paternal ages difficult. In contrast, more Eastern families have children both at early and later periods of life. In the present study, a cross-sectional population study in an Iranian population was performed to compare frequency of schizophrenia in younger offspring (that is, older paternal age versus older offspring. Methods A total of 220 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (cases from both psychiatric hospitals and private clinics and 220 individuals from other hospital wards (controls, matched for sex and age were recruited for this study. Patients with neurological problem, substance abuse, mental retardation and mood disorder were excluded from both groups. Results Birth rank comparisons revealed that 35% vs 24% of the cases vs the controls were in the third or upper birth rank (P = 0.01. Also, the mean age of fathers at birth in case group (30 ± 6.26 years was significantly more than the control group (26.45 ± 5.64 years; P = 0.0001. The age of 76 fathers at birth in case group was over 32 versus 33 fathers in control group. Individuals whose fathers' age was more than 32 (at birth were at higher risk (2.77 times for schizophrenia versus others (P P = 0.02. Logistic regression analysis suggests that maternal age is less likely to be involved in the higher risk of schizophrenia than advanced parental age. Discussion This study demonstrates a relationship between paternal age and schizophrenia in large
Full Text Available Supanigar Ruangsri,1,2 Teekayu Plangkoon Jorns,1,2 Subin Puasiri,3 Thitisan Luecha,4 Chariya Chaithap,4 Kittisak Sawanyawisuth5,6 1Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, 2Neuroscience Research and Development Group (NRDG, 3Department of Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, 4Faculty of Dentistry, 5Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 6Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods: We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls. Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results: During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29 years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04 years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6
Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep quality has been associated with increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and mortality. However, limited information exists on the distribution and determinants of sleep quality and its associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in Chinese populations. We aimed to evaluate this in the current study. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 of 1,458 men and 1,831 women aged 50–70 years from urban and rural areas of Beijing and Shanghai. Using a questionnaire, sleep quality was measured in levels of well, common and poor. Comprehensive measures of socio-demographical and health factors and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic disease were recorded. These were evaluated in association with sleep quality using logistic regression models. Results Half of the population reported good sleep quality. After adjusting for potential confounders, women and Beijing residents had almost half the probability to report good sleep quality. Good physical and mental health (good levels of self-rated health (OR 2.48; 95%CI 2.08 to 2.96 and no depression (OR 4.05; 95%CI 3.12 to 5.26 related to an increased chance of reporting good sleep quality, whereas short sleep duration ( Conclusion Levels of good sleep quality in middle-age and elderly Chinese were low. Gender, geographical location, self-rated health, depression and sleep quantity were major factors associated with sleep quality. Prospective studies are required to distil the factors that determine sleep quality and the effects that sleep patterns exert on cardio-metabolic health.
Rebecca E. Rosenberg
Full Text Available Entry into early intervention depends on both age of first parent concern (AOC and age at initial autism spectrum disorder (ASD diagnosis (AOD. Using data collected from a national online registry from 6214 children diagnosed with an ASD between 1994 and 2010 in the US, we analyzed the effect of individual, family, and geographic covariates on AOC and AOD in a multivariate linear regression model with random effects. Overall, no single modifiable factor associated with AOC or AOD emerged but cumulative variation in certain individual- and family-based features, as well as some geographic factors, all contribute to AOC and AOD variation. A multipronged strategy is needed for targeted education and awareness campaigns to maximize outcomes and decrease disparities in ASD care.
Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Kazemitabaee, Maryamsadat; Etemadifar, Masoud
The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has doubled in over the last decades in women, whereas it has been almost unchanged in men. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors of early onset multiple sclerosis in women during reproductive years. A retrospective longitudinal study conducted on 200 women aged 15 to 50 years with MS, registered by the MS Society in Isfahan. Data gathering was fulfilled by standard questionnaire including variables about reproductive period, demographic characteristics, and history of diseases. Kaplan-Mayer with log-rank test and Cox regression models were used in predicting of the age of effective factors in onset of MS. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The mean age of studied women was 31.77 ± 8.13 years and the mean and median age of onset the symptoms of MS was 26.79 ± 7.77 and 26 years, respectively. Based on the cox results occurring menarche at 15 years and higher increase the risk of MS 2.8-fold than those their menarche occurred at 12 years and lower (HR: 2.81, 95 % CI; 1.58-4.98).In addition, having only one pregnancy is related to higher risk of MS than other parities and increase the risk of MS 4.5-fold comparing to without parities. Age of menarche and parity numbers was the most important reproductive factors of MS in women. Nevertheless, history of autoimmune diseases, animal bite, childhood disease, family history of MS, regional area (tropical), and living in rural area were not related to early onset of MS. PMID:26790684
Teresa Cristina Miglioli
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs.METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels. Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels, age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables.RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73 and height/age (-0.99 of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82, prenatal appointments (-0.43, geographical area of the residence (-0.41, and household incomeper capita (-0.42. Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44 showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48 was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72 and retinol serum levels (-0.40 of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43.CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A
Ashrafalsadat Hakim; Farshid Kompani; Mohammad Bahadoram
Enuresis is the inability to control urination during sleep. It is one of the most common childhood urologic disorders. Nocturnal enuresis refers to the occurrence of involuntary voiding at night after 5 years. Persistent nocturia can decrease self-esteem, increase anxiety and other emotional problems in children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors affecting nocturia amongst school-aged children. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted on 200 children over a period...
de Oliveira, S. Moss; Stauffer, D.; De Oliveira, P. M. C.; Martins, J. S. Sa
We twice modify the Penna model for biological ageing. First we introduce back (good) mutations and a memory for them into the model. It allows us to observe an improvement of the species fitness over long time scales as well as punctuated equilibrium. Second we adopt a food/space competition factor that depends on the number of accumulated mutations in the individuals genomes, and get rid of the fixed limiting number of allowed mutations. Besides reproducing the main results of the standard ...
Bowler, J.; Munoz, D.; Merskey, H.; HACHINSKI, V.
OBJECTIVES—To assess the role of cerebrovascular disease, sex, education, occupation, year of birth, leukoaraiosis, congophilic angiopathy, family history, and other demographic factors on the reported age of onset and rate of progression of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS—Analysis of data from the University of Western Ontario Dementia Study, a prospective longitudinal study of dementia patients with clinical and 6 monthly psychometric follow up to postmortem based in a univer...
WANG, Juan; WANG, Tao; YANG, YUN-YI; CHAI, YAN-LAN; Shi, Fan; Liu, Zi
The recurrence and metastasis of cervical cancer contribute to a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for cervical cancer progression. A total of 284 patients with recurrent cervical cancer were retrospectively recruited to evaluate the association of disease recurrence with clinicopathological data. The univariate analysis demonstrated that patient age, tumor appearance and tumor size were significantly associated with early recurrence and metastasis of t...
The problem with e-texts are related to the way texts are displayed on a screen, with multiple and different aspects that affect legibility, making readers prefer to read a paper format rather than e-resources. This research describes the factors that affect the legibility of online texts aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the usability of electronic Arabic texts for learning purposes within the field of electronic reading; mainly reading Arabic texts for students aged 9 to 13. This...
Peek, S.T.M.; Wouters, E.J.M.; van Hoof, J.; Luijkx, K.G.; Boeije, H.R.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.
S.T.M. Peek, E.J.M. Wouters, J. van Hoof, K.G. Luijkx, H.R. Boeije, H.J.M. Vrijhoef (2014) Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place: a systematic review: a systematic review. International Journal of Medical Informatics 83(4):235-248 http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.20
AlJohara M. AlQuaiz; Ashry Gad Mohamed; Khoja, Tawfik A.M.; Abdullah AlSharif; Shaffi Ahamed Shaikh; Hamad Al Mane; Abdallah Aldiris; Ambreen Kazi; Durdana Hammad
Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured w...
Blas-Châtelain, C; Chauvelier, S; Foti, P; Debure, C; Hanon, O
The benefits of anti-vitamin K (AVK) drugs have been acknowledged in several indications. Such indications increasing with increasing age, AVK prescriptions also increases with age. At the same time, conditions involving significant bleeding are common in this elderly population. It is thus essential to recognize the determining factors. This study included all patients taking AVK drugs aged 75 years and older who sought emergency care at the Cochin Hospital from January to December 2011 for significant bleeding. These patients were compared with a cohort of patients aged 75 years or older who were taking AVK drugs and who were admitted to the same unit during the same time period for other reasons. The case-control comparison included demographic data, comorbidity factors, multiple medications, emergency measured INR, and CHA2DS2VASC level. The hemorrhagic risk was evaluated by HEMORR2HAGES and HAS-BLED. A total of 34 patients were studied and compared with 70 case-controls. The Charlson comorbidity index was higher in patients than case-controls (PAVK drugs is related to their higher comorbidity and hemorrhagic levels which need to be evaluated before starting or stopping AVK treatment.
Full Text Available Gbemisola O Boyede,1,2 Foluso EA Lesi,2 Veronica C Ezeaka,2 Charles S Umeh3 1Division of Developmental Paediatrics, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics, 3Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria Background: In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Methods: Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget’s staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6–11 years and the formal operational stage (12–15 years. All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM. Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. Results: The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0–47.0 which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0–52.0 for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001. On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6–11 years, positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Conclusion: Younger age, poor socioeconomic
Hsieh, Ching-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Sen; Su, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Shao-Tung; Lee, Meng-Chih
To determine risk factors of urinary incontinence (UI) in Taiwanese women aged 60 or over, face-to-face interviews with 1,517 women, selected by a multistage random method, were completed. The prevalence of UI in this age group was 29.8%. Factors and their prevalence associated with UI were age [odds ratio (OR)=1.04 per year], diabetes mellitus (39.8%, p = 0.002), hypertension (39.5%, p = 0.001), abdominal gynecological surgery (41.4%, p = 0.001), hysterectomy (42.4%, p = 0.003), history of drug allergy (41.3%, p = 0.001), smoking (45.5%, p = 0.010), hormone replacement therapy (41.5%, p = 0.026), and high body mass index (OR = 1.05 per unit). Alcohol consumption and marriage did not increase the risk of UI. UI is a common and costly problem in elderly women. It diminishes the quality of life of the affected women. Of the associated factors that are preventable, modifiable, or controllable, smoking, prior hysterectomy, and obesity may have the greatest impact on the prevalence of UI.
Louise Amália de Moura
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30 as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0% of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%, with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4. Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007 and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016. Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety.
de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda
Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179
Full Text Available Michael F Leitzmann1, Sabine Rohrmann21Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany; 2Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandAbstract: At present, only three risk factors for prostate cancer have been firmly established; these are all nonmodifiable: age, race, and a positive family history of prostate cancer. However, numerous modifiable factors have also been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize the epidemiologic data for age, location, and selected behavioral factors in relation to the onset of prostate cancer. Although the available data are not entirely consistent, possible preventative behavioral factors include increased physical activity, intakes of tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, and soy. Factors that may enhance prostate cancer risk include frequent consumption of dairy products and, possibly, meat. By comparison, alcohol probably exerts no important influence on prostate cancer development. Similarly, dietary supplements are unlikely to protect against the onset of prostate cancer in healthy men. Several factors, such as smoking and obesity, show a weak association with prostate cancer incidence but a positive relation with prostate cancer mortality. Other factors, such as fish intake, also appear to be unassociated with incident prostate cancer but show an inverse relation with fatal prostate cancer. Such heterogeneity in the relationship between behavioral factors and nonadvanced, advanced, or fatal prostate cancers helps shed light on the carcinogenetic process because it discerns the impact of exposure on early and late stages of prostate cancer development. Inconsistent associations between behavioral factors and prostate cancer risk seen in previous studies may in part be due to uncontrolled detection bias because of current widespread use of prostate-specific antigen
Yan-min WU; Jia LIU; Wei-lian SUN; Li-li CHEN; Li-guo CHAI; Xiang XIAO; Zheng CAO
Objective:To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health.Methods:The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi,a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China.A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care.Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview.Clinical periodontal indices,such as bleeding on probing (BOP),probing depth (PD),and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured during the examination.Statistical analysis on subject-based data was performed.Results:The prevalence of periodontal disease among childbearing age women in Cixi was high (84.7％).A significant association was found between the disease and educational level,pregnancy,taking oral contraceptives,stress,alcohol consumption,overweight,dental visit,and teeth brushing (P＜0.05).Women who suffered periodontal disease showed deep PD,obvious BOP,and clinical attachment loss.Among this population,pregnancy was closely associated with higher BOP percentage; teeth brushing no more than once per day or brushing for less than 1 min (P＜0.001) after adjusting for age and stress.Conclusions:The periodontal status of childbearing age women in Cixi needs to be improved urgently.Attention towards the periodontal health should be warranted,especially for those in special statuses and with poor awareness.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK, like other developed countries, is experiencing a marked change in the age structure of its population characterised by increasing life expectancy and continuing growth in the older fraction of the population. There is remarkably little up-to-date information about the health of the oldest old (over 85 years, demographically the fastest growing section of the population. There is a need, from both a policy and scientific perspective, to describe in detail the health status of this population and the factors that influence individual health trajectories. For a very large proportion of medical conditions, age is the single largest risk factor. Gaining new knowledge about why aged cells and tissues are more vulnerable to pathology is likely to catalyse radical new insights and opportunities to intervene. The aims of the Newcastle 85+ Study are to expose the spectrum of health within an inception cohort of 800 85 year-olds; to examine health trajectories and outcomes as the cohort ages and their associations with underlying biological, medical and social factors; and to advance understanding of the biological nature of ageing. Methods A cohort of 800 85 year olds from Newcastle and North Tyneside will be recruited at baseline and followed until the last participant has died. Eligible individuals will be all those who turn 85 during the year 2006 (i.e. born in 1921 and who are registered with a Newcastle or North Tyneside general practice. Participants will be visited in their current residence (own home or institution by a research nurse at baseline, 18 months and 36 months. The assessment protocol entails a detailed multi-dimensional health assessment together with review of general practice medical records. Participants will be flagged with the NHS Central Register to provide details of the date and cause of death. Discussion The Newcastle 85+ Study will address key questions about health and health-maintenance in the
YANG Jie-fu; LIU Bing; LIU Dong-ge; LUO Yao; FANG Fang
Background Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia and a major risk factor for ischaemic stroke. We investigated the prevalence of atrial fibrillation and its relation to age, gender and underlying heart disease in patients aged 60 years and over who died during hospitalization.Methods Between 1955 and 2005, 1519 autopsies of in-hospital deaths in Beijing Hospital were performed. Among them, 540 cases met criteria of age ≥60 years and full clinical history including electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, myocardial perfusion images and detailed cardiac pathology records from autopsy.Results Atrial fibrillation occurred in 193 of 540 patients and prevalence increased with age (10.5% in patients younger than 60 years, 39.6% (80-89 years) and 54.8% (≥90 years)) being higher in patients with underlying heart disease than without heart disease (P<0.0001). Coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, cardiac valve dysfunction and chronic renal failure were associated with a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (P<0.001). CAD with anterior myocardial infarction or left anterior descending artery disease was also associated with an increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation (P <0.05). Following autopsy, clinical misdiagnosis of CAD increased with age and missed clinical diagnosis of CAD decreased with age. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed independent predictors of atrial fibrillation: age (OR=1.335, 95% Cl: 1.114-1.600, P<0.0001), underlying heart disease (OR=2.019, 95% CI: 1.244-3.278, P <0.005), chronic heart failure (OR=1.873, 95% CI: 1.272-2.757, P <0.005), mitral regurgitation (OR=2.163, 95% Cl: 1.093-4.278, P<0.05) and mitral stenosis (OR=33.575, 95% CI: 2.852-395.357, P<0.05). Conclusions A high prevalence of atrial fibrillation was found in Chinese patients
Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom
Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The
Bora, Nalini S; Matta, Bharati; Lyzogubov, Valeriy V; Bora, Puran S
Studies performed over the past decade in humans and experimental animals have been a major source of information and improved our understanding of how dysregulation of the complement system contributes to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathology. Drusen, the hall-mark of dry-type AMD are reported to be the by-product of complement mediated inflammatory processes. In wet AMD, unregulated complement activation results in increased production of angiogenic growth factors leading to choroidal neovascularization both in humans and in animal models. In this review article we have linked the complement system with modifiable and non-modifiable AMD risk factors as well as with prediction models of AMD. Understanding the association between the complement system, risk factors and prediction models will help improve our understanding of AMD pathology and management of this disease.
Bibiana Andrea Castro
Full Text Available Objective: To explore some factors associated to stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in the Department of Antioquia.Methodology: Cross-sectional study using the databases of alimentary and nutritional profiles in homes of Antioquia in 2004, based on a representative random sample of homes in the department (95% reliability and error margin of 3%. For this study, 100% of the records of children below 11 years of age were used. A model of generalized equations estimation was constructed for stunted growth classified by a Z score smaller than -2 standard deviation with respect to p 50 of the 1978 NCHS (Centro Nacional de Estadísticas de la Salud - National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX Procedure: SAS version 9.1.Results: We found 18.6% of the children with stunted growth, 75% of the homes with male head of household, 70% of heads of household with maximum 5 years of schooling; 47% of homes were nucleated bi-parental, and 40% extensive with a 5-member median per home; 56.4% poor per unsatisfied basic needs, and 80% in alimentary insecurity. The factors associated to stunted growth were: female gender, 1-5 years of age, head of household with less than 6 years of schooling, more than 5 people in the home, more than two household members under 7 years of age, coming from a poor home per unsatisfied basic needs, belonging to a sub-region different from Medellin, food availability of less than 30 different foods per week, no production of food, and head of household under 40 years of age.Conclusions: Herein, we show evidence of the magnitude of poverty and association of precarious socioeconomic conditions with stunted growth in Antioquia. The study shows the importance of considering the correlated nature of the data for the construction of the model.
Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L
Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weightmotor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity.
Mariza Martins Avelino
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Determine the risk factors involved in toxoplasmosis transmission and determine whether pregnancy is a risk factor for toxoplasmosis infection. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study carried out on 2,242 women at childbearing age. An indirect immunofluorescence reaction was used to identify immunity to Toxoplasma gondii. Previous gestations were also analyzed as a possible risk factor. The results were analyzed by chi2 and OR tests, and by variance analysis. The sample was statistically balanced according to social-economic risk factors. RESULTS: Previously pregnant women were 1.74 times more frequently infected with toxoplasmosis, regardless of environmental conditions. Pregnant women living under unfavorable environmental conditions had an approximately two times increased risk of being infected for each risk factor (contact with host animals, presence of vehicles of oocyst transmission. Previous pregnancy was the risk factor that had the strongest influence on acquiring toxoplasmosis (variance analysis and statistical balancing. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of this zoonosis is high in Goiânia-GO, Brazil (65.8%. Inadequate environmental sanitation was not significantly correlated with toxoplasmosis infection, except when associated with previous pregnancy, showing that the fundamental cause for infection is not environmental. CONCLUSION: The finding that pregnancy makes women more vulnerable to this protozoan, makes it important to implement prophylactic control of at-risk pregnant women.
Aytaç, I A; Araujo, A B; Johannes, C B; Kleinman, K P; McKinlay, J B
Despite the well-documented relationship of socioeconomic factors (SEF) to various health problems, the relationship of SEF to erectile dysfunction (ED) is not well understood. As such, the goals of this paper are: (1) to determine whether incident ED is more likely to occur among men with low SEF; and (2) to determine whether incident ED varies by SEF after taking into consideration other well-established ED risk factors that are also associated with SEF such as smoking, diabetes, and high blood pressure. We used data from 797 participants in the longitudinal population-based Massachusetts Male Aging Study (baseline 1987-1989, follow-up 1995-1997) who were free of ED at baseline and had complete data on ED and all risk factors. ED was determined by a self-administered questionnaire and its relationship to SEF was assessed using logistic regression. We first analyzed the age-adjusted relationship of education, income, and occupation to incidence of ED. The results show that men with low education (O.R. = 1.46, 95% C.I. = 1.02-2.08) or men in blue-collar occupations (O.R. = 1.68, 95% C.I. = 1.16-2.43) are significantly more likely to develop ED. For the multivariate model, due to multicollinearity among education, income, and occupation, we ran three separate models. After taking into consideration all the other risk factors--age, lifestyle and medical conditions--the effect of occupation remained significant. Men who worked in blue-collar occupations were one and a half times more likely to develop ED compared to men in white-collar occupations (O.R. = 1.55, 95% C.I. = 1.06-2.28).
Simchon-Tenenbaum, Yaarit; Weizman, Abraham; Rehavi, Moshe
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) overdiagnosis and a pharmacological attempt to increase cognitive performance, are the major causes for the frequent (ab)use of psychostimulants in non-ADHD individuals. Methylphenidate is a non-addictive psychostimulant, although its mode of action resembles that of cocaine, a well-known addictive and abused drug. Neuronal- and glial-derived growth factors play a major role in the development, maintenance and survival of neurons in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that methylphenidate and cocaine treatment affect the expression of such growth factors. Beginning on postnatal day (PND) 14, male Sprague Dawley rats were treated chronically with either cocaine or methylphenidate. The rats were examined behaviorally and biochemically at several time points (PND 35, 56, 70 and 90). On PND 56, rats treated with cocaine or methylphenidate from PND 14 through PND 35 exhibited increased hippocampal glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA levels, after 21 withdrawal days, compared to the saline-treated rats. We found a significant association between cocaine and methylphenidate treatments and age progression in the prefrontal protein expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Neither treatments affected the behavioral parameters, although acute cocaine administration was associated with increased locomotor activity. It is possible that the increased hippocampal GDNF mRNA levels, may be relevant to the reduced rate of drug seeking behavior in ADHD adolescence that were maintained from childhood on methylphenidate. BDNF protein level increase with age, as well as following stimulant treatments at early age may be relevant to the neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of ADHD. PMID:25576963
Darren M Lipnicki
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An aging population brings increasing burdens and costs to individuals and society arising from late-life cognitive decline, the causes of which are unclear. We aimed to identify factors predicting late-life cognitive decline. METHODS: Participants were 889 community-dwelling 70-90-year-olds from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study with comprehensive neuropsychological assessments at baseline and a 2-year follow-up and initially without dementia. Cognitive decline was considered as incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia, as well as decreases in attention/processing speed, executive function, memory, and global cognition. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health and medical factors were determined. RESULTS: All cognitive measures showed decline and 14% of participants developed incident MCI or dementia. Across all participants, risk factors for decline included older age and poorer smelling ability most prominently, but also more education, history of depression, being male, higher homocysteine, coronary artery disease, arthritis, low health status, and stroke. Protective factors included marriage, kidney disease, and antidepressant use. For some of these factors the association varied with age or differed between men and women. Additional risk and protective factors that were strictly age- and/or sex-dependent were also identified. We found salient population attributable risks (8.7-49.5% for older age, being male or unmarried, poor smelling ability, coronary artery disease, arthritis, stroke, and high homocysteine. DISCUSSION: Preventing or treating conditions typically associated with aging might reduce population-wide late-life cognitive decline. Interventions tailored to particular age and sex groups may offer further benefits.
Adami, Silvano; Giannini, Sandro; Giorgino, Ruben; Isaia, GianCarlo; Maggi, Stefania; Sinigaglia, Luigi; Filipponi, Paolo; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Di Munno, Ombretta
Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques have been shown to be as good as bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in predicting fracture risk: QUS technique could increase substantially the accessibility to a reliable bone osteoporosis risk evaluation, but little is know regarding the relationship of QUS to risk factors that have been found to predict DXA-BMD values and this is even more true in men. We studied 6,811 postmenopausal women 40 to 80 years of age and 4,981 men 60-80 years of age representative of the general population of all regions of Italy. All participants were questioned on lifestyle habits and on their medical history. After a physical examination "bone stiffness" (called here for simplicity, stiffness), which is derived from the values of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sounds (SoS) was measured by a heel QUS device (Achilles apparatus, Lunar, Madison, USA). The most common recognized determinants of bone mass (either categorical or continuous variables) were modeled with stiffness by multiple regression analysis or ANOVA. Stiffness was strongly related to age and weight. After adjusting for these variables, the women who had taken hormone replacement therapy for more than a year had significantly higher stiffness values. The difference versus nonusers remained significant for up to 20 years-since-menopause (YSM). This effect was so strong that for further analysis these women were excluded. By multivariate analysis, stiffness was then found to be significantly related to recalled body weight at 25 years of age, actual and past cigarettes smoked per day, and dairy calcium intake. Stiffness was also associated with a number of categorial factors adjusted for age, weight, and YSM: prior ovariectomy, history of more than 2 months confined to bed, outdoor physical activity, smoking, chronic use of any drug, and past corticosteroid use. All these categorial and continuous variables predicted
William E Sonntag
Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 is an important anabolic hormone that decreases with age. In the past two decades extensive research has determined that the reduction in IGF-1 is an important component of the age-related decline in cognitive function in multiple species including humans. Deficiency in circulating IGF-1 results in impairment in processing speed and deficiencies in both spatial and working memory. Replacement of IGF-1 or factors that increase IGF-1 to old animals and humans reverses many of these cognitive deficits. Despite the overwhelming evidence for IGF-1 as an important neurotrophic agent, the specific mechanisms through which IGF-1 acts have remained elusive. Recent evidence indicates that IGF-1 is both produced by and has important actions on the cerebrovasculature as well as neurons and glia. Nevertheless, the specific regulation and actions of brain- and vascular-derived IGF-1 is poorly understood. The diverse effects of IGF-1 discovered thus far reveal a complex endocrine and paracrine system essential for integrating many of the functions necessary for brain health. Identification of the mechanisms of IGF-1 actions will undoubtedly provide critical insight into regulation of brain function in general and the causes of cognitive decline with age.
Lehert, P; Villaseca, P; Hogervorst, E; Maki, P M; Henderson, V W
A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11-0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging. PMID:26361790
Fotuhi, Majid; Do, David; Jack, Clifford
The hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypoxic brain injury, obstructive sleep apnoea, bipolar disorder, clinical depression and head trauma. Patients with these conditions often have smaller hippocampi and experience a greater degree of cognitive decline than individuals without these comorbidities. Moreover, hippocampal atrophy is an established indicator for conversion from the normal ageing process to developing mild cognitive impairment and dementia. As such, an important aim is to ascertain which modifiable factors can have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus throughout life. Observational studies and preliminary clinical trials have raised the possibility that physical exercise, cognitive stimulation and treatment of general medical conditions can reverse age-related atrophy in the hippocampus, or even expand its size. An emerging concept--the dynamic polygon hypothesis--suggests that treatment of modifiable risk factors can increase the volume or prevent atrophy of the hippocampus. According to this hypothesis, a multidisciplinary approach, which involves strategies to both reduce neurotoxicity and increase neurogenesis, is likely to be successful in delaying the onset of cognitive impairment with ageing. Further research on the constellation of interventions that could be most effective is needed before recommendations can be made for implementing preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:22410582
The present study used computed tomography imaging to evaluate the extent and pattern of the intergenerational transmission of spinal disc degeneration disease (DDD) in complex pedigrees. Contribution of a number of the potential covariates was also studied using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, as well as two types of complex segregation analysis models. Among 161 individuals studied, DDD was diagnosed in 60 individuals. The number of protruded discs varied from 1 to 4, mostly in lumbar or lumbosacral regions. The average age at onset of the disease was similar for both women (36.0 years) and men (34.8 years). The proportion of the individuals affected by the DDD status of their parents ranged from 10% in families of two healthy parents to 55.5% of two affected parents (p < 0.01). The results of the logistic regression analyses and complex segregation analysis were qualitatively the same: DDD status of parents, age and smoking were the main risk factors for disc herniation in the Arabic families we examined. All analyses showed a predominating role of the family history as a risk factor for DDD in offsprings. It showed, for example, four times higher risk at age 50 for individuals with two affected parents vs. those who have two non-affected parents. However, the results of models-fitting genetic analysis, did not confirm a monogenic Mendelian pattern of inheritance
Hvelplund, Carolina; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Koch, Susanne Vinkel;
OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, age at diagnosis, and associations between perinatal risk factors of feeding and eating disorders (FED) diagnosed at hospital in children aged 0 to 3 years. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 901 227 children was followed until 48 months of age in the national.......71 in those with congenital malformations (95% CI, 3.86-5.74). Increased risk of FED was associated with female gender (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.08-1.34), maternal smoking in pregnancy (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.08-1.42), immigrant status (HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.92-2.61), and being the firstborn (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1...... registers from 1997 to 2010. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for FED diagnosis according to the International Classification of Diseases and associations with perinatal risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 1365 children (53% girls) were diagnosed...
Ullrich, S; Paelecke, M; Kahle, I; Marneros, A
The personality construct "psychopathy" is of utmost importance in legal prognosis. In the last 20 years, a multitude of empirical research proved the predictive validity of this concept concerning the degree of dangerousness represented by an offender. In the present study, a representative, nonselected sample of 416 offenders was examined using the Screening Version of the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL:SV). The data were analysed both categorically and dimensionally according to the three-factor model proposed by Cooke and Michie. In comparison to North American Studies the prevalence of high scorers was significantly lower, implicating intercultural differences. Analyses of the effects of gender yielded higher scores on each of the three factors in male offenders. Concerning different age cohorts, it turned out that the arrogant and deceitful interpersonal style and deficient affective experience remained stable, whereas the impulsive and irresponsible behavioral style decreased with increasing age. Therefore, our results point out intercultural differences already shown in the prevalence of "psychopathy" and confirm the effects of gender and age concerning this construct. PMID:14598037
Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya
Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and young adults. Forty-eight older adults and forty-nine young adults completed a retrospective survey inquiring about the use of emotion regulation strategies in emotion-eliciting situations experienced over the preceding 2 weeks. We used factor analysis to establish clusters of emotion regulation strategies, resulting in cognitive strategies, acceptance, and maladaptive strategies. Overall, we found context-dependent age-related differences in emotion regulation strategy use. Specifically, older adults reported greater use of acceptance than young adults in situations of moderate intensity and in situations that evoke anxiety and sadness. In addition, older adults reported using maladaptive strategies to a lesser extent in high- and moderate-intensity situations and in situations that elicit anxiety and sadness when compared with young adults. There were no age-related differences in the use of cognitive strategies across contexts. Older adults, compared to young adults, reported less use of maladaptive strategies and greater use of acceptance than young adults, which suggests that the enhanced emotional functioning observed later in life may be due to a shift in strategy implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570980
Full Text Available Background The use of contraception can prevent pregnancies related complication and helps in improving the women’s health and quality of their lives. Objective To explore reproductive characteristics among married women of reproductive age. To find out method of contraceptive use and side effects among married women of reproductive age. To uncover factors related to contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age. Methods This cross-sectional was carried out among (369 married couples of reproductive age group in ward number 5, 6 and 7 of Dhulikhel Municipality using purposive sampling. Those who fell in between the age group of (14-49 years and willing to participate were included and pregnant women were excluded from the study. Questionnaire was used to obtain informations. Results Among 369(81.3% of the respondents of reproductive age were using a modern contraceptive method. Regarding education 331(89.5% of women’s and 352(95.1% of husbands were literate and 275(91.6% of women were found to be involved in decision making and had good inter-spousal communication that is 280(93.3%. Among the temporary method of family planning, Depo-Provera was the choice 150(54.5% of contraceptive method. Conclusion The present study put more emphasis on increase in women’s literacy, women’s involvement in decision making and inter-spousal communication which helps to promote the effective use of contraceptive methods. As women play an important role in the decision making, women should be included in all aspects of reproductive health and family planning programs. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-4, 24-29 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i4.10233
Prasad, Shilpa; Koch, Biplob; Chaube, Shail K
The present study was designed to investigate whether destabilization of maturation promoting factor (MPF) leads to postovulatory aging-mediated abortive spontaneous egg activation (SEA). If so, we wished to determine whether changes in Wee-1 as well as Emi2 levels are associated with MPF destabilization during postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA in rats eggs aged in vivo. For this purpose, sexually immature female rats were given a single injection (20 IU IM) of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin for 48 h followed by single injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (20 IU). Ovulated eggs were collected after 14, 17, 19 and 21 h post-hCG surge to induce postovulatory aging in vivo. The morphological changes, Wee1, phosphorylation status of cyclin dependent kinase 1(Cdk1), early mitotic inhibitor 2 (Emi2), anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), cyclin B1, mitotic arrest deficient protein (MAD2) levels and Cdk1 activity were analyzed. The increased Wee 1 level triggered phosphorylation of Thr-14/Tyr-15 and dephosphorylation of Thr-161 residues of Cdk1. The decrease of Emi2 level was associated with increased APC/C level and decreased cyclin B1 level. Changes in phosphorylation status of Cdk1 and reduced cyclin B1 level resulted in destabilization of MPF. The destabilized MPF finally led to postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA in rat eggs. It was concluded that the increase of Wee 1 but decrease of Emi2 level triggers MPF destabilization and thereby postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA in rat eggs. PMID:26991553
Mols, Rikke Elmose; Sand, Niels Peter; Jensen, Jesper Møller;
, respectively, and subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in middle-aged Danes. Methods: This is a DanRisk screening substudy, thus including healthy Danish males and females aged 50 or 60 years. Social measures included grade of education, employment and co-habiting status. The coping status was estimated...... by the general self-efficacy (GES) scale. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was assessed by computed tomography using the Agatston score (AS). Conventional clinical risk factors included sex, family history of CAD, BMI > 25, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension. Results: In 568 individuals...... the prevalence of subjects with CAC was 267 (45%). Independent predictors of CAC in males were age (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04–1.16, p smoking (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.03–2.99, p = 0.038), and low co-habiting status (OR = 3.66, 95% CI = 1.19–11.25, p = 0.023). Independent predictors in females were age (OR...
Full Text Available Background Small for gestational age (SGA fetuses have birth weights below 10th percentile or abdominal circumference less than 10th percentile for gestational age Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SGA and its associated risk factors in Iran. Patients and Methods This is a retrospective study. A total of 341 pregnant women were evaluated in fetal health care clinic of perinatology from January 2013 to January 2014. Results Of 312 pregnant women, 33 had SGA fetuses. The average of body mass index (BMI was lower in SGA group than non-SGA. Pulsatility index has no stastical meaningful between SGA and nonSGA groups. In Gestational age had no difference between 2 groups. Severe SGA (< 3rd centile estimated fetal weight was observed in 2.6% of all cases. Conclusions In conclusion, the prevalence of SGA was approximately one tenth of all pregnancies. SGA incidence was associated with nulliparity and more frequently seen in lower age group.
Santos Ana Paula Pires dos
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and gingival bleeding. The data were analyzed by means of the Epi Info program, utilizing the chi-squared test. The children?s mean age was 22.9 months. The prevalence of caries, including white spot lesions, was 41.6%, and the mean def-s was 1.7 (± 2.5. The most affected teeth were the maxillary incisors, and the most common lesion was the white spot. No significant associations were found between the prevalence of caries and socioeconomic status, frequency of oral hygiene, nocturnal bottle- and breast-feeding or cariogenic food and beverage intake during the day. However, the association between caries and oral hygiene quality (dental biofilm was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The results suggest that the presence of a thick biofilm was the most important factor for the occurrence of early childhood caries in the evaluated sample.
YIN Xue Yao; ZHENG Fen Ping; ZHOU Jia Qiang; DU Ying; PAN Qian Qian; ZHANG Sai Fei; YU Dan; LI Hong
Objective Central obesity is considered to be a central component of metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference (WC) has been widely used as a simple indicator of central obesity. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of WC cut-off values for predicting metabolic risk factors in middle-aged Chinese. Methods The study involved 923 subjects aged 40-65 years. The metabolic risk factors were defined according to the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults. WC cut-off 85-90 cm and≥90 cm were used as cut-off values of central pre-obesity and central obesity in males, respectively, while WC 80-85 cm and≥85 cm were used as cut-off values of central pre-obesity and central obesity in females. Results First, WC values corresponding to body mass index (BMI) 24 kg/m2 and visceral fat area (VFA) 80 cm2 were 88.55 cm and 88.51 cm in males, and 81.46 cm and 82.51 cm in females respectively. Second, receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the optimal WC cut-off of value was 88.75 cm in males, higher than that in females (81.75 cm). Third, the subjects with higher WC values were more likely to have accumulating metabolic risk factors. The prevalence of metabolic risk factors increased linearly and significantly in relation to WC levels. Conclusion WC cut-off values of central pre-/central obesity are optimal to predict multiple metabolic risk factors.
Full Text Available Contamination of the environment by metals is recognized as a threat to health. One of their targets is the brain, and the adverse functional effects they induce are reflected by neurobehavioral assessments. Lead, manganese, and methylmercury are the metal contaminants linked most comprehensively to such disorders. Because many of these adverse effects can appear later in life, clues to the role of metals as risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders should be sought in the exposure histories of aging populations. A review of the available literature offers evidence that all three metals can produce, in advanced age, manifestations of neurobehavioral dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative disease. Among the critical unresolved questions is timing; that is, during which periods of the lifespan, including early development, do environmental exposures lay the foundations for their ultimate effects?
Harper, Shavonn C; Brack, Andrew; MacDonnell, Scott; Franti, Michael; Olwin, Bradley B; Bailey, Beth A; Rudnicki, Michael A; Houser, Steven R
This "Controversies in Cardiovascular Research" article evaluates the evidence for and against the hypothesis that the circulating blood level of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) decreases in old age and that restoring normal GDF11 levels in old animals rejuvenates their skeletal muscle and reverses pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Studies supporting the original GDF11 hypothesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle have not been validated by several independent groups. These new studies have either found no effects of restoring normal GDF11 levels on cardiac structure and function or have shown that increasing GDF11 or its closely related family member growth differentiation factor 8 actually impairs skeletal muscle repair in old animals. One possible explanation for what seems to be mutually exclusive findings is that the original reagent used to measure GDF11 levels also detected many other molecules so that age-dependent changes in GDF11 are still not well known. The more important issue is whether increasing blood [GDF11] repairs old skeletal muscle and reverses age-related cardiac pathologies. There are substantial new and existing data showing that GDF8/11 can exacerbate rather than rejuvenate skeletal muscle injury in old animals. There is also new evidence disputing the idea that there is pathological hypertrophy in old C57bl6 mice and that GDF11 therapy can reverse cardiac pathologies. Finally, high [GDF11] causes reductions in body and heart weight in both young and old animals, suggestive of a cachexia effect. Our conclusion is that elevating blood levels of GDF11 in the aged might cause more harm than good. PMID:27034276
Nolan, John M; Stack, Jim; O' Donovan, Orla; Loane, Edward; Beatty, Stephen
Macular pigment (MP) is composed of the two dietary carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z), and is believed to protect against age-related maculopathy (ARM). This study was undertaken to investigate MP optical density with respect to risk factors for ARM, in 828 healthy subjects from an Irish population. MP optical density was measured psychophysically using heterochromatic flicker photometry, serum L and Z were quantified by HPLC, and dietary intake of L and Z was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Clinical and personal details were also recorded, with particular attention directed towards risk factors for ARM. We report a statistically significant age-related decline in MP optical density (r2=0.082, p<0.01). Current and past smokers had lower average MP optical density than never smokers and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). Subjects with a confirmed family history of ARM had significantly lower levels of MP optical density than subjects with no known family history of disease (p<0.01). For each of these established risk factors, their statistically significant negative association with MP persisted after controlling for the other two, and also after controlling for other potentially confounding variables such as sex, cholesterol, dietary and serum L (p<0.01). In the absence of retinal pathology, and in advance of disease onset, the relative lack of MP seen in association with increasing age, tobacco use and family history of ARM supports the hypothesis that the enhanced risk that these variables represent for ARM may be attributable, at least in part, to a parallel deficiency of macular carotenoids. PMID:17083932
Moss de Oliveira, S.; Stauffer, D.; de Oliveira, P. M. C.; Sá Martins, J. S.
We modify twice the Penna model for biological ageing. First, we introduce back (good) mutations and a memory for them into the model. It allows us to observe an improvement of the species fitness over long-time scales as well as punctuated equilibrium. Second, we adopt a food/space competition factor that depends on the number of accumulated mutations in the individuals genomes, and get rid of the fixed limiting number of allowed mutations. Besides reproducing the main results of the standard model, we also observe a mortality maximum for the oldest old.
Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine
This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.
Full Text Available Despite increasing recognition of the role nutrition plays in the health of current and future generations, many women struggle to eat healthy. We used the PhotoVoice method to engage 10 rural women in identifying perceived barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in their homes and community. They took 354 photographs, selected and wrote captions for 62 images, and explored influential factors through group conversation. Using field notes and participant-generated captions, the research team categorized images into factors at the individual, relational, community/organizational, and societal levels of a socioecological model. Barriers included limited time, exposure to marketing, and the high cost of food. Facilitators included preparing food in advance and support from non-partners; opportunities to hunt, forage, and garden were also facilitators, which may be amplified in this rural environment. Nutritional interventions for rural women of childbearing age should be multi-component and focus on removing barriers at multiple socioecological levels.
Dreisler, Eva; Sorensen, Soren Stampe; Lose, Gunnar
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with endometrial polyps. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study of 140 women with endometrial polyps and 367 controls. Information on potentially associated factors was obtained by a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: In an age-adjusted logistic regression model......, the following was positively associated with endometrial polyps: current use of hormone therapy (odds ratio, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.29-6.13) and being overweight (body mass index > 25 kg/m(2)) (odds ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.12-3.79) (postmenopausal women). Negatively associated was use of oral contraceptive pills (odds...... women were positively associated, whereas the use of oral contraceptive pills was negatively associated with endometrial polyps. Hypertension and cervical polyps were not associated with endometrial polyps. Endometrial polyps were infrequently related to premalignant and malignant disease....
Full Text Available Mikaela L Jorgensen,1,2 Jane M Young,1,2 Michael J Solomon1,31Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Epidemiology and Services Research (CESR, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Discipline of Surgery, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Older colorectal cancer patients are significantly less likely than younger patients to receive guideline-recommended adjuvant chemotherapy. Previous research has indicated that patient refusal of treatment is a contributing factor. This study aimed to identify potential barriers to adjuvant chemotherapy use in older patients by examining the associations between patient age, factors influencing chemotherapy treatment decisions, and preferences for information and decision-making involvement.Patients and methods: Sixty-eight patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer in Sydney, Australia, within the previous 24 months completed a self-administered survey.Results: Fear of dying, health status, age, quality of life, and understanding treatment procedures and effects were significantly more important to older patients (aged ≥65 years than younger patients in deciding whether to accept chemotherapy (all P < 0.05. Reducing the risk of cancer returning and physician trust were important factors for all patients. Practical barriers such as traveling for treatment and cost were rated lowest. Older patients preferred less information and involvement in treatment decision making than younger patients. However, 60% of the older group wanted detailed information about chemotherapy, and 83% wanted some involvement in decision making. Those preferring less information and involvement still rated many factors as important in their decision making, including understanding treatment procedures and effects.Conclusion: A range of factors appears to influence
Hartvigsen, Jan; Petersen, Hans Christian; Frederiksen, Henrik;
environmental risk factors (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, disc prolapse, and coronary heart disease) showed no significant additive genetic, dominant genetic, or common environmental effects. CONCLUSION: Genetic factors do not play an important role in the liability to neck pain in persons 70 years......STUDY DESIGN: Classic twin study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the heritability of neck pain in persons 70 years of age and older. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies have shown a moderate effect of genetic factors on back pain in the elderly. Genetic influence on neck pain in old age...... is unknown. METHODS: Data on the 1-month prevalence of neck pain from twin pairs participating in the population based Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins formed the basis of this analysis. To assess twin similarity, probandwise concordance rates, odds ratios, and tetrachoric correlations were...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is accepted as the natural form of infant feeding. For mothers to be able to breastfeed exclusively to the recommended six months, it is important to understand the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 682 mother-infant pairs with infants up to six months attending maternal and child health section of the government health clinics in Klang, Malaysia. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested structured questionnaire over 4 months in 2006. Data on breastfeeding were based on practice in the previous one month period. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between the independent variables and exclusive breastfeeding adjusting for infant age. Results The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers with infants aged between one and six months was 43.1% (95% CI: 39.4, 46.8. In the multivariate model exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with rural residence, Malay mothers, non-working and non-smoking mothers, multiparous mothers, term infants, mothers with husbands who support breastfeeding and mothers who practice bed-sharing. Conclusions Interventions that seek to increase exclusive breastfeeding should focus on women who are at risk of early discontinuation of breastfeeding.
Full Text Available Early postnatal maternal separation (MS can play an important role in the development of psychopathologies during ontogeny. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4 h per day from postnatal day [PND] 1–21 on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, the nucleus accumbens (NAc and the hippocampus of male and female juvenile (PND 21, adolescent (PND 35 and young adult (PND 56 Wistar rats. The results indicated that MS increased BDNF in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG of adolescent rats as well as in the DG of young adult rats. However, the expression of BDNF in the mPFC in the young adult rats was decreased by MS. Additionally, in the hippocampus, there was decreased BDNF expression with age in both the MS and socially reared rats. However, in the mPFC, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the socially reared rats; nevertheless, the BDNF expression was significantly decreased in the MS young adult rats. In the NAc, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the male NMS rats, and the young adult female MS rats had less BDNF expression than the adolescent female MS rats. The
Kinyua, Ann W; Yang, Dong Joo; Chang, Inik; Kim, Ki Woo
The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is important for the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis and lesions in the VMH are reported to result in massive weight gain. The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a known VMH marker as it is exclusively expressed in the VMH region of the brain. SF-1 plays a critical role not only in the development of VMH but also in its physiological functions. In this study, we generated prenatal VMH-specific SF-1 KO mice and investigated age-dependent energy homeostasis regulation by SF-1. Deletion of SF-1 in the VMH resulted in dysregulated insulin and leptin homeostasis and late onset obesity due to increased food intake under normal chow and high fat diet conditions. In addition, SF-1 ablation was accompanied by a marked reduction in energy expenditure and physical activity and this effect was significantly pronounced in the aged mice. Taken together, our data indicates that SF-1 is a key component in the VMH-mediated regulation of energy homeostasis and implies that SF-1 plays a protective role against metabolic stressors including aging and high fat diet. PMID:27598259
Kinyua, Ann W.; Yang, Dong Joo; Chang, Inik; Kim, Ki Woo
The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is important for the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis and lesions in the VMH are reported to result in massive weight gain. The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a known VMH marker as it is exclusively expressed in the VMH region of the brain. SF-1 plays a critical role not only in the development of VMH but also in its physiological functions. In this study, we generated prenatal VMH-specific SF-1 KO mice and investigated age-dependent energy homeostasis regulation by SF-1. Deletion of SF-1 in the VMH resulted in dysregulated insulin and leptin homeostasis and late onset obesity due to increased food intake under normal chow and high fat diet conditions. In addition, SF-1 ablation was accompanied by a marked reduction in energy expenditure and physical activity and this effect was significantly pronounced in the aged mice. Taken together, our data indicates that SF-1 is a key component in the VMH-mediated regulation of energy homeostasis and implies that SF-1 plays a protective role against metabolic stressors including aging and high fat diet. PMID:27598259
Full Text Available Arterial aging is well characterized in industrial populations, but scantly described in populations with little access to modern medicine. Here we characterize health and aging among the Tsimane, Amazonian forager-horticulturalists with short life expectancy, high infectious loads and inflammation, but low adiposity and robust physical fitness. Inflammation has been implicated in all stages of arterial aging, atherogenesis and hypertension, and so we test whether greater inflammation associates with atherosclerosis and CVD risk. In contrast, moderate to vigorous daily activity, minimal obesity, and low fat intake predict minimal CVD risk among older Tsimane.Peripheral arterial disease (PAD, based on the Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI, and hypertension were measured in Tsimane adults, and compared with rates from industrialized populations. No cases of PAD were found among Tsimane and hypertension was comparatively low (prevalence: 3.5%, 40+; 23%, 70+. Markers of infection and inflammation were much higher among Tsimane than among U.S. adults, whereas HDL was substantially lower. Regression models examine associations of ABI and BP with biomarkers of energy balance and metabolism and of inflammation and infection. Among Tsimane, obesity, blood lipids, and disease history were not significantly associated with ABI. Unlike the Tsimane case, higher cholesterol, C-reactive protein, leukocytes, cigarette smoking and systolic pressure among North Americans are all significantly associated with lower ABI.Inflammation may not always be a risk factor for arterial degeneration and CVD, but instead may be offset by other factors: healthy metabolism, active lifestyle, favorable body mass, lean diet, low blood lipids and cardiorespiratory health. Other possibilities, including genetic susceptibility and the role of helminth infections, are discussed. The absence of PAD and CVD among Tsimane parallels anecdotal reports from other small-scale subsistence
Christensen, Dirk L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Birkegaard, Louise;
The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertak...... questionnaires. In total, 1139 individuals (61.0% women) participated aged 17-68 years. Age was positively associated with BP and plasma cholesterol levels. Sitting PR was negatively associated with age in women only (sex-interaction p ...
Full Text Available Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTS is an emerging infectious disease in East Asia. SFTS is a tick borne hemorrhagic fever caused by SFTSV, a new bunyavirus named after the syndrome. We investigated the epidemiology of SFTS in Laizhou County, Shandong Province, China.We collected serum specimens of all patients who were clinically diagnosed as suspected SFTS cases in 2010 and 2011 in Laizhou County. The patients' serum specimens were tested for SFTSV by real time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. We collected 1,060 serum specimens from healthy human volunteers by random sampling in Laizhou County in 2011. Healthy persons' serum specimens were tested for specific SFTSV IgG antibody by ELISA.71 SFTS cases were diagnosed in Laizhou County in 2010 and 2011, which resulted in the incidence rate of 4.1/100,000 annually. The patients ranged from 15 years old to 87 years old and the median age of the patients were 59 years old. The incidence rate of SFTS was significantly higher in patients over 40 years old and fatal cases only occurred in patients over 50 years old. 3.3% (35/1,060 of healthy people were positive to SFTSV IgG antibody. The SFTSV antibody positive rate was not significantly different among people at different age groups.Our results revealed that seroprevalence of SFTSV in healthy people in Laizhou County was not significantly different among age groups, but SFTS patients were mainly elderly people, suggesting that age is the critical risk factor or determinant for SFTS morbidity and mortality.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 reflect endogenous growth hormone (GH secretion in healthy subjects. Measurements of IGF-1 are useful for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with acromegaly and the diagnosis of GH deficiency in children. AIMS: To assess age dependency and normal ranges of serum IGF-1 levels in healthy Turkish population. SETTING AND DESIGN: We therefore studied 272 healthy adolescents and adults between 15-75 years of age. None had diabetes or other endocrine disease or had received estrogen therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Height, weight, body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio were measured in all subjects. Serum samples were obtained during morning hours and IGF-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The age-dependent reference range for serum IGF-1 concentrations was calculated by simple least linear regression analysis: the regression line represents the means with 95 percent confidence intervals. Correlation analysis was also done. RESULTS: Ageing was negatively related to serum levels of IGF-1 (P= 0.0001, r=-0.931 with a mean decrease (youngest vs. oldest. IGF-1 levels increased during adolescence, with the highest mean values during puberty. After puberty, a subsequent decline in serum levels of IGF-1 was apparent. There were also a significant difference according to gender; females had significantly higher levels (357.909+/-219.167 mg/L than males (307.962+/-198.41 mg/L (P=0.012. IGF-1 levels were correlated with body height (P=0.001, r=0.223, body weight (P=0.002,r=-0.188 and BMI (P=0.039, r=0.128. CONCLUSION: IGF-1 serum levels increase in adolescents with a peak in puberty, whereafter IGF-1 levels return to prepubertal levels.
Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human populations for environmental or occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, particularly ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for assessing radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. To further define the use of this assay in biological dosimetry, a study to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habit) on the spontaneous and radiation induced MN frequencies was performed. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 healthy donors aged between 4 and 62 years. On the basis of their smoking habit they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with Y rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed and also a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was obtained (R2 = 0.96) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence MN variability significantly but there was a greater dispersion in the results for females when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking to non smoking donors supports the convenience to take into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposures to γ-rays for doses below 2 Gy. (author)
Full Text Available Aim : To establish the frequency, associations and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD in hospital population of South India. Materials and Methods : In this cross-sectional hospital based study, 3549 subjects (2090 men and 1459 women above 45 years of age were screened randomly for AMD. Participants underwent ocular evaluation and were interviewed for lifestyle variables and dietary intake of carotenoids by structured food frequency questionnaire. AMD was defined according to the international classifications and grading system. Results : Either form of AMD was detected in 77 (2.2% participants. Of which, early and late AMD was present in 63 (1.8% and 14 (0.4% subjects, respectively. Binary logistic analysis showed that the incidence of AMD was significantly higher with increasing age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.17; 95% CI 1.13-1.22 and diabetes (OR 3.97; 95% CI 2.11-7.46. However, AMD was significant among heavy cigarette smokers (OR 5.58; 95% CI 0.88-7.51 and alcoholics (OR 4.85; 95% CI 2.45-12.22. Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin (L/Z and β-carotene intake were associated (P < 0.001 with the reduction in risk for AMD, with an OR of 0.38 and 0.65, respectively. Conclusions : Higher dietary intake of carotenoids, especially L/Z, was associated with lower risk for AMD. Risk of AMD is higher with increasing age and was prevalent among subjects with diabetes. Cessation of smoking and alcohol may reduce the risk of AMD in this population.
Wu, Liancun; Xia, Yu-Ping; Roth, Sanford I.; Gruskin, Elliott; Mustoe, Thomas A.
Clinical trials of exogenous growth factors in treating chronic wounds have been less successful than expected. One possible explanation is that most studies used animal models of acute wounds in young animals, whereas most chronic wounds occur in elderly patients with tissue ischemia. We described an animal model of age- and ischemia-impaired wound healing and analyzed the wound-healing response as well as the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 effect in this model. Rabbits of increasing ag...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low and middle income countries are ageing at a much faster rate than richer countries, especially in Asia. This is happening at a time of globalisation, migration, urbanisation, and smaller families. Older people make significant contributions to their families and communities, but this is often undermined by chronic disease and preventable disability. Social participation can help to protect against morbidity and mortality. We argue that social participation deserves much greater attention as a protective factor, and that older people can play a useful role in the prevention and management of chronic conditions. We present, as an example, a low-cost, sustainable strategy that has increased social participation among elders in Sri Lanka. Discussion Current international policy initiatives to address the increasing prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases are focused on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and cancers, responsible for much premature mortality. Interventions to modify their shared risk factors of high salt and fat diets, inactivity, smoking and alcohol use are advocated. But older people also suffer chronic conditions that primarily affect quality of life, and have a wider range of risk factors. There is strong epidemiological and physiological evidence that social isolation, in particular, is as important a risk factor for chronic diseases as the 'lifestyle' risk factors, yet it is currently neglected. There are useful experiences of inexpensive and sustainable strategies to improve social participation among older people in low and lower middle income countries. Our experience with forming Elders' Clubs with retired tea estate workers in Sri Lanka suggests many benefits, including social support and participation, inter-generational contact, a collective voice, and facilitated access to health promotion activities, and to health care and social welfare services. Summary Policies to
Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae
[Purpose] This study investigated the status of women's sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women's health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women's sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea's P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband's health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband's healths and sexual knowledge explained women's sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women's sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women's sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups' sexual function.
Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G
The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds. PMID:24315325
Muhihi, Alfa; Njelekela, Marina; Mpembeni, Rose; Masesa, Zablon; KITAMORI, KAZUYA; Mori, Mari; Kato, Norihiro; Mtabaji, Jacob; Yamori, Yukio
Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and middle aged men in a fast growing city of Mwanza in Tanzania. Methods Physical activity was assessed among 97 healthy men aged 20–50years using Sub-Saharan Africa Activity Quest...
Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.
The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…
Groot, J. de; Verzijl, N.; Wenting-Wijk, M.J.G. van; Jacobs, K.M.G.; El, B. van; Roermund, P.M. van; Bank, R.A.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.
Objective. Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent and disabling chronic conditions affecting the elderly. Its etiology is largely unknown, but age is the most prominent risk factor. The current study was designed to test whether accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which
Kraan, P.M. van der
BACKGROUND: Age is the most important risk factor for primary osteoarthritis (OA). Members of the TGF-beta superfamily play a crucial role in chondrocyte differentiation and maintenance of healthy articular cartilage. OBJECTIVE: We have investigated whether age-related changes in TGF-beta superfamil
Mohammad Hasan Alemzadeh Ansari
Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is considered as one of the common diseases in children andin some cases is associated with high morbidity and long term complications. Identification ofpredisposing factors timely is effective in reducing the incidence of UTI.Aim & Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the predisposing factors in children withsymptomatic urinary tract infection according to gender.Methods: In a randomized prospective study, 130 children with symptomatic UTI that were admitted toemergency department or referred to nephrology clinic of Abuzar Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran between October2008 and August 2010 were reviewed. The inclusion criteria were all children more than one month thathad clinical symptoms of UTI and positive urine culture. Complete blood cell, blood biochemical tests,urine analysis, and renal ultrasonogram were done in all patients. Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG wasperformed in all patients younger than 5 years with a UTI, any child with a febrile UTI, school-aged girlswho have had two or more UTIs, and any boy with a UTI. Predisposing factors as a case sheet were askedfrom parents by the physician. They were included back-to-front wiping, washing with soap, usingbathtub, constipation, infrequent voiding, urinary reflux, uncircumcision in boy, labia adhesion, tightunderwear, pinworm infestation, history of urinary stones, and history of sondage. The exclusion criterionwas included children that their case sheet had not been filled completely. The SPSS version 15.0software was used for data analysis and differences in predisposing factors between boy and girl wereanalyzed using the chi-square test. The significant differences between groups were determined at level<0.05. This study was approved by ethics committee of Ahvaz Joundishapur University of MedicalScience.Results: UTI was found in a significantly higher proportion of girls (106 girls vs. 24 boys, P <0.001. Themean age of patients was 23.91±27
Beverley G. Hope
Full Text Available There has been a proliferation of online newspapers over recent years. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, factors affecting the quality of online newspapers remain only partially understood. Based on a two-factor model of hygiene and motivator factors, this paper examines quality for online newspapers giving attention to differences across culture, sex, and age. Hygiene factors are essential requirements whose absence causes dissatisfaction, while motivators are desirable elements that add value and increase user satisfaction. The paper presents findings from an empirical study of eighty-four Web users. Results show that hygiene factors for our respondents were: Timeliness, Content attractiveness, Content coverage, Usefulness, and Navigation, while motivators were: Writing style, Layout, Archives, Services, Interactivity, and Multimedia presentation. Four factors were borderline: Journalism ethics, Ease of use, Front page and headlines, and Locating information. However, the research reveals some differences in classification of factors across culture, sex, and age.
LaVigne, E K; Jones, A K; Londoño, A Sanchez; Schauer, A S; Patterson, D F; Nadeau, J A; Reed, S A
Success as equine athletes requires proper muscle growth in young horses. Muscle hypertrophy occurs through protein synthesis and the contribution of muscle satellite cells, which can be stimulated or inhibited by cytokines and growth factors present during exercise and growth. The hypotheses of this study were that 1) the LM area in young horses would increase over 1 yr, and 2) specific cytokines and growth factors (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IGF-I, and fibroblast growth factor [FGF]-2) would alter proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells isolated from young horses. Fourteen horses were divided into 3 age groups: weanlings ( = 5), yearlings to 2 yr olds ( = 4), and 3 to 4 yr olds ( = 5). The area, height, and subcutaneous fat depth of the LM were measured using ultrasonography, and BW and BCS were taken in October (Fall1), April (Spring), and October of the following year (Fall2). Satellite cells obtained from 10-d-old foals ( = 4) were cultured in the presence of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IGF-I, or FGF-2 before evaluation of proliferation and differentiation. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS. Body weight increased from Fall1 to Spring in weanlings ( 0.61). There was a significant increase in LM area in all animals from Spring to Fall2 ( growth occurring in summer. By stimulating or inhibiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IGF-I, and FGF-2 may alter muscle growth in young horses, thereby impacting athletic potential.
Hipkiss, Alan R
Aging is a Parkinson's disease (PD) risk factor. It is suggested here that certain dietary components may either contribute to or ameliorate PD risk. There is evidence, which indicates that excessive carbohydrate (glucose or fructose) catabolism is a cause of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD, one consequence is increased production of methylglyoxal (MG). However, other dietary components (carnosine and certain plant extracts) not only scavenge MG but can also influence some of the biochemical events (signal transduction, stress protein synthesis, glycation, and toxin generation) associated with PD pathology. As double blind, placebo-controlled carnosine supplementation studies have revealed beneficial outcomes in humans, it is suggested that MG scavengers such as carnosine be further explored for their therapeutic potential toward PD. PMID:24388766
This study investigated the prevalence of bullying at schools in the Greater Beirut Area and the extent to which differences in children's sociodemographics, family and school environment, and coping strategies could account for variation in academic achievement, PTSD and emotional and behavioral disorders. Participants were 665 male and female children of mean age 13.8 years. Results indicated that a high proportion of children had been involved in bullying on a regular basis with victims having a higher prevalence ratio than bullies and bully/victims. Verbal bullying including spreading rumors was the most common type of victimization, followed by being rejected from a group. Being bullied about one's religion or sect comprised one of the most common bullying behaviors in schools. Students rarely tried to stop a student from being bullied and teachers were reported to have done relatively little or nothing to counteract bullying. Prevalence of bullying was more among boys than girls. School bullying was not associated with academic achievement or with having difficulties in reading and math. Children who were identified as bully/victim, victim, and bully suffered from PTSD compared to those who were not identified as being involved in bullying The study showed that both bullies and victims are at-risk for short term and long-term adjustment difficulties including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. Child's gender and emotion-focused coping stood out as risk factors for the development of bullying behaviors whereas age, problem-focused coping, family environment, and school environment were significant protective factors. PMID:25267164
Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel
In the present study, we tried to determine the association between joint ranges of motion, anatomical anomalies, body structure, dance discipline, and injuries in young female recreational dancers. A group of 1336 non-professional female dancers (age 8-16 years), were screened. The risk factors considered for injuries were: range of motion, body structure, anatomical anomalies, dance technique, and dance discipline. Sixty-one different types of injuries and symptoms were identified and later classified into four major categories: knee injuries, foot or ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and non-categorized injuries. We found that 569 (42.6%) out of the 1336 screened dancers, were injured.The following factors were found to be associated with injuries (P ankle tendinopathies than dancers with hypo range of motion; (b) anatomical anomalies (scoliotic dancers manifested a higher rate of injuries than non-scoliotic dancers); (c) dance technique (dancers with incorrect technique of rolling-in were found to have more injuries than dancers with correct technique); (d) dance discipline (an association between time of practice en pointe and injury was observed); and (e) early age of onset of menarche decreased risk for an injury. No association between body structure and injury was found. Injuries among recreational dancers should not be overlooked, and therefore precautionary steps should be taken to reduce the risk of injury, such as screening for joint range of motion and anatomical anomalies. Certain dance positions (e.g. en pointe) should be practised only when the dancer has already acquired certain physical skills, and these practices should be time controlled. PMID:22288886
Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the risk of delivering large-for gestational age (LGA fetuses associated with maternal obesity, excessive maternal weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM- in Indian mothers. Design: Retrospective study. Settings: Fernandez Hospital Private Limited, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; a tertiary perinatal centre. Populations: Pregnant singleton mothers with correct pregnancy dating. Methods: Estimated fetal weight (EFW is determined using ultrasound variables [Biparietal diameter (BPD, Head Circumference (HC, Abdominal Circumference (AC, Femur Length (FL]. This EFW is plotted on SONOCARE software [Medialogic solutions (P Ltd, Chennai, India] to determine the type of antenatal fetal growth and a total of 192 LGA fetuses are selected. At birth newborn growth pattern are determined according to birth weight at the gestational age of delivery which divide the cohort into two groups: true LGA fetuses after delivery and true AGA fetuses after delivery. Main outcome measures: The association of maternal risk factors (body mass index, maternal weight gain and gestational diabetes mellitus to the newborns between these two groups is evaluated. Results: Among the risk factors obesity and excess maternal weight gain among non-obese has highest risks for delivering LGA fetuses (relative risk 1.89 and 1.88; respectively; followed by excess maternal weight gain among obese (relative risk 1.5 and gestational diabetes mellitus (relative risk 1.4. Conclusions: Obesity, excessive maternal weight gain, and GDM all are associated with LGA. Decreasing the prevalence of obesity also reduce the prevalence of LGA fetuses apart from controlling excess maternal weight gain.
This study investigated the prevalence of bullying at schools in the Greater Beirut Area and the extent to which differences in children's sociodemographics, family and school environment, and coping strategies could account for variation in academic achievement, PTSD and emotional and behavioral disorders. Participants were 665 male and female children of mean age 13.8 years. Results indicated that a high proportion of children had been involved in bullying on a regular basis with victims having a higher prevalence ratio than bullies and bully/victims. Verbal bullying including spreading rumors was the most common type of victimization, followed by being rejected from a group. Being bullied about one's religion or sect comprised one of the most common bullying behaviors in schools. Students rarely tried to stop a student from being bullied and teachers were reported to have done relatively little or nothing to counteract bullying. Prevalence of bullying was more among boys than girls. School bullying was not associated with academic achievement or with having difficulties in reading and math. Children who were identified as bully/victim, victim, and bully suffered from PTSD compared to those who were not identified as being involved in bullying The study showed that both bullies and victims are at-risk for short term and long-term adjustment difficulties including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. Child's gender and emotion-focused coping stood out as risk factors for the development of bullying behaviors whereas age, problem-focused coping, family environment, and school environment were significant protective factors.
Beloglazova Elena Vladimirovna
Full Text Available In the present paper the author attempts to establish the connection between the discursive structure of a work of fiction and the addressee age factor. At that the point of departure for the argument is (a the thesis on discursive heterogeneity being a feature of fiction in general, which is a direct consequence of literature of literature being aimed at reflecting the world in its entirety and complexity, and (b the assumption that the above-said is applicable to children's fiction, though discursive heterogeneity undergoes a certain transformation due to the specific nature and role of literature for children. The category of addressee in the cornerstone of children's fiction predetermining: on the surface level – the selection of organization of language means in the text; on the contents level – the selection of story and characters; on the ideology level – the configuration of the polydiscourse of the children's fiction, as well as the selection of discourses' representatives. The peculiarity of children's fiction is primarily due to the ideology underlying it - what the society demands from the right book for kids, which is viewed as a socializing tool. And in order to be efficient, the tool needs to be tailored for its object, its exact parameters, age being one of them. Thus the complexity of the discursive structure of literary works for children appears to be directly related to the age of their ideal reader, which is shown in the article by comparative analysis of works addressed to floor and ceiling audiences of the childhood span. The analysis reveals the fact that older readership leads not only to a greater complexity of a literary work's discursive structure, but also to a wider variety in the ways of introducing interdiscursemes into text.
M Keith Wyatt
Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a major cause of vision loss. It is associated with development of characteristic plaque-like deposits (soft drusen in Bruch's membrane basal to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. A sequence variant (Y402H in short consensus repeat domain 7 (SCR7 of complement factor H (CFH is associated with risk for "dry" AMD. We asked whether the eye-targeting of this disease might be related to specific interactions of CFH SCR7 with proteins expressed in the aging human RPE/choroid that could contribute to protein deposition in drusen. Yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H screens of a retinal pigment epithelium/choroid library derived from aged donors using CFH SCR7 baits detected an interaction with EFEMP1/Fibulin 3 (Fib3, which is the locus for an inherited macular degeneration and also accumulates basal to macular RPE in AMD. The CFH/Fib3 interaction was validated by co-immunoprecipitation of native proteins. Quantitative Y2H and ELISA assays with different recombinant protein constructs both demonstrated higher affinity for Fib3 for the disease-related CFH 402H variant. Immuno-labeling revealed colocalization of CFH and Fib3 in globular deposits within cholesterol-rich domains in soft drusen in two AMD donors homozygous for CFH 402H (H/H. This pattern of labeling was quite distinct from those seen in examples of eyes with Y/Y and H/Y genotypes. The CFH 402H/Fib3 interaction could contribute to the development of pathological aggregates in soft drusen in some patients and as such might provide a target for therapeutic intervention in some forms of AMD.
Krieger José E
Full Text Available Abstract Background In family studies, it is important to evaluate the impact of genes and environmental factors on traits of interest. In particular, the relative influences of both genes and the environment may vary in different strata of the population of interest, such as young and old individuals, or males and females. Methods In this paper, extensions of the variance components model are used to evaluate heterogeneity in the genetic and environmental variance components due to the effects of sex and age (the cutoff between young and old was 43 yrs. The data analyzed were from 81 Brazilian families (1,675 individuals of the Baependi Family Heart Study. Results The models allowing for heterogeneity of variance components by sex suggest that genetic and environmental variances are not different in males and females for diastolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol, independent of the covariates included in the models. However, for systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and triglycerides, the evidence for heterogeneity was dependent on the covariates in the model. For instance, in the presence of sex and age covariates, heterogeneity in the genetic variance component was suggested for fasting glucose. But, for systolic blood pressure, there was no evidence of heterogeneity in any of the two variance components. Except for the LDL-cholesterol, models allowing for heterogeneity by age provide evidence of heterogeneity in genetic variance for triglycerides and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. There was evidence of heterogeneity in environmental variance in fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol. Conclusions Our results suggest that heterogeneity in trait variances should not be ignored in the design and analyses of gene-finding studies involving these traits, as it may generate additional information about gene effects, and allow the investigation of more sophisticated models such as the model including sex
Perneger Thomas V
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.
Huan WANG; Yun CHEN; Wei CHEN; Ai ZHAO; Yu-mei ZHANG; Zhi-shen MU
Objective To identify the dietary patterns in urban school-aged children in China and determine the relations with socio-demographic or lifestyle factors.MethodsA total of 620 school-aged children from 7 cities in China were recruited in a cross-sectional study and their dietary data over the preceding 6 months were recorded via questionnaire between 2011-2012. The dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Walis H test was preformed to reveal the relationship between dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified. The traditional pattern had high positive relationships with grains, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, vegetables and soybeans/soybean products. The high-protein pattern was characterized by large positive coefficient for fruits, fish/shrimps, eggs, milk/milk products, soybeans/soybean products and salt. The oil/fat and beverage pattern with highly related with grains, meat/poultry, eggs, oil/fat, salt and beverages. The relationships between the dietary patterns and various socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics were analyzed.Conclusion Three dietary patterns were identified. A clear association was found between the dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics.
Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of severe visual loss and blindness over the age of 50 in developed countries. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is considered as a critical molecule in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization (CNV, which characterizes the neovascular AMD. Anti-VEGF agents are considered the most promising way of effectively inhibition of the neovascular AMD process. VEGF is a heparin-binding glycoprotein with potent angiogenic, mitogenic and vascular permeability-enhancing activities specific for endothelial cells. Two anti-VEGF agents have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of neovascular AMD. Pegaptanib sodium, which is an aptamer and ranibizumab, which is a monoclonal antibody fragment. Another humanized monoclonal antibody is currently off-label used, bevacizumab. This paper aims to discuss in details the effectiveness, the efficacy and safety of these three anti-VEGF agents. New anti-VEGF compounds which are recently investigated for their clinical usage (VEGF-trap, small interfering RNA are also discussed for their promising outcomes.
Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon
Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed.
Glintborg, D; Mumm, H; Ravn, P;
Clinical manifestations and metabolic risk factors may differ according to age in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Therefore, a retrospective trans-sectional study in academic tertiary-care medical center was designed. A cohort of 446 premenopausal, Caucasian women (age range 15......-49 years) with PCOS were divided into 4 subgroups according to age: group 1 (15-19 years, n=42), group 2 (20-29 years, n=180), group 3 (30-39 years, n=187), group 4 (40-49 years, n=37) and underwent clinical evaluation (Ferriman-Gallwey score, BMI, waist, blood pressure), hormone analyses (sex hormones......, fasting lipids, insulin, glucose), transvaginal ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) (n=234), and ACTH tests (n=201). BMI, waist, Ferriman-Gallwey score, blood pressure, and lipid profile were higher in older vs. younger age groups whereas androgen levels were lower. Measures of insulin...
Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased con-tinuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Ca-loric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.
Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu
We conducted a study to assess the factors that affect language development in infants and toddlers using data obtained during developmental screening. Our study group consisted of 505 children-244 (48.3%) boys and 261 (51.7%) girls, aged 5 to 27 months. The children were divided into four age groups: group 1, which we designated as the "6 months" group (age range: 5 to 7 mo); group 2, designated as the "12 months" group (11 to 13 mo); group 3, designated as the "18 months" group (17 to 19 mo); and group 4, designated as the "24 months" group (23 to 27 mo). In addition to demographic data, we compiled data using the Denver II Developmental Screening Test, as well as neurologic examination findings and medical histories. At 6 months, the social item "Works for toy out of reach" was positively related to all language development items. Two gross motor development items-"Pull to sit, no head lag" and "Lifts chest with arm support"-were related to the "Turns to sound" and "Turns to voice" items, respectively. Overall, children whose mothers had higher education levels and who were living in higher socioeconomic areas showed significantly greater language development, as did boys, specifically. At 12 months, higher maternal ages, some gross motor development items, and some social items were related to better language development, and children living in higher socioeconomic areas had a significantly increased ability to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item. At 18 months, the ability of girls to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item increased, and children who passed the "4 words other than mama/dada" item did not pass the "Throws ball" gross motor item. At 24 months, children whose mothers were older had better "Combines 2 words" and "Speech half intelligible" items, girls had better "Comprehends prepositions (such as under/above)" skills, and boys had better "Shows 4 parts of doll" skills. We conclude that language items appear to change together with
Full Text Available Introduction:The high frequency of cases of circulatory system conditions in Europe and other countries around the world requires scientific research to define risk factors of early atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the present study was to define which students are at danger of developing atherosclerosis by means of measuring cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood as well as defining the correlation between atherosclerosis risk factors and arterial blood pressure, physical fitness and efficiency of the subjects.Material/Methods:The research covered 167 students of Public Junior High School ¹1 in Biala Podlaska aged 13–15 years. Accutrend GCT was employed to define the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the screen test. Those students who were found to have increased values of biochemical parameters of capillary blood were subjected to additional blood tests aiming to define complete lipid profile of venous blood. The blood pressure in subjects was tested three times. The Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA test, suggested by American authors, was employed to define physical activity in subjects. EUROFIT was employed to define physical efficiency.Results:Among the 167 subjects there were found 42 students (25.1�20whose lipid level in capillary blood proved to be increased. Full lipid profile tests proved that 16 students (9.6�20had increased blood lipid levels; those subjects constituted the risk group. Subjects in the risk group were characterized by lower levels of physical activity and physical efficiency compared to subjects with normal blood lipid level. Moreover, the frequency of hypertension was greater in risk group subjects compared to subjects with normal blood lipid levels.Inferences:Students diagnosed with atherosclerosis risk factors require observation and early prophylactics by adopting habits of healthy physical activity.
Hallgren, Jenny; Fransson, Eleonor I; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Reynolds, Chandra A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl Aslan, Anna K
The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe and compare individual characteristics of hospitalized and not hospitalized community living persons, and (2) to determine factors that are associated with hospitalization risk over time. We conducted a prospective study with a multifactorial approach based on the population-based longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). A total of 772 Swedes (mean age at baseline 69.7 years, range 46-103, 59.8% females) answered a postal questionnaire about physical and psychological health, personality and socioeconomic factors. During nine years of follow-up, information on hospitalizations and associated diagnoses were obtained from national registers. Results show that 484 persons (63%) had at least one hospital admission during the follow-up period. The most common causes of admission were cardiovascular diseases (25%) and tumors (22%). Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age, sex and dependency within twin pairs, showed that higher age (HR=1.02, pHR=1.09, p=0.028) were associated with increased risk of hospitalization, while marital status (unmarried (HR=0.75, p=0.033) and widow/widower (HR=0.69, pHR=0.93, p=0.029) were associated with lower risk of hospitalization. Social factors were important for hospitalization risk even when medical factors were controlled for in the analyses. Number of diseases was not a risk in the final regression model. Hospitalization risk was also different for women and men and within different age groups. We believe that these results might be used in future interventions targeting health care utilization. PMID:27281475
Tonning Olsson, Ingrid; Perrin, Sean; Lundgren, Johan; Hjorth, Lars; Johanson, Aki
BACKGROUND: Young age at diagnosis and treatment with cranial radiation therapy are well studied risk factors for cognitive impairment in pediatric brain tumor survivors. Other risk factors are hydrocephalus, surgery complications, and treatment with intrathecal chemotherapy. Female gender vulnerability to cognitive sequelae after cancer treatment has been evident in some studies, but no earlier studies have related this to tumor size. The purpose of our study was to find factors correlate...
Background. A recent cross-national study reported that suicide rates increased, decreased or remained unchanged with increasing age in individual countries. The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and child mortality rates, life expectancy and socio-economic factors was examined. Methods. Countries with an increase, decrease and no change in suicide rates with increasing age were ascertained from an earlier study (Shah, 2007a, International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 1141), which analysed data from the World Health Organisation (WHO). The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and (i) child mortality rates, (ii) life expectancy and (iii) markers of socio-economic status (per capita gross national domestic product (GDP) and the Gini coeffcient) was examined using data from the WHO and the United Nations. Results. The main findings were: (i) child mortality rates were significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; (ii) life expectancy was significantly higher in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; and (iii) the Gini coefficient was significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change or a decline in suicide rates with increasing age in females. Conclusions. Potential explanations for these findings and the interaction of life expectancy and socio-economic factors with other factors that differentially influence suicide rates in different age and sex groups requires further examination.
The incidence of breast cancer in young women (age < 35) is low. The biology of the disease in this age group is poorly understood, and there are conflicting data regarding the prognosis for these women compared to older patients. We retrospectively analyzed 2040 consecutive primary invasive breast cancer patients who underwent surgical procedures at our institution between 1990 and 1999. The younger age group was defined as patients aged <35 years at the time of diagnosis. The clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between younger and older age groups. A total of 256 (12.5%) patients were aged <35. There was a significantly higher incidence of nuclear grade 3 and medullary histological-type tumors in younger patients compared to older patients. Axillary lymph node status, T stage, histological grade, c-erbB2 expression and estrogen receptor status did not differ significantly between the two age groups. Younger patients had a greater probability of recurrence and death at all time periods. Although there was no significant difference in disease-free survival between the two age groups in lymph node-negative patients, the younger group showed worse prognosis among lymph node-positive patients (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, young age remained a significant predictor of recurrence (p = 0.010). Young age (<35) is an independent risk factor for relapse in operable breast cancer patients
Full Text Available Objectives: Regional studies of diabetes mellitus (DM are important to determine of effective environmental factors in the development of DM and defining strategy against these factors. This study aims to define the frequency of DM prevalence in the province of the Van city, distribution of DM according to age groups, effective socio-economical, geographical and metabolic factors over the diabetes development.Material and methods: This study included 191 male and 209 female totals 400 person aged year 16 years or over. Blood-Glucose levels of persons were measured with Accu-check glucometer and questionnaires were filled with face-to-face interviews.Results: Age mean of subjects was 35.09±13.75 years, DM prevalence was %13.4 between the females and %9.1 males, disglisemi (DG prevalence were %9.1 between the females and %5.8 between the males. 74.4% of impaired glucose metabolism persons were people who they do not make physical exercise and adopted sedentary lifestyle.Conclusion: In this study, age and family history from unchangeable factors were found to be effective on the development of DM but sex, educational level, social security, incomes were not found to be effective on development of DM. Exercise, blood pressure levels, obesity and diets from changeable factors are the factors that influence the frequency of DM was determined in this study. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 392-399
Full Text Available Background Age, one of the key biomarkers among the nonclinical parameters of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, has the greatest effect on the development and progression of CVDs. Objectives The current study was done to evaluate the effect of age on cardiac rehabilitation (CR patients’ attitudes regarding the main cause of their condition. Patients and Methods The administrative data of this cross-sectional study were obtained from the database of the CR department of a hospital in Iran. The demographic and clinical information of 901 patients was obtained from January 2004 and January 2012 using compiled forms of this database and the structured clinical interview for Axis I Disorders (SCID-I. Univariate analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc analysis were used for the data analysis. Results After adjusting for gender, it was revealed that significant age differences existed between patients who perceived no specific risk factors (62.43 years and those who viewed biological (55.0, physiological (57.31, behavioral (57.85, and psychological (57.25 risk factors as the main cause of their condition (P < 0.05. The age differences between those who had no perceived risk factors (62.43 was significantly different from patients perceiving biological (55.0 and environmental (62.03 factors to be the main cause (P < 0.05. Conclusions Although older patients need more self-care and the quality of this self-care originates from their attitude toward CVD risk factors, their lack of awareness about the main risk factor of their condition is a major challenge for secondary prevention measures. In addition, younger patients’ significant emphasis on biological risk factors as uncorrectable factors can reduce their sense of responsibility toward attempting to control correctable risk factors. Correcting these patients’ attitudes regarding CVD risk factors can result in better responsibility feeling by the patients and can improve treatment outcomes.
Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H
Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152
Full Text Available Summary Factor V Leiden (FVL mutation has been shown tendency to thrombosis. Lipoprotein a (Lpa is thought to be proatherogenic and prothrombotic. There are several publications that were reported that FVL mutation might be responsible for myocardial infarction especially in a young age group. 33 year old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with chest pain. Acute anterior myocardial infarction was diagnosed with electrocardiography. Coronary Angiography was performed. Coronary Angiography showed that there was a total occlusion in the proximal part of the left anterior descending artery (LAD. Other coronary arteries were normal. Complete patency was achieved with direct stent procedures in the completely occluded part of the left anterior descending coronary artery. FVL heterozygous mutation was found with polymerase chain reaction method. Elevated Lpa was found in the same period. A control angiography was done 2 months after the stent application because of recurrent anginal attacks. In the control angiography, it was observed that stent was open. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 525-527
Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kennedy, Christine; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Kools, Susan
A cross-sectional study design was used to examine factors that contribute to high relative weight in children in Taiwan. A total sample of 331 Chinese children (ages 7 and 8) and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, family functioning, parenting styles, physical activity, and dietary intake. Children completed physical fitness tests and questionnaires regarding physical activity, dietary intake, coping strategies, and self-esteem. The weight-for-length index was used to measure children's relative weight. The findings revealed that four variables contributed to higher weight-for-length index in boys compared with girls and explained 37.7% of the variance: high maternal body mass index, poor aerobic capacity, healthy family role functioning, and poor family affective responsiveness. Two variables were found to contribute to higher weight-for-length index in girls and explained 12.8% of the variance: high household income and high maternal body mass index. Taken together, the results indicate the importance of assessment of children's weight status, maternal weight status, and family functioning as part of routine child health care and the need for developmentally appropriate and gender-specific approaches to prevent childhood obesity.
Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kennedy, Christine; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Kools, Susan
A cross-sectional study design was used to examine factors that contribute to high relative weight in children in Taiwan. A total sample of 331 Chinese children (ages 7 and 8) and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, family functioning, parenting styles, physical activity, and dietary intake. Children completed physical fitness tests and questionnaires regarding physical activity, dietary intake, coping strategies, and self-esteem. The weight-for-length index was used to measure children's relative weight. The findings revealed that four variables contributed to higher weight-for-length index in boys compared with girls and explained 37.7% of the variance: high maternal body mass index, poor aerobic capacity, healthy family role functioning, and poor family affective responsiveness. Two variables were found to contribute to higher weight-for-length index in girls and explained 12.8% of the variance: high household income and high maternal body mass index. Taken together, the results indicate the importance of assessment of children's weight status, maternal weight status, and family functioning as part of routine child health care and the need for developmentally appropriate and gender-specific approaches to prevent childhood obesity. PMID:16030409
Yunus; Bulgu; Gokhan; Ozan; Cetin; Vildan; Caner; Ebru; Nevin; Cetin; Volkan; Yaylali; Cem; Yildirim
AIM:To assess the association between age-related macular degeneration(AMD) and three single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPS) related to the vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) gene.METHODS:The patients who were diagnosed with AMD were included in this prospective study. Three SNPs(rs1413711, rs2146323, and rs3025033) of the VEGF gene were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction in the genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood samples of the 82 patients and 80 controls.RESULTS:The genotype frequencies of rs1413711 and rs2146323 were not significantly different between the study group and the control group(P =0.072 and P =0.058).However, there was a significant difference in the genotype frequencies of these SNPs between the wet type AMD and dry type AMD(P =0.005 and P =0.010,respectively). One of the SNPs(rs1413711) was also found to be associated with the severity of AMD(P =0.001)with significant genotype distribution between early,intermediate, and advanced stages of the disease. The ancestral alleles were protective for both SNPs while the polymorphic alleles increased the risk for dry AMD.CONCLUSION:VEGF SNPs rs1413711 and rs2146323 polymorphisms are significantly associated with AMD subtypes in our population.
Daniel A Sternberg
Full Text Available Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity’s collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance.
Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Gizi kurang dengan berbagai penyebab merupakan penyebab utama angka kesakitan dan kematian di antara anak-anak di negara berkembang. Studi ini meneliti beberapa faktor risiko terhadap gizi kurang pada anak berumur 24-59 bulan di Provinsi Jambi. Metode:Analisis menggunakan sebagian data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2007 di Provinsi Jambi di antara anak berumur 24-59 bulan. Status gizi kurang dihitung menggunakan software WHO Anthro 2009 dengan batas nilai Z < –2 SD. Status gizi ibu dinilai dengan indeks massa tubuh berdasarkan WHO. Tingkat sosial ekonomi berdasarkan median pendapatan per kapita. Regresi Cox digunakan untuk menganalisis faktor determinan status gizi kurang. Hasil:Proporsi anak dengan gizi kurang sebesar 26,9% (206/766. Dibandingkan ibu dengan status gizi normal, ibu yang kurus berisiko 20% lebih memiliki anak berat badan kurang [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 1,20; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 0,88-1,65; P = 0,250]. Namun, ibu dengan kelebihan berat badan memiliki risiko 46% lebih rendah untuk memiliki anak kurang berat badan (RRa = 0,54; P = 0,003. Pekerjaan ayah dan status sosial ekonomi keluarga, ayah yang tidak mempunyai pekerjaan atau memiliki status sosial ekonomi keluarga yang rendah masing-masing berisiko 37% dan 42% lebih besar memiliki anak kurang berat badan. Anak-anak yang memiliki sumber air yang buruk memiliki risiko 22% lebih tinggi untuk kurang berat badan. Kesimpulan:Ibu dengan status gizi kurang mempunyai risiko yang lebih besar memiliki anak gizi kurang. Sebaliknya, ibu kelebihan berat badan memiliki risiko yang lebih rendah untuk memiliki anak gizi kurang. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:78-82Kata kunci:gizi kurang, balita, status gizi, malnutrisiAbstractBackground: Malnutrition with various causes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. This study examined several risk factors related to underweight among children aged 24-59 months in
Gitanjali M Singh
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP, serum total cholesterol (TC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and body mass index (BMI on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. METHODS: We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD, hypertensive heart disease (HHD, stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. RESULTS: Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55-64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09-2.24, followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39-1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57-1.69 for ischemic stroke. In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29-1.61 for IHD and 1.20 (1.15-1.25 for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m(2 higher BMI for ages 55-64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04-2.63 for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40-1.48 for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08-1.29 for IHD and 1.14 (1.01-1.29 for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. CONCLUSION: Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group.
Full Text Available Background. Evidences are accumulating that age and gender have great impact on the distribution of stroke risk factors. Such data are lacking in Chinese population. Methods. 1027 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke (IS were recruited and divided into young adult (80 years groups according to stroke onset ages. Vascular risk factors were collected and compared among groups. Results. Female patients were globally older than male patients at stroke onset and having higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, heart diseases, and atrial fibrillation (AF. However, females were less likely to drink heavily or smoke than males. Young patients had a much higher proportion of smoking and drinking than middle-aged and very old patients and the highest family history of hypertension, while very old patients had the highest prevalence of heart diseases and AF but lowest proportion of positive family history of vascular diseases. Hypertension and DM were equally frequent among three groups. Conclusion. Our study showed that vascular risk factors had a specific age and gender distribution pattern in Chinese IS patients. Secondary prevention strategy should emphasize on the control of different risk factors based on patient’s age and gender.
Hong, Rathavuth; Betancourt, Jose A; Ruiz-Beltran, Martin
Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p < 0.01). Severely undernourished children were at higher risk of anemia independent of passive smoking and other risk factors (OR= 5.29, p < 0.05). Children age 24–35 months, children born to mothers age 35–49, and children lived in households with a hygienic toilet facility were less likely to suffer from anemia. Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children. PMID:17425780
Full Text Available : Febrile seizures (FS occur in 2% to 5% of all children and are most common convulsive event in children younger than 60 month. Recurrence of FS ranges from 21–43% in different studies and are associated with various risk factors like age of onset of 1st episode of FS less than 1 year, duration and grade of fever, parental consanguinity, family history of FS and epilepsy, male gender and complex FS as initial seizure. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors and their association for recurrences of febrile seizures in children aged between 6 months to 5 years of age. MATERIALS & METHODS: The study design was prospective observational study in which 63 children (6 months to 5 years presenting with the first episode of FS to Dr. Punjabrao Deshmukh Medical College, Amravati between 1st November 2013 to 31st October 2014 were enrolled in the study. These subjects were followed up for a period of 1 year from the date of 1st episode of FS. RESULTS: In present study 46 out of 63 subjects had recurrence of FS. Male: female ratio in the recurrence group was 0.76:1. Family history of FS and epilepsy was present in 34.9% and 12.6% respectively. Total 67.34% subjects with simple FS and 92.85% with complex FS had recurrence. 69.69% subjects had FS within 24 hours of onset of fever. Parental consanguinity was found in 14 (22.2% subjects with p value of 0.013. No association between the number of risk factors and recurrence was found. 22 (34.9% out of total 63 subjects were on intermittent FS prophylaxis during the febrile illness and 15 subjects still had recurrence of FS and hence no significant association between recurrence of FS and intermittent prophylaxis for FS was seen. CONCLUSION: Parental consanguinity and age less than one year for 1st episode of FS were the only significant risk factors indentified for the recurrence of FS. Age of onset of 1st episode of FS less than 1 year, duration of fever, grade of
M.L.A. de Hoog; M. van Eijsden; K. Stronks; R.J.B.J. Gemke; T.G.M. Vrijkotte
Childhood overweight/obesity is a major public health problem worldwide which disproportionally affects specific ethnic groups. Little is known about whether such differences already exist at an early age and which factors contribute to these ethnic differences. Therefore, the present study assessed
Bentsen, Line; Christensen, Louisa; Christensen, Anders;
BACKGROUND: Older patients are associated with increased stroke prevalence, worse outcome, and risk of undertreatment in comparison with younger patients. The aim of the present study was to compare risk factor distribution and functional outcome in stroke survivors older and younger than 80 years...... age or older of whom the majority were women (P factors vary significantly...... with age, suggesting different stroke mechanisms. Patients older than 80 years experience more severe strokes and frequently have minor impairments before stroke. The increase in impairment after stroke is comparable with what is observed in younger patients, suggesting that good recovery after stroke may...
Zeinab Banaeipour; Shahnaz Rostami; Kourosh Zarea; Bahman Cheraghian
Background Anxiety is one of the most common childhood disorders, so it is necessary to explore extend and its related factors in the students. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anxiety and the related factors of anxiety among the children aged 9-12 years. Materials and Methods At a descriptive-analytic study 623 children aged 9-12 year- old who were studying in the fourth to sixth grade of elementary school in Dezful city, were selected through multistage random samplin...
Cheah, Irwin K; Feng, Lei; Tang, Richard M Y; Lim, Keith H C; Halliwell, Barry
Ergothioneine (ET), a naturally occurring thione, can accumulate in the human body at high concentrations from diet. Following absorption via a specific transporter, OCTN1, ET may accumulate preferentially in tissues predisposed to higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. Given its potential cytoprotective effects, we examined how ET levels change with age. We found that whole blood ET levels in elderly individuals decline significantly beyond 60 years of age. Additionally, a subset of these subjects with mild cognitive impairment had significantly lower plasma ET levels compared with age-matched subjects. This decline suggests that deficiency in ET may be a risk factor, predisposing individuals to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27444382
Ş. KALYONCUOĞLU, Figen; TIĞDEMİR, Mesut
Based on Turkish traffic survey data (n=5,520), driver accident rates per million kilometre-driver were compared according to the daily driven distances (DDD) for each age group as very old (65+, n=39), old (56-65, n=183), above middle-aged (36-55, n=1,875), middle-aged (26-35, n=2,204), and young (25-, n=1,219). When the accidents-per-km comparison was made in groups matched for daily exposure, there was no evidence of higher risk with increasing age. In all age groups, risk per km decreased...
Zhang, J; Fraser, S; Lindsay, J; Clarke, K; Mao, Y
This population-based study examines patterns of fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) by age group (16-24, 25-64, 65+) among Canadian drivers. The Canadian Traffic Accident Information Databank (TRAID) provided information about fata MVTCs between 1984 and 1993. Distribution of risk factors was compared by age group. Crude odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated for both young and elderly drivers compared with middle-aged drivers. The middle-age group was selected as reference population since it demonstrates the lowest risk of fatality. Compared to the middle-aged group, young drivers demonstrated excess risk for (1) risk-taking behaviours and conditions, specifically alcohol and illicit drug use, speeding, non use of seat belts, fatigue and falling asleep, and inexperience; (2) crashes during the summer, during weekends and at night; and (3) single-vehicle collisions and on performing overtaking manoeuvres. Excess risk among elderly drivers was noted for (1) medical and physical conditions, inattention and inexperience; (2) driver actions, for example, improper turning, failure to yield right-to-way; (3) occurrence on weekdays and during the day; and (4) collisions at intersection and vehicle--vehicle sideswipes. The results show notable differences in risk factors by age group and confirm the need for preventive efforts that incorporate age-specific strategies. PMID:9807923
Full Text Available Taking care of older adults is among the major challenges currently faced by ageing populations. Researchers, designers, and engineers have proposed socially assistive robots as one way of helping elderly people stay in their homes longer. In a systematic literature review, this paper wants to investigate if and how evaluations of the acceptance of socially assistive robots by older people take into account sociodemographic factors. The results indicate that this only holds true for a few studies. Research that incorporates age, gender, education, and so forth; clearly shows that these key factors have a significant impact. However, the relations are complex and experience with technology mitigates the influence of sociodemographic factors on acceptance. Assistive devices should be adaptable to individual needs to be able to consider all these factors.
Full Text Available The follow-up study was designed to assess and to compare the effects of sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment and family environment on internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample of 477 children and adolescents aged 3-18 (50% female. The level of problem behavior at Time 1 in all age groups was the best predictor of corresponding type of problem level at Time 2; the residual variance in problem behavior was also predicted by sensitivity to reinforcement. Family factors contributed for change in externalizing problems and hyperactivity in preschool and middle childhood children; living in the urban environment was significant factor for peer problem. The study showed that individual differences interact with the family factors in the process of development, and family environment could strengthen or mitigate the influence of biological factors on children and adolescents’ adjustment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal age is a known risk factor for stillbirth and delayed childbearing is a societal norm in developed country settings. The timing and reasons for age being a risk factor are less clear. This study aimed to document the gestational specific risk of maternal age throughout pregnancy and whether the underlying causes of stillbirth differ for older women. Methods Using linkage of state maternity and perinatal death data collections the authors assessed risk factors for antepartum stillbirth in New South Wales Australia for births between 2002 – 2006 (n = 327,690 using a Cox proportional hazards model. Gestational age specific risk was calculated for different maternal age groups. Deaths were classified according to the Perinatal Mortality Classifications of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand. Results Maternal age was a significant independent risk factor for antepartum stillbirth (35 – 39 years HR 1.4 95% CI 1.12 – 1.75; ≥ 40 years HR 2.41 95% CI 1.8 – 3.23. Other significant risk factors were smoking HR 1.82 (95% CI 1.56 –2.12 nulliparity HR 1.23 (95% CI 1.08 – 1.40, pre-existing hypertension HR 2.77 (95% CI 1.94 – 3.97 and pre-existing diabetes HR 2.65 (95% CI 1.63 – 4.32. For women aged 40 or over the risk of antepartum stillbirth beyond 40 weeks was 1 in 455 ongoing pregnancies compared with 1 in 1177 ongoing pregnancies for those under 40. This risk was increased in nulliparous women to 1 in 247 ongoing pregnancies. Unexplained stillbirths were the most common classification for all women, stillbirths classified as perinatal infection were more common in the women aged 40 or above. Conclusions Women aged 35 or older in a first pregnancy should be counselled regarding stillbirth risk at the end of pregnancy to assist with informed decision making regarding delivery. For women aged 40 or older in their first pregnancy it would be reasonable to offer induction of labour by 40 weeks
Guerra Henrique L.; Vidigall Pedro G.; Lima-Costa Maria Fernanda
The objective of this study was to identify biomedical factors (body mass index, blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and albumin) associated with hospitalization of older adults. All residents of the town of Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, ages superscript three 60 years (n = 1,742) were selected for the study, of whom 1,494 (85.2%) participated. None of the biomedical factors studied was independently associated with occurrence of 1 hospitalization duri...
Tesfaye Setegn; Yihunie Lakew; Kebede Deribe
Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. Method We used population based national representati...
Van Cauwenberg Jelle
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-ecological models emphasize the relationship between the physical environment and physical activity (PA. However, knowledge about this relationship in older adults is limited. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the relationship between area of residence (urban, semi-urban or rural and older adults' walking and cycling for transportation and recreation. Additionally, relationships between several physical environmental factors and walking and cycling and possible moderating effects of area of residence, age and gender were studied. Methods Data from 48,879 Flemish older adults collected in 2004-2010 through peer research were analyzed. Walking, cycling and environmental perceptions were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. The Study Service of the Flemish Government provided objective data on municipal characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied. Results Urban participants were more likely to walk daily for transportation compared to rural (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.22, 1.67 and semi-urban participants (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.13, 1.54. Urban participants were less likely to cycle daily for transportation compared to semi-urban participants (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.92. Area of residence was unrelated to weekly recreational walking/cycling. Perceived short distances to services (ORs ranging from 1.04 to 1.19 and satisfaction with public transport (ORs ranging from 1.07 to 1.13 were significantly positively related to all walking/cycling behaviors. Feelings of unsafety was negatively related to walking for transportation (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.91, 0.95 and recreational walking/cycling (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92, 0.97. In females, it was also negatively related to cycling for transportation (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90, 0.98. Conclusions Urban residents were more likely to walk for transportation daily compared to semi-urban and rural residents. Daily cycling for transportation
Full Text Available Rashidul Alam Mahumud,1 Md Golam Hossain,2 Abdur Razzaque Sarkar,1 Md Nurul Islam,2 Md Ripter Hossain,2 Aik Saw,3 Jahangir AM Khan1,4 1Health Economics and Financing Research Group, Center for Equity and Health Systems, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Statistics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National Orthopaedic Centre of Excellence for Research and Learning, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4Adjunct Faculty, Health Economics Unit, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Introduction: Contraceptive discontinuation is a worldwide incident that may be connected with low incentive to avoid pregnancy. Contraceptive discontinuation highly contributes to unplanned pregnancy and unwanted births.Objectives: The objective of this study was to observe the prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive methods among Bangladeshi married women. In addition, the sociodemographic factors associated with contraceptive discontinuation and switching were assessed.Methods: Secondary cross-sectional data was used in this study. A total of 16,273 married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age (15–49 years were considered in the present study, from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. Logistic regression models were used to determine the relationships between key sociodemographic factors and user status.Results: The prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive method among women were 38.4% and 15.4%, respectively. The logistic regression model demonstrated that women in early reproductive years (25–29 years and 30–34 years significantly more often (odds ratio [OR] =0.84 and 0.71, respectively discontinued use of contraceptives. Significantly higher rates of discontinuation were pronounced among women who
analyze several dominant riskfactors related to obesity in childbearing age women living in urban areas in Indonesia.Methods: This analysis used a part of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 data. The samples werederived from 258366 households. Riskesdas data on socio-demographic and other factors was collectedby questionnaire. Nutritional status was measured using body mass index (BMI. Cox regression withconstant time analysis was used for the analysis.Results: This analysis noted that there are 14357 (18.8% of women were obese and 62052 (81.2%normal. Compared with the respective reference groups, women aged 25-49 had a 3.5-fold greater riskof becoming obese [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 3.49; P = 0.000, and divorced or married had 2.5-foldhigher risk to be obese (RRa = 2.58; P= 0.000 and RRa = 2.62; P = 0.000, respectively. Furthermore,unemployed women had higher risk to be obese (RRa = 1.06; P = 0.000, and consuming excess proteinas well as often consume fatty foods made women had a higher risk of obesity (RRa = 1.09; P = 0.000 andRRa = 1.17; P = 0.000, respectively.Conclusion: Women aged 25-49, divorced or married, unemployed, consumed excess protein, and often consumefatty foods have a higher risk for becoming obese. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:63-8Key words: obesity, urban, women
AlJohara M. AlQuaiz
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68% women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80 g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL was present in 40% (390 women. Mean (±SD for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17 fL, 26.37 (±6.21 pg, 32.36 (±4.91 g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76 and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05 were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97 was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As increasing numbers of older people are listed for solid organ transplantation, there is an urgent need to better understand how aging modifies alloimmune responses. Here, we investigated whether aging impairs the ability of donor dendritic cells or recipient immunity to prime alloimmune responses to organ transplantation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using murine experimental models, we found that aging impaired the host environment to expand and activate antigen specific CD8(+ T cells. Additionally, aging impaired the ability of polyclonal T cells to induce acute allograft rejection. However, the alloimmune priming capability of donor dendritic cells was preserved with aging. CONCLUSION: Aging impairs recipient responses, both T cell intrinsic and extrinsic, in response to organ transplantation.
Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY
The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and me...
Full Text Available In this study we investigated the correlation between the basal skin hydration data, elasticity and surface roughness and the age of volunteers. Then, we analyzed the variations obtained at the end of the treatments with anti-age cosmetic products for the face. The aim was to investigate the susceptibility to improvement of volunteers from different age groups. Data were collected in our testing laboratory based in Milan over a 6-year long activity. We only considered measurements performed on the face of a female population aged between 18 and 70 years of age. Values were subdivided in age groups for each considered parameter and were statistically compared. As expected, skin roughness increased and R2 elasticity parameter decreased with ageing, while hydration values resulted to be higher in older women. Apparently, this unaccountable result is probably due to the fact that elderly women living in urban areas tend to take appropriate care of their skin, thus improving skin hydration effectively. Interestingly, as for skin hydration, the analysis showed that women aged 61–70 were the most susceptible to improvement induced by several types of cosmetic treatments. However, when considering the skin roughness values, women over 50 years old seemed to react better to cosmetic treatment. As for skin elasticity, the highest improvement values were found with women between 31 and 50 years of age.
Full Text Available Introduction: The Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire (AAQ was developed to measure attitudes toward the aging process as a personal experience from the perspective of older people. The present study aimed to validate the French version of the AAQ. Participants and methods: This study examined factor structure, acceptability, reliability and validity of the AAQ’s French version in 238 Belgian adults aged 60 years or older. In addition, participants provided information on demographics, self-perception of their mental and physical health (single items, quality of life (WHOQOL-OLD and social desirability (DS-36. Results: Exploratory Factor Analysis produced a three-factor solution accounting for 36.9% of the variance. No floor or ceiling effects were found. The internal consistency, measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the AAQ subscales were 0.62 (Physical Change, 0.74 (Psychological Growth, and 0.75 (Psychosocial Loss. A priori expected associations were found between AAQ subscales, self-reported health and quality of life, indicating good convergent validity. The scale also showed a good ability to discriminate between people with lower and higher education levels, supporting adequate known-groups validity. Finally, we confirmed the need to control for social desirability biases when assessing self-reported attitudes toward one’s own aging. Conclusion: The data support the usefulness of the French version of the AAQ for the assessment of attitudes toward their own aging in older people.
Oude Hengel, K.M.; Blatter, B.M.; Geuskens, G.A.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Bongers, P.M.
Objectives: The working population is aging and a shortage of workers is expected in the construction industry. As a consequence, it is considered necessary that construction workers extend their working life. The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with construction workers' abi
Walsh, Kate; Blaustein, Margaret; Knight, Wanda Grant; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel A.
Research has suggested that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be a risk factor for adulthood sexual assault. This study examined associations between CSA experiences, cognitive resiliency variables, and revictimization. Participants were 73 college-age females who completed self-report questionnaires assessing CSA, adult assault, self-efficacy,…
Dusseldorp, Elise; Kamphuis, Mascha; Schuller, Annemarie
ObjectivesTo study the impact of lifestyle factors on dental caries experiences in addition to the effect of demographic characteristics at the ages of 9, 15, and 21years. MethodsThe data were obtained from the study Oral health in children and adolescents in the Netherlands'. Data were collected th
Dusseldorp, E.; Kamphuis, M.; Schuller, A.
Objectives To study the impact of lifestyle factors on dental caries experiences in addition to the effect of demographic characteristics at the ages of 9, 15, and 21 years. Methods The data were obtained from the study ‘Oral health in children and adolescents in the Netherlands’. Data were collecte
Skogan, Annette Holth; Egeland, Jens; Zeiner, Pål; Øvergaard, Kristin Romvig; Oerbeck, Beate; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Aase, Heidi
The preschool period is an important developmental period for the emergence of cognitive self-regulatory skills or executive functions (EF). To date, evidence regarding the structure of EF in preschool children has supported both unitary and multicomponent models. The aim of the present study was to test the factor structure of early EF as measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool version (BRIEF-P). BRIEF-P consists of five subscales and three broader indexes, hypothesized to tap into different subcomponents of EF. Parent ratings of EF from a nonreferred sample of children recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (N = 1134; age range 37-47 months) were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). Three theoretically derived models were assessed; the second-order three-factor model originally proposed by the BRIEF-P authors, a "true" first-order one-factor model and a second-order one-factor model. CFA fit statistics supported the original three-factor solution. However, the difference in fit was marginal between this model and the second-order one-factor model. A follow-up exploratory factor analysis (EFA) supported the existence of several factors underlying EF in early preschool years, with a considerable overlap with the five BRIEF-P subscales. Our results suggest that some differentiation in EF has taken place at age 3 years, which is reflected in behavior ratings. The internal consistency of the BRIEF-P five clinical subscales is supported. Subscale interrelations may, however, differ at this age from those observed in the preschool group as a whole.
SHI Wen Hui; andSHI Xiao Ming; ZHANG Hong Yan; ZHANG Juan; LYU Yue Bin; Melanie Sereny Brasher; YIN Zhao Xue; LUO Jie Si; HU Dong Sheng; FEN Lei
ObjectiveThis study aims to assess the status of successful aging (SA) in longevity areas in Chinaand explore multiple factors associated with SA among the young-old and oldest-old. MethodsA total of 2296 elderly people aged 65 and older were interviewed in the longevity areas sub-sample of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) in 2012. Baseline assessments included a researcher-administered questionnaire, physical examination, and laboratory testing. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with SA. ResultsThe prevalenceof SA was 38.81% in the CLHLS in 2012. There were significant differences between ages groups, with SA compromising 56.85%among≥65 years group and 20.31% among ≥100 years group (χ2trend=126.73,P ConclusionPreventing central obesity, improving sleep quality and promoting healthy lifestyle may contribute to achieve SA among the elderly.
Tedin, Kent L.
This analysis tested for the effects of age vs social composition in explaining variation in four attitudinal dependent variables. Using a sample especially drawn to study generational differences, and employing a multivariate statistical model, it was found that age differences were only modestly reduced by social composition variables. (Author)
Roberts, Simon J.; Stott, Tim
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study relative age effects (RAEs) in a selected sample of university students. The majority of education systems across the globe adopt age-related cut-off points for eligibility. This strategy has received criticism for (dis)advantaging those older children born closer to the "cut-off" date for…
Check, J H; Lurie, D; Peymer, M; Katsoff, D; Long, R
The efficacy of intrauterine insemination (IUI) for male or cervical factor by age of female partner was determined in a retrospective analysis. Patients who underwent IUI therapy for cervical and/or male factor (n = 281) were classified by age at first IUI cycle: or =40 years (n = 49). The indication for IUI was cervical factor if a postcoital test failed to show sperm with good forward progression at time of mature follicle; male factor was diagnosed if the semen analysis demonstrated either low count, low motility, antisperm antibodies, or subnormal hypoosmotic swelling test. Intrauterine insemination was performed in either natural cycles or following ovarian stimulation for the treatment of anovulation or follicular maturation defects. Cumulative probability of ongoing pregnancy (viable at end of first trimester) following 3 cycles of IUI was evaluated. Cumulative probability of ongoing pregnancy following 3 cycles of IUI was 28.2% for the younger group and 0.0% for the older group. The age groups did not differ in terms of infertility history, use of ovarian stimulation, or baseline semen parameters. Thus, the treatment of male and/or cervical factor by IUI is ineffective for women > or =40 years. PMID:10864366
BACKGROUND: With the age growing, changes of behavioral problems in children whose parents had schizophrenia, differences of related factors and ways for particular intervention should be further studied.OBJECTIVE: To survey the behavioral problems in children of different aged patients with chizophrenia and investigate the correlation between behavioral problems and related factors in different aged groups.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SETTING: Shandong Mental Health Center.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 364 patients with schizophrenia were selected from eleven psychiatric hospitals from June 1999 to June 2000. There were 179 males and 185 females, and their ages ranged from 28 to 45 years. All patients met modified diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia (the second edition),China Classification of Mental Diseases and Diagnostic Criteria. Meanwhile, children of the 364 patients were grouped based on their ages, including 6 - 11 years old group [n =217; 114 males and 103 females;mean age of(9±2) years] and 12 - 16 years old group [n =147; 99 males and 48 females; mean age of(14±1) years]. The Chinese norms of Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List were regarded as the normal control group.METHODS: Children who received self-made mental health related factors inventory and Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List were involved in this study. All children and their parents provided the confirmed consent. Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List was used for parents to mainly evaluate children, and the results manifested various behavioral problems based on different sexes and different ages. Self-made mental health related factors inventory contained questionnaires for parents and children, respectively. In this study,home situation of parents as well as personality characteristics and educational styles of children were mainly evaluated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Scores of Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List in different aged children; ② Scores of self-made mental health
Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip
Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…
Laing, Katharine R.; Mitchell, David; Wersching, Heike; Czira, Maria E.; Berger, Klaus; Baune, Bernhard T
Cognitive aging processes are underpinned by multiple processes including genetic factors. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in age-related cognitive decline in otherwise healthy individuals. The gender-specific role of the BDNF gene in cognitive aging remains unclear. The identification of genetic biomarkers might be a useful approach to identify individuals at risk of cognitive decline during healthy aging processes. The aim of this study was to ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone age-adjusted prevalence data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects...
... HIV Chronic renal failure Nephrotic syndrome Leukemia Lymphoma Hodgkin disease Generalized malignancy Iatrogenic immunosuppression 5 Solid organ transplant Multiple myeloma PCV13 Administer PCV13 doses needed to complete series to children through age 71 months X X X X ...
Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Jessica L. Palmer; Fortin, Carl F.; Fülöp, Tamas; Goldstein, Daniel R; Linton, Phyllis-Jean
Aging affects every innate immune cell, including changes in cell numbers and function. Defects in the function of some cells are intrinsic, whereas for other cells, defects are extrinsic and possibly the consequence of the complex interactions with other cell types or the environmental milieu that is altered with aging. Abnormal function contributes to worsened outcomes after injury or infection and leads to diseases observed in the elderly. Knowing the mechanisms responsible for the aberran...
Nilsen, Anne Britt Vika
The aims of this thesis were to investigate characteristics of women and men who have their first baby at an advanced age, reasons for postponing childbirth, and consequences in terms of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal age at first birth has increased in many modern societies; in both Sweden and Norway, first-time mothers are now about five years older, compared with the previous generation. This delaying of parenthood has been associated with an increased need for artificial repro...
Kort, Sandra; Doorn, Jaap van; Sande, Ad; Leunissen, Ralph; Hokken-Koelega, Anita
textabstractBackground: IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2 might protect against cardiovascular disease. Small for gestational age (SGA) birth could be associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in later life. No data are available on the relationship between serum IGFBP-2 levels and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults and children born SGA. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine circulating IGFBP-2 levels in subjects born SGA and to inv...
Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone; Duffy, David Lorenzo;
The aim of this study was to determine the age at onset of psoriasis in a population-based twin sample. Questionnaire-data in 10,725 twin pairs, 20-71 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, was collected, and analysed using survival regression analysis. Median age at onset was 25 and 28 years...... among women and men, respectively. The correlation between the ages was 0.84 (bootstrap standard error?=?0.044) in monozygotic twin pairs and 0.60 (0.051) in dizygotic twin pairs, permutation p?=?0.001. Age at onset of psoriasis in the index twin did not predict risk of psoriasis in the co-twin, hazard...... ratio (per year of later onset =?1.01 (0.99-1.03), p?=?0.434. In conclusion, these data support that the age at onset of psoriasis is, in part, an inherited property. Our results do not support that early-onset psoriasis is more genetically determined....
Ding, Jin-Dong; Kelly, Una; Landowski, Michael; Toomey, Christopher B; Groelle, Marybeth; Miller, Chelsey; Smith, Stephanie G; Klingeborn, Mikael; Singhapricha, Terry; Jiang, Haixiang; Frank, Michael M; Bowes Rickman, Catherine
Complement factor H (CFH) is an important regulatory protein in the alternative pathway of the complement system, and CFH polymorphisms increase the genetic risk of age-related macular degeneration dramatically. These same human CFH variants have also been associated with dense deposit disease. To mechanistically study the function of CFH in the pathogenesis of these diseases, we created transgenic mouse lines using human CFH bacterial artificial chromosomes expressing full-length human CFH variants and crossed these to Cfh knockout (Cfh(-/-)) mice. Human CFH protein inhibited cleavage of mouse complement component 3 and factor B in plasma and in retinal pigment epithelium/choroid/sclera, establishing that human CFH regulates activation of the mouse alternative pathway. One of the mouse lines, which express relatively higher levels of CFH, demonstrated functional and structural protection of the retina owing to the Cfh deletion. Impaired visual function, detected as a deficit in the scotopic electroretinographic response, was improved in this transgenic mouse line compared with Cfh(-/-) mice, and transgenics had a thicker outer nuclear layer and less sub-retinal pigment epithelium deposit accumulation. In addition, expression of human CFH also completely protected the mice from developing kidney abnormalities associated with loss of CFH. These humanized CFH mice present a valuable model for study of the molecular mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration and dense deposit disease and for testing therapeutic targets.
Rowe, Elizabeth; Browne, William; Casey, Rachel; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Murray, Jane
Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. Previous studies investigating risk factors for feline obesity have been cross-sectional, where reverse causality cannot be ruled out. This study is the first to use prospective data from a large scale longitudinal study of pet cats ('Bristol Cats') to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity at around one year of age. Data analysed were collected via three owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged 2-4 months, 6.5-7 months and 12.5-13 months) completed between May 2010 and August 2013. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age 12.5-13 months, using the 5-point system, were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 4-5) and not overweight (BCS 1-3) and used as the dependent variable. Cat breed, neuter status, outdoor access, type of diet, frequency of wet and dry food fed and frequency of treats fed were analysed as potential risk factors. Of the 966 cats for which data were available, 7.0% were reported by their owners to be overweight/obese at 12.5-13 months of age. Descriptive data on type of diet fed at different cat ages suggest that a dry diet is the most popular choice for UK domestic cats. Significant potential explanatory variables from univariable logistic regression models were included in multivariable logistic regression models built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering of data due to multi-cat households these were extended to two-level random intercept models. Models were compared using Wald test p- values. Clustering had no impact on the analysis. The final multivariable logistic regression model identified two risk factors that were independently associated with an increased risk of feline obesity developing at 12.5-13 months of age: restricted or no outdoor access and feeding dry food as the only or major (>50%) type of food in the diet at age 12
Full Text Available Moral reasoning (MR is a sociocognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Whereas past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning, theory of mind, empathy, and affect recognition, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative and combined contribution of these skills to MR. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the putative links between these factors in childhood, a period during which these skills are in maturation. The aim of this study was to explore what factors predict moral maturity in typically developing children (n=76, 47.4% males, M = 9.2, SD = 1.67 years, explore the potential moderating and mediating role of executive functions and social cognition in the relationship between age and MR maturity, and identify the specific contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition, using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (So-Moral. The results indicate that MR maturity was correlated with age, executive functioning (inhibition, verbal fluency, and attentional control and social cognition (theory of mind and affect recognition. Neither EF nor social cognition moderated the effect of age on MR maturity. However, verbal fluency and third-order false beliefs had a moderating role in this link. MR maturity in children was predicted by three variables from each of the three domains: age, verbal fluency and third order theory of mind. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underpinnings of MR during childhood, suggesting that MR is not reducible to general developmental factors such as age, but that higher order skills such executive functioning and social cognition also contribute to moral maturity. The findings have
Vera-Estay, Evelyn; Seni, Anne G; Champagne, Caroline; Beauchamp, Miriam H
Moral reasoning (MR) is a socio-cognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning (EF), theory of mind (ToM), empathy, and affect recognition. However, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative and combined contribution of these skills to MR. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the putative links between these factors in childhood, a period during which these skills are in maturation. The aim of this study was to explore what factors predict moral maturity in typically developing children (n = 76, 47.4% males, M = 9.2, SD = 1.67 years), explore the potential moderating and mediating role of executive functions and social cognition in the relationship between age and MR maturity, and identify the specific contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, EF, and social cognition, using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (So-Moral). The results indicate that MR maturity was correlated with age, EF (inhibition, verbal fluency, and attentional control), and social cognition (ToM and affect recognition). Neither EF nor social cognition moderated the effect of age on MR maturity. However, verbal fluency and third-order false beliefs had a moderating role in this link. MR maturity in children was predicted by three variables from each of the three domains: age, verbal fluency, and third-order ToM. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underpinnings of MR during childhood, suggesting that MR is not reducible to general developmental factors such as age, but that higher order skills, such EF and social cognition also contribute to moral maturity. The findings have relevance for both typically developing and clinical populations in which
E. C. Ejim
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs causes of worldwide preventable morbidity and mortality. CVDs are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries, and rates are expected to rise over the next few decades. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is dramatically increasing in low-and middle-income African countries, particularly in urban areas. We carried out a cross-sectional population-based survey in Imezi-Owa, a rural community in South East Nigeria to estimate the prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors in both men and women aged 40–70 years. A total of 858 individuals made up of 247 (28.8% males and 611 (71.2% females were recruited. The mean age of the subjects was 59.8±9.9 years. The prevalence of the different cardiovascular risk factors among the 858 subjects was as follows: hypertension 398 (46.4% subjects, generalized obesity as determined by BMI 257 (30% subjects, abdominal obesity 266 (31% subjects, dysglycaemia 38 (4.4% subjects and hypercholesterolaemia 32 (3.7% subjects. Prevalence of hypertension and dysglycaemia was higher in men while the others were higher in women. Only hypertension (P=.117 and hypercholesterolaemia (P=.183 did not reveal any significant association with gender. Prevalence of CVD risk factors was highest in subjects aged 65 to 70 years.
Uchida, Y; Tomonaga, M
The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) and heart-cell-conditioned medium (HCM) on the neurite regeneration of aged sympathetic neurons were investigated in culture. Investigation of HCM was carried out by two different methods: one was the use of whole HCM on collagen substratum, which reflected component(s) effective in solution (HCM-S); the other was the use of polyornithine (PORN)-binding component(s) (P-HCM). Superior cervical ganglion neurons prepared from male mice from 6 to 30 months of age were cultured in MEM-10% FCS on collagen or gelatin-PORN substratum for 3 days. The number of neurons with neurites and the length of neurites were quantified as neurite production and elongation, respectively. Neuronal survival was not affected by addition of NGF, HCM-S or P-HCM. Neurite production of early adult neurons was enhanced by NGF, HCM-S or P-HCM. In contrast, neurite production of aged neurons was enhanced by only HCM-S, but not NGF or P-HCM. HCM-S did not promote neurite elongation in neurons at any age. Neurite elongation of early adult neurons was enhanced by NGF or P-HCM. Neurite elongation of aged neurons was enhanced by P-HCM. However, responsiveness of NGF for neurite elongation varied according to substrata. No age-related difference was found in neurite production and elongation in the absence of NGF, HCM-S or P-HCM. These results indicate that responsiveness of aged sympathetic neurons is various in different growth factors. PMID:3840716
Deok Ryun Kim
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hierarchical spatial models enable the geographic and ecological analysis of health data thereby providing useful information for designing effective health interventions. In this study, we used a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to evaluate mortality data in Vietnam. The model enabled identification of socio-ecological risk factors and generation of risk maps to better understand the causes and geographic implications of prime-age (15 to less than 45 years adult death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study was conducted in two sites: Nha Trang and Hue in Vietnam. The study areas were split into 500×500 meter cells to define neighborhoods. We first extracted socio-demographic data from population databases of the two sites, and then aggregated the data by neighborhood. We used spatial hierarchical model that borrows strength from neighbors for evaluating risk factors and for creating spatially smoothed risk map after adjusting for neighborhood level covariates. The Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure was used to estimate the parameters. Male mortality was more than twice the female mortality. The rates also varied by age and sex. The most frequent cause of mortality was traffic accidents and drowning for men and traffic accidents and suicide for women. Lower education of household heads in the neighborhood was an important risk factor for increased mortality. The mortality was highly variable in space and the socio-ecological risk factors are sensitive to study site and sex. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that lower education of the household head is an important predictor for prime age adult mortality. Variability in socio-ecological risk factors and in risk areas by sex make it challenging to design appropriate intervention strategies aimed at decreasing prime-age adult deaths in Vietnam.
Kligman, E W
Because of limited clinical investigations addressing the effectiveness of intervention to reduce known risk factors, it is difficult for primary care physicians to decide on which coronary heart disease risk factors to continue to screen for among older patients. The recently published report of the United States Preventive Services Task Force, using explicit screening criteria, has recommended that several risk factors be investigated for use among older adults. Recent longitudinal studies ...
Zhang, Houhu; Zhao, Keqiang; Yan, Xiaofei; Sun, Qinfang; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yi; Zun, Zhao; Ke, Fan
We determined the effects of nitrification capacity and environmental factors on landfill methane oxidation potential (MOP) using an aged refuse in laboratory batch assays and compared it with two different types of soils. The nitrogen conversion in the three experimental materials after 120 h incubation yielded first-order reaction kinetics at an initial concentration of 200 mg kg(-1) NH4(+)-N. The net nitrification rate for the aged refuse was 1.50 (p bacteria during CH4 co-oxidation, the average value of the MOP in the aged refuse at a temperature range of 4-45 °C was 2.34 (p landfill can be neglected after applying an aged refuse bio-cover because of the much higher MOP in the aged refuse. The calculated maximum MOP value in the aged refuse was 12.45 μmol g(-1) d.w. h(-1), which was much higher than the documented data.
Agathos, Catherine P; Bernardin, Delphine; Huchet, Delphine; Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Assaiante, Christine; Isableu, Brice
Reliance on the visual frame of reference for spatial orientation (or visual field dependence) has been reported to increase with age. This has implications on old adults' daily living tasks as it affects stability, attention, and adaptation capacities. However, the nature and underlying mechanisms of this increase are not well defined. We investigated sensorimotor and cognitive factors possibly associated with increased visual field dependence in old age, by considering functions that are both known to degrade with age and important for spatial orientation and sensorimotor control: reliance on the (somatosensory-based) egocentric frame of reference, visual fixation stability, and attentional processing of complex visual scenes (useful field of view, UFOV). Twenty young, 18 middle-aged, and 20 old adults completed a visual examination, three tests of visual field dependence (RFT, RDT, and GEFT), a test of egocentric dependence (subjective vertical estimation with the body erect and tilted at 70°), a visual fixation task, and a test of visual attentional processing (UFOV®). Increased visual field dependence with age was associated with reduced egocentric dependence, visual fixation stability, and visual attentional processing. In addition, visual fixation instability and reduced UFOV were correlated. Results of middle-aged adults fell between those of the young and old, revealing the progressive nature of the age effects we evaluated. We discuss results in terms of reference frame selection with respect to ageing as well as visual and non-visual information processing. Inter-individual differences amongst old adults are highlighted and discussed with respect to the functionality of increased visual field dependence.
Ashkan Sami; Ghasem Moafian; Arman Najafi; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Navid Yamini; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Kamran B Lankarani
Objective:This research analyzes data on road traffic accidents (RTA) in Fars province,whose roads are among the highly dangerous ones in Iran.It investigates educational level and age involved in RTA in order to discover patterns that can prevent or decrease accidents.Methods:This research made use of data visualization techniques to find hidden patterns.The data included mortality rate related to RTA in Fars province and were obtained from Fars Forensic Medicine Registry covering a period of 1 year from March 21,2010 to March 21,2011.All data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5.The results were reported as descriptive indices such as frequency (percentage).The Chisquare test was applied to the data concerning educational level and age.P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results:In the mentioned period,1 831 people were killed,out of whom un/lowly educated people (69.6％) accounted for the highest mortality rate.The significant relationship between educational level and mortality rate was found (X2=275.98,P＜0.0001).Also three was a significant association between age and mortality rate (x2=371.20,P＜0.0001).Young people (age between 20 and 29 years)contribute to higher RTA mortality rate compared with other age groups.Conclusion:The educational level and age are significantly correlated to mortality rate.The youth and un/lowly educated people suffer more fatal RTA.
Cooley, Sharon M
To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23 months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23 months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23 months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9, being born in the health facility (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6 and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2
Singh, Gitanjali M; Danaei, Goodarz; Farzadfar, Farshad;
The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not availa......The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex...
In connection with serious social-economic and ecological problems in our country an analysis of demographic processes in cities of atomic industry causes a big of interest. The aim of this work was an evaluation of dynamic of age structure of population of city Ozyorsk, based in connection with creation of nuclear plant 'Mayak' of 'first-born' of atomic industry in Russia. Data received in city's administration, included the information about number of population, its age composition taking into account of natural increase and of migration processes for a period from 1959 to 1997. (authors)
Sánchez, A; Durán, J A; Abadín, J A
Valproate plasma level/dose (L/D) ratios obtained from 155 outpatients under long-term monotherapeutic regimen have been studied. Analytical data were obtained by enzymatic immunoassay (EMIT) from paired samples taken before the morning drug dosage. L/D ratios were increased with age and plasma level and decreased with dose. There were no sex differences in L/D in the different age, dose and concentration groups. L/D ratios were higher than those found by other researchers in our country. PMID:2511386
Zeng, Y.; Cheng, L. G.; Zhao, L.;
ages. This study intends to fill in this research gap. Method: We conducted an exploratory analysis, using longitudinal survey phenotype/genotype data from 877 oldest-old aged 90+. To estimate association of GxE interactions with health outcome, adjusted for the potential correlation between genotypes...... positive associations of interactions between social/behavioral factors and the ADRB2 genotypes with health outcomes of cognitive function and self-reported health, and negative associations of carrying rs1042718 or rs1042719 minor alleles with negative emotion, at advanced ages in China. Our findings...... and positively associated with good cognitive function; interaction between regular exercise and carrying rs1042718 or rs1042719 minor allele is significantly and positively associated with self-reported good health; and interaction between social-leisure activities and carrying rs1042719 minor allele...
Asres, Yaregal; Yemane, Tilahun; Gedefaw, Lealem
Background. Anemia affects one-quarter of the world's population; nonpregnant women were one of the groups for whom it is common, making it a global public health problem. Objective. To determine prevalence and risk factors of anemia among nonpregnant women of childbearing age in Jimma town southwest Ethiopia. Methodology. We conducted a community based cross-sectional study involving 441 nonpregnant women. Data was collected over two months of period. We collected sociodemographic and relate...
Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Yadav, Bijesh
Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health problem contributing to the burden of disease in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of, and risk factors for, malnutrition among school-going children in south India. A total of 2496 children aged 5-7 years from rural and urban areas of south India were recruited in 1982 and followed up for malnutrition over a period of 9 years. Their body heights and weights were measured every six months and socio-demographic factors such as mother's education and father's education and relevant household characteristics and hygiene practices collected. Body mass index and height-for-age z-scores were used to determine children's levels of underweight and stunting, respectively, classified as normal, mild/moderate or severe. Risk factor analysis was done for pre-pubertal ages only using Generalized Estimating Equations with cumulative odds assumption. There was a significant difference between male and female children in the incidence of severe underweight and stunting (6.4% and 4.2% respectively). Children in households with no separate kitchen had 1.3 (1.0-1.6) times higher odds of being severely underweight (p=0.044) compared with those with a kitchen. Children without a toilet facility had significantly higher odds of severe underweight compared with those who did. Children with illiterate parents had higher odds of severe stunting than those with literate parents. In conclusion, the prevalence of malnutrition among these south Indian children has not changed over the years, and the incidence of severe malnutrition was highest in children when they were at pubertal age. The risk factors for stunting were mostly poverty-related, and those for underweight were mostly hygiene-related. Adolescent children in south India should be screened periodically at school for malnutrition and provided with nutritional intervention if necessary. PMID:26440753
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in Western populations find that depression is associated with inflammation and obesity. The present study aimed to evaluate the relation of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipose-derived adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were from 3289 community residents aged 50-70 from Beijing and Shanghai who participated in the Nutrition and Health of Aging Population in China project. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D score of 16 or higher. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 were measured. Of the 3289 participants, 312 (9.5% suffered from current depressive symptoms. IL-6 level was higher in participants with depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts in the crude analyses (1.17 vs. 1.05 pg/mL, p = 0.023 and this association lost statistical significance after multiple adjustments (1.13 vs. 1.10 pg/mL, p = 0.520. Depressive symptoms were not associated with increased mean levels of any other inflammatory factors or adipokines in the unadjusted or adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found no evidence that depressive symptoms were associated with inflammatory factors and adipokines in the middle-aged and older Chinese populations. Prospective studies and studies in clinically diagnosed patients are needed to confirm our results and clarify the relation of depression with inflammatory factors and adipokines.
S A Polyakova
Full Text Available Objective. To determine frequency and significance of traditional risk factors of cardiovascular pathology development and to assess features of carotids atherosclerotic damage in women of reproductive age with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. 85 women with RA (mean age 42,1±6,8 years and 32 healthy women (mean age 43,2±6,7 years were included. Traditional risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD were examined. Blood lipid spectrum was assessed by content of total cholesterol (CTC, triglycerides (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and atherogenity index (AI were calculated. To reveal subclinical forms of atherosclerosis common carotid arteries (CCA duplex scanning with measurement of intima-media complex (IMC was performed using ultrasound system “Acuson 128/XP10” (USA by linear sensor with 7 MHz frequency. C- reactive protein (CRP was assessed by immuno-enzyme assay. Results. Hypertension and lipid metabolism disturbance were the most prevalent risk factors of development and progression of CVD in women of reproductive age with RA. Subclinical atherosclerosis characterized by thickening of IMC was more frequent in RA pts than in healthy women (p<0,001. Presence of extra-articular RA manifestations was accompanied by significant IMC thickening in the region of carotid artery bulb and internal carotid artery (p<0,001, p=0,003. Carotid artery IMC was significantly increased at 3rd RA activity degree in comparison with 1st activity degree (p=0,016 and in the presence of rheumatoid factor in serum (p=0,026. RA pts had IMC thickening irrespectively from CVD history. Conclusion. RA activity as well as HDLC, LDLC and CRP concentration are predictors of vascular atherosclerotic damage in RA
Demirovic, Dino; de Toda, Irene Martinez; Nizard, Carine; Rattan, Suresh I S
Repeated exposure to mild heat shock (HS) has been shown to induce a wide range of health promoting hormetic effects in various biological systems, including human cells undergoing aging in vitro. In order to understand how cells distinguish between mild and severe stress, we have investigated the extent of early and immediate HS response by analyzing the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), in serially passaged normal adult human facial skin fibroblasts exposed to mild (41 °C) or severe (43 °C) HS. Cells respond differently when exposed to mild and severe HS at different passage levels in terms of the extent of HSF1 translocation. In early passage young cells there was a 5-fold difference between mild and severe HS in the extent of HSF1 translocation. However, in near senescent late passage cells, the difference between mild and severe stress in terms of the extent of HSF1 translocation was reduced to less than 2-fold. One of the reasons for this age-related attenuation of heat shock response is due to the fact there was a higher basal level of HSF1 in the nuclei of late passage cells, which is indicative of increased intrinsic stress during cellular aging. These observations are consistent with previously reported data that whereas repeated mild stress given at younger ages can slow down aging and increase the lifespan, the same level of stress given at older ages may not provide the same benefits. Therefore, elucidating the early and immediate steps in the induction of stress response can be useful in deciding whether a particular level of stress is potentially hormetically beneficial or not.
Ugbomoiko, U S; Dalumo, V; Ofoezie, I E; Obiezue, R N N
The risk factors predisposing children to ascariasis transmission in a rural community of Osun State, Nigeria were investigated from November 2005 to April 2006. Children below 16 years of age were examined at the household level after information on biodata, access to water supply and sanitation, socio-economic status of their parents and degree of cohabitation with their parents was collected using a questionnaire. Of 440 children examined, overall prevalence was 60% and median intensity was 1548 eggs per gram (epg) (min. 48 epg; max. 55464 epg). Infection patterns were gender comparable and age dependent, with peak prevalence (67.8%) occurring in children aged 5-9 years and peak median intensity (4368 epg) in children aged >or=15 years. Logistic regression analysis revealed that prevalence was influenced by patterns of water supply and sanitation, parents' educational background, number of biological parents living with a child and number of playmates a child has. These findings suggest that socio-environmental risk factors which play a role in disease transmission need to be taken into account when formulating sustainable control strategies for ascariasis and other intestinal parasites in Nigeria and elsewhere.
Morales, J L; Huber, L; Gallego, S; Alvarez, G; Diez-Delgado, J; González, A; Aguilar, L; Dal-Ré, R
Three child population groups from the Madrid area were studied for anti-HAV antibodies. Analysis was carried out with respect to age and socio-environmental factors. The population understudy was composed of 156 children, with ages ranging from 1 to 14 years; they were stratified in three socio-environmental groups (white-family unit, gypsy-family unit and orphanage), and also divided into subgroups according to age. As a whole, an age-related increase in prevalence was found. The overall seroprevalence by socio-environmental groups was: gypsy-family unit 63%, orphanage 46%, and white-family unit 23%. Significant differences between groups appeared from seven years on, being more marked among the eldest subgroups. Among the factors evaluated, hygienic-sanitary conditions and overcrowding influenced the high prevalence rate found in the gypsy-family unit subjects, whereas overcrowding appeared to be responsible for the higher prevalence in orphanage residents, as compared to white-family unit children.
Silvana de Araújo Silva
Full Text Available A case-control study on chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD was carried out between 1997 and 2005. Ninety patients over 50 years of age were examined for factors related to (CCHD. Fourty-six patients (51.1% with Chagas heart disease (anomalous ECG were assigned to the case group and 44 (48.9% were included in the control group as carriers of undetermined forms of chronic disease. Social, demographic (age, gender, skin color, area of origin, epidemiological (permanence within an endemic zone, family history of Chagas heart disease or sudden death, physical strain, alcoholism, and smoking, and clinical (systemic hypertension variables were analyzed. The data set was assessed through single-variable and multivariate analysis. The two factors independently associated with heart disease were age - presence of heart disease being three times higher in patients over 60 years of age (odds ratio, OR: 2.89; confidence interval of 95%: 1.09-7.61 - and family history of Chagas heart disease (OR: 2.833, CI 95%: 1.11-7.23. Systemic hypertension and gender did not prove to hold any association with heart disease, as neither did skin color, but this variable showed low statistical power due to reduced sample size.
Conde-Ferraez, Laura; Suarez Allen, Rosa Etelvina; Carrillo Martinez, Jorge Ramiro; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Losa, Maria Del Refugio
This study aimed to analyse the participation of women of reproductive age in a cancer screening program, and survey reasons for non-screening in a region from Mexico with high cervical cancer mortality. A total of 281 obstetric patients from a previous HPV study in a social security hospital during 2008-2009 were included. Reasons for not participating in the screening were directly asked. HPV positive patients were invited to participate in an informative workshop, and they filled in a knowledge questionnaire. The women ranged in age from 14-47 years; 123 (43.8%) had never participated in screening, of which 97 (78.9%) had their first sexual intercourse 2 to 10 years ago, resulting in 25% HPV positive. Screening history was strongly associated with 2 or more gestations (OR= 10.07, p=0.00) and older age (OR=6.69 p=0.00). When 197 women were contacted and interviewed, reasons referred for non-screening were ignorance, lack of interest or time, recent sexual onset, shame and fear. More than 50% of the workshop participants showed knowledge of HPV, while 38.9% and 25% knew about Pap smear and cervical cancer. A high percentage of women of reproductive age have never had a Pap smear. Promoting the screening program in medical facilities seems to be important in this population. New approaches to inform vulnerable individuals on the benefits of screening need to be implemented, especially for young women.
McDonnall, Michele Capella; Crudden, Adele
The following variables were found to be associated with employment for transition-age youths with visual impairments who are served by vocational rehabilitation agencies: work experience, academic competence, self-determination, use of assistive technology, and locus of control. Self-esteem and involvement with the counselor were not associated…
Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert
Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…
Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte;
and gestational age, with single parenthood and with mother having smoked during pregnancy. Onset between 2 weeks and 4 months was associated with congenital disorders and serious somatic illness, and with deviant mother-child relationship, whereas, onset between 4 and 8 months seemed to represent a...
Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden
Predictors of 4 indices of well-being (physical health, life satisfaction, burden, and parenting stress) were examined among 203 aging mothers of mentally retarded adults living at home. Predictive variables examined include maternal characteristics, retarded adult's characteristics, family social climate, mother's social support network, and…
Ishii, Makoto; Iadecola, Costantino
Age-related dementia is increasingly recognized as having a mixed pathology, with contributions from both cerebrovascular factors and pathogenic factors associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence that vascular risk factors in midlife, e.g., obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, increase the risk of developing late-life dementia. Since obesity and changes in body weight/adiposity often drive diabetes and hypertension, understanding the relationship between adiposity and age-related dementia may reveal common underlying mechanisms. Here we offer a brief appraisal of how changes in body weight and adiposity are related to both AD and dementia on vascular basis, and examine the involvement of two key adipocyte-derived hormones: leptin and adiponectin. The evidence suggests that in midlife increased body weight/adiposity and subsequent changes in adipocyte-derived hormones may increase the long-term susceptibility to dementia. On the other hand, later in life, decreases in body weight/adiposity and related hormonal changes are early manifestations of disease that precede the onset of dementia and may promote AD and vascular pathology. Understanding the contribution of adiposity to age-related dementia may help identify the underlying pathological mechanisms common to both vascular dementia and AD, and provide new putative targets for early diagnosis and therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia, edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26546479
Full Text Available Model organisms have played an important role in the elucidation of multiple genes and cellular processes that regulate aging. In this study we utilized the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in a large-scale screen for genes that function in the regulation of chronological lifespan, which is defined by the number of days that non-dividing cells remain viable. A pooled collection of viable haploid gene deletion mutants, each tagged with unique identifying DNA "bar-code" sequences was chronologically aged in liquid culture. Viable mutants in the aging population were selected at several time points and then detected using a microarray DNA hybridization technique that quantifies abundance of the barcode tags. Multiple short- and long-lived mutants were identified using this approach. Among the confirmed short-lived mutants were those defective for autophagy, indicating a key requirement for the recycling of cellular organelles in longevity. Defects in autophagy also prevented lifespan extension induced by limitation of amino acids in the growth media. Among the confirmed long-lived mutants were those defective in the highly conserved de novo purine biosynthesis pathway (the ADE genes, which ultimately produces IMP and AMP. Blocking this pathway extended lifespan to the same degree as calorie (glucose restriction. A recently discovered cell-extrinsic mechanism of chronological aging involving acetic acid secretion and toxicity was suppressed in a long-lived ade4Delta mutant and exacerbated by a short-lived atg16Delta autophagy mutant. The identification of multiple novel effectors of yeast chronological lifespan will greatly aid in the elucidation of mechanisms that cells and organisms utilize in slowing down the aging process.
E. Cortés Castell
Full Text Available Background: Maternal age is a preponderant variable in the epidemiological analysis of the premature birth. Studies show that in the extreme ages of the maternal life there is a risk of premature birth that generates a high rate of neonatal morbidity. Objetives: Determine the effect on the extreme ages of women residents in the province of Alicante on the total of the premature births. Method: An explanatory, retrospective case-control study was conducted during the period from January 1st, 2008 to December 31st, 2011. The study was based on the revision of the newborn registers from the Neonatal Screening Center of the province of Alicante. All the preterm were included, this means between 22 & 36 complete weeks of pregnancy (5,295 out of 78,391 newborn which represents 6.75% of prematurity, and a random sample of the deliveries with 37 weeks or more of pregnancy (control group. The age of the mother was studied as independent variable and the prematurity as dependent variable. Results: Clearly shows an increased risk of prematurity among teenage mothers compared to the age group nearest to them, which is confirmed by a squared Chi test which gives a significantly different distribution (p < 0,0001 and an OD for very preterm of 2,41 (1,51-3,24 and of preterm of 1,71 (1,32-2,19. This probability is also higher among mothers over 40 years old with an OD of 1,86 (1,39-2,48 and 1,66 (1,44-1,91 for very preterm newborns and preterm newborns respectively. Discussion: The results clearly manifest that teenagers and older pregnant mothers are at higher prematurity and low birth weight risk, therefore imposes the need to trace educational interventions to minimize this problem from the results in this research.
Davenport Tracey A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjective memory complaints (SMC are common but their significance is still unclear. It has been suggested they are a precursor of mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia and an early indicator of cognitive decline. Vascular risk factors have an important role in the development of dementia and possibly MCI. We therefore aimed to test the hypothesis that vascular risk factors were associated with SMC, independent of psychological distress, in a middle-aged community-dwelling population. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the 45 and Up Study was performed. This is a cohort study of people living in New South Wales (Australia, and we explored the sample of 45, 532 participants aged between 45 and 64 years. SMC were defined as 'fair' or 'poor' on a self-reported five-point Likert scale of memory function. Vascular risk factors of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and smoking were identified by self-report. Psychological distress was measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. We tested the model generated from a randomly selected exploratory sample (n = 22, 766 with a confirmatory sample of equal size. Results 5, 479/45, 532 (12% of respondents reported SMC. Using multivariate logistic regression, only two vascular risk factors: smoking (OR 1.18; 95% CI = 1.03 - 1.35 and hypercholesterolaemia (OR 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.36 showed a small independent association with SMC. In contrast psychological distress was strongly associated with SMC. Those with the highest levels of psychological distress were 7.00 (95% CI = 5.41 - 9.07 times more likely to have SMC than the non-distressed. The confirmatory sample also demonstrated the strong association of SMC with psychological distress rather than vascular risk factors. Conclusions In a large sample of middle-aged people without any history of major affective illness or stroke, psychological distress was strongly, and vascular risk
Andersen, P S; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Fowler, V G;
Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal bacterium found in the nasal cavity and other body sites. Identifying risk factors for S. aureus nasal carriage is of interest, as nasal carriage is a risk factor for subsequent invasive infection. We recently investigated the influence of host genetics ......, male gender, psoriasis, and atopic diseases. Also, present living on a farm is clearly associated with S. aureus colonization, while smoking had a borderline statistically significant protective effect....
Chinekwu A. Obidoa
Full Text Available The growing rate of sexual risk-taking among young people contributes significantly to the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. This study, explores the influence of socio-demographic, HIV/AIDS awareness and female empowerment on the sexual risk behaviors of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24. The data presented in this paper was drawn from the 2003 Nigeria National Demographic and Health Survey. The sample consisted of unmarried women aged 15-24 in the dataset. Data was collected through a structured and interviewer administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the most important predictors of sexual risk behaviors. Sexual risk-taking is relatively high among unmarried young women. Among those who are sexually active, 80% indicated that they did not use a condom during their first sexual encounter. Regression analysis revealed that younger age, lower HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission knowledge, lower knowledge of where to obtain condoms, lower material standard of living and greater intimate partner violence were significantly associated with sexual risk-taking in this population. Findings revealed that the sexual behavior of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24 is influenced by a complex matrix of factors. Identifying specific processes and contexts that promote the concentration of risk among sub-sections of young unmarried women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria should be a research and intervention priority.
To examine the role of brachytherapy for aged patients 80 or more in the trend of rapidly increasing number. We examined the outcomes for elderly patients with node negative oral tongue cancer (T1-3N0M0) treated with brachytherapy. The 21 patients (2 T1, 14 T2, and 5 T3 cases) ranged in age from 80 to 89 years (median 81), and their cancer was pathologically confirmed. All patients underwent definitive radiation therapy, with low dose rate (LDR) Ra-226 brachytherapy (n = 4; median 70Gy), with Ir-192 (n = 12; 70Gy), with Au-198 (n = 1) or with high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 brachytherapy (n = 4; 60 Gy). Eight patients also underwent external radiotherapy (median 30 Gy). The period of observation ranged from 13 months to 14 years (median 2.5 years). We selected 226 population matched younger counterpart from our medical chart. Definitive radiation therapy was completed for all 21 patients (100%), and acute grade 2-3 mucositis related to the therapy was tolerable. Local control (initial complete response) was attained in 19 of 21 patients (90%). The 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 91%, (100% for T1, 83% for T2 and 80% for T3 tumors after 2 years). These figures was not inferior to that of younger counterpart (82% at 5-year, n.s.). The cause-specific survival rate was 83% and the regional control rate 84% at the 2-years follow-up. However, 12 patients died because of intercurrent diseases or senility, resulting in overall survival rates of 55% at 2 years and 34% at 5 years. Age is not a limiting factor for brachytherapy for appropriately selected elderly patients, and brachytherapy achieved good local control with acceptable morbidity
Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the role of brachytherapy for aged patients 80 or more in the trend of rapidly increasing number. Methods We examined the outcomes for elderly patients with node negative oral tongue cancer (T1-3N0M0 treated with brachytherapy. The 21 patients (2 T1, 14 T2, and 5 T3 cases ranged in age from 80 to 89 years (median 81, and their cancer was pathologically confirmed. All patients underwent definitive radiation therapy, with low dose rate (LDR Ra-226 brachytherapy (n = 4; median 70Gy, with Ir-192 (n = 12; 70Gy, with Au-198 (n = 1 or with high dose rate (HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy (n = 4; 60 Gy. Eight patients also underwent external radiotherapy (median 30 Gy. The period of observation ranged from 13 months to 14 years (median 2.5 years. We selected 226 population matched younger counterpart from our medical chart. Results Definitive radiation therapy was completed for all 21 patients (100%, and acute grade 2-3 mucositis related to the therapy was tolerable. Local control (initial complete response was attained in 19 of 21 patients (90%. The 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 91%, (100% for T1, 83% for T2 and 80% for T3 tumors after 2 years. These figures was not inferior to that of younger counterpart (82% at 5-year, n.s.. The cause-specific survival rate was 83% and the regional control rate 84% at the 2-years follow-up. However, 12 patients died because of intercurrent diseases or senility, resulting in overall survival rates of 55% at 2 years and 34% at 5 years. Conclusion Age is not a limiting factor for brachytherapy for appropriately selected elderly patients, and brachytherapy achieved good local control with acceptable morbidity.
Anstey, Kaarin J; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Ross, Lesley A; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Wood, Joanne
With the number of older drivers projected to increase by up to 70% over the next 20 years, preventing injury resulting from crashes involving older drivers is a significant concern for both policy-makers and clinicians. While the total number of fatal crashes per annum has steadily decreased since 2005 in Australia, the rate of fatalities has demonstrated an upward trend since 2010 in drivers aged 65 years and above (8.5 per 100,000), such that it is now on par with the fatality rate in drivers aged 17-25 years (8.0 per 100,000) (Austroads, 2015). Similar statistics are reported for the United States (NHTSA, 2012), implying there is a need for better identification of those older drivers who are unsafe and implementation of strategies that can enhance mobility while maximizing road safety. PMID:26888735
Full Text Available Worldwide, age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a serious threat to vision loss in individuals over 50 years of age with a pooled prevalence of approximately 9%. For 2020, the number of people afflicted with this condition is estimated to reach 200 million. While AMD lesions presenting as geographic atrophy (GA show high inter-individual variability, only little is known about prognostic factors. Here, we aimed to elucidate the contribution of clinical, demographic and genetic factors on GA progression. Analyzing the currently largest dataset on GA lesion growth (N = 388, our findings suggest a significant and independent contribution of three factors on GA lesion growth including at least two genetic factors (ARMS2_rs10490924 [P < 0.00088] and C3_rs2230199 [P < 0.00015] as well as one clinical component (presence of GA in the fellow eye [P < 0.00023]. These correlations jointly explain up to 7.2% of the observed inter-individual variance in GA lesion progression and should be considered in strategy planning of interventional clinical trials aimed at evaluating novel treatment options in advanced GA due to AMD.
Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of nutritional habits and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in four age groups of women partici-pating in the Prevention Education Program, Family Heart Study.Methods: Anthropometric variables, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin were measured in 141 children, 211 adolescents, 151 women 3 times more common in adolescents. Thirty six percent of junior women were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m² and 21% had central adiposity obese. Sixty eight year-old women had a far more adverse risk profile than 35 year-old women. In terms of energy consumption, 14 year-old women had the lowest fat intake and the highest consumption of carbohydrates whereas intake of protein was lowest in 10 year-old girls. Intake of unsaturated fat was lower in youths than in adults amounting to 37 g unsaturated fat respectively 53.4% of total fat consumption. The asso-ciation between energy consumption and overweight was significant and calorie intake was associated with clustering of ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors (OR :4.72; 95% CI 1.22-18.33.Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased continuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Caloric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.
Lindblad, Birgitta Ejdervik
Cataract is the most common cause of blindness in the world. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the etiology of cataract is multifactorial. Cataract increases with age and oxidative damage to the lens proteins is suggested to be of importance. The only currently available treatment is surgical extraction of the lens; two thirds of these operations are performed in women. Today in Sweden cataract extraction is the most common operation, with nearly 80,000 operations bei...
Korkina, M V; Zeĭgarnik, B V; Kareva, M A; Marilov, V V
The results of long-term clinical and experimental-psychological studies of patients with nervous anorexia were analyzed from the point of view of age psychology. Such approaches permitted to distinguish a peculiarity in the formation mechanism of this form of pathology. Dynamical studies of the moving forces in the personality development in morbid conditions allowed one to distinguish certain disorders in the process of periodization of the mental development. This in its turn exerts influence on the development of nervous anorexia.
Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the prognostic value of age on the outcome of transcanalicular multidiode laser dacryocystorhinostomy (TCL-DCR in patients with acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO. Methods. The medical records of TCL-DCR performed between March 2009 and September 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Inclusion criteria include over 20 years of age, similar mean follow-up period, and similar mean duration of stenting. The main outcome is surgical success. The effect of age on success rate is also evaluated. Results. The anatomical success was 52% in Group 1 (20–30 years, 56% in Group 2 (31–40 years, 64% in Group 3 (41–50 years, 76% in Group 4 (51–60 years, and 88% in Group 5 (over 60 years. The statistical difference among Group 1 and Group 5, in terms of surgical success rate, was found to be significant (P=0.009. Additionally, the 20–30-year-old patients had a failure rate 6.76 times higher than that of the over-60-year-old patients (P=0.009; 95% CI, 1.605–28.542. Conclusion. TCL-DCR is a surgical treatment option for NLDO for which a skin incision can be avoided. The success rate of TCL-DCR for younger population is lower when compared with elderly population.
Full Text Available In order to establish the cutoff with prognostic implications for white blood cell count and age at diagnosis in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, we conducted an observational, descriptive and analytical study nested in a retrospective cohort of patients with ALL treated by institutional protocol HGMLAL07 during 2007-2014. We study 255 patients, the 52.9% (n=135 were female and 47.1% (n=120 were male. The mean age was 31 (16-80 years-old. The disease-free survival (DFS decreases in both genders after 20 years-old (p = 0.001. Leukocyte count average was 56.1 x 109/L (0.1-850 x 109/L. DFS decreases significantly from an equal or greater leukocyte count of 20 x 109/L (p<0.05. With this results, we can conclude that use foreign cutoff for age and leukocyte count could determine a bad prognosis stratification and a consequent suboptimal treatment.
Daniel Martin Commane; Ramesh Pulendran Arasaradnam; Sarah Mills; John Cummings Mathers; Mike Bradburn
Diverticular disease (DD) is an age-related disorder of the large bowel which may affect half of the population over the age of 65 in the UK. This high prevalence ranks it as one of the most common bowel disorders in western nations. The majority of patients remain asymptomatic but there are sociated life-threatening co-morbidities, which, given the large numbers of people with DD, translates into a considerable number of deaths per annum. Despite this public health burden, relatively little seems to be known about either the mechanisms of development or causality.In the 1970s, a model of DD formulated the concept that diverticula occur as a onsequence of pressureinduced damage to the colon wall amongst those with a low intake of dietary fiber. In this review, we have examined the evidence regarding the influence of ageing, diet,inflammation and genetics on DD development. We argue that the evidence supporting the barotrauma hypothesis is largely anecdotal. We have also identified several gaps in the knowledge base which need to be filled before we can complete a model for the etiology of diverticular disease.
Humenikova, Lenka; Gates, Gail E.
Objective: To compare environmental factors that influence body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) between a sample of American and Czech school-aged children. Design: Pilot study. A parent questionnaire and school visits were used to collect data from parents and children. Setting: Public schools in 1 American and 2 Czech cities. Participants:…
Henrique L. Guerra
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify biomedical factors (body mass index, blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and albumin associated with hospitalization of older adults. All residents of the town of Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, ages ³ 60 years (n = 1,742 were selected for the study, of whom 1,494 (85.2% participated. None of the biomedical factors studied was independently associated with occurrence of 1 hospitalization during the previous 12 months. Body mass index ³ 264mg/dl were independently associated with ³ 2 hospitalizations. The introduction of biomedical factors did not modify the previously identified associations between hospitalization and indicators constructed from information obtained in a questionnaire survey. The results show that data easily obtained through interviews can be useful both for identifying older adults at risk of hospitalization and thus for assisting in prevention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p p Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children.
Saenger, Paul; Reiter, Edward
The term small for gestational age (SGA) refers to infants whose birth weights and/or lengths are at least two standard deviation (SD) units less than the mean for gestational age. This condition affects approximately 3%-10% of newborns. Causes for SGA birth include environmental factors, placental factors such as abnormal uteroplacental blood flow, and inherited genetic mutations. In the past two decades, an enhanced understanding of genetics has identified several potential causes for SGA. These include mutations that affect the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, including mutations in the IGF-1 gene and acid-labile subunit (ALS) deficiency. In addition, select polymorphisms observed in patients with SGA include those involved in genes associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and deletion of exon 3 growth hormone receptor (d3-GHR) polymorphism. Uniparental disomy (UPD) and imprinting effects may also underlie some of the phenotypes observed in SGA individuals. The variety of genetic mutations associated with SGA births helps explain the diversity of phenotype characteristics, such as impaired motor or mental development, present in individuals with this disorder. Predicting the effectiveness of recombinant human GH (hGH) therapy for each type of mutation remains challenging. Factors affecting response to hGH therapy include the dose and method of hGH administration as well as the age of initiation of hGH therapy. This article reviews the results of these studies and summarizes the success of hGH therapy in treating this difficult and genetically heterogenous disorder.
Full Text Available Abstract The term small for gestational age (SGA refers to infants whose birth weights and/or lengths are at least two standard deviation (SD units less than the mean for gestational age. This condition affects approximately 3%–10% of newborns. Causes for SGA birth include environmental factors, placental factors such as abnormal uteroplacental blood flow, and inherited genetic mutations. In the past two decades, an enhanced understanding of genetics has identified several potential causes for SGA. These include mutations that affect the growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 axis, including mutations in the IGF-1 gene and acid-labile subunit (ALS deficiency. In addition, select polymorphisms observed in patients with SGA include those involved in genes associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and deletion of exon 3 growth hormone receptor (d3-GHR polymorphism. Uniparental disomy (UPD and imprinting effects may also underlie some of the phenotypes observed in SGA individuals. The variety of genetic mutations associated with SGA births helps explain the diversity of phenotype characteristics, such as impaired motor or mental development, present in individuals with this disorder. Predicting the effectiveness of recombinant human GH (hGH therapy for each type of mutation remains challenging. Factors affecting response to hGH therapy include the dose and method of hGH administration as well as the age of initiation of hGH therapy. This article reviews the results of these studies and summarizes the success of hGH therapy in treating this difficult and genetically heterogenous disorder.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and diabetes and their associated factors in 17,184 Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45-75 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional investigation was carried out in a rural area of Lianyungang, China. Previously undiagnosed diabetes [fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l] and IFG (6.1-6.9 mmol/l were defined based on FPG concentration. Previously diagnosed diabetes was determined on the basis of self-report. Total diabetes included both previously diagnosed diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. RESULTS: The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and IFG were 3.4%, 9.8%, and 14.1%, respectively. About 74.2% of the participants with diabetes had not previously been diagnosed. In the multivariable logistic-regression model, older age, men, antihypertensive treatment, obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2, abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women, non-current smoking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, lower physical activity levels, and inland residence (versus coastal were significantly associated with both total diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Furthermore, methylene- tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677 TT genotype was an independent associated factor for total diabetes, and current alcohol drinking was an independent associated factor for previously undiagnosed diabetes. At the same time, older age, men, abdominal obesity, non-current smoking, current alcohol drinking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, and inland residence (versus coastal were important independent associated factors for IFG. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of diabetes in Chinese hypertensive adults. Furthermore, about three out of every four diabetic adults were undiagnosed. Our results suggest that population-level measures aimed at the prevention, identification (even if
Verlut, Clotilde; Mouillet, Guillaume; Magnin, Eloi; Buffet-Miny, Joëlle; Viennet, Gabriel; Cattin, Françoise; Billon-Grand, Nora Clelia; Bonnet, Emilie; Servagi-Vernat, Stéphanie; Godard, Joël; Billon-Grand, Romain; Petit, Antoine; Moulin, Thierry; Cals, Laurent; Pivot, Xavier; Curtit, Elsa
INTRODUCTION Temozolomide and concomitant radiotherapy followed by temozolomide has been used as a standard therapy for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiform since 2005. A search for prognostic factors was conducted in patients with glioblastoma routinely treated by this strategy in our institution. METHODS This retrospective study included all patients with histologically proven glioblastoma diagnosed between June 1, 2005, and January 1, 2012, in the Franche-Comté region and treated by radiotherapy (daily fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 60 Gy) combined with temozolomide at a dose of 75 mg/m2 per day, followed by six cycles of maintenance temozolomide (150–200 mg/m2, five consecutive days per month). The primary aim was to identify prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS) in this cohort of patients. RESULTS One hundred three patients were included in this study. The median age was 64 years. The median OS was 13.7 months (95% confidence interval, 12.5–15.9 months). In multivariate analysis, age over 65 years (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.88; P = 0.01), Medical Research Council (MRC) scale 3–4 (HR = 1.62; P = 0.038), and occurrence of postoperative complications (HR = 2.15; P = 0.028) were associated with unfavorable OS. CONCLUSIONS This study identified three prognostic factors in patients with glioblastoma eligible to the standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment. Age over 65 years, MRC scale 3–4, and occurrence of postoperative complications were associated with unfavorable OS. A simple clinical evaluation including these three factors enables to estimate the patient prognosis. MRC neurological scale could be a useful, quick, and simple measure to assess neurological status in glioblastoma patients.
Verlut, Clotilde; Mouillet, Guillaume; Magnin, Eloi; Buffet-Miny, Joëlle; Viennet, Gabriel; Cattin, Françoise; Billon-Grand, Nora Clelia; Bonnet, Emilie; Servagi-Vernat, Stéphanie; Godard, Joël; Billon-Grand, Romain; Petit, Antoine; Moulin, Thierry; Cals, Laurent; Pivot, Xavier; Curtit, Elsa
INTRODUCTION Temozolomide and concomitant radiotherapy followed by temozolomide has been used as a standard therapy for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiform since 2005. A search for prognostic factors was conducted in patients with glioblastoma routinely treated by this strategy in our institution. METHODS This retrospective study included all patients with histologically proven glioblastoma diagnosed between June 1, 2005, and January 1, 2012, in the Franche-Comté region and treated by radiotherapy (daily fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 60 Gy) combined with temozolomide at a dose of 75 mg/m2 per day, followed by six cycles of maintenance temozolomide (150–200 mg/m2, five consecutive days per month). The primary aim was to identify prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS) in this cohort of patients. RESULTS One hundred three patients were included in this study. The median age was 64 years. The median OS was 13.7 months (95% confidence interval, 12.5–15.9 months). In multivariate analysis, age over 65 years (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.88; P = 0.01), Medical Research Council (MRC) scale 3–4 (HR = 1.62; P = 0.038), and occurrence of postoperative complications (HR = 2.15; P = 0.028) were associated with unfavorable OS. CONCLUSIONS This study identified three prognostic factors in patients with glioblastoma eligible to the standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment. Age over 65 years, MRC scale 3–4, and occurrence of postoperative complications were associated with unfavorable OS. A simple clinical evaluation including these three factors enables to estimate the patient prognosis. MRC neurological scale could be a useful, quick, and simple measure to assess neurological status in glioblastoma patients. PMID:27559302
Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; van Dam, Bianca; Koreissi, Yara; Dossa, Romain A. M.; Brouwer, Inge D.
Objective: To identify factors influencing intention to consume an indigenous nutritious grain, fonio ("Digitaria exilis"), among women in Mali. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Health Belief Model. Setting and Participants: One hundred and eight women (31.5 plus or minus 10.5 years),…
Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wenhao David
As the number of online degree programs continues to grow among higher education institutions in the United States, engaging online adult learners to online degree programs is getting more difficult than before. Therefore, this study, situated in a land grant university, investigated the motivational factors that contribute to adult learners'…
Marston, Louise; Peacock, Janet L.; Calvert, Sandra A.; Greenough, Anne; Marlow, Neil
Language development is often slower in preterm children compared with their term peers. We investigated factors associated with vocabulary acquisition at 2 years in a cohort of children born at 28 weeks' gestation or less. For children entered into the United Kingdom Oscillation Study, language development was evaluated by using the…
Pommergaard, H-C; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J;
from a randomized clinical trial that showed no effect of aspirin-calcitriol-calcium treatment on colorectal adenoma recurrence. Patients at high risk of colorectal cancer who had one or more sporadic colorectal adenomas removed during colonoscopy were followed up for 3 years. Independent risk factors...
Björkman, Sven; Folkesson, Anna; Jönsson, Siv
PURPOSE: The three aims of this investigation were (1) to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for factor VIII (FVIII) in haemophilia A patients, with estimates of inter-occasion and inter-individual variance, (2) to investigate whether appropriate dosing of FVIII for regular prophylaxis...
Background. Regular physical activity is considered an important aspect of a healthy lifestyle. It may improve fitness, physical competence and may lower the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, until now, data on the effects of regular exercise on CHD risk factors in elde
Leung, Grace Suk Man; He, Xuesong
The objectives of this study were twofold: to examine the interaction of academic stress and student resourcefulness on subject grades and to identify the factors of parental support that contribute to student resourcefulness. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 695 fifth and sixth graders from four major districts in Shanghai.…
This chapter is organized into three sections. The first part describes the characteristics of the older adult population and the U.S. EPA’s efforts to protect elders form environmental hazards. Section II covers available exposure factor data, activity pattern and the pot...
The impact factor (IF) of a scientific journal is considered a measure of how important a journal is within its discipline, and it is based on a simple relationship between the number of citations of the journal’s articles divided by the number of articles in the scientific journal (http://en.wikipe...
Lechanteur, Y.T.; Ven, J.P. van de; Smailhodzic, D.; Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Fauser, S.; Groenewoud, J.M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the correlation of genetic, sociodemographic, and behavioral risk factors with second eye progression to end-stage AMD. METHODS: One hundred and eight patients with end-stage AMD in one or both eyes were included in a retrospective time-to-event analy
Fanou-Fogny, N.M.L.; Dam, van B.; Koreissi, Y.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Brouwer, I.D.
Objective: To identify factors influencing intention to consume an indigenous nutritious grain, fonio (Digitaria exilis), among women in Mali. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Health Belief Model. Setting and Participants: One hundred and
Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming
This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays. PMID:24256420
Full Text Available We conducted a cohort study to investigate if the vessel calcifications (VCs found in the distal extremities are an index of low bone mass at multiskeletal sites. A total of 332 healthy women aged 41–80 years were recruited for bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density measurement using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Seven percent of the women showed VC at both upper and lower distal extremities based on pQCT images. Women who had VC were then compared with their age-matched non-VC counterparts. Results showed that peripheral VC was mainly formed at distal lower extremities, and the prevalence of VC increased with advancing age, with 0%, 5.6%, 9.3%, and up to 34.5% in the age groups of 41–50 years, 51–60 years, 61–70 years, and 71–80 years, respectively. Compared with the control group, the VC group showed a significantly higher body mass index (25.2 vs. 23.2, p < 0.01, lower BMC at the spine (27.4 g vs. 31.3 g, p < 0.05, and lower BMC (1.8 g vs. 2.0 g, p < 0.05 and bone mineral density (0.57 g/cm2 vs. 0.66 g/cm2, p < 0.05 at the hip as measured by DXA. The diagnosis of VC in the distal extremities by pQCT increased the diagnosis sensitivity of osteoporosis by 50%. The significance of our findings imply that in clinical settings using pQCT for bone assessment and identification of patients with VC in the distal extremities, patients should also be referred for central DXA measurement at the femoral neck for diagnosis of osteoporosis as well as further assessment of vascular disorders.
Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte;
and gestational age, with single parenthood and with mother having smoked during pregnancy. Onset between 2 weeks and 4 months was associated with congenital disorders and serious somatic illness, and with deviant mother-child relationship, whereas, onset between 4 and 8 months seemed to represent a group...... of children with feeding problems arising de novo in otherwise healthy children. In conclusion, weight faltering in infancy is clearly associated with contemporary measured feeding problems, but the risk mechanisms involved differ in early vs. late onset....
Mandelli, Laura; Toscano, Elena; Porcelli, Stefano; Fabbri, Chiara; Serretti, Alessandro
In this study we evaluated the role of a candidate gene for major psychosis, Sialyltransferase (ST8SIA2), in the risk to develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorders, taking into account exposure to stressful life events (SLEs). Eight polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in 94 Schizophreniainpatients and 176 healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients were also evaluated for SLEs in different life periods. None of the SNPs showed association with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, when crossing genetic variants with childhood SLEs, we could observe trends of interaction with age of onset. Though several limitations, our results support a protective role of ST8SIA2 in individuals exposed to moderate childhood stress. PMID:27081388
Erke, M. G.; Bertelsen, G.; Peto, T.;
regression analyses were performed based on questionnaires addressing habits of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, health and medication; and physical examination comprising anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and blood sampling. Cardiovascular disease status was obtained from a...... validated end-point registry. ResultsGradable photographs were available for 2631 participants, of whom 92 (3.5%) subjects had late AMD. In the multivariable analysis of late AMD, significant interactions were found between sex and the variables age, triglyceride level, use of lipid-lowering drugs and...
Park Sang Wook
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to know about Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture. Methods: First 20 Middle Aged women are diagnosed by pulse diagnosis, and then Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(1 injection 20cc were injected. 30 minutes later, pulse diagnosis again performed. As a result, method of one-group pretest-posttes design were used for evaluation. Results: T(Total pulse cycle time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan,cheok. T4 time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan, cheok. T4-T1/T indexs except left cheokmaek, Right cheokmaek observation area decreased significantly in four sites.Wm(indicating high pressure retention time indexs increased significantly in the five sites were observed except right chon maek. Conclusions: Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture increased T, T4, Wm and decreased T4-T1/T indexs. The results of this experiment,Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture induced to increase the Pulse-wave's stability and strength.
Full Text Available Anaemia is one of the significant public health problems among children in the world. Understanding risk factors of anaemia provides more insight to the nature and types of policies that can be put up to fight anaemia. We estimated the prevalence and risk factors of anaemia in a population-based, cross-sectional survey.Blood samples from 11,711 children aged between 6 months and 14 years were collected using a single-use, spring-loaded, sterile lancet to make a finger prick. Anaemia was measured based on haemoglobin concentration level. The generalized linear model framework was used to analyse the data, in which the response variable was either a child was anemic or not anemic.The overall prevalence of anaemia among the children in Kenya was estimated to be 28.8%. Across each band of age within which the definition of anaemia remained constant (0–4, 5–11, and 12–14 years old, the prevalence of anaemia declined with each year of age. [corrected]. The risk of anaemia was significantly higher in male than female children. Mothers with secondary and above education had a protective effect on the risk of anaemia on their children. Malaria diagnosis status of a child was positively associated with risk anaemia.Controlling co-morbidity of malaria and improving maternal knowledge are potential options for reducing the burden of anaemia.
Full Text Available AIM: Increase in aged population in number brings along the risk of falls and fall-related injuries among elderly. It has been reported that almost 60% of falls occur in nursing homes and majority of admissions to emergency departments due to falls consist of elderly. The purpose of this study conducted in a nursing home in Ankara was to determine the frequency of falls and risk factors, and to clear out the opinions and views of the participants on planning and promoting interventions for prevention. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 60 years of age and older residents who lived in a nursing home. Data of the study was collected via face to face interviewing technique. The questionnaire consisted of four sections including socio-demographic characteristics, health status of the participants, healthy/risky behavior and fall related characteristics. RESULTS: Mean age of the 75 female and 59 male participants involved in the study was 73.99+/-7.18. Females were found to fall more in frequency than males (p>0.05. It was found that nearly half of the males (47.5% and more than half of the females (56.0% fell at least once within the previous year. Number of falls were higher among 75 years of age and older participants compared to the other age groups (p=0.003. Compared to the participants with fall background, aged people without fall background gave more correct answers in number to the questions which were asked to assess the knowledge on falls. Six out of 20 answers were statistically significantly correct (p <0.05. CONCLUSION: Individual and environmental interventions to be continued both inside and outside the institutions in order to prevent falls. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 23-32
Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To study the epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among people over 60 years old in the Nan’an district (urban and Jiangjin district (rural of Chongqing, and to discuss the corresponding strategies for its prevention and cure. Methods: Records of traffic injuries in people over 60 years old registered by the traffic police between 2000 and 2006 in Nan’an district and Jiangjin district were collected in the Database of Road Traffic Accidents and Traffic Injuries. Epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among the aged people were analyzed and compared. Results: Between the year 2000 and 2006, the average annual incidence of traffic injuries and mortality rate in the aged people in Nan’an district were 124.62/100 000 and 13.85/ 100 000 respectively, higher than that in Jiangjin district (27.49/ 100 000, 7.13/100 000, P<0.01. However, the mortality rate for the aged people who were involved in traffic injuries in Jiangjin district was 20.60%, higher than that in Nan’an district (10.00%, P<0.01. Head injury was the primary cause of death. Totally 76.58% of casualties were pede-strians. Over 90% of the traffic accidents occurred in the areas with no traffic signal or traffic control system. Conclusions: The traffic environment is unfavorable to the aged people. It is important to enhance traffic safety consciousness of drivers and the elderly and to strengthen traffic safety system and traffic law, so as to provide a safe road traffic environment for the aged people. Key words: Aged; Epidemiology; Accidents, traffic; Risk factors
Khan, M I; Ochiai, R L; Soofi, S B; Von-Seidlein, L; Khan, M J; Sahito, S M; Habib, M A; Puri, M K; Park, J K; You, Y A; Ali, M; Nizami, S Q; Acosta, C J; Bradley-Sack, R; Clemens, J D; Bhutta, Z A
We analysed the data from the control group in a typhoid vaccine trial in Karachi to assess the differences in individual-, household- and cluster-level characteristics for developing typhoid fever. The annual incidence of typhoid in children aged 2-16 years in the control arm of the vaccine trial was 151/100 000 population. After adjustment, the risk of typhoid was lower with increasing age [risk ratio (RR) 0·89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·83-0·95], was higher with an increase in population density (RR 1·13, 95% CI 1·05-1·21) and was lower in the households using a safe drinking-water source (RR 0·63, 95% CI 0·41-0·99). Typhoid fever affects younger children living in areas of high population density and lack of access to safe water in Pakistan. A combination of environmental and biological interventions is required to prevent the continued epidemiological and economic impact of typhoid fever in high-risk areas of Pakistan.
Full Text Available To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide.A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis.The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35 and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31 were associated with higher prevalence of anemia.Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women groups.
Full Text Available A relatively large number of women in their 40s with high-density breasts, in which it can be difficult to detect lesions, are encountered in mammography cancer screenings in Japan. Here, we retrospectively investigated factors related to breast density. Two hundred women (40-49 years old were examined at the screening center in our hospital. Multivariate analysis showed that factors such as small abdominal circumference, high HDL cholesterol, and no history of childbirth were related to high breast density in women in their 40s undergoing mammography. Other non-mammographic screening methods should be considered in women with abdominal circumferences ＜76cm, HDL-C >53mg/dl, and no history of childbirth, as there is a strong possibility of these women having high-density breasts that can make lesion detection difficult.
Nadien, Margot B
Research findings suggest that one or more factors-personality and/or drug or financial dependency, cognitive and personality impairments, contextual factors, or severe stress-render elders vulnerable to caregiver maltreatment (i.e., either abuse or neglect), but may also make them more prone to abusing their caregivers. However, it is often the interaction between elders and caregivers that determines whether maltreatment will actually occur. Maltreatment of elders is less likely when caregivers (1) are free of mental impairments and of drug and personality dependency, (2) are trained to cope with the stress of caregiving and of highly provocative and/or abusive elders, (3) and are adequately reimbursed and socially supported. PMID:17189504
Asres, Yaregal; Yemane, Tilahun; Gedefaw, Lealem
Background. Anemia affects one-quarter of the world's population; nonpregnant women were one of the groups for whom it is common, making it a global public health problem. Objective. To determine prevalence and risk factors of anemia among nonpregnant women of childbearing age in Jimma town southwest Ethiopia. Methodology. We conducted a community based cross-sectional study involving 441 nonpregnant women. Data was collected over two months of period. We collected sociodemographic and related data using structured questionnaire. We collected four milliliters of venous blood and five grams of stool samples from each study participant for hematological and parasitological analysis. We performed statistical analysis using SPSS-V 16 software. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.1% (n = 71) with mean hemoglobin 12.96 g/dL (±1.04), among which 97.2% (n = 69) were mildly anemic. Age group of 25-36 years old, lower economic level, illiteracy, multiparity, having intestinal parasitic infection, using more than two sanitary pads per day during menstruation period, and low body mass index were found to be risk factors of anemia among the group. Conclusion. Prevalence of anemia indicates mild public health importance which shows it was indeed public health problem. Identified risk factors should be considered for prevention and control of anemia among the group. PMID:27355074
To investigate the uptake rate of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing among Hong Kong Chinese males aged 50 or above, and identify factors associated with the likelihood of undergoing a PSA test. A population-based telephone survey was conducted in Hong Kong in 2007. The survey covered demographic information, perceived health status, use of complementary therapy, cancer screening behavior, perceived susceptibility to cancer and family history of cancer. Descriptive statistics, percentages and logistic regression analysis were used for data analysis. A total of 1,002 men aged 50 or above took part in the study (response rate =67%), and the uptake rate of PSA testing was found to be 10%. Employment status, use of complementary therapy, perceiving regular visits to a doctor as good for health and the recommendations of health professionals were significant factors associated with PSA testing. The uptake rate of PSA testing in the study population was very low. Among all the factors identified, recommendations from health professionals had the strongest association with the uptake of PSA testing, and they should therefore take an active role in educating this population about cancer prevention and detection
Van Cauwenberg Jelle; Clarys Peter; de Bourdeaudhuij Ilse; Van Holle Veerle; Verté Dominique; De Witte Nico; De Donder Liesbeth; Buffel Tine; Dury Sarah; Deforche Benedicte
Abstract Background Socio-ecological models emphasize the relationship between the physical environment and physical activity (PA). However, knowledge about this relationship in older adults is limited. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the relationship between area of residence (urban, semi-urban or rural) and older adults' walking and cycling for transportation and recreation. Additionally, relationships between several physical environmental factors and walking and cycling a...
Jason R Randall
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environmental risk factors were tested using multinomial logistic regression for their association with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS: The survey indicated that 23.2% had thought about suicide and 28.3% had made a suicide attempt in the previous year. Anxiety, loneliness, being bullied, alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and lack of parental support were independently related to the ideation outcomes, suicidal ideation without planning and suicidal ideation with planning. Multinomial regression analysis, using one suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts as outcomes, revealed that female sex, anxiety, loneliness, being physically attacked, and illicit drug use were associated these outcomes. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of suicide attempts reported in the survey is relatively high. It is possible that there are cultural factors that could explain this finding. Our research indicates that many factors are related to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth in Benin. Illicit drug use and violence in particular are associated with a high rate of suicide attempts in Benin. Measures to address these issues may reduce the risk of self-inflicted violence.
Full Text Available The paper identified factor structure of the psychophysical preparedness of Suvorov military school. It is presented a structural and functional hierarchy of the leading and background components of psychomotor, and focal conditioned qualities, which allows to develop a program of psychophysical training troops aimed at improving the psychomotor, conditioned and coordination abilities to enhance professional-applied physical training and psycho-physical readiness to meet the challenges of the future military career.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of circulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 have been demonstrated in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD. The aim of this study was to analyse levels of MMP-9 in a population free from symptomatic CAD and investigate their associations with cardiovascular (CV risk factors, including C-reactive protein (CRP. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in a population based random sample aged 45-69 (n = 345, 50% women. MMP-9 levels were measured in EDTA-plasma using an ELISA-method. CV risk factors were measured using questionnaires and standard laboratory methods. RESULTS: Plasma MMP-9 was detectable in all participants, mean 38.9 ng/mL (SD 22.1 ng/mL. Among individuals without reported symptomatic CAD a positive association (p<0.001 was seen, for both men and women, of MMP-9 levels regarding total risk load of eight CV risk factors i.e. blood pressure, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. The association was significant also after adjustment for CRP, and was not driven by a single risk factor alone. In regression models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol intake and CRP, elevated MMP-9 levels were independently positively associated with systolic blood pressure (p = 0.037, smoking (p<0.001, alcohol intake (p = 0.003 and CRP (p<0.001. The correlation coefficient between MMP-9 and CRP was r = 0.24 (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In a population without reported symptomatic CAD, MMP-9 levels were associated with total CV risk load as well as with single risk factors. This was found also after adjustment for CRP.
Subandriyo; D. W. Vogt
Many factors contribute to variation in lamb weights. Factors such as age of lamb, sex, type of birth and rearing, and ewe age at lambing obscure genetic differences among lambs. Variation associated with these factors make selection for increased weight less effective. To improve selection response, selection must be based on genotypic rather than environmentally induced superiority. It is well-documented that corrections for classifiable sources of variation render selection and culling mor...
Ruby C Castilla; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Yangang Zhang; James Perel; Matthews, Karen A.
Objective: Depression may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality, but the mechanism(s) for the association are not established. The present study examined the relationship between one possible mechanism, hemostatic factors, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. Method: We measured levels of fibrinogen, Factor VIIc, plasminogen activator inhibitor antigen-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator antigen (TPA-ag) in 3,016 women aged 42-52 years enro...
Jacobs, Robin J; Thomlison, Barbara
Objectives. This study explores the contribution of psychosocial factors on sex behaviors of midlife and older women. Methods. A community-based sample of ethnically diverse women (N = 572) between the ages of 50 and 93 completed standardized measures of self-silencing, self-esteem, sensation seeking behavior, HIV-related stigma behavior, sexual assertiveness, and safer sex behaviors. Results. Results from the regression analysis indicated the model significantly predicted safer sex behaviors (p self silencing(â = -.115, p predictors.Bivariate correlation analysis indicated an inverse correlation between HIV stigma (p < .05) and safer sex behaviors. Discussion. Implications for further study and practice are discussed to include considerations for development of age- and gender-appropriate prevention interventions assisting women with interpersonal processes combined with skills for active involvement in addressing high-risk sex behaviors. PMID:19144971
The aim of this work was an evaluation of the dynamics of age structure and population for the city of Ozyorsk, based in connection with creation of the nuclear plant Mayak, the 'first-born' of the Russian atomic industry. The obtained results indicate that since 1950 demographic processes in Ozyorsk were more favorable, in spite of fact that it was in this period workers of Mayak nuclear plant and population as a whole, got comparatively greater radiation doses than in the following years. However, dynamics the number of population has an unfavorable trend to reduce, connected with sharp worsening of social-economic situation in the town as a whole, as a result of the economic reforms in the country. Reduction of the number of population in the town is expressed by the negative natural growth and by reducing migration processes, which resulted in sharp decrease of the general growth of population, and in its stopping in 1998. (authors)
Wilson, A A; Branch, L G
Data collected from 496 elders aged 75 years or older participating in the Massachusetts Health Care Panel Study were analyzed by means of multiple regression to determine the principal predictors of perceived need for care and of dental users. The relationship between perceived need and use of services also was examined. The significant variables influencing perceived need in elders were poorer self-perceived oral health, having some teeth, and reporting a dental visit within two years. Dental users were best predicted by dentate status, a history of alcohol consumption, and perceived need for care. Although the variables of perceived need and being a user each influenced the other, both were more influenced by a common significant predictor variable, dentate status. PMID:3464632
Valcárcel-Ocete, Leire; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Iriondo, Mikel; Fullaondo, Asier; García-Barcina, María; Fernández-García, José Manuel; Lezcano-García, Elena; Losada-Domingo, José María; Ruiz-Ojeda, Javier; Álvarez de Arcaya, Amaia; Pérez-Ramos, José María; Roos, Raymund A. C.; Nielsen, Jørgen E.; Saft, Carsten; Zubiaga, Ana M.; Aguirre, Ana
Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp) in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the contribution of candidate genetic factors to HD AO in order to gain insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this disorder. For that purpose, two AO definitions were used: the earliest age with unequivocal signs of HD (earliest AO or eAO), and the first motor symptoms age (motor AO or mAO). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed between genetic variation within 20 candidate genes and eAO or mAO, using DNA and clinical information of 253 HD patients from REGISTRY project. Gene expression analyses were carried out by RT-qPCR with an independent sample of 35 HD patients from Basque Country Hospitals. We found suggestive association signals between HD eAO and/or mAO and genetic variation within the E2F2, ATF7IP, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, LINC01559, HIP1 and GRIK2 genes. Among them, the most significant was the association between eAO and rs2742976, mapping to the promoter region of E2F2 transcription factor. Furthermore, rs2742976 T allele patient carriers exhibited significantly lower lymphocyte E2F2 gene expression, suggesting a possible implication of E2F2-dependent transcriptional activity in HD pathogenesis. Thus, E2F2 emerges as a new potential HD AO modifier factor. PMID:26148071
Full Text Available Background: New information and communication technologies have become an important part of adolescents' everyday lives. However, the sedentary behaviour of young people in Central Europe has become more similar to that found in Western European countries. This study can provide baseline data for a future comparison and investigation of lifestyle and health behaviours in this region in the future. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess country, age, and gender differences in the prevalence of sedentary behaviour activities and family-related factors among school-aged children. Methods: Using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study was performed in 2013, collecting data from 11- and 15-year-old Slovak (n = 488 and Czech (n = 418 children. The data was explored using c2 tests to determine statistical significance. Results: Two-thirds of the respondents watch television or use a computer for at least two hours a day. The older children (older vs. younger: 73.6% vs. 53.9%, c2 = 35.6, p < .001 spent excessive amounts of time watching television. More than half of the children have a television (51.9% or a computer (73.0% in their bedroom. More than half of their parents rarely or never apply rules about how long they can watch TV (63.9% or time spent on the computer (55.5%. The Slovak children reported watching television together with their parents every day significantly more frequently than their Czech peers (Slovak vs. Czech children 31.0% vs. 18.7%, c2 = 17.9, p < .001. Conclusions: The prevalence of screen-based behaviour is relatively high, as is screen time spent together with parents, especially among the Slovak children. Moreover, many children reported that their parents rarely or never applied rules about the length and content of their television watching or time spent on the computer.
Valcárcel-Ocete, Leire; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Iriondo Oresanz, Mikel; Fullaondo Elordui-Zapaterieche, Asier; García-Barcina, María; Fernández-García, José Manuel; Lezcano-García, Elena; Losada-Domingo, José María; Ruiz-Ojeda, Javier; Álvarez de Arcaya, Amaia; Pérez- Ramos, José María; Roos, Raymund A.C.; Nielsen, Jørgen E.; Saft, Carsten; REGISTRY Investigators of the European Huntington?s Disease Network
Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp) in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the contribution of candidate genetic factors to HD AO in order to gain insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this disorder. For that purpose, two AO definitions w...
Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country.We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005 Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000 and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005 women of reproductive age (15-49 years were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM. The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots.The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH(3 or CO(2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E, radicalism (Q(1, self-sentiment integration (Q(3, and ergic tension (Q(4, and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in
Flegr, Jaroslav; Geryk, Jan; Volný, Jindra; Klose, Jiří; Černochová, Dana
Background Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH3 or CO2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E), radicalism (Q1), self-sentiment integration (Q3), and ergic tension (Q4), and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD) was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. Conclusions RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year) was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in future studies. PMID
Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede
Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. Method We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005) Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS) were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000) and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005) women of reproductive age (15–49 years) were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM). The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF) with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots. Result The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated
Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.
The objective of this study is to clarify the theoretical problem and identify factors that could explain the level of continuance intention of e-shopping in context of Saudi Arabia. The study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure age differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample (n=465) consists of 68.8% women and 31.4% men, 348 younger than 35 years old and 117 older than 3...
Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae
[Purpose] This study investigated the status of women’s sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women’s health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women’s sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea’s P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and q...
Cassar-Malek, I; Guillemin, N; Hocquette, J-F; Micol, D; Bauchart, D; Picard, B; Jurie, C
We have recently shown that the expression of the DNAJA1 gene encoding a heat shock protein (Hsp40) is a negative marker of meat tenderness in Charolais bulls. To acquire knowledge on the regulation of DNAJA1 expression, we analysed the abundance of DNAJA1 transcripts and protein during development and according to management factors (e.g. feeding treatments, growth path and stress status) in different bovine muscles during postnatal life. We report here a developmental expression profile for DNAJA1 with decreased levels of transcript and protein during the progression of myogenesis. During postnatal life, we found the highest expression of DNAJA1 in the most oxidative muscles. No effect was detected for dietary treatment (pasture v. maize-based diet), growth path (compensatory growth after a restriction period) or pre-slaughter stress status. Therefore, the genetic background and muscle type could be considered as the main factors regarding the level of DNAJA1. Integration of the knowledge gained from this study should help to predict muscle metabolic properties and the ability of the live animals to give high sensory quality meat. PMID:22440026
Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Enemark, Heidi L.;
groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf......To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy...... and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows. 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (≤ 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9% than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%. Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and possibly also the infection risk for human alveolar echincoccosis (AE. Therefore, interventions against the
Daniel Enrique Reyes Romagosa
Full Text Available Introduction Dental and maxillofacial anomalies have multiple and complex causes. Most frequent among these are poor oral habits. A large number of children present with oral malocclusions, most of which are caused by deforming oral habits. It is important to learn about risk factors for this condition in order to institute preventive measures, early detection and treatment, and identification of low- and high-risk groups. Objectives To identify risk factors associated with deforming oral habits, which, if maintained over time, are responsible for occlusion defects, speech disorders, and can affect physical and emotional child development. Methods A case-control study of children presenting with deforming oral habits in the municipality of Manzanillo in Granma province was conducted between January and August 2013. 540 children aged 5 to 11 were included of which 180 had deforming oral habits and were asked to fill out a survey to identify specific type of habits leading to malocclusion. The case group was composed of children with deforming habits, and the remaining 360 children without poor oral habits were the control group. Each case was randomly matched to two control cases. The children’s mothers were also surveyed to gather supplemental information. Results Children with deforming oral habits were mostly female. At age 10, onychophagia was the predominant oral deforming habit. Risk factors detected for these habits were sociobiological maternal and child variables such as low and high birth weight, maternal breastfeeding inexperience, and discord in the family. Conclusions The study identified likely risk factors associated with deforming oral habits. These are discord in the family, birth weight, and lack of breastfeeding experience.
Vance, David E; Struzick, Thomas C
With advances in life-extending medications and later- life infections, the number of older adults with HIV is increasing. Unfortunately, the synergistic effects of aging with HIV may place many people at risk of developing cognitive impairments which can disrupt everyday functioning. Fortunately, cognitive reserve may be maintained, or in some cases improved, by taking action to prevent or mitigate such loss. Preventative and treatment strategies that support biopsychosocial aspects of cognition include reducing alcohol and substance use; improving nutrition; diminishing the effects of comorbidities; increasing social contact; reducing depression and stress levels; engaging in cognitively stimulating activities; applying cognitive remediation therapies; and incorporating psychopharmacological interventions. Such strategies can improve the physiological integrity and health of the brain, thus supporting neuroplasticity and increasing cognitive reserve. Social workers are in a favorable position to recognize cognitive decline in clients and recommend or administer solutions to address such problems. A model for social workers advocating for older clients with HIV who have cognitive problems is provided. PMID:17953062
Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Gale, Catharine R;
(i) examine the relation, if any, of pre-morbid IQ scores at 20 years of age with the risk of later cancer mortality; and (ii) explore the role, if any, of potential mediating factors (e.g. smoking, obesity), assessed in middle age, in explaining the IQ-cancer relation.......(i) examine the relation, if any, of pre-morbid IQ scores at 20 years of age with the risk of later cancer mortality; and (ii) explore the role, if any, of potential mediating factors (e.g. smoking, obesity), assessed in middle age, in explaining the IQ-cancer relation....
Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Bayona, Edgardo; Leon, Martha E
Writing has dramatically evolved in the world; however, qualification of scientific production in Colombia has not, including the improper use of decree 1444/93 and 1279/02. The last of these decrees authorized Colciencias, the Colombian government institute created to support scientific research in Colombia, to establish rules for its implementation. Colciencias decided to evaluate scientific papers produced in Colombia based on the non-scientific method of the "impact factor", and considered that citations in MEDLINE/PubMed and PsylNFO were second line publications thus violating Colombian law. This affects not only the progress of scientific research in Colombia but also researchers' income and puts Colombia's scientific journals and publications at great disadvantage. Scientific papers indexed in qualified databases such as MEDLINE/PubMed must be judged according to law in order to prevent further injuries to the developing Colombian scientific production. PMID:16149281
Barja Yáñez, Salesa; Arnaiz Gómez, Pilar; Villarroel Del Pino, Luis; Domínguez de Landa, Angélica; Castillo Valenzuela, Oscar; Farías Jofré, Marcelo; Mardones Santander, Francisco
Introducción: Las dislipidemias son un factor de riesgo cardiovascular clave, en aumento ya desde la niñez. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la prevalencia, tipo de dislipidemias y factores asociados, en una población de niños chilenos. Métodos: Estudio transversal en escolares de Santiago de Chile (2009-2011). Se realizó antropometría, encuesta de antecedentes familiares a los padres y de actividad física a los niños. En muestra sanguínea de ayunas se midió perfil lipídico, glicemia e insulinemia. Resultados: Se reclutaron 2900 escolares de 11,42±0,97 años de edad, 52% mujeres, todos euglicémicos. Según IMC, 22,5% tenía sobrepeso y 15,3% obesidad. Al considerar los límites recomendados para cada lípido, 69,3% se encontraba en rango aceptable, 19,2% en riesgo y 11,5% en alto riesgo cardiovascular. En total, 32% de la población presentó alguna forma clínica de dislipidemia: Hipertrigliceridemia aislada (9,4%), Bajo C-HDL (7,6%), Hipercolesterolemia aislada (4,9%), Dislipidemia aterogénica (6,24%) y Dislipidemia mixta (3,9%). Excepto la hipercolesterolemia aislada, las demás dislipidemias fueron más frecuentes en las niñas (36,2% vs. 27,4%, p.
Arvind Kumar, Sandeep Garg, Hem Lata Gupta
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease(CAD in apparently healthy middle aged and elderly population and to find the different betweenurban and rural group.Atotal of 160 individuals (80 urban and 80 rural were included in the study.All the subjects underwent detailed history and physical examination with special emphasis oncardiovascular system. The biochemical investigations were done in all the subjects which includedblood sugar, serum LDL and serum triglyceride levels. The prevalence of 2 or more than 2 riskfactors were observed in 95% subjects. The prevalence of smoking was 63%, which was moreprevalent in the rural population. The sedentary lifestyle was seen in 80% subjects more in femalesand urban group. The prevalence of asymptomatic hypertensives and isolated systolic hypertensionwere seen in 34% and 10% individuals respectively. Other risk factors were-diabetes mellitus (4%,Increase LDL (38%, hypertriglyceridemia (23% and central obesity (27.50%. The two mostcommon risk factors for CADwere sedentary lifestyle and smoking. These risk factors are modifiableand their reduction during adulthood can lead to marked reduction in the burden of CAD in middleaged and elderly Indian population.
Vishram, Julie K K; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H;
OBJECTIVE: To investigate age-related shifts in the relative importance of SBP and DBP as predictors of cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality and whether these relations are influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Using 42 cohorts from the MORGAM Project with baseline...... 82 mmHg [1.03 (1.02-1.05)]. BP values below the cut-points were inversely related to mortality risk. Taking into account the age × BP interaction, there was a gradual shift from DBP (19-26 years) to both DBP and SBP (27-62 years) and to SBP (63-78 years) as risk factors for stroke mortality and all...... between 1982 and 1997, 85 772 apparently healthy Europeans and Australians aged 19-78 years were included. During 13.3 years of follow-up, 9.2% died (of whom 7.2% died due to stroke and 21.1% due to coronary heart disease, CHD). RESULTS: Mortality risk was analyzed using hazard ratios per 10-mmHg/5-mm...
Full Text Available Background Anxiety is one of the most common childhood disorders, so it is necessary to explore extend and its related factors in the students. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anxiety and the related factors of anxiety among the children aged 9-12 years. Materials and Methods At a descriptive-analytic study 623 children aged 9-12 year- old who were studying in the fourth to sixth grade of elementary school in Dezful city, were selected through multistage random sampling. The data were collected using demographic profile questionnaire and School Anxiety Scale (SAS using SPSS-16. Results Of total 623 students, 36.3% were girls. 232 (37.2% students had mild anxiety, 304 students (48.8% had moderate anxiety and 87 students (14% had severe anxiety. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of children anxiety and the number of children in family (P0.0.5. Conclusion This study showed that the prevalence of anxiety was higher in boyes, children who were single children, children who had a family history of hereditary disease, and children who experienced corporal punishment at home. It is recommended arranging programs including training, counseling, and psychotherapy ones for these children and their families.
Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C
We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20-90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (Ppatterns of atrophy were partially overlapping with, but notably deviating from those typically found in AD. Subjects with ABA had higher SPARE-AD values; largely due to the partial spatial overlap of associated patterns in temporal regions. The AD polygenic risk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD. PMID:27045845
Full Text Available Premature disposal of female calves before reaching milch herd and undesirable disposal of lactating cows are the major constraints in achieving larger herd size. During the early lactations, younger cows are supposed to give higher milk yield and undesirable disposal of early calvers, thereby, greatly hampers profitability of a dairy farm. Knowledge of the incidence of disposal along with reasons in various age groups and at various parities is essential to identify which age group or parity is more vulnerable for disposal. Moreover, knowledge of various genetic and non-genetic factors associated with disposal of animals may also be helpful in developing breeding and management strategies to reduce the incidence of disposal. In most of the studies, it was found that major reasons of disposal of dairy cattle were mortality among female calves and involuntary culling among adult lactating cows. Maximum mortality in female calves was observed during earlier ages and pneumonia, gastro-enteritis and debility were major reasons of female calf mortality. Whereas, most of the adult cows left the herd, due to teat and udder and reproductive problems. Moreover, indigenous breeds were found to be more adapted to Indian tropical climatic conditions in comparison to crossbred and exotic cattle breeds.
Forns, Joan; Torrent, Maties; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Cáceres, Alejandro; Pilar Gomila, María; Martinez, David; Morales, Eva; Julvez, Jordi; Grimalt, Joan O; Sunyer, Jordi
Prenatal and early-life exposures can affect the course of children's neuropsychological development well into pre-adolescence, given the vulnerability of the developing brain. However, it is unknown which socio-environmental factors at early childhood can influence specific cognitive processes like attention at a later age. In this study, we aim to determine social and environmental exposures in early childhood that may be associated with attention function of 11-year-olds. We measured attention function using the continuous performance test-II (CPT-II) on 393 11-year old children from the Menorca's birth-cohort within the INMA-project (Spain), and pre-selected a list of socio-environmental observations taken when they were up to 4 years of age. We found that earlier socio-environmental characteristics, such as parental social class, educational level and maternal mental health are associated with later inattentive and impulsive symptomatology through a higher rate of omission and commission errors. In addition, omission errors were higher in children with atopy and lower in those whose mothers took dietary supplementation with folic acid and vitamins during pregnancy. Breastfeeding played a protective role against commission errors, while higher DDE and PCBs levels at age 4 were associated with slow speed response. Our findings suggest that a number of life socio-environmental factors during prenatal life and early childhood, such as socio-demographic characteristics, breastfeeding, maternal nutritional supplementation with folic acid and vitamins and exposure to some organochlorine compounds may influence inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptomatology during pre-adolescence. PMID:22608140
Objective: Iranian breast cancer patients are relatively younger than their Western counterparts. The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors for breast cancer in Iranian women and compare it with other data driven from other studies. Methods: A study was conducted in April 2008 in Tehran, Iran. Demographical data and risk factor related information, including data from their mammograms were collected using a questionnaire. Results: In all, 109 participants were interviewed. The mean age of participants was 40.48 +- 0.56 years. 1.8% of women were unmarried, while 78% were married and 20.2% were divorced/widowed. The mean age for menarche was 13.34 +-1.47 years and 46.89+-4.98 for the menopause, respectively. The mean parity time was 2.36+-1.13 and breast feeding in women was 23.27+-14.16 months. About 5.5% of the participants used oral contraceptive as a method for contraception. 8.3% of women experienced menopause, at the mean age of 46.89+-4.98. 33.3% of Mendip's women, used Hormone Replace Therapy (HRT).Moreover, 8.3% of women had a positive history of breast cancer in their family. Of those women on whom mammography was done, 10.1% had breast mass in radiological findings, mostly in favour of fibrocystic change. In 20.2% of participants, further investigation was advised. Conclusion: The findings of the present study were in accordance with other studies done in Iran and in some aspects in tune with other studies about breast cancer in other countries. However, more multi centric larger scale studies should be conducted in Iran to determine a pattern for breast cancer in Iranian women. (author)
L. V. Repin
Full Text Available An article describes radiation risk factors for several gender-age population groups according to Russian statistical and medical-demographic data, evaluates the lethality rate for separate nosologic forms of malignant neoplasms based on Russian cancer registries according to the method of the International Agency for Cancer Research. Relative damage factors are calculated for the gender-age groups under consideration. The tissue weighting factors recommended by ICRP to calculate effective doses are compared with relative damage factors calculated by ICRP for the nominal population and with similar factors calculated in this work for separate population cohorts in theRussian Federation. The significance of differences and the feasibility of using tissue weighting factors adapted for the Russian population in assessing population risks in cohorts of different gender-age compositions have been assessed.
Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human populations for environmental or occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, particularly ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for assessing radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. To further define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry, a study to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habit) on the spontaneous and radiation induced MN frequencies was performed. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 healthy donors aged between 4 and 62 years. On the basis of their smoking habit they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed and also a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was obtained (R2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence MN variability significantly but there was a greater dispersion in the results for females when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ rays for doses below 2 Gy. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Objective: To investigate the effect of Astragalus injection (Al) on plasma levels of apoptosis-related factors in aged patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods: Seventy-two CHF patients were randomly divided into the Al group (36 cases) treated with Al and the control group (36 cases) treated with conventional treatment. Plasma levels of soluble Fas (sFas), soluble Fas ligand (sFasL), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with monoclonal anti-human antibodies. Besides, New York Heart Association (NYHA) grading was assessed according to improved symptoms and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were assessed by echocardiogram after 4 weeks of treatment. Results: After 4 weeks of treatment, NYHA grading was markedly improved in the two groups, but it was significantly better in Al group than that in the control group (P＜0.05). As compared with the control group, sFas, sFasL,TNF-α and IL-6 in the Al group were obviously lower, the difference between the two groups and between before and after treatment were significant (P＜0.05 or P 0.01).Moreover, in Al group, LVESV and LVEDV decreased, LVEF increased, which was significantly different than that before treatment (P＜0.05), respectively. Conclusion: Al could lower plasma levels of apoptosisrelated factors, and is one of the effective drugs in improving cardiac function in the aged patients with CHF.
Fablet, C; Marois-Créhan, C; Grasland, B; Simon, G; Rose, N
Factors associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection were investigated in 109 herds. Serums from four batches of pigs (4, 10, 16 and 22 weeks, 15 pigs/batch) were tested by ELISA for PRRSV antibodies. Infection by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza A viruses (swIAV) and PCV2 were detected by specific serological or PCR tests. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management housing and climatic conditions were collected during a herd visit. Factors associated with the herd's PRRSV seropositive status were identified by logistic regression. Large herd size, the lack of disinsectisation in the gestation facilities, on-farm semen collection, a short time-period for gilt quarantine and a low temperature setpoint for the ventilation controller in the fattening room significantly increased the odds of a herd being seropositive for PRRSV. Infection by Mhp and H1N2 swIAV were associated with a PRRSV seropositive status. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the factors associated with the age-time to seroconversion in infected herds. Joint housing for the gilts and sows when lactating, a large nursery pen, a small number of pens per fattening room and lack of all-in all-out management in the fattening section significantly reduced the age-time to seroconversion. A small range of temperatures controlling ventilation rate in the nursery room was also associated with time to PRRSV seroconversion. Infection by Mhp and a high PCV2 infection pressure were associated with a shorter time to seroconversion. Biosecurity measures minimising the risk of introducing PRRSV into the herd, management practices reducing contacts between animals from different batches and within batches and favourable climatic conditions should be implemented to better control PRRSV infection. PMID:27527759
Suzuki, Mihoko; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Du, Zhao-Jiang; Xie, Ping; Matsumura, Nagakazu; Fu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Renliang; Sonoda, Koh-hei; Egashira, Kensuke; Hazen, Stanley L; Kamei, Motohiro
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in developed countries. Although pathogenic factors, such as oxidative stress, inflammation and genetics are thought to contribute to the development of AMD, little is known about the relationships and priorities between these factors. Here, we show that chronic photo-oxidative stress is an environmental factor involved in AMD pathogenesis. We first demonstrated that exposure to light induced phospholipid oxidation in the mouse retina, which was more prominent in aged animals. The induced oxidized phospholipids led to an increase in the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which then resulted in macrophage accumulation, an inflammatory process. Antioxidant treatment prevented light-induced phospholipid oxidation and the subsequent increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (also known as C-C motif chemokine 2; CCL2), which are the beginnings of the light-induced changes. Subretinal application of oxidized phospholipids induced choroidal neovascularization, a characteristic feature of wet-type AMD, which was inhibited by blocking monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. These findings strongly suggest that a sequential cascade from photic stress to inflammatory processes through phospholipid oxidation has an important role in AMD pathogenesis. Finally, we succeeded in mimicking human AMD in mice with low-level, long-term photic stress, in which characteristic pathological changes, including choroidal neovascularization formation, were observed. Therefore, we propose a consecutive pathogenic pathway involving photic stress, oxidation of phospholipids and chronic inflammation, leading to angiogenesis. These findings add to the current understanding of AMD pathology and suggest protection from oxidative stress or suppression of the subsequent inflammation as new potential therapeutic targets for AMD. PMID:22357958
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the development of child overweight. Methods The study was population-based and cross-sectional. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC centers in Malmö for their 4-year health check during 2003-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 9009 children. Results The results showed that having overweight/obese parents was strongly associated with the child being overweight or obese. Furthermore, there was an association between unfavorable early life factors (i.e., mother smoking during pregnancy, presence of secondhand tobacco smoke early in life, high birth weight and the development of child overweight/obesity at four years of age, while breastfeeding seemed to have a protective role. For example, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an odds ratio (OR of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.76 for overweight and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68, 3.17 for obesity. The results further showed synergistic effects between parental overweight and exposure to unfavourable early life factors in the development of child overweight. Conclusions The present study shows the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight and obesity, and thus puts focus on the importance of early targeted interventions.
Soto, Roxana; Guilloty, Natacha; Anzalota, Liza; Rosario, Zaira; Cordero, José F; Palacios, Cristina
The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns of pregnant women in northern Puerto Rico and explore associations between diet factors with pregnancy related measurements. This analysis is based on the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT), a prospective cohort that is studying environmental risk factors for preterm births in PR. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) around 20-28 weeks of gestation. The following pregnancy related measures were collected from the medical records: hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood pressure and gestational age. Potential associations between diet factors and pregnancy measures were assessed using chi square analysis with SPSS. A total of 180 participants completed the FFQ; low hemoglobin levels was found in 19.2%, high blood glucose levels was found in 21.1% by fasting blood glucose test and 24.6%by 1-hour 50 g oral glucose screening test, high blood pressure was found in 2.9% (systolic) and 6.5% (diastolic), and pre-term birth was found in 10.4% of the participants. High consumption of rice, desserts and sweets was associated with higher levels of fasting blood glucose levels (p desserts, can lead to high levels of blood glucose and can be a potential predictor of other pregnancy complications during pregnancy in these study participants, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:26817380
Full Text Available The practice of breastfeeding represents multiple benefits to children; however, several studies show thatthere has been a gradual loss of breastfeeding habits in industrialized and developing countries, mainly because the greatdiversity of types of milk. Additionalliy, there was the presence of biological and socio-cultural factors, which influence andmodify this practice and generate a negative impact on the health of the infant population. In Colombia, in 2005, it was reportedthat the median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 2.2 months and the median duration was 14.9 months total; likewise,the department of Bolivar reported a median slightly over a month.Objective: To determine the relationship between social and biological factors in the prevalence of exclusive breastfeedingin children under one year of age in Cartagena, Colombia.Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study, the population consisted of the mothers of 23,109 children less than oneyear of age, the sample was 562 mothers. The probability sampling was stratified by clusters of three locations in the city whereevery neighborhood was a cluster. After selecting the neighborhood, a simple random sampling was conducted by city blocks.Mothers of children under one year of age were sought in their homes in the city blocks selected. The information was collectedthrough the survey «Breastfeeding and complementary feeding» used by PROFAMILIA, demographic characteristics weredemographic characteristics were also investigated.Results: The median for breastfeeding was 2 months, social factors associated were: not using a feeding bottle (CI: 2.37-5.38, nuclear family membership (CI: 1.29-2.72, not being a mother head of household (CI: 0.27-0.62, and the biologicalfactor showing association was temporary suspension of breastfeeding (CI: 0.23-0.70.Conclusion: The duration of the exclusive breastfeeding practice among women turned out to be very short and thepractice until the sixth
Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Fauchier, Laurent; Lane, Deirdre A;
According to the latest European guidelines on the management of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), all patients aged ≥ 65 years should be treated with oral anticoagulation (if not contraindicated). Therefore, stroke risk factors should be investigated exclusively in patients with NVAF aged...
Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Sung-Ha
Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiabl...
Full Text Available Production of bio-pharmaceuticals in cell culture, such as mammalian cells, is challenging. Mathematical models can provide support to the analysis, optimization, and the operation of production processes. In particular, unstructured models are suited for these purposes, since they can be tailored to particular process conditions. To this end, growth phases and the most relevant factors influencing cell growth and product formation have to be identified. Due to noisy and erroneous experimental data, unknown kinetic parameters, and the large number of combinations of influencing factors, currently there are only limited structured approaches to tackle these issues. We outline a structured set-based approach to identify different growth phases and the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. To this end, measurement uncertainties are taken explicitly into account to bound the time-dependent specific growth rate based on the observed increase of the cell concentration. Based on the bounds on the specific growth rate, we can identify qualitatively different growth phases and (in-validate hypotheses on the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. We apply the approach to a mammalian suspension cell line (AGE1.HN. We show that growth in batch culture can be divided into two main growth phases. The initial phase is characterized by exponential growth dynamics, which can be described consistently by a relatively simple unstructured and segregated model. The subsequent phase is characterized by a decrease in the specific growth rate, which, as shown, results from substrate limitation and the pH of the medium. An extended model is provided which describes the observed dynamics of cell growth and main metabolites, and the corresponding kinetic parameters as well as their confidence intervals are estimated. The study is complemented by an uncertainty and outlier analysis. Overall, we demonstrate utility of set-based methods for analyzing cell
Borchers, Steffen; Freund, Susann; Rath, Alexander; Streif, Stefan; Reichl, Udo; Findeisen, Rolf
Production of bio-pharmaceuticals in cell culture, such as mammalian cells, is challenging. Mathematical models can provide support to the analysis, optimization, and the operation of production processes. In particular, unstructured models are suited for these purposes, since they can be tailored to particular process conditions. To this end, growth phases and the most relevant factors influencing cell growth and product formation have to be identified. Due to noisy and erroneous experimental data, unknown kinetic parameters, and the large number of combinations of influencing factors, currently there are only limited structured approaches to tackle these issues. We outline a structured set-based approach to identify different growth phases and the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. To this end, measurement uncertainties are taken explicitly into account to bound the time-dependent specific growth rate based on the observed increase of the cell concentration. Based on the bounds on the specific growth rate, we can identify qualitatively different growth phases and (in-)validate hypotheses on the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. We apply the approach to a mammalian suspension cell line (AGE1.HN). We show that growth in batch culture can be divided into two main growth phases. The initial phase is characterized by exponential growth dynamics, which can be described consistently by a relatively simple unstructured and segregated model. The subsequent phase is characterized by a decrease in the specific growth rate, which, as shown, results from substrate limitation and the pH of the medium. An extended model is provided which describes the observed dynamics of cell growth and main metabolites, and the corresponding kinetic parameters as well as their confidence intervals are estimated. The study is complemented by an uncertainty and outlier analysis. Overall, we demonstrate utility of set-based methods for analyzing cell growth and
Lou, Zheng; Yan, Fei-Hu; Hu, Shi-Jie; Meng, Rong-Gui; Zhang, Wei; Yu, En-da; Fu, Chuan-Gang
Adhensive small-bowel obstruction (SBO) remains a common cause of admission to surgical wards around the world. Given the growing elderly population, the number of elderly patients with adhensive SBO can be expected to increase substantially. Timely and appropriate treatment would improve morbidity and mortality rates in elderly patients with adhensive SBO. However, accurately determining which patients should undergo surgical treatment during the hospitalization remains difficult. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors for surgical intervention in patients aged over 80 years presenting with SBO due to postoperative adhesions. A clinical and radiological data for the assessment of patients presenting with adhensive SBO were collected. A logistic regression model was applied to identify risk factors that would predict the need of surgical intervention. A total of 21 patients (13 males, 8 females) were treated during a 3.5-year period. The mean age was 85.5 ± 4.7 years, ranging from 80 to 97 years. There is no significant difference in age (group 1 87.6 ± 5.9 years vs. group 2 84.8 ± 4.3 years, p = 0.262) between two groups. Serious coexisting diseases were noted in 13 (61.9 %, 13/21) patients. Primary hypertension, cardiac diseases, and diabetes mellitus were common coexisting conditions. However, there is no significant difference in comorbidities (40 vs. 68.8 %, p = 0.325) between group 1 and group 2. Adhensive SBO was successfully treated with conservative treatment in 16 patients (76.2 %, 16/21, group 2), whereas conservative treatment failed in 5 patients (23.8 %, 5/21, group 1), who subsequently underwent laparotomy. Postoperative complication rate was 14.3 % (wound infection, 1/5) and mortality was 0 % (0/5) in group 1. One patient death was recorded in group 2 (1/16, 6.3 %). The overall mean hospital stay was 10.0 ± 5.9 days (range 3-27 days). Group 1 had a longer hospital stay than group 2. However
Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84% o
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is conclusive evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV infections of the cervix are a necessary cause of cervical cancer. In Italy there are consistent data of HPV prevalence in women aged 25 - 64 years, but there is limited data for younger women. The objective of this on-going 3-year prospective cohort study is to investigate the prevalence, acquisition, clearance and persistence of HPV infections in young Tuscan women and the risk factors correlated with such events. Methods One thousand and sixty-six women aged between 18 and 24 years were enrolled and received an initial HPV test. They were asked to return to the clinic over the study period for further tests every 12 months, if their HPV HR result was negative, or every 6 months, if positive. Additionally, women with an HPV positive result were given a cytological examination and if the cytological diagnosis was ASC-US or more severe, only women with HPV HR, were referred for colposcopy. Results We present here data for the enrolment phase of the study. At baseline, within the study sample, just under 30% of women were infected by HPV and 19.3% of women were infected with oncogenic types. A relationship was highlighted between HPV infection, number of sexual partners (in particularly in the last 3 years and the lifetime number of partner's partners. Condom use showed a slight protective effect in univariate analysis but these data were not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. The association between HPV infection and demographic and behavioural variables were tested by crude odds ratio (OR. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to compute the adjusted odds ratios. Conclusions The prevalence of oncogenic HPV types was high in young Tuscan women. The 3-year follow-up of this cohort may provide a better understanding of the processes of acquisition, clearance and persistence of infection and the correlated risk factors.
Full Text Available Visfatin is a highly expressed protein with insulin-like functions located predominantly in visceral adipose tissue and has been linked to obesity and increased health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of combined exercise training on visfatin and metabolic syndrome factors in obese middle-aged women. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a training (n = 10 or control (n = 10 group. The training group exercised for 1 hour, 3 days per week during the 12 week supervised training program. The training program included 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (10RM resistance exercise as well as aerobic exercise at an intensity of 60-70% of their heart rate reserve (HRR. The control group was asked to maintain their normal daily activities. Two-way (group X time repeated measured analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects, but there was a significant group X time interaction for the following variables: body weight (p < 0.01, percent body fat (% fat (p < 0.01, waist hip ratio (WHR (p < 0.01, diastolic blood pressure (DBP (p < 0.05, fasting glucose level (p < 0.01, triglyceride levels (TG (p < 0.01, high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-C (p < 0.05, and visfatin (p < 0.01. In conclusion, the 12 week combined resistance and aerobic training program used in this study was very effective for producing significant benefits to body composition and metabolic syndrome factors, as well as lowering visfatin levels in these obese middle-aged women.
Two experiments were conducted on Syrian female Awassi sheep to characterise certain parameters during various reproductive stages. In experiment 1, 18 ewe lambs were tested at 5 months of age to assess pubertal parameters and affecting factors. The overall average age at puberty was 18.0 months, occurring between May and August (during the normal breeding season). There were no significant differences in time to reach puberty between ewe lambs in terms of the month of birth, type of birth (single or twin) or weaning weight. The average live weight (LWt) and serum progesterone concentration of ewe lambs at puberty were 53.7 kg and 6.32 nmol/L, respectively. A positive and significant correlation (r = 0.72, P < 0.001) was found between progesterone concentration and LWt of lambs. In experiment 2, 16 nulliparous cyclic Awassi ewes, 21 months of age, were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flugestone acetate (FGA) for a period of 14 d during the breeding season. Eight animals (Group P) were then injected intramuscularly at sponge withdrawal with 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), the remainder (Group C) acting as controls. All females exhibited oestrus and were mated within 3 d of sponge withdrawal. Twinning rates were 37.5% and 12.5% respectively for the animals in Groups P and C (P < 0.05). It is concluded that it is possible to improve the twinning rate of nulliparous Syrian Awassi ewes in their first pregnancy using eCG with no adverse effects on either the ewes or the lambs born. (author)
Semedo, Rosa M L; Santos, Marta M A S; Baião, Mirian R; Luiz, Ronir R; da Veiga, Gloria V
This study estimated the prevalence of anaemia and associated factors in a probability sample of 993 chil- dren aged 6-59 months in Cape Verde, West Africa. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated from a hierarchical model for multiple analysis to assess the association between anaemia and explanatory variables. The prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% (95% CI 47.7-55.8). Children who resided within poor household conditions (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.06-3.71) were below 24 months of age (OR 3.23; 95% CI 2.03-5.15) and recently experienced diarrhoea (OR 1.58; 95% CI 0.99-2.50) were at high risk of anaemia. Anaemia should be considered a serious public-health concern in Cape Verde, mainly for chil- dren below 24 months. Further, special consideration should be given to children who have experienced recent diarrhoea and belong to families residing in poor household conditions. PMID:25895198
Patricia K. Farris
Full Text Available Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information on the underlying mechanism of cutaneous damage and potential of topical antioxidants to treat aging skin. Combining antioxidants that can work through multiple pathways holds great potential for a cumulative and synergistic way to treat aging skin. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive review on environmental factors that damage human skin, discuss scientifically proven benefits of topical antioxidants, understand challenges of formulating and administering topical antioxidants, evaluate novel mechanisms of antioxidant activity, and suggest practical ways of integrating topical antioxidants with aesthetic procedures to complement clinical outcomes.
Full Text Available Most brain insulin comes from the pancreas and is taken up by the brain by what appears to be a receptor-based carrier. Type 2 diabetes animal models associated with insulin resistance show reduced insulin brain uptake and content. Recent data point to changes in the insulin receptor cascade in obesity-related insulin resistance, suggesting that brain insulin receptors also become less sensitive to insulin, which could reduce synaptic plasticity. Insulin transport to the brain is reduced in aging and in some animal models of type 2 diabetes; brain insulin resistance may be present as well. Studies examining the effect of the hyperinsulinic clamp or intranasal insulin on cognitive function have found a small but consistent improvement in memory and changes in brain neuroelectric parameters in evoked brain potentials consistent with improved attention or memory processing. These effects appear to be due to raised brain insulin levels. Peripheral levels of Insulin Growth Factor-I (IGF-I are associated with glucose regulation and influence glucose disposal. There is some indication that reduced sensitivity to insulin or IGF-I in the brain, as observed in aging, obesity, and diabetes, decreases the clearance of Aβ amyloid. Such a decrease involves the insulin receptor cascade and can also increase amyloid toxicity. Insulin and IGF-I may modulate brain levels of insulin degrading enzyme, which would also lead to an accumulation of Aβ amyloid.
Full Text Available Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs and biological antioxidant potential (BAP levels in dogs’ plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs (p<0.005 and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels (p<0.005 after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs.
Rodriguez Lopez, Santiago; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Lund, Rikke;
This study investigates the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and dynamic balance performance and whether lifestyle factors explained any possible associations. A total of 448 nondisabled individuals, age-range 54–75 years and enrolled in the Active Aging Longitudinal Study of Spain...... of poor balance, also after adjustment for age, gender, obesity and physical activity. In addition, obesity and sedentary physical activity were related to poor dynamic balance. The findings suggest an independent effect of both SES and behavioral factors on poor balance performance in the older Spanish...
Full Text Available Aim: To determination of prevalence of Urinary incontinence (UI, and to evaluation of relationship between UI and depression in women. Material and methods: This study is a cross-sectional type research, was realized between 05 July 2011 to 25 August 2011, among 20 and over aged women that living in Beylikova district centre. The study group was occurred 500 women. The presence of UI, its type and severity were evaluated according to criteria recommended by the International Continence Society. For the purpose of the questionnaire form prepared by the study, households were visited one by one, filled with face to face method. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was used for evaluation of depression. Chi-square test and Logistic Regression Analyses were used in statistical analyses. For statistical significance, p<0.05 were approved. Results: The ages of women were between 20 to 81 years, and average age was 46.97±15.65 years. Prevalence of UI was found 41.4% (n=207. Of the UI cases were 35.7% stress incontinence, 15.5% urge incontinence, 48.8% mixed type. Of the cases were 95 (45.9% low severity, 60 (29.0% middle severity, 52 (25.1% high severity. In this study, UI was an important risk factor in illiterates (OR: 6.617, no smoking (OR: 1.868, obes (OR: 2.777, persons with anyone chronicle disease that diagnosed by doctor (OR: 4.711, enuresis nocturna hystory in childhood age (OR: 2.600, large baby history in women who had given birth (OR: 1.947, and menopause (OR: 2.497. Prevalence of depression was found 25.4% (n=127. Prevalence of depression was higher found in the women with UI, stress type UI, and high severity UI (for each one; p<0.05. Conclusion: In this study, it was determinate that UI an important health problem in the women, and depression prevalence was higher in the women with UI. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 231-242
Roy William Mayega
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR (i.e. diabetes and pre-diabetes and its associated factors among people aged 35-60 years so as to clarify the relevance of targeted screening in rural Africa. METHODS: A population-based survey of 1,497 people (786 women and 711 men aged 35-60 years was conducted in a predominantly rural Demographic Surveillance Site in eastern Uganda. Participants responded to a lifestyle questionnaire, following which their Body Mass Index (BMI and Blood Pressure (BP were measured. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG was measured from capillary blood using On-Call® Plus (Acon rapid glucose meters, following overnight fasting. AGR was defined as FPG ≥6.1 mmol L⁻¹ (World Health Organization (WHO criteria or ≥5.6 mmol L⁻¹ (American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria. Diabetes was defined as FPG >6.9 mmol L⁻¹, or being on diabetes treatment. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 45 years for men and 44 for women. Prevalence of diabetes was 7.4% (95%CI 6.1-8.8, while prevalence of pre-diabetes was 8.6% (95%CI 7.3-10.2 using WHO criteria and 20.2% (95%CI 17.5-22.9 with ADA criteria. Using WHO cut-offs, the prevalence of AGR was 2 times higher among obese persons compared with normal BMI persons (Adjusted Prevalence Rate Ratio (APRR 1.9, 95%CI 1.3-2.8. Occupation as a mechanic, achieving the WHO recommended physical activity threshold, and higher dietary diversity were associated with lower likelihood of AGR (APRR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9; APRR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.8; APRR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.9 respectively. The direct medical cost of detecting one person with AGR was two US dollars with ADA and three point seven dollars with WHO cut-offs. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of AGR among people aged 35-60 years in this setting. Screening for high risk persons and targeted health education to address obesity, insufficient physical activity and non-diverse diets are necessary.
Full Text Available Background: Injury is one of the factors that contribute to health problems and disabilities. In Indonesia, the data oninjury and its impact are still limited and only focus on formal workers. Methods: This research aimed to describe thecharacteristics of injury by occupation and to identify factors contributed to severity (length of stay in hospital amongproductive age workers in Indonesia, using the data of National Health Research (Riskesdas in 2013. Results: We analyzed30.455 data using complex samples at 95% confi dence level. People worked as farmer, fi sherman, labor, entrepreneur,and others had more injuries in 12 months than employee (p = 0.0001. Non traffi c accident as cause of injury was alsohigher in those group of occupations than employee (p = 0.0001. The contributing factors of length of stay in hospital werethe injury with concussion (OR 23.1; 95% CI 9.2–58.1 p = 0.0001, fractures (OR 6.3; 95%CI 4.6–8.6 p = 0.0001, eyeinjury (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.2–7.3 p = 0.0001, followed by road traffi c accident (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.5–2.9 p = 0.0001, andinjury occurred in the business/industry/construction/farm area (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2–2.4 p = 0.006. Conclusion: Factorsthat contributed to the length of stay in hospital of the injury were the type of injury, cause of injury, and the area of injury.Recommendation: Efforts to overcome the injury need to be improved, especially for traffi c accidents and injury in thebusiness/industry/construction/farm area.
Full Text Available Background: As infected children represent a large proportion of the pool from which tuberculosis (TB cases will arise and its associated risk factors that influence TB infection are basic cause for burden of TB. Aim: This study was to determine the prevalence of latent TB and associated risk factors in children less than 5 year of age in Karachi, Pakistan. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study and it was conducted in tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Materials and Methods: In this study, children who were living in contact with individuals who had proven smear-positive pulmonary TB cases were investigated. A tuberculin skin test (TST was performed on each child. TST sizes ≥5 and 10 mm, respectively, were considered positive. Statistical Analysis: A random effects logistic regression model, which takes into account the clustering of contacts within households, was used to assess the relationship between the tuberculin response of the contact and risk factors. Results are reported as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess the overall significance of risk factors, tests for trend, and tests for interaction. Results: The distribution of TST responses followed a bimodal pattern, with 135 (35% children presenting a palpable induration. The risk of positive TST response in the child increased with the geographic proximity of the child to the individual with TB within the household and with the degree of activities shared with the individual with TB. Nutritional status and presence of a bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG scar were not independent risk factors for TST positivity in this population. On multivariate analysis, the effect of geographic proximity to the individual with TB, household size, and duration of cough in the index case persisted for TST responses ≥5 mm. Conclusions: Positive TST in a child reflects most probably TB infection rather than previous BCG
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The impact of dietary factors on tinnitus has received limited research attention, despite being a considerable concern among people with tinnitus and clinicians. The objective was to examine the link between dietary factors and presence and severity of tinnitus. DESIGN: This study used the UK Biobank resource, a large cross-sectional study of adults aged 40-69. 171,722 eligible participants were asked questions specific to tinnitus (defined as noises such as ringing or buzzing in the head or ears. Dietary factors included portions of fruit and vegetables per day, weekly fish consumption (oily and non-oily, bread type, cups of caffeinated coffee per day, and avoidance of dairy, eggs, wheat and sugar. We controlled for lifestyle, noise exposure, hearing, personality and comorbidity factors. RESULTS: Persistent tinnitus, defined as present at least a lot of the time, was elevated with increased: (i fruit/vegetable intake (OR = 1.01 per portion/day, (ii bread (wholemeal/wholegrain, OR = 1.07; other bread, 1.20 and (iii dairy avoidance (OR = 1.27. Persistent tinnitus was reduced with: (i fish consumption (non-oily, OR = 0.91; oily, 0.95, (ii egg avoidance (OR = 0.87 and (iii caffeinated coffee consumption (OR = 0.99 per cup/day. Reports of “bothersome” tinnitus (moderate-severe handicap reduced with wholemeal/wholegrain bread intake (OR = 0.86 [corrected].Reports of less frequent transient tinnitus increased with dairy avoidance (OR = 1.18 and decreased with caffeinated coffee (OR = 0.98 per cup/day and brown bread (OR = 0.94. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population study to report the association between dietary factors and tinnitus. Although individually dietary associations are mostly modest, particular changes in diet, such as switching between foodstuffs, may result in stronger associations. These findings offer insights into possible dietary associations with tinnitus, and this may be useful
Full Text Available To seek accurate and credible correlation manner between gender, age, and obesity; and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in large-scale population.Totals of 1,975 male and 378 female OSA patients were sequentially recruited. Centralized covariant tendencies between age, body mass index (BMI, and waist hip ratio (WHR; and OSA severity, were explored in a gender-specific manner via multiple statistical analyses. The accuracies of observed correlations were further evaluated by adaptive multiple linear regression.All of age, BMI, WHR, smoking, drinking, and OSA severity differed between males and females. BMI and WHR were positively and (approximately linearly associated with OSA severity in both males and females. Restricted cubic spline analysis was more effective than was the Pearson correlation approach in correlating age with AHI, and provided age crossover points allowing further piecewise linear modeling for both males and females. Multiple linear regression showed that increasing age was associated with OSA exacerbation in males aged ≤ 40 years and in females aged 45-53 years. BMI, WHR, and diabetes were independently associated with OSA severity in males with age-group-specific pattern. In females, only BMI was associated with OSA severity at all ages.In male patients, BMI and WHR are prominent risk factors for OSA exacerbation. Age and diabetes are associated with OSA severity in males of particular ages. In females, BMI is also a prominent risk factor for severe OSA, and OSA severity increased with age in the range 45-53 years.
Deng, Xingqi; Gu, Wei; Li, Yanyan; Liu, Mei; Li, Yan; Gao, Xiwen
Aim To seek accurate and credible correlation manner between gender, age, and obesity; and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in large-scale population. Methods Totals of 1,975 male and 378 female OSA patients were sequentially recruited. Centralized covariant tendencies between age, body mass index (BMI), and waist hip ratio (WHR); and OSA severity, were explored in a gender-specific manner via multiple statistical analyses. The accuracies of observed correlations were further evaluated by adaptive multiple linear regression. Results All of age, BMI, WHR, smoking, drinking, and OSA severity differed between males and females. BMI and WHR were positively and (approximately) linearly associated with OSA severity in both males and females. Restricted cubic spline analysis was more effective than was the Pearson correlation approach in correlating age with AHI, and provided age crossover points allowing further piecewise linear modeling for both males and females. Multiple linear regression showed that increasing age was associated with OSA exacerbation in males aged ≤40 years and in females aged 45–53 years. BMI, WHR, and diabetes were independently associated with OSA severity in males with age-group-specific pattern. In females, only BMI was associated with OSA severity at all ages. Conclusions In male patients, BMI and WHR are prominent risk factors for OSA exacerbation. Age and diabetes are associated with OSA severity in males of particular ages. In females, BMI is also a prominent risk factor for severe OSA, and OSA severity increased with age in the range 45–53 years. PMID:25211035
Ager, Charlene Lee; And Others
Explores some divergent attitudes toward aging, negative as well as positive. Presents a neurophysiological framework to support the belief that aging is an active and creative process. Explores physical, psychological, and sociological aspects, and identifies three factors in the creative aging process. (Author/JAC)
Grineva, E N; Karonova, T; Micheeva, E; Belyaeva, O; Nikitina, I L
It was suggested that glucose metabolism and body fat content depend on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We studied 320 healthy women at late reproductive age of 40 to 52 years old (mean age 46.1±4.5) from St. Petersburg (North-West region of Russia). 25(ОН)D levels were from 19.4 to 134.0 nMol/L (mean 52.9±22.7). Vitamin D deficiency (lower than 50 nMol/L) and insufficiency (50-75 nMol/L) was revealed in 59.1% and 27.8% of women, respectively. The study showed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with obesity (r=-0.35, p$#X003C0.01), increased plasma glucose levels after OGTT (r=-0.31, p$#X003C0.01) and decreased insulin sensitivity index (r=-0.28, p$#X003C0.01). We found that 25(OH)D levels below 50 nMol/L were associated with obesity risk (OR 2.25[1.05-3.95], CI 95%) but not with risk of impaired glucose metabolism (1.07[0.54-2.12],CI95%). Our results showed that vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in the population of healthy women. Low 25(OH)D levels correlated with high body fat, glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is a potential risk factor for obesity and development of insulin resistance leading to diabetes type 2.
Luiz Eduardo dos Santos
Full Text Available Effects of body condition (BC recovery, carcass electrical stimulation (ES and meat aging time (AT were studied on the carcass and loin in Santa Ines ewes culled by age and slaughtered immediately after pup weaning or after BC recovery period. Carcass characteristics, shear force (SF, cooking loss (CL, meat color (L*, a*, b* and sensory characteristics of Longissimus muscle were evaluated. It was concluded that BC recovery improved carcass characteristics and meat color brightness, however did not affect the tenderness. The ES and AT improved tenderness, reducing SF in 44 - 45% and in 51 - 59%, respectively, for 7 or 14 days of aging and 32 - 33% in non aged meat. ES affected the color parameters, clearing the meat. AT darkened and accentuated the brownish red color of meat and increased the cooking losses, from 15.2% (non aged to 19.6% and 23.1%, respectively, for 7 and 14 days of AT. The sensory evaluation for tenderness corroborated the findings of the instrumental evaluation, which confirmed the effectiveness of ES in improving meat tenderness.
Zach K O'Brown
Full Text Available Human kidney function declines with age, accompanied by stereotyped changes in gene expression and histopathology, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are largely unknown. To identify potential regulators of kidney aging, we compared age-associated transcriptional changes in the human kidney with genome-wide maps of transcription factor occupancy from ChIP-seq datasets in human cells. The strongest candidates were the inflammation-associated transcription factors NFκB, STAT1 and STAT3, the activities of which increase with age in epithelial compartments of the renal cortex. Stimulation of renal tubular epithelial cells with the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (a STAT3 activator, IFNγ (a STAT1 activator, or TNFα (an NFκB activator recapitulated age-associated gene expression changes. We show that common DNA variants in RELA and NFKB1, the two genes encoding subunits of the NFκB transcription factor, associate with kidney function and chronic kidney disease in gene association studies, providing the first evidence that genetic variation in NFκB contributes to renal aging phenotypes. Our results suggest that NFκB, STAT1 and STAT3 underlie transcriptional changes and chronic inflammation in the aging human kidney.
O'Brown, Zach K; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Higgins, John P; Kim, Stuart K
Human kidney function declines with age, accompanied by stereotyped changes in gene expression and histopathology, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are largely unknown. To identify potential regulators of kidney aging, we compared age-associated transcriptional changes in the human kidney with genome-wide maps of transcription factor occupancy from ChIP-seq datasets in human cells. The strongest candidates were the inflammation-associated transcription factors NFκB, STAT1 and STAT3, the activities of which increase with age in epithelial compartments of the renal cortex. Stimulation of renal tubular epithelial cells with the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (a STAT3 activator), IFNγ (a STAT1 activator), or TNFα (an NFκB activator) recapitulated age-associated gene expression changes. We show that common DNA variants in RELA and NFKB1, the two genes encoding subunits of the NFκB transcription factor, associate with kidney function and chronic kidney disease in gene association studies, providing the first evidence that genetic variation in NFκB contributes to renal aging phenotypes. Our results suggest that NFκB, STAT1 and STAT3 underlie transcriptional changes and chronic inflammation in the aging human kidney.
Shirato, Ken; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko
The intensities of macrophage inflammatory responses to bacterial components gradually decrease with age. Given that a reduced rate of protein synthesis is a common age-related biochemical change, which is partially mediated by increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 α (eIF-2 α ), we investigated the mechanism responsible for the deterioration of macrophage inflammatory responses, focusing specifically on the age-related biochemical changes in middle-aged mice. Peritoneal macrophages isolated from 2-month-old (young) and 12-month-old (middle-aged) male BALB/c mice were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Although LPS-stimulated secretion of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) by the macrophages from middle-aged mice was significantly lower than that from young mice, LPS caused marked increases in levels of TNF- α mRNA in macrophages from middle-aged as well as young mice. Moreover, LPS evoked similar levels of phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor- κ B (NF- κ B) in young and middle-aged mice. In contrast, the basal level of phosphorylated eIF-2 α in macrophages from middle-aged mice was higher than that in macrophages from young mice. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of the phosphatase activity that dephosphorylates eIF-2 α , suppressed the LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in a murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. These results suggest that posttranscriptional suppression of macrophage inflammatory responses during middle age requires phosphorylation of eIF-2 α . PMID:24808968
Full Text Available The intensities of macrophage inflammatory responses to bacterial components gradually decrease with age. Given that a reduced rate of protein synthesis is a common age-related biochemical change, which is partially mediated by increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α, we investigated the mechanism responsible for the deterioration of macrophage inflammatory responses, focusing specifically on the age-related biochemical changes in middle-aged mice. Peritoneal macrophages isolated from 2-month-old (young and 12-month-old (middle-aged male BALB/c mice were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Although LPS-stimulated secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α by the macrophages from middle-aged mice was significantly lower than that from young mice, LPS caused marked increases in levels of TNF-α mRNA in macrophages from middle-aged as well as young mice. Moreover, LPS evoked similar levels of phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB in young and middle-aged mice. In contrast, the basal level of phosphorylated eIF-2α in macrophages from middle-aged mice was higher than that in macrophages from young mice. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of the phosphatase activity that dephosphorylates eIF-2α, suppressed the LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in a murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. These results suggest that posttranscriptional suppression of macrophage inflammatory responses during middle age requires phosphorylation of eIF-2α.
Devi Krishna Priya Karunakaran
Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly population. Hypoxic stress created in the micro-environment of the photoreceptors is thought to be the underlying cause that results in the pathophysiology of AMD. However, association of AMD with alternative splicing mediated gene regulation is not well explored. Alternative Splicing is one of the primary mechanisms in humans by which fewer protein coding genes are able to generate a vast proteome. Here, we investigated the expression of a known stress response gene and an alternative splicing factor called Serine-Arginine rich splicing factor 10 (Sfrs10. Sfrs10 is a member of the serine-arginine (SR rich protein family and is 100% identical at the amino acid level in most mammals. Immunoblot analysis on retinal extracts from mouse, rat, and chicken showed a single immunoreactive band. Further, immunohistochemistry on adult mouse, rat and chicken retinae showed pan-retinal expression. However, SFRS10 was not detected in normal human retina but was observed as distinct nuclear speckles in AMD retinae. This is in agreement with previous reports that show Sfrs10 to be a stress response gene, which is upregulated under hypoxia. The difference in the expression of Sfrs10 between humans and lower mammals and the upregulation of SFRS10 in AMD is further reflected in the divergence of the promoter sequence between these species. Finally, SFRS10+ speckles were independent of the SC35+ SR protein speckles or the HSF1+ stress granules. In all, our data suggests that SFRS10 is upregulated and forms distinct stress-induced speckles and might be involved in AS of stress response genes in AMD.
Thiago Vinícius Nadaleto Didone
Full Text Available Objectives: To uncover reasons why patients missed pharmaceutical care (PC appointments, identify predictive factors to miss at least one appointment and to reschedule after a miss, and compare the rescheduling behavior of patients receiving different types of PC. Methods: All elderly patients who had at least one scheduled appointment in the PC service of a health setting of São Paulo city, Brazil, from January to December/2011 were included. Chi-square analysis compared categorical data between groups; multivariate logistic regression models predicted attendance and rescheduling behavior. Results: We identified 421 patients, being 221 (52.5% non-attenders. Forgetting the appointment was the most common patient-related reason (56.3%. Illiteracy was a risk factor to be a non-attender [OR(95%CI=2.27(1.17:4.40, p=0.015]. Patients having previous knowledge of the pharmacist presented more chance to rescheduled an appointment after the first miss compared to those who had not [OR(95%CI=3.57(1.90:6.71, p<0.001]. Further, non-attenders who had knowledge of the pharmacist and received Medication Review with Follow-up rescheduled more than the ones receiving other types of PC (p=0.035. Conclusion: Illiteracy predicted non-attendance in PC to aged outpatients and forgetfulness was the main reason for that. The previous acquaintance of the pharmacist and the provision of pharmaceotherapeutic follow-up explained the rescheduling behavior, which indicates the establishment of a patient-centered patient-pharmacist relationship plays a pivotal role in the continuity of the PC.
In 200 patients, 143 women and 57 men, with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), age at onset was related to the presence of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in serum at presentation. The patients were stratified into bands of age at onset: 60 years. In women, the prevalences...... of ANA (1:160) were 63.0%, 45.5%, and 31.1% in the respective age bands ( p=0.002), and the prevalences of IgM RF were 85.2%, 72.7% and 66.4%, respectively ( p=0.03). The prevalences of ANA and IgM RF among men were, respectively, 35% and 86% with no association with age at onset. The findings may...... indicate interactive effects between gender and various pathogenetic factors....
Opp, Mark R; George, Amrita; Ringgold, Kristyn M; Hansen, Kim M; Bullock, Kristin M; Banks, William A
The factors by which aging predisposes to critical illness are varied, complex, and not well understood. Sepsis is considered a quintessential disease of old age because the incidence and mortality of severe sepsis increases in old and the oldest old individuals. Aging is associated with dramatic changes in sleep quality and quantity and sleep increasingly becomes fragmented with age. In healthy adults, sleep disruption induces inflammation. Multiple aspects of aging and of sleep dysregulation interact via neuroimmune mechanisms. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), a cytokine involved in sleep regulation and neuroimmune processes, exerts some of its effects on the CNS by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study we examined the impact of sepsis, sleep fragmentation, and aging on BBB disruption and TNF transport into brain. We used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in young and aged mice that were either undisturbed or had their sleep disrupted. There was a dichotomous effect of sepsis and sleep disruption with age: sepsis disrupted the BBB and increased TNF transport in young mice but not in aged mice, whereas sleep fragmentation disrupted the BBB and increased TNF transport in aged mice, but not in young mice. Combining sleep fragmentation and CLP did not produce a greater effect on either of these BBB parameters than did either of these manipulations alone. These results suggest that the mechanisms by which sleep fragmentation and sepsis alter BBB functions are fundamentally different from one another and that a major change in the organism's responses to those insults occurs with aging.
Strand, Mark A; Perry, Judy; Wang, Ping; Liu, Shuangfeng; Lynn, Henry
As China undergoes urbanization, lifestyles and disease profiles are changing. In this study, metabolic syndrome (MetS) was discovered in 53.5% and 42.7% of men and women, respectively. In 3 age cohorts (44, 48, and 52 years), prevalence of MetS among women was 33.3%, 41.4%, and 50.8%, respectively (χ(2) = 10.27, P = .006), whereas among men it was 51.5%, 56.3%, and 52.3%, respectively (χ(2) = 0.46, P = .796). The component contributing to the presence of MetS was increased waist circumference, especially among women. MetS among men results from higher rates of elevated triglycerides, blood pressure, and blood glucose when compared with women. Risk factors for MetS included less than 60 minutes of exercise a week (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.4) and rarely consuming milk (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.3). Abstaining from or occasionally consuming alcohol (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.4-1.1) and having parents with no chronic disease (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.6) suggest increased protection against MetS.
Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Andersen, Z. J.; Olsen, T. S.
Background and Purpose—We describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors at stroke onset in men and women of all ages. Methods—A registry started in 2001, designed to register all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark, now holds 40 102 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. Patients ...... heart disease, and, in men, also atrial fibrillation go down after the age of 70 to 80 years.......Background and Purpose—We describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors at stroke onset in men and women of all ages. Methods—A registry started in 2001, designed to register all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark, now holds 40 102 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. Patients...... underwent evaluation including stroke severity (Scandinavian Stroke Scale), CT, and cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, intermittent arterial claudication, previous myocardial infarction, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption. We estimated...
Lynae J. Hanks
Conclusions: Our findings in a healthy population display an age-related increase in serum FGF21, highlighting a potential age effect in response to metabolic demand over the lifecourse. FGF21 levels increase with age independently of body composition. At lower levels of FGF21, BMD, but not other body composition parameters, attenuates the association between FGF21 level and age, suggesting the metabolic demand of the skeleton may provide a link between FGF21 and energy metabolism.
Background and purpose: The main goal was to examine which factors in the psychosocial work environment that would predict turnover intention among engineering employees in a larger global company within the oil and gas industry. The second goal was to examine if the predictors would differ for employees under the age of 40, compared to employees over the age of 40.Method: Data was collected using a self-reported electronic questionnaire designed by Mille Myhre and myself. The analyses includ...
Diehl, Manfred; HAY, ELIZABETH L.
This study observed young, middle-aged and older adults (N = 239; Mage = 49.6 years, range = 18-89 years) for 30 consecutive days to examine the association between daily stress and negative affect taking into account potential risk (i.e., self-concept incoherence) and resilience factors (i.e., age, perceived personal control). Results indicated that younger individuals and individuals with a more incoherent self-concept showed higher average negative affect across the study. As well, individ...
Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Rising prevalence of hypertension is a major public health challenge in India especially in Kerala. This cross sectional study was done to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its determinants in a rural population of Kottayam, Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Community based cross sectional study was carried out among 400 adults aged 30 years and above in a randomly selected ward of Ettumanoor panchayath, which is the field practice area of Govt. Medical college, Kottayam. A pretested semi structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding socio demographic and behavioral factors. Standardized sphygmomanometric blood pressure measurement was taken by trained team members twice for each individual and the average of the two was taken as blood pressure. Anthropometric measurements were also done. A systolic blood pressure of ≥140mm of Hg and or diastolic BP≥90mm of Hg was regarded as hypertension. Data analysis was done using the software Epi-info version 3.4.3. Chi square test revealed the association between hypertension (dependent variable and other socio demographic and behavioural factors (independent variable. A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. All the significant variables are included in the binary logistic regression to find out Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR RESULTS: The overall prevalence of hypertension was 35% (males-33.8% females -35.6%. The variables which evolved as significant and remained so in binary logistic regression analysis were single status after marriage/ unmarried (AOR-2.45 95% CI 1.38-4.38, low educational status (AOR- 2.31, 95%CI-1.46-3.64, family history of hypertension (AOR-1.85 95%CI-1.2-2.85 and trunkal obesity in females (AOR-2.41 95%CI-1.37-4.24 CONCLUSION: The present study revealed the prevalence (35% and risk factors for hypertension in the study area. The results of the study can be used to develop messages to make the people aware of the problem of hypertension
Full Text Available Aim of Study: To analyze the association between anterior chamber depth (ACD and age, sex, and body height (BH. Materials and Methods: One thousand four hundred eighty eyes of 1480 adults 40 years of age and older receiving preoperative evaluation for cataract surgery were recruited consecutively from June 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010. ACD was measured with the Zeiss IOLMaster. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the correlations, and receiving operator characteristic (ROC curves and the area under the curve (AUC were used for evaluating the predictability of an ACD less than 2.70 mm. Results: ACD was negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with BH in both univariate and multivariate regression analysis (P < 0.001. Sex was associated with ACD in univariate analysis, but not after adjustment with age and BH. In predicting an ACD less than 2.70 mm, the AUCs of ROC curves for ′age and sex′, ′age and BH′, and ′age, sex, and BH′ were 0.687, 0.689, and 0.689, respectively. Conclusion: Age and BH were independent associating factors of ACD; however, sex was not. Older people and shorter ones likely had shallower ACD, and therefore were predisposed to Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG. The predictability of ACD by age and BH solely was low, and adding sex did not increase it.
Morris, Danielle H; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; McFadden, Emily; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J
The authors examined the effect of women's lifestyles on the timing of natural menopause using data from a cross-sectional questionnaire used in the United Kingdom-based Breakthrough Generations Study in 2003-2011. The analyses included 50,678 women (21,511 who had experienced a natural menopause) who were 40-98 years of age at study entry and did not have a history of breast cancer. Cox competing risks proportional hazards models were fitted to examine the relation of age at natural menopause to lifestyle and anthropometric factors. Results were adjusted for age at reporting, smoking status at menopause, parity, and body mass index at age 40 years, as appropriate. All P values were 2-sided. High adult weight (P(trend) vegetarian (P < 0.001) were associated with older age at menopause. Neither height nor history of an eating disorder was associated with menopausal age. These findings show the importance of lifestyle factors in determining menopausal age. PMID:22494951
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the ASE/AIE-mediated genetic mechanism for age-related gene regulation, a recently identified age-related homeostasis mechanism, two genetic elements, ASE (age-related stability element and AIE (age-related increase element as a stem-loop forming RNA, play critical roles in producing specific age-related expression patterns of genes. PRINCIPAL FINDING: We successfully identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3 (hnRNP A3 as a major mouse liver nuclear protein binding to the AIE-derived RNAs of human factor IX (hFIX as well as mouse factor IX (mFIX genes. HnRNP A3 bound to the AIE RNA was not phosphorylated at its Ser(359, while hnRNP A3 in the mouse liver nuclear extracts was a mixture of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated Ser(359. HepG2 cells engineered to express recombinant hFIX transduced with adenoviral vectors harboring an effective siRNA against hnRNP A3 resulted in a substantial reduction in hFIX expression only in the cells carrying a hFIX expression vector with AIE, but not in the cells carrying a hFIX expression vector without AIE. The nuclear hnRNP A3 protein level in the mouse liver gradually increased with age, while its mRNA level stayed age-stable. CONCLUSIONS: We identified hnRNP A3 as a major liver nuclear protein binding to FIX-AIE RNA. This protein plays a critical role in age-related gene expression, likely through an as yet unidentified epigenetic mechanism. The present study assigned a novel functional role to hnRNP A3 in age-related regulation of gene expression, opening up a new avenue for studying age-related homeostasis and underlying molecular mechanisms.
Barnes, G P; Parker, W A; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G C
Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four ethnic groups in five southwestern States. Age, residence, and fluoridation status were also compared for the total sample and ethnic categories. The sampling process was a stratified random site selection; it was used to obtain data on 1,230 children. This number constituted 3 percent of the children enrolled in Head Start in Public Health Service Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) where the study was conducted. The criterion for determining the presence of BBTD was based on the number of carious deciduous maxillary incisors observed. The severity of the condition was reported as two of four and three of four of the target teeth affected. Thus, two levels of severity are reported. BBTD was prevalent in approximately 24 percent and 15 percent of the total sample, depending on the severity criterion used. Native American children had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence than Hispanic, white, and black subjects. Rural children had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence of BBTD than nonrural children for all ethnic groups except whites. The prevalence of decayed and filled (df) surfaces of primary dentition was significantly greater for all rural than for non rural groups (P< 0.05).Children attending centers showed no significant differences based on fluoride status for the total sample or other variables. BBTD and caries prevalence increased with age. Studies are needed to identify predisposing factors among the ethnic
Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471
Busch Michael P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is prevalent and often causes hepatic fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and cause liver cancer or liver failure. Study of fibrosis progression often relies on imputing the time of infection, often as the reported age of first injection drug use. We sought to examine the accuracy of such imputation and implications for modeling factors that influence progression rates. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data on hepatitis C antibody status and reported risk factor histories from two large studies, the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Urban Health Study, using modern survival analysis methods for current status data to model past infection risk year by year. We compared fitted distributions of past infection risk to reported age of first injection drug use. Results Although injection drug use appeared to be a very strong risk factor, models for both studies showed that many subjects had considerable probability of having been infected substantially before or after their reported age of first injection drug use. Persons reporting younger age of first injection drug use were more likely to have been infected after, and persons reporting older age of first injection drug use were more likely to have been infected before. Conclusion In cross-sectional studies of fibrosis progression where date of HCV infection is estimated from risk factor histories, modern methods such as multiple imputation should be used to account for the substantial uncertainty about when infection occurred. The models presented here can provide the inputs needed by such methods. Using reported age of first injection drug use as the time of infection in studies of fibrosis progression is likely to produce a spuriously strong association of younger age of infection with slower rate of progression.
Li, Christopher I.; Beaber, Elisabeth F.; Tang, Mei-Tzu Chen; Porter, Peggy L.; Daling, Janet R.; Malone, Kathleen E.
Aspects of reproductive history are among the most well-established breast cancer risk factors. However, relatively little is known about how they influence risk of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer, particularly among younger women. Using data from a population-based case–control study of women 20–44 years of age, we assessed the relationships between various reproductive factors and risk of estrogen receptor positive (ER+), triple-negative, and HER2-overexpressing breast cancers...
Lenstra, Arjen K.
Factoring, finding a non-trivial factorization of a composite positive integer, is believed to be a hard problem. How hard we think it is, however, changes almost on a daily basis. Predicting how hard factoring will be in the future, an important issue for cryptographic applications of composite numbers, is therefore a challenging task. The author presents a brief survey of general purpose integer factoring algorithms and their implementations
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a re-emerging arbovirus responsible for a massive outbreak currently afflicting the Indian Ocean region and India. Infection from CHIKV typically induces a mild disease in humans, characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and rash. Cases of severe CHIKV infection involving the central nervous system (CNS have recently been described in neonates as well as in adults with underlying conditions. The pathophysiology of CHIKV infection and the basis for disease severity are unknown. To address these critical issues, we have developed an animal model of CHIKV infection. We show here that whereas wild type (WT adult mice are resistant to CHIKV infection, WT mouse neonates are susceptible and neonatal disease severity is age-dependent. Adult mice with a partially (IFN-alpha/betaR(+/- or totally (IFN-alpha/betaR(-/- abrogated type-I IFN pathway develop a mild or severe infection, respectively. In mice with a mild infection, after a burst of viral replication in the liver, CHIKV primarily targets muscle, joint, and skin fibroblasts, a cell and tissue tropism similar to that observed in biopsy samples of CHIKV-infected humans. In case of severe infections, CHIKV also disseminates to other tissues including the CNS, where it specifically targets the choroid plexuses and the leptomeninges. Together, these data indicate that CHIKV-associated symptoms match viral tissue and cell tropisms, and demonstrate that the fibroblast is a predominant target cell of CHIKV. These data also identify the neonatal phase and inefficient type-I IFN signaling as risk factors for severe CHIKV-associated disease. The development of a permissive small animal model will expedite the testing of future vaccines and therapeutic candidates.
Karol, Seth E; Mattano, Leonard A; Yang, Wenjian; Maloney, Kelly W; Smith, Colton; Liu, ChengCheng; Ramsey, Laura B; Fernandez, Christian A; Chang, Tamara Y; Neale, Geoffrey; Cheng, Cheng; Mardis, Elaine; Fulton, Robert; Scheet, Paul; San Lucas, F Anthony; Larsen, Eric C; Loh, Mignon L; Raetz, Elizabeth A; Hunger, Stephen P; Devidas, Meenakshi; Relling, Mary V
Osteonecrosis is a dose-limiting toxicity in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Prior studies on the genetics of osteonecrosis have focused on patients ≥10 years of age, leaving the genetic risk factors for the larger group of children https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00103285), with results tested for replication in 817 children https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00075725). The top replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were near bone morphogenic protein 7 [BMP7: rs75161997, P = 5.34 × 10(-8) (odds ratio [OR] 15.0) and P = .0498 (OR 8.44) in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively] and PROX1-antisense RNA1 (PROX1-AS1: rs1891059, P = 2.28 × 10(-7) [OR 6.48] and P = .0077 [OR 3.78] for the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). The top replicated nonsynonymous SNP, rs34144324, was in a glutamate receptor gene (GRID2, P = 8.65 × 10(-6) [OR 3.46] and P = .0136 [OR 10.8] in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). In a meta-analysis, the BMP7 and PROX1-AS1 variants (rs75161997 and rs1891059, respectively) met the significance threshold of <5 × 10(-8). Top replicated SNPs were enriched in enhancers active in mesenchymal stem cells, and analysis of annotated genes demonstrated enrichment in glutamate receptor and adipogenesis pathways. These data may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis.
Ruby C Castilla
Full Text Available Objective: Depression may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD morbidity and mortality, but the mechanism(s for the association are not established. The present study examined the relationship between one possible mechanism, hemostatic factors, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. Method: We measured levels of fibrinogen, Factor VIIc, plasminogen activator inhibitor antigen-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator antigen (TPA-ag in 3,016 women aged 42-52 years enrolled in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, with scores > 16 suggestive of depression. Results: Depressed women had high levels of all four hemostatic factors ( all p <0 .01. After controlling for age, smoking, ethnicity, prevalent cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, and diabetes, and use of medications (including psychotropics, depressed women still had elevated levels of fibrinogen (mean, 95% confidence intervals 299, 304 – 295 mg/dl vs. 291, 294 – 288mg/dl, p= 0.003 and Factor VIIc (124, 127 – 121 ng/dl vs. 119, 121 – 117 ng/dl, p= 0.01 levels, compared to nondepressed women. Conclusions: These findings suggest that hemostatic factors may be a key mechanismaccounting for the relationship between depression and CHD.
LI Ying; JI Yong-juan; JIANG Hong; LIU De-xiang; ZHANG Qian; FAN Shu-jian; PAN Fang
Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a stress-responsive intercellular messenger modifying hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The interaction between stress and age in BDNF expression is currently not fully understood. This study was conducted to observe unpredictable stress effect on behavior and BDNF expression in CA3 subfield (CA3) and dentate gyrus of hippocampus in different aged rats. Methods Forty-eight Wistar rats of two different ages (2 months and 15 months) were randomly assigned to six groups: two control groups and four stress groups. The rats in the stress group received three weeks of unpredictable mild stress. The depression state and the stress level of the animals were determined by sucrose preference test and observation of exploratory behavior in an open field (OF) test. The expressions of BDNF in CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were measured using immunohistochemistry. Results Age and stress had different effects on the behavior of different aged animals (age: F=6.173, P <0.05, stress: F=6.056, P <0.05). Stress was the main factor affecting sucrose preference (F=123.608, P <0.05). Decreased sucrose preference and suppressed behavior emerged directly following stress, lasting to at least the eighth day after stress in young animals (P <0.05). The older stress rats showed a lower sucrose preference than young stress rats (P <0.05). Older control rats behaved differently from the younger control animals in the OF test, spending more time in the central square (P <0.05), exhibiting fewer vertical movements (P <0.05) and less grooming (P <0.05). Following exposure to stress, older-aged rats showed no obvious changes in vertical movement and grooming. This indicates that aged rats were in an unexcited state before the stress period, and responded less to stressful stimuli than younger rats. There was significantly lower BDNF expression in the CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus following stress
Page, A.J.; Li, A.; Hestley, A.; Murray, D.; Carlson, G. W.; Delman, K. A.
Background. Advanced age is associated with a poorer prognosis in patients with melanoma. Despite this established finding, a decreased incidence of positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) with advancing age has paradoxically been described. Methods. Using a single-institution database of melanoma patients between 1994 and 2009, the relationship between standard clinicopathologic variables and recurrence based on age was evaluated. Results. 1244 patients who underwent successful SLN biopsies wer...
Empirical research conducted over the past few decades suggests that the age at which an individual is first exposed to a second language affects long-term outcomes, in particular for phonology. The question that has occupied scholars of various bents is what, exactly, underlies the robust age effects observed. Does age imply immutable changes in one’s ability to ever sound native-like? Are these changes neurological, cognitive, or socio-psychological in nature? What role do L2 ...
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods: The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05. There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1 The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2 A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone and depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3 AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve.
Background: The magnitude of under nutrition among children below five years of age is high in Pakistan. Undernutrition and infections are the two most important factors that affect the growth of children. This study explains the extent of undernutrition and prevalence of wasting and stunting among preschool children. Method: This cross sectional study with a sample size of 446 covered the age group 6-59 months in Jalozai Camp, District Nowshera. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height were measured as per WHO guidelines. Systematic random sampling technique was used for sample selection. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Results: According to height for age Z-score, out of 446 children studied, 8.5 percentage were stunted and 4.0 percentage were severely stunted. According to weight for age Z score, 11.4 percentage were underweight and 3.6 percentage were severely underweight. According to weight for height Z-score, 4.0 percentage were wasted and 2.7 percentage were severely wasted. Conclusion: The undernutrition in children is comparable to the national figures. Although our study found that absence of formal education, big family size, late and early weaning, absence of exclusive breast feeding and poverty were the factors associated with undernutrition in children, they could cause increase in under nutrition in future if not improved. (author)
Gass, C S; Demsky, Y I; Martin, P C
The Spanish version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R, Wechsler, 1974)-the Escala de Inteligencia para Niños-Revision (EIWN-R, Wechsler, 1982)-has a potentially important role in the assessment of Hispanic children. However, little is known regarding its psychometric characteristics. This study used the normative data from the EIWN-R standardization sample (N = 532 Cuban Americans) to examine its factorial composition and general comparability with the WISC-R. Within each of the 11 age groups (ages 6 1/2 to 16 1/2), the correlation matrix of raw scores was subjected to a principal components analysis and varimax rotation. The results supported a 2-factor solution across age groups roughly corresponding with Wechsler's verbal and performance dimensions. The existence of a meaningful third factor, which has empirical support in the WISC-R literature, failed to emerge for the EIWN-R.
Svensson, Elisabeth; Berencsi, Klara; Sander, Simone;
.80)], and also tended to be associated with lower beta cell function. In contrast, patients both with and without a parental history had similar occurrence of central obesity [91% vs. 91%], weight gain ≥30 kg since age 20 [52% vs. 53%], and lack of regular physical activity [60% vs. 58%]. Presence of diabetes......BACKGROUND: We investigated whether parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with age, lifestyle, anthropometric factors, and clinical severity at the time of T2D diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the Danish Centre for Strategic Research...... in Type 2 Diabetes cohort. We examined the prevalence ratios (PR) of demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, and clinical factors according to parental history, using Poisson regression adjusting for age and gender. RESULTS: Of 2825 T2D patients, 34% (n = 964) had a parental history of T2D. Parental...
Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Bjerrum, Lars; Boel, Jonas;
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health care among children aged 0-6 years and its association with socioeconomic factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study describing antibiotic prescriptions and socioeconomic factors, using different population......-based registers from Statistics Denmark. SETTING: Antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 from primary health care in the Capital Region of Denmark. SUBJECTS: The population of children aged 0-6 years (n = 139,398) in the Capital Region of Denmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: High use of antibiotics identified by number...... are among the age groups with the highest use. Ten percent of the children accounted for 25% of the total antibiotic use. Low parental educational level was associated with increased antibiotic use. Parents' income or employment status was not found to be associated with high antibiotic use....
.... We consider an infant born at less than 37 weeks' gestation to be born prematurely. (1) We apply a... (i.e., the difference between 40 weeks of full-term gestation and the number of actual weeks of gestation) from your chronological age. The result is your corrected chronological age. (ii) If you are...
Nicolaisen, Magnhild; Thorsen, Kirsten; Eriksen, Sissel H.
Using the frameworks of the life course perspective and continuity theory, this study focuses on the association among working people between gender and specific leisure activities, social interests and individuals' preferred retirement age. The study is based on the first wave of the Norwegian Life Course, Aging and Generation (NorLAG) study,…
Norren, van K.; Rusli, F.; Dijk, van M.; Lute, C.; Nagel, J.C.; Dijk, F.J.; Dwarkasing, J.T.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Luiking, Y.; Witkamp, R.F.; Müller, M.R.; Steegenga, W.T.
Background - In rodent models, caloric restriction (CR) with maintenance of adequate micronutrient supply has been reported to increase lifespan and to reduce age-induced muscle loss (sarcopenia) during ageing. In the present study, we further investigated effects of CR on the onset and severity of
Crosslinking by advanced glycation end products increases the stiffness of the collagen network in human articular cartilage: A possible mechanism through which age is a risk factor for osteoarthritis
Verzijl, N.; Groot, J. de; Zaken, C.B.; Braun-Benjamin, O.; Maroudas, A.; Bank, R.A.; Mizrahi, J.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Thorpe, S.R.; Baynes, J.W.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.; TeKoppele, J.M.
Objective. Age is an important risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). During aging, nonenzymatic glycation results in the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in cartilage collagen. We studied the effect of AGE crosslinking on the stiffness of the collagen network in human articular
There are two main processes that induce skin aging: intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies random cell damage as a result of mutations during metabolic processes due to the production of free radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, air pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. Intrinsicaging reflects the genetic background and depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging include smooth, ...
Tzanakaki, G; Paparoupa, M; Kyprianou, M;
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of cerebrospinal fluid soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) level, infection and age as risk factors for fatal outcome in patients suspected of having meningitis and/or bacteraemia on admission to hospital. A total of 545 cerebrospinal...... fluid samples from patients with clinically suspected meningitis were sent to the Hellenic National Meningitis Reference Laboratory. Ten of 545 (1.83%) patients died. Analysis by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve revealed that both suPAR and age were significant for prediction of fatal...... outcome. Patients with levels of suPAR above the cut-off values and age ≥51 years, or patients in which either Neisseria meningitis or Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected were categorized as high risk patients. The combination of the above three predictors (suPAR, age and infectious agent...
Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Hasswane, Nadia; Kerbach, Aicha; Aguenaou, Hassan; Taboz, Youness; Benkirane, Hassna; Mrabet, Mustapha; Amina, Barkat
Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in morocco women were it occupies the first place in term of incidence and mortality. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women. Methods A case-control study was conducted with population women whose age is less than 40 years during 2008-2010 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. These women were interviewed for Epidemiological information and risk factor for breast cancer. Results Included in this study were 124 cases and 148 age matched controls. No statistically significant case-control difference was found for the early age of menarche (OR = 2.474; CI 95%: 1.354- 4.521), and family antecedents of first degree of breast cancer (OR = 11.556; 95% CI: 2.548-52.411). However physical activity (OR = 0.507; 95% CI: 0.339 -0.757) early maternity age (OR = 0.212; 95% CI: 0.087 - 0.514), multiparity (OR = 0.742; 95% CI: 0.359 -1.539) and breastfeeding than 6 months (OR = 0.739; 95% CI: 0.357 -1.523) appear as significant protective factors. Conclusion This study show the criminalization of only part of the known risk factors of breast cancer in this age group and confirms the probable protective role of physical activity and factors related to life reproductive women in our study (early childbearing, multiparity and lactation).
Gang Chen; Qiang Fu; Jiangbei Cao; Weidong Mi
We intraperitoneally injected 10 and 50 mg/kg of propofol for 7 consecutive days to treat a rat model of chronic cerebral ischemia. A low-dose of propofol promoted the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase receptor B, phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein, and cAMP in the hippocampus of aged rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, but a high-dose of propofol inhibited their expression. Results indicated that the protective effect of propofol against cerebral ischemia in aged rats is related to changes in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus, and that the cAMP-cAMP responsive element binding protein pathway is involved in the regulatory effect of propofol on brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.
Full Text Available In response to the economic consequences of ageing of the population, governments are seeking ways with which people might work into older age. We examined the association of working conditions and health with extended employment (defined as >6 months beyond the pensionable age in a cohort of older, non-disabled employees who have reached old-age retirement.A total of 4,677 Finnish employees who reached their old-age pensionable date between 2005 and 2011 (mean age 59.8 years in 2005, 73% women had their survey responses before pensionable age linked to national health and pension registers, resulting in a prospective cohort study.In all, 832 participants (17.8% extended their employment by more than 6 months beyond the pensionable date. After multivariable adjustment, the following factors were associated with extended employment: absence of diagnosed mental disorder (OR 1.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.54 and psychological distress (OR 1.68; 1.35-2.08 and of the work characteristics, high work time control (OR 2.31; 1.88-2.84. The projected probability of extended employment was 21.3% (19.5-23.1 among those free of psychiatric morbidity and with high work time control, while the corresponding probability was only 9.2% (7.4-11.4 among those with both psychiatric morbidity and poor work time control. The contribution of chronic somatic diseases was modest.In the present study, good mental health in combination with the opportunity to control work time seem to be key factors in extended employment into older age. In addition, high work time control might promote work life participation irrespective of employees' somatic disease status.
Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge & attitude regarding complimentary feeds among mothers with children 6 - 24 months of age. To know various factors influencing age of complimentary feeds. Age of complimentary feeds started and its effect on growth of the child. METHODS: 500 mothers were interviewed with children 6 - 24 months of age attending OPD . Data was collected using a self - administered, semi - stru ctured questionnaire with the mothers regarding knowledge, attitude of complimentary feeds and factors influencing age of complimentary feeds like, education, occupation, socio - economic status, religion and residence. The growth of child was assessed by re cording weight and length, and classified according to WHO criterion by using WHO Anthro software. RESULTS: Knowledge and attitude were assessed in 500 mothers. The m ean age of complimentary feeds wa s 8.24±2.79 months. 23% of mothers started complimentary feeds at 6 months of age . I lliterate mothers, low socio - economic group and rural mothers tend to wean late (p0.05. 34.1%, 34.5% and 23.8% of children were under weight, stunt ed and wasted respectively. There wa s significant association between delayed complimentary feeds and malnutrition of the child. CONCLUSION: Mothers knowledge rega rding complimentary feeds time wa s inadequate and practices i nappropriate, majority of them w e re not aware of current recommendations. M ean age of complimentary feeds wa s delayed due to improper information, false beliefs and attitudes, illiteracy, low socio - economic status and rural mothers, thus leading to malnutrition of the child. Hence, accurate information and education should be given to mothers and caregivers about timely complimentary feeds, complimentary feeds foods, preparation and practice to prevent malnutrition and improve the health status of the children KEYWORDS: Complimentar y feeds; Attitude; Practices; Complementary feeding; Mothers knowledge; Malnutrition.
Quandelacy, Talia M.; Viboud, Cecile; Charu, Vivek; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward
Limited information on age- and sex-specific estimates of influenza-associated death with different underlying causes is currently available. We regressed weekly age- and sex-specific US mortality outcomes underlying several causes between 1997 and 2007 to incidence proxies for influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and B that combine data on influenzalike illness consultations and respiratory specimen testing, adjusting for seasonal baselines and time trends. Adults older than 75 years of age had the hig...
Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li
Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Besides its well-established role in nerve cell survival and adaptive plasticity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is also involved in energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Although BDNF is present in the systemic circulation, it is unknown whether plasma BDNF correlates with circulating markers of dysregulated metabolism and an adverse cardiovascular profile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether circulating BDNF correlates with indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health, we measured plasma BDNF levels in 496 middle-age and elderly subjects (mean age approximately 70, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Linear regression analysis revealed that plasma BDNF is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, regardless of age. In females, BDNF was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, and inversely correlated with folate. In males, BDNF was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, free thiiodo-thyronine (FT3, and bioavailable testosterone, and inversely correlated with sex-hormone binding globulin, and adiponectin. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Plasma BDNF significantly correlates with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular dysfunction. Whether BDNF contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders or functions in adaptive responses to cellular stress (as occurs in the brain remains to be determined.
... in § 86.1826-08(d)(4). 3. Plot emissions (or catalyst inefficiency) versus aging time for each.... Plot the natural log (ln) of the slope of each best-fit line (determined in step 4) along the...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses...
Drahos, Jennifer; Xiao, Qian; Risch, Harvey A; Freedman, Neal D; Abnet, Christian C; Anderson, Lesley A; Bernstein, Leslie; Brown, Linda; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gammon, Marilie D; Kamangar, Farin; Liao, Linda M; Murray, Liam J; Ward, Mary H; Ye, Weimin; Wu, Anna H; Vaughan, Thomas L; Whiteman, David C; Cook, Michael B
Esophageal (EA) and esophagogastric junction (EGJA) adenocarcinoma have been steadily increasing in frequency in younger people; however, the etiology of these cancers is poorly understood. We therefore investigated associations of body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, gastroesophageal reflux and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in relation to age-specific risks of EA and EGJA. We pooled individual participant data from eight population-based, case-control studies within the international Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON). The analysis included 1,363 EA patients, 1,472 EGJA patients and 5,728 control participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for age-specific (<50, 50-59, 60-69, ≥70 years) cancer outcomes, as well as interactions by age. BMI, smoking status and pack-years, recurrent gastroesophageal reflux and frequency of gastroesophageal reflux were positively associated with EA and EGJA in each age group. Early-onset EA (<50 years) had stronger associations with recurrent gastroesophageal reflux (OR = 8.06, 95% CI: 4.52, 14.37; peffect modification = 0.01) and BMI (ORBMI ≥ 30 vs . <25 = 4.19, 95% CI: 2.23, 7.87; peffect modification = 0.04), relative to older age groups. In contrast, inverse associations of NSAID use were strongest in the oldest age group (≥70 years), although this apparent difference was not statistically significant. Age-specific associations with EGJA showed similar, but slightly weaker patterns and no statistically significant differences by age were observed. Our study provides evidence that associations between obesity and gastroesophageal reflux are stronger among earlier onset EA cancers.
Drahos, Jennifer; Xiao, Qian; Risch, Harvey A; Freedman, Neal D; Abnet, Christian C; Anderson, Lesley A; Bernstein, Leslie; Brown, Linda; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gammon, Marilie D; Kamangar, Farin; Liao, Linda M; Murray, Liam J; Ward, Mary H; Ye, Weimin; Wu, Anna H; Vaughan, Thomas L; Whiteman, David C; Cook, Michael B
Esophageal (EA) and esophagogastric junction (EGJA) adenocarcinoma have been steadily increasing in frequency in younger people; however, the etiology of these cancers is poorly understood. We therefore investigated associations of body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, gastroesophageal reflux and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in relation to age-specific risks of EA and EGJA. We pooled individual participant data from eight population-based, case-control studies within the international Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON). The analysis included 1,363 EA patients, 1,472 EGJA patients and 5,728 control participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for age-specific (<50, 50-59, 60-69, ≥70 years) cancer outcomes, as well as interactions by age. BMI, smoking status and pack-years, recurrent gastroesophageal reflux and frequency of gastroesophageal reflux were positively associated with EA and EGJA in each age group. Early-onset EA (<50 years) had stronger associations with recurrent gastroesophageal reflux (OR = 8.06, 95% CI: 4.52, 14.37; peffect modification = 0.01) and BMI (ORBMI ≥ 30 vs . <25 = 4.19, 95% CI: 2.23, 7.87; peffect modification = 0.04), relative to older age groups. In contrast, inverse associations of NSAID use were strongest in the oldest age group (≥70 years), although this apparent difference was not statistically significant. Age-specific associations with EGJA showed similar, but slightly weaker patterns and no statistically significant differences by age were observed. Our study provides evidence that associations between obesity and gastroesophageal reflux are stronger among earlier onset EA cancers. PMID:26175109
N. Venugopal; Preeti Ahuja
Panax wangianus (Syn. Panax pseudoginseng) S. C. Sun (Araliaceae) is a critically endangered, medicinal plant of North-East India. The objective of this study was to determine how plant size affects flowering phenology and to evaluate the effect of climatic factors on flowering, fruiting and seed production. Data on vegetative and repro- ductive characters were monitored from 2016 individuals of Panax wan- gianus population in Law Lyngdoh, Smit sacred grove in Nongkrem, Shillong, India. Leaflet area was measured by a planimeter. Size vari- ables of both vegetative and reproductive traits in different age classes were measured. Climatic factors were recorded from 2007 to 2009. Age was recorded by counting the number of bud scale scars on the rhizome. Light intensity and relative humidity were measured using a photometer, LiCor Model LI-189 and thermohygrometer respectively. Different cli- maric variables are correlated with vegetative and reproductive phenological events. Statistical analysis revealed that a strong positive correlation was observed between the age versus vegetative and repro- ductive characters, except 1%-2% plants showed neoteny. Morphologi- cal variations were observed in natural conditions on the basis of the number of prong and carpellate conditions. Phenological status revealed that most of the individuals of the age class 35-50 years and above 50 years contributed the most to flowering, fruiting and seed production. Age class was significant to predict the size of the plant and its reproduc- tive capacity. Climatic factors such as temperature, precipitation and relative humidity show synergistic effect on both the vegetative and reproductive phases in Panax wangianus in the undisturbed Nongkrem sacred grove. The color of flowers of P. Wangianus also varied depend- ing upon the sunlight intensity. Therefore, in the view of conservation and management, the age class of 35-50 years and above 50 years is the most important for population
Riquelme, Raquel; Cediel, Rafael; Contreras, Julio; Lourdes, Rodriguez-de la Rosa; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Hernandez-Sanchez, Catalina; Zubeldia, Jose M.; Cerdan, Sebastian; Varela-Nieto, Isabel
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) belongs to the family of insulin-related peptides that fulfils a key role during the late development of the nervous system. Human IGF1 mutations cause profound deafness, poor growth and mental retardation. Accordingly, Igf1−/− null mice are dwarfs that have low survival rates, cochlear alterations and severe sensorineural deafness. Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a common disorder associated with aging that causes social and cognitive problems. Aging is also associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I levels and this reduction has been related to cognitive and brain alterations, although there is no information as yet regarding the relationship between presbycusis and IGF-I biodisponibility. Here we present a longitudinal study of wild type Igf1+/+ and null Igf1−/− mice from 2 to 12 months of age comparing the temporal progression of several parameters: hearing, brain morphology, cochlear cytoarchitecture, insulin-related factors and IGF gene expression and IGF-I serum levels. Complementary invasive and non-invasive techniques were used, including auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR) recordings and in vivo MRI brain imaging. Igf1−/− null mice presented profound deafness at all the ages studied, without any obvious worsening of hearing parameters with aging. Igf1+/+ wild type mice suffered significant age-related hearing loss, their auditory thresholds and peak I latencies augmenting as they aged, in parallel with a decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-I. Accordingly, there was an age-related spiral ganglion degeneration in wild type mice that was not evident in the Igf1 null mice. However, the Igf1−/− null mice in turn developed a prematurely aged stria vascularis reminiscent of the diabetic strial phenotype. Our data indicate that IGF-I is required for the correct development and maintenance of hearing, supporting the idea that IGF-I-based therapies could contribute to prevent or
Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I belongs to the family of insulin-related peptides that fulfils a key role during the late development of the nervous system. Human IGF1 mutations cause profound deafness, poor growth and mental retardation. Accordingly, Igf1−/− null mice are dwarfs that have low survival rates, cochlear alterations and severe sensorineural deafness. Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss is a common disorder associated with aging that causes social and cognitive problems. Aging is also associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I levels and this reduction has been related to cognitive and brain alterations, although there is no information as yet regarding the relationship between presbycusis and IGF-I biodisponibility. Here we present a longitudinal study of wild type Igf1+/+ and null Igf1−/− mice from 2 to 12 months of age comparing the temporal progression of several parameters: hearing, brain morphology, cochlear cytoarchitecture, insulin-related factors and IGF gene expression and IGF-I serum levels. Complementary invasive and non-invasive techniques were used, including auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR recordings and in vivo MRI brain imaging. Igf1−/− null mice presented profound deafness at all the ages studied, without any obvious worsening of hearing parameters with aging. Igf1+/+ wild type mice suffered significant age-related hearing loss, their auditory thresholds and peak I latencies augmenting as they aged, in parallel with a decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-I. Accordingly, there was an age-related spiral ganglion degeneration in wild type mice that was not evident in the Igf1 null mice. However, the Igf1−/− null mice in turn developed a prematurely aged stria vascularis reminiscent of the diabetic strial phenotype. Our data indicate that IGF-I is required for the correct development and maintenance of hearing, supporting the idea that IGF-I-based therapies could contribute to
Full Text Available Empirical research conducted over the past few decades suggests that the age at which an individual is first exposed to a second language affects long-term outcomes, in particular for phonology. The question that has occupied scholars of various bents is what, exactly, underlies the robust age effects observed. Does age imply immutable changes in one’s ability to ever sound native-like? Are these changes neurological, cognitive, or socio-psychological in nature? What role do L2 use and contact play? Do age-related influences apply to all individuals, or can language learners actually chart their own course when it comes to accent? This paper will outline basic assumptions of the critical period for phonology while suggesting a different approach to the age question that highlights the individual’s role in both process and outcome. Constructs such as L2 experience, motivation, self-concept, learning approach, and willingness to communicate are discussed in depth in order to show the fundamental connection between cognition and affect so critical for late phonological learning. A re-orientation of the age research is suggested as a result, to prioritize contextual understandings of language use and learner agency.
Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Chao, Jane C-J
Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality and loss of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries. This study derived a dietary pattern using an a priori method and additionally derived dietary patterns using a posteriori methods, and assessed the relationship with CVD risk factors in Taiwanese middle-aged and elderly adults. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of 62,965 subjects aged 40 years and above from the Mei Jau (MJ) database collected between 2003 and 2012 in Taiwan. Diet was assessed using a 22 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using this information, three dietary patterns were generated. The a priori diet was labeled the Taiwanese dietary pattern and was derived using hypothesized effect of 22 food groups, while two a posteriori dietary patterns, “vegi-fruits” and “meat-processed”, were derived using principal component analysis. The association between dietary patterns and a range of CVD risk factors (i.e. blood lipids, blood glucose and C-reactive protein) was evaluated using linear regression. Results The results showed that high intake (Q5, quintile 5) of Taiwanese diet was negatively associated with CVD risk factors at (p meat-processed dietary pattern (Q5) was positively associated with CVD risk factors (p meat-processed dietary pattern and CVD risk factors. The findings suggested that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits has a beneficial effect in the management of CVD risk factors. PMID:27366909
Full Text Available Nearly 20% of tuberculosis (TB patients die within one year, and TB-related mortality rates remain high in Taiwan. The study aimed to identify factors correlated with TB-specific deaths versus non-TB-specific deaths in different age groups among TB-related mortalities.A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 2006-2008 with newly registered TB patients receiving follow-up for 1 year. The national TB database from the Taiwan-CDC was linked with the National Vital Registry System and the National Health Insurance database. A chi-squared test and logistic regression were used to analyse the correlated factors related to TB-specific and non-TB-specific deaths in different age groups.Elderly age (odds ratio [OR] 2.68-8.09, Eastern residence (OR 2.01, positive sputum bacteriology (OR 2.54, abnormal chest X-ray (OR 2.28, and comorbidity with chronic kidney disease (OR 2.35, stroke (OR 1.74 or chronic liver disease (OR 1.29 were most likely to be the cause of TB-specific deaths, whereas cancer (OR 0.79 was less likely to be implicated. For non-TB-specific deaths in patients younger than 65 years of age, male sex (OR 2.04 and comorbidity with HIV (OR 5.92, chronic kidney disease (OR 8.02, stroke (OR 3.75, cancer (OR 9.79, chronic liver disease (OR 2.71 or diabetes mellitus (OR 1.38 were risk factors.Different factors correlated with TB-specific deaths compared with non-TB-specific deaths, and the impact of comorbidities gradually decreased as age increased. To reduce TB-specific mortality, special consideration for TB patients with old age, Eastern residence, positive sputum bacteriology and comorbidity with chronic kidney disease or stroke is crucial. In particular, Eastern residence increased the risk of TB-specific death in all age groups. In terms of TB deaths among patients younger than 65 years of age, patients with HIV, chronic kidney disease or cancer had a 6-10 times increased risk of non-TB-specific deaths.
Joanna Kowalkowska; Lidia Wadolowska; Justyna Weronika Wuenstel; Małgorzata Anna Słowińska; Ewa Niedźwiedzka
Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and ag...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex.This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards.The odds ratio (OR for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P < 0.05 by Polish standards and 0.22 (95%CI:0.05-0.95; P < 0.05 by international standards, in comparison to the reference group (low SESI. In total girls who had mothers with higher education level, the OR adjusted for age was 0.44 (95%CI:0.21-0.90; P <0.05 by Polish standards and 0.35 (95%CI:0.15-0.81; P < 0.05 by international standards, in comparison to the reference group (maternal elementary education. The other single SES factors were not significant for overweight prevalence.The relationship between socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is widespread in the world including developing countries. However malnutrition in poor areas is still a serious problem. Few investigations, especially in a large sample, have been performed in Western area of China. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of school children aged 9–15 years in large Southwest city of China, and identify the differential impact of aberrant birth categories and family history of obesity related disease on childhood overweight and obesity development. Methods A multistage random cluster sampling was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity, which were defined by the new age-, sex-, specific BMI reference developed by World Health Organization (WHO (2007. And then a frequency matched case–control study was performed to identify the risk factors of overweight and obesity. Results 7,194 children (3,494 boys, 3,700 girls were recruited, and 1,282 (17.8% had excess bodyweight (14.5% overweight, 3.3% obesity. The combined prevalence gradually decreased with age, and were more prevalent among boys than girls (P P >0.05. Preterm large for gestational age (OR = 2.746, maternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.713, paternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.583, preterm appropriate for gestational age (OR = 1.564, full term small for gestational age (OR = 1.454 and full term large for gestational age (OR = 1.418 were recognized as significant risk factors in the multivariate regression analysis (P Conclusions While overweight and obesity was dramatically spreading, malnutrition still remained a serious problem. This unmatched nutritional status should be emphasized in backward cities of China. Children born of both preterm and LGA, whose parents particularly mothers had a history of obesity related disease, should be emphatically intervened as early as possible.
Claudia L Vitral
Full Text Available The age-specific prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV was determined in two different population groups with low socio-economic status from Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, whose serum samples were collected 17 years apart (Population 1, 1978; Population 2, 1995. In Population 2, analysis of the anti-HAV prevalence was also carried out with respect to environmental factors. Population 1 was composed of 520 stored sera collected from the umbilical cord of term neonates and children aged 1 month to 6 years. In population 2, 720 serum samples were collected from children and adolescents with ages ranging from 1 to 23 years. The overall prevalence rate of anti-HAV in Population 1 and Population 2 was 65.6% and 32.1%, respectively. In Population 1, the anti-HAV prevalence reached 88% at the age of 3, while in Population 2, it increased from 4.5% in children under the age of 3 to 66% in the group of adolescents over the age of 14. The low exposure to HAV infection in younger children from Population 2 could be a result of improved environmental hygiene and sanitation, as demonstrated by the presence of piped water, waste and sewage disposal systems in most houses from this population group. These findings indicate a possible change in the prevalence of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro
Full Text Available The five viscera score (FVS is a diagnostic scale for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. The purposes of current study are to elucidate the characteristics of FVS obtained from middle-aged to elderly individuals and to investigate the validity of FVS using biological medical data of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to conduct assessments between FVS and medical data. Eighty men and 99 women participated in this study, whose mean ages (SD were 58 ± 7 years in both genders showing no significant difference. FVS of women was significantly higher than that of men in the spleen of the 50s (P=0.019 and liver of the 60s age group (P=0.030. By SEM, the following biomedical factors were found to influence viscera: gender, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-C for the liver; GLU, GOT, and γ-GTP for the spleen; age, BMI, and HCRP for the lungs; and HbA1c and creatinine clearance for the kidneys. These results provide objective evidence that FVS can be used for TCM diagnosis in middle-aged and elderly individuals.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.
Ai-Jing Luo; Rui-Hua Feng; Xiao-Wan Wang; Fu-Zhi Wang
BACKGROUND: Some studies found that age at ifrst birth is associated with pancreatic cancer; others did not. The present meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between age at ifrst birth and pancreatic cancer in women. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Co-chrane Library for relevant publications on age at ifrst birth and pancreatic cancer up to April, 2014. The eligible studies (six cohorts and ifve case-controls) were independently select-ed by two authors. Pooled relative risk (RR) estimates and cor-responding 95% conifdence interval (95% CI) were calculated using the inverse-variance method. RESULTS: The pooled RR of pancreatic cancer risk for the highest versus lowest categories of age at ifrst birth was 1.21 (95% CI: 1.01-1.45,P=0.314,I2=13.7%). Consistent relation-ships were also observed within subgroup analyses stratiifed by study design, geographic region, and whether the studies included adjustment for cigarette smoking, diabetes, or all of the confounders. In this meta-analysis, no publication bias among studies was observed using Egger’s test (P=0.383) or Begg’s test (P=0.436). CONCLUSION: Our ifndings suggest that older age at ifrst birth is associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in women and the exact functional mechanism needs further investigation.
Czaja, Sara J; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N; Rogers, Wendy A; Sharit, Joseph
The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18-91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption.
Ferreira Leonardo F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle weakness is associated with a variety of chronic disorders such as emphysema (EMP and congestive heart failure (CHF as well as aging. Therapies to treat muscle weakness associated with chronic disease or aging are lacking. Corticotrophin releasing factor 2 receptor (CRF2R agonists have been shown to maintain skeletal muscle mass and force production in a variety of acute conditions that lead to skeletal muscle wasting. Hypothesis We hypothesize that treating animals with a CRF2R agonist will maintain skeletal muscle mass and force production in animals with chronic disease and in aged animals. Methods We utilized animal models of aging, CHF and EMP to evaluate the potential of CRF2R agonist treatment to maintain skeletal muscle mass and force production in aged animals and animals with CHF and EMP. Results In aged rats, we demonstrate that treatment with a CRF2R agonist for up to 3 months results in greater extensor digitorum longus (EDL force production, EDL mass, soleus mass and soleus force production compared to age matched untreated animals. In the hamster EMP model, we demonstrate that treatment with a CRF2R agonist for up to 5 months results in greater EDL force production in EMP hamsters when compared to vehicle treated EMP hamsters and greater EDL mass and force in normal hamsters when compared to vehicle treated normal hamsters. In the rat CHF model, we demonstrate that treatment with a CRF2R agonist for up to 3 months results in greater EDL and soleus muscle mass and force production in CHF rats and normal rats when compared to the corresponding vehicle treated animals. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the underlying physiological conditions associated with chronic diseases such as CHF and emphysema in addition to aging do not reduce the potential of CRF2R agonists to maintain skeletal muscle mass and force production.
Miriam Adoyo Muga
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the leading causes of mortality and loss of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries. This study derived a dietary pattern using an a priori method and additionally derived dietary patterns using a posteriori methods, and assessed the relationship with CVD risk factors in Taiwanese middle-aged and elderly adults.Cross-sectional analyses of 62,965 subjects aged 40 years and above from the Mei Jau (MJ database collected between 2003 and 2012 in Taiwan. Diet was assessed using a 22 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using this information, three dietary patterns were generated. The a priori diet was labeled the Taiwanese dietary pattern and was derived using hypothesized effect of 22 food groups, while two a posteriori dietary patterns, "vegi-fruits" and "meat-processed", were derived using principal component analysis. The association between dietary patterns and a range of CVD risk factors (i.e. blood lipids, blood glucose and C-reactive protein was evaluated using linear regression.The results showed that high intake (Q5, quintile 5 of Taiwanese diet was negatively associated with CVD risk factors at (p < 0.001, model 3, but not with triacylglycerol. In addition, high intake of vegi-fruit dietary pattern (Q5 was negatively associated with CVD risk factors (p < 0.001, but not with high-density lipoprotein, while high consumption of meat-processed dietary pattern (Q5 was positively associated with CVD risk factors (p < 0.001, but negatively related with triacylglycerol in Q3 level and no association with C-reactive protein.A negative association was observed between Taiwanese or vegi-fruit dietary patterns and CVD risk factors, while a positive association was found between meat-processed dietary pattern and CVD risk factors. The findings suggested that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits has a beneficial effect in the management of CVD risk factors.
Uratsu Connie S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Northern California county of Marin (MC has historically had high breast cancer incidence rates. Because of MC's high socioeconomic status (SES and racial homogeneity (non-Hispanic White, it has been difficult to assess whether these elevated rates result from a combination of established risk factors or other behavioral or environmental factors. This survey was designed to compare potential breast cancer risks and incidence rates for a sample of middle-aged MC women with those of a demographically similar population. Methods A random sample of 1500 middle-aged female members of a large Northern California health plan, half from Marin County (MC and half from a comparison area in East/Central Contra Costa County (ECCC, were mailed a survey covering family history, reproductive history, use of oral contraceptives (OC and hormone replacement therapy (HRT, behavioral health risks, recency of breast screening, and demographic characteristics. Weighted data were used to compare prevalence of individual breast cancer risk factors and Gail scores. Age-adjusted cumulative breast cancer incidence rates (2000–2004 were also calculated for female health plan members aged 40–64 residing in the two geographic areas. Results Survey response was 57.1% (n = 427 and 47.9% (n = 359 for MC and ECCC samples, respectively. Women in the two areas were similar in SES, race, obesity, exercise frequency, current smoking, ever use of OCs and HRT, age at onset of menarche, high mammography rates, family history of breast cancer, and Gail scores. However, MC women were significantly more likely than ECCC women to be former smokers (43.6% vs. 31.2%, have Ashkenazi Jewish heritage (12.8% vs. 7.1%, have no live births before age 30 (52.7% vs. 40.8%, and be nulliparous (29.2% vs. 15.4%, and less likely to never or rarely consume alcohol (34.4% vs. 41.9%. MC and ECCC women had comparable 2000–2004 invasive breast cancer incidence rates. Conclusion
Rogil José de Almeida Torres
Full Text Available Os autores apresentam os principais fatores modificáveis considerados de risco para o desencadeamento e/ou agravamento da degeneração macular relacionada com a idade. São abordados os mecanismos de ação destes fatores, assim como medidas preventivas e eficácia de eventuais intervenções.The authors present the main modifiable risk factors that may trigger and/or worsen age-related macular degeneration. Mechanisms of action related to these factors as well as preventive measures and intervention effectiveness are discussed.
Mohammad Jamalzadeh; Hemmat Ali Heydari
this study is implemented to evaluate affecting factors on the deviant behavior of young offenders aged 15 to 24 years old. The statically population of this study, is all 15 to 24 years old offenders on the city's jails that randomly out of 254 cases that, by using Cochran formula and Lin table is calculated , were interviewed using a questionnaire. In this study, Social discrimination is one of the main factors on the deviant behavior of youth from the perspective of the studied subjects ...
Nan, R.; Tetchner, S; Rodriguez, E.; Pao, P. J.; Gor, J.; Lengyel, I; Perkins, S J
The sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits (sRPEds) that are a hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) contain both C3b and mM levels of zinc. C3 is the central protein of complement, while C3u is formed by the spontaneous hydrolysis of the thioester bridge in C3. During activation, C3 is cleaved to form active C3b, then C3b is inactivated by Factor I and Factor H to form the C3c and C3d fragments. The interaction of zinc with C3 was quantified using analytical ultracentrifugation...
José Ignacio Pérez
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is three-fold: (1 to assess the effects of a three-year educational programme for coexistence with children aged 7 to 9 on socio-emotional and creative factors, (2 to identify gender differences in these factors, and (3 to analyze whether gender has an influence on the effects of the programme. The experimental design was pretest-intervention-posttest with control group, with a sample made up of 80 participants aged 7 to 9 years (53 experimental and 27 control. Five assessment instruments were applied before and after the program. The results of the analyses of variance suggest that de program significantly increased different behaviours which facilitate socialization, play-mate election, number of classmates considered prosocial, creative behaviour and creative personality traits. Gender did not influence the effects of the intervention.
Cooley, Sharon M
AIMS: To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 1650 low-risk Caucasian women in a London University teaching hospital. Maternal IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 were measured in maternal blood at booking and analyzed with respect to gestational age at delivery. RESULTS: There was no significant association between maternal IGF-1 or IGF-2 and preterm birth (PTB). A significant reduction in mean IGFBP-3 levels was noted with delivery <32 completed weeks (P=0.02). CONCLUSION: Maternal mean IGFBP-3 levels are significantly reduced in cases complicated by delivery <32 completed weeks.
Badi, Ileana; Burba, Ilaria; Ruggeri, Clarissa; Zeni, Filippo; Bertolotti, Matteo; Scopece, Alessandro; Pompilio, Giulio; Raucci, Angela
Arterial aging is a major risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aged artery is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and vascular smooth muscle cells altered physiology together with low-grade chronic inflammation. MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) has been recently implicated in cardiac, endothelial, and endothelial progenitor cell senescence; however, its contribution to aging-associated vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype has not been explored so far. We found that miR-34a was highly expressed in aortas isolated from old mice. Moreover, its well-known target, the longevity-associated protein SIRT1, was significantly downregulated during aging in both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Increased miR-34a as well as decreased SIRT1 expression was also observed in replicative-senescent human aortic smooth muscle cells. miR-34a overexpression in proliferative human aortic smooth muscle cells caused cell cycle arrest along with enhanced p21 protein levels and evidence of cell senescence. Furthermore, miR-34a ectopic expression induced pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype molecules. Finally, SIRT1 protein significantly decreased upon miR-34a overexpression and restoration of its levels rescued miR-34a-dependent human aortic smooth muscle cells senescence, but not senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors upregulation. Taken together, our findings suggest that aging-associated increase of miR-34a expression levels, by promoting vascular smooth muscle cells senescence and inflammation through SIRT1 downregulation and senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors induction, respectively, may lead to arterial dysfunctions.
Jennifer L Y Yip
Full Text Available To examine the cross sectional and longitudinal relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD in a large British cohort study.The EPIC Norfolk Eye study is nested in a larger prospective cohort study. Data on cardiovascular risk factors were collected at baseline (1993-1997 and follow up (2006-2011 via clinical examination, validated lifestyle questionnaires and serum blood samples. AMD was ascertained using standardised grading of fundus photographs at the follow up. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline and follow up risk factors with AMD.5,344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623 of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD in participants with mean age of 67.4 years old (range 44-91 at diagnosis. There were 28 cases of late AMD (0.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI=0.3-0.8% and 645 cases of early AMD (12.1%, 95%CI=11.2-13.0.%. In multivariable analysis, older people with higher levels of baseline high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C and C-reactive protein (CRP were more likely to have any signs of AMD, after adjusting for sex, education, smoking, and systolic blood pressure. In cross sectional analysis, only older age and higher HDL were significantly associated with AMD.We have found that older age and higher levels of CRP and HDL-C were associated with increased odds of AMD in this population in the longitudinal analysis, but older age and HDL-C, not CRP was significantly associated with AMD in the cross sectional analysis. The prevalence of AMD in this cohort was low compared to other cohorts in Europe, the US and Australia, and probably reflects the some selection biases in follow up participation as well as the low rate of smoking among our healthy participants.
Diouf, Katharina; Tabatabai, Patrik; Rudolph, Jochen; Marx, Michael
Background: Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Low- and middle-income countries are particularly burdened with this both preventable and treatable condition. Targeted interventions include the provision of safe water, the use of sanitation facilities and hygiene education, but are implemented with varying local success.Objective: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with diarrhoea in children under five years of age in rural Burundi.Design: A ...
Janot, Adam C.; Huscher, Dörte; Walker, McCall; Grewal, Harmanjot K.; Yu, Mary; Lammi, Matthew R.; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann
Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ system granulomatous disease of unknown origin with an incidence of 1–40/100,000. Though pulmonary manifestations are predominant, ocular sarcoidosis (OS) affects 25–50% of patients with sarcoidosis and can lead to blindness. Methods A retrospective, single-center chart review of sarcoidosis cases investigated variables associated with the development of OS. Inclusion criteria were biopsy-proven sarcoidosis, disease duration greater than 1 year, documented smoking status on chart review and documentation of sarcoid-related eye disease. Multivariate analysis identified independent risk factors for OS. Results Of 269 charts reviewed, 109 patients met inclusion criteria. The OS group had a significantly higher proportion of smokers (71.4%) than without OS (42.0%, p=0.027) with no difference (p=0.61) in median number of pack years. Male sex was significantly higher in the OS group (57.1% versus 26.1%, p=0.009). Median duration of sarcoidosis was higher in the OS group (10 versus 4 years, p=0.031). Multivariate regression identified tobacco exposure (OR=5.25, p=0.007, 95% CI 1.58–17.41), male sex (OR=7.48, p=0.002, 95% CI 2.15–26.01), and age (OR=1.114, p=0.002, 95% CI 1.04–1.19) as concomitant risk factors for the development of OS. Conclusion To date, there are few dedicated investigations of risk factors for OS, especially smoking. This investigation identified male sex, age, and tobacco exposure as independent risk factors for OS. Though disease duration did not withstand regression analysis in this moderately sized group, age at chart review suggests screening for OS should not remit but rather intensify in aging patients with sarcoidosis. PMID:26278693
Hajjem, Chawki; Harnad, Stevan
Eysenbach has suggested that the OA (Green) self-archiving advantage might just be an artifact of potential uncontrolled confounding factors such as article age (older articles may be both more cited and more likely to be self-archived), number of authors (articles with more authors might be more cited and more self-archived), subject matter (the subjects that are cited more, self-archive more), country (same thing), number of authors, citation counts of authors, etc. Chawki Hajjem (doctoral ...
Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Martinez-Salgado, Carlos; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus Ma; Sanchez-Fernandez, Pedro L; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; García-Ortiz, Luis
Introduction The process of population ageing that is occurring in developed societies represents a major challenge for the health system. The aim of this study is to analyse factors that have an influence on early vascular ageing (EVA), estimated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and Cardio Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI), and to determine differences by gender in a Spanish population. Methods and analysis An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Study population From the population assigned to the participating healthcare centres, a cluster random sampling stratified by age and gender will be performed to obtain 500 participants aged between 35 and 75. Those who meet the inclusion criteria and give written informed consent will be included in the study. Measurements Main dependent variables: cf-PWV determined using the SphygmoCor System and CAVI estimated using VASERA. Secondary dependent variables: telomere length, carotid intima-media thickness, central and peripheral augmentation index, ankle-brachial pulse wave velocity, ankle-brachial index, retinal arteriovenous index, and renal and cardiac organ damage. Independent variables: lifestyles (physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, alcohol and tobacco consumption); psychological factors (depression, anxiety and chronic stress); inflammatory factors and oxidative stress. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee of the healthcare area of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent form agreeing to participate in the study in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow the understanding of the relationship of the different influencing factors and their relative weight in the development of EVA. At least 5 publications in first-quartile scientific journals are planned. Trial registration number NCT02623894; Pre
Sheng-Bao Chen; Hai Hu; You-Shui Gao; Hai-Yan He; Dong-Xu Jin; Chang-Qing Zhang
Objective To investigate the prevalence of clinical anxiety and clinical depression in Chinese young and mid-aged patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) and to analyze their potential risk factors. Methods Two hundred and sixteen Chinese patients with ONFH were consecutively enrolled in this cross-sectional study from January 2010 to December 2010. The Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and the Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to assess the prevalence of cli...
... to reflect the Supreme Court's decision in Smith v. City of Jackson.\\1\\ 73 FR 16807, Mar. 31, 2008... authority). So, too, have lower courts. See Baskerville v. Culligan International Company, 50 F.3d 428, 432... stereotypes may not be distinct from age.\\53\\ The Supreme Court has recognized that the problem...
W.A. Rocca; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)
textabstractTo investigate the possible association between Alzheimer's disease and late maternal age at index birth, we conducted a collaborative re-analysis of existing case-control data sets. Of the 11 studies participating in the EURODEM project, four were included in the analyses regarding mate
Y. van Pareren; M. Houdijk; M. Jansen (Maarten); M. Reeser; P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)
textabstractHyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus type 2, and coronary heart disease have been associated with being born small for gestational age (SGA). It has been reported that GH treatment induced higher insulin levels, which has led to concern regarding the long-term effect of GH
Gootjes, Liselotte; Scheltens, Philip; Van Strien, Jan W.; Bouma, Anke
Cortical 'disconnection', involving disruption of white matter tracts in the brain, has been hypothesized as a mechanism of age-related cognitive decline. Diffuse hyperintensities in the white matter (so called white matter hyperintensities, WMH) on T2-weighted MRI scans are regarded to represent is
Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran
Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225
ZHANG Liang; ZHOU Ji-hong; QIU Jun; ZHANG Xiu-zhu; YUAN Dan-feng; GAO Zhi-ming; DAI Wei
Objective:To study the epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among people over 60 years old in the Nan' an district(urban)and Jiangjin district(rural)of Chongqing,and to discuss the corresponding strategies for its prevention and cure.Methods:Records of traffic injuries in people over 60 years old registered by the traffic police between 2000 and 2006 in Nan'an district and Jiangjin district were collected in the Database of Road Traffic Accidents and Traffic Injuries.Epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among the aged people were analyzed and compared.Results:Between the year 2000 and 2006,the average annual incidence of traffic injuries and mortality rate in the aged people in Nan' an district were 124.62/100 000 and 13.85/100 000 respectively,higher than that in Jiangjin district(27.49/100 000,7.13/100 000,P＜0.01).However,the mortality rate for the aged people who were involved in traffic injuries in Jiangjin district was 20.60％,higher than that in Nan'an district(10.00％,P＜0.01).Head injury was the primary cause of death.Totally 76.58％ of casualties were pedestrians.Over 90％ of the traffic accidents occurred in the areas with no traffic signal or traffic control system.Conclusions:The traffic environment is unfavorable to the aged people.It is important to enhance traffic safety consciousness of drivers and the elderly and to strengthen traffic safety system and traffic law,so as to provide a safe road traffic environment for the aged people.
A number of environmental and personal factors have already been associated with the development and exacerbation of childhood asthma, but many aspects of this association require further research. The Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) is an epidemiologic study t...
Sakabe Isamu; Asai Azusa; Iijima Junko; Maruyama Mitsuo
Abstract Background We recently isolated and identified Zizimin2 as a functional factor that is highly expressed in murine splenic germinal center B cells after immunization with T-cell-dependent antigen. Zizimin2 was revealed to be a new family member of Dock (dedicator of cytokinesis), Dock11, which is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42, a low-molecular-weight GTPase. However, the molecular function of Zizimin2 in acquired immunity has not been elucidated. Results In this stud...
Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Kusano, Yosuke; Takamura, Noboru; Abe, Yasuyo; Osaki, Makoto; Une, Hiroshi
Obesity is one of the most common health problems, and is recognized worldwide as an "escalating epidemic." For the establishment of an obesity-prevention strategy in Japan, it is important to assess the association between obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we conducted anthropometric measures of obesity and investigated the association of obesity with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia among community-dwelling men (N=85) and women (...
de Oliveira Gomes, Angelica; de Oliveira Silva, Deise Aparecida; Silva, Neide Maria; de Freitas Barbosa, Bellisa; Franco, Priscila Silva; Angeloni, Mariana Bodini; Fermino, Marise Lopes; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Bechi, Nicoletta; Paulesu, Luana Ricci; dos Santos, Maria Célia; Mineo, José Roberto; Ferro, Eloisa Amália Vieira
Because macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key cytokine in pregnancy and has a role in inflammatory response and pathogen defense, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of MIF in first- and third-trimester human placental explants infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Explants were treated with recombinant MIF, IL-12, interferon-γ, transforming growth factor-β1, or IL-10, followed by infection with T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites. Supernatants of cultured...
Supa Pengpid; Karl Peltzer
The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13–16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and ov...
Oanh Thi Hoang Trinh
Full Text Available Background: Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective: This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Design: Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011 with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results: Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%. Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion: Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.