WorldWideScience

Sample records for age factors

  1. Lithuanian Population Aging Factors Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Agnė Garlauskaitė; Rasa Zabarauskaitė

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify the factors that determine aging of Lithuania’s population and to assess the influence of these factors. The article shows Lithuanian population aging factors analysis, which consists of two main parts: the first describes the aging of the population and its characteristics in theoretical terms. Second part is dedicated to the assessment of trends that influence the aging population and demographic factors and also to analyse the determinants of the agin...

  2. Age factors in biometric processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairhurst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in

  3. Aging Successfully: A Four-Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Yen, Tung-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to validate a model for a successful aging process and examine the gender differences in the aging process. Three hundred twelve participants who were 65 or older completed a Taiwan Social Change Survey that measures four factors that define successful aging process: including physical, psychological, social support, and…

  4. AgeFactDB—the JenAge Ageing Factor Database—towards data integration in ageing research

    OpenAIRE

    Hühne, Rolf; Thalheim, Torsten; Sühnel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    AgeFactDB (http://agefactdb.jenage.de) is a database aimed at the collection and integration of ageing phenotype data including lifespan information. Ageing factors are considered to be genes, chemical compounds or other factors such as dietary restriction, whose action results in a changed lifespan or another ageing phenotype. Any information related to the effects of ageing factors is called an observation and is presented on observation pages. To provide concise access to the complete info...

  5. Age as a risk factor for suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Sanja S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis χ2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.

  6. The age factor in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Rita; Bras, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia, and it is characterized by a decline in memory or other thinking skills. The greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is advanced age. A recent genome-wide study identified a locus on chromosome 17 associated with the age at onset, and a specific variant in CCL11 is probably responsible for the association. The association of a protective haplotype with a 10-year delay in the onset of Alzheimer's disease and the identification of a CCL11 variant with possible functional roles in this association might allow the future development of immunomodulators with the potential to halve disease incidence. PMID:26482651

  7. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  8. Growth factors, aging and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Priya; Longo, Valter D

    2016-06-01

    Simple organisms including yeast and flies with mutations in the IGF-1 and Tor-S6K pathways are dwarfs, are highly protected from toxins, and survive up to 3 times longer. Similarly, dwarf mice with deficiencies in the growth hormone-IGF-I axis are also long lived and protected from diseases. We recently reported that humans with Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency (GHRD) rarely develop cancer or diabetes. These findings are in agreement with the effect of defects in the Tor-S6K pathways in causing dwarfism and protection of DNA. Because protein restriction reduces both GHR-IGF-1 axis and Tor-S6K activity, we examined links between protein intake, disease, and mortality in over 6000 US subjects in the NHANES CDC database. Respondents aged 50-65 reporting a high protein intake displayed an increase in IGF-I levels, a 75% increased risk of overall mortality and a 3-4 fold increased risk of cancer mortality in agreement with findings in mouse experiments. These studies point to a conserved link between proteins and amino acids, GHR-IGF-1/insulin, Tor-S6k signaling, aging, and diseases. PMID:26883276

  9. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  10. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  11. Dietary quality, lifestyle factors and healthy ageing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: dietary quality, dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, smoking, physical activity, elderly, mortality, Mediterranean Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, healthy ageing, self-rated health, functional statusThe contribution of diet and lifestyle factors to healthy ageing was

  12. Regeneration of the aged thymus by a single transcription factor

    OpenAIRE

    Bredenkamp, N.; Nowell, C. S.; Blackburn, C C

    2014-01-01

    Thymic involution is central to the decline in immune system function that occurs with age. By regenerating the thymus, it may therefore be possible to improve the ability of the aged immune system to respond to novel antigens. Recently, diminished expression of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC)-specific transcription factor Forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) has been implicated as a component of the mechanism regulating age-related involution. The effects of upregulating FOXN1 function in the aged thymu...

  13. Aging and calcium as an environmental factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T

    1985-12-01

    Calcium deficiency is a constant menace to land-abiding animals, including mammals. Humans enjoying exceptional longevity on earth are especially susceptible to calcium deficiency in old age. Low calcium and vitamin D intake, short solar exposure, decreased intestinal absorption, and falling renal function with insufficient 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D biosynthesis all contribute to calcium deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss and possibly calcium shift from the bone to soft tissue, and from the extracellular to the intracellular compartment, blunting the sharp concentration gap between these compartments. The consequences of calcium deficiency might thus include not only osteoporosis, but also arteriosclerosis and hypertension due to the increase of calcium in the vascular wall, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and senile dementia due to calcium deposition in the central nervous system, and a decrease in cellular function, because of blunting of the difference in extracellular-intracellular calcium, leading to diabetes mellitus, immune deficiency and others (Fig. 6). PMID:2943880

  14. On aging factors, aging mechanisms and their combinations in the primary circuit of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageing is the dominating problem of elder nuclear power plant (NPP) components but still can not be neglected even for the newest ones. Ageing may express itself in different ways: irradiated steel parts may become embrittled, chromium alloy steels may decompose, fatigue life may become exhausted so that cracks may be formed and finally, corrosion attack may result in stress corrosion cracking. However, even synthetics and rubber parts may become inelastic, swell, shrink or crack, electric contacts may be oxydised, or isolations may lose their high electric resistance. Therefore, experts in the different components and their materials have collected and published not only plenty of observations, but also a number of more or less systematic approaches. A general picture, however, still seems to be lacking, due to the fact that ageing factors and mechanisms are not defined and used properly, i.e. - ageing factors act because of the service conditions of the components, as well as the characteristics of the materials which provoke ageing mechanisms - ageing mechanisms cause the changing of properties of the materials involved - combinations of single ageing mechanisms, which can be double, triple or multiple, change and accelerate the ageing process - the consequence of ageing mechanisms is the altering of the properties of the material depending on the lifetime. In this paper we shall try to show a systematic approach to a potential ageing analysis concerning the main metallic components of primary circuits of NPP's - connection between ageing factors, ageing mechanisms and their consequences/effects on component behaviour

  15. 20 CFR 220.128 - Age as a vocational factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... national economy. (2) If the claimant is close to retirement age (60-64) and has a severe impairment, the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Age as a vocational factor. 220.128 Section 220.128 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  16. Risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Nano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.

  17. Genetic factors of age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Tuo, Jingsheng; Bojanowski, Christine M.; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2004-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the United States and developed countries. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of AMD remain unknown, a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors is thought to exist. The incidence and progression of all of the features of AMD are known to increase significantly with age. The tendency for familial aggregation and the findings of gene variation association studies implicate a significant genetic compone...

  18. Moderating effects of personal and contextual factors in age discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E L; Kulik, C T; Bourhis, A C

    1996-12-01

    The researchers explored personal and contextual factors that inhibit or facilitate the use of older worker stereotypes in a selection context. The authors suggest that older worker stereotypes are more likely to be used and influence applicant evaluations when raters are biased against older workers, when raters do not have the cognitive resources to inhibit the use of age-associated stereotypes, or when applicants apply for age-incongruent jobs. The researchers explored the extent to which raters differing in older worker bias make discriminatory decisions about young or old individuals applying for age-typed jobs under conditions of high- and low-cognitive demands. A laboratory study was conducted with 131 undergraduate students who evaluated applicants in a simulated employment context. Results indicated that older worker bias, cognitive busyness, and job age-type interact to affect the extent to which applicant age plays a role in selection decisions. PMID:9019121

  19. Physical and mental health at third age - risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Manolescu Suzana; Rada Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Identifying biological and socio-demographic factors influencing old people’s health stateand their impact on their life; psychological evaluation of a third-age (60-90 years) cohort.Methods: The sample was made up of 120 urban subjects of both sexes, aged between 60-90 years,evenly distributed into 3 age groups: 60-70, 70-80 and 80-90. Subjects were randomly selected from noninstitutionalisedpopulation (with no claims of representativeness). Two instruments were used: aquestionna...

  20. The Fine Art of Age Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃舒雅

    2014-01-01

    In present-day world foregrounding the booming globalization, there is possibly no one who still doubts the formida-ble position of English as an international language, who still questions the immense necessity and urgency of learning English as a second language. Therefore, nothing is more rewarding than a clear-cut perception of age factor in second language acquisition that help learners young or old improve their English proficiency if not a native-like level. Among the full repertoire of ideas and arguments concerning age factor in second language acquisition, the critical period hypothesis is undoubtedly the chief character in the center of the stage.

  1. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to...

  2. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  3. Factors influencing STI transmission in middle-aged heterosexual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsell, Ellen; McLuskey, John

    2016-06-23

    Research has shown that individuals aged 45-64, or the 'middle-aged' population, are at an increasing risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). An exploration of the factors that may influence STIs in this age group was carried out to ascertain how to reduce the risk. A critical review identified 14 research papers that considered STIs in middle-aged people. The available evidence base highlighted an under-representation of women, the absence of a consistent definition of 'middle age', and a paucity of specific information on the sexual health needs of this group. Low condom use was found to be a possible contributor to increasing STI rates; men were shown to report particularly low use. Behaviours such as contact with sex workers and sexual encounters abroad were found to be additional risk factors in men, requiring further consideration. The breakdown and formation of relationships during middle age was also identified as a possible area to investigate, as were the behavioural traits of women and associated STI risk. Further research into these areas could facilitate the development of attitudes, knowledge, policy and practice that could help provide better support for individuals affected. PMID:27345071

  4. Premature aging in skeletal muscle lacking serum response factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Lahoute

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass, increased adiposity and fibrosis that leads to sarcopenia. At the molecular level, muscle aging is known to alter the expression of a variety of genes but very little is known about the molecular effectors involved. SRF (Serum Response Factor is a crucial transcription factor for muscle-specific gene expression and for post-natal skeletal muscle growth. To assess its role in adult skeletal muscle physiology, we developed a post-mitotic myofiber-specific and tamoxifen-inducible SRF knockout model. Five months after SRF loss, no obvious muscle phenotype was observed suggesting that SRF is not crucial for myofiber maintenance. However, mutant mice progressively developed IIB myofiber-specific atrophy accompanied by a metabolic switch towards a more oxidative phenotype, muscular lipid accumulation, sarcomere disorganization and fibrosis. After injury, mutant muscles exhibited an altered regeneration process, showing smaller regenerated fibers and persistent fibrosis. All of these features are strongly reminiscent of abnormalities encountered in aging skeletal muscle. Interestingly, we also observed an important age associated decrease in SRF expression in mice and human muscles. Altogether, these results suggest that a naturally occurring SRF down-regulation precedes and contributes to the muscle aging process. Indeed, triggering SRF loss in the muscles of mutant mice results in an accelerated aging process.

  5. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Landi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an “ageist” approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons.

  6. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-02-01

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an "ageist" approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons. PMID:26828516

  7. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an “ageist” approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons. PMID:26828516

  8. The age factor in Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreiro, Rita; Bras, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia, and it is characterized by a decline in memory or other thinking skills. The greatest risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease is advanced age. A recent genome-wide study identified a locus on chromosome 17 associated with the age at onset, and a specific variant in CCL11 is probably responsible for the association. The association of a protective haplotype with a 10-year delay in the onset of Alzheimer’s disease and the identification of a ...

  9. Aging and intestinal motility: a review of factors that affect intestinal motility in the aged.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Denis

    2012-02-03

    Normal aging is associated with significant changes in the function of most organs and tissues. In this regard, the gastrointestinal tract is no exception. The purpose of this review is to detail the important age-related changes in motor function of the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract and to highlight some of the important motility changes that may occur, either in relation to common age-related disorders, or as a result of certain drugs commonly prescribed in the aged. A major confounding factor in the interpretation of motor phenomena throughout the gastrointestinal tract in this age group is the frequent coexistence of neurological, endocrinological and other disease states, which may be independently associated with dysmotility. Overall, current data are insufficient to implicate normal aging as a cause of dysmotility in the elderly. Normal aging is associated with various changes in gastrointestinal motility, but the clinical significance of such changes remains unclear. More important is the impact of various age-related diseases on gastrointestinal motility in the elderly: for example, long-standing diabetes mellitus may reduce gastric emptying in up to 50% of patients; depression significantly prolongs whole-gut transit time; hypothyroidism may prolong oro-caecal transit time; and chronic renal failure is associated with impaired gastric emptying. In addition, various, frequently used drugs in the elderly cause disordered gastrointestinal motility. These drugs include anticholinergics, especially antidepressants with an anticholinergic effect, opioid analgesics and calcium antagonists.

  10. Exploring Genetic Factors Involved in Huntington Disease Age of Onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valcárcel-Ocete, Leire; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Iriondo, Mikel;

    2015-01-01

    age (motor AO or mAO). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed between genetic variation within 20 candidate genes and eAO or mAO, using DNA and clinical information of 253 HD patients from REGISTRY project. Gene expression analyses were carried out by RT-qPCR with an independent sample......Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp) in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim...... of this study is to explore the contribution of candidate genetic factors to HD AO in order to gain insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this disorder. For that purpose, two AO definitions were used: the earliest age with unequivocal signs of HD (earliest AO or eAO), and the first motor symptoms...

  11. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soepardi Soedibyo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

  12. Anorexia of Aging: A Modifiable Risk Factor for Frailty

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Landi; Emanuele Marzetti; Matteo Tosato; Elena Ortolani; Graziano Onder; Davide Liborio Vetrano; Anna Maria Martone

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia of aging, defined as a loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, affects a significant number of elderly people and is far more prevalent among frail individuals. Anorexia recognizes a multifactorial origin characterized by various combinations of medical, environmental and social factors. Given the interconnection between weight loss, sarcopenia and frailty, anorexia is a powerful, independent predictor of poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality in older persons. One of the...

  13. Klotho is a serum factor related to human aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖能明; 张焱明; 郑权; 顾军

    2004-01-01

    Background Does klotho (KL) protein exist in human serum, and is there any correlation between KL protein in serum with human aging? In order to answer those questions, we identified KL protein in human serum and established the correlation between KL protein in human serum and aging.Methods We prepared a polyclonal antibody against human KL protein that was able to recognize the C-terminal of human secreted KL protein. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to identify KL protein in human serum.Results In Western blot, the antibody specifically recognized a 60-kD KL protein in both human and mice serum. The population aged from 0 to 91 years screened by ELISA revealed that the level of serum KL declined while age increased, though each individual level was variable and that the trend of decreasing in serum KL had no difference in sex.Conclusion Our data suggest that KL is a serum factor related to human aging.

  14. 20 CFR 416.963 - Your age as a vocational factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retirement age (age 60 or older). See § 416.968(d)(4). (f) Information about your age. We will usually not... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Your age as a vocational factor. 416.963... age as a vocational factor. (a) General. “Age” means your chronological age. When we decide...

  15. Spirituality, gender and age factors in cybergossip among Nigerian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, David Adebayo

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the patterns of spirituality, gender, and age in cybergossip practices among Nigerian adolescents. The study utilized a descriptive survey method. Five hundred thirty adolescent students, randomly selected from four major cities in Nigeria, participated in the study. Their age range was 16 to 21. General Spirituality and Gossip Purpose scales were used to collect data from the participants. Data collected were subjected to t test statistics. Findings showed that there is no significant difference in the cybergossiping practices of adolescents based on their levels of spirituality. This reveals that spirituality is not an inhibiting factor in cybergossiping practices among the adolescents. However, there is significant difference between male and female youths in their cybergossiping practices. The results showed that females are more likely than males to be involved in cybergossiping activities. There is also significant difference between early and late adolescents' cybergossiping activities. The implication is that gossip and cybergossip is a natural tendency that involves communicative expression with a pleasure-seeking purpose. It is a habit that excludes no one despite spiritual, gender, or age factors. Therefore, this behavior should be positively directed away from abusive computing and communication. This work is unique because of the need for parents, guardians, and psychologists to design measures to identify and manage various moderating variables in children's computing practices for optimal positive outcomes. PMID:19445634

  16. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries. PMID:24672198

  17. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Soepardi Soedibyo; Tinuk Meilany

    2006-01-01

    School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was co...

  18. Potential factors that may promote successful cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance DE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David E VanceCenter for Nursing Research, School of Nursing, Edward R Roybal Center for Translational Research in Aging and Mobility, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: With the unprecedented number of older adults worldwide, it is important to consider ways of facilitating successful cognitive aging. One way to think of this is by augmenting or bolstering cognitive reserve. Loosely defined, cognitive reserve is considered a neurological reservoir that can be depleted by physiological insults (eg, white matter hyperintensities, oxidative stress to the brain but yet maintain optimal cognitive functioning. Cognitive reserve is built up or depleted by processes of positive and negative neuroplasticity, respectively. Lifestyle factors such as physical exercise (+, mental stimulation (+, good sleep hygiene (+, substance abuse (-, sedentary lifestyle (-, chronic stress and depression (-, social isolation (-, and poor health (- can either promote or discourage positive and negative neuroplasticity, which in turn impacts cognitive reserve. Nurses are encouraged to understand these processes so they can help facilitate successful cognitive aging in their patients.Keywords: cognitive reserve, Alzheimer's disease, neuroplasticity

  19. [Organic factors in behavior disorders in the developmental age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, D; Popov, I; Nikolić, V

    1990-01-01

    The problem of bad behavior in the young is as old as the written history of mankind. It is always a current problem in a practical and theoretical sense as well. While everyday life is filled with various forms of criminal offense, drug addiction, the forming of gangs-especially in dynamic societies, theoretical opinions tend to oscillate between biological factors and the psychological-social ones which are always unsuitable for a person in the course of its development. The authors have presented a review of the basic theoretical directions, and after that the results of their own research. Children with behavior disorders were investigated: parallely by psychological-psychiatric investigation as well as with an up-to-date biological approach, examining subclinical semiotics, EEG and REG. On the basis of these comparisons we have come to the following principal opinions: the suggested psycho-neuro-vegetative subclinical syndrome, recommended by the same authors, does not take the behavior disorder upon itself. Also, not every behavior disorder includes the obligatory psycho-neuro-vegetative subclinical syndrome (PNVSS). Nevertheless, PNVSS presents a risk factor for behavior disorder, in the case that the personality in development is growing up under unfavorable psycho-social conditions. Finally, in the younger ages PNVSS, by its primary features, determines the behavior disorder also, while at an older age (after 11) behavior has all the more of an asocial and antisocial character. PMID:2233559

  20. Elucidating key factors affecting radionuclide aging in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanistic studies allow at present to describe the processes governing the short-term interaction of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in soils. The initial sorption step can be described through the estimation of the soil-soil solution distribution coefficient from soil parameters, as cationic exchange capacity, radiocaesium interception potential and concentration of competing ions in the soil solution. After the initial soil-radionuclide interaction, a fraction of radionuclide is no longer available for exchange with the solution, and it remains fixed in the solid fraction. At present, the initial fixed fraction of a radionuclide in a given soil cannot be predicted from soil properties. Besides, little is known about soil and environmental factors (e.g., temperature; hydric regime) provoking the increase in the fixed fraction with time, the so-called aging process. This process is considered to control the reduction of food contamination with time at contaminated scenarios. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to predict the radionuclide aging in the medium and long term for a better risk assessment, especially when a decision has to be made between relying on natural attenuation versus implementing intervention actions. Here we study radiostrontium and radiocaesium aging in a set of soils, covering a wide range of soil types of contrasting properties (e.g., loamy calcareous; podzol; chernozem, organic). Three factors are separately and simultaneously tested: time elapsed since contamination, temperature and hydric regime. Changes in the radionuclide fixed fraction are estimated with a leaching test based on the use of a mild extractant solution. In addition to this, secondary effects on the radiocaesium interception potential in various soils are also considered. (author)

  1. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.; Larsen, Rasmus; Brixen, K.; Hougaard, D. M.; Richelsen, B.; Bruun, J. M.; Andersen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  2. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  3. HYPERANDROGENISM OF PUBERTY AGE AS A FACTOR REDUCING FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bogatyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Hyperandrogenism is a common cause of infertility in women. The onset of symptoms of hyperandrogenism takes place during puberty in the majority of women. Hyperandrogenism reduces reproductive potential,so early detection and development of its prognostic factors, allows us to solve serious problems of puberty and prevent infertility.Materials and methods. 113 adolescent girls with hyperandrogenism from 14 to 19 years were included. The control group consists of 25 healthy girls of a similar age. To confirm the prediction of decreased reproductive capacity were examined 35 women with hyperandrogenism from 19 to 36 years. In addition to routine methods of examination (anamnesis, physical examination, anthropometry, assessment of the hairline using Ferriman – Gallwey scale, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, the definition of the hormonal status (LH, FSH, prolactin, 17-OHP, estradiol, TSH, DHEAS-s, GHPG, testosterone, glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance test and dexamethasone suppression test when necessary.Results. We have proved the reduction of reproductive potential of adolescent girls with high free androgen index (FAI. When the FAI has increased from 36 to 100 conventional units it caused reduction of the reproductive capacity in 9.7 times in comparison with control group (χ2=56,24; p < 0.001; overall prediction accuracy of 92.8%.Conclusion. Free androgen index more than 36 conventional units is a high risk factor of reduced fertility.

  4. Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  5. Factors Affecting Age at ASD Diagnosis in UK: No Evidence that Diagnosis Age has Decreased Between 2004 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Denise; Warnell, Frances; McConachie, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R

    2016-06-01

    Clinical initiatives have aimed to reduce the age at ASD diagnosis in the UK. This study investigated whether the median age at diagnosis in childhood has reduced in recent years, and identified the factors associated with earlier diagnosis in the UK. Data on 2134 children with ASD came from two large family databases. Results showed that the age of ASD diagnosis has not decreased. The median age of diagnosis of all ASDs was 55 months. Factors associated with earlier age of diagnosis were autism diagnosis (compared with other ASD), language regression, language delay, lower socioeconomic status, and greater degree of support required. Effective clinical strategies are needed to identify children with characteristics that have in the past delayed ASD diagnosis. PMID:27032954

  6. Teacher Professionalization: Motivational Factors and the Influence of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Susan A.; Eom, Minhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines motivational factors of teachers who have achieved a national standard of professionalization. Data were collected from National Board certified teachers in the United States (N = 453) using a two-part, web-based survey. Exploratory factor analysis found five motivators: improved teaching, financial gain, collaborative…

  7. Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidenko O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.

  8. Mental health in the aged: prevalence, covariates and related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular and inflammatory factors of successful aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klug Günther

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although aging is accompanied by diminished functioning, many elderly individuals preserve a sense of well-being. While the concept of "successful aging" has been popular for many decades, little is known about its psycho-physiologic and endocrine underpinnings. KORA-Age is a population-based, longitudinal study designed to determine the prevalence of successfully aged men and women between 65 and 94 years old in the MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort of randomly selected inhabitants. Specifically, we aim to identify predictors of successful aging and to elucidate bio-psychosocial mechanisms that maintain mental health and successful adaptation despite adverse experiences of life and aging. Methods/Design Components of successful aging were assessed in a telephone survey of 4,127 participants (2008-2009 enrolled in the MONICA/KORA cohort, on average, 13 years earlier. Psychosocial, somatic and behavioural predictors are used to determine factors that contribute to successful aging. An age-stratified random sub-sample (n = 1,079 participated in a personal interview where further psychological mechanisms that may underlie successful adaptation (resilience, social support, attachment were examined. The interactions among neuroendocrine systems in the aging process are investigated by studying the cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate ratio, the level of insulin-like growth factor I, and oxytocin. Discussion Longitudinal determinants of successful aging can be assessed based on a follow-up of an average of 13 years. A comprehensive analysis of biological as well as physio-psychological information provides a unique opportunity to investigate relevant outcomes such as resilience and frailty in the elderly population.

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF SELF-REALIZATION IN THE STUDENT'S AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorenko, Volodymyr Mykolaiovych; Mazur, Tamara Vasylivna

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with scientific approaches to the concept of "selfrealization", reveals the basic components of self-realization. It describes the results of a study of the connection between the experience of successful self-actualization and emotional characteristics of personality in older adolescence, self-identified gender specifics in the student's age. Were determined the causes of the difficulties appearance in self-realization, and it was shown that the depression and anxiety can b...

  10. Z factors for aged cast duplex stainless steel pipes and welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides the Z factors of aged cast duplex stainless steel pipes and their welds with circumferential through-wall crack obtained form the Japanese material data. Z factors are used for elastic-plastic evaluation in ASME Code Section XI. Stress-strain curve and J-resistance curve taken from the base metal of cast duplex stainless steel with ferrite contents of about 23.5% and its adjoining welds of TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas), SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding), and SAW (Submerged Arc Welding) were used. These material were aged for 20000 to 40000 hours at 400 degrees C. The calculated Z factors were formulated in using the approximation with a linear equation of logarithm to the base ten. The proposed Z factors were compared with the Z factors in ASME Code Section XI. In the case of TIG and SMAW, the proposed Z factors give almost the same as the Z factors in ASME Code Section XI. In the case of SAW and cast stainless steel, the proposed Z factors were higher than the Z factors in ASME Code Section XI. Besides, In order to verify the availability of proposed Z factors, the critical bending moments by Z factors were compared with experimental data of aged cast duplex stainless steel pipes. The proposed Z factor for SAW and aged cast duplex stainless steel would be applied to estimate the failure moment of aged cast duplex stainless steel pipes. (author)

  11. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi-Na; Fang, Hong; Zhu, Wei-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing factors. Methods: Eight hundred and forty-eight Hangzhou residents received the survey between March 2004 and September 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the ...

  12. Age, sex and other factors in radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been held for a long time that the young are more susceptible than adults to the induction of cancer by radiation. The data in support of that contention are accumulating especially from human studies. In an exposed population a significant fraction of the total population risk may be attributed to the risk associated with those who were young at the time of exposure. Since cancer may not appear for decades after exposure estimates of risk may require models for projecting the lifetime risk. Two such models, additive or absolute risk and multiplicative or relative risk have been used. The appropriateness of the latter model is supported by the finding in mice of a positive relationship between natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction by radiation of solid cancer. The choice of model for leukemias is not clear cut. The incidence of cancer increases with age, but the susceptibility for induction decreases. The incidence of cancers increases to a peak and then begins to decline at different ages, dependent on the type of cancer. Sex-dependent differences in both the natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction of cancer are not restricted to sex organs. For example, the susceptibility for the induction by radiation for myeloid leukemia is greater in males than females, whereas in the case of thymic lymphoma it is vice versa. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Factor analysis of attentional set-shifting performance in young and aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyer Mark A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Executive dysfunction may play a major role in cognitive decline with aging because frontal lobe structures are particularly vulnerable to advancing age. Lesion studies in rats and mice have suggested that intradimensional shifts (IDSs, extradimensional shifts (EDSs, and reversal learning are mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, and the orbitofrontal cortex, respectively. We hypothesized that the latent structure of cognitive performance would reflect functional localization in the brain and would be altered by aging. Methods Young (4 months, n = 16 and aged (23 months, n = 18 C57BL/6N mice performed an attentional set-shifting task (ASST that evaluates simple discrimination (SD, compound discrimination (CD, IDS, EDS, and reversal learning. The performance data were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to extract the latent structures of ASST performance in young and aged mice. Results The factor analysis extracted two- and three-factor models. In the two-factor model, the factor associated with SD and CD was clearly separated from the factor associated with the rest of the ASST stages in the young mice only. In the three-factor model, the SD and CD loaded on distinct factors. The three-factor model also showed a separation of factors associated with IDS, EDS, and CD reversal. However, the other reversal learning variables, ID reversal and ED reversal, had somewhat inconsistent factor loadings. Conclusions The separation of performance factors in aged mice was less clear than in young mice, which suggests that aged mice utilize neuronal networks more broadly for specific cognitive functions. The result that the factors associated with SD and CD were separated in the three-factor model may suggest that the introduction of an irrelevant or distracting dimension results in the use of a new/orthogonal strategy for better discrimination.

  14. 77 FR 19080 - Disparate Impact and Reasonable Factors Other Than Age Under the Age Discrimination in Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... United States Supreme Court's decision in Smith v. City of Jackson.\\1\\ 73 FR 16807, Mar. 31, 2008. The... address the meaning ] of ``reasonable factors other than age.'' 75 FR 7212, Feb. 18, 2010. The Commission... charges of workplace discrimination.''); Jenson v. Eveleth Taconite Co., 130 F.3d 1287, 1292 (8th...

  15. HYPERANDROGENISM OF PUBERTY AGE AS A FACTOR REDUCING FERTILITY

    OpenAIRE

    E. M. Bogatyreva; G. A. Novik; G. F. Kutusheva

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Hyperandrogenism is a common cause of infertility in women. The onset of symptoms of hyperandrogenism takes place during puberty in the majority of women. Hyperandrogenism reduces reproductive potential,so early detection and development of its prognostic factors, allows us to solve serious problems of puberty and prevent infertility.Materials and methods. 113 adolescent girls with hyperandrogenism from 14 to 19 years were included. The control group consists of 25 healthy girls of a sim...

  16. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  17. [Celiac disease. Risk factors for women in reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazi, A V; Mantovani, A

    2000-05-01

    In the past coeliac disease, or intolerance to gluten, has been considered a rare disease in infancy, whose most important signs were chronic diarrhea with malabsorption and reduced growth. However, besides this classical form, there are a number of other clinical and subclinical forms which may appear even in the adult life and without any overt intestinal sign. The alterations may affect, e.g., the liver, thyroid, skin and the female and male reproductive system. The overall prevalence of the different forms of coeliac disease in Western Europe is at least 1:300. The aim of the present paper is to describe and evaluate the effects of coeliac disease on female reproduction. Such effects include delayed menarche, amenorrhea, infertility and early menopause. Epidemiological studies show that besides reduced fertility, affected women are at higher risk of reproductive problems such as pregnancy loss, low birthweight of offspring and reduced duration of breastfeeding. There are no adequate studies to evidentiate a possible increase of birth defects; nevertheless, coeliac disease induces malabsorption, with deficiencies of nutritional factors essential to prenatal development such as iron, folic acid and vitamin K. The mechanisms underlying the reproductive alterations are still awaiting clarification; however, an interaction among specific nutritional deficiencies, endocrine imbalances and immune disturbances is suspected. As for the other effects associated to the coeliac disease, the possible prevention or treatment of the reproductive effects is only the lifelong maintenance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:11048475

  18. Environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial age in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Mayes

    Full Text Available Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with 'looking young for one's age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25-70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001, fewer household members (p=0.027, menopausal status (p=0.020, frequency of visiting one's doctor (p=0.013, working indoors (p<0.001, spending less time in the sun (p=0.015, moderate levels of physical activity (p=0.004, higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001 and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001; moisturiser (p=0.016 or night cream (p=0.016. Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations.

  19. Factors influencing the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI): age, clinical variables and significant thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, B E; Abramov, B; Saab, W; Doshi, A; Sarna, U; Harper, J C; Serhal, P

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of various biological factors upon the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI). The total IUI history (856 cycles) of 352 couples was studied. Live-birth showed a strong negative correlation with female age but no correlation with male age. Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) correlated negatively with female age, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) correlated positively. Significant thresholds were found for all three variables, and also for total motile count (TMC) in the prepared sperm. Calculating pregnancy losses per positive pregnancy showed a strong correlation with increasing female age. This was highly significant for biochemical losses but not for fetal heart miscarriages. Male age had no effect on rate of pregnancy loss. In conclusion, female age, FSH, AMH and TMC are good predictive factors for live-birth and therefore relate to essential in vivo steps in the reproductive process. PMID:24127958

  20. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Fowler, V G;

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal bacterium found in the nasal cavity and other body sites. Identifying risk factors for S. aureus nasal carriage is of interest, as nasal carriage is a risk factor for subsequent invasive infection. We recently investigated the influence of host genetics...... on S. aureus carriage in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins, which indicated no significant heritability that could account for the observed S. aureus carriage. In the present study, we performed a questionnaire-based study of S. aureus colonization on the same cohort of 2,196 Danish middle......-aged and elderly twins to identify specific risk factors for S. aureus nasal colonization, including analyzing the paired twins (n = 478) that were discordant for S. aureus colonization. We found associations between risk factors and S. aureus nasal colonization among middle-aged and elderly twins, including age...

  1. Perinatal Risk Factors for Feeding and Eating Disorders in Children Aged 0 to 3 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Carolina; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Koch, Susanne Vinkel;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, age at diagnosis, and associations between perinatal risk factors of feeding and eating disorders (FED) diagnosed at hospital in children aged 0 to 3 years. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 901 227 children was followed until 48 months of age in the national...... in the clinical management of young children with persistent problems of feeding, eating, and weight faltering....

  2. Factors Related to Emotional Responses in School-aged Children Who Have Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Veronica García

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was performed to answer the following questions (a) What factors contribute to the emotional responses of school-age children who have asthma? (b) What are the potential gaps in the literature regarding the emotional responses of school-age children (ages 6–12) who have asthma? (c) Are children with a lower socioeconomic status (SES) and those who are minorities represented in the literature proportionate to their prevalence? Two main focus areas regardin...

  3. Factors influencing the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI): age, clinical variables and significant thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Speyer, B.; Abramov, B.; Saab, W.; Doshi, A.; Sarna, U.; Harper, J. C.; Serhal, P

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of various biological factors upon the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI). The total IUI history (856 cycles) of 352 couples was studied. Live-birth showed a strong negative correlation with female age but no correlation with male age. Antimullerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) correlated negatively with female age, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) correlated positively. Significant thresholds were found for all three var...

  4. Influencing factors analysis of spontaneous knee joint osteoarthritis among middle aged and old aged pople in Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WANG Kun-zheng; DANG Xiao-qian; BAI Chuan-yi; WANG Chun-sheng; SHI ZHi-bin; MA Shu-qiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To explore the prevalence rate of knee joint osteoarthritis and its pathogenetic features among the middle-aged and old aged people in the urban and rural area of Xi'an. Methods: From May to October 2005, 1 538 Han nationality above 40 years in Xi'an were investigated according to stratified and cluster random sampling. The same questionnaire was delivered to subjects who had been given normotopia and lateral position radiographic examination in both knees. Excluded from etiological arthritis, some subjects with clinical symptoms and a radiographic grade (beyond Kellgren & Lawrence grade Ⅱ ) were finally diagnosed as spontaneous knee joint osteoarthritis. All analyses were performed with SPSS 13.0 and t test, U test. Single factor analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze dates. Results: The total prevalence of spontaneous knee joint osteoarthritis was 12. 1% with 2.5% and 2.1% for right and left knees, respectively. The prevalence of knee joint osteoarthritis in women was 2.5 times of that in men (17.2% vs 6.8%, P=0.000). the osteophyte prevalence in women was 2.3 times of that in men (26.5% vs 11.4%, P=0.000). The prevalence of knee joint osteoarthritis and osteophyte increased with the growth of age. So did the symptomatic knee, except for the age group of 56-60 years and 66-70 years. The prevalence of symptomatic knee joint for urban area was significantly higher than that for rural area (56. 3% vs 45.3%, P=0.003). In women, the prevalence of knee joint osteoarthritis increased significantly with the increasing of body mass index, which had not been observed in men. Female and obesity are the risk factors for osteoarthritis, but bean and its products and meat could prevent the osteoarthritis. Conclusion: Old age, female and obesity serve as risk factors for knee joint osteoarthritis.

  5. Suicide Rate Differences by Sex, Age, and Urbanicity, and Related Regional Factors in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Kyu-Seok; Choi, Min-Hyeok; Cho, Byung-Mann; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Kim, Chang-Hun; Kim, Yu-Mi; Hwang, In-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Identify the characteristics related to the suicide rates in rural and urban areas of Korea and discover the factors that influence the suicide rate of the rural and urban areas. Methods Using the data on causes of death from 2006 to 2008, the suicide rates were calculated and compared after age-standardization based on gender, age group and urbanicity. And, in order to understand the factors that influence suicide rate, total 10 local characteristics in four domains - public servi...

  6. TCCR/WSX-1 is a novel angiogenic factor in age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Ho Jin; Han, Jung Il; Lee, Ji Won; Uhm, Ki Bang; Heo, Kyun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the major cause of blindness among persons aged 60 years and older. The current approved therapies for AMD are exclusively limited to inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor. However, substantial improvement in vision occurs in only one-third of patients treated with vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists, and one-sixth of treated patients still progress to legal blindness. Therefore, more specific targets are needed to treat AMD...

  7. Hope and Adaptation to Old Age: Their Relationship with Individual-Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitou, Despina; Kolovou, Chrysa; Papasozomenou, Chrysa; Paschoula, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between hope as disposition, adaptation to old age, and individual-demographic factors. One hundred and fifty older adults, aged 60-93 years old, completed the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale developed by Snyder et AL. [1991, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, pp. 570-585], and the Adaptation to…

  8. Through thick and thin: A circulating growth factor inhibits age-related cardiac hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    McPherron, Alexandra C

    2013-01-01

    In an intriguing new study, Loffredo et al., report that joining the circulation of old mice with that of young mice reduces age-related cardiac hypertrophy. They also found that the growth factor GDF11 is a circulating negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy which suggests that raising GDF11 levels may be useful to treat cardiac hypertrophy associated with aging.

  9. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  10. Impact of age on epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Suda, Kenichi; Soh, Junichi; Yatabe, Yasushi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    Aging is one of the best, but rarely referred, risk factors for various types of cancer including lung cancer, because age could be a surrogate for accumulation of genetic events in cancers. Smoking inversely associates with the presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in lung cancer, but its strong confounding with age and sex makes it difficult to evaluate sole impact of age. To clarify an impact of age on EGFR mutation, we conducted a cross-sectional study based on data of 1262 lung cancer patients. The associations between EGFR mutation and age, considering sex, smoking and histology, were evaluated using logistic regression models. In multivariate analysis, we found a significant increase of EGFR mutation prevalence by increase of age (p-trend=0.0004). Consistent trend was observed among never-smoking females (p-trend=0.011) and never-smoking males also showed similar trend although not significant. These were consistently observed when we limit the subject to those with adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, age independently associates with EGFR mutation among lung cancer. Positive association between EGFR mutation and age among never-smokers regardless of sex might indicate that EGFR mutation occurs cumulatively by unidentified internal/external factors other than smoking. PMID:23036155

  11. Modifiable Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in the Population Aged 20-49 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Valladares Mas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: evidence provided by the Framingham Heart Study established the critical role of risk factors in the development of coronary heart disease. Over half a century later, current detection and control are still inadequate. Objective: to identify modifiable risk factors of coronary heart disease in individuals aged 20 to 49 years. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 276 individuals from the doctor’s office No. 1 of the Fabio di Celmo Community Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos. Patients were examined in the clinic visit and/or whole family visit. The studied variables included age, sex, skin color, risk factors (excess weight/obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and psychosocial factors, which were obtained from the medical interview, physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol and triglycerides and review of individual medical records and family history. Results: risk factors most frequently identified were excess weight/obesity (42.4 %, physical inactivity (34.4 % and smoking (20.3 %. Presence of these risk factors increased with age, showing differences in the distribution by sex and was associated with psychosocial factors. Their coexistence and progress with age was significant. Conclusion: prevalence of modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease in a young population was high, with frequent association, predominating factors related to unhealthy lifestyles.

  12. Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Shaon

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors start early, track through the young age and manifest in middle age in most societies. We conducted epidemiological studies to determine prevalence and age-specific trends in cardiovascular risk factors among adolescent and young urban Asian Indians. Methods Population based epidemiological studies to identify cardiovascular risk factors were performed in North India in 1999–2002. We evaluated major risk factors-smoking or tobacco use, obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension, dysglycemia and dyslipidemia using pre-specified definitions in 2051 subjects (male 1009, female 1042 aged 15–39 years of age. Age-stratified analyses were performed and significance of trends determined using regression analyses for numerical variables and Χ2 test for trend for categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to identify univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR for correlation of age and risk factors. Results In males and females respectively, smoking or tobacco use was observed in 200 (11.8% and 18 (1.4%, overweight or obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in 12.4% and 14.3%, high waist-hip ratio, WHR (males > 0.9, females > 0.8 in 15% and 32.3%, hypertension in 5.6% and 3.1%, high LDL cholesterol (≥ 130 mg/dl in 9.4% and 8.9%, low HDL cholesterol ( Conclusion Low prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adolescents and rapid escalation of these risk factors by age of 30–39 years is noted in urban Asian Indians. Interventions should focus on these individuals.

  13. Endometrial polyps and associated factors in Danish women aged 36-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Eva; Sorensen, Soren Stampe; Lose, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with endometrial polyps. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study of 140 women with endometrial polyps and 367 controls. Information on potentially associated factors was obtained by a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: In an age-adjusted logistic regression model...

  14. The Hierarchical Factor Model of ADHD: Invariant across Age and National Groupings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factor structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1,373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1,772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and…

  15. Vasculoprotective Effects of Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Treatment in Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Csiszar, Anna; Labinskyy, Nazar; Smith, Kira; Rivera, Aracelie; Orosz, Zsuzsanna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    Vascular aging is associated with dysregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression. TNF-α is a master regulator of vascular proatherogenic phenotypic changes, and it has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. To test the hypothesis that anti-TNF-α treatment exerts vasculoprotective effects in aging, aged (29 months old) F344 rats were treated with etanercept (1 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks), which binds and inactivates TNF-α. In aged carotid arteries, relaxations to acetylch...

  16. Face Aging Effect Simulation Using Hidden Factor Analysis Joint Sparse Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyu; Huang, Di; Wang, Yunhong; Wang, Heng; Tang, Yuanyan

    2016-06-01

    Face aging simulation has received rising investigations nowadays, whereas it still remains a challenge to generate convincing and natural age-progressed face images. In this paper, we present a novel approach to such an issue by using hidden factor analysis joint sparse representation. In contrast to the majority of tasks in the literature that handle the facial texture integrally, the proposed aging approach separately models the person-specific facial properties that tend to be stable in a relatively long period and the age-specific clues that change gradually over time. It then merely transforms the age component to a target age group via sparse reconstruction, yielding aging effects, which is finally combined with the identity component to achieve the aged face. Experiments are carried out on three aging databases, and the results achieved clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method in rendering a face with aging effects. Additionally, a series of evaluations prove its validity with respect to identity preservation and aging effect generation.

  17. Face Aging Effect Simulation Using Hidden Factor Analysis Joint Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyu; Huang, Di; Wang, Yunhong; Wang, Heng; Tang, Yuanyan

    2016-06-01

    Face aging simulation has received rising investigations nowadays, whereas it still remains a challenge to generate convincing and natural age-progressed face images. In this paper, we present a novel approach to such an issue using hidden factor analysis joint sparse representation. In contrast to the majority of tasks in the literature that integrally handle the facial texture, the proposed aging approach separately models the person-specific facial properties that tend to be stable in a relatively long period and the age-specific clues that gradually change over time. It then transforms the age component to a target age group via sparse reconstruction, yielding aging effects, which is finally combined with the identity component to achieve the aged face. Experiments are carried out on three face aging databases, and the results achieved clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method in rendering a face with aging effects. In addition, a series of evaluations prove its validity with respect to identity preservation and aging effect generation. PMID:27093721

  18. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-na WANG; Hong FANG; Wei-fang ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the ac-celerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only Fitzpatrick types Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and Fitzpatrick type Ⅱ seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Conclusion: Age, solar-exposure time, Fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China.

  19. Age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease risk factors at age 53 years in men and women: British birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    HARDY, R.; Lawlor, D A; Black, S.; Mishra, G D; Kuh, D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the associations between parental age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in men and women. To investigate whether the associations are explained by childhood predictors of age at parenthood or adult lifestyle factors related to child rearing. Methods: Data from 2540 men and women, with CHD risk factors measured at age 53 years, from a birth cohort study of individuals born in Britain in 1946 (Medical Research Council National Survey of H...

  20. Reproductive factors, age at maximum height, and risk of three histologic types of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Beaber, Elisabeth F.; Holt, Victoria L.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Porter, Peggy L.; Daling, Janet R.; Li, Christopher I.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the association between factors related to maturation and reproduction and breast cancer risk, but few have assessed how these factors are related to different histologic types of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. We used polytomous logistic regression to assess the effect of age at maximum height and reproductive factors on risk of invasive breast cancer by histologic type in three case groups (524 ductal, 324 lobular, 196 ductal-lobular) and 469 contr...

  1. Gender differences as factors in successful ageing: a focus on socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Mi; Jang, Soong-Nang; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Over the past century, the population of Korea has aged rapidly as a result of decreasing fertility and mortality. Furthermore, the percentage of the population aged 65 and older is expected to double from 7% to 14% within 18 years, a much shorter doubling period than in most other developed countries. As Korean society ages, interest in healthy and successful ageing has increased. However, although previous studies have examined various determinants of successful ageing, such as socioeconomic status, gender differences have been neglected. This study investigated gender differences as factors in successful ageing among elderly men and women. Successful ageing has been defined as having high levels of physical and social functioning. Physical functioning includes having no difficulties with activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Social functioning is defined as participation in at least one of the following social activities: paid work, religious gatherings or volunteer service. Data for this study were obtained from a representative sample of 761 community-living individuals aged 65-84 years (340 males, 421 females); the respondents were interviewed face-to-face as part of the third wave of the Hallym Ageing Study (2007). Socioeconomic status appears to have a greater gender-specific effect on physical functioning than on social functioning. Especially for elderly men, a higher monthly individual income was significantly related to a higher level of physical functioning. Among elderly women, a higher level of education was associated with a higher level of physical functioning. In a major metropolis, elderly men had low social functioning and elderly women had low physical functioning. As Korea's population ages, successful ageing has received much attention. This study shows that policies promoting successful ageing must consider gender differences and associated socioeconomic factors. PMID:19703332

  2. A Feature Analysis of Risk Factors for Stroke in the Middle-Aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haewon Byeon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain health during middle age and achieve successful aging, it is important to elucidate and prevent risk factors of middle-age stroke. This study investigated high risk groups of stroke in middle age population of Korea and provides basic material for establishment of stroke prevention policy by analyzing sudden perception of speech/language problems and clusters of multiple risk factors. This study analyzed 2,751 persons (1,191 males and 1,560 females aged 40–59 who participated in the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Outcome was defined as prevalence of stroke. Set as explanatory variables were age, gender, final education, income, marital status, at-risk drinking, smoking, occupation, subjective health status, moderate physical activity, hypertension, and sudden perception of speech and language problems. A prediction model was developed by the use of a C4.5 algorithm of data-mining approach. Sudden perception of speech and language problems, hypertension, and marital status were significantly associated with stroke in Korean middle aged people. The most preferentially involved predictor was sudden perception of speech and language problems. In order to prevent middle-age stroke, it is required to systematically manage and develop tailored programs for high-risk groups based on this prediction model.

  3. Longitudinal study exploring factors associated with neck/shoulder pain at 52 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselman Borg, Johanna; Westerståhl, Maria; Lundell, Sara; Madison, Guy; Aasa, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the ability of work-related measurements, body composition, physical activity, and fitness levels to predict neck/shoulder pain (upper body pain, UBP) at the age of 52 years. Another aim was to investigate the cross-sectional relationships between UBP, work-related factors, and individual factors at the age of 52 years. Methods We followed a randomly selected cohort of 429 adolescents that was recruited in 1974 (baseline), when they were 16 years old. The participants completed physical fitness tests, questions about sociodemographic and lifestyle factors at 16, 34, and 52 years of age, and questions about work-related factors and pain in the follow-ups. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between UBP and the other variables. Results Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that high body mass index and the work-related factors, low control, and low social support at the age of 34 years were related to UBP at the age of 52 years. For social support, there was an interaction between men and women where the relationship between low social support and the experience of pain was more evident for women. Among women, body mass index and social support remained significantly related in the multivariate analyses. For men, social support remained significantly related. Cross-sectional relationships at the age of 52 differed from the longitudinal in the sense that measures of joint flexibility and work posture were also significantly associated with UBP. Conclusion The fact that the cross-sectional differed from the longitudinal relationships strengthens the importance of performing longitudinal studies when studying factors that might influence the initiation of pain. UBP preventative measures might need to include both lifestyle (such as dietary habits and physical activity to ensure that the individuals are not becoming overweight) and work-related factors such as social support.

  4. Estimate of multiplicative and additive age adjustment factors for milk yield for the Mediterranean Italian Buffalo Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Parlato

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to estimate multiplicative and additive age adjustment factors for milk yield for the Mediterranean Italian Buffalo Breed for a mature age base (55 months, parity 2 with a mixed model procedure. Fixed effects of age-parity classes and random effects of contemporary group, genetic and permanent environmental effects of cows were included in the model. Two data sets were formed: Data Set I consisted of 83,810 lactation records and was used to develop the age factors. Data Set II consisted of 115,242 lactation records and was used for validation of the age factors estimated from Data Set I. Additive and multiplicative factors followed the same trend within the three parities (parity 1, parity 2, and parity ≥ 3. Averages of milk yield by age class for Data Set II pre-adjusted with multiplicative and additive factors from Data Set I were similar and tended to follow a straight line as expected. However, multiplicative factors might be preferred to additive factors because they would be affected less by an increase of the average milk yield due to selection or management. Age factors were smoothed to reduce differences among factors for similar age-parity classes. The smoothed age factors showed only slight differences among averages for similar age-parity classes, which suggests that the smoothed age factors may be more appropriate than the original factors.

  5. Assessment of risk factors for noncommunicable disease risk factors among men of working age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Vasilyev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the investigation of some modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors and poor explored as well of non-convectional diseases among men of working age.Subjects and methods. Seven thousand thirty five men in age of 18 to 60 years were examined. History data included age, gender, nationality,high blood pressure (BP episodes, antihypertensive drugs taking in case of arterial hypertension, smoking. Instrumental examination included BP measurement when seated after 5 minutes of the rest with mean BP calculation. Total cholesterol and creatinine in blood, clearance of creatinine calculation by Cockcroft–Gault formula, microalbuminuria were assayed; depression level was estimated by Beck score. With purpose to analyze the risk factors structure all examined subjects were divided into three groups according to SCORE scale.Results. Cholesterol level analysis revealed the increasing of parameter in 41.7 % of examined patients (n = 307. Microalbuminuria was revealed in 13.8 % (n = 102 of men, and 19.3 % of them (n = 80 had increased blood pressure. Some levels of depression were revealed in 42.5 % (n = 312, among them the arterial hypertension was observed in 62,5 % (n = 195. The group with low and moderate cardiovascular risk consisted of 594 persons (80.8 %. High cardiovascular risk was determined in 15.2 % men of working age (n = 112. Very high cardiovascular risk was revealed in 3.9 % (n = 29 of responders.Conclusion. Increasing of traditional risk factors rate is associated with increasing of additional risk factors. Received data are widening the perception about risk factors structure in population. Particularly the question about renal filtration function role, depressive syndrome, trophologic insufficiency is raised. Consideration of those in prophylaxis system consideration requires a specific education of general practitioners.

  6. Cognitive functioning in aging and dementia : the role of psychiatric and somatic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Fahlander, Kjell

    2002-01-01

    This doctorial thesis concerns the role of psychiatric and somatic factors in aging and dementia. Five studies are included, all based on data from the Kungsholmen Project, a population-based longitudinal study of aging and dementia that was conducted in Stockholm, Sweden during 1987-2000. Of the five studies, all but one mainly dealt with cognitive functioning in groups of participants that were diagnosed with dementia, whereas one study focused on cognitive functioning...

  7. Association Between Age at Menarche and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Women

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early menarche is strongly associated with adulthood obesity; however, the relationship between age at menarche and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean women remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the association between early menarche and risk factors for developing CVD during adulthood using a nationwide population database. In total, 12,336 women (weighted n = 17,483,406; weighted age, 45.7 years) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examinatio...

  8. Gender and education impact on brain aging: A general cognitive factor approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Proust-Lima, Cecile; Amieva, Hélène; Letenneur, Luc; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record. International audience In cognitive aging research, the study of a general cognitive factor has been shown to have a substantial explanatory power over the study of isolated tests. The authors aimed at differentiating the impact of gender and education on global cognitive change with age from their differential impact on 4 psychometric tests using a new latent process app...

  9. Psychosocial factors and ageing in older lesbian, gay and bisexual people: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    McParland, James C.; Camic, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives. To synthesise and evaluate the extant literature investigating the psychosocial influences on ageing as a lesbian, gay or bisexual person, to develop understanding about these influences and guide future research in the area. Background. Research suggests there may be specific psychological and social factors relevant to ageing for individuals with a nonheterosexual identity. Design. A systematic review was conducted on empirical research involving lesb...

  10. Age as Risk Factor for Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation Patients:Implications for Thromboprophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantina Mitrousi; Gregory Y H Lip; Stavros Apostolakis

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is a strong relationship between atrial fibrillation and aging, thromboembolism, stroke, congestive heart failure and hypertension. On the other hand, advanced age confers a powerful risk factor for stroke and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. For many years, vitamin K antagonists were the only approved anticoagulants for the management of atrial fibrillation. Lately new anticoagulants ma...

  11. Ageing towards 21 as a risk factor for Young Adult Suicide in the UK and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, K M; Quinlivan, L; Grant, T; Kelleher, C C

    2013-09-01

    Aims. Youth and young adult suicide has increasingly appeared on international vital statistics as a rising trend of concern in age-specific mortality over the past 50 years. The reporting of suicide deaths in 5-year age bands, which has been the international convention to date, may mask a greater understanding of year-on-year factors that may accelerate or ameliorate the emergence of suicidal thoughts, acts and fatal consequences. The study objective was to identify any year-on-year period of increased risk for youth and young adult suicide in the UK and Ireland. Methods. Collation and examination of international epidemiological datasets on suicide (aged 18-35) for the UK and Ireland 2000-2006 (N = 11 964). Outcome measures included the age distribution of suicide mortality in international datasets from the UK and Ireland, 2000-2006. Results. An accelerated pattern of risk up to the age of 20 for the UK and Ireland which levels off moderately thereafter was uncovered, thus identifying a heretofore unreported age-related epidemiological transition for suicide. Conclusions. The current reporting of suicide in 5-year age bands may conceal age-related periods of risk for suicide. This may have implications for suicide prevention programmes for young adults under age 21. PMID:23149246

  12. Ageing towards 21 as a risk factor for young adult suicide in the UK and Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, K M

    2012-11-13

    Aims. Youth and young adult suicide has increasingly appeared on international vital statistics as a rising trend of concern in age-specific mortality over the past 50 years. The reporting of suicide deaths in 5-year age bands, which has been the international convention to date, may mask a greater understanding of year-on-year factors that may accelerate or ameliorate the emergence of suicidal thoughts, acts and fatal consequences. The study objective was to identify any year-on-year period of increased risk for youth and young adult suicide in the UK and Ireland. Methods. Collation and examination of international epidemiological datasets on suicide (aged 18-35) for the UK and Ireland 2000-2006 (N = 11 964). Outcome measures included the age distribution of suicide mortality in international datasets from the UK and Ireland, 2000-2006. Results. An accelerated pattern of risk up to the age of 20 for the UK and Ireland which levels off moderately thereafter was uncovered, thus identifying a heretofore unreported age-related epidemiological transition for suicide. Conclusions. The current reporting of suicide in 5-year age bands may conceal age-related periods of risk for suicide. This may have implications for suicide prevention programmes for young adults under age 21.

  13. Factors associated with medication adherence in school-aged children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H.Y. Chan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to preventive asthma treatment is poor, particularly in children, yet the factors associated with adherence in this age group are not well understood. Adherence was monitored electronically over 6 months in school-aged children who attended a regional emergency department in New Zealand for an asthma exacerbation and were prescribed twice-daily inhaled corticosteroids. Participants completed questionnaires including assessment of family demographics, asthma responsibility and learning style. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with adherence was conducted. 101 children (mean (range age 8.9 (6–15 years, 51% male participated. Median (interquartile range preventer adherence was 30% (17–48% of prescribed. Four explanatory factors were identified: female sex (+12% adherence, Asian ethnicity (+19% adherence, living in a smaller household (−3.0% adherence per person in the household, and younger age at diagnosis (+2.7% for every younger year of diagnosis (all p<0.02. In school-aged children attending the emergency department for asthma, males and non-Asian ethnic groups were at high risk for poor inhaled corticosteroid adherence and may benefit most from intervention. Four factors explained a small proportion of adherence behaviour indicating the difficulty in identifying adherence barriers. Further research is recommended in other similar populations.

  14. Complement factor H deficiency results in decreased neuroretinal expression of Cd59a in aged mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Carsten; Williams, Jennifer; Juel, Helene Bæk; Greenwood, John; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Moss, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    changes in the function of CFH influence development of AMD are unclear, we examined ocular complement expression as a consequence of age in control and CFH null mutant mice. Methods. Gene expression in neuroretinas and RPE/choroid from young and aged WT and Cfh−/− C57BL/6J mice was analyzed by...... microarrays. Expression of a wide range of complement genes was compared with expression in liver. Results. An age-associated increased expression of complement, particularly C1q, C3, and factor B, in the RPE/choroid coincided with increased expression of the negative regulators Cfh and Cd59a in the...... neuroretina. Young mice deficient in CFH expressed Cd59a similar to WT, but failed to upregulate Cd59a expression with age. Hepatic expression of Cd59a increased with age regardless of Cfh genotype. Conclusions. While the connection between CFH deficiency and failure to upregulate CD59a remains unknown, these...

  15. Age as a Risk factor for Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Bhave MD; Rod Passman MD, MSCE

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation affects approximately 3 million people in the United States and creates a huge burden on the health care system, both in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost.1 The prevalence of atrial fibrillation rises sharply with increases in age. It is estimated that 8% of people above 70 years of age have atrial fibrillation.2-4 Atrial fibrillation has long been recognized as a powerful risk factor for stroke,5 heart failure,6 and mortality.7 Advancing age amplifies the risk of al...

  16. Age as a Risk factor for Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Bhave MD

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation affects approximately 3 million people in the United States and creates a huge burden on the health care system, both in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost.1 The prevalence of atrial fibrillation rises sharply with increases in age. It is estimated that 8% of people above 70 years of age have atrial fibrillation.2-4 Atrial fibrillation has long been recognized as a powerful risk factor for stroke,5 heart failure,6 and mortality.7 Advancing age amplifies the risk of all of these sequelae of atrial fibrillation.

  17. Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brophy, Sinead; Cooksey, Roxanne; Gravenor, Michael B; Mistry, Rupal; Thomas, Non; Lyons, Ronan A; Williams, Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Background Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. Methods Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White/European (n = 15,062), Asian (n = 1,845) or African (n = 654) background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to examine factors associated with obesity at age 5. All participants were interviewed in their own...

  18. Age associated differences in prevalence of individual rotterdam criteria and metabolic risk factors during reproductive age in 446 caucasian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D; Mumm, H; Ravn, P;

    2012-01-01

    resistance were unchanged between age groups, but glucose levels were significantly higher in older age groups. Rotterdam criteria: The prevalence of PCO and biochemical hyperandrogenism decreased in the oldest age group whereas clinical hyperandrogenism increased. Young patients are characterized by PCO and...... biochemical hyperandrogenism, whereas older patients are more obese with more severe hirsutism and more cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors....

  19. The weakening relationship between the Impact Factor and papers' citations in the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, George A; Gingras, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Historically, papers have been physically bound to the journal in which they were published but in the electronic age papers are available individually, no longer tied to their respective journals. Hence, papers now can be read and cited based on their own merits, independently of the journal's physical availability, reputation, or Impact Factor. We compare the strength of the relationship between journals' Impact Factors and the actual citations received by their respective papers from 1902 to 2009. Throughout most of the 20th century, papers' citation rates were increasingly linked to their respective journals' Impact Factors. However, since 1990, the advent of the digital age, the strength of the relation between Impact Factors and paper citations has been decreasing. This decrease began sooner in physics, a field that was quicker to make the transition into the electronic domain. Furthermore, since 1990, the proportion of highly cited papers coming from highly cited journals has been decreasing, and accor...

  20. The economics of nuclear power plants as they age: Production (capacity factors), variable costs, and retirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines, using multiple regression analyses, production at nuclear power plants, the variable costs involved, and estimate to dismantle reactors. Variable costs generally follow U-shaped curves as reactors age. Performance is modelled with polynomial equations, using chiefly intercept, age and age.5 terms, interacting with various reactor characteristics, plus time and operating experience. US nuclear capacity factors (actual output/possible) averaged 60% for 13 of 15 years during 1971-1985. Output generally peaked during ages 3-12. Capacity factors were much lower, or aging was faster, for reactors that are-from the worst-non-light water types, prototypes, salt water cooled, expensive to build, large, and boiling water reactors (BWRs). Expected nuclear capacity factors average 56% and reactor lives average 30 years. Outside America, generally capacity factors are much higher and reactor aging is slower. Heavy water reactors perform best, gas cooled ones worst, and BWRs do as well as pressurized water reactors. Capital addition costs have risen fastest and were most affected by aging. Fuel costs were almost constant. Repairs and O and M led the 15.3% real annual increase in nuclear variable costs/kW during 1978-1984. Forecast variable costs rise more slowly. If owners retire reactors when variable costs exceed alternatives, the last reactor should close about 2010. Then expected future lifetime levelized real variable costs range, by reactor, from 2 to 8 cents/kWh, median 4.4 (twice 1983 levels). Expected reactor lives average 24 years. At closed reactors, owners estimate costs to dismantle averaging $760/kW (1985$), or 53% of construction cost. Analysis of owner opinions for all American reactors suggests actual costs may average $200/kW. Higher burial prices could increase that substantially

  1. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Ghana and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Peltzer; Supa Pengpid

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in low income African countries (Ghana, Uganda). The total sample included 5,613 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally representative samples from two African countries. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behavior, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors and overweight or obesity. The prevalence o...

  2. Maternal and childhood psychological factors predict chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, Simon; Tilling, Kate; Joinson, Carol; Rimes, Katharine; Pearson, Rebecca; Hughes, Rachel; Sterne, Jonathan; Crawley, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether premorbid maternal and childhood psychological problems are risk factors for chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years among children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort.Methods: Chronic disabling fatigue was defined as fatigue of at least 3-month, and up to 5-year, duration that prevented school attendance or hobbies/sport/leisure activities, and for which other causes were not identified. Maternal psychological factors were sym...

  3. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Finck; Alyssa Ziman; Matthew Hoffman; Michelle Phan-Tang; Shan Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. ...

  4. Fibroblast growth factors as regulators of stem cell self-renewal and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeoh, Joyce S. G.; de Haan, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    Organ and tissue dysfunction which is readily observable during aging results from a loss of cellular homeostasis and reduced stem cell self-renewal. Over the past 10 years, studies have been aimed at delineating growth factors that will sustain and promote the self-renewal potential of stem cells a

  5. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In the group of men, there were significant positive associations between alcohol intake, HbA1c and FPG-sensitive sites in multivariate analysis. The levels of metabolic risk factors were positively associated with age, yet only few subjects fulfilled all...

  6. Stroke risk factors and subtypes in different age groups: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chih-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To compare the influence of stroke risk factors between different stroke types and age groups in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: During the study period, March 2007 to August 2008, 1,161 patients with acute ischemic stroke were admitted to the neurological ward. All the patients had risk factors work up and stroke subtype categorization. Results: The study cohort included 736 men and 425 women. Patients were grouped into three age groups: below 50 years (153, 13.2%; 50-75 years, (702, 60.5% and above 75 years (306, 26.4%. Stroke subtypes included: (1 large-artery atherosclerosis (14.6%, cardioembolism (12%, small-artery occlusion (39.4%, stroke of other determined etiology (1.5% and stroke of undetermined etiology (32.6%. Older patient group had higher frequency of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Younger age group of patients had high frequency of obesity and elevated serum triglyceride levels. Smoking and alcohol consumption were strongly related to men, and heart disease and obesity were related to women. Conclusions: The influence of risk factors at different ages is different. Awareness of the stroke risk factors before stroke and treatment with appropriate therapies or life modifications may have a bearing on the outcomes.

  7. Is Age The Major Factor in Second Language Acquisition? -- An examination of the Critical Period Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYing; LiuShufan

    2004-01-01

    Children, unlike adults, have an innate ability for learning language with great facility and minimal effort. This idea that early age is a major factor in native-proficient second language acquisition is a widely held and popular belief. Such views have been supported by many theories that were first proposed in the middle of the 20th century. This paper examines the

  8. Factors Affecting Sensitivity to Frequency Change in School-Age Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Emily; Taylor, Crystal N.; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. Method: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of…

  9. Aerobic Exercise and Other Healthy Lifestyle Factors That Influence Vascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development…

  10. Pathophysiological factors in the relationship between chronological age and calculated lung age as detected in a screening setting in community-dwelling subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eKardos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To explore the relationship between pathophysiological factors and premature lung ageing in a cohort of community-dwelling subjects in a health-screening setting. Methods: 16,107 pharmacy customers in Germany (5954 males, 10153 females; mean age 59.7 years participated in a lung function screening project by providing demographic data including smoking status and known airway conditions and performing spirometry with a Vitalograph, a spirometry screening device. Lung age was calculated from the spirometric findings, and the difference between chronological age and calculated lung age was analyzed in its relationship to the demographic data in general linear models. Results: In the overall cohort, calculated lung age exceeded chronological age by 10.0 years. Based on the subset of non-smokers not reporting any airway conditions, Vitalograph data in this setting may underestimate FEV1 to some degree but this apparently had little impact on the detection of association of lung age with pathophysiological factors or the corresponding effect sizes. The most important factors associated with greater lung age based on strength of association were presence of dyspnea, being a smoker and reporting a history of COPD or asthma. Corresponding effect sizes for the difference between age and lung age were 6.5, 5.7, 13.9 and 8.3 years over the chronological age. Discussion and Conclusions: These data confirm the usefulness of screening devices of lung function testing for epidemiological but potentially also for pharmaco-epidemiological studies.

  11. Factors Predicting Glycemic Control in Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ju Chiu, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFew studies have prospectively assessed the explanatory effects of demographics, clinical conditions, treatment modality, and general lifestyle behaviors on glycemic control in large heterogeneous samples of middle-aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes. We hierarchically examined these factors, focused especially on the effects of modifiable factors (ie, general lifestyle behaviors, and compared predictive patterns between middle-aged and older adults.MethodsWe used nationally representative data from the 1998 and 2000 Health and Retirement Study (HRS and the HRS 2003 Diabetes Study. We analyzed data from 379 middle-aged adults (aged 51-64 y and 430 older adults (aged ≥65 y who self-reported having type 2 diabetes at baseline.ResultsAmong middle-aged adults, demographic factors and clinical conditions were the strongest predictors of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels. However, among older adults, treatment modality (diet only, oral medication, or insulin only or in combination with other regimens significantly affected HbA1c levels. Lifestyle (physical activity, smoking, drinking, and body weight control, independent of the effects of demographics, clinical conditions, and treatment modality, significantly affected HbA1c levels. An increase of 1 healthy behavior was associated with a decrease in HbA1c levels of more than 1 percentage point.ConclusionOur findings provide support for current diabetes guidelines that recommend a lifestyle regimen across the entire span of diabetes care and highlight the need to help both sociodemographically and clinically disadvantaged middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes as well as older adults who exhibit poor adherence to medication recommendations to achieve better glycemic control.

  12. Oral health as a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbah, Wael; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sheiham, Aubrey;

    2012-01-01

    examine the association between oral health and premature death among middle-aged men and to test whether it was explained by socioeconomic position and behaviours. METHODS: Data were from the Vietnam Experience Study, a prospective cohort study of Vietnam War-era (1965-1971), American male army personnel....... The authors examined risk of cause-specific and all-cause mortality in relation to poor oral health in middle age, adjusting for age, ethnicity, socioeconomic position, IQ, behavioural factors and systemic conditions. RESULTS: Men with poor oral health experienced a higher risk of cause-specific and...... all-cause mortality. HRs for all-cause mortality were 2.94 (95% CI 2.11 to 4.08) among individuals with poor oral health and 3.98 (95% CI 2.43 to 6.49) among edentates compared with those with good oral health after adjusting for ethnicity and age. The association attenuated but remained significant...

  13. Personality Assessment Through Internet: Factor Analyses By Age Group Of The Zka Personality Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Blanch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the psychometric properties of an on-line version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ by sex and age. The questionnaire was responded by 1598 people, 474 males and 1124 females, with a mean age of 32.57 (SD = 11.72. Males and females differed in their responses to all personality dimensions evaluated by this instrument, in a similar way as that reported in past research. In addition, younger people scored higher in the Aggressiveness factor, especially concerning the Physical Aggression facet, whereas older people scored higher in the Activity factor. Besides, younger people scored higher in the Neuroticism and the Sensation Seeking factors, even though there were no age differences in the Extraversion factor. The ZKA-PQ five-factor structure was clear and yielded high congruence coefficients with the original Spanish validation sample. Altogether, the findings support the validity of the online version of this instrument. The ZKAPQ online version is therefore helpful in both, basic and applied research settings about human personality and individual differences.

  14. Age-specific inhalation radiation dose commitment factors for selected radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation dose commitment factors are presented for selected radionuclides for exposure of individuals in four age groups: infant, child, teen and adult. Radionuclides considered are 35S, 36Cl, 45Ca, 67Ga, 75Se, 85Sr, 109Cd, 113Sn, 125I, 133Ba, 170Tm, 169Yb, 182Ta, 192Ir, 198Au, 201Tl, 204Tl, and 236Pu. The calculational method is based on the human metabolic model of ICRP as defined in Publication 2 (ICRP 1959) and as used in previous age-specific dose factor calculations by Hoenes and Soldat (1977). Dose commitment factors are presented for the following organs of reference: total body, bone, liver, kidney, thyroid, lung and lower large intestine

  15. Clinical risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Christopher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in Western countries. Numerous risk factors have been reported but the evidence and strength of association is variable. We aimed to identify those risk factors with strong levels of evidence which could be easily assessed by physicians or ophthalmologists to implement preventive interventions or address current behaviours. Methods A systematic review identified 18 prospective and cross-sectional studies and 6 case control studies involving 113,780 persons with 17,236 cases of late AMD that included an estimate of the association between late AMD and at least one of 16 pre-selected risk factors. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were conducted for each factor to combine odds ratio (OR and/or relative risk (RR outcomes across studies by study design. Overall raw point estimates of each risk factor and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results Increasing age, current cigarette smoking, previous cataract surgery, and a family history of AMD showed strong and consistent associations with late AMD. Risk factors with moderate and consistent associations were higher body mass index, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and higher plasma fibrinogen. Risk factors with weaker and inconsistent associations were gender, ethnicity, diabetes, iris colour, history of cerebrovascular disease, and serum total and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Conclusions Smoking, previous cataract surgery and a family history of AMD are consistent risk factors for AMD. Cardiovascular risk factors are also associated with AMD. Knowledge of these risk factors that may be easily assessed by physicians and general ophthalmologists may assist in identification and appropriate referral of persons at risk of AMD.

  16. Age-specific radiation dose commitment factors for a one-year chronic intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the licensing process for nuclear facilities, radiation doses and dose commitments must be calculated for people in the environs of a nuclear facility. These radiation doses are determined by examining characteristics of population groups, pathways to people, and radionuclides found in those pathways. The pertinent characteristics, which are important in the sense of contributing a significant portion of the total dose, must then be analyzed in depth. Dose factors are generally available for adults, see Reference 1 for example, however numerous improvements in data on decay schemes and half-lives have been made in recent years. In addition, it is advisable to define parameters for calculation of the radiation dose for ages other than adults since the population surrounding nuclear facilities will be composed of various age groups. Further, since infants, children, and teens may have higher rates of intake per unit body mass, it is conceivable that the maximally exposed individual may not be an adult. Thus, it was necessary to develop new radiation-dose commitment factors for various age groups. Dose commitment factors presented in this report have been calculated for a 50-year time period for four age groups

  17. Risk and protective factors associated with cognitive decline in aging - a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Martins Foroni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review, in SciELO and PubMed databases, about the cognitive and linguistic changes associated with aging, focusing on risk and protective factors. Methods: Articles conducted with people aged 60 or more and published between 2002 and 2008 were searched in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Results: 72 studies were reviewed in 38 different journals, being 9.7% (7 from national journals and 90.3% (65 from international ones, and 26.3% (10 in the area of Neurology, 23.7% (9 Geriatrics and Aging, 13.2% (5 Epidemiology and Public Health, 10.5% (4 Psychiatry and the rest from magazines of different health issues. The longitudinal design was used in 51.3% (37 and the cross-sectional one, in 36.1% (26. About the data collection instruments, 48.6% (35 of the works used the Mini-Mental State Examination, 15.1% (11 used the Verbal Fluency Test, 12.5% (9 the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 9.7% (7 the Boston Naming Test and 13.8% (10 Geriatric Depression Scale. We identified relationships between cognition in aging and biological factors in 69.4% (50 of the researches. Some studies have indicated increased likelihood of cognitive impairment among elderly people with depressive symptoms and among smokers. Studies have shown a positive effect of education and participation in physical and social activities on cognition. Conclusions: Studies in the analyzed period specifically investigated the relationship between biological risk factors and cognitive decline. Little attention was given to linguistic changes and protective factors associated with aging.

  18. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Rachel; Ziman, Alyssa; Hoffman, Matthew; Phan-Tang, Michelle; Yuan, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives. PMID:27293985

  19. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Finck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.

  20. Risk and protective factors associated with cognitive decline in aging - a systematic review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Martins Foroni; Patricia Leila dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review, in SciELO and PubMed databases, about the cognitive and linguistic changes associated with aging, focusing on risk and protective factors. Methods: Articles conducted with people aged 60 or more and published between 2002 and 2008 were searched in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Results: 72 studies were reviewed in 38 different journals, being 9.7% (7) from national journals and 90.3% (65) from international ones, and 26.3% (10) in the a...

  1. Age, gender and hypertension as major risk factors in development of subclinical atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajla Rahimić Ćatić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intima-media thickness (IMT measurement of the common carotid artery (CCA is considered as useful indicator of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors is important to prevent stroke and heart diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate which risk factors are better determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by common carotidartery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT.Methods: A total of 74 subjects were randomly selected in this cross – sectional study. Information on the patient’s medical history and laboratory fi ndings were obtained from their clinical records. Risk factors relevant to this study were age, gender, cigarette smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ultrasound scanning of carotid arteries was performed with a 7,5 MHz linear array transducer (GE Voluson730 pro. The highest value of six common carotid artery measurements was taken as the fi nal IMT. Increased CCA-IMT was defi ned when it was > 1 mm.Results: Our data demonstrated higher CCA-IMT values in male patients compared with female patients. Increased CCA-IMT was the most closely related to age (PConclusion: Age, gender and hypertension are the most important risk factors in development of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis among high-risk populations is important in order to prevent stroke and heart diseases, which are leading causes of death worldwide.

  2. Advanced paternal age is a risk factor for schizophrenia in Iranians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokri Bahareh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1958 many, but not all studies have demonstrated that paternal age is a risk factor for schizophrenia. There may be many different explanations for differences between studies, including study design, sample size, collection criteria, heterogeneity and the confounding effects of environmental factors that can for example perturb epigenetic programming and lead to an increase in disease risk. The small number of children in Western families makes risk comparisons between siblings born at different paternal ages difficult. In contrast, more Eastern families have children both at early and later periods of life. In the present study, a cross-sectional population study in an Iranian population was performed to compare frequency of schizophrenia in younger offspring (that is, older paternal age versus older offspring. Methods A total of 220 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (cases from both psychiatric hospitals and private clinics and 220 individuals from other hospital wards (controls, matched for sex and age were recruited for this study. Patients with neurological problem, substance abuse, mental retardation and mood disorder were excluded from both groups. Results Birth rank comparisons revealed that 35% vs 24% of the cases vs the controls were in the third or upper birth rank (P = 0.01. Also, the mean age of fathers at birth in case group (30 ± 6.26 years was significantly more than the control group (26.45 ± 5.64 years; P = 0.0001. The age of 76 fathers at birth in case group was over 32 versus 33 fathers in control group. Individuals whose fathers' age was more than 32 (at birth were at higher risk (2.77 times for schizophrenia versus others (P P = 0.02. Logistic regression analysis suggests that maternal age is less likely to be involved in the higher risk of schizophrenia than advanced parental age. Discussion This study demonstrates a relationship between paternal age and schizophrenia in large

  3. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruangsri S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Supanigar Ruangsri,1,2 Teekayu Plangkoon Jorns,1,2 Subin Puasiri,3 Thitisan Luecha,4 Chariya Chaithap,4 Kittisak Sawanyawisuth5,6 1Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, 2Neuroscience Research and Development Group (NRDG, 3Department of Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, 4Faculty of Dentistry, 5Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 6Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods: We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls. Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results: During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29 years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04 years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6

  4. Sleep quality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: distribution, associated factors and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep quality has been associated with increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and mortality. However, limited information exists on the distribution and determinants of sleep quality and its associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in Chinese populations. We aimed to evaluate this in the current study. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 of 1,458 men and 1,831 women aged 50–70 years from urban and rural areas of Beijing and Shanghai. Using a questionnaire, sleep quality was measured in levels of well, common and poor. Comprehensive measures of socio-demographical and health factors and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic disease were recorded. These were evaluated in association with sleep quality using logistic regression models. Results Half of the population reported good sleep quality. After adjusting for potential confounders, women and Beijing residents had almost half the probability to report good sleep quality. Good physical and mental health (good levels of self-rated health (OR 2.48; 95%CI 2.08 to 2.96 and no depression (OR 4.05; 95%CI 3.12 to 5.26 related to an increased chance of reporting good sleep quality, whereas short sleep duration ( Conclusion Levels of good sleep quality in middle-age and elderly Chinese were low. Gender, geographical location, self-rated health, depression and sleep quantity were major factors associated with sleep quality. Prospective studies are required to distil the factors that determine sleep quality and the effects that sleep patterns exert on cardio-metabolic health.

  5. Resistance to antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tranos P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paris Tranos,1 Athanasios Vacalis,1 Solon Asteriadis,1 Stavrenia Koukoula,1 Athanasios Vachtsevanos,1 Georgia Perganta,1 Ilias Georgalas21Retina Centre, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, "G Gennimatas" Hospital of Athens, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the main cause of visual impairment and blindness in people aged over 65 years in developed countries. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a positive regulator of angiogenesis and its proven role in the pathological neovascularization in wet AMD has provided evidence for the use of anti-VEGF agents as potential therapies. In this study, we review the literature for the possible causes of failure after treatment with anti-VEGF agents and attempt to propose an algorithm of suggestive actions to increase the chances of successful management of such difficult cases.Keywords: antiVEGF, age related macular degeneration, treatment

  6. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

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    Teresa Cristina Miglioli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs.METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels. Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels, age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables.RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73 and height/age (-0.99 of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82, prenatal appointments (-0.43, geographical area of the residence (-0.41, and household incomeper capita (-0.42. Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44 showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48 was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72 and retinol serum levels (-0.40 of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43.CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  7. Factors Affecting Age at Initial Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis in a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Entry into early intervention depends on both age of first parent concern (AOC and age at initial autism spectrum disorder (ASD diagnosis (AOD. Using data collected from a national online registry from 6214 children diagnosed with an ASD between 1994 and 2010 in the US, we analyzed the effect of individual, family, and geographic covariates on AOC and AOD in a multivariate linear regression model with random effects. Overall, no single modifiable factor associated with AOC or AOD emerged but cumulative variation in certain individual- and family-based features, as well as some geographic factors, all contribute to AOC and AOD variation. A multipronged strategy is needed for targeted education and awareness campaigns to maximize outcomes and decrease disparities in ASD care.

  8. Risk factors of early onset of MS in women in reproductive age period: survival analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Kazemitabaee, Maryamsadat; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has doubled in over the last decades in women, whereas it has been almost unchanged in men. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors of early onset multiple sclerosis in women during reproductive years. A retrospective longitudinal study conducted on 200 women aged 15 to 50 years with MS, registered by the MS Society in Isfahan. Data gathering was fulfilled by standard questionnaire including variables about reproductive period, demographic characteristics, and history of diseases. Kaplan-Mayer with log-rank test and Cox regression models were used in predicting of the age of effective factors in onset of MS. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The mean age of studied women was 31.77 ± 8.13 years and the mean and median age of onset the symptoms of MS was 26.79 ± 7.77 and 26 years, respectively. Based on the cox results occurring menarche at 15 years and higher increase the risk of MS 2.8-fold than those their menarche occurred at 12 years and lower (HR: 2.81, 95 % CI; 1.58-4.98).In addition, having only one pregnancy is related to higher risk of MS than other parities and increase the risk of MS 4.5-fold comparing to without parities. Age of menarche and parity numbers was the most important reproductive factors of MS in women. Nevertheless, history of autoimmune diseases, animal bite, childhood disease, family history of MS, regional area (tropical), and living in rural area were not related to early onset of MS. PMID:26790684

  9. Factors affecting nocturnal enuresis amongst school-aged children: brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafalsadat Hakim; Farshid Kompani; Mohammad Bahadoram

    2015-01-01

    Enuresis is the inability to control urination during sleep. It is one of the most common childhood urologic disorders. Nocturnal enuresis refers to the occurrence of involuntary voiding at night after 5 years. Persistent nocturia can decrease self-esteem, increase anxiety and other emotional problems in children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors affecting nocturia amongst school-aged children. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted on 200 children over a period...

  10. Positive mutations and mutation-dependent Verhulst factor in Penna ageing model

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, S. Moss; Stauffer, D.; De Oliveira, P. M. C.; Martins, J. S. Sa

    2003-01-01

    We twice modify the Penna model for biological ageing. First we introduce back (good) mutations and a memory for them into the model. It allows us to observe an improvement of the species fitness over long time scales as well as punctuated equilibrium. Second we adopt a food/space competition factor that depends on the number of accumulated mutations in the individuals genomes, and get rid of the fixed limiting number of allowed mutations. Besides reproducing the main results of the standard ...

  11. Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place: a systematic review: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, S.T.M.; Wouters, E.J.M.; van Hoof, J.; Luijkx, K.G.; Boeije, H.R.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    S.T.M. Peek, E.J.M. Wouters, J. van Hoof, K.G. Luijkx, H.R. Boeije, H.J.M. Vrijhoef (2014) Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place: a systematic review: a systematic review. International Journal of Medical Informatics 83(4):235-248 http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.20

  12. Patient age, tumor appearance and tumor size are risk factors for early recurrence of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Juan; WANG, Tao; YANG, YUN-YI; CHAI, YAN-LAN; Shi, Fan; Liu, Zi

    2014-01-01

    The recurrence and metastasis of cervical cancer contribute to a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for cervical cancer progression. A total of 284 patients with recurrent cervical cancer were retrospectively recruited to evaluate the association of disease recurrence with clinicopathological data. The univariate analysis demonstrated that patient age, tumor appearance and tumor size were significantly associated with early recurrence and metastasis of t...

  13. Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Ronan A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. Methods Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White/European (n = 15,062, Asian (n = 1,845 or African (n = 654 background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to examine factors associated with obesity at age 5. All participants were interviewed in their own homes. The main exposures examined included; Birth weight, sedentary lifestyle, family health behaviours, ethnicity, education and income. Results Children with a sedentary lifestyle, large at birth, with high risk family health behaviours (overweight mothers, smoking near the child, missing breakfast and from a family with low income or low educational attainment, were more likely to be obese regardless of ethnicity. Feeding solid food before 3 months was associated with obesity in higher income White/European families. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnic background is an important independent risk factor for childhood obesity [Odds ratio of obesity; was 1.7 (95%CI: 1.2-2.3 for Asian and 2.7 (95%CI: 1.9-3.9 for African children, compared to White/European]. The final adjusted model suggests that increasing income does not have a great impact on lowering obesity levels, but that higher academic qualifications are associated with lower obesity levels [Odds of obesity: 0.63 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77 if primary carer leaves school after age 16 compared at age 16]. Conclusions Education of the primary carer is an important modifiable factor which can be targeted to address rising obesity levels in children. Interventions should be family centred supporting and showing people how they can implement lifestyle changes in their family.

  14. Examining the Relationship between Gender, Age, Education Level and Social Cognitive Factors in a Health Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Md Nor Othman; Sheau Fen Yap; Yu Ghee Wee

    2011-01-01

    Most research on exercise is dominated in the West and is seldom featured in the marketing literature. Efforts inexamining the demographic differences with respect to social cognitive factors contained in the Theory of PlannedBehavior (TPB) have been largely neglected. This paper aims to examine the relationship between gender, age,education level and the TPB sub-components of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control.Conducted in Malaysia, this study employs a cross-section...

  15. Factors Influence Reading From Screen of Arabic Textbook for Learning by Children Aged 9 to 13

    OpenAIRE

    Abubaker, Azza

    2014-01-01

    The problem with e-texts are related to the way texts are displayed on a screen, with multiple and different aspects that affect legibility, making readers prefer to read a paper format rather than e-resources. This research describes the factors that affect the legibility of online texts aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the usability of electronic Arabic texts for learning purposes within the field of electronic reading; mainly reading Arabic texts for students aged 9 to 13. This...

  16. Factors affecting the age of onset and rate of progression of Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bowler, J.; Munoz, D.; Merskey, H.; HACHINSKI, V.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the role of cerebrovascular disease, sex, education, occupation, year of birth, leukoaraiosis, congophilic angiopathy, family history, and other demographic factors on the reported age of onset and rate of progression of Alzheimer's disease.
METHODS—Analysis of data from the University of Western Ontario Dementia Study, a prospective longitudinal study of dementia patients with clinical and 6 monthly psychometric follow up to postmortem based in a univer...

  17. Age-structured Human Capital and Spatial Total Factor Productivity Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Tapas; Jumah, Adusei; Parhi, Mamata

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: This paper models total factor productivity (TFP) in space and proposes an empirical model for TFP interdependence across spatial locations. The interdependence is assumed to occur due to age-structured human capital dynamics. A semi-parametric spatial vector autoregressive framework is suggested for modeling spatial TFP dynamics where the role of demographic state and technological change are explicitly incorporated in the model to influence their spatial TFP co-movements. Empirica...

  18. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlJohara M. AlQuaiz; Ashry Gad Mohamed; Khoja, Tawfik A.M.; Abdullah AlSharif; Shaffi Ahamed Shaikh; Hamad Al Mane; Abdallah Aldiris; Ambreen Kazi; Durdana Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured w...

  19. Forgetting in Context: The Effects of Age, Emotion, and Social Factors on Retrieval-Induced Forgetting

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Sarah J.; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) refers to the finding that selectively retrieving some information impairs subsequent memory for related, but non-retrieved information. This occurs both for the individual doing the remembering (i.e., within-individual retrieval-induced forgetting; WI-RIF), as well as for individuals merely listening to those recollections (i.e., socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting; SS-RIF). In the current study, we examined how the contextual factors of age and em...

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  1. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitzmann MF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Leitzmann1, Sabine Rohrmann21Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany; 2Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandAbstract: At present, only three risk factors for prostate cancer have been firmly established; these are all nonmodifiable: age, race, and a positive family history of prostate cancer. However, numerous modifiable factors have also been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize the epidemiologic data for age, location, and selected behavioral factors in relation to the onset of prostate cancer. Although the available data are not entirely consistent, possible preventative behavioral factors include increased physical activity, intakes of tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, and soy. Factors that may enhance prostate cancer risk include frequent consumption of dairy products and, possibly, meat. By comparison, alcohol probably exerts no important influence on prostate cancer development. Similarly, dietary supplements are unlikely to protect against the onset of prostate cancer in healthy men. Several factors, such as smoking and obesity, show a weak association with prostate cancer incidence but a positive relation with prostate cancer mortality. Other factors, such as fish intake, also appear to be unassociated with incident prostate cancer but show an inverse relation with fatal prostate cancer. Such heterogeneity in the relationship between behavioral factors and nonadvanced, advanced, or fatal prostate cancers helps shed light on the carcinogenetic process because it discerns the impact of exposure on early and late stages of prostate cancer development. Inconsistent associations between behavioral factors and prostate cancer risk seen in previous studies may in part be due to uncontrolled detection bias because of current widespread use of prostate-specific antigen

  2. Social factors and coping status in asymptomatic middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Rikke Elmose; Sand, Niels Peter; Jensen, Jesper Møller;

    2013-01-01

    , respectively, and subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in middle-aged Danes. Methods: This is a DanRisk screening substudy, thus including healthy Danish males and females aged 50 or 60 years. Social measures included grade of education, employment and co-habiting status. The coping status was estimated...... asymptomatic middle-aged individuals with gender differences. The relative value of gender specific social versus conventional clinical risk factors in the risk assessment of subclinical CAC in middle-aged individuals needs further investigation in future prospective studies....... individuals the prevalence of subjects with CAC was 267 (45%). Independent predictors of CAC in males were age (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04–1.16, p < 0.001), smoking (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.03–2.99, p = 0.038), and low co-habiting status (OR = 3.66, 95% CI = 1.19–11.25, p = 0.023). Independent predictors in...

  3. Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-min WU; Jia LIU; Wei-lian SUN; Li-li CHEN; Li-guo CHAI; Xiang XIAO; Zheng CAO

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health.Methods:The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi,a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China.A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care.Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview.Clinical periodontal indices,such as bleeding on probing (BOP),probing depth (PD),and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured during the examination.Statistical analysis on subject-based data was performed.Results:The prevalence of periodontal disease among childbearing age women in Cixi was high (84.7%).A significant association was found between the disease and educational level,pregnancy,taking oral contraceptives,stress,alcohol consumption,overweight,dental visit,and teeth brushing (P<0.05).Women who suffered periodontal disease showed deep PD,obvious BOP,and clinical attachment loss.Among this population,pregnancy was closely associated with higher BOP percentage; teeth brushing no more than once per day or brushing for less than 1 min (P<0.001) after adjusting for age and stress.Conclusions:The periodontal status of childbearing age women in Cixi needs to be improved urgently.Attention towards the periodontal health should be warranted,especially for those in special statuses and with poor awareness.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of atrial fibrillation in preterminal inpatients aged 60 years and over

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jie-fu; LIU Bing; LIU Dong-ge; LUO Yao; FANG Fang

    2008-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia and a major risk factor for ischaemic stroke. We investigated the prevalence of atrial fibrillation and its relation to age, gender and underlying heart disease in patients aged 60 years and over who died during hospitalization.Methods Between 1955 and 2005, 1519 autopsies of in-hospital deaths in Beijing Hospital were performed. Among them, 540 cases met criteria of age ≥60 years and full clinical history including electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, myocardial perfusion images and detailed cardiac pathology records from autopsy.Results Atrial fibrillation occurred in 193 of 540 patients and prevalence increased with age (10.5% in patients younger than 60 years, 39.6% (80-89 years) and 54.8% (≥90 years)) being higher in patients with underlying heart disease than without heart disease (P<0.0001). Coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, cardiac valve dysfunction and chronic renal failure were associated with a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (P<0.001). CAD with anterior myocardial infarction or left anterior descending artery disease was also associated with an increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation (P <0.05). Following autopsy, clinical misdiagnosis of CAD increased with age and missed clinical diagnosis of CAD decreased with age. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed independent predictors of atrial fibrillation: age (OR=1.335, 95% Cl: 1.114-1.600, P<0.0001), underlying heart disease (OR=2.019, 95% CI: 1.244-3.278, P <0.005), chronic heart failure (OR=1.873, 95% CI: 1.272-2.757, P <0.005), mitral regurgitation (OR=2.163, 95% Cl: 1.093-4.278, P<0.05) and mitral stenosis (OR=33.575, 95% CI: 2.852-395.357, P<0.05). Conclusions A high prevalence of atrial fibrillation was found in Chinese patients

  5. 20 CFR 416.924b - Age as a factor of evaluation in the sequential evaluation process for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... infants. We generally use chronological age (that is, a child's age based on birth date) when we decide... chronological age. When we evaluate the development or linear growth of a child born prematurely, we may use a... children until the child's prematurity is no longer a relevant factor; generally no later than...

  6. Factors associated with stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in Antioquia, Colombia, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Andrea Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some factors associated to stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in the Department of Antioquia.Methodology: Cross-sectional study using the databases of alimentary and nutritional profiles in homes of Antioquia in 2004, based on a representative random sample of homes in the department (95% reliability and error margin of 3%. For this study, 100% of the records of children below 11 years of age were used. A model of generalized equations estimation was constructed for stunted growth classified by a Z score smaller than -2 standard deviation with respect to p 50 of the 1978 NCHS (Centro Nacional de Estadísticas de la Salud - National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX Procedure: SAS version 9.1.Results: We found 18.6% of the children with stunted growth, 75% of the homes with male head of household, 70% of heads of household with maximum 5 years of schooling; 47% of homes were nucleated bi-parental, and 40% extensive with a 5-member median per home; 56.4% poor per unsatisfied basic needs, and 80% in alimentary insecurity. The factors associated to stunted growth were: female gender, 1-5 years of age, head of household with less than 6 years of schooling, more than 5 people in the home, more than two household members under 7 years of age, coming from a poor home per unsatisfied basic needs, belonging to a sub-region different from Medellin, food availability of less than 30 different foods per week, no production of food, and head of household under 40 years of age.Conclusions: Herein, we show evidence of the magnitude of poverty and association of precarious socioeconomic conditions with stunted growth in Antioquia. The study shows the importance of considering the correlated nature of the data for the construction of the model.

  7. Advanced age is a risk factor for proximal adenoma recurrence following colonoscopy and polypectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, H-C; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of risk factors for recurrence of colorectal adenomas may identify patients who could benefit from individual surveillance strategies. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for recurrence of colorectal adenomas in a high-risk population. METHODS: Data were used...... from a randomized clinical trial that showed no effect of aspirin-calcitriol-calcium treatment on colorectal adenoma recurrence. Patients at high risk of colorectal cancer who had one or more sporadic colorectal adenomas removed during colonoscopy were followed up for 3 years. Independent risk factors...... associated with recurrence and characteristics of recurrent adenomas were investigated in a generalized linear model. RESULTS: After 3 years, the recurrence rate was 25·8 per cent in 427 patients. For younger subjects (aged 50 years or less), the recurrence rate was 19 per cent; 18 of 20 recurrent adenomas...

  8. Risk factors for late-life cognitive decline and variation with age and sex in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Lipnicki

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An aging population brings increasing burdens and costs to individuals and society arising from late-life cognitive decline, the causes of which are unclear. We aimed to identify factors predicting late-life cognitive decline. METHODS: Participants were 889 community-dwelling 70-90-year-olds from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study with comprehensive neuropsychological assessments at baseline and a 2-year follow-up and initially without dementia. Cognitive decline was considered as incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia, as well as decreases in attention/processing speed, executive function, memory, and global cognition. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health and medical factors were determined. RESULTS: All cognitive measures showed decline and 14% of participants developed incident MCI or dementia. Across all participants, risk factors for decline included older age and poorer smelling ability most prominently, but also more education, history of depression, being male, higher homocysteine, coronary artery disease, arthritis, low health status, and stroke. Protective factors included marriage, kidney disease, and antidepressant use. For some of these factors the association varied with age or differed between men and women. Additional risk and protective factors that were strictly age- and/or sex-dependent were also identified. We found salient population attributable risks (8.7-49.5% for older age, being male or unmarried, poor smelling ability, coronary artery disease, arthritis, stroke, and high homocysteine. DISCUSSION: Preventing or treating conditions typically associated with aging might reduce population-wide late-life cognitive decline. Interventions tailored to particular age and sex groups may offer further benefits.

  9. Age-related differences in emotion regulation strategies: Examining the role of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2016-09-01

    Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and young adults. Forty-eight older adults and forty-nine young adults completed a retrospective survey inquiring about the use of emotion regulation strategies in emotion-eliciting situations experienced over the preceding 2 weeks. We used factor analysis to establish clusters of emotion regulation strategies, resulting in cognitive strategies, acceptance, and maladaptive strategies. Overall, we found context-dependent age-related differences in emotion regulation strategy use. Specifically, older adults reported greater use of acceptance than young adults in situations of moderate intensity and in situations that evoke anxiety and sadness. In addition, older adults reported using maladaptive strategies to a lesser extent in high- and moderate-intensity situations and in situations that elicit anxiety and sadness when compared with young adults. There were no age-related differences in the use of cognitive strategies across contexts. Older adults, compared to young adults, reported less use of maladaptive strategies and greater use of acceptance than young adults, which suggests that the enhanced emotional functioning observed later in life may be due to a shift in strategy implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570980

  10. Intra-farm risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae colonization at weaning age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Maria; Cline, Greg S; Payne, Brian J; Prado, Cesar; Ertl, Jonathan R; Rendahl, Aaron K

    2014-08-27

    The objective of this study was to identify intra-farm risk factors that affected the colonization with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae at weaning age. Three farrow-to-wean farms were visited at least 5 times each. An average of 54 piglets were sampled at each visit and assayed by means of real-time PCR in nasal swabs. The proportion of PCR positive piglets was evaluated as a response to several variables including dam's PCR status, piglet serological status, and local climatic conditions during the lactation period, as well as other factors. All piglets at weaning age were negative to M. hyopneumoniae in 2 of the 3 farms. M. hyopneumoniae positive piglets were demonstrated in 5 of 7 weaning groups in 1 farm. The proportion of M. hyopneumoniae positive piglets in each weaning group at the positive farm was correlated with the proportion of positive dams in the group. The prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae at weaning increased with the piglet's age in the groups where at least one dam was positive. These results highlight the influence of the sow in the sow-to-piglet colonization process, as previously reported, and contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the epidemiology of M. hyopneumoniae infections. PMID:24984946

  11. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehert, P; Villaseca, P; Hogervorst, E; Maki, P M; Henderson, V W

    2015-10-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11-0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging. PMID:26361790

  12. Modifiable factors that alter the size of the hippocampus with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotuhi, Majid; Do, David; Jack, Clifford

    2012-04-01

    The hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypoxic brain injury, obstructive sleep apnoea, bipolar disorder, clinical depression and head trauma. Patients with these conditions often have smaller hippocampi and experience a greater degree of cognitive decline than individuals without these comorbidities. Moreover, hippocampal atrophy is an established indicator for conversion from the normal ageing process to developing mild cognitive impairment and dementia. As such, an important aim is to ascertain which modifiable factors can have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus throughout life. Observational studies and preliminary clinical trials have raised the possibility that physical exercise, cognitive stimulation and treatment of general medical conditions can reverse age-related atrophy in the hippocampus, or even expand its size. An emerging concept--the dynamic polygon hypothesis--suggests that treatment of modifiable risk factors can increase the volume or prevent atrophy of the hippocampus. According to this hypothesis, a multidisciplinary approach, which involves strategies to both reduce neurotoxicity and increase neurogenesis, is likely to be successful in delaying the onset of cognitive impairment with ageing. Further research on the constellation of interventions that could be most effective is needed before recommendations can be made for implementing preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:22410582

  13. Familial history, age and smoking are important risk factors for disc degeneration disease in Arabic pedigrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study used computed tomography imaging to evaluate the extent and pattern of the intergenerational transmission of spinal disc degeneration disease (DDD) in complex pedigrees. Contribution of a number of the potential covariates was also studied using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, as well as two types of complex segregation analysis models. Among 161 individuals studied, DDD was diagnosed in 60 individuals. The number of protruded discs varied from 1 to 4, mostly in lumbar or lumbosacral regions. The average age at onset of the disease was similar for both women (36.0 years) and men (34.8 years). The proportion of the individuals affected by the DDD status of their parents ranged from 10% in families of two healthy parents to 55.5% of two affected parents (p < 0.01). The results of the logistic regression analyses and complex segregation analysis were qualitatively the same: DDD status of parents, age and smoking were the main risk factors for disc herniation in the Arabic families we examined. All analyses showed a predominating role of the family history as a risk factor for DDD in offsprings. It showed, for example, four times higher risk at age 50 for individuals with two affected parents vs. those who have two non-affected parents. However, the results of models-fitting genetic analysis, did not confirm a monogenic Mendelian pattern of inheritance

  14. Caries prevalence and risk factors among children aged 0 to 36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ana Paula Pires dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and gingival bleeding. The data were analyzed by means of the Epi Info program, utilizing the chi-squared test. The children?s mean age was 22.9 months. The prevalence of caries, including white spot lesions, was 41.6%, and the mean def-s was 1.7 (± 2.5. The most affected teeth were the maxillary incisors, and the most common lesion was the white spot. No significant associations were found between the prevalence of caries and socioeconomic status, frequency of oral hygiene, nocturnal bottle- and breast-feeding or cariogenic food and beverage intake during the day. However, the association between caries and oral hygiene quality (dental biofilm was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The results suggest that the presence of a thick biofilm was the most important factor for the occurrence of early childhood caries in the evaluated sample.

  15. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anemia Among Children Under 5 Years of Age--Uganda, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Manoj P; Yoon, Steven S

    2015-09-01

    Anemia in children under 5 years of age, defined by the World Health Organization as a hemoglobin concentration anemia among children under five in Uganda was 72% in 2006. The 2009 Uganda Malaria Indicator Survey was conducted in late 2009 and revealed that over 60% of children less than 5 years of age were anemic and that over half of children tested positive for malaria via a rapid diagnostic test. Children with concomitant malaria infection, and in households without any type of mosquito net were more likely to be anemic, confirming that children under 5 years, are vulnerable to both the threat of malaria and anemia and the beneficial effect of malaria prevention tools. However, prevention and treatment of other factors associated with the etiology of anemia (e.g., iron deficiency) are likely necessary to combat the toll of anemia in Uganda. PMID:26055748

  16. Is Growth Differentiation Factor 11 a Realistic Therapeutic for Aging-Dependent Muscle Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shavonn C; Brack, Andrew; MacDonnell, Scott; Franti, Michael; Olwin, Bradley B; Bailey, Beth A; Rudnicki, Michael A; Houser, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    This "Controversies in Cardiovascular Research" article evaluates the evidence for and against the hypothesis that the circulating blood level of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) decreases in old age and that restoring normal GDF11 levels in old animals rejuvenates their skeletal muscle and reverses pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Studies supporting the original GDF11 hypothesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle have not been validated by several independent groups. These new studies have either found no effects of restoring normal GDF11 levels on cardiac structure and function or have shown that increasing GDF11 or its closely related family member growth differentiation factor 8 actually impairs skeletal muscle repair in old animals. One possible explanation for what seems to be mutually exclusive findings is that the original reagent used to measure GDF11 levels also detected many other molecules so that age-dependent changes in GDF11 are still not well known. The more important issue is whether increasing blood [GDF11] repairs old skeletal muscle and reverses age-related cardiac pathologies. There are substantial new and existing data showing that GDF8/11 can exacerbate rather than rejuvenate skeletal muscle injury in old animals. There is also new evidence disputing the idea that there is pathological hypertrophy in old C57bl6 mice and that GDF11 therapy can reverse cardiac pathologies. Finally, high [GDF11] causes reductions in body and heart weight in both young and old animals, suggestive of a cachexia effect. Our conclusion is that elevating blood levels of GDF11 in the aged might cause more harm than good. PMID:27034276

  17. The Difference that Age Makes: Cultural Factors that Shape Older Adults' Responses to Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, Marja

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that approaching vision loss from age-related macular degeneration from a sociocultural perspective, specifically considering perceptions of aging, blindness, disability, and generational viewpoints and norms, may be critical to understanding older adults' responses to vision loss and visual rehabilitation.

  18. [Bronchiolitis among infants under 1 year of age in France: epidemiology and factors associated with mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, D; Nicolau, J; Bergounioux, J; Perez, T; Bitar, D

    2012-07-01

    Little information is available on the characteristics of infants hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis in France. An analysis of hospital records (PMSI) was conducted at the national level to describe the cases of bronchiolitis that require hospitalization among infants under 1 year of age and the factors associated with death. The analysis of all admissions that occurred during 2009, for which the diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis was recorded in the PMSI database for infants aged less than 1 year, was performed. Cases were described according to age, sex, underlying conditions (including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, cystic fibrosis, and congenital heart disease), length of hospital stay, recurrent admissions, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), and use of assisted ventilation. Factors associated with death during hospitalization were studied by logistic regression. The hospitalization rate was 35.8 per 1000 infants under 1 year in 2009 in France. Approximately 10% of hospitalized infants required ICU admission. Twenty-two infants died. The estimated case-fatality rate was 0.08% among hospitalized infants and 0.56% for those hospitalized in the ICU. Mortality among all infants under 1 year was 2.6/10(5) in France. Factors associated with death were bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR=6.7, 95% CI [1.5-29.8]), hospitalization in an ICU (OR=6.46, 95% CI [2.4-17.4]), and the use of assisted ventilation (OR=6.2, 95% CI [2.2-17.1]). This study has enabled the quantification of the rate of hospitalization and mortality, and a better description of infants who need hospitalization. The results are consistent with international literature, but further prospective analysis will be needed to better describe the cases at higher risk, aiming to improve their management. PMID:22652519

  19. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, John M; Stack, Jim; O' Donovan, Orla; Loane, Edward; Beatty, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Macular pigment (MP) is composed of the two dietary carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z), and is believed to protect against age-related maculopathy (ARM). This study was undertaken to investigate MP optical density with respect to risk factors for ARM, in 828 healthy subjects from an Irish population. MP optical density was measured psychophysically using heterochromatic flicker photometry, serum L and Z were quantified by HPLC, and dietary intake of L and Z was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Clinical and personal details were also recorded, with particular attention directed towards risk factors for ARM. We report a statistically significant age-related decline in MP optical density (r2=0.082, p<0.01). Current and past smokers had lower average MP optical density than never smokers and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). Subjects with a confirmed family history of ARM had significantly lower levels of MP optical density than subjects with no known family history of disease (p<0.01). For each of these established risk factors, their statistically significant negative association with MP persisted after controlling for the other two, and also after controlling for other potentially confounding variables such as sex, cholesterol, dietary and serum L (p<0.01). In the absence of retinal pathology, and in advance of disease onset, the relative lack of MP seen in association with increasing age, tobacco use and family history of ARM supports the hypothesis that the enhanced risk that these variables represent for ARM may be attributable, at least in part, to a parallel deficiency of macular carotenoids. PMID:17083932

  20. Prevalence and related factors for anorgasmia among reproductive aged women in Hesarak, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Tadayon Najafabady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orgasmic dysfunction in women is characterized by persistent or recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase. Research has shown that almost two thirds of women have concerns about their sexual relationship. Sexual dysfunction has many problems for couples; some researchers found that up to 67% of divorces related to sexual disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and related factors of anorgasmia among reproductive age Iranian women. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2006-7 in Hesarak, Karaj, Iran. A total of 1200 women were randomly recruited to the study. Sexual satisfaction questions were prepared according to the Enrich Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire. Orgasms were assessed according to the relevant questions in the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 11; Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and independent t-test were used for statistical purposes. RESULTS: This study showed that the prevalence of anorgasmia among Iranian women in Hesarak, Karaj, was 26.3%. There was a significant difference between the anorgasmic and normal orgasm groups regarding the women's age, age at marriage, duration of marriage and education during puberty (p<0.05. Some psychological factors, e.g. anxiety, fatigue, pain, feeling of guilt, anti-masculine feelings and embarrassment in sexual relationships were higher in the anorgasmic group (p<0.001. DISCUSSION: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of anorgasmia in Hesarak is high and most of the anorgasmic women were highly unsatisfied with their sexual relationship compared to the normal orgasm group. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anorgasmia among Iranian women in Hesarak, Karaj, is high and some socio-demographic and psychological factors have a strong relationship with anorgasmia.

  1. The Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors of 15–49 Age Group Women and Affecting Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Saliha Altiparmak; Adalet Koca Kutlu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: This study was planned to examine the healthy lifestyle behaviors and factors that affect women who are between 15-49 years old. METHOD: The study which is a cross sectional and descriptive was conducted on women (n=300) who are 15-49 age group and accepted to take in place of study date of June-August 2008. The sample of the study is a cluster sampling method. There were 10 families in each cluster and total 30 cluster. The families cluster were determined via systematic randomize sampl...

  2. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: age differences in factors influencing patients' treatment decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgensen ML

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mikaela L Jorgensen,1,2 Jane M Young,1,2 Michael J Solomon1,31Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Epidemiology and Services Research (CESR, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Discipline of Surgery, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Older colorectal cancer patients are significantly less likely than younger patients to receive guideline-recommended adjuvant chemotherapy. Previous research has indicated that patient refusal of treatment is a contributing factor. This study aimed to identify potential barriers to adjuvant chemotherapy use in older patients by examining the associations between patient age, factors influencing chemotherapy treatment decisions, and preferences for information and decision-making involvement.Patients and methods: Sixty-eight patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer in Sydney, Australia, within the previous 24 months completed a self-administered survey.Results: Fear of dying, health status, age, quality of life, and understanding treatment procedures and effects were significantly more important to older patients (aged ≥65 years than younger patients in deciding whether to accept chemotherapy (all P < 0.05. Reducing the risk of cancer returning and physician trust were important factors for all patients. Practical barriers such as traveling for treatment and cost were rated lowest. Older patients preferred less information and involvement in treatment decision making than younger patients. However, 60% of the older group wanted detailed information about chemotherapy, and 83% wanted some involvement in decision making. Those preferring less information and involvement still rated many factors as important in their decision making, including understanding treatment procedures and effects.Conclusion: A range of factors appears to influence

  3. Regional distribution and aggregation analysis of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among active pilots aged 40-59 years

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hong-Yan; Tie-bing LIU; Guo-ru LIU; Yu-jin ZHOU; Qing-yan LI; Qiong-feng XU; Yang, Feng-Ping; Wen-juan YAN; Yan-min QI

    2016-01-01

    Objective  To analyze the regional distribution and aggregation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among active China civil aviation pilots aged 40–59 years. Methods  In 2011, 831 active pilots aged 40–59 years in Northern, Eastern and Southern China were investigated for risk factors of CVD. The regional distribution and aggregation of risk factors were analyzed. Results  The mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), mean total cholesterol (TC) and age standardized prevalence rate of high T...

  4. Steroidogenic Factor 1 in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Regulates Age-Dependent Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Ann W; Yang, Dong Joo; Chang, Inik; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is important for the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis and lesions in the VMH are reported to result in massive weight gain. The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a known VMH marker as it is exclusively expressed in the VMH region of the brain. SF-1 plays a critical role not only in the development of VMH but also in its physiological functions. In this study, we generated prenatal VMH-specific SF-1 KO mice and investigated age-dependent energy homeostasis regulation by SF-1. Deletion of SF-1 in the VMH resulted in dysregulated insulin and leptin homeostasis and late onset obesity due to increased food intake under normal chow and high fat diet conditions. In addition, SF-1 ablation was accompanied by a marked reduction in energy expenditure and physical activity and this effect was significantly pronounced in the aged mice. Taken together, our data indicates that SF-1 is a key component in the VMH-mediated regulation of energy homeostasis and implies that SF-1 plays a protective role against metabolic stressors including aging and high fat diet. PMID:27598259

  5. Maternal separation produces alterations of forebrain brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in differently aged rats

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    Qiong eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Early postnatal maternal separation (MS can play an important role in the development of psychopathologies during ontogeny. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4 h per day from postnatal day [PND] 1–21 on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, the nucleus accumbens (NAc and the hippocampus of male and female juvenile (PND 21, adolescent (PND 35 and young adult (PND 56 Wistar rats. The results indicated that MS increased BDNF in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG of adolescent rats as well as in the DG of young adult rats. However, the expression of BDNF in the mPFC in the young adult rats was decreased by MS. Additionally, in the hippocampus, there was decreased BDNF expression with age in both the MS and socially reared rats. However, in the mPFC, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the socially reared rats; nevertheless, the BDNF expression was significantly decreased in the MS young adult rats. In the NAc, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the male NMS rats, and the young adult female MS rats had less BDNF expression than the adolescent female MS rats. The

  6. Effects of Seasonal Changes, Age and Smoking on Haemostatic Factors and Thyroxine Level in Egyptian Men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ONE hundred and twenty male volunteers arranged into 6 equal groups participated in the present study to investigate the influence of age, smoking and season on clot formation, clot lysis and thyroxine hormone. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, clotting time, platelet count, haemoglobin content, red blood cell count, haematocrit, total leukocytic count, fibrinogen, prothrombin time and concentration, partial thromboplastin time, factor V, VIII, plasminogen and thyroxine hormone were estimated in each group. The effect of age was studied by comparing young individuals (11-16 years) with adult non smokers (30-40 years) . Simultaneously adult non smokers were compared to adult smokers to evaluate the effect of smoking.Three groups: young , adult non smokers and adult smokers during winter were compared with their corresponding groups in summer to assess the season effect.The results revealed that most changes in the three groups were due to temperature variation and the young group had a better thermoregulation control than both adult groups .In non smoker adult group winter caused hypercoagulation with a concomitant increase in fibrinolytic activity as a protective mechanism against thrombus formation. Smoking caused disturbances in many coagulation factors and interaction between smoking and season is evident causing vascular disturbances. In summer smokers are more liable to bleeding, while in winter they are more liable to thrombus formation providing the other condition interfering with bleeding and thrombus formation are constant. There is relative hypothyroidism in smoker group only in summer season

  7. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants under six months of age in peninsular malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kok

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is accepted as the natural form of infant feeding. For mothers to be able to breastfeed exclusively to the recommended six months, it is important to understand the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 682 mother-infant pairs with infants up to six months attending maternal and child health section of the government health clinics in Klang, Malaysia. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested structured questionnaire over 4 months in 2006. Data on breastfeeding were based on practice in the previous one month period. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between the independent variables and exclusive breastfeeding adjusting for infant age. Results The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers with infants aged between one and six months was 43.1% (95% CI: 39.4, 46.8. In the multivariate model exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with rural residence, Malay mothers, non-working and non-smoking mothers, multiparous mothers, term infants, mothers with husbands who support breastfeeding and mothers who practice bed-sharing. Conclusions Interventions that seek to increase exclusive breastfeeding should focus on women who are at risk of early discontinuation of breastfeeding.

  8. Pattern of coronary artery disease with no risk factors under age 35 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is no more deemed to be an ailment of the 4 or 5 decade; rather an earlier age incidence is not infrequently encountered in our population. However, there are a few data regarding CAD in young adults, and much about its underlying pathology still remains undetermined. The objective of this study was to delineate the coronary arterial disease pattern in adults under the age of 35 years, but having no known coronary risk factors. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Cardiology Departments of all 3 public sector tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar from Jun 2008 to Dec 2009. After having excluded the traditional risk factors for CAD, patients under the age of 35 years with objective evidence of CAD were subjected to percutaneous coronary angiography. Results: Out of a total of 104 patients, 85 (81.73%) patients were men, and 19 (18.27%) were women. The mean age of the whole group was 32.66 +- 3.237 (22-35) years. Significant CAD (>50% diameter narrowing of at least one major coronary artery) was found in 87 (83.7%) patients while 17 (16.3%) patients had non-atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, including 12 (11.53%) patients having normal coronary arteries, 1 (1%) patient had anomalous origin of right coronary artery (RCA), 1 (1%) patient had coronary arteritis, 2 (1.92%) patients had coronary artery ectasia, and 1 (1%) patient had a myocardial bridge over left anterior descending artery (LAD). Among the patients with significant CAD, the prevalence rate of one, two and three vessel disease was 54 (51.9%), 22 (21.2%) and 11 (10.6%) respectively. Almost 50% of the lesions occurred in LAD followed by 25% in RCA and 20% in circumflex, while only one patient (1%) had isolated significant CAD of left main coronary artery. Osteal segments were involved in 10%, proximal in 61%, mid in 21% and distal segments in 7% of the lesions. Conclusion: In the younger age group, CAD is mostly a disease of men, single vessel CAD

  9. Age as an independent factor for the development of neuropathy in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Simona Popescu,1,2 Bogdan Timar,2,3 Flavia Baderca,4,5 Mihaela Simu,6,7 Laura Diaconu,1,2 Iulian Velea,8,9 Romulus Timar1,2 12nd Department of Internal Medicine, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2Clinic of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, Emergency Clinical County Hospital, 3Department of Functional Sciences, 4Department of Microscopic Morphology, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 5Service of Pathology, Emergency City Hospital, 6Department of Neurosciences, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 7Clinic of Neurology, Emergency Clinical County Hospital, 8Department of Pediatrics, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 9Clinic of Pediatrics, Emergency Clinical County Hospital, Timisoara, Romania Abstract: Population aging is unprecedented, without parallel in the history of humanity. As type 2 diabetes mellitus is predominantly more prevalent in aging populations, this creates a major public health burden. Older adults with diabetes have the highest rates of major lower-extremity amputation, myocardial infarction, visual impairment, and end-stage renal disease of any age group. The aims of our study were to assess whether age is an independent factor for the occurrence of diabetic neuropathy (DN, and to evaluate the relationship between the presence and the severity of DN and the diabetes duration and blood glucose level. In this study, we enrolled 198 patients, previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. For all patients, we measured hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, lipid profile, and body mass index and we assessed the presence and severity of DN using the evaluation of clinical signs and symptoms. Patients had a median age of 62 years, with a median of diabetes duration of 7 years; 55.1% of the patients were men and the average HbA1c in the cohort was 8.2%. The prevalence of DN according to Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument was 28.8%, being

  10. Inflammation and infection do not promote arterial aging and cardiovascular disease risk factors among lean horticulturalists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gurven

    Full Text Available Arterial aging is well characterized in industrial populations, but scantly described in populations with little access to modern medicine. Here we characterize health and aging among the Tsimane, Amazonian forager-horticulturalists with short life expectancy, high infectious loads and inflammation, but low adiposity and robust physical fitness. Inflammation has been implicated in all stages of arterial aging, atherogenesis and hypertension, and so we test whether greater inflammation associates with atherosclerosis and CVD risk. In contrast, moderate to vigorous daily activity, minimal obesity, and low fat intake predict minimal CVD risk among older Tsimane.Peripheral arterial disease (PAD, based on the Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI, and hypertension were measured in Tsimane adults, and compared with rates from industrialized populations. No cases of PAD were found among Tsimane and hypertension was comparatively low (prevalence: 3.5%, 40+; 23%, 70+. Markers of infection and inflammation were much higher among Tsimane than among U.S. adults, whereas HDL was substantially lower. Regression models examine associations of ABI and BP with biomarkers of energy balance and metabolism and of inflammation and infection. Among Tsimane, obesity, blood lipids, and disease history were not significantly associated with ABI. Unlike the Tsimane case, higher cholesterol, C-reactive protein, leukocytes, cigarette smoking and systolic pressure among North Americans are all significantly associated with lower ABI.Inflammation may not always be a risk factor for arterial degeneration and CVD, but instead may be offset by other factors: healthy metabolism, active lifestyle, favorable body mass, lean diet, low blood lipids and cardiorespiratory health. Other possibilities, including genetic susceptibility and the role of helminth infections, are discussed. The absence of PAD and CVD among Tsimane parallels anecdotal reports from other small-scale subsistence

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors in rural Kenyans are associated with differential age gradients, but not modified by sex or ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Birkegaard, Louise;

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertak...... questionnaires. In total, 1139 individuals (61.0% women) participated aged 17-68 years. Age was positively associated with BP and plasma cholesterol levels. Sitting PR was negatively associated with age in women only (sex-interaction p ...

  12. Influence of age, sex and life style factors on the spontaneous and radiation induced micronuclei frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human populations for environmental or occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, particularly ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for assessing radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. To further define the use of this assay in biological dosimetry, a study to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habit) on the spontaneous and radiation induced MN frequencies was performed. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 healthy donors aged between 4 and 62 years. On the basis of their smoking habit they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with Y rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed and also a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was obtained (R2 = 0.96) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence MN variability significantly but there was a greater dispersion in the results for females when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking to non smoking donors supports the convenience to take into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposures to γ-rays for doses below 2 Gy. (author)

  13. Age as a predictive factor of mammographic breast density in Jamaican women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Deanne; Reid, Marvin; James, Michael

    2002-06-01

    AIM: We sought to determine the relationship between age, and other clinical characteristics such as parity, oestrogen use, dietary factors and menstrual history on breast density in Jamaican women. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective study was done of 891 patients who attended the breast imaging unit. The clinical characteristics were extracted from the patient records. Mammograms were assessed independently by two radiologists who were blinded to the patient clinical characteristics. Breast densities were assigned using the American College of Radiology (ACR) classification. RESULTS: The concordance between the ACR classification of breast density between the two independent radiologists was 92% with k = 0.76 (SE = 0.02, P < 0.001). Women with low breast density were heavier (81.3 {+-} 15.5 kg vs 68.4 {+-} 14.3 kg,P < 0.0001, mean {+-} standard deviation (SD)) and more obese (body mass index (BMI), 30.3 {+-} 5.8 kg m{sup -2} vs 26.0 {+-} 5.2 kg m{sup -2}, P < 0.0001). Mammographic breast density decreased with age. The age adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for predictors significantly related to high breast density were parity, OR = 0.79 (95%CI:0.71, 0.88), weight, OR = 0.92 (95% CI:0.91, 0.95), BMI, OR = 0.83 (95% CI:0.78, 0.89), menopause, OR = 0.51 (95% CI:0.36, 0.74) and a history of previous breast surgery, OR 1.6 (95% CI:1.1, 2.3). CONCLUSION: The rate decline of breast density with age in our population was influenced by parity and body composition. Soares, D. et al. (2002)

  14. Effects of Environmental Factors on Body Weight of Sistani Goat at Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghazaghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of some non-genetic factors on pre-weaning and post-weaning growth in Sistani goat kids. Data from 81 records (36 males and 45 females were analyzed. The data were collected from the Institute of Research Domesticated Animals, Zabol University in Sistan and Baluchestan province and Iran in 2008. The effects of dam weight after kidding, sex, birth type and time of weaning on the weights at birth, weaning, 6, 9 and 12 months of age and average pre and post weaning daily gain were studied. The average birth weight of male kids was about 3% higher than female kids. The overall means of Body Weight at birth (BW, Weaning 3 (WW3, Weaning 4 (WW4, 6 (W6, 9 (W9 and 12 (W12 months of age were 1.915, 7.796, 9.900, 15.597, 26.253 and 34.2 kg, respectively. Birth weight averaged 2.398, 2.355, 1.858 and 1.865 kg for single males and females, twin males and females, respectively. Kids had a faster growth rate from 6-9 months with daily gain 118.4 (g day-1 that the average daily gain in kids decreased with the age increase from 9-12 months of age. Average pre-weaning daily gain of female was also higher than male but there was no significant difference observed in pre-weaning gain heavy dam produced heavy kid (r = 0.319 but later weight had no relation with dam weight. Male kids in comparison with female kids and single born kids in comparison with twin born kids had higher birth weight and weaning weight.

  15. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Fails to Stimulate Wound Healing and Impairs Its Signal Transduction in an Aged Ischemic Ulcer Model : Importance of Oxygen and Age

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Liancun; Xia, Yu-Ping; Roth, Sanford I.; Gruskin, Elliott; Mustoe, Thomas A.

    1999-01-01

    Clinical trials of exogenous growth factors in treating chronic wounds have been less successful than expected. One possible explanation is that most studies used animal models of acute wounds in young animals, whereas most chronic wounds occur in elderly patients with tissue ischemia. We described an animal model of age- and ischemia-impaired wound healing and analyzed the wound-healing response as well as the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 effect in this model. Rabbits of increasing ag...

  16. Online newspapers: the impact of culture, sex, and age on the perceived importance of specified quality factors

    OpenAIRE

    Beverley G. Hope; Zhiru Li

    2004-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of online newspapers over recent years. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, factors affecting the quality of online newspapers remain only partially understood. Based on a two-factor model of hygiene and motivator factors, this paper examines quality for online newspapers giving attention to differences across culture, sex, and age. Hygiene factors are essential requirements whose absence causes dissatisfaction, while motivators are desirable elements that a...

  17. Social participation and healthy ageing: a neglected, significant protective factor for chronic non communicable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low and middle income countries are ageing at a much faster rate than richer countries, especially in Asia. This is happening at a time of globalisation, migration, urbanisation, and smaller families. Older people make significant contributions to their families and communities, but this is often undermined by chronic disease and preventable disability. Social participation can help to protect against morbidity and mortality. We argue that social participation deserves much greater attention as a protective factor, and that older people can play a useful role in the prevention and management of chronic conditions. We present, as an example, a low-cost, sustainable strategy that has increased social participation among elders in Sri Lanka. Discussion Current international policy initiatives to address the increasing prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases are focused on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and cancers, responsible for much premature mortality. Interventions to modify their shared risk factors of high salt and fat diets, inactivity, smoking and alcohol use are advocated. But older people also suffer chronic conditions that primarily affect quality of life, and have a wider range of risk factors. There is strong epidemiological and physiological evidence that social isolation, in particular, is as important a risk factor for chronic diseases as the 'lifestyle' risk factors, yet it is currently neglected. There are useful experiences of inexpensive and sustainable strategies to improve social participation among older people in low and lower middle income countries. Our experience with forming Elders' Clubs with retired tea estate workers in Sri Lanka suggests many benefits, including social support and participation, inter-generational contact, a collective voice, and facilitated access to health promotion activities, and to health care and social welfare services. Summary Policies to

  18. Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G

    2014-02-01

    The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds. PMID:24315325

  19. Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris

    OpenAIRE

    Burlet, P.; Deplazes, P.; Hegglin, D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Resu...

  20. Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Young and Middle-Aged men in Urban Mwanza, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Muhihi, Alfa; Njelekela, Marina; Mpembeni, Rose; Masesa, Zablon; KITAMORI, KAZUYA; Mori, Mari; Kato, Norihiro; Mtabaji, Jacob; Yamori, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and middle aged men in a fast growing city of Mwanza in Tanzania. Methods Physical activity was assessed among 97 healthy men aged 20–50years using Sub-Saharan Africa Activity Quest...

  1. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…

  2. Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products as a Molecular Mechanism for Aging as a Risk Factor in Osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J. de; Verzijl, N.; Wenting-Wijk, M.J.G. van; Jacobs, K.M.G.; El, B. van; Roermund, P.M. van; Bank, R.A.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent and disabling chronic conditions affecting the elderly. Its etiology is largely unknown, but age is the most prominent risk factor. The current study was designed to test whether accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which

  3. Cancer, a disease of aging (part 2) - risk factors for older adult cancer mortality in Switzerland 1991-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidlin, Kurt; Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Zwahlen, Marcel; Stuck, Andreas; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M; Swiss National Cohort

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is disease of aging that disproportionately affects older adults and often results in considerable public health consequences. This study evaluated gender-age-specific cancer mortality risk factors in older adults in Switzerland with attention to the most common types of cancer.

  4. Associations between genetic polymorphisms of insulin-like growth factor axis genes and risk for age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Our objective was to investigate if insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis genes affect the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: 864 Caucasian non-diabetic participants from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) Genetic Repository were used in this case control st...

  5. Online newspapers: the impact of culture, sex, and age on the perceived importance of specified quality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley G. Hope

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a proliferation of online newspapers over recent years. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, factors affecting the quality of online newspapers remain only partially understood. Based on a two-factor model of hygiene and motivator factors, this paper examines quality for online newspapers giving attention to differences across culture, sex, and age. Hygiene factors are essential requirements whose absence causes dissatisfaction, while motivators are desirable elements that add value and increase user satisfaction. The paper presents findings from an empirical study of eighty-four Web users. Results show that hygiene factors for our respondents were: Timeliness, Content attractiveness, Content coverage, Usefulness, and Navigation, while motivators were: Writing style, Layout, Archives, Services, Interactivity, and Multimedia presentation. Four factors were borderline: Journalism ethics, Ease of use, Front page and headlines, and Locating information. However, the research reveals some differences in classification of factors across culture, sex, and age.

  6. Aging risk factors and Parkinson's disease: contrasting roles of common dietary constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipkiss, Alan R

    2014-06-01

    Aging is a Parkinson's disease (PD) risk factor. It is suggested here that certain dietary components may either contribute to or ameliorate PD risk. There is evidence, which indicates that excessive carbohydrate (glucose or fructose) catabolism is a cause of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD, one consequence is increased production of methylglyoxal (MG). However, other dietary components (carnosine and certain plant extracts) not only scavenge MG but can also influence some of the biochemical events (signal transduction, stress protein synthesis, glycation, and toxin generation) associated with PD pathology. As double blind, placebo-controlled carnosine supplementation studies have revealed beneficial outcomes in humans, it is suggested that MG scavengers such as carnosine be further explored for their therapeutic potential toward PD. PMID:24388766

  7. The Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors of 15–49 Age Group Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Altiparmak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was planned to examine the healthy lifestyle behaviors and factors that affect women who are between 15-49 years old. METHOD: The study which is a cross sectional and descriptive was conducted on women (n=300 who are 15-49 age group and accepted to take in place of study date of June-August 2008. The sample of the study is a cluster sampling method. There were 10 families in each cluster and total 30 cluster. The families cluster were determined via systematic randomize sample method from records in the 5th Primary Health Care Center in Manisa. For collecting data, a social demographic questionnaire and score Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP were used. For statistical analyses were used descriptive calculations, chi-square, student T-Test, correlation, logistic regression, and odds ratio. RESULTS: 51.7 % of women were in 15-29 age groups. The age mean of women 30.1±9.6 years. 42.6% of them were uneducated, 76% were married, 96% was house wife, 17, 4% no social security of them, %63.7 of them was low their income more than their outcome. The mean of total score of HPLP was 112.7±20.8. Subsection scores of the scale have founded as self actualization 33.4±7.4, health responsibility 19.4±5.8, exercise 7.8±3.3, interpersonal support 21.1±3.4, stress management 15.1±4.1, nutrition 15.5±3.3. CONCLUSION: It was found that level of the women’ healthy lifestyle behaviors was low. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 421-426

  8. Inherited catalase deficiency: is it benign or a factor in various age related disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góth, László; Nagy, Teréz

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was - and is still - considered toxic for a wide range of living organisms. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excess of pro-oxidants over antioxidants and it has been implicated in several diseases. Catalase is involved in hydrogen peroxide catabolism and is important in defense against oxidative stress. Acatalasemia means the inherited near-total deficiency of catalase activity, usually in reference to red cell catalase. Acatalasemia was thought at first to be an asymptotic disorder. In the absence of catalase, neither the Japanese, or Hungarian acatalasemics nor acatalasemic mice had significantly increased blood glutathione peroxidase activity. In animal models, catalase deficient tissues show much slower rates of removal of extracellular hydrogen peroxide. In catalase knock-out mice, a decreased hydrogen peroxide removing capacity and increased reactive oxygen species formation were reported. Hydrogen peroxide may cause methemoglobinemia in patients with catalase deficiency. During anesthesia for a Japanese acatalasemic patient the disinfection with hydrogen peroxide solution caused severe methemoglobinemia. Patients with inherited catalase deficiency, who are treated with uric acid oxidase (rasburicase) may experience very high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and may suffer from methemoglobinemia and hemolysis. The high (18.5%) prevalence of diabetes mellitus in inherited catalase deficient individuals and the earlier (10 years) manifestation of the disease may be attributed to the oxidative damage of oxidant sensitive, insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells. Ninety-seven of 114 acatalasemics had diseases related to oxidative stress and aging. The oxidative stress due to catalase deficiency could contribute to the manifestation of diabetes while for the other diseases it may be one of the factors in their causations. In summary, inherited catalase deficiency is associated with clinical features, pathologic laboratory test results

  9. THE ADDRESSEE AGE AS A FACTOR DETERMINING THE DISCURSIVE STRUCTURE OF A WORK OF FICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloglazova Elena Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the author attempts to establish the connection between the discursive structure of a work of fiction and the addressee age factor. At that the point of departure for the argument is (a the thesis on discursive heterogeneity being a feature of fiction in general, which is a direct consequence of literature of literature being aimed at reflecting the world in its entirety and complexity, and (b the assumption that the above-said is applicable to children's fiction, though discursive heterogeneity undergoes a certain transformation due to the specific nature and role of literature for children. The category of addressee in the cornerstone of children's fiction predetermining: on the surface level – the selection of organization of language means in the text; on the contents level – the selection of story and characters; on the ideology level – the configuration of the polydiscourse of the children's fiction, as well as the selection of discourses' representatives. The peculiarity of children's fiction is primarily due to the ideology underlying it - what the society demands from the right book for kids, which is viewed as a socializing tool. And in order to be efficient, the tool needs to be tailored for its object, its exact parameters, age being one of them. Thus the complexity of the discursive structure of literary works for children appears to be directly related to the age of their ideal reader, which is shown in the article by comparative analysis of works addressed to floor and ceiling audiences of the childhood span. The analysis reveals the fact that older readership leads not only to a greater complexity of a literary work's discursive structure, but also to a wider variety in the ways of introducing interdiscursemes into text.

  10. Interaction of complement factor h and fibulin3 in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Keith Wyatt

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a major cause of vision loss. It is associated with development of characteristic plaque-like deposits (soft drusen in Bruch's membrane basal to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. A sequence variant (Y402H in short consensus repeat domain 7 (SCR7 of complement factor H (CFH is associated with risk for "dry" AMD. We asked whether the eye-targeting of this disease might be related to specific interactions of CFH SCR7 with proteins expressed in the aging human RPE/choroid that could contribute to protein deposition in drusen. Yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H screens of a retinal pigment epithelium/choroid library derived from aged donors using CFH SCR7 baits detected an interaction with EFEMP1/Fibulin 3 (Fib3, which is the locus for an inherited macular degeneration and also accumulates basal to macular RPE in AMD. The CFH/Fib3 interaction was validated by co-immunoprecipitation of native proteins. Quantitative Y2H and ELISA assays with different recombinant protein constructs both demonstrated higher affinity for Fib3 for the disease-related CFH 402H variant. Immuno-labeling revealed colocalization of CFH and Fib3 in globular deposits within cholesterol-rich domains in soft drusen in two AMD donors homozygous for CFH 402H (H/H. This pattern of labeling was quite distinct from those seen in examples of eyes with Y/Y and H/Y genotypes. The CFH 402H/Fib3 interaction could contribute to the development of pathological aggregates in soft drusen in some patients and as such might provide a target for therapeutic intervention in some forms of AMD.

  11. Evaluating gene by sex and age interactions on cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilian families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krieger José E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In family studies, it is important to evaluate the impact of genes and environmental factors on traits of interest. In particular, the relative influences of both genes and the environment may vary in different strata of the population of interest, such as young and old individuals, or males and females. Methods In this paper, extensions of the variance components model are used to evaluate heterogeneity in the genetic and environmental variance components due to the effects of sex and age (the cutoff between young and old was 43 yrs. The data analyzed were from 81 Brazilian families (1,675 individuals of the Baependi Family Heart Study. Results The models allowing for heterogeneity of variance components by sex suggest that genetic and environmental variances are not different in males and females for diastolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol, independent of the covariates included in the models. However, for systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and triglycerides, the evidence for heterogeneity was dependent on the covariates in the model. For instance, in the presence of sex and age covariates, heterogeneity in the genetic variance component was suggested for fasting glucose. But, for systolic blood pressure, there was no evidence of heterogeneity in any of the two variance components. Except for the LDL-cholesterol, models allowing for heterogeneity by age provide evidence of heterogeneity in genetic variance for triglycerides and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. There was evidence of heterogeneity in environmental variance in fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol. Conclusions Our results suggest that heterogeneity in trait variances should not be ignored in the design and analyses of gene-finding studies involving these traits, as it may generate additional information about gene effects, and allow the investigation of more sophisticated models such as the model including sex

  12. Complement factor H gene polymorphisms and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, P; Steindl, K; Schmid-Kubista, KE; Aggermann, T; Krugluger, W; Hageman, GS; Binder, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association of the complement factor H gene (CFH) Y402H polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Austrian population (Caucasoid descent), and to determine whether there is an association between exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae—responsible for up to 20% of community-acquired pneumoniae—and the AMD-associated CFH risk polymorphism. Methods Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 75 unrelated AMD patients and compared with 75 healthy, age-matched control subjects. C. pneumoniae serum IgG was tested by ELISA (R&D) in both groups. The association between the CFH Y402H genetic polymorphism and the disease was examined by χ2-test and logistic regression. Results CFH Y402H genotype frequencies differed significantly between AMD patients and healthy controls (1277 TT, 22.7%; 1277 TC, 53.3%; and 1277 CC, 22.7% in the AMD group; 1277 TT, 48.0%; 1277 TC, 38.7%; and 1277 CC, 13.3% in the control group) showing a P-value <0.005 (OR:2.920/3.811). No association was found between a positive C. pneumoniae titre and AMD (P = 0.192), nor was any association found between C. pneumoniae and the CFH Y402H polymorphism. Conclusions Our data confirm that the CFH Y402H polymorphism is a risk factor for AMD in the Austrian population with a higher frequency of the Y402 polymorphism in AMD patients. No association between preceding C. pneumoniae infection and diagnosed AMD was found. PMID:19169230

  13. Bullying among school-age children in the greater Beirut area: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of bullying at schools in the Greater Beirut Area and the extent to which differences in children's sociodemographics, family and school environment, and coping strategies could account for variation in academic achievement, PTSD and emotional and behavioral disorders. Participants were 665 male and female children of mean age 13.8 years. Results indicated that a high proportion of children had been involved in bullying on a regular basis with victims having a higher prevalence ratio than bullies and bully/victims. Verbal bullying including spreading rumors was the most common type of victimization, followed by being rejected from a group. Being bullied about one's religion or sect comprised one of the most common bullying behaviors in schools. Students rarely tried to stop a student from being bullied and teachers were reported to have done relatively little or nothing to counteract bullying. Prevalence of bullying was more among boys than girls. School bullying was not associated with academic achievement or with having difficulties in reading and math. Children who were identified as bully/victim, victim, and bully suffered from PTSD compared to those who were not identified as being involved in bullying The study showed that both bullies and victims are at-risk for short term and long-term adjustment difficulties including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. Child's gender and emotion-focused coping stood out as risk factors for the development of bullying behaviors whereas age, problem-focused coping, family environment, and school environment were significant protective factors. PMID:25267164

  14. Association of maternal risk factors with large for gestational age fetuses in Indian population

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    Shamim Khandaker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the risk of delivering large-for gestational age (LGA fetuses associated with maternal obesity, excessive maternal weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM- in Indian mothers. Design: Retrospective study. Settings: Fernandez Hospital Private Limited, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; a tertiary perinatal centre. Populations: Pregnant singleton mothers with correct pregnancy dating. Methods: Estimated fetal weight (EFW is determined using ultrasound variables [Biparietal diameter (BPD, Head Circumference (HC, Abdominal Circumference (AC, Femur Length (FL]. This EFW is plotted on SONOCARE software [Medialogic solutions (P Ltd, Chennai, India] to determine the type of antenatal fetal growth and a total of 192 LGA fetuses are selected. At birth newborn growth pattern are determined according to birth weight at the gestational age of delivery which divide the cohort into two groups: true LGA fetuses after delivery and true AGA fetuses after delivery. Main outcome measures: The association of maternal risk factors (body mass index, maternal weight gain and gestational diabetes mellitus to the newborns between these two groups is evaluated. Results: Among the risk factors obesity and excess maternal weight gain among non-obese has highest risks for delivering LGA fetuses (relative risk 1.89 and 1.88; respectively; followed by excess maternal weight gain among obese (relative risk 1.5 and gestational diabetes mellitus (relative risk 1.4. Conclusions: Obesity, excessive maternal weight gain, and GDM all are associated with LGA. Decreasing the prevalence of obesity also reduce the prevalence of LGA fetuses apart from controlling excess maternal weight gain.

  15. Extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors associated with injuries in young dancers aged 8-16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we tried to determine the association between joint ranges of motion, anatomical anomalies, body structure, dance discipline, and injuries in young female recreational dancers. A group of 1336 non-professional female dancers (age 8-16 years), were screened. The risk factors considered for injuries were: range of motion, body structure, anatomical anomalies, dance technique, and dance discipline. Sixty-one different types of injuries and symptoms were identified and later classified into four major categories: knee injuries, foot or ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and non-categorized injuries. We found that 569 (42.6%) out of the 1336 screened dancers, were injured.The following factors were found to be associated with injuries (P ankle tendinopathies than dancers with hypo range of motion; (b) anatomical anomalies (scoliotic dancers manifested a higher rate of injuries than non-scoliotic dancers); (c) dance technique (dancers with incorrect technique of rolling-in were found to have more injuries than dancers with correct technique); (d) dance discipline (an association between time of practice en pointe and injury was observed); and (e) early age of onset of menarche decreased risk for an injury. No association between body structure and injury was found. Injuries among recreational dancers should not be overlooked, and therefore precautionary steps should be taken to reduce the risk of injury, such as screening for joint range of motion and anatomical anomalies. Certain dance positions (e.g. en pointe) should be practised only when the dancer has already acquired certain physical skills, and these practices should be time controlled. PMID:22288886

  16. Relationship Between Dietary Patterns and Socio- Demographic or Lifestyle Factors in Urban School- Aged Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan WANG; Yun CHEN; Wei CHEN; Ai ZHAO; Yu-mei ZHANG; Zhi-shen MU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the dietary patterns in urban school-aged children in China and determine the relations with socio-demographic or lifestyle factors.MethodsA total of 620 school-aged children from 7 cities in China were recruited in a cross-sectional study and their dietary data over the preceding 6 months were recorded via questionnaire between 2011-2012. The dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Walis H test was preformed to reveal the relationship between dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified. The traditional pattern had high positive relationships with grains, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, vegetables and soybeans/soybean products. The high-protein pattern was characterized by large positive coefficient for fruits, fish/shrimps, eggs, milk/milk products, soybeans/soybean products and salt. The oil/fat and beverage pattern with highly related with grains, meat/poultry, eggs, oil/fat, salt and beverages. The relationships between the dietary patterns and various socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics were analyzed.Conclusion Three dietary patterns were identified. A clear association was found between the dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to measure the anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 5249 students were included in our study. The overall rate of anxiety status among students was 14.1%. A significant difference was observed between anxiety status and sex, mothers education level, dietary and siesta habit (P breakfast habit, friend support was associated with lower scores on anxiety status. The findings indicated that anxiety status is common among school students. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended. PMID:25550963

  18. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  19. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and adropin levels in age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örnek, Nurgül; Örnek, Kemal; Aydin, Süleyman; Yilmaz, Musa; Ölmez, Yaşar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and adropin in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. METHODS Ninety-eight AMD patients were included in the study. Seventy-eight age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited as the control group. Fundus florescein angiography and optical coherence tomography were performed to assess the posterior segment details. Serum VEGFR-2 and adropin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and compared between the study groups. RESULTS AMD group had significantly increased foveal retinal thickness, serum LDL and HDL levels and significantly decreased subfoveal choroidal thickness (P =0.01, 0.047, 0.025 and AMD patients compared to controls (26.48±6.44 vs 30.42±7.92 ng/mL, PAMD patients (6.17±3.19 vs 5.79±2.71 ng/mL, P=0.4). Serum level of VEGFR-2 in AMD patients had a significant negative correlation with foveal retinal thickness (r=-0.226, P=0.025) and a significant positive correlation with subfoveal choroidal thickness (r=0.2, P=0.048). CONCLUSION The current study demonstrated that the decreased serum VEGFR-2 level may be considered in the development of AMD. Adropin does not seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:27162728

  20. Do other cardiovascular risk factors influence the impact of age on the association between blood pressure and mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Ibsen, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben; Broda, Grazyna; Palmieri, Luigi; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kee, Frank; Mancia, Giuseppe; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Salomaa, Veikko; Sans, Susana; Ferrieres, Jean; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Söderberg, Stefan; McElduff, Patrick; Arveiler, Dominique; Pajak, Andrzej; Olsen, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate age-related shifts in the relative importance of SBP and DBP as predictors of cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality and whether these relations are influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Using 42 cohorts from the MORGAM Project with baseline......-cause mortality, but not CHD mortality. The age at which the importance of SBP exceeded DBP was for stroke mortality influenced by sex, cholesterol, and country risk. CONCLUSION: Age-related shifts to the superiority of SBP exist for stroke mortality and all-cause mortality, and for stroke mortality was this...... shift influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors....

  1. Nutrition and cardiovascular risk factors in four age groups of female individuals: The pep family heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased con-tinuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Ca-loric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.

  2. Gender-specific factors associated with shorter sleep duration at age 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancoulaine, Sabine; Lioret, Sandrine; Regnault, Nolwenn; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-12-01

    Total sleep duration has been decreasing among children in the last decades. Short sleep duration (SSD) has been associated with deleterious health consequences, such as excess weight/obesity. Risk factors for SSD have already been studied among school-aged children and adolescents, but inconsistent results have been reported regarding possible gender differences. Studies reporting such relationships are scarce in preschoolers, despite the importance of this period for adopting healthy behaviour. We aimed to investigate factors associated with SSD in 3-year-old boys (n = 546) and girls (n = 482) in a French Mother-Child Cohort (EDEN Study). Children were born between 2003 and 2006 in two French university hospitals. Clinical examinations and parent self-reported questionnaires allowed us to collect sociodemographic (e.g. income, education, family situation, child-minding system), maternal [e.g. body mass index (BMI), parity, depression, breastfeeding duration] and child's characteristics (e.g. gender, birth weight, term, physical activity and TV viewing duration, food consumption, usual sleep time). Sleep duration/24-h period was calculated and SSD was defined as sleep physiology, or both. PMID:26041449

  3. A study of language development and affecting factors in children aged 5 to 27 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the factors that affect language development in infants and toddlers using data obtained during developmental screening. Our study group consisted of 505 children-244 (48.3%) boys and 261 (51.7%) girls, aged 5 to 27 months. The children were divided into four age groups: group 1, which we designated as the "6 months" group (age range: 5 to 7 mo); group 2, designated as the "12 months" group (11 to 13 mo); group 3, designated as the "18 months" group (17 to 19 mo); and group 4, designated as the "24 months" group (23 to 27 mo). In addition to demographic data, we compiled data using the Denver II Developmental Screening Test, as well as neurologic examination findings and medical histories. At 6 months, the social item "Works for toy out of reach" was positively related to all language development items. Two gross motor development items-"Pull to sit, no head lag" and "Lifts chest with arm support"-were related to the "Turns to sound" and "Turns to voice" items, respectively. Overall, children whose mothers had higher education levels and who were living in higher socioeconomic areas showed significantly greater language development, as did boys, specifically. At 12 months, higher maternal ages, some gross motor development items, and some social items were related to better language development, and children living in higher socioeconomic areas had a significantly increased ability to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item. At 18 months, the ability of girls to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item increased, and children who passed the "4 words other than mama/dada" item did not pass the "Throws ball" gross motor item. At 24 months, children whose mothers were older had better "Combines 2 words" and "Speech half intelligible" items, girls had better "Comprehends prepositions (such as under/above)" skills, and boys had better "Shows 4 parts of doll" skills. We conclude that language items appear to change together with

  4. Selected atherosclerosis risk factors in youth aged 13–15 years 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Michalska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The high frequency of cases of circulatory system conditions in Europe and other countries around the world requires scientific research to define risk factors of early atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the present study was to define which students are at danger of developing atherosclerosis by means of measuring cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood as well as defining the correlation between atherosclerosis risk factors and arterial blood pressure, physical fitness and efficiency of the subjects.Material/Methods:The research covered 167 students of Public Junior High School ¹1 in Biala Podlaska aged 13–15 years. Accutrend GCT was employed to define the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the screen test. Those students who were found to have increased values of biochemical parameters of capillary blood were subjected to additional blood tests aiming to define complete lipid profile of venous blood. The blood pressure in subjects was tested three times. The Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA test, suggested by American authors, was employed to define physical activity in subjects. EUROFIT was employed to define physical efficiency.Results:Among the 167 subjects there were found 42 students (25.1�20whose lipid level in capillary blood proved to be increased. Full lipid profile tests proved that 16 students (9.6�20had increased blood lipid levels; those subjects constituted the risk group. Subjects in the risk group were characterized by lower levels of physical activity and physical efficiency compared to subjects with normal blood lipid level. Moreover, the frequency of hypertension was greater in risk group subjects compared to subjects with normal blood lipid levels.Inferences:Students diagnosed with atherosclerosis risk factors require observation and early prophylactics by adopting habits of healthy physical activity.

  5. Factors associated with hospitalization risk among community living middle aged and older persons: Results from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Jenny; Fransson, Eleonor I; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Reynolds, Chandra A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl Aslan, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe and compare individual characteristics of hospitalized and not hospitalized community living persons, and (2) to determine factors that are associated with hospitalization risk over time. We conducted a prospective study with a multifactorial approach based on the population-based longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). A total of 772 Swedes (mean age at baseline 69.7 years, range 46-103, 59.8% females) answered a postal questionnaire about physical and psychological health, personality and socioeconomic factors. During nine years of follow-up, information on hospitalizations and associated diagnoses were obtained from national registers. Results show that 484 persons (63%) had at least one hospital admission during the follow-up period. The most common causes of admission were cardiovascular diseases (25%) and tumors (22%). Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age, sex and dependency within twin pairs, showed that higher age (HR=1.02, pHR=1.09, p=0.028) were associated with increased risk of hospitalization, while marital status (unmarried (HR=0.75, p=0.033) and widow/widower (HR=0.69, pHR=0.93, p=0.029) were associated with lower risk of hospitalization. Social factors were important for hospitalization risk even when medical factors were controlled for in the analyses. Number of diseases was not a risk in the final regression model. Hospitalization risk was also different for women and men and within different age groups. We believe that these results might be used in future interventions targeting health care utilization. PMID:27281475

  6. Shift work and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a study at age 45 years in the 1958 British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Claudia; Power, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study examined associations between exposure to shift-work and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether the associations are explained by socio-economic circumstances, occupational factors or health behaviours. Biological risk factors for CVD were measured in 7,839 participants of the 1958 British birth cohort at age 45 years who were in paid employment. Regular (?1/week) shift-workers included 46% working evenings (1800?2200), 28% weekends, 13% night...

  7. Long-Term Cognitive Sequelae After Pediatric Brain Tumor Related to Medical Risk Factors, Age, and Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Tonning Olsson, Ingrid; Perrin, Sean; Lundgren, Johan; Hjorth, Lars; Johanson, Aki

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young age at diagnosis and treatment with cranial radiation therapy are well studied risk factors for cognitive impairment in pediatric brain tumor survivors. Other risk factors are hydrocephalus, surgery complications, and treatment with intrathecal chemotherapy. Female gender vulnerability to cognitive sequelae after cancer treatment has been evident in some studies, but no earlier studies have related this to tumor size. The purpose of our study was to find factors correlate...

  8. Domains of Chronic Stress, Lifestyle Factors, and Allostatic Load in Middle-Aged Mexican-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Linda C.; Jiménez, Jessica A.; Shivpuri, Smriti; Espinosa de los Monteros, Karla; Mills, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little research has examined how chronic stress in different domains relates to allostatic load (AL). Purpose We examined the relationship between multiple chronic stressors with AL, and evaluated lifestyle factors as possible mediating factors. Methods Three hundred one middle-aged Mexican-American women underwent a physical exam and completed measures of lifestyle factors and chronic stress in eight domains. A composite of 12 neuroendocrine, metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflamm...

  9. Young age: an independent risk factor for disease-free survival in women with operable breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of breast cancer in young women (age < 35) is low. The biology of the disease in this age group is poorly understood, and there are conflicting data regarding the prognosis for these women compared to older patients. We retrospectively analyzed 2040 consecutive primary invasive breast cancer patients who underwent surgical procedures at our institution between 1990 and 1999. The younger age group was defined as patients aged <35 years at the time of diagnosis. The clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between younger and older age groups. A total of 256 (12.5%) patients were aged <35. There was a significantly higher incidence of nuclear grade 3 and medullary histological-type tumors in younger patients compared to older patients. Axillary lymph node status, T stage, histological grade, c-erbB2 expression and estrogen receptor status did not differ significantly between the two age groups. Younger patients had a greater probability of recurrence and death at all time periods. Although there was no significant difference in disease-free survival between the two age groups in lymph node-negative patients, the younger group showed worse prognosis among lymph node-positive patients (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, young age remained a significant predictor of recurrence (p = 0.010). Young age (<35) is an independent risk factor for relapse in operable breast cancer patients

  10. Parent-Reported Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptomatology in Preschool-Aged Children: Factor Structure, Developmental Change, and Early Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Pek, Jolynn; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Although Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increasingly been studied in preschool-aged children, relatively few studies have provided a comprehensive evaluation of the factor structure and patterns of developmental changes in parent-reported ADHD symptomatology across the early childhood period. This study used confirmatory factor analyses to test for longitudinal measurement invariance of ADHD symptoms and semi-parametric finite mixture models to identify prototypic pattern...

  11. Aging is an Important Cause for a Lack of Understanding of the Main Risk Factor in Cardiac Rehabilitation Patients

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    Komasi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Age, one of the key biomarkers among the nonclinical parameters of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, has the greatest effect on the development and progression of CVDs. Objectives The current study was done to evaluate the effect of age on cardiac rehabilitation (CR patients’ attitudes regarding the main cause of their condition. Patients and Methods The administrative data of this cross-sectional study were obtained from the database of the CR department of a hospital in Iran. The demographic and clinical information of 901 patients was obtained from January 2004 and January 2012 using compiled forms of this database and the structured clinical interview for Axis I Disorders (SCID-I. Univariate analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc analysis were used for the data analysis. Results After adjusting for gender, it was revealed that significant age differences existed between patients who perceived no specific risk factors (62.43 years and those who viewed biological (55.0, physiological (57.31, behavioral (57.85, and psychological (57.25 risk factors as the main cause of their condition (P < 0.05. The age differences between those who had no perceived risk factors (62.43 was significantly different from patients perceiving biological (55.0 and environmental (62.03 factors to be the main cause (P < 0.05. Conclusions Although older patients need more self-care and the quality of this self-care originates from their attitude toward CVD risk factors, their lack of awareness about the main risk factor of their condition is a major challenge for secondary prevention measures. In addition, younger patients’ significant emphasis on biological risk factors as uncorrectable factors can reduce their sense of responsibility toward attempting to control correctable risk factors. Correcting these patients’ attitudes regarding CVD risk factors can result in better responsibility feeling by the patients and can improve treatment outcomes.

  12. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  13. Risk factors for childhood obesity in elementary school-age Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kennedy, Christine; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Kools, Susan

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study design was used to examine factors that contribute to high relative weight in children in Taiwan. A total sample of 331 Chinese children (ages 7 and 8) and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, family functioning, parenting styles, physical activity, and dietary intake. Children completed physical fitness tests and questionnaires regarding physical activity, dietary intake, coping strategies, and self-esteem. The weight-for-length index was used to measure children's relative weight. The findings revealed that four variables contributed to higher weight-for-length index in boys compared with girls and explained 37.7% of the variance: high maternal body mass index, poor aerobic capacity, healthy family role functioning, and poor family affective responsiveness. Two variables were found to contribute to higher weight-for-length index in girls and explained 12.8% of the variance: high household income and high maternal body mass index. Taken together, the results indicate the importance of assessment of children's weight status, maternal weight status, and family functioning as part of routine child health care and the need for developmentally appropriate and gender-specific approaches to prevent childhood obesity. PMID:16030409

  14. The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Sternberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity’s collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance.

  15. RISK FACTORS OF DEVELOPMENT AND PREVALENCE OF CARIES IN EARLY AND PRESCHOOL AGE CHILDREN FROM TWO-PARENT FAMILIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kan Vsevolod Vladimirovich; Kapitonov Vladimir Fedorovich; Vitkin Artyom Sergeevich; Gavrilyuk Oksana Aleksandrovna

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of studying of risk factors of development and prevalence of caries in children of early and preschool age, socially-hygienic and medical and biologic characteristics of 423 two-parent families have been studied. The study base included 619 children at the age from 1 to 6 years and their parents. The estimation of the medical and biologic and socially-hygienic characteristics was carried out with the use of the original questionnaire which contained 70 questions concerning the...

  16. Sexual Perceptions among People Aged 45 years, Association of Reproductive Health and Socio-Demographic Factors in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Latiffah Latiff; Hanachi Parichehr

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this research was to study the sexual perception and practices among people aged 45 years and above and the associated socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was done on 473 middle aged and elderly people living in Klang Valley in 2005. They were married and literate.  Data were collected by means of face to face interview using structured questionnaires and were analyzed using SPSS software. Logistic regression was used a...

  17. Age-Related Disparities in Cancer Screening: Analysis of 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jerant, Anthony F.; Franks, Peter; Jackson, J. Elizabeth; Doescher, Mark P.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE Although few studies have explored age-related health care disparities, some researchers have asserted such disparities uniformly disfavor the elderly and are largely attributable to ageism in the health care system. We compared age-related patterns of screening for colorectal cancer with those for breast and prostate cancer in persons aged 50 years and older.

  18. The age-specific quantitative effects of metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: a pooled analysis.

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    Gitanjali M Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP, serum total cholesterol (TC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and body mass index (BMI on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. METHODS: We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD, hypertensive heart disease (HHD, stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. RESULTS: Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55-64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09-2.24, followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39-1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57-1.69 for ischemic stroke. In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29-1.61 for IHD and 1.20 (1.15-1.25 for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m(2 higher BMI for ages 55-64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04-2.63 for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40-1.48 for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08-1.29 for IHD and 1.14 (1.01-1.29 for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. CONCLUSION: Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group.

  19. Age- and Gender-Specific Prevalence of Risk Factors in Patients with First-Ever Ischemic Stroke in China

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    Xiao-ying Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidences are accumulating that age and gender have great impact on the distribution of stroke risk factors. Such data are lacking in Chinese population. Methods. 1027 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke (IS were recruited and divided into young adult (80 years groups according to stroke onset ages. Vascular risk factors were collected and compared among groups. Results. Female patients were globally older than male patients at stroke onset and having higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, heart diseases, and atrial fibrillation (AF. However, females were less likely to drink heavily or smoke than males. Young patients had a much higher proportion of smoking and drinking than middle-aged and very old patients and the highest family history of hypertension, while very old patients had the highest prevalence of heart diseases and AF but lowest proportion of positive family history of vascular diseases. Hypertension and DM were equally frequent among three groups. Conclusion. Our study showed that vascular risk factors had a specific age and gender distribution pattern in Chinese IS patients. Secondary prevention strategy should emphasize on the control of different risk factors based on patient’s age and gender.

  20. The Effects of the Daily Driven Distance and Age Factor on the Traffic Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Ş. KALYONCUOĞLU, Figen; TIĞDEMİR, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    Based on Turkish traffic survey data (n=5,520), driver accident rates per million kilometre-driver were compared according to the daily driven distances (DDD) for each age group as very old (65+, n=39), old (56-65, n=183), above middle-aged (36-55, n=1,875), middle-aged (26-35, n=2,204), and young (25-, n=1,219). When the accidents-per-km comparison was made in groups matched for daily exposure, there was no evidence of higher risk with increasing age. In all age groups, risk per km decreased...

  1. Ergothioneine levels in an elderly population decrease with age and incidence of cognitive decline; a risk factor for neurodegeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Irwin K; Feng, Lei; Tang, Richard M Y; Lim, Keith H C; Halliwell, Barry

    2016-09-01

    Ergothioneine (ET), a naturally occurring thione, can accumulate in the human body at high concentrations from diet. Following absorption via a specific transporter, OCTN1, ET may accumulate preferentially in tissues predisposed to higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. Given its potential cytoprotective effects, we examined how ET levels change with age. We found that whole blood ET levels in elderly individuals decline significantly beyond 60 years of age. Additionally, a subset of these subjects with mild cognitive impairment had significantly lower plasma ET levels compared with age-matched subjects. This decline suggests that deficiency in ET may be a risk factor, predisposing individuals to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27444382

  2. Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons Ronan A; Mistry Rupal; Thomas Non; Gravenor Michael B; Cooksey Roxanne; Brophy Sinead; Williams Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. Methods Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White/European (n = 15,062), Asian (n = 1,845) or African (n = 654) background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to examine factors associated with obesity at age 5. All participants were interviewed in ...

  3. The Prevalence of Anxiety and its related Factors among School-age Children in South West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab Banaeipour; Shahnaz Rostami; Kourosh Zarea; Bahman Cheraghian

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety is one of the most common childhood disorders, so it is necessary to explore extend and its related factors in the students. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anxiety and the related factors of anxiety among the children aged 9-12 years. Materials and Methods At a descriptive-analytic study 623 children aged 9-12 year- old who were studying in the fourth to sixth grade of elementary school in Dezful city, were selected through multistage random samplin...

  4. RISK FACTORS FOR RECURRENCE OF FEBRILE SEIZURES IN CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 6 MONTHS TO 5 YEARS OF AGE ADMITTED TO DR. PUNJABRAO DESHMUKH MEDICAL COLLEGE, AMRAVATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available : Febrile seizures (FS occur in 2% to 5% of all children and are most common convulsive event in children younger than 60 month. Recurrence of FS ranges from 21–43% in different studies and are associated with various risk factors like age of onset of 1st episode of FS less than 1 year, duration and grade of fever, parental consanguinity, family history of FS and epilepsy, male gender and complex FS as initial seizure. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors and their association for recurrences of febrile seizures in children aged between 6 months to 5 years of age. MATERIALS & METHODS: The study design was prospective observational study in which 63 children (6 months to 5 years presenting with the first episode of FS to Dr. Punjabrao Deshmukh Medical College, Amravati between 1st November 2013 to 31st October 2014 were enrolled in the study. These subjects were followed up for a period of 1 year from the date of 1st episode of FS. RESULTS: In present study 46 out of 63 subjects had recurrence of FS. Male: female ratio in the recurrence group was 0.76:1. Family history of FS and epilepsy was present in 34.9% and 12.6% respectively. Total 67.34% subjects with simple FS and 92.85% with complex FS had recurrence. 69.69% subjects had FS within 24 hours of onset of fever. Parental consanguinity was found in 14 (22.2% subjects with p value of 0.013. No association between the number of risk factors and recurrence was found. 22 (34.9% out of total 63 subjects were on intermittent FS prophylaxis during the febrile illness and 15 subjects still had recurrence of FS and hence no significant association between recurrence of FS and intermittent prophylaxis for FS was seen. CONCLUSION: Parental consanguinity and age less than one year for 1st episode of FS were the only significant risk factors indentified for the recurrence of FS. Age of onset of 1st episode of FS less than 1 year, duration of fever, grade of

  5. Age-specific patterns of factors related to fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: focus on young and elderly drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Fraser, S; Lindsay, J; Clarke, K; Mao, Y

    1998-09-01

    This population-based study examines patterns of fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) by age group (16-24, 25-64, 65+) among Canadian drivers. The Canadian Traffic Accident Information Databank (TRAID) provided information about fata MVTCs between 1984 and 1993. Distribution of risk factors was compared by age group. Crude odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated for both young and elderly drivers compared with middle-aged drivers. The middle-age group was selected as reference population since it demonstrates the lowest risk of fatality. Compared to the middle-aged group, young drivers demonstrated excess risk for (1) risk-taking behaviours and conditions, specifically alcohol and illicit drug use, speeding, non use of seat belts, fatigue and falling asleep, and inexperience; (2) crashes during the summer, during weekends and at night; and (3) single-vehicle collisions and on performing overtaking manoeuvres. Excess risk among elderly drivers was noted for (1) medical and physical conditions, inattention and inexperience; (2) driver actions, for example, improper turning, failure to yield right-to-way; (3) occurrence on weekdays and during the day; and (4) collisions at intersection and vehicle--vehicle sideswipes. The results show notable differences in risk factors by age group and confirm the need for preventive efforts that incorporate age-specific strategies. PMID:9807923

  6. Sensitivity to reinforcement and family factors as predictors of psychological health problems in different age groups of children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kuznetsova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The follow-up study was designed to assess and to compare the effects of sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment and family environment on internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample of 477 children and adolescents aged 3-18 (50% female. The level of problem behavior at Time 1 in all age groups was the best predictor of corresponding type of problem level at Time 2; the residual variance in problem behavior was also predicted by sensitivity to reinforcement. Family factors contributed for change in externalizing problems and hyperactivity in preschool and middle childhood children; living in the urban environment was significant factor for peer problem. The study showed that individual differences interact with the family factors in the process of development, and family environment could strengthen or mitigate the influence of biological factors on children and adolescents’ adjustment.

  7. Population Ageing and Socially Assistive Robots for Elderly Persons: The Importance of Sociodemographic Factors for User Acceptance

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    Priska Flandorfer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking care of older adults is among the major challenges currently faced by ageing populations. Researchers, designers, and engineers have proposed socially assistive robots as one way of helping elderly people stay in their homes longer. In a systematic literature review, this paper wants to investigate if and how evaluations of the acceptance of socially assistive robots by older people take into account sociodemographic factors. The results indicate that this only holds true for a few studies. Research that incorporates age, gender, education, and so forth; clearly shows that these key factors have a significant impact. However, the relations are complex and experience with technology mitigates the influence of sociodemographic factors on acceptance. Assistive devices should be adaptable to individual needs to be able to consider all these factors.

  8. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfaye Setegn; Yihunie Lakew; Kebede Deribe

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. Method We used population based national representati...

  9. Biomedical factors associated with hospitalization of older adults: The Bambuí Health and Aging Study (BHAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Henrique L.; Vidigall Pedro G.; Lima-Costa Maria Fernanda

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify biomedical factors (body mass index, blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and albumin) associated with hospitalization of older adults. All residents of the town of Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, ages superscript three 60 years (n = 1,742) were selected for the study, of whom 1,494 (85.2%) participated. None of the biomedical factors studied was independently associated with occurrence of 1 hospitalization duri...

  10. Suicide in the Global Chinese Aging Population: A Review of Risk and Protective Factors, Consequences, and Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien; Zeng, Ping; Simon, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    As one of the leading causes of death around the world, suicide is a global public health threat. In the Chinese population, suicides constitute one-fifth of all recorded suicides in the world. Despite the factual data on suicide rates, the understanding of various causal factors behind suicide, including risk and protective factors and adverse health care, remained incomplete among the global Chinese aging population. To fill in the knowledge void, this paper reviews the epidemiology of suic...

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in coronary heart disease risk in older age: contribution of established and novel coronary risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    RAMSAY, S E; Morris, R. W.; Whincup, P. H.; Papacosta, O.; Rumley, A; Lennon, L; Lowe, G.; Wannamethee, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) and their pathways in the elderly is limited. Little is also known about the contributions that novel coronary risk factors (particularly inflammatory/hemostatic markers) make to socioeconomic inequalities in CHD. Objectives: To examine the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in CHD in older age, and the contributions (relative and absolute) of established and novel coronary risk factors. Methods: A population...

  12. Risk Factors for Learning-Related Behavior Problems at 24 Months of Age: Population-Based Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We used a large sample of singleton children to estimate the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, additional socio-demographics, gestational and birth factors, and parenting on children's risk for learning-related behavior problems at 24 months of age. We investigated to what extent these factors increased a child's risk of displaying inattention, a lack of task persistence, disinterest, non-cooperation, or frustration as he or she completed a series of cognitive and...

  13. Dietary factors and pulmonary function: a cross sectional study in middle aged men from three European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tabak, C; H. Smit; Rasanen, L.; Fidanza, F; Menotti, A.; Nissinen, A; Feskens, E.; Heederik, D; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Results of epidemiological studies relating individual dietary factors to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are inconsistent. To evaluate the cross sectional association of dietary factors with pulmonary function, data were collected from middle aged men in three European countries.
METHODS—The data were collected in the 1960s in Finland (n = 1248), Italy (n = 1386), and the Netherlands (n = 691). Dietary intake was estimated using the cross-check di...

  14. Several dominants risk factors related to obesity in urban childbearing age women in Indonesia

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    Kencana Sari

    2016-01-01

    analyze several dominant riskfactors related to obesity in childbearing age women living in urban areas in Indonesia.Methods: This analysis used a part of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 data. The samples werederived from 258366 households. Riskesdas data on socio-demographic and other factors was collectedby questionnaire. Nutritional status was measured using body mass index (BMI. Cox regression withconstant time analysis was used for the analysis.Results: This analysis noted that there are 14357 (18.8% of women were obese and 62052 (81.2%normal. Compared with the respective reference groups, women aged 25-49 had a 3.5-fold greater riskof becoming obese [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 3.49; P = 0.000, and divorced or married had 2.5-foldhigher risk to be obese (RRa = 2.58; P= 0.000 and RRa = 2.62; P = 0.000, respectively. Furthermore,unemployed women had higher risk to be obese (RRa = 1.06; P = 0.000, and consuming excess proteinas well as often consume fatty foods made women had a higher risk of obesity (RRa = 1.09; P = 0.000 andRRa = 1.17; P = 0.000, respectively.Conclusion: Women aged 25-49, divorced or married, unemployed, consumed excess protein, and often consumefatty foods have a higher risk for becoming obese. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:63-8Key words: obesity, urban, women

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of contraceptive discontinuation and switching among Bangladeshi married women of reproductive age

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    Mahumud RA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rashidul Alam Mahumud,1 Md Golam Hossain,2 Abdur Razzaque Sarkar,1 Md Nurul Islam,2 Md Ripter Hossain,2 Aik Saw,3 Jahangir AM Khan1,4 1Health Economics and Financing Research Group, Center for Equity and Health Systems, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Statistics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National Orthopaedic Centre of Excellence for Research and Learning, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4Adjunct Faculty, Health Economics Unit, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Introduction: Contraceptive discontinuation is a worldwide incident that may be connected with low incentive to avoid pregnancy. Contraceptive discontinuation highly contributes to unplanned pregnancy and unwanted births.Objectives: The objective of this study was to observe the prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive methods among Bangladeshi married women. In addition, the sociodemographic factors associated with contraceptive discontinuation and switching were assessed.Methods: Secondary cross-sectional data was used in this study. A total of 16,273 married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age (15–49 years were considered in the present study, from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. Logistic regression models were used to determine the relationships between key sociodemographic factors and user status.Results: The prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive method among women were 38.4% and 15.4%, respectively. The logistic regression model demonstrated that women in early reproductive years (25–29 years and 30–34 years significantly more often (odds ratio [OR] =0.84 and 0.71, respectively discontinued use of contraceptives. Significantly higher rates of discontinuation were pronounced among women who

  16. Physical environmental factors related to walking and cycling in older adults: the Belgian aging studies

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    Van Cauwenberg Jelle

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-ecological models emphasize the relationship between the physical environment and physical activity (PA. However, knowledge about this relationship in older adults is limited. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the relationship between area of residence (urban, semi-urban or rural and older adults' walking and cycling for transportation and recreation. Additionally, relationships between several physical environmental factors and walking and cycling and possible moderating effects of area of residence, age and gender were studied. Methods Data from 48,879 Flemish older adults collected in 2004-2010 through peer research were analyzed. Walking, cycling and environmental perceptions were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. The Study Service of the Flemish Government provided objective data on municipal characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied. Results Urban participants were more likely to walk daily for transportation compared to rural (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.22, 1.67 and semi-urban participants (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.13, 1.54. Urban participants were less likely to cycle daily for transportation compared to semi-urban participants (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.92. Area of residence was unrelated to weekly recreational walking/cycling. Perceived short distances to services (ORs ranging from 1.04 to 1.19 and satisfaction with public transport (ORs ranging from 1.07 to 1.13 were significantly positively related to all walking/cycling behaviors. Feelings of unsafety was negatively related to walking for transportation (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.91, 0.95 and recreational walking/cycling (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92, 0.97. In females, it was also negatively related to cycling for transportation (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90, 0.98. Conclusions Urban residents were more likely to walk for transportation daily compared to semi-urban and rural residents. Daily cycling for transportation

  17. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    AlJohara M. AlQuaiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68% women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80 g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL was present in 40% (390 women. Mean (±SD for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17 fL, 26.37 (±6.21 pg, 32.36 (±4.91 g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76 and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05 were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97 was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia.

  18. Aging impairs recipient T cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors in response to transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As increasing numbers of older people are listed for solid organ transplantation, there is an urgent need to better understand how aging modifies alloimmune responses. Here, we investigated whether aging impairs the ability of donor dendritic cells or recipient immunity to prime alloimmune responses to organ transplantation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using murine experimental models, we found that aging impaired the host environment to expand and activate antigen specific CD8(+ T cells. Additionally, aging impaired the ability of polyclonal T cells to induce acute allograft rejection. However, the alloimmune priming capability of donor dendritic cells was preserved with aging. CONCLUSION: Aging impairs recipient responses, both T cell intrinsic and extrinsic, in response to organ transplantation.

  19. The Age Factor in the Cosmetic Management of Biophysical Skin Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Cartigliani; Adriana Bonfigli; Sara Brancato; Luigi Rigano

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the correlation between the basal skin hydration data, elasticity and surface roughness and the age of volunteers. Then, we analyzed the variations obtained at the end of the treatments with anti-age cosmetic products for the face. The aim was to investigate the susceptibility to improvement of volunteers from different age groups. Data were collected in our testing laboratory based in Milan over a 6-year long activity. We only considered measurements performed ...

  20. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and me...

  1. The Age Factor in the Cosmetic Management of Biophysical Skin Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cartigliani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the correlation between the basal skin hydration data, elasticity and surface roughness and the age of volunteers. Then, we analyzed the variations obtained at the end of the treatments with anti-age cosmetic products for the face. The aim was to investigate the susceptibility to improvement of volunteers from different age groups. Data were collected in our testing laboratory based in Milan over a 6-year long activity. We only considered measurements performed on the face of a female population aged between 18 and 70 years of age. Values were subdivided in age groups for each considered parameter and were statistically compared. As expected, skin roughness increased and R2 elasticity parameter decreased with ageing, while hydration values resulted to be higher in older women. Apparently, this unaccountable result is probably due to the fact that elderly women living in urban areas tend to take appropriate care of their skin, thus improving skin hydration effectively. Interestingly, as for skin hydration, the analysis showed that women aged 61–70 were the most susceptible to improvement induced by several types of cosmetic treatments. However, when considering the skin roughness values, women over 50 years old seemed to react better to cosmetic treatment. As for skin elasticity, the highest improvement values were found with women between 31 and 50 years of age.

  2. Genetic Factors Explain Variation in the Age at Onset of Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone; Duffy, David Lorenzo;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the age at onset of psoriasis in a population-based twin sample. Questionnaire-data in 10,725 twin pairs, 20-71 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, was collected, and analysed using survival regression analysis. Median age at onset was 25 and 28 yea...... ratio (per year of later onset = 1.01 (0.99-1.03), p = 0.434. In conclusion, these data support that the age at onset of psoriasis is, in part, an inherited property. Our results do not support that early-onset psoriasis is more genetically determined....

  3. A Validation of the French Version of the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire (AAQ: Factor Structure, Reliability and Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Marquet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire (AAQ was developed to measure attitudes toward the aging process as a personal experience from the perspective of older people. The present study aimed to validate the French version of the AAQ. Participants and methods: This study examined factor structure, acceptability, reliability and validity of the AAQ’s French version in 238 Belgian adults aged 60 years or older. In addition, participants provided information on demographics, self-perception of their mental and physical health (single items, quality of life (WHOQOL-OLD and social desirability (DS-36.  Results: Exploratory Factor Analysis produced a three-factor solution accounting for 36.9% of the variance. No floor or ceiling effects were found. The internal consistency, measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the AAQ subscales were 0.62 (Physical Change, 0.74 (Psychological Growth, and 0.75 (Psychosocial Loss. A priori expected associations were found between AAQ subscales, self-reported health and quality of life, indicating good convergent validity. The scale also showed a good ability to discriminate between people with lower and higher education levels, supporting adequate known-groups validity. Finally, we confirmed the need to control for social desirability biases when assessing self-reported attitudes toward one’s own aging. Conclusion: The data support the usefulness of the French version of the AAQ for the assessment of attitudes toward their own aging in older people.

  4. Factors associated with the ability and willingness to continue working until the age of 65 in construction workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Blatter, B.M.; Geuskens, G.A.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Bongers, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The working population is aging and a shortage of workers is expected in the construction industry. As a consequence, it is considered necessary that construction workers extend their working life. The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with construction workers' abi

  5. Impact of lifestyle factors on caries experience in three different age groups : 9, 15, and 21-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, Elise; Kamphuis, Mascha; Schuller, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    ObjectivesTo study the impact of lifestyle factors on dental caries experiences in addition to the effect of demographic characteristics at the ages of 9, 15, and 21years. MethodsThe data were obtained from the study Oral health in children and adolescents in the Netherlands'. Data were collected th

  6. Impact of lifestyle factors on caries experience in three different age groups : 9, 15, and 21-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Kamphuis, M.; Schuller, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the impact of lifestyle factors on dental caries experiences in addition to the effect of demographic characteristics at the ages of 9, 15, and 21 years. Methods The data were obtained from the study ‘Oral health in children and adolescents in the Netherlands’. Data were collecte

  7. Resiliency Factors in the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adulthood Sexual Assault in College-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Blaustein, Margaret; Knight, Wanda Grant; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel A.

    2007-01-01

    Research has suggested that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be a risk factor for adulthood sexual assault. This study examined associations between CSA experiences, cognitive resiliency variables, and revictimization. Participants were 73 college-age females who completed self-report questionnaires assessing CSA, adult assault, self-efficacy,…

  8. The Status and Associated Factors of Successful Aging among Older Adults Residing in Longevity Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen Hui; andSHI Xiao Ming; ZHANG Hong Yan; ZHANG Juan; LYU Yue Bin; Melanie Sereny Brasher; YIN Zhao Xue; LUO Jie Si; HU Dong Sheng; FEN Lei

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study aims to assess the status of successful aging (SA) in longevity areas in Chinaand explore multiple factors associated with SA among the young-old and oldest-old. MethodsA total of 2296 elderly people aged 65 and older were interviewed in the longevity areas sub-sample of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) in 2012. Baseline assessments included a researcher-administered questionnaire, physical examination, and laboratory testing. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with SA. ResultsThe prevalenceof SA was 38.81% in the CLHLS in 2012. There were significant differences between ages groups, with SA compromising 56.85%among≥65 years group and 20.31% among ≥100 years group (χ2trend=126.73,P ConclusionPreventing central obesity, improving sleep quality and promoting healthy lifestyle may contribute to achieve SA among the elderly.

  9. Age and Social Composition Factors as Explanations for Cleavages in Socio-Political Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedin, Kent L.

    1978-01-01

    This analysis tested for the effects of age vs social composition in explaining variation in four attitudinal dependent variables. Using a sample especially drawn to study generational differences, and employing a multivariate statistical model, it was found that age differences were only modestly reduced by social composition variables. (Author)

  10. A New Factor in UK Students' University Attainment: The Relative Age Effect Reversal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon J.; Stott, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study relative age effects (RAEs) in a selected sample of university students. The majority of education systems across the globe adopt age-related cut-off points for eligibility. This strategy has received criticism for (dis)advantaging those older children born closer to the "cut-off" date for…

  11. Incidence, risk factors and impact of age on retinal detachment following cataract surgery in France: a national population study

    OpenAIRE

    Daien, Vincent; Le Pape, Annick; Hève, Didier; Carriere, Isabelle; Villain, Max

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the incidence, risk factors and impact of age on retinal detachment (RD) following cataract surgery.Design: Cohort study Subjects: All patients > 40 years old who underwent a primary cataract surgery in France between January 2009 and December 2012. Methods: A Cox proportional-hazard regression model was used to analyze risk factors of RD after cataract surgery.Main Outcome Measures: Risk factors of RD after cataract surgeryResults: Over 4 years, 2,680,167 eyes in 1,787,0...

  12. Factors associated with quality of life in middle-aged and older patients living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2016-03-01

    HIV infection has been historically considered a disease of young adults; however, adults aged 50 years and older represent now an increasing proportion of HIV cases worldwide, including in Portugal. In this context, given the considerable burden associated with living with HIV, the topic of quality-of-life (QoL) assessment has become increasingly relevant. The aims of this study were to examine the age-related differences in QoL and depressive symptoms of younger and middle-aged and older adults with HIV as well as the sociodemographic, HIV-related and depressive symptoms (cognitive-affective and somatic) associated with QoL domains. The sample consisted of 1194 HIV-infected patients, recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. QoL data were collected using the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Patients also completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Of the 1194 patients, 185 (15.5%) were over 50 years old. Middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower QoL in the physical, independence and social relationships domains. Regarding the specific facets of QoL, middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower scores in seven of the 29 specific facets of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and higher scores in one facet (financial resources). Overall, among middle-aged and older patients, higher education, being employed, a shorter time since HIV diagnosis, use of combination anti-retroviral therapy and fewer depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher QoL ratings. Our findings suggest that both cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms account for significant variability in QoL scores in middle-aged and older patients. Because an important feature of healthy ageing is maintaining QoL, these data may provide useful information for tailoring age-appropriate and effective interventions to improve the mental health and QoL of middle-aged and older patients living with HIV. PMID:26881294

  13. Impact of personal and environmental factors on the rate of chromosome aberrations named translocations - Part 1: age, gender, smoking, alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation, carried out long time after exposure, is currently performed by scoring of translocations, a specific type of chromosomal aberrations. The translocations rate observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of exposed subjects is compared to that observed in a control population. However, the translocation specificity towards radiation exposure is not clearly identified. To avoid any hasty conclusion, it is necessary to identify all the factors likely to induce translocation. To our knowledge, no study has thus far examined the effects of all these different factors on translocation rates. A review of the literature thus allowed us to assess the impact of host factors and lifestyle on the production of translocations. This study confirms that age appears to be the factor having the greatest impact on the rate of translocations, especially over 60 years. To date, the factor 'age' is already considered in estimating the impact of radiation on the rate of translocation for all age groups. However, the study also shows that this rate varies significantly when the patient is exposed simultaneously and significantly towards many lifestyle agents. A precise threshold translocation rate should thus be established as a function of known behavioral exposures, below which it is impossible to conclude that radiological exposure has occurred. The effects of chemicals on the translocation rate after occupational exposure will be the subject of a second part. (authors)

  14. Efficacy of intrauterine insemination without ovarian hyperstimulation for male or cervical factor in women aged 40 or over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Lurie, D; Peymer, M; Katsoff, D; Long, R

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy of intrauterine insemination (IUI) for male or cervical factor by age of female partner was determined in a retrospective analysis. Patients who underwent IUI therapy for cervical and/or male factor (n = 281) were classified by age at first IUI cycle: or =40 years (n = 49). The indication for IUI was cervical factor if a postcoital test failed to show sperm with good forward progression at time of mature follicle; male factor was diagnosed if the semen analysis demonstrated either low count, low motility, antisperm antibodies, or subnormal hypoosmotic swelling test. Intrauterine insemination was performed in either natural cycles or following ovarian stimulation for the treatment of anovulation or follicular maturation defects. Cumulative probability of ongoing pregnancy (viable at end of first trimester) following 3 cycles of IUI was evaluated. Cumulative probability of ongoing pregnancy following 3 cycles of IUI was 28.2% for the younger group and 0.0% for the older group. The age groups did not differ in terms of infertility history, use of ovarian stimulation, or baseline semen parameters. Thus, the treatment of male and/or cervical factor by IUI is ineffective for women > or =40 years. PMID:10864366

  15. A systematic review of factors influencing uptake of invasive fetal genetic testing by pregnant women of advanced maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Lea; Turchetti, Daniela; Skirton, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Women of advanced maternal age have a higher risk of having a child affected by a chromosomal disorder than younger childbearing women and are frequently offered invasive testing during pregnancy. The aim of our systematic review was to identify and analyse the current evidence base regarding factors that influence the uptake of invasive fetal testing by pregnant women of advanced maternal age. We conducted a systematic review. A search of The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase and Medline databases was undertaken for papers published in English and Italian from January 2002 to May 2012. Eleven studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, were subjected to quality assessment and included in the review. We analysed the data using thematic analysis. The factors influencing women were classified as either external or psychosocial factors. External factors included the opportunity for screening, screening results and use of genetic counselling. Psychosocial factors related to ethnicity, socio-demographic status and attendance of partners during counselling. It is difficult to draw firm conclusions as to the principle factors that influence uptake of invasive tests by women of AMA. More research is needed to enhance understanding of relevant factors to ensure that services are offered in a way that acknowledges practical as well as psychosocial influences. This type of research will help to equip midwives and other professionals caring for women during pregnancy to ensure that women are supported to make the choices that are appropriate for them and their families. PMID:23453699

  16. Behavioral problems and related factors in children of different aged patients with schizophrenia A cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the age growing, changes of behavioral problems in children whose parents had schizophrenia, differences of related factors and ways for particular intervention should be further studied.OBJECTIVE: To survey the behavioral problems in children of different aged patients with chizophrenia and investigate the correlation between behavioral problems and related factors in different aged groups.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SETTING: Shandong Mental Health Center.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 364 patients with schizophrenia were selected from eleven psychiatric hospitals from June 1999 to June 2000. There were 179 males and 185 females, and their ages ranged from 28 to 45 years. All patients met modified diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia (the second edition),China Classification of Mental Diseases and Diagnostic Criteria. Meanwhile, children of the 364 patients were grouped based on their ages, including 6 - 11 years old group [n =217; 114 males and 103 females;mean age of(9±2) years] and 12 - 16 years old group [n =147; 99 males and 48 females; mean age of(14±1) years]. The Chinese norms of Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List were regarded as the normal control group.METHODS: Children who received self-made mental health related factors inventory and Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List were involved in this study. All children and their parents provided the confirmed consent. Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List was used for parents to mainly evaluate children, and the results manifested various behavioral problems based on different sexes and different ages. Self-made mental health related factors inventory contained questionnaires for parents and children, respectively. In this study,home situation of parents as well as personality characteristics and educational styles of children were mainly evaluated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Scores of Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List in different aged children; ② Scores of self-made mental health

  17. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  18. Pharmacokinetics and dose requirements of factor VIII over the age range 3-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Sven; Folkesson, Anna; Jönsson, Siv

    2009-01-01

    outpatient visits by haemophilia prophylaxis patients aged 3-66 years. Dose requirements for prophylaxis were calculated both according to the population model and from empirical Bayesian estimates of FVIII PK in the individual patients. RESULTS: The study data were well characterised by a two-compartment PK...... sparse clinical data. Model-predicted doses (based on age and body weight) to maintain a recommended 0.01 U/mL trough level of FVIII with administration on alternate days started at around 60 U/kg in the small children, decreasing to 10 U/kg or less in middle age. However, "true" dose requirements, as...

  19. Perceived Autonomy in Old Age scale: Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Kroemeke

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sense of autonomy – the possibility to choose and decide – is one of the markers of positive and active aging. The goal of this study was to examine the Polish adaptation of the Perceived Autonomy in Old Age (PAA) scale and to determine its internal structure and psychometric properties: reliability, as well as construct and discriminant validity. Methods 277 seniors (female=187; male=90), without cognitive function disorders aged 60 to 100 (M=77.4; SD=9.2) took part in t...

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene: a gender-specific role in cognitive function during normal cognitive aging of the MEMO-Study?

    OpenAIRE

    Laing, Katharine R.; Mitchell, David; Wersching, Heike; Czira, Maria E.; Berger, Klaus; Baune, Bernhard T

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive aging processes are underpinned by multiple processes including genetic factors. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in age-related cognitive decline in otherwise healthy individuals. The gender-specific role of the BDNF gene in cognitive aging remains unclear. The identification of genetic biomarkers might be a useful approach to identify individuals at risk of cognitive decline during healthy aging processes. The aim of this study was to ...

  1. Perceived Autonomy in Old Age scale: Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kroemeke

    2015-02-01

    The obtained results indicated very high reliability and accuracy for the Polish adaptation of the SPA. The tool can be used as a predictor and/or indicator of successful aging and life quality of seniors.

  2. Risk factors that predicted problem drinking in Danish men at age thirty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Jensen, Per;

    2003-01-01

    antedating abusive drinking that predicted lifetime alcohol abuse/dependence at age 30 years. METHOD: The original 330 subjects of this study were drawn from a large Danish birth cohort (N = 9,125) born between 1959 and 1961. The sample included 223 sons of treated alcoholic fathers (high-risk group) and 107...... records and a series of structured interviews and psychometric tests at ages 19-20 and 30 years. The present analysis focuses on the degree to which premorbid differences between the high- and low-risk groups later predicted lifetime drinking problems at age 30 (n = 241). RESULTS: As expected lifetime...... alcohol abuse/dependence by age 30 was reported significantly more often in the high-risk group. Of the 394 premorbid variables tested, 68 were found to distinguish the high- from the low-risk group before any subjects had developed a drinking problem. Of these 68 variables, 28 (41%) were also associated...

  3. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Age-Adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone age-adjusted prevalence data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects...

  4. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Chronic renal failure Nephrotic syndrome Leukemia Lymphoma Hodgkin disease Generalized malignancy Iatrogenic immunosuppression 5 Solid organ transplant Multiple myeloma PCV13 Administer PCV13 doses needed to complete series to children through age 71 months X X X X ...

  5. Aging and innate immunity in the mouse: impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Jessica L. Palmer; Fortin, Carl F.; Fülöp, Tamas; Goldstein, Daniel R; Linton, Phyllis-Jean

    2009-01-01

    Aging affects every innate immune cell, including changes in cell numbers and function. Defects in the function of some cells are intrinsic, whereas for other cells, defects are extrinsic and possibly the consequence of the complex interactions with other cell types or the environmental milieu that is altered with aging. Abnormal function contributes to worsened outcomes after injury or infection and leads to diseases observed in the elderly. Knowing the mechanisms responsible for the aberran...

  6. Factors associated with having the first baby at an advanced age

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Anne Britt Vika

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to investigate characteristics of women and men who have their first baby at an advanced age, reasons for postponing childbirth, and consequences in terms of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal age at first birth has increased in many modern societies; in both Sweden and Norway, first-time mothers are now about five years older, compared with the previous generation. This delaying of parenthood has been associated with an increased need for artificial repro...

  7. Serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 levels and metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults and children born small for gestational age

    OpenAIRE

    Kort, Sandra; Doorn, Jaap van; Sande, Ad; Leunissen, Ralph; Hokken-Koelega, Anita

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2 might protect against cardiovascular disease. Small for gestational age (SGA) birth could be associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in later life. No data are available on the relationship between serum IGFBP-2 levels and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults and children born SGA. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine circulating IGFBP-2 levels in subjects born SGA and to inv...

  8. All for one: Contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition to moral reasoning in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn eVera-Estay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Moral reasoning (MR is a sociocognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Whereas past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning, theory of mind, empathy, and affect recognition, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative and combined contribution of these skills to MR. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the putative links between these factors in childhood, a period during which these skills are in maturation. The aim of this study was to explore what factors predict moral maturity in typically developing children (n=76, 47.4% males, M = 9.2, SD = 1.67 years, explore the potential moderating and mediating role of executive functions and social cognition in the relationship between age and MR maturity, and identify the specific contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition, using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (So-Moral. The results indicate that MR maturity was correlated with age, executive functioning (inhibition, verbal fluency, and attentional control and social cognition (theory of mind and affect recognition. Neither EF nor social cognition moderated the effect of age on MR maturity. However, verbal fluency and third-order false beliefs had a moderating role in this link. MR maturity in children was predicted by three variables from each of the three domains: age, verbal fluency and third order theory of mind. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underpinnings of MR during childhood, suggesting that MR is not reducible to general developmental factors such as age, but that higher order skills such executive functioning and social cognition also contribute to moral maturity. The findings have

  9. All for One: Contributions of Age, Socioeconomic Factors, Executive Functioning, and Social Cognition to Moral Reasoning in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estay, Evelyn; Seni, Anne G; Champagne, Caroline; Beauchamp, Miriam H

    2016-01-01

    Moral reasoning (MR) is a socio-cognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning (EF), theory of mind (ToM), empathy, and affect recognition. However, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative and combined contribution of these skills to MR. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the putative links between these factors in childhood, a period during which these skills are in maturation. The aim of this study was to explore what factors predict moral maturity in typically developing children (n = 76, 47.4% males, M = 9.2, SD = 1.67 years), explore the potential moderating and mediating role of executive functions and social cognition in the relationship between age and MR maturity, and identify the specific contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, EF, and social cognition, using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (So-Moral). The results indicate that MR maturity was correlated with age, EF (inhibition, verbal fluency, and attentional control), and social cognition (ToM and affect recognition). Neither EF nor social cognition moderated the effect of age on MR maturity. However, verbal fluency and third-order false beliefs had a moderating role in this link. MR maturity in children was predicted by three variables from each of the three domains: age, verbal fluency, and third-order ToM. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underpinnings of MR during childhood, suggesting that MR is not reducible to general developmental factors such as age, but that higher order skills, such EF and social cognition also contribute to moral maturity. The findings have relevance for both typically developing and clinical populations in which

  10. Effects of nerve growth factor and heart cell conditioned medium on neurite regeneration of aged sympathetic neurons in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Y; Tomonaga, M

    1985-11-25

    The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) and heart-cell-conditioned medium (HCM) on the neurite regeneration of aged sympathetic neurons were investigated in culture. Investigation of HCM was carried out by two different methods: one was the use of whole HCM on collagen substratum, which reflected component(s) effective in solution (HCM-S); the other was the use of polyornithine (PORN)-binding component(s) (P-HCM). Superior cervical ganglion neurons prepared from male mice from 6 to 30 months of age were cultured in MEM-10% FCS on collagen or gelatin-PORN substratum for 3 days. The number of neurons with neurites and the length of neurites were quantified as neurite production and elongation, respectively. Neuronal survival was not affected by addition of NGF, HCM-S or P-HCM. Neurite production of early adult neurons was enhanced by NGF, HCM-S or P-HCM. In contrast, neurite production of aged neurons was enhanced by only HCM-S, but not NGF or P-HCM. HCM-S did not promote neurite elongation in neurons at any age. Neurite elongation of early adult neurons was enhanced by NGF or P-HCM. Neurite elongation of aged neurons was enhanced by P-HCM. However, responsiveness of NGF for neurite elongation varied according to substrata. No age-related difference was found in neurite production and elongation in the absence of NGF, HCM-S or P-HCM. These results indicate that responsiveness of aged sympathetic neurons is various in different growth factors. PMID:3840716

  11. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Middle-Aged and Elderly Population of a Nigerian Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Ejim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs causes of worldwide preventable morbidity and mortality. CVDs are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries, and rates are expected to rise over the next few decades. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is dramatically increasing in low-and middle-income African countries, particularly in urban areas. We carried out a cross-sectional population-based survey in Imezi-Owa, a rural community in South East Nigeria to estimate the prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors in both men and women aged 40–70 years. A total of 858 individuals made up of 247 (28.8% males and 611 (71.2% females were recruited. The mean age of the subjects was 59.8±9.9 years. The prevalence of the different cardiovascular risk factors among the 858 subjects was as follows: hypertension 398 (46.4% subjects, generalized obesity as determined by BMI 257 (30% subjects, abdominal obesity 266 (31% subjects, dysglycaemia 38 (4.4% subjects and hypercholesterolaemia 32 (3.7% subjects. Prevalence of hypertension and dysglycaemia was higher in men while the others were higher in women. Only hypertension (P=.117 and hypercholesterolaemia (P=.183 did not reveal any significant association with gender. Prevalence of CVD risk factors was highest in subjects aged 65 to 70 years.

  12. Usual dietary glycemic load is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula G. Cocate

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of dietary glycemic load (GL on cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active subjects are not completely known. Objective: This cross-sectional study assessed the association of habitual dietary GL with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men. Methods: One-hundred seventy-six subjects (Age: 50.6 ± 5.0 years, BMI: 25.5 ± 3.6 kg/m² were evaluated. Anthropometry, lifestyle features, insulin resistance, oxidative stress biomarkers (8-iso-prostaglandin F2α; 8-iso-PGF2α and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG and lipid profile were assessed. Dietary intake was estimated through a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results: The dietary GL was positively associated with free fatty acid concentrations (β = 0.311, r² = 0.13, P-value = 0.034 and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio (β = 0.598, r² = 0.19, P-value = 0.028 regardless of confounding factors (central obesity, red meat consumption, age and energy intake. The oxidative stress biomarker, 8-OHdG, was associated with habitual dietary GL (β = 0.432, r² = 0.11, P-value = 0.004, regardless of previous confounding factors plus excessive alcohol consumption, iron intake and current smoking status. Conclusions: The dietary GL was positively associated with lipid profile (free fatty acid concentrations and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio and oxidative stress biomarker (8-OHdG. These results indicate potential harmfulness of diet with higher GL to cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men, even in physically active individuals.

  13. Socio-ecological risk factors for prime-age adult death in two coastal areas of Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok Ryun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hierarchical spatial models enable the geographic and ecological analysis of health data thereby providing useful information for designing effective health interventions. In this study, we used a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to evaluate mortality data in Vietnam. The model enabled identification of socio-ecological risk factors and generation of risk maps to better understand the causes and geographic implications of prime-age (15 to less than 45 years adult death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study was conducted in two sites: Nha Trang and Hue in Vietnam. The study areas were split into 500×500 meter cells to define neighborhoods. We first extracted socio-demographic data from population databases of the two sites, and then aggregated the data by neighborhood. We used spatial hierarchical model that borrows strength from neighbors for evaluating risk factors and for creating spatially smoothed risk map after adjusting for neighborhood level covariates. The Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure was used to estimate the parameters. Male mortality was more than twice the female mortality. The rates also varied by age and sex. The most frequent cause of mortality was traffic accidents and drowning for men and traffic accidents and suicide for women. Lower education of household heads in the neighborhood was an important risk factor for increased mortality. The mortality was highly variable in space and the socio-ecological risk factors are sensitive to study site and sex. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that lower education of the household head is an important predictor for prime age adult mortality. Variability in socio-ecological risk factors and in risk areas by sex make it challenging to design appropriate intervention strategies aimed at decreasing prime-age adult deaths in Vietnam.

  14. Screening persons aged 65 and older for coronary heart disease risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Kligman, E W

    1992-01-01

    Because of limited clinical investigations addressing the effectiveness of intervention to reduce known risk factors, it is difficult for primary care physicians to decide on which coronary heart disease risk factors to continue to screen for among older patients. The recently published report of the United States Preventive Services Task Force, using explicit screening criteria, has recommended that several risk factors be investigated for use among older adults. Recent longitudinal studies ...

  15. Educational level and age as contributing factors to road traffic accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashkan Sami; Ghasem Moafian; Arman Najafi; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Navid Yamini; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Kamran B Lankarani

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This research analyzes data on road traffic accidents (RTA) in Fars province,whose roads are among the highly dangerous ones in Iran.It investigates educational level and age involved in RTA in order to discover patterns that can prevent or decrease accidents.Methods:This research made use of data visualization techniques to find hidden patterns.The data included mortality rate related to RTA in Fars province and were obtained from Fars Forensic Medicine Registry covering a period of 1 year from March 21,2010 to March 21,2011.All data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5.The results were reported as descriptive indices such as frequency (percentage).The Chisquare test was applied to the data concerning educational level and age.P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results:In the mentioned period,1 831 people were killed,out of whom un/lowly educated people (69.6%) accounted for the highest mortality rate.The significant relationship between educational level and mortality rate was found (X2=275.98,P<0.0001).Also three was a significant association between age and mortality rate (x2=371.20,P<0.0001).Young people (age between 20 and 29 years)contribute to higher RTA mortality rate compared with other age groups.Conclusion:The educational level and age are significantly correlated to mortality rate.The youth and un/lowly educated people suffer more fatal RTA.

  16. Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12–23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etana Belachew

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23 months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23 months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23 months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9, being born in the health facility (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6 and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2

  17. [Age factors in natural mechanisms of detoxication and curative effect of enterosgel in burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naĭda, I V; Zapadniuk, V I; Povstianoĭ, N E; Bezverkhaia, I S; Zaika, M U; Oranskaia, S A; Shevchenko, Iu N

    1993-01-01

    In the experiment, the age peculiarities of the detoxication system of the liver in burn disease and the effect of enterosgel on them were studied. Decrease in hydroxylase and demethylase activity of hepatic microsomes in relatively stable activity of oxidoreductase as well as increase in activity of aminotransferases, especially that of alanine aminotransferase, which was more pronounced in aged animals, was noted. Under the influence of enterosorption, the increase in functional activity of monooxygenase system of the liver and stabilization of hepatocytic membranes are more pronounced in young animals. This contributed to reduction in lethality, activation of natural mechanisms of detoxication and reparative processes. PMID:8158926

  18. Dynamic of age structure and the number of population in Ozyorsk and affecting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with serious social-economic and ecological problems in our country an analysis of demographic processes in cities of atomic industry causes a big of interest. The aim of this work was an evaluation of dynamic of age structure of population of city Ozyorsk, based in connection with creation of nuclear plant 'Mayak' of 'first-born' of atomic industry in Russia. Data received in city's administration, included the information about number of population, its age composition taking into account of natural increase and of migration processes for a period from 1959 to 1997. (authors)

  19. Factors modifying valproate plasma level/dose ratio: age, sex, dose and plasma level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, A; Durán, J A; Abadín, J A

    1989-09-01

    Valproate plasma level/dose (L/D) ratios obtained from 155 outpatients under long-term monotherapeutic regimen have been studied. Analytical data were obtained by enzymatic immunoassay (EMIT) from paired samples taken before the morning drug dosage. L/D ratios were increased with age and plasma level and decreased with dose. There were no sex differences in L/D in the different age, dose and concentration groups. L/D ratios were higher than those found by other researchers in our country. PMID:2511386

  20. The relationship between maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGFBP-3 to gestational age and preterm delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery.

  1. Factors Predisposing to Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in Children of Pre-School Age in the City of Zagreb, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Lulić-Dukić, O.; Jurić, H.; Dukić, W.; Glavina, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a c...

  2. Determinant Factors of Anemia among Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in Southwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Asres, Yaregal; Yemane, Tilahun; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anemia affects one-quarter of the world's population; nonpregnant women were one of the groups for whom it is common, making it a global public health problem. Objective. To determine prevalence and risk factors of anemia among nonpregnant women of childbearing age in Jimma town southwest Ethiopia. Methodology. We conducted a community based cross-sectional study involving 441 nonpregnant women. Data was collected over two months of period. We collected sociodemographic and relate...

  3. Predictive factors for ageing without the need for assistance in a population of individals older than 80 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amphoux M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the factors associated with different health-outcomes following retirement. Method: We randomly selected a sample of 869 male and female subjects aged 60 years or older from the databases of a supplemental retirement fund and followed them from 1982 (T1 to 2002 (T5. During the study period, we recorded information concerning their social status and health five different times by using both interviews and auto-questionnaires. The subsequent statistical analysis was designed to identify the factors at T1 which could predict the evolution in their state of health between T1 and T5. Results: A total of 532 (61.2% subjects died between T1 and T5. 120 subjects were still participating in the study at T5, corresponding to 53.3% of the surviving subjects in August 2002 among those who were enrolled at T1. 66% of the males and 50.7% of the females considered that their quality of life was good. More than one subject out of two stated that he or she didn’t require any assistance to perform normal, daily activities other than routine housekeeping chores. The study identified four factors at T1 which predicted future ageing without the need for assistance: age, social status, degree of physical activity in males and the absence of any cardio-respiratory disorder in females. Conclusion: The results suggest that more than 30% of subjects older than 85 years state that they live without assistance, except for routine housekeeping chores. The study also underscores the relationship between factors which are present a few years after retirement and the health-outcome at old age.

  4. Socio-Ecological Risk Factors for Prime-Age Adult Death in Two Coastal Areas of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Wierzba, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hierarchical spatial models enable the geographic and ecological analysis of health data thereby providing useful information for designing effective health interventions. In this study, we used a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to evaluate mortality data in Vietnam. The model enabled identification of socio-ecological risk factors and generation of risk maps to better understand the causes and geographic implications of prime-age (15 to less than 45 years) adult death. Methods...

  5. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6–10 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa; Jennifer Campbell; Ediriweera Desapriya

    2010-01-01

    Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6–10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI). Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8%, res...

  6. All for One: Contributions of Age, Socioeconomic Factors, Executive Functioning, and Social Cognition to Moral Reasoning in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Estay, Evelyn; Seni, Anne G.; Champagne, Caroline; Beauchamp, Miriam H.

    2016-01-01

    Moral reasoning (MR) is a socio-cognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning (EF), theory of mind (ToM), empathy, and affect recognition. However, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of ...

  7. INCIDENCE OF, AND RISK FACTORS FOR, MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN AGED 5-7 YEARS IN SOUTH INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Yadav, Bijesh

    2016-05-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health problem contributing to the burden of disease in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of, and risk factors for, malnutrition among school-going children in south India. A total of 2496 children aged 5-7 years from rural and urban areas of south India were recruited in 1982 and followed up for malnutrition over a period of 9 years. Their body heights and weights were measured every six months and socio-demographic factors such as mother's education and father's education and relevant household characteristics and hygiene practices collected. Body mass index and height-for-age z-scores were used to determine children's levels of underweight and stunting, respectively, classified as normal, mild/moderate or severe. Risk factor analysis was done for pre-pubertal ages only using Generalized Estimating Equations with cumulative odds assumption. There was a significant difference between male and female children in the incidence of severe underweight and stunting (6.4% and 4.2% respectively). Children in households with no separate kitchen had 1.3 (1.0-1.6) times higher odds of being severely underweight (p=0.044) compared with those with a kitchen. Children without a toilet facility had significantly higher odds of severe underweight compared with those who did. Children with illiterate parents had higher odds of severe stunting than those with literate parents. In conclusion, the prevalence of malnutrition among these south Indian children has not changed over the years, and the incidence of severe malnutrition was highest in children when they were at pubertal age. The risk factors for stunting were mostly poverty-related, and those for underweight were mostly hygiene-related. Adolescent children in south India should be screened periodically at school for malnutrition and provided with nutritional intervention if necessary. PMID:26440753

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media complex thickness in women of childbearing age with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Polyakova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine frequency and significance of traditional risk factors of cardiovascular pathology development and to assess features of carotids atherosclerotic damage in women of reproductive age with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. 85 women with RA (mean age 42,1±6,8 years and 32 healthy women (mean age 43,2±6,7 years were included. Traditional risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD were examined. Blood lipid spectrum was assessed by content of total cholesterol (CTC, triglycerides (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and atherogenity index (AI were calculated. To reveal subclinical forms of atherosclerosis common carotid arteries (CCA duplex scanning with measurement of intima-media complex (IMC was performed using ultrasound system “Acuson 128/XP10” (USA by linear sensor with 7 MHz frequency. C- reactive protein (CRP was assessed by immuno-enzyme assay. Results. Hypertension and lipid metabolism disturbance were the most prevalent risk factors of development and progression of CVD in women of reproductive age with RA. Subclinical atherosclerosis characterized by thickening of IMC was more frequent in RA pts than in healthy women (p<0,001. Presence of extra-articular RA manifestations was accompanied by significant IMC thickening in the region of carotid artery bulb and internal carotid artery (p<0,001, p=0,003. Carotid artery IMC was significantly increased at 3rd RA activity degree in comparison with 1st activity degree (p=0,016 and in the presence of rheumatoid factor in serum (p=0,026. RA pts had IMC thickening irrespectively from CVD history. Conclusion. RA activity as well as HDLC, LDLC and CRP concentration are predictors of vascular atherosclerotic damage in RA

  9. Case-control study of factors associated with chronic Chagas heart disease in patients over 50 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Araújo Silva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study on chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD was carried out between 1997 and 2005. Ninety patients over 50 years of age were examined for factors related to (CCHD. Fourty-six patients (51.1% with Chagas heart disease (anomalous ECG were assigned to the case group and 44 (48.9% were included in the control group as carriers of undetermined forms of chronic disease. Social, demographic (age, gender, skin color, area of origin, epidemiological (permanence within an endemic zone, family history of Chagas heart disease or sudden death, physical strain, alcoholism, and smoking, and clinical (systemic hypertension variables were analyzed. The data set was assessed through single-variable and multivariate analysis. The two factors independently associated with heart disease were age - presence of heart disease being three times higher in patients over 60 years of age (odds ratio, OR: 2.89; confidence interval of 95%: 1.09-7.61 - and family history of Chagas heart disease (OR: 2.833, CI 95%: 1.11-7.23. Systemic hypertension and gender did not prove to hold any association with heart disease, as neither did skin color, but this variable showed low statistical power due to reduced sample size.

  10. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    18-93 years. DNA damage was analyzed as strand breaks by the comet assay and levels of formamidopyrimidine (FPG-) and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1)-sensitive sites There was an association between age and levels of FPG-sensitive sites for women, but not for men. The same tendency was...

  11. An Exploratory Study of Aggression in School-Age Children: Underlying Factors and Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…

  12. Bone age advancement in prepubertal children with obesity and premature adrenarche: possible potentiating factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sopher, Aviva B.; Jean, Amy M.; Zwany, Sarah K.; Winston, Diana M.; Pomeranz, Christy B.; Bell, Jennifer J.; McMahon, Donald J.; Hassoun, Abeer; Fennoy, Ilene; Oberfield, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and premature adrenarche (PA) are both associated with bone age (BA) advancement of unclear etiology, which may lead to earlier puberty, suboptimal final height and obesity in adulthood. Our objective was to understand the hormonal and anthropometric characteristics of BA advancement in a spectrum of prepubertal children with and without obesity and PA.

  13. Association of maternal risk factors with large for gestational age fetuses in Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim Khandaker; Shabana Munshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the risk of delivering large-for gestational age (LGA) fetuses associated with maternal obesity, excessive maternal weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)- in Indian mothers. Design: Retrospective study. Settings: Fernandez Hospital Private Limited, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; a tertiary perinatal centre. Populations: Pregnant singleton mothers with correct pregnancy dating. Methods: Estimated fetal weight (EFW) is determined using ultrasound variabl...

  14. Factors Affecting the Successful Employment of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnall, Michele Capella; Crudden, Adele

    2009-01-01

    The following variables were found to be associated with employment for transition-age youths with visual impairments who are served by vocational rehabilitation agencies: work experience, academic competence, self-determination, use of assistive technology, and locus of control. Self-esteem and involvement with the counselor were not associated…

  15. Risk factors for weight faltering in infancy according to age at onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte;

    2010-01-01

    and gestational age, with single parenthood and with mother having smoked during pregnancy. Onset between 2 weeks and 4 months was associated with congenital disorders and serious somatic illness, and with deviant mother-child relationship, whereas, onset between 4 and 8 months seemed to represent a...

  16. The age-specific quantitative effects of metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Gitanjali M; Danaei, Goodarz; Farzadfar, Farshad;

    2013-01-01

    The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not availa...

  17. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 in the aging horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lygren, Tone; Hansen, Sanni; Langberg, Henning; Fjeldborg, Julie; Jacobsen, Stine; Nielsen, Mette O; Schjerling, Peter; Markussen, Bo; Thomsen, Preben D; Berg, Lise C

    2014-01-01

    late adulthood (age range 5-27 years). METHODS: Healthy horses (n = 72) were used in a cross-sectional study, while 37 paired serum samples were available for a longitudinal study. Serum IGF-1 protein was determined using an ELISA kit validated for use in equine samples. RESULTS: No association was...

  18. Adipocyte-derived factors in age-related dementia and their contribution to vascular and Alzheimer pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Makoto; Iadecola, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Age-related dementia is increasingly recognized as having a mixed pathology, with contributions from both cerebrovascular factors and pathogenic factors associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence that vascular risk factors in midlife, e.g., obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, increase the risk of developing late-life dementia. Since obesity and changes in body weight/adiposity often drive diabetes and hypertension, understanding the relationship between adiposity and age-related dementia may reveal common underlying mechanisms. Here we offer a brief appraisal of how changes in body weight and adiposity are related to both AD and dementia on vascular basis, and examine the involvement of two key adipocyte-derived hormones: leptin and adiponectin. The evidence suggests that in midlife increased body weight/adiposity and subsequent changes in adipocyte-derived hormones may increase the long-term susceptibility to dementia. On the other hand, later in life, decreases in body weight/adiposity and related hormonal changes are early manifestations of disease that precede the onset of dementia and may promote AD and vascular pathology. Understanding the contribution of adiposity to age-related dementia may help identify the underlying pathological mechanisms common to both vascular dementia and AD, and provide new putative targets for early diagnosis and therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia, edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26546479

  19. Subjective memory complaints, vascular risk factors and psychological distress in the middle-aged: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davenport Tracey A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjective memory complaints (SMC are common but their significance is still unclear. It has been suggested they are a precursor of mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia and an early indicator of cognitive decline. Vascular risk factors have an important role in the development of dementia and possibly MCI. We therefore aimed to test the hypothesis that vascular risk factors were associated with SMC, independent of psychological distress, in a middle-aged community-dwelling population. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the 45 and Up Study was performed. This is a cohort study of people living in New South Wales (Australia, and we explored the sample of 45, 532 participants aged between 45 and 64 years. SMC were defined as 'fair' or 'poor' on a self-reported five-point Likert scale of memory function. Vascular risk factors of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and smoking were identified by self-report. Psychological distress was measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. We tested the model generated from a randomly selected exploratory sample (n = 22, 766 with a confirmatory sample of equal size. Results 5, 479/45, 532 (12% of respondents reported SMC. Using multivariate logistic regression, only two vascular risk factors: smoking (OR 1.18; 95% CI = 1.03 - 1.35 and hypercholesterolaemia (OR 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.36 showed a small independent association with SMC. In contrast psychological distress was strongly associated with SMC. Those with the highest levels of psychological distress were 7.00 (95% CI = 5.41 - 9.07 times more likely to have SMC than the non-distressed. The confirmatory sample also demonstrated the strong association of SMC with psychological distress rather than vascular risk factors. Conclusions In a large sample of middle-aged people without any history of major affective illness or stroke, psychological distress was strongly, and vascular risk

  20. Factors associated with HIV/AIDS sexual risk among young women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinekwu A. Obidoa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing rate of sexual risk-taking among young people contributes significantly to the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. This study, explores the influence of socio-demographic, HIV/AIDS awareness and female empowerment on the sexual risk behaviors of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24. The data presented in this paper was drawn from the 2003 Nigeria National Demographic and Health Survey. The sample consisted of unmarried women aged 15-24 in the dataset. Data was collected through a structured and interviewer administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the most important predictors of sexual risk behaviors. Sexual risk-taking is relatively high among unmarried young women. Among those who are sexually active, 80% indicated that they did not use a condom during their first sexual encounter. Regression analysis revealed that younger age, lower HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission knowledge, lower knowledge of where to obtain condoms, lower material standard of living and greater intimate partner violence were significantly associated with sexual risk-taking in this population. Findings revealed that the sexual behavior of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24 is influenced by a complex matrix of factors. Identifying specific processes and contexts that promote the concentration of risk among sub-sections of young unmarried women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria should be a research and intervention priority.

  1. Relation between visual function index and falls-related factors in patients with age-related cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Na Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the relation between vision function index and falls-related factors in patients with age-related cataract.METHODS:Ninety-six patients with age-related cataract were interviewed using a seven-item visual function questionnaire(VF-7, then classified into poor, moderate, or good visual function group. The differences of the three groups on visual acuity, balance and mobility function, cognition, depressive symptoms, self-reported fear of falling were analyzed. RESULTS:The patients in poor visual function group had older age, tendency to depression, was more afraid of falling, compared with groups with higher score in VF-7, and they had worse visual acuity, performed worse on all balance and mobility tests. CONCLUSION:Poor visual function is related to worse visual acuity, weaker balance and mobility performance in patients with age-related cataract. The VF-7, as a simple and convenient self-reported method, can be used as a falling risk monitoring in patients with age-related cataract.

  2. Early life factors and being overweight at 4 years of age among children in Malmo, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström Martin; Mangrio Elisabeth; Rosvall Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the development of child overweight. Methods The study was population-based and cross-sectional. The study po...

  3. Age is not a limiting factor for brachytherapy for carcinoma of the node negative oral tongue in patients aged eighty or older

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the role of brachytherapy for aged patients 80 or more in the trend of rapidly increasing number. We examined the outcomes for elderly patients with node negative oral tongue cancer (T1-3N0M0) treated with brachytherapy. The 21 patients (2 T1, 14 T2, and 5 T3 cases) ranged in age from 80 to 89 years (median 81), and their cancer was pathologically confirmed. All patients underwent definitive radiation therapy, with low dose rate (LDR) Ra-226 brachytherapy (n = 4; median 70Gy), with Ir-192 (n = 12; 70Gy), with Au-198 (n = 1) or with high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 brachytherapy (n = 4; 60 Gy). Eight patients also underwent external radiotherapy (median 30 Gy). The period of observation ranged from 13 months to 14 years (median 2.5 years). We selected 226 population matched younger counterpart from our medical chart. Definitive radiation therapy was completed for all 21 patients (100%), and acute grade 2-3 mucositis related to the therapy was tolerable. Local control (initial complete response) was attained in 19 of 21 patients (90%). The 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 91%, (100% for T1, 83% for T2 and 80% for T3 tumors after 2 years). These figures was not inferior to that of younger counterpart (82% at 5-year, n.s.). The cause-specific survival rate was 83% and the regional control rate 84% at the 2-years follow-up. However, 12 patients died because of intercurrent diseases or senility, resulting in overall survival rates of 55% at 2 years and 34% at 5 years. Age is not a limiting factor for brachytherapy for appropriately selected elderly patients, and brachytherapy achieved good local control with acceptable morbidity

  4. Age is not a limiting factor for brachytherapy for carcinoma of the node negative oral tongue in patients aged eighty or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakimoto Naoya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the role of brachytherapy for aged patients 80 or more in the trend of rapidly increasing number. Methods We examined the outcomes for elderly patients with node negative oral tongue cancer (T1-3N0M0 treated with brachytherapy. The 21 patients (2 T1, 14 T2, and 5 T3 cases ranged in age from 80 to 89 years (median 81, and their cancer was pathologically confirmed. All patients underwent definitive radiation therapy, with low dose rate (LDR Ra-226 brachytherapy (n = 4; median 70Gy, with Ir-192 (n = 12; 70Gy, with Au-198 (n = 1 or with high dose rate (HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy (n = 4; 60 Gy. Eight patients also underwent external radiotherapy (median 30 Gy. The period of observation ranged from 13 months to 14 years (median 2.5 years. We selected 226 population matched younger counterpart from our medical chart. Results Definitive radiation therapy was completed for all 21 patients (100%, and acute grade 2-3 mucositis related to the therapy was tolerable. Local control (initial complete response was attained in 19 of 21 patients (90%. The 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 91%, (100% for T1, 83% for T2 and 80% for T3 tumors after 2 years. These figures was not inferior to that of younger counterpart (82% at 5-year, n.s.. The cause-specific survival rate was 83% and the regional control rate 84% at the 2-years follow-up. However, 12 patients died because of intercurrent diseases or senility, resulting in overall survival rates of 55% at 2 years and 34% at 5 years. Conclusion Age is not a limiting factor for brachytherapy for appropriately selected elderly patients, and brachytherapy achieved good local control with acceptable morbidity.

  5. Factors related to the effect of radiation treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We treated 31 eyes of 30 patients with age-related macular degeneration by 10 sessions of radiation totalling 20 Gy. One year after treatment, 21 eyes (68%) showed improvement in the score of fundus lesions based on funduscopic and fluorescein angiographic findings. The visual acuity, expressed as LogMAR, improved in 20% and remained stationary in 50% of eyes. Improvement in visual acuity was significantly better in eyes with greater amount of exudate before treatment (p<0.01). Posttreatment visual acuity was correlated neither with the amount of subretinal fluid, presence of retinal hemorrhage, the size of subfoveal vascular membrane, nor its type as classified into classic, mainly occult or occult type. Above findings show that radiation is more effective in eyes of age-related macular degeneration with massive exudate. (author)

  6. Road safety in an aging population: risk factors, assessment, interventions, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin J; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Ross, Lesley A; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Wood, Joanne

    2016-03-01

    With the number of older drivers projected to increase by up to 70% over the next 20 years, preventing injury resulting from crashes involving older drivers is a significant concern for both policy-makers and clinicians. While the total number of fatal crashes per annum has steadily decreased since 2005 in Australia, the rate of fatalities has demonstrated an upward trend since 2010 in drivers aged 65 years and above (8.5 per 100,000), such that it is now on par with the fatality rate in drivers aged 17-25 years (8.0 per 100,000) (Austroads, 2015). Similar statistics are reported for the United States (NHTSA, 2012), implying there is a need for better identification of those older drivers who are unsafe and implementation of strategies that can enhance mobility while maximizing road safety. PMID:26888735

  7. Risk factors for age-related cataract : A prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblad, Birgitta Ejdervik

    2008-01-01

    Cataract is the most common cause of blindness in the world. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the etiology of cataract is multifactorial. Cataract increases with age and oxidative damage to the lens proteins is suggested to be of importance. The only currently available treatment is surgical extraction of the lens; two thirds of these operations are performed in women. Today in Sweden cataract extraction is the most common operation, with nearly 80,000 operations bei...

  8. Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Four Age Groups of Female Individuals: The PEP Family Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of nutritional habits and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in four age groups of women partici-pating in the Prevention Education Program, Family Heart Study.Methods: Anthropometric variables, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin were measured in 141 children, 211 adolescents, 151 women 3 times more common in adolescents. Thirty six percent of junior women were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m² and 21% had central adiposity obese. Sixty eight year-old women had a far more adverse risk profile than 35 year-old women. In terms of energy consumption, 14 year-old women had the lowest fat intake and the highest consumption of carbohydrates whereas intake of protein was lowest in 10 year-old girls. Intake of unsaturated fat was lower in youths than in adults amounting to 37 g unsaturated fat respectively 53.4% of total fat consumption. The asso-ciation between energy consumption and overweight was significant and calorie intake was associated with clustering of ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors (OR :4.72; 95% CI 1.22-18.33.Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased continuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Caloric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.

  9. Risk and Resilience Factors in Coping with Daily Stress in Adulthood: The Role of Age, Self-Concept Incoherence, and Personal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    This study observed young, middle-aged, and older adults (N = 239; M[subscript age] = 49.6 years; range = 18-89 years) for 30 consecutive days to examine the association between daily stress and negative affect, taking into account potential risk (i.e., self-concept incoherence) and resilience (i.e., age, perceived personal control) factors.…

  10. Social and Physical Environmental Factors and Child Overweight in a Sample of American and Czech School-Aged Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humenikova, Lenka; Gates, Gail E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare environmental factors that influence body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) between a sample of American and Czech school-aged children. Design: Pilot study. A parent questionnaire and school visits were used to collect data from parents and children. Setting: Public schools in 1 American and 2 Czech cities. Participants:…

  11. Diet, ageing and genetic factors in the pathogenesis of diverticular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Martin Commane; Ramesh Pulendran Arasaradnam; Sarah Mills; John Cummings Mathers; Mike Bradburn

    2009-01-01

    Diverticular disease (DD) is an age-related disorder of the large bowel which may affect half of the population over the age of 65 in the UK. This high prevalence ranks it as one of the most common bowel disorders in western nations. The majority of patients remain asymptomatic but there are sociated life-threatening co-morbidities, which, given the large numbers of people with DD, translates into a considerable number of deaths per annum. Despite this public health burden, relatively little seems to be known about either the mechanisms of development or causality.In the 1970s, a model of DD formulated the concept that diverticula occur as a onsequence of pressureinduced damage to the colon wall amongst those with a low intake of dietary fiber. In this review, we have examined the evidence regarding the influence of ageing, diet,inflammation and genetics on DD development. We argue that the evidence supporting the barotrauma hypothesis is largely anecdotal. We have also identified several gaps in the knowledge base which need to be filled before we can complete a model for the etiology of diverticular disease.

  12. Analysis of Age as a Possible Prognostic Factor for Transcanalicular Multidiode Laser Dacryocystorhinostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Ayintap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the prognostic value of age on the outcome of transcanalicular multidiode laser dacryocystorhinostomy (TCL-DCR in patients with acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO. Methods. The medical records of TCL-DCR performed between March 2009 and September 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Inclusion criteria include over 20 years of age, similar mean follow-up period, and similar mean duration of stenting. The main outcome is surgical success. The effect of age on success rate is also evaluated. Results. The anatomical success was 52% in Group 1 (20–30 years, 56% in Group 2 (31–40 years, 64% in Group 3 (41–50 years, 76% in Group 4 (51–60 years, and 88% in Group 5 (over 60 years. The statistical difference among Group 1 and Group 5, in terms of surgical success rate, was found to be significant (P=0.009. Additionally, the 20–30-year-old patients had a failure rate 6.76 times higher than that of the over-60-year-old patients (P=0.009; 95% CI, 1.605–28.542. Conclusion. TCL-DCR is a surgical treatment option for NLDO for which a skin incision can be avoided. The success rate of TCL-DCR for younger population is lower when compared with elderly population.

  13. Biomedical factors associated with hospitalization of older adults: The Bambuí Health and Aging Study (BHAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique L. Guerra

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify biomedical factors (body mass index, blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and albumin associated with hospitalization of older adults. All residents of the town of Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, ages ³ 60 years (n = 1,742 were selected for the study, of whom 1,494 (85.2% participated. None of the biomedical factors studied was independently associated with occurrence of 1 hospitalization during the previous 12 months. Body mass index ³ 264mg/dl were independently associated with ³ 2 hospitalizations. The introduction of biomedical factors did not modify the previously identified associations between hospitalization and indicators constructed from information obtained in a questionnaire survey. The results show that data easily obtained through interviews can be useful both for identifying older adults at risk of hospitalization and thus for assisting in prevention.

  14. Passive smoking as a risk factor of anemia in young children aged 0–35 months in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Beltran Martin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p p Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children.

  15. Age, Neurological Status MRC Scale, and Postoperative Morbidity are Prognostic Factors in Patients with Glioblastoma Treated by Chemoradiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlut, Clotilde; Mouillet, Guillaume; Magnin, Eloi; Buffet-Miny, Joëlle; Viennet, Gabriel; Cattin, Françoise; Billon-Grand, Nora Clelia; Bonnet, Emilie; Servagi-Vernat, Stéphanie; Godard, Joël; Billon-Grand, Romain; Petit, Antoine; Moulin, Thierry; Cals, Laurent; Pivot, Xavier; Curtit, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Temozolomide and concomitant radiotherapy followed by temozolomide has been used as a standard therapy for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiform since 2005. A search for prognostic factors was conducted in patients with glioblastoma routinely treated by this strategy in our institution. METHODS This retrospective study included all patients with histologically proven glioblastoma diagnosed between June 1, 2005, and January 1, 2012, in the Franche-Comté region and treated by radiotherapy (daily fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 60 Gy) combined with temozolomide at a dose of 75 mg/m2 per day, followed by six cycles of maintenance temozolomide (150–200 mg/m2, five consecutive days per month). The primary aim was to identify prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS) in this cohort of patients. RESULTS One hundred three patients were included in this study. The median age was 64 years. The median OS was 13.7 months (95% confidence interval, 12.5–15.9 months). In multivariate analysis, age over 65 years (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.88; P = 0.01), Medical Research Council (MRC) scale 3–4 (HR = 1.62; P = 0.038), and occurrence of postoperative complications (HR = 2.15; P = 0.028) were associated with unfavorable OS. CONCLUSIONS This study identified three prognostic factors in patients with glioblastoma eligible to the standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment. Age over 65 years, MRC scale 3–4, and occurrence of postoperative complications were associated with unfavorable OS. A simple clinical evaluation including these three factors enables to estimate the patient prognosis. MRC neurological scale could be a useful, quick, and simple measure to assess neurological status in glioblastoma patients.

  16. Prevalence and associated factors of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45 to 75 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Qin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and diabetes and their associated factors in 17,184 Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45-75 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional investigation was carried out in a rural area of Lianyungang, China. Previously undiagnosed diabetes [fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l] and IFG (6.1-6.9 mmol/l were defined based on FPG concentration. Previously diagnosed diabetes was determined on the basis of self-report. Total diabetes included both previously diagnosed diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. RESULTS: The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and IFG were 3.4%, 9.8%, and 14.1%, respectively. About 74.2% of the participants with diabetes had not previously been diagnosed. In the multivariable logistic-regression model, older age, men, antihypertensive treatment, obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2, abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women, non-current smoking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, lower physical activity levels, and inland residence (versus coastal were significantly associated with both total diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Furthermore, methylene- tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677 TT genotype was an independent associated factor for total diabetes, and current alcohol drinking was an independent associated factor for previously undiagnosed diabetes. At the same time, older age, men, abdominal obesity, non-current smoking, current alcohol drinking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, and inland residence (versus coastal were important independent associated factors for IFG. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of diabetes in Chinese hypertensive adults. Furthermore, about three out of every four diabetic adults were undiagnosed. Our results suggest that population-level measures aimed at the prevention, identification (even if

  17. Factors Influencing Suicidal Ideation Among Korean Adults by Age: Results of the 2010-2011 Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-ok; Lee, Hyo Young

    2015-11-01

    Suicidal ideation increases the risk of suicide. This study investigated the age-specific contributions of sociodemographic factors, health status, and health behaviors to suicidal ideation using nationally representative data. The factors associated with suicidal ideation differ by age. Perceived bad health, stress, and depression had a significant influence on suicidal ideation in all age groups, but their specific effects differed in different age groups. The influence of perceived bad health increased with age, and the effect of stress was strongest among those aged 45-64 years. Moreover, the effect of being depressed decreased by age and was strongest among those 20-44 years of age. Disease and marital status did not have a significant effect on suicidal ideation among those 45-64 years old, and education had no effect among those 65 years or older. PMID:25833725

  18. Prevalence of obesity and its associated factors in population aged 20 to 70 years in urban areas of Mazandaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Heydari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Obesity is an undesirable outcome of changing of life style and behavior. In order to control obesity associated diseases, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity and its associated factors in population aged 20 to 70 years in urban areas of the province of Mazandaran, in North of Iran.Materials and Methods: A population based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3600 subjects using cluster sampling techniques, was conducted in urban areas of four cities: Sari, Gaemshahr, Babol and Amol. In each city, 30 random clusters were selected based on cumulative family health number under coverage of different urban health centers using systematic sampling techniques. In each cluster, 15 men and 15 women aged 20 to 70 years were selected and assessed. The anthropometric measures (height, weight were measured with standard methods and the social, demographic and some life style data were collected with interview using a designed questionnaire. In assessment of obesity, a standard recommended WHO method based on BMI distribution was used. The logistic regression model was used to estimate the age adjusted odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval and the P-value <0.05 was considered as significant level.Results: The mean (±SD age of men and women were 38.5±14.2 and 37.5 ±13.0 years respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight were 18.8% and 34.8% respectively (27.8%, 33.5% for men and 9.9% and 36.2% for women. The pattern of obesity was significantly different with age in both genders. The results of logistic regression model showed that the odds ratio of obesity for age increased up to 60 years and then it tended to decrease slightly (P<0.0001. The age adjusted odds ratio for obesity was greater roughly 3.6 times in women compared with men (P<0.0001. The adjusted odds ratio decreased with increasing the level of education (P<0.0001 while the odds ratio was 0.19 for education at university

  19. A Review of Factors Associated with Young Children's Difficulties in Acquiring Age-Appropriate Mathematical Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Roy; Goodman, Kathy

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the factors behind children's learning difficulties in mathematics from three kinds of characteristics: characteristics of the child, of the teacher/teaching method, and of the subject. Suggests that perceived underachievement comes mainly from poor self-image, learning style, poor language skills, dyslexic-type difficulties, lack of…

  20. Aging: Characteristics, Exposure Factors, Epigenetics, and Assessment of Health Risks of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is organized into three sections. The first part describes the characteristics of the older adult population and the U.S. EPA’s efforts to protect elders form environmental hazards. Section II covers available exposure factor data, activity pattern and the pot...

  1. Resourcefulness: A Protective Factor Buffer against the Academic Stress of School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace Suk Man; He, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: to examine the interaction of academic stress and student resourcefulness on subject grades and to identify the factors of parental support that contribute to student resourcefulness. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 695 fifth and sixth graders from four major districts in Shanghai.…

  2. A Longitudinal Analysis of Factors Related to Survival in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahtahmasebi, Said; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Used data from a longitudinal study of elderly which began in 1979 with 534 individuals in rural North Wales to study relationship between social circumstances and longevity. Multivariate analysis demonstrated there is no prima facie evidence that survival is affected by social networks or quality of life factors. However, socioeconomic factors…

  3. Regular physical activity in old age. Effect on coronary heart disease risk factors and well- being.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Background. Regular physical activity is considered an important aspect of a healthy lifestyle. It may improve fitness, physical competence and may lower the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, until now, data on the effects of regular exercise on CHD risk factors in elde

  4. Genetic, behavioral, and sociodemographic risk factors for second eye progression in age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechanteur, Y.T.; Ven, J.P. van de; Smailhodzic, D.; Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Fauser, S.; Groenewoud, J.M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the correlation of genetic, sociodemographic, and behavioral risk factors with second eye progression to end-stage AMD. METHODS: One hundred and eight patients with end-stage AMD in one or both eyes were included in a retrospective time-to-event analy

  5. Journal impact factors and the influence of age and number of citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact factor (IF) of a scientific journal is considered a measure of how important a journal is within its discipline, and it is based on a simple relationship between the number of citations of the journal’s articles divided by the number of articles in the scientific journal (http://en.wikipe...

  6. Frequency, risk factors and preventive approach to fall among aged population living in a nursing home in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Kibar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Increase in aged population in number brings along the risk of falls and fall-related injuries among elderly. It has been reported that almost 60% of falls occur in nursing homes and majority of admissions to emergency departments due to falls consist of elderly. The purpose of this study conducted in a nursing home in Ankara was to determine the frequency of falls and risk factors, and to clear out the opinions and views of the participants on planning and promoting interventions for prevention. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 60 years of age and older residents who lived in a nursing home. Data of the study was collected via face to face interviewing technique. The questionnaire consisted of four sections including socio-demographic characteristics, health status of the participants, healthy/risky behavior and fall related characteristics. RESULTS: Mean age of the 75 female and 59 male participants involved in the study was 73.99+/-7.18. Females were found to fall more in frequency than males (p>0.05. It was found that nearly half of the males (47.5% and more than half of the females (56.0% fell at least once within the previous year. Number of falls were higher among 75 years of age and older participants compared to the other age groups (p=0.003. Compared to the participants with fall background, aged people without fall background gave more correct answers in number to the questions which were asked to assess the knowledge on falls. Six out of 20 answers were statistically significantly correct (p <0.05. CONCLUSION: Individual and environmental interventions to be continued both inside and outside the institutions in order to prevent falls. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 23-32

  7. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays. PMID:24256420

  8. Age-related vessel calcification at distal extremities is a risk factor of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a cohort study to investigate if the vessel calcifications (VCs found in the distal extremities are an index of low bone mass at multiskeletal sites. A total of 332 healthy women aged 41–80 years were recruited for bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density measurement using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Seven percent of the women showed VC at both upper and lower distal extremities based on pQCT images. Women who had VC were then compared with their age-matched non-VC counterparts. Results showed that peripheral VC was mainly formed at distal lower extremities, and the prevalence of VC increased with advancing age, with 0%, 5.6%, 9.3%, and up to 34.5% in the age groups of 41–50 years, 51–60 years, 61–70 years, and 71–80 years, respectively. Compared with the control group, the VC group showed a significantly higher body mass index (25.2 vs. 23.2, p < 0.01, lower BMC at the spine (27.4 g vs. 31.3 g, p < 0.05, and lower BMC (1.8 g vs. 2.0 g, p < 0.05 and bone mineral density (0.57 g/cm2 vs. 0.66 g/cm2, p < 0.05 at the hip as measured by DXA. The diagnosis of VC in the distal extremities by pQCT increased the diagnosis sensitivity of osteoporosis by 50%. The significance of our findings imply that in clinical settings using pQCT for bone assessment and identification of patients with VC in the distal extremities, patients should also be referred for central DXA measurement at the femoral neck for diagnosis of osteoporosis as well as further assessment of vascular disorders.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of nocturnal enuresis among school age children in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok N. Solanki

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that nocturnal enuresis is a common problem among school children especially with low income, lower age, family history of enuresis and history of urinary tract infection. Enuresis is a pediatric public health problem and efforts at all levels should be made such as preventive, etiological and curative. The ratio of males to females in this study was 1.86 that is comparable to other data of the same study. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 202-205

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors associated with age-related macular degeneration: the Tromso Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erke, M. G.; Bertelsen, G.; Peto, T.;

    2014-01-01

    regression analyses were performed based on questionnaires addressing habits of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, health and medication; and physical examination comprising anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and blood sampling. Cardiovascular disease status was obtained from a...... validated end-point registry. ResultsGradable photographs were available for 2631 participants, of whom 92 (3.5%) subjects had late AMD. In the multivariable analysis of late AMD, significant interactions were found between sex and the variables age, triglyceride level, use of lipid-lowering drugs and...

  11. Age of Onset in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Complex Interactions between Genetic and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Laura; Toscano, Elena; Porcelli, Stefano; Fabbri, Chiara; Serretti, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    In this study we evaluated the role of a candidate gene for major psychosis, Sialyltransferase (ST8SIA2), in the risk to develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorders, taking into account exposure to stressful life events (SLEs). Eight polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in 94 Schizophreniainpatients and 176 healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients were also evaluated for SLEs in different life periods. None of the SNPs showed association with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, when crossing genetic variants with childhood SLEs, we could observe trends of interaction with age of onset. Though several limitations, our results support a protective role of ST8SIA2 in individuals exposed to moderate childhood stress. PMID:27081388

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of anaemia among children aged between 6 months and 14 years in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ngesa

    Full Text Available Anaemia is one of the significant public health problems among children in the world. Understanding risk factors of anaemia provides more insight to the nature and types of policies that can be put up to fight anaemia. We estimated the prevalence and risk factors of anaemia in a population-based, cross-sectional survey.Blood samples from 11,711 children aged between 6 months and 14 years were collected using a single-use, spring-loaded, sterile lancet to make a finger prick. Anaemia was measured based on haemoglobin concentration level. The generalized linear model framework was used to analyse the data, in which the response variable was either a child was anemic or not anemic.The overall prevalence of anaemia among the children in Kenya was estimated to be 28.8%. Across each band of age within which the definition of anaemia remained constant (0–4, 5–11, and 12–14 years old, the prevalence of anaemia declined with each year of age. [corrected]. The risk of anaemia was significantly higher in male than female children. Mothers with secondary and above education had a protective effect on the risk of anaemia on their children. Malaria diagnosis status of a child was positively associated with risk anaemia.Controlling co-morbidity of malaria and improving maternal knowledge are potential options for reducing the burden of anaemia.

  13. Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Original Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sang Wook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to know about Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture. Methods: First 20 Middle Aged women are diagnosed by pulse diagnosis, and then Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(1 injection 20cc were injected. 30 minutes later, pulse diagnosis again performed. As a result, method of one-group pretest-posttes design were used for evaluation. Results: T(Total pulse cycle time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan,cheok. T4 time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan, cheok. T4-T1/T indexs except left cheokmaek, Right cheokmaek observation area decreased significantly in four sites.Wm(indicating high pressure retention time indexs increased significantly in the five sites were observed except right chon maek. Conclusions: Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture increased T, T4, Wm and decreased T4-T1/T indexs. The results of this experiment,Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture induced to increase the Pulse-wave's stability and strength.

  14. Determinant Factors of Anemia among Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in Southwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asres, Yaregal; Yemane, Tilahun; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anemia affects one-quarter of the world's population; nonpregnant women were one of the groups for whom it is common, making it a global public health problem. Objective. To determine prevalence and risk factors of anemia among nonpregnant women of childbearing age in Jimma town southwest Ethiopia. Methodology. We conducted a community based cross-sectional study involving 441 nonpregnant women. Data was collected over two months of period. We collected sociodemographic and related data using structured questionnaire. We collected four milliliters of venous blood and five grams of stool samples from each study participant for hematological and parasitological analysis. We performed statistical analysis using SPSS-V 16 software. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.1% (n = 71) with mean hemoglobin 12.96 g/dL (±1.04), among which 97.2% (n = 69) were mildly anemic. Age group of 25-36 years old, lower economic level, illiteracy, multiparity, having intestinal parasitic infection, using more than two sanitary pads per day during menstruation period, and low body mass index were found to be risk factors of anemia among the group. Conclusion. Prevalence of anemia indicates mild public health importance which shows it was indeed public health problem. Identified risk factors should be considered for prevention and control of anemia among the group. PMID:27355074

  15. Uptake of prostate cancer screening and associated factors among Chinese men aged 50 or more: a population-based survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the uptake rate of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing among Hong Kong Chinese males aged 50 or above, and identify factors associated with the likelihood of undergoing a PSA test. A population-based telephone survey was conducted in Hong Kong in 2007. The survey covered demographic information, perceived health status, use of complementary therapy, cancer screening behavior, perceived susceptibility to cancer and family history of cancer. Descriptive statistics, percentages and logistic regression analysis were used for data analysis. A total of 1,002 men aged 50 or above took part in the study (response rate =67%), and the uptake rate of PSA testing was found to be 10%. Employment status, use of complementary therapy, perceiving regular visits to a doctor as good for health and the recommendations of health professionals were significant factors associated with PSA testing. The uptake rate of PSA testing in the study population was very low. Among all the factors identified, recommendations from health professionals had the strongest association with the uptake of PSA testing, and they should therefore take an active role in educating this population about cancer prevention and detection

  16. Factors Influencing Breast Density in Japanese Women Aged 40-49 in Breast Cancer Screening Mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hori,Keisuke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A relatively large number of women in their 40s with high-density breasts, in which it can be difficult to detect lesions, are encountered in mammography cancer screenings in Japan. Here, we retrospectively investigated factors related to breast density. Two hundred women (40-49 years old were examined at the screening center in our hospital. Multivariate analysis showed that factors such as small abdominal circumference, high HDL cholesterol, and no history of childbirth were related to high breast density in women in their 40s undergoing mammography. Other non-mammographic screening methods should be considered in women with abdominal circumferences <76cm, HDL-C >53mg/dl, and no history of childbirth, as there is a strong possibility of these women having high-density breasts that can make lesion detection difficult.

  17. Maternal separation produces alterations of forebrain brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in differently aged rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiong; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Early life adversity, such as postnatal maternal separation (MS), play a central role in the development of psychopathologies during individual ontogeny. In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4 h per day from postnatal day (PND) 1–21) on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the hippocampus of male and female juvenile (PND 21), adolescent (PND 35) and young adult (PND 56) Wistar rats...

  18. Suicidal Behaviour and Related Risk Factors among School-Aged Youth in the Republic of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Jason R; Doku, David; Wilson, Michael L.; Peltzer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. Methods Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environme...

  19. Ranking genetic factors related to age-related maculardegeneration by variable selection confidence sets

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Chao; Zhang, Michael; Ferrari, Davide; Baird, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of generalized linear models in case-control genetic studies has helped identify many disease-associated risk factors typically defined as DNA variants, or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Up to now, most literature has focused on selecting a unique best subset of SNPs based on some statistical perspectives. In the presence of pronounced noise, however, multiple biological paths are often found to be equally supported by a given dataset when dealing with complex gene...

  20. Physical environmental factors related to walking and cycling in older adults: the Belgian aging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauwenberg Jelle; Clarys Peter; de Bourdeaudhuij Ilse; Van Holle Veerle; Verté Dominique; De Witte Nico; De Donder Liesbeth; Buffel Tine; Dury Sarah; Deforche Benedicte

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Socio-ecological models emphasize the relationship between the physical environment and physical activity (PA). However, knowledge about this relationship in older adults is limited. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the relationship between area of residence (urban, semi-urban or rural) and older adults' walking and cycling for transportation and recreation. Additionally, relationships between several physical environmental factors and walking and cycling a...

  1. Suicidal behaviour and related risk factors among school-aged youth in the Republic of Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R Randall

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environmental risk factors were tested using multinomial logistic regression for their association with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS: The survey indicated that 23.2% had thought about suicide and 28.3% had made a suicide attempt in the previous year. Anxiety, loneliness, being bullied, alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and lack of parental support were independently related to the ideation outcomes, suicidal ideation without planning and suicidal ideation with planning. Multinomial regression analysis, using one suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts as outcomes, revealed that female sex, anxiety, loneliness, being physically attacked, and illicit drug use were associated these outcomes. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of suicide attempts reported in the survey is relatively high. It is possible that there are cultural factors that could explain this finding. Our research indicates that many factors are related to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth in Benin. Illicit drug use and violence in particular are associated with a high rate of suicide attempts in Benin. Measures to address these issues may reduce the risk of self-inflicted violence.

  2. Self-silencing and age as risk factors for sexually acquired HIV in midlife and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Robin J; Thomlison, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    Objectives. This study explores the contribution of psychosocial factors on sex behaviors of midlife and older women. Methods. A community-based sample of ethnically diverse women (N = 572) between the ages of 50 and 93 completed standardized measures of self-silencing, self-esteem, sensation seeking behavior, HIV-related stigma behavior, sexual assertiveness, and safer sex behaviors. Results. Results from the regression analysis indicated the model significantly predicted safer sex behaviors (p self silencing(â = -.115, p predictors.Bivariate correlation analysis indicated an inverse correlation between HIV stigma (p < .05) and safer sex behaviors. Discussion. Implications for further study and practice are discussed to include considerations for development of age- and gender-appropriate prevention interventions assisting women with interpersonal processes combined with skills for active involvement in addressing high-risk sex behaviors. PMID:19144971

  3. Depressive symptoms are related with hemostatic factors in middle-aged women: A report from the Study of Women Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby C Castilla; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Yangang Zhang; James Perel; Matthews, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Depression may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality, but the mechanism(s) for the association are not established. The present study examined the relationship between one possible mechanism, hemostatic factors, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. Method: We measured levels of fibrinogen, Factor VIIc, plasminogen activator inhibitor antigen-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator antigen (TPA-ag) in 3,016 women aged 42-52 years enro...

  4. Dynamic of age structure and the number of population in Ozersk and affecting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was an evaluation of the dynamics of age structure and population for the city of Ozyorsk, based in connection with creation of the nuclear plant Mayak, the 'first-born' of the Russian atomic industry. The obtained results indicate that since 1950 demographic processes in Ozyorsk were more favorable, in spite of fact that it was in this period workers of Mayak nuclear plant and population as a whole, got comparatively greater radiation doses than in the following years. However, dynamics the number of population has an unfavorable trend to reduce, connected with sharp worsening of social-economic situation in the town as a whole, as a result of the economic reforms in the country. Reduction of the number of population in the town is expressed by the negative natural growth and by reducing migration processes, which resulted in sharp decrease of the general growth of population, and in its stopping in 1998. (authors)

  5. Factors affecting dental utilization of elders aged 75 years or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A A; Branch, L G

    1986-11-01

    Data collected from 496 elders aged 75 years or older participating in the Massachusetts Health Care Panel Study were analyzed by means of multiple regression to determine the principal predictors of perceived need for care and of dental users. The relationship between perceived need and use of services also was examined. The significant variables influencing perceived need in elders were poorer self-perceived oral health, having some teeth, and reporting a dental visit within two years. Dental users were best predicted by dentate status, a history of alcohol consumption, and perceived need for care. Although the variables of perceived need and being a user each influenced the other, both were more influenced by a common significant predictor variable, dentate status. PMID:3464632

  6. Exploring Genetic Factors Involved in Huntington Disease Age of Onset: E2F2 as a New Potential Modifier Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel-Ocete, Leire; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Iriondo, Mikel; Fullaondo, Asier; García-Barcina, María; Fernández-García, José Manuel; Lezcano-García, Elena; Losada-Domingo, José María; Ruiz-Ojeda, Javier; Álvarez de Arcaya, Amaia; Pérez-Ramos, José María; Roos, Raymund A. C.; Nielsen, Jørgen E.; Saft, Carsten; Zubiaga, Ana M.; Aguirre, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp) in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the contribution of candidate genetic factors to HD AO in order to gain insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this disorder. For that purpose, two AO definitions were used: the earliest age with unequivocal signs of HD (earliest AO or eAO), and the first motor symptoms age (motor AO or mAO). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed between genetic variation within 20 candidate genes and eAO or mAO, using DNA and clinical information of 253 HD patients from REGISTRY project. Gene expression analyses were carried out by RT-qPCR with an independent sample of 35 HD patients from Basque Country Hospitals. We found suggestive association signals between HD eAO and/or mAO and genetic variation within the E2F2, ATF7IP, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, LINC01559, HIP1 and GRIK2 genes. Among them, the most significant was the association between eAO and rs2742976, mapping to the promoter region of E2F2 transcription factor. Furthermore, rs2742976 T allele patient carriers exhibited significantly lower lymphocyte E2F2 gene expression, suggesting a possible implication of E2F2-dependent transcriptional activity in HD pathogenesis. Thus, E2F2 emerges as a new potential HD AO modifier factor. PMID:26148071

  7. Factors associated with morbidity, mortality, and growth of dairy heifer calves up to 3 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeyer, M C; Leslie, K E; Godden, S M; Hodgins, D C; Lissemore, K D; LeBlanc, S J

    2014-02-01

    Calfhood disease is an important problem on many dairy operations that can have substantial effects on heifer survival and productivity, and has economic and welfare impacts. Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in young dairy cattle. The objective of this observational study was to investigate factors associated with the risks of morbidity and mortality, and with growth, in commercial dairy heifers calves. A total of 2874 heifer calves from 19 commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Ontario were enrolled at 1-7 days of age and followed for approximately 3 months. Using cut-points of serum total protein of 5.2 and 5.7 g/dl, the incidences of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) were 11 and 32%, respectively. A cut-point of 5.7 g/dl was the most predictive of BRD before 5 weeks of age (sensitivity=40%, specificity=69%). The positive predictive value was poor (PPV=18%), but the negative predictive value was good (NPV=87%). A cut-point of 5.2g/dl was most predictive of death before 5 weeks of age (sensitivity=27%, specificity=89%, PPV=5%, NPV=98%). Serum total protein during the first week of life was a poor predictor of NCD. Over 23% of calves were treated for diarrhea. Risk factors were weight at enrollment, other diseases before 2 weeks of age, and an interaction between season of birth and herd-level incidence of NCD. Almost 22% of calves were treated at least once for BRD. Factors associated with an increased risk of BRD included herd-level incidence of BRD, season of birth, navel dipping, other diseases before 2 weeks of age, failure of transfer of passive immunity, and manual control of temperature in pre-weaning housing. Administration of supplemental antibody products at birth was associated with a reduced incidence of BRD. Overall mortality was 3.5%. Risk of mortality was increased by treatment for BRD and other diseases. The mean average weight gain was 0.95 kg

  8. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Setegn

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country.We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005 Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000 and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005 women of reproductive age (15-49 years were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM. The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots.The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds

  9. Exploring Genetic Factors Involved in Huntington Disease Age of Onset: E2F2 as a New Potential Modifier Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Valcárcel-Ocete, Leire; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Iriondo Oresanz, Mikel; Fullaondo Elordui-Zapaterieche, Asier; García-Barcina, María; Fernández-García, José Manuel; Lezcano-García, Elena; Losada-Domingo, José María; Ruiz-Ojeda, Javier; Álvarez de Arcaya, Amaia; Pérez- Ramos, José María; Roos, Raymund A.C.; Nielsen, Jørgen E.; Saft, Carsten; REGISTRY Investigators of the European Huntington?s Disease Network

    2015-01-01

    Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp) in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the contribution of candidate genetic factors to HD AO in order to gain insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this disorder. For that purpose, two AO definitions w...

  10. Rhesus factor modulation of effects of smoking and age on psychomotor performance, intelligence, personality profile, and health in Czech soldiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Flegr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH(3 or CO(2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E, radicalism (Q(1, self-sentiment integration (Q(3, and ergic tension (Q(4, and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in

  11. Understanding the factors that derive continuance intention of e-shopping in Saudi Arabia: Age group differences in behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to clarify the theoretical problem and identify factors that could explain the level of continuance intention of e-shopping in context of Saudi Arabia. The study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure age differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample (n=465) consists of 68.8% women and 31.4% men, 348 younger than 35 years old and 117 older than 3...

  12. Positive correlations of age and parity with plasma concentration of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in Japanese black cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOIZUMI, Motoya; NAHAR, Asrafun; YAMABE, Ryusei; KADOKAWA, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Plasma Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) concentration correlates positively with age, and negatively with self-rated health in women, and optimal MIF concentration may promote proper reproductive function. This study was conducted to evaluate the hypotheses that plasma MIF concentration changes with parturition or postpartum first ovulation, and that age in months and parity correlate with plasma MIF concentration in Japanese black cows. Western blotting utilizing an anti-MIF mouse monoclonal antibody of various tissues and plasma from females indicated that MIF expression was stronger in the anterior pituitary than in other tissues. We developed a competitive EIA utilizing the same anti-MIF mouse monoclonal antibody with sufficient sensitivity and reliable performance for measuring bovine plasma samples. We then measured MIF concentrations in bovine plasma collected from 4 weeks before parturition to 4 weeks after postpartum first ovulation. There was no significant difference in plasma MIF concentration pre- and post-parturition, or before and after the postpartum first ovulation. Plasma MIF concentrations were positively correlated (P < 0.01) with parity (r = 0.703), age in months on the day of parturition (r = 0.647), and age in months on the day of the postpartum first ovulation (r = 0.553) when we used almost all data, except for that from a third-parity cow with an abnormally high plasma MIF concentration. We therefore concluded that plasma MIF concentrations may increase with age in months and parity, but do not change either before and after parturition or before and after postpartum first ovulation in Japanese black cows. PMID:26853787

  13. Expression of DNAJA1 in bovine muscles according to developmental age and management factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar-Malek, I; Guillemin, N; Hocquette, J-F; Micol, D; Bauchart, D; Picard, B; Jurie, C

    2011-05-01

    We have recently shown that the expression of the DNAJA1 gene encoding a heat shock protein (Hsp40) is a negative marker of meat tenderness in Charolais bulls. To acquire knowledge on the regulation of DNAJA1 expression, we analysed the abundance of DNAJA1 transcripts and protein during development and according to management factors (e.g. feeding treatments, growth path and stress status) in different bovine muscles during postnatal life. We report here a developmental expression profile for DNAJA1 with decreased levels of transcript and protein during the progression of myogenesis. During postnatal life, we found the highest expression of DNAJA1 in the most oxidative muscles. No effect was detected for dietary treatment (pasture v. maize-based diet), growth path (compensatory growth after a restriction period) or pre-slaughter stress status. Therefore, the genetic background and muscle type could be considered as the main factors regarding the level of DNAJA1. Integration of the knowledge gained from this study should help to predict muscle metabolic properties and the ability of the live animals to give high sensory quality meat. PMID:22440026

  14. Effect of hypertension, diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors on kidney size in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päivänsalo, M J; Merikanto, J; Savolainen, M J; Lilja, M; Rantala, A O; Kauma, H; Reunanen, A; Kesäniemi, Y A; Suramo, I

    1998-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate in a population-based series (1031 subjects, age range 40-60 years) whether the renal size of hypertensive subjects differs from that of control subjects and whether the difference might be due to hypertension itself or risk factors associated with hypertension. The renal measurements were performed by abdominal ultrasound. The genders were analyzed separately. Hypertensive men had slightly larger kidneys than controls (70.1+/-8.9 cm2 vs. 67.9+/-8.7 cm2, p High serum concentrations of uric acid and creatinine were associated with smaller kidney size (p borderline significance (p creatinine concentration were associated with smaller kidney size (p uric acid, creatinine, carotid atherosclerosis and hormone replacement therapy in women were also significant factors for renal size. Hypertensive subjects had larger kidneys than controls, mainly because of their more frequent obesity and abnormal glucose test. PMID:9776419

  15. Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deplazes Peter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (≤ 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9% than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%. Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and possibly also the infection risk for human alveolar echincoccosis (AE. Therefore, interventions against the

  16. Age as a factor in assessing risk to patients from the use of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any use of ionizing radiation carries with it a risk and it is often necessary to estimate this risk for groups of irradiated persons, or for individuals. Such persons include patients in diagnostic radiology. In diagnostic radiology effective dose has become widely used as the preferred index of patient dose. This is primarily for two reasons - effective dose is linked to a useful definition of radiation detriment and, because it converts an actual irradiation into an equivalent uniform whole body dose (in terms of detriment), it is able to cope with the partial body irradiations characteriztic of diagnostic radiology. But while effective dose has these attractions, it is based on assumptions that could impose limitations on its use for risk assessment. Effective dose is an index that has been averaged over populations and risk projection models, and its application to individuals or specialized groups of the population may not be appropriate. In this paper the collective risk from the use of diagnostic radiology in a large New Zealand teaching hospital is assessed using an age-specific approach, and this is compared with the collective risk assessed using the coefficients given in ICRP Publication 60 for the general public. (author)

  17. Smoking during Pregnancy Is a Risk Factor for Executive Function Deficits in Preschool-aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daseking, M.; Petermann, F.; Tischler, T.; Waldmann, H.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal nicotine use during pregnancy has a negative impact on the child. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between smoking during pregnancy and psychological deficits. This study looks at deficits in executive functioning in preschool-aged children. Methods: The executive functioning of preschool children was assessed by asking parents to complete the parental form of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P, German version). The results for preschool children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy (n = 71) were compared with those of a control group. In a subsample, parental assessments of children of smokers (n = 42) and non-smokers (n = 27) were complemented by the teacher form of the BRIEF-P (German version), which allowed inter-rater agreement (parents vs. preschool teachers) to be assessed. Results: An increased incidence of executive function deficits was noted in the children of smokers, based on parental assessment. Clinically relevant deficits were particularly evident with regard to inhibition, with inhibitory deficits in children of smokers found to be almost four times higher than in the control group (p = 0.006). Inhibitory deficits were reported both by parents and by preschool teachers. Discussion: The increased percentage of executive function deficits described here, particularly the increased inhibitory deficits, confirms the current state of research on smoking during pregnancy. Poor inhibition or impulse control is a key symptom of ADHD. PMID:25684788

  18. IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle age, and later cancer mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Gale, Catharine R;

    2009-01-01

    (i) examine the relation, if any, of pre-morbid IQ scores at 20 years of age with the risk of later cancer mortality; and (ii) explore the role, if any, of potential mediating factors (e.g. smoking, obesity), assessed in middle age, in explaining the IQ-cancer relation.......(i) examine the relation, if any, of pre-morbid IQ scores at 20 years of age with the risk of later cancer mortality; and (ii) explore the role, if any, of potential mediating factors (e.g. smoking, obesity), assessed in middle age, in explaining the IQ-cancer relation....

  19. A Study of Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Diseases in Asymptomatic Middle Aged and Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar, Sandeep Garg, Hem Lata Gupta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease(CAD in apparently healthy middle aged and elderly population and to find the different betweenurban and rural group.Atotal of 160 individuals (80 urban and 80 rural were included in the study.All the subjects underwent detailed history and physical examination with special emphasis oncardiovascular system. The biochemical investigations were done in all the subjects which includedblood sugar, serum LDL and serum triglyceride levels. The prevalence of 2 or more than 2 riskfactors were observed in 95% subjects. The prevalence of smoking was 63%, which was moreprevalent in the rural population. The sedentary lifestyle was seen in 80% subjects more in femalesand urban group. The prevalence of asymptomatic hypertensives and isolated systolic hypertensionwere seen in 34% and 10% individuals respectively. Other risk factors were-diabetes mellitus (4%,Increase LDL (38%, hypertriglyceridemia (23% and central obesity (27.50%. The two mostcommon risk factors for CADwere sedentary lifestyle and smoking. These risk factors are modifiableand their reduction during adulthood can lead to marked reduction in the burden of CAD in middleaged and elderly Indian population.

  20. Gender and age related expression of Oct-6--a POU III domain transcription factor, in the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilia, Maria; Sugiyama, Yuka; Price, Jack

    2003-06-26

    Oct-6 is a POU III domain transcription factor whose primary role is thought to be developmental. It is expressed in embryonic stem cells, Schwann cells, and in neuronal subpopulations during telencephalic development. Its best characterised role is in Schwann cells where it is thought to regulate myelin specific gene expression. Expression of Oct-6 was recently discovered in neurons in post-mortem human schizophrenic specimens while being undetectable in matched controls. This study of human tissue contrasted in a number of regards with earlier studies of rodent brain, and questioned what we can consider to be normal adult expression of this gene. In this study, we have investigated Oct-6 expression via in situ hybridisation and Western blot analysis in normal adult female mice of different ages. We show that both RNA and protein levels of Oct-6 expression are highly sustained in the adult and aging cerebellum, whereas they are attenuated in the telencephalon by PW30 (postnatal week 30). These observations suggest that Oct-6 expression takes place in a sex and age dependent way. PMID:12782346

  1. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-01-01

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20-90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (Ppatterns of atrophy were partially overlapping with, but notably deviating from those typically found in AD. Subjects with ABA had higher SPARE-AD values; largely due to the partial spatial overlap of associated patterns in temporal regions. The AD polygenic risk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD. PMID:27045845

  2. Lung Transfer Factor in Middle Aged Asymptomatic Male Smokers of a City from West India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhavi, Bhakti P.; Mehta, Hemant B.; Shah, Chinmay J.; Gokhale, Pradnya A.; Makwana, Amit H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is an increasingly popular indulgence in India. Assessment by routine spirometry falls short of direct functional parameter like Diffusion Lung Capacity (DLC), also known as lung transfer factor (LTF). Aim To measure LTF amongst middle aged male smokers and to study various correlates for it. Materials and Methods Total of 45 asymptomatic male current smokers were enrolled for this cross-sectional study conducted at pulmonary function testing lab of Physiology Department of our college. Smoking history was evaluated and smoking index was defined by product of number smoked per day and years smoked. We used instrument Ultima PFX of Medgraphic Company. After pre syringe calibration LTF was measured by Methane mixture using protocols of ATS. Parameters measured were Dlco-uncorrected, corrected and normalized to VA (alveolar volume). Results were compared for statistical significance and significance was set as p <0.05. Results In case group of 45(25 bidi and 20 cigarette smokers) mean age was 30 years, mean duration was 8 years, mean smoking index was 60. We found small insignificant decline in actual LTF values than predicted which was not significantly different between bidi and cigarette smokers. Duration, age and intensity of smoking were negatively and significantly correlated with LTF value while anthropometric parameters were not. Conclusion Smoking adversely affects LTF in young asymptomatic current male smoker that further declines with severity of smoking and with duration regardless of type of smoking. With years to come, these alterations can largely be prevented by smoking cessation, at least theoretically.

  3. The Prevalence of Anxiety and its related Factors among School-age Children in South West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Banaeipour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Anxiety is one of the most common childhood disorders, so it is necessary to explore extend and its related factors in the students. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anxiety and the related factors of anxiety among the children aged 9-12 years. Materials and Methods At a descriptive-analytic study 623 children aged 9-12 year- old who were studying in the fourth to sixth grade of elementary school in Dezful city, were selected through multistage random sampling.  The data were collected using demographic profile questionnaire and School Anxiety Scale (SAS using SPSS-16. Results Of total 623 students, 36.3% were girls. 232 (37.2% students had mild anxiety, 304 students (48.8% had moderate anxiety and 87 students (14% had severe anxiety. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of children anxiety and the number of children in family (P0.0.5. Conclusion This study showed that the prevalence of anxiety was higher in boyes, children who were single children, children who had a family history of hereditary disease, and children who experienced corporal punishment at home. It is recommended arranging programs including training, counseling, and psychotherapy ones for these children and their families.

  4. Metabolic risk factors, coping with stress, and psychological well-being in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavar, Ivan; Lovrić, Sanjin; Vukojević, Mladenka; Sesar, Irena; Petric-Vicković, Ivanka; Sesar, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the risk factors (age, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, consumption of alchohol and drugs, positive family history, and exposure to sunlight), coping with stress, psychological well-being and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Forty patients with ARMD (case group) and 63 presbyopes (control group) participated in the study. Patient data were collected through general information questionnaire including patient habits, the COPE questionnaire that showed the way the patients handling stress, and the GHQ that analyzed the psychological aspects of their quality of life. These questionnaires were administered to the patients during ophthalmologic examination. The study involved 46 (44.66%) men and 57 (55.33%) women. Statistical analysis showed that the major risks for the development of ARMD were elevated cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol in plasma. A significantly higher number ofARMD patients had a positive family history when compared with presbyopes. This study showed presbyopes to cope with emotional problems significantly better and to have a lower level of social dysfunction when compared with ARMD patients. However, it is necessary to conduct further studies in a large number of patients to determine more accurately the pathophysiological mechanisms of metabolic factors as well as the impact of the disease on the quality of life in patients with ARMD. PMID:24974669

  5. Assessment of breast cancer risk factors in asymptomatic hospital staff women aged 32-59: a descriptive report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Iranian breast cancer patients are relatively younger than their Western counterparts. The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors for breast cancer in Iranian women and compare it with other data driven from other studies. Methods: A study was conducted in April 2008 in Tehran, Iran. Demographical data and risk factor related information, including data from their mammograms were collected using a questionnaire. Results: In all, 109 participants were interviewed. The mean age of participants was 40.48 +- 0.56 years. 1.8% of women were unmarried, while 78% were married and 20.2% were divorced/widowed. The mean age for menarche was 13.34 +-1.47 years and 46.89+-4.98 for the menopause, respectively. The mean parity time was 2.36+-1.13 and breast feeding in women was 23.27+-14.16 months. About 5.5% of the participants used oral contraceptive as a method for contraception. 8.3% of women experienced menopause, at the mean age of 46.89+-4.98. 33.3% of Mendip's women, used Hormone Replace Therapy (HRT).Moreover, 8.3% of women had a positive history of breast cancer in their family. Of those women on whom mammography was done, 10.1% had breast mass in radiological findings, mostly in favour of fibrocystic change. In 20.2% of participants, further investigation was advised. Conclusion: The findings of the present study were in accordance with other studies done in Iran and in some aspects in tune with other studies about breast cancer in other countries. However, more multi centric larger scale studies should be conducted in Iran to determine a pattern for breast cancer in Iranian women. (author)

  6. ACCEPTABILITY EVALUATION FOR USING ICRP TISSUE WEIGHTING FACTORS TO CALCULATE EFFECTIVE DOSE VALUE FOR SEPARATE GENDER-AGE GROUPS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Repin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article describes radiation risk factors for several gender-age population groups according to Russian statistical and medical-demographic data, evaluates the lethality rate for separate nosologic forms of malignant neoplasms based on Russian cancer registries according to the method of the International Agency for Cancer Research. Relative damage factors are calculated for the gender-age groups under consideration. The tissue weighting factors recommended by ICRP to calculate effective doses are compared with relative damage factors calculated by ICRP for the nominal population and with similar factors calculated in this work for separate population cohorts in theRussian Federation. The significance of differences and the feasibility of using tissue weighting factors adapted for the Russian population in assessing population risks in cohorts of different gender-age compositions have been assessed.

  7. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-01-01

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20–90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (P<0.05), anti-hypertensive (P<0.05), anti-diabetic drug use (men P<0.05, women P=0.06) and waist circumference for the male cohort (P<0.05), after adjusting for age. Subjects with ABA had spatially extensive gray matter loss in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes (false-discovery-rate-corrected q<0.001). ABA patterns of atrophy were partially overlapping with, but notably deviating from those typically found in AD. Subjects with ABA had higher SPARE-AD values; largely due to the partial spatial overlap of associated patterns in temporal regions. The AD polygenic risk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD. PMID:27045845

  8. Influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the spontaneous and radiation induced micronuclei frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human populations for environmental or occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, particularly ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for assessing radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. To further define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry, a study to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habit) on the spontaneous and radiation induced MN frequencies was performed. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 healthy donors aged between 4 and 62 years. On the basis of their smoking habit they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed and also a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was obtained (R2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence MN variability significantly but there was a greater dispersion in the results for females when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ rays for doses below 2 Gy. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis and Related Factors in Children Aged 5-13 in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Balci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enuresis is a health problem frequently encountered in childhood. This study was carried out in two socio-demographically different districts of the province of Istanbul, for the purpose of determining the relationship between the prevalence of primary nocturnal enuresis and certain demographic characteristics.Methods: The study design is a cross-sectional carried out on 420 children (5 to 13 yr old through random sampling. The research was conducted at two health centers in two different districts in the province of Istanbul. Data was collected with a questionnaire created by the researchers. Diagnosis of enuresis considered nocturnal voiding twice a week for at least three consecutive months. Findings: Enuresis was a complaint expressed by 16.2% of the cases in the study group; 8.3% reported intermittent bedwetting. The data collected in the two districts pointed to a significant difference in terms of the frequency of enuresis in favor of the district where socio-demographic features were inferior (P<0.005. When family histories were explored in cases of children with enuresis, it was found that the mothers of 76.2% had the problem of enuresis while 14.9% had enuretic fathers. Thus statistically, the presence of enuresis in the family history was seen to have had a markedly significant impact on the occurrence of enuresis in the child (P<0.001.Conclusion: It was concluded that familial predisposition to the condition constituted a more significant risk factor for enuresis compared to socio-demographic or economic characteristics.

  10. Factors associated with herd-level PRRSV infection and age-time to seroconversion in farrow-to-finish herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fablet, C; Marois-Créhan, C; Grasland, B; Simon, G; Rose, N

    2016-08-30

    Factors associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection were investigated in 109 herds. Serums from four batches of pigs (4, 10, 16 and 22 weeks, 15 pigs/batch) were tested by ELISA for PRRSV antibodies. Infection by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza A viruses (swIAV) and PCV2 were detected by specific serological or PCR tests. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management housing and climatic conditions were collected during a herd visit. Factors associated with the herd's PRRSV seropositive status were identified by logistic regression. Large herd size, the lack of disinsectisation in the gestation facilities, on-farm semen collection, a short time-period for gilt quarantine and a low temperature setpoint for the ventilation controller in the fattening room significantly increased the odds of a herd being seropositive for PRRSV. Infection by Mhp and H1N2 swIAV were associated with a PRRSV seropositive status. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the factors associated with the age-time to seroconversion in infected herds. Joint housing for the gilts and sows when lactating, a large nursery pen, a small number of pens per fattening room and lack of all-in all-out management in the fattening section significantly reduced the age-time to seroconversion. A small range of temperatures controlling ventilation rate in the nursery room was also associated with time to PRRSV seroconversion. Infection by Mhp and a high PCV2 infection pressure were associated with a shorter time to seroconversion. Biosecurity measures minimising the risk of introducing PRRSV into the herd, management practices reducing contacts between animals from different batches and within batches and favourable climatic conditions should be implemented to better control PRRSV infection. PMID:27527759

  11. Chronic photo-oxidative stress and subsequent MCP-1 activation as causative factors for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mihoko; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Du, Zhao-Jiang; Xie, Ping; Matsumura, Nagakazu; Fu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Renliang; Sonoda, Koh-hei; Egashira, Kensuke; Hazen, Stanley L; Kamei, Motohiro

    2012-05-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in developed countries. Although pathogenic factors, such as oxidative stress, inflammation and genetics are thought to contribute to the development of AMD, little is known about the relationships and priorities between these factors. Here, we show that chronic photo-oxidative stress is an environmental factor involved in AMD pathogenesis. We first demonstrated that exposure to light induced phospholipid oxidation in the mouse retina, which was more prominent in aged animals. The induced oxidized phospholipids led to an increase in the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which then resulted in macrophage accumulation, an inflammatory process. Antioxidant treatment prevented light-induced phospholipid oxidation and the subsequent increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (also known as C-C motif chemokine 2; CCL2), which are the beginnings of the light-induced changes. Subretinal application of oxidized phospholipids induced choroidal neovascularization, a characteristic feature of wet-type AMD, which was inhibited by blocking monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. These findings strongly suggest that a sequential cascade from photic stress to inflammatory processes through phospholipid oxidation has an important role in AMD pathogenesis. Finally, we succeeded in mimicking human AMD in mice with low-level, long-term photic stress, in which characteristic pathological changes, including choroidal neovascularization formation, were observed. Therefore, we propose a consecutive pathogenic pathway involving photic stress, oxidation of phospholipids and chronic inflammation, leading to angiogenesis. These findings add to the current understanding of AMD pathology and suggest protection from oxidative stress or suppression of the subsequent inflammation as new potential therapeutic targets for AMD. PMID:22357958

  12. Early life factors and being overweight at 4 years of age among children in Malmö, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindström Martin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the development of child overweight. Methods The study was population-based and cross-sectional. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC centers in Malmö for their 4-year health check during 2003-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 9009 children. Results The results showed that having overweight/obese parents was strongly associated with the child being overweight or obese. Furthermore, there was an association between unfavorable early life factors (i.e., mother smoking during pregnancy, presence of secondhand tobacco smoke early in life, high birth weight and the development of child overweight/obesity at four years of age, while breastfeeding seemed to have a protective role. For example, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an odds ratio (OR of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.76 for overweight and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68, 3.17 for obesity. The results further showed synergistic effects between parental overweight and exposure to unfavourable early life factors in the development of child overweight. Conclusions The present study shows the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight and obesity, and thus puts focus on the importance of early targeted interventions.

  13. Association between maternal diet factors and hemoglobin levels, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and gestational age in a Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Roxana; Guilloty, Natacha; Anzalota, Liza; Rosario, Zaira; Cordero, José F; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns of pregnant women in northern Puerto Rico and explore associations between diet factors with pregnancy related measurements. This analysis is based on the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT), a prospective cohort that is studying environmental risk factors for preterm births in PR. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) around 20-28 weeks of gestation. The following pregnancy related measures were collected from the medical records: hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood pressure and gestational age. Potential associations between diet factors and pregnancy measures were assessed using chi square analysis with SPSS. A total of 180 participants completed the FFQ; low hemoglobin levels was found in 19.2%, high blood glucose levels was found in 21.1% by fasting blood glucose test and 24.6%by 1-hour 50 g oral glucose screening test, high blood pressure was found in 2.9% (systolic) and 6.5% (diastolic), and pre-term birth was found in 10.4% of the participants. High consumption of rice, desserts and sweets was associated with higher levels of fasting blood glucose levels (p desserts, can lead to high levels of blood glucose and can be a potential predictor of other pregnancy complications during pregnancy in these study participants, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:26817380

  14. Association of childhood and adult socioeconomic indicators with cardiovascular risk factors and its modification by age : the CARLA Study 2002-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Werdan Karl; Tiller Daniel; Kluttig Alexander; Schumann Barbara; Haerting Johannes; Greiser Karin H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors is widely known, although the role of different SES indicators is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of different SES indicators for cardiovascular disease risk factors in a middle and old aged East German population. Methods Cross-sectional data of an East German population-based cohort study (1779 men and women aged 45 to 83) were used to assess th...

  15. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…

  16. Risk factors for stroke and thromboembolism in relation to age among patients with atrial fibrillation: the loire valley atrial fibrillation project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Fauchier, Laurent; Lane, Deirdre A; Taillandier, Sophie; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest European guidelines on the management of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), all patients aged ≥ 65 years should be treated with oral anticoagulation (if not contraindicated). Therefore, stroke risk factors should be investigated exclusively in patients with NVAF aged ...

  17. Social inequality in dynamic balance performance in an early old age Spanish population: The role of health and life style associated factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Lopez, Santiago; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Lund, Rikke;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and dynamic balance performance and whether lifestyle factors explained any possible associations. A total of 448 nondisabled individuals, age-range 54–75 years and enrolled in the Active Aging Longitudinal Study of Spain in...

  18. Factors associated with breastfeeding in children less than one year of age in the city of Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Arena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The practice of breastfeeding represents multiple benefits to children; however, several studies show thatthere has been a gradual loss of breastfeeding habits in industrialized and developing countries, mainly because the greatdiversity of types of milk. Additionalliy, there was the presence of biological and socio-cultural factors, which influence andmodify this practice and generate a negative impact on the health of the infant population. In Colombia, in 2005, it was reportedthat the median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 2.2 months and the median duration was 14.9 months total; likewise,the department of Bolivar reported a median slightly over a month.Objective: To determine the relationship between social and biological factors in the prevalence of exclusive breastfeedingin children under one year of age in Cartagena, Colombia.Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study, the population consisted of the mothers of 23,109 children less than oneyear of age, the sample was 562 mothers. The probability sampling was stratified by clusters of three locations in the city whereevery neighborhood was a cluster. After selecting the neighborhood, a simple random sampling was conducted by city blocks.Mothers of children under one year of age were sought in their homes in the city blocks selected. The information was collectedthrough the survey «Breastfeeding and complementary feeding» used by PROFAMILIA, demographic characteristics weredemographic characteristics were also investigated.Results: The median for breastfeeding was 2 months, social factors associated were: not using a feeding bottle (CI: 2.37-5.38, nuclear family membership (CI: 1.29-2.72, not being a mother head of household (CI: 0.27-0.62, and the biologicalfactor showing association was temporary suspension of breastfeeding (CI: 0.23-0.70.Conclusion: The duration of the exclusive breastfeeding practice among women turned out to be very short and thepractice until the sixth

  19. Arterial Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Sung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiabl...

  20. Depressive symptoms in middle-aged women are more strongly associated with physical health and social support than with socioeconomic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Nyberg, N; Absetz, P;

    2001-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic factors, health-related factors, and social support with depressive symptoms has been extensively studied. However, most epidemiological studies have focused on a few factors such as marital status, social class, and employment. In this study of middle-aged women we...... social support, and quality of intimate relationships. For the prevention or intervention of depressive symptoms among middle-aged women in the population subjects with concurrent subjective or objective health problems and poor social support seem to comprise a particularly important target group....... analyzed both univariate and multivariate associations of socioeconomic factors, perceived physical health factors, and social support with self-rated depressive symptoms measured with the Beck Depression Inventory. A nationwide sample (n = 1851) of Finnish women aged 48-50 years was analyzed...

  1. Identification of growth phases and influencing factors in cultivations with AGE1.HN cells using set-based methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Borchers

    Full Text Available Production of bio-pharmaceuticals in cell culture, such as mammalian cells, is challenging. Mathematical models can provide support to the analysis, optimization, and the operation of production processes. In particular, unstructured models are suited for these purposes, since they can be tailored to particular process conditions. To this end, growth phases and the most relevant factors influencing cell growth and product formation have to be identified. Due to noisy and erroneous experimental data, unknown kinetic parameters, and the large number of combinations of influencing factors, currently there are only limited structured approaches to tackle these issues. We outline a structured set-based approach to identify different growth phases and the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. To this end, measurement uncertainties are taken explicitly into account to bound the time-dependent specific growth rate based on the observed increase of the cell concentration. Based on the bounds on the specific growth rate, we can identify qualitatively different growth phases and (in-validate hypotheses on the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. We apply the approach to a mammalian suspension cell line (AGE1.HN. We show that growth in batch culture can be divided into two main growth phases. The initial phase is characterized by exponential growth dynamics, which can be described consistently by a relatively simple unstructured and segregated model. The subsequent phase is characterized by a decrease in the specific growth rate, which, as shown, results from substrate limitation and the pH of the medium. An extended model is provided which describes the observed dynamics of cell growth and main metabolites, and the corresponding kinetic parameters as well as their confidence intervals are estimated. The study is complemented by an uncertainty and outlier analysis. Overall, we demonstrate utility of set-based methods for analyzing cell

  2. Identification of growth phases and influencing factors in cultivations with AGE1.HN cells using set-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Steffen; Freund, Susann; Rath, Alexander; Streif, Stefan; Reichl, Udo; Findeisen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Production of bio-pharmaceuticals in cell culture, such as mammalian cells, is challenging. Mathematical models can provide support to the analysis, optimization, and the operation of production processes. In particular, unstructured models are suited for these purposes, since they can be tailored to particular process conditions. To this end, growth phases and the most relevant factors influencing cell growth and product formation have to be identified. Due to noisy and erroneous experimental data, unknown kinetic parameters, and the large number of combinations of influencing factors, currently there are only limited structured approaches to tackle these issues. We outline a structured set-based approach to identify different growth phases and the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. To this end, measurement uncertainties are taken explicitly into account to bound the time-dependent specific growth rate based on the observed increase of the cell concentration. Based on the bounds on the specific growth rate, we can identify qualitatively different growth phases and (in-)validate hypotheses on the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. We apply the approach to a mammalian suspension cell line (AGE1.HN). We show that growth in batch culture can be divided into two main growth phases. The initial phase is characterized by exponential growth dynamics, which can be described consistently by a relatively simple unstructured and segregated model. The subsequent phase is characterized by a decrease in the specific growth rate, which, as shown, results from substrate limitation and the pH of the medium. An extended model is provided which describes the observed dynamics of cell growth and main metabolites, and the corresponding kinetic parameters as well as their confidence intervals are estimated. The study is complemented by an uncertainty and outlier analysis. Overall, we demonstrate utility of set-based methods for analyzing cell growth and

  3. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84% o

  4. Factors affecting age of puberty and the response of Syrian female Awassi sheep to FGA and eCG treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were conducted on Syrian female Awassi sheep to characterise certain parameters during various reproductive stages. In experiment 1, 18 ewe lambs were tested at 5 months of age to assess pubertal parameters and affecting factors. The overall average age at puberty was 18.0 months, occurring between May and August (during the normal breeding season). There were no significant differences in time to reach puberty between ewe lambs in terms of the month of birth, type of birth (single or twin) or weaning weight. The average live weight (LWt) and serum progesterone concentration of ewe lambs at puberty were 53.7 kg and 6.32 nmol/L, respectively. A positive and significant correlation (r = 0.72, P < 0.001) was found between progesterone concentration and LWt of lambs. In experiment 2, 16 nulliparous cyclic Awassi ewes, 21 months of age, were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flugestone acetate (FGA) for a period of 14 d during the breeding season. Eight animals (Group P) were then injected intramuscularly at sponge withdrawal with 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), the remainder (Group C) acting as controls. All females exhibited oestrus and were mated within 3 d of sponge withdrawal. Twinning rates were 37.5% and 12.5% respectively for the animals in Groups P and C (P < 0.05). It is concluded that it is possible to improve the twinning rate of nulliparous Syrian Awassi ewes in their first pregnancy using eCG with no adverse effects on either the ewes or the lambs born. (author)

  5. Human papillomavirus infection and risk factors in a cohort of Tuscan women aged 18-24: results at recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacava Paolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is conclusive evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV infections of the cervix are a necessary cause of cervical cancer. In Italy there are consistent data of HPV prevalence in women aged 25 - 64 years, but there is limited data for younger women. The objective of this on-going 3-year prospective cohort study is to investigate the prevalence, acquisition, clearance and persistence of HPV infections in young Tuscan women and the risk factors correlated with such events. Methods One thousand and sixty-six women aged between 18 and 24 years were enrolled and received an initial HPV test. They were asked to return to the clinic over the study period for further tests every 12 months, if their HPV HR result was negative, or every 6 months, if positive. Additionally, women with an HPV positive result were given a cytological examination and if the cytological diagnosis was ASC-US or more severe, only women with HPV HR, were referred for colposcopy. Results We present here data for the enrolment phase of the study. At baseline, within the study sample, just under 30% of women were infected by HPV and 19.3% of women were infected with oncogenic types. A relationship was highlighted between HPV infection, number of sexual partners (in particularly in the last 3 years and the lifetime number of partner's partners. Condom use showed a slight protective effect in univariate analysis but these data were not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. The association between HPV infection and demographic and behavioural variables were tested by crude odds ratio (OR. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to compute the adjusted odds ratios. Conclusions The prevalence of oncogenic HPV types was high in young Tuscan women. The 3-year follow-up of this cohort may provide a better understanding of the processes of acquisition, clearance and persistence of infection and the correlated risk factors.

  6. EFFECTS OF 12 WEEKS OF COMBINED EXERCISE TRAINING ON VISFATIN AND METABOLIC SYNDROME FACTORS IN OBESE MIDDLE-AGED WOMEN

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    Dong-il Seo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Visfatin is a highly expressed protein with insulin-like functions located predominantly in visceral adipose tissue and has been linked to obesity and increased health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of combined exercise training on visfatin and metabolic syndrome factors in obese middle-aged women. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a training (n = 10 or control (n = 10 group. The training group exercised for 1 hour, 3 days per week during the 12 week supervised training program. The training program included 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (10RM resistance exercise as well as aerobic exercise at an intensity of 60-70% of their heart rate reserve (HRR. The control group was asked to maintain their normal daily activities. Two-way (group X time repeated measured analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects, but there was a significant group X time interaction for the following variables: body weight (p < 0.01, percent body fat (% fat (p < 0.01, waist hip ratio (WHR (p < 0.01, diastolic blood pressure (DBP (p < 0.05, fasting glucose level (p < 0.01, triglyceride levels (TG (p < 0.01, high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-C (p < 0.05, and visfatin (p < 0.01. In conclusion, the 12 week combined resistance and aerobic training program used in this study was very effective for producing significant benefits to body composition and metabolic syndrome factors, as well as lowering visfatin levels in these obese middle-aged women.

  7. Factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control among participants in the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulougou, B; Gomez, F; Alvarado, B; Guerra, R O; Ylli, A; Guralnik, J; Zunzunegui, M V

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control, in the elderly populations of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Approximately 200 men and 200 women aged 65-74 years were recruited at each site (n=1995) during IMIAS' 2012 baseline survey at five cities: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia) and Natal (Brazil). Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken at participants' homes. Hypertension prevalence ranged from 53.4% in Saint-Hyacinthe to 83.5% in Tirana. Diabetes and obesity were identified as risk factors in all cities. More than two-thirds of hypertensive participants were aware of their condition (from 67.3% in Saint-Hyacinthe to 85.4% in Tirana); women were more aware than men. Awareness was positively associated with diabetes in Kingston, Manizales and Natal. Though most of those aware of their hypertensive condition were being treated pharmacologically, associations between awareness and physical activity and refraining from smoking were weak. Control among treated hypertensive participants was low, especially in Tirana and Natal. Diabetes and physical inactivity were associated with poor hypertension control. Hypertension is common in the older populations of IMIAS. Diabetes is strongly associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness and lack of control of hypertension. The fact that awareness is not strongly associated with healthy behaviours suggests that antihypertensive medication is not accompanied by non-pharmacological therapies. Improved health behaviours could strengthen hypertension control. Efforts should be made to increase men's awareness of hypertension. Hypertension control in diabetic patients is a challenge. PMID:25833704

  8. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results

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    Sara Sechi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs and biological antioxidant potential (BAP levels in dogs’ plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs (p<0.005 and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels (p<0.005 after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs.

  9. Under Persistent Assault: Understanding the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin

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    Patricia K. Farris

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information on the underlying mechanism of cutaneous damage and potential of topical antioxidants to treat aging skin. Combining antioxidants that can work through multiple pathways holds great potential for a cumulative and synergistic way to treat aging skin. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive review on environmental factors that damage human skin, discuss scientifically proven benefits of topical antioxidants, understand challenges of formulating and administering topical antioxidants, evaluate novel mechanisms of antioxidant activity, and suggest practical ways of integrating topical antioxidants with aesthetic procedures to complement clinical outcomes.

  10. The Role of Insulin, Insulin Growth Factor, and Insulin-Degrading Enzyme in Brain Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

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    Claude Messier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most brain insulin comes from the pancreas and is taken up by the brain by what appears to be a receptor-based carrier. Type 2 diabetes animal models associated with insulin resistance show reduced insulin brain uptake and content. Recent data point to changes in the insulin receptor cascade in obesity-related insulin resistance, suggesting that brain insulin receptors also become less sensitive to insulin, which could reduce synaptic plasticity. Insulin transport to the brain is reduced in aging and in some animal models of type 2 diabetes; brain insulin resistance may be present as well. Studies examining the effect of the hyperinsulinic clamp or intranasal insulin on cognitive function have found a small but consistent improvement in memory and changes in brain neuroelectric parameters in evoked brain potentials consistent with improved attention or memory processing. These effects appear to be due to raised brain insulin levels. Peripheral levels of Insulin Growth Factor-I (IGF-I are associated with glucose regulation and influence glucose disposal. There is some indication that reduced sensitivity to insulin or IGF-I in the brain, as observed in aging, obesity, and diabetes, decreases the clearance of Aβ amyloid. Such a decrease involves the insulin receptor cascade and can also increase amyloid toxicity. Insulin and IGF-I may modulate brain levels of insulin degrading enzyme, which would also lead to an accumulation of Aβ amyloid.

  11. HIV em mulheres de meia-idade: fatores associados HIV in middle-aged women: associated factors

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    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Valadares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV tem aumentado significativamente entre mulheres de meia-idade. Nesta revisão foi feito um levantamento de estudos recentes que buscam identificar possíveis fatores de risco associados à infecção pelo HIV em mulheres climatéricas. São abordados diversos fatores associados, como: sintomas climatéricos, mudança de comportamento do parceiro sexual frente a novos medicamentos, negociação sobre o uso de preservativos em relações sexuais, comportamento de risco para HIV, autoestima global e autoestima sexual, história pregressa de abuso sexual, uso de drogas, estereótipo da vida sexual na maturidade, uso de terapia antirretroviral e abordagem da função sexual.Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection has increased considerably among middle-aged women. In this work we reviewed recent studies aimed at identifying possible factors related to HIV infection in climacteric women. Several associated factors are considered, such as: climacteric symptoms, partner's change in sexual behavior in face of new drugs, negotiation for use of condoms in sexual intercourse, risk behavior for HIV, global self-esteem and sexual self-esteem, history of sexual abuse, use of drugs, stereotypes of sex life in maturity, use of antiretroviral therapy and approach to sexual function.

  12. The Bambui Health and Aging Study (BHAS: factors associated with the treatment of hypertension in older adults in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmo Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the factors associated with the treatment of hypertension among older adults living in the community. All residents (n = 1,742 of Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (15,000 inhabitants aged superscript three 60 years were selected, and 1494 (85.8% were interviewed and examined. Of these, 919 (61.5% were hypertensive, 704 were aware of their condition (study population, and 578 were under treatment. Only 38.8% of the individuals under treatment presented controlled systolic and diastolic pressures (< 140 and < 90mmHg, respectively. Independent associations with treatment of hypertension were found for, in decreasing order of magnitude: less time elapsed since the last blood pressure measurement, greater number of physician visits in the past 12 months, higher body mass index, female gender, history of coronary disease, changes in diet due to arterial hypertension, and higher family income. Our results show that the factors most strongly associated with treatment of hypertension (use of health services could be modified through adequate health policies for older adults.

  13. Urinary Incontinence, Related Factors and Depression among 20 Aged and Over Women in Beylikova District Centre in Eskisehir

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    Alaettin Unsal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determination of prevalence of Urinary incontinence (UI, and to evaluation of relationship between UI and depression in women. Material and methods: This study is a cross-sectional type research, was realized between 05 July 2011 to 25 August 2011, among 20 and over aged women that living in Beylikova district centre. The study group was occurred 500 women. The presence of UI, its type and severity were evaluated according to criteria recommended by the International Continence Society. For the purpose of the questionnaire form prepared by the study, households were visited one by one, filled with face to face method. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was used for evaluation of depression. Chi-square test and Logistic Regression Analyses were used in statistical analyses. For statistical significance, p<0.05 were approved. Results: The ages of women were between 20 to 81 years, and average age was 46.97±15.65 years. Prevalence of UI was found 41.4% (n=207. Of the UI cases were 35.7% stress incontinence, 15.5% urge incontinence, 48.8% mixed type. Of the cases were 95 (45.9% low severity, 60 (29.0% middle severity, 52 (25.1% high severity. In this study, UI was an important risk factor in illiterates (OR: 6.617, no smoking (OR: 1.868, obes (OR: 2.777, persons with anyone chronicle disease that diagnosed by doctor (OR: 4.711, enuresis nocturna hystory in childhood age (OR: 2.600, large baby history in women who had given birth (OR: 1.947, and menopause (OR: 2.497. Prevalence of depression was found 25.4% (n=127. Prevalence of depression was higher found in the women with UI, stress type UI, and high severity UI (for each one; p<0.05. Conclusion: In this study, it was determinate that UI an important health problem in the women, and depression prevalence was higher in the women with UI. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 231-242

  14. Age-group-specific associations between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and relevant risk factors in male and female patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingqi Deng

    Full Text Available To seek accurate and credible correlation manner between gender, age, and obesity; and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in large-scale population.Totals of 1,975 male and 378 female OSA patients were sequentially recruited. Centralized covariant tendencies between age, body mass index (BMI, and waist hip ratio (WHR; and OSA severity, were explored in a gender-specific manner via multiple statistical analyses. The accuracies of observed correlations were further evaluated by adaptive multiple linear regression.All of age, BMI, WHR, smoking, drinking, and OSA severity differed between males and females. BMI and WHR were positively and (approximately linearly associated with OSA severity in both males and females. Restricted cubic spline analysis was more effective than was the Pearson correlation approach in correlating age with AHI, and provided age crossover points allowing further piecewise linear modeling for both males and females. Multiple linear regression showed that increasing age was associated with OSA exacerbation in males aged ≤ 40 years and in females aged 45-53 years. BMI, WHR, and diabetes were independently associated with OSA severity in males with age-group-specific pattern. In females, only BMI was associated with OSA severity at all ages.In male patients, BMI and WHR are prominent risk factors for OSA exacerbation. Age and diabetes are associated with OSA severity in males of particular ages. In females, BMI is also a prominent risk factor for severe OSA, and OSA severity increased with age in the range 45-53 years.

  15. Age-Group-Specific Associations between the Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Relevant Risk Factors in Male and Female Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingqi; Gu, Wei; Li, Yanyan; Liu, Mei; Li, Yan; Gao, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Aim To seek accurate and credible correlation manner between gender, age, and obesity; and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in large-scale population. Methods Totals of 1,975 male and 378 female OSA patients were sequentially recruited. Centralized covariant tendencies between age, body mass index (BMI), and waist hip ratio (WHR); and OSA severity, were explored in a gender-specific manner via multiple statistical analyses. The accuracies of observed correlations were further evaluated by adaptive multiple linear regression. Results All of age, BMI, WHR, smoking, drinking, and OSA severity differed between males and females. BMI and WHR were positively and (approximately) linearly associated with OSA severity in both males and females. Restricted cubic spline analysis was more effective than was the Pearson correlation approach in correlating age with AHI, and provided age crossover points allowing further piecewise linear modeling for both males and females. Multiple linear regression showed that increasing age was associated with OSA exacerbation in males aged ≤40 years and in females aged 45–53 years. BMI, WHR, and diabetes were independently associated with OSA severity in males with age-group-specific pattern. In females, only BMI was associated with OSA severity at all ages. Conclusions In male patients, BMI and WHR are prominent risk factors for OSA exacerbation. Age and diabetes are associated with OSA severity in males of particular ages. In females, BMI is also a prominent risk factor for severe OSA, and OSA severity increased with age in the range 45–53 years. PMID:25211035

  16. Prevelence of latent tuberculosis and associated risk factors in children under 5 years of age in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Mubashir Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As infected children represent a large proportion of the pool from which tuberculosis (TB cases will arise and its associated risk factors that influence TB infection are basic cause for burden of TB. Aim: This study was to determine the prevalence of latent TB and associated risk factors in children less than 5 year of age in Karachi, Pakistan. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study and it was conducted in tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Materials and Methods: In this study, children who were living in contact with individuals who had proven smear-positive pulmonary TB cases were investigated. A tuberculin skin test (TST was performed on each child. TST sizes ≥5 and 10 mm, respectively, were considered positive. Statistical Analysis: A random effects logistic regression model, which takes into account the clustering of contacts within households, was used to assess the relationship between the tuberculin response of the contact and risk factors. Results are reported as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess the overall significance of risk factors, tests for trend, and tests for interaction. Results: The distribution of TST responses followed a bimodal pattern, with 135 (35% children presenting a palpable induration. The risk of positive TST response in the child increased with the geographic proximity of the child to the individual with TB within the household and with the degree of activities shared with the individual with TB. Nutritional status and presence of a bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG scar were not independent risk factors for TST positivity in this population. On multivariate analysis, the effect of geographic proximity to the individual with TB, household size, and duration of cough in the index case persisted for TST responses ≥5 mm. Conclusions: Positive TST in a child reflects most probably TB infection rather than previous BCG

  17. Creative Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Charlene Lee; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explores some divergent attitudes toward aging, negative as well as positive. Presents a neurophysiological framework to support the belief that aging is an active and creative process. Explores physical, psychological, and sociological aspects, and identifies three factors in the creative aging process. (Author/JAC)

  18. A IGF-I promoter polymorphism modifies the relationship between birth weight and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes at age 36

    OpenAIRE

    Velde, S.J. te; Rossum, van, A.C.; Voorhoeve, P.G.; Twisk, J W R; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Stehouwer, C. D. A.; Mechelen, van, M.; Lamberts, S. W.; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether IGF-I promoter polymorphism was associated with birth weight and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes type 2 (DM-2), and whether the birth weight - risk factor relationship was the same for each genotype. Design and participants: 264 subjects (mean age 36 years) had data available on birth weight, IGF-I promoter polymorphism genotype, CVD and DM-2 risk factors. Students t-test and regression analyses were applied to analyse differences i...

  19. A IGF-1 promoter polymorphism modifies the relationships between birth weight and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes at age 36

    OpenAIRE

    Velde, Saskia; Rossum, Liesbeth; Voorhoeve, Paul; Twisk, Jos; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Stehouwer, Coen; van Mechelen, Willem; Lamberts, Steven; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To investigate whether IGF-I promoter polymorphism was associated with birth weight and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and whether the birth weight - risk factor relationship was the same for each genotype. Design and participants: 264 subjects (mean age 36 years) had data available on birth weight, IGF-I promoter polymorphism genotype, CVD and T2DM risk factors. Student's t-test and regression analyses were applied to analyse ...

  20. The Inflammatory Transcription Factors NFκB, STAT1 and STAT3 Drive Age-Associated Transcriptional Changes in the Human Kidney.

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    Zach K O'Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human kidney function declines with age, accompanied by stereotyped changes in gene expression and histopathology, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are largely unknown. To identify potential regulators of kidney aging, we compared age-associated transcriptional changes in the human kidney with genome-wide maps of transcription factor occupancy from ChIP-seq datasets in human cells. The strongest candidates were the inflammation-associated transcription factors NFκB, STAT1 and STAT3, the activities of which increase with age in epithelial compartments of the renal cortex. Stimulation of renal tubular epithelial cells with the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (a STAT3 activator, IFNγ (a STAT1 activator, or TNFα (an NFκB activator recapitulated age-associated gene expression changes. We show that common DNA variants in RELA and NFKB1, the two genes encoding subunits of the NFκB transcription factor, associate with kidney function and chronic kidney disease in gene association studies, providing the first evidence that genetic variation in NFκB contributes to renal aging phenotypes. Our results suggest that NFκB, STAT1 and STAT3 underlie transcriptional changes and chronic inflammation in the aging human kidney.

  1. Association of childhood and adult socioeconomic indicators with cardiovascular risk factors and its modification by age: the CARLA Study 2002-2006

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    Werdan Karl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of socioeconomic status (SES on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors is widely known, although the role of different SES indicators is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of different SES indicators for cardiovascular disease risk factors in a middle and old aged East German population. Methods Cross-sectional data of an East German population-based cohort study (1779 men and women aged 45 to 83 were used to assess the association of childhood and adulthood SES indicators (childhood SES, education, occupational position, income with cardiovascular risk factors. Adjusted means and odds ratios of risk factors by SES indicators with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated by linear and logistic regression models, stratified by sex. The interaction effect of education and age on cardiovascular risk factors was tested by including an interaction term. Results In age-adjusted models, education, occupational position, and income were statistically significantly associated with abdominal obesity in men, and with smoking in both sexes. Men with low education had a more than threefold risk of being a smoker (OR 3.44, CI 1.58-7.51. Low childhood SES was associated with higher systolic blood pressure and abdominal obesity in women (OR 2.27, CI 1.18-4.38 for obesity; a non-significant but (in terms of effect size relevant association of childhood SES with smoking was observed in men. In women, age was an effect modifier for education in the risk of obesity and smoking. Conclusions We found considerable differences in cardiovascular risk factors by education, occupational position, income, and partly by childhood social status, differing by sex. Some social inequalities levelled off in higher age. Longitudinal studies are needed to differentiate between age and birth cohort effects.

  2. Factors related to missing and rescheduling pharmaceutical care appointments by aged outpatients in a Brazilian public health setting

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    Thiago Vinícius Nadaleto Didone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To uncover reasons why patients missed pharmaceutical care (PC appointments, identify predictive factors to miss at least one appointment and to reschedule after a miss, and compare the rescheduling behavior of patients receiving different types of PC. Methods: All elderly patients who had at least one scheduled appointment in the PC service of a health setting of São Paulo city, Brazil, from January to December/2011 were included. Chi-square analysis compared categorical data between groups; multivariate logistic regression models predicted attendance and rescheduling behavior. Results: We identified 421 patients, being 221 (52.5% non-attenders. Forgetting the appointment was the most common patient-related reason (56.3%. Illiteracy was a risk factor to be a non-attender [OR(95%CI=2.27(1.17:4.40, p=0.015]. Patients having previous knowledge of the pharmacist presented more chance to rescheduled an appointment after the first miss compared to those who had not [OR(95%CI=3.57(1.90:6.71, p<0.001]. Further, non-attenders who had knowledge of the pharmacist and received Medication Review with Follow-up rescheduled more than the ones receiving other types of PC (p=0.035. Conclusion: Illiteracy predicted non-attendance in PC to aged outpatients and forgetfulness was the main reason for that. The previous acquaintance of the pharmacist and the provision of pharmaceotherapeutic follow-up explained the rescheduling behavior, which indicates the establishment of a patient-centered patient-pharmacist relationship plays a pivotal role in the continuity of the PC.

  3. Expression analysis of an evolutionarily conserved alternative splicing factor, Sfrs10, in age-related macular degeneration.

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    Devi Krishna Priya Karunakaran

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly population. Hypoxic stress created in the micro-environment of the photoreceptors is thought to be the underlying cause that results in the pathophysiology of AMD. However, association of AMD with alternative splicing mediated gene regulation is not well explored. Alternative Splicing is one of the primary mechanisms in humans by which fewer protein coding genes are able to generate a vast proteome. Here, we investigated the expression of a known stress response gene and an alternative splicing factor called Serine-Arginine rich splicing factor 10 (Sfrs10. Sfrs10 is a member of the serine-arginine (SR rich protein family and is 100% identical at the amino acid level in most mammals. Immunoblot analysis on retinal extracts from mouse, rat, and chicken showed a single immunoreactive band. Further, immunohistochemistry on adult mouse, rat and chicken retinae showed pan-retinal expression. However, SFRS10 was not detected in normal human retina but was observed as distinct nuclear speckles in AMD retinae. This is in agreement with previous reports that show Sfrs10 to be a stress response gene, which is upregulated under hypoxia. The difference in the expression of Sfrs10 between humans and lower mammals and the upregulation of SFRS10 in AMD is further reflected in the divergence of the promoter sequence between these species. Finally, SFRS10+ speckles were independent of the SC35+ SR protein speckles or the HSF1+ stress granules. In all, our data suggests that SFRS10 is upregulated and forms distinct stress-induced speckles and might be involved in AS of stress response genes in AMD.

  4. Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor-21 increase with age independently of body composition indices among healthy individuals

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    Lynae J. Hanks

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Our findings in a healthy population display an age-related increase in serum FGF21, highlighting a potential age effect in response to metabolic demand over the lifecourse. FGF21 levels increase with age independently of body composition. At lower levels of FGF21, BMD, but not other body composition parameters, attenuates the association between FGF21 level and age, suggesting the metabolic demand of the skeleton may provide a link between FGF21 and energy metabolism.

  5. Turnover Intention among Engineering Employees: A Question about Psychosocial Work Environment Factors and Age? : A quantitative study conducted on a global oil and gas company

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The main goal was to examine which factors in the psychosocial work environment that would predict turnover intention among engineering employees in a larger global company within the oil and gas industry. The second goal was to examine if the predictors would differ for employees under the age of 40, compared to employees over the age of 40.Method: Data was collected using a self-reported electronic questionnaire designed by Mille Myhre and myself. The analyses includ...

  6. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Longevity in the United States: Age Differences between the Old and Oldest-Old in the Health and Retirement Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ailshire, Jennifer A.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent growth in the number of adults surviving to advanced ages raises questions about the quality of life associated with increased longevity. Psychosocial factors have received relatively little attention in research on quality of life among the oldest-old. This study uses nationally representative data on older US adults to examine how social relationships, feelings of loneliness, and satisfaction with life and the aging experience differ between the oldest-old, those who have survived to...

  7. Turnover Intention among Engineering Employees: A Question about Psychosocial Work Environment Factors and Age?: A quantitative study conducted on a global oil and gas company

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The main goal was to examine which factors in the psychosocial work environment that would predict turnover intention among engineering employees in a larger global company within the oil and gas industry. The second goal was to examine if the predictors would differ for employees under the age of 40, compared to employees over the age of 40.Method: Data was collected using a self-reported electronic questionnaire designed by Mille Myhre and myself. The analyses includ...

  8. Turnover Intention among Engineering Employees: A Question about Psychosocial Work Environment Factors and Age? : A quantitative study conducted on a global oil and gas company

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The main goal was to examine which factors in the psychosocial work environment that would predict turnover intention among engineering employees in a larger global company within the oil and gas industry. The second goal was to examine if the predictors would differ for employees under the age of 40, compared to employees over the age of 40. Method: Data was collected using a self-reported electronic questionnaire designed by Mille Myhre and myself. The analyses inclu...

  9. Risk and Resilience Factors in Coping with Daily Stress in Adulthood: The Role of Age, Self-Concept Incoherence, and Personal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    This study observed young, middle-aged and older adults (N = 239; Mage = 49.6 years, range = 18-89 years) for 30 consecutive days to examine the association between daily stress and negative affect taking into account potential risk (i.e., self-concept incoherence) and resilience factors (i.e., age, perceived personal control). Results indicated that younger individuals and individuals with a more incoherent self-concept showed higher average negative affect across the study. As well, individ...

  10. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF HYPERTENSION AMONG ADULTS AGED 30 YEARS AND ABOVE IN A RURAL DWELLING OF KOTTAYAM, KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Rising prevalence of hypertension is a major public health challenge in India especially in Kerala. This cross sectional study was done to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its determinants in a rural population of Kottayam, Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Community based cross sectional study was carried out among 400 adults aged 30 years and above in a randomly selected ward of Ettumanoor panchayath, which is the field practice area of Govt. Medical college, Kottayam. A pretested semi structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding socio demographic and behavioral factors. Standardized sphygmomanometric blood pressure measurement was taken by trained team members twice for each individual and the average of the two was taken as blood pressure. Anthropometric measurements were also done. A systolic blood pressure of ≥140mm of Hg and or diastolic BP≥90mm of Hg was regarded as hypertension. Data analysis was done using the software Epi-info version 3.4.3. Chi square test revealed the association between hypertension (dependent variable and other socio demographic and behavioural factors (independent variable. A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. All the significant variables are included in the binary logistic regression to find out Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR RESULTS: The overall prevalence of hypertension was 35% (males-33.8% females -35.6%. The variables which evolved as significant and remained so in binary logistic regression analysis were single status after marriage/ unmarried (AOR-2.45 95% CI 1.38-4.38, low educational status (AOR- 2.31, 95%CI-1.46-3.64, family history of hypertension (AOR-1.85 95%CI-1.2-2.85 and trunkal obesity in females (AOR-2.41 95%CI-1.37-4.24 CONCLUSION: The present study revealed the prevalence (35% and risk factors for hypertension in the study area. The results of the study can be used to develop messages to make the people aware of the problem of hypertension

  11. Is being female a risk factor for shallow anterior chamber? The associations between anterior chamber depth and age, sex, and body height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cherng Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: To analyze the association between anterior chamber depth (ACD and age, sex, and body height (BH. Materials and Methods: One thousand four hundred eighty eyes of 1480 adults 40 years of age and older receiving preoperative evaluation for cataract surgery were recruited consecutively from June 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010. ACD was measured with the Zeiss IOLMaster. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the correlations, and receiving operator characteristic (ROC curves and the area under the curve (AUC were used for evaluating the predictability of an ACD less than 2.70 mm. Results: ACD was negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with BH in both univariate and multivariate regression analysis (P < 0.001. Sex was associated with ACD in univariate analysis, but not after adjustment with age and BH. In predicting an ACD less than 2.70 mm, the AUCs of ROC curves for ′age and sex′, ′age and BH′, and ′age, sex, and BH′ were 0.687, 0.689, and 0.689, respectively. Conclusion: Age and BH were independent associating factors of ACD; however, sex was not. Older people and shorter ones likely had shallower ACD, and therefore were predisposed to Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG. The predictability of ACD by age and BH solely was low, and adding sex did not increase it.

  12. Body mass index, exercise, and other lifestyle factors in relation to age at natural menopause: analyses from the breakthrough generations study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Danielle H; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; McFadden, Emily; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2012-05-15

    The authors examined the effect of women's lifestyles on the timing of natural menopause using data from a cross-sectional questionnaire used in the United Kingdom-based Breakthrough Generations Study in 2003-2011. The analyses included 50,678 women (21,511 who had experienced a natural menopause) who were 40-98 years of age at study entry and did not have a history of breast cancer. Cox competing risks proportional hazards models were fitted to examine the relation of age at natural menopause to lifestyle and anthropometric factors. Results were adjusted for age at reporting, smoking status at menopause, parity, and body mass index at age 40 years, as appropriate. All P values were 2-sided. High adult weight (P(trend) vegetarian (P < 0.001) were associated with older age at menopause. Neither height nor history of an eating disorder was associated with menopausal age. These findings show the importance of lifestyle factors in determining menopausal age. PMID:22494951

  13. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3 is the liver nuclear protein binding to age related increase element RNA of the factor IX gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hamada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the ASE/AIE-mediated genetic mechanism for age-related gene regulation, a recently identified age-related homeostasis mechanism, two genetic elements, ASE (age-related stability element and AIE (age-related increase element as a stem-loop forming RNA, play critical roles in producing specific age-related expression patterns of genes. PRINCIPAL FINDING: We successfully identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3 (hnRNP A3 as a major mouse liver nuclear protein binding to the AIE-derived RNAs of human factor IX (hFIX as well as mouse factor IX (mFIX genes. HnRNP A3 bound to the AIE RNA was not phosphorylated at its Ser(359, while hnRNP A3 in the mouse liver nuclear extracts was a mixture of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated Ser(359. HepG2 cells engineered to express recombinant hFIX transduced with adenoviral vectors harboring an effective siRNA against hnRNP A3 resulted in a substantial reduction in hFIX expression only in the cells carrying a hFIX expression vector with AIE, but not in the cells carrying a hFIX expression vector without AIE. The nuclear hnRNP A3 protein level in the mouse liver gradually increased with age, while its mRNA level stayed age-stable. CONCLUSIONS: We identified hnRNP A3 as a major liver nuclear protein binding to FIX-AIE RNA. This protein plays a critical role in age-related gene expression, likely through an as yet unidentified epigenetic mechanism. The present study assigned a novel functional role to hnRNP A3 in age-related regulation of gene expression, opening up a new avenue for studying age-related homeostasis and underlying molecular mechanisms.

  14. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471

  15. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Çınar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT. Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA. Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years of whom 62 (12.4% were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6% were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp was positive in 245 (49% cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34% had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51% had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8% children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family.

  16. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G P; Parker, W A; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G C

    1992-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four ethnic groups in five southwestern States. Age, residence, and fluoridation status were also compared for the total sample and ethnic categories. The sampling process was a stratified random site selection; it was used to obtain data on 1,230 children. This number constituted 3 percent of the children enrolled in Head Start in Public Health Service Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) where the study was conducted. The criterion for determining the presence of BBTD was based on the number of carious deciduous maxillary incisors observed. The severity of the condition was reported as two of four and three of four of the target teeth affected. Thus, two levels of severity are reported. BBTD was prevalent in approximately 24 percent and 15 percent of the total sample, depending on the severity criterion used. Native American children had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence than Hispanic, white, and black subjects. Rural children had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence of BBTD than nonrural children for all ethnic groups except whites. The prevalence of decayed and filled (df) surfaces of primary dentition was significantly greater for all rural than for non rural groups (P< 0.05).Children attending centers showed no significant differences based on fluoride status for the total sample or other variables. BBTD and caries prevalence increased with age. Studies are needed to identify predisposing factors among the ethnic

  17. Factoring

    OpenAIRE

    Lenstra, Arjen K.

    1994-01-01

    Factoring, finding a non-trivial factorization of a composite positive integer, is believed to be a hard problem. How hard we think it is, however, changes almost on a daily basis. Predicting how hard factoring will be in the future, an important issue for cryptographic applications of composite numbers, is therefore a challenging task. The author presents a brief survey of general purpose integer factoring algorithms and their implementations

  18. Reproductive factors and risk of estrogen receptor positive, triple-negative, and HER2-neu overexpressing breast cancer among women 20–44 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Christopher I.; Beaber, Elisabeth F.; Tang, Mei-Tzu Chen; Porter, Peggy L.; Daling, Janet R.; Malone, Kathleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of reproductive history are among the most well-established breast cancer risk factors. However, relatively little is known about how they influence risk of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer, particularly among younger women. Using data from a population-based case–control study of women 20–44 years of age, we assessed the relationships between various reproductive factors and risk of estrogen receptor positive (ER+), triple-negative, and HER2-overexpressing breast cancers...

  19. A SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR IMPROVING THE RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AT AGES 12 TO 16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Laparidis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease begins in childhood and this can be correlated with the presence of risk factors in adults. It is reasonable to initiate healthful lifestyle training in childhood to promote improved cardiovascular health in adult life. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-basedprogram designed to reduce specific modifiable risk factors for preventing cardiovascular diseases.Methods. The sample was 343 students (160 boys, 183 girls aged 12–16 years from the prefecture of Larissa, Greece. The duration of intervention was 1 school year. The practical part of intervention took place during the class of physical education, while the theoretical part took place in the classroom. Measurements weretaken at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the intervention. The following parameters were measured: weight, height, blood pressure, heart rate, components of the Healthy Eating Index, VO2max,Fitnessgram test battery (1 mile run-walk, trunk lift, push up, curl up, back saver sit and reach.Results. There were significant differences between the school-groups in the 1 mile run walk (p<0,001,90o push up test (p<0,001, Healthy Eating Index (p<0,001, fruit component (p<0,001, saturated fat intake(p<0,05 and variety component (p<0,001. In the intervention group there was significant increase in VO2max(p<0,05, in the weight (p<0,001, in the Healthy Eating Index (p<0,05, in the trunk lift test (p<0,001, in the push up test (p<0,05, in the sit and reach test (p<0,001 and in the component of fruits (p<0,001, while there was significant reduction in the 1 mile run walk test (p<0,001, in the body mass index (p<0,05 and in the component of saturated fat (p<0,05.Conclusion. The intervention program was successfully implemented in schools and there were many significant and positive effects. These results highlight the importance of multicomponent programs for theprevention of CVD in schools. Additional

  20. Genetic risk factors for the development of osteonecrosis in children under age 10 treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, Seth E; Mattano, Leonard A; Yang, Wenjian; Maloney, Kelly W; Smith, Colton; Liu, ChengCheng; Ramsey, Laura B; Fernandez, Christian A; Chang, Tamara Y; Neale, Geoffrey; Cheng, Cheng; Mardis, Elaine; Fulton, Robert; Scheet, Paul; San Lucas, F Anthony; Larsen, Eric C; Loh, Mignon L; Raetz, Elizabeth A; Hunger, Stephen P; Devidas, Meenakshi; Relling, Mary V

    2016-02-01

    Osteonecrosis is a dose-limiting toxicity in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Prior studies on the genetics of osteonecrosis have focused on patients ≥10 years of age, leaving the genetic risk factors for the larger group of children protocol AALL0331 (NCT00103285, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00103285), with results tested for replication in 817 children protocol AALL0232 (NCT00075725, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00075725). The top replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were near bone morphogenic protein 7 [BMP7: rs75161997, P = 5.34 × 10(-8) (odds ratio [OR] 15.0) and P = .0498 (OR 8.44) in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively] and PROX1-antisense RNA1 (PROX1-AS1: rs1891059, P = 2.28 × 10(-7) [OR 6.48] and P = .0077 [OR 3.78] for the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). The top replicated nonsynonymous SNP, rs34144324, was in a glutamate receptor gene (GRID2, P = 8.65 × 10(-6) [OR 3.46] and P = .0136 [OR 10.8] in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). In a meta-analysis, the BMP7 and PROX1-AS1 variants (rs75161997 and rs1891059, respectively) met the significance threshold of <5 × 10(-8). Top replicated SNPs were enriched in enhancers active in mesenchymal stem cells, and analysis of annotated genes demonstrated enrichment in glutamate receptor and adipogenesis pathways. These data may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis. PMID:26590194

  1. Depressive symptoms are related with hemostatic factors in middle-aged women: A report from the Study of Women Health Across the Nation (SWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby C Castilla

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Depression may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD morbidity and mortality, but the mechanism(s for the association are not established. The present study examined the relationship between one possible mechanism, hemostatic factors, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. Method: We measured levels of fibrinogen, Factor VIIc, plasminogen activator inhibitor antigen-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator antigen (TPA-ag in 3,016 women aged 42-52 years enrolled in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, with scores > 16 suggestive of depression. Results: Depressed women had high levels of all four hemostatic factors ( all p <0 .01. After controlling for age, smoking, ethnicity, prevalent cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, and diabetes, and use of medications (including psychotropics, depressed women still had elevated levels of fibrinogen (mean, 95% confidence intervals 299, 304 – 295 mg/dl vs. 291, 294 – 288mg/dl, p= 0.003 and Factor VIIc (124, 127 – 121 ng/dl vs. 119, 121 – 117 ng/dl, p= 0.01 levels, compared to nondepressed women. Conclusions: These findings suggest that hemostatic factors may be a key mechanismaccounting for the relationship between depression and CHD.

  2. Effects of unpredictable chronic stress on behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in CA3 subfield and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in different aged rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; JI Yong-juan; JIANG Hong; LIU De-xiang; ZHANG Qian; FAN Shu-jian; PAN Fang

    2009-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a stress-responsive intercellular messenger modifying hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The interaction between stress and age in BDNF expression is currently not fully understood. This study was conducted to observe unpredictable stress effect on behavior and BDNF expression in CA3 subfield (CA3) and dentate gyrus of hippocampus in different aged rats. Methods Forty-eight Wistar rats of two different ages (2 months and 15 months) were randomly assigned to six groups: two control groups and four stress groups. The rats in the stress group received three weeks of unpredictable mild stress. The depression state and the stress level of the animals were determined by sucrose preference test and observation of exploratory behavior in an open field (OF) test. The expressions of BDNF in CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were measured using immunohistochemistry. Results Age and stress had different effects on the behavior of different aged animals (age: F=6.173, P <0.05, stress: F=6.056, P <0.05). Stress was the main factor affecting sucrose preference (F=123.608, P <0.05). Decreased sucrose preference and suppressed behavior emerged directly following stress, lasting to at least the eighth day after stress in young animals (P <0.05). The older stress rats showed a lower sucrose preference than young stress rats (P <0.05). Older control rats behaved differently from the younger control animals in the OF test, spending more time in the central square (P <0.05), exhibiting fewer vertical movements (P <0.05) and less grooming (P <0.05). Following exposure to stress, older-aged rats showed no obvious changes in vertical movement and grooming. This indicates that aged rats were in an unexcited state before the stress period, and responded less to stressful stimuli than younger rats. There was significantly lower BDNF expression in the CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus following stress

  3. Analysis of Serum Levels of Anti-Müllerian Hormone, Inhibin B, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I, Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3, and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone with Respect to Age and Menopausal Status

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sun Young; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Noh, Gyung Woon; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kang, Won Jun; Kim, Seok Hyun; Chung, June-Key

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate age-dependent and postmenopausal changes in the serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and to determine which of these markers best reflects the aging process in women. A total of 144 women aged 20-59 yr were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained on cycle day 3 of regularly menstruating women (n=11...

  4. What’s age got to do with it? Accounting for individual factors in second language accent

    OpenAIRE

    Moyer, Alene

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research conducted over the past few decades suggests that the age at which an individual is first exposed to a second language affects long-term outcomes, in particular for phonology. The question that has occupied scholars of various bents is what, exactly, underlies the robust age effects observed. Does age imply immutable changes in one’s ability to ever sound native-like? Are these changes neurological, cognitive, or socio-psychological in nature? What role do L2 ...

  5. Five-Factor Personality Traits and Age Trajectories of Self-Rated Health: The Role of Question Framing

    OpenAIRE

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Terracciano, Antonio; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of personality traits on mean levels and age trends in four single-item measures of self-rated health: General rating, comparison to age peers, comparison to past health, and expectations for future health. Community-dwelling participants (N = 1,683) completed 7,474 self-rated health assessments over a period of up to 19-years. In hierarchical linear modeling analyses, age-associated declines differed across the four health items. Across age groups, high neuroticism ...

  6. An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jurczak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods: The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05. There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1 The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2 A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone and depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3 AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve.

  7. Prevalence and associated risk factors of under nutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in internally displaced persons of jalozai camp, District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The magnitude of under nutrition among children below five years of age is high in Pakistan. Undernutrition and infections are the two most important factors that affect the growth of children. This study explains the extent of undernutrition and prevalence of wasting and stunting among preschool children. Method: This cross sectional study with a sample size of 446 covered the age group 6-59 months in Jalozai Camp, District Nowshera. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height were measured as per WHO guidelines. Systematic random sampling technique was used for sample selection. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Results: According to height for age Z-score, out of 446 children studied, 8.5 percentage were stunted and 4.0 percentage were severely stunted. According to weight for age Z score, 11.4 percentage were underweight and 3.6 percentage were severely underweight. According to weight for height Z-score, 4.0 percentage were wasted and 2.7 percentage were severely wasted. Conclusion: The undernutrition in children is comparable to the national figures. Although our study found that absence of formal education, big family size, late and early weaning, absence of exclusive breast feeding and poverty were the factors associated with undernutrition in children, they could cause increase in under nutrition in future if not improved. (author)

  8. Snapshots of Children's Changing Biases during Language Development: Differential Weighting of Perceptual and Linguistic Factors Predicts Noun Age of Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Christopher H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Reilly, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Word learning is a lifelong activity constrained by cognitive biases that people possess at particular points in development. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a psycholinguistic variable that may prove useful toward gauging the relative weighting of different phonological, semantic, and morphological factors at different phases of language acquisition…

  9. Elevated soluble urokinase receptor values in CSF, age and bacterial meningitis infection are independent and additive risk factors of fatal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzanakaki, G; Paparoupa, M; Kyprianou, M;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of cerebrospinal fluid soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) level, infection and age as risk factors for fatal outcome in patients suspected of having meningitis and/or bacteraemia on admission to hospital. A total of 545 cerebrospinal...

  10. Sequential treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor and parathyroid hormone restores lost cancellous bone mass and strength in the proximal tibia of aged ovariectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, T.J.; Ratkus, A.M.; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Vulcan, Q.; Mosekilde, Lis

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether sequential treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) can restore lost cancellous bone mass and strength at a severely osteopenic skeletal site in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were s...

  11. IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle-age and later coronary heart disease mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G; Shipley, Martin; Mortensen, Laust;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Examine the relation between IQ in early adulthood and later coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, and assess the extent to which established risk factors measured in middle-age might explain this gradient. DESIGN: Cohort study of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel with IQ...

  12. Associations among Risk Factors, Individual Resources, and Indices of School-Related Asthma Morbidity in Urban, School-Aged Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Daphne Koinis; Adams, Sue K.; Murdock, Karla Klein

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model including examples of risk and resource factors associated with indices of school-related asthma morbidity (eg, missed sleep, participation in activities, school absences) in a group of urban, school-aged children with asthma from ethnic minority backgrounds. Specifically, the current longitudinal study…

  13. Changes in the insulin-like growth factor-system may contribute to in vitro age-related impaired osteoblast functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Marie; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Rattan, Suresh;

    2000-01-01

    Age-related bone loss is thought to be due to impaired osteoblast functions. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have been shown to be important stimulators of bone formation and osteoblast activities in vitro and in vivo. We tested the hypothesis that in vitro osteoblast senescence is associated ...

  14. Jump into the Void? Factors Related to a Preferred Retirement Age: Gender, Social Interests, and Leisure Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaisen, Magnhild; Thorsen, Kirsten; Eriksen, Sissel H.

    2012-01-01

    Using the frameworks of the life course perspective and continuity theory, this study focuses on the association among working people between gender and specific leisure activities, social interests and individuals' preferred retirement age. The study is based on the first wave of the Norwegian Life Course, Aging and Generation (NorLAG) study,…

  15. Behavioural changes are a major contributing factor in the reduction of sarcopenia in caloric-restricted ageing mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norren, van K.; Rusli, F.; Dijk, van M.; Lute, C.; Nagel, J.C.; Dijk, F.J.; Dwarkasing, J.T.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Luiking, Y.; Witkamp, R.F.; Müller, M.R.; Steegenga, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background - In rodent models, caloric restriction (CR) with maintenance of adequate micronutrient supply has been reported to increase lifespan and to reduce age-induced muscle loss (sarcopenia) during ageing. In the present study, we further investigated effects of CR on the onset and severity of

  16. An IGF-I promoter polymorphism modifies the relationships between birth weight and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes at age 36

    OpenAIRE

    Stehouwer Coen DA; van de Waal Henriette; Twisk Jos WR; Voorhoeve Paul G; van Rossum Elisabeth FC; te Velde Saskia J; van Mechelen Willem; Lamberts Steven WJ; Kemper Han CG

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate whether IGF-I promoter polymorphism was associated with birth weight and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and whether the birth weight – risk factor relationship was the same for each genotype. Design and participants 264 subjects (mean age 36 years) had data available on birth weight, IGF-I promoter polymorphism genotype, CVD and T2DM risk factors. Student's t-test and regression analyses were applied to analyse diffe...

  17. Risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women whose age is less than 40 years: a case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Hasswane, Nadia; Kerbach, Aicha; Aguenaou, Hassan; Taboz, Youness; Benkirane, Hassna; Mrabet, Mustapha; Amina, Barkat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in morocco women were it occupies the first place in term of incidence and mortality. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women. Methods A case-control study was conducted with population women whose age is less than 40 years during 2008-2010 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. These women were interviewed for Epidemiological information and risk factor for breast cancer. Results Included in this study were 124 cases and 148 age matched controls. No statistically significant case-control difference was found for the early age of menarche (OR = 2.474; CI 95%: 1.354- 4.521), and family antecedents of first degree of breast cancer (OR = 11.556; 95% CI: 2.548-52.411). However physical activity (OR = 0.507; 95% CI: 0.339 -0.757) early maternity age (OR = 0.212; 95% CI: 0.087 - 0.514), multiparity (OR = 0.742; 95% CI: 0.359 -1.539) and breastfeeding than 6 months (OR = 0.739; 95% CI: 0.357 -1.523) appear as significant protective factors. Conclusion This study show the criminalization of only part of the known risk factors of breast cancer in this age group and confirms the probable protective role of physical activity and factors related to life reproductive women in our study (early childbearing, multiparity and lactation).

  18. Skin aging:

    OpenAIRE

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2008-01-01

    There are two main processes that induce skin aging: intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies random cell damage as a result of mutations during metabolic processes due to the production of free radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, air pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. Intrinsicaging reflects the genetic background and depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging include smooth, ...

  19. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE STUDY ON COMPLIMENTARY FEEDS FACTORS INFLUENCING AGE OF COMPLIMENTARY FEEDS AND EFFECT ON GRO W TH OF CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge & attitude regarding complimentary feeds among mothers with children 6 - 24 months of age. To know various factors influencing age of complimentary feeds. Age of complimentary feeds started and its effect on growth of the child. METHODS: 500 mothers were interviewed with children 6 - 24 months of age attending OPD . Data was collected using a self - administered, semi - stru ctured questionnaire with the mothers regarding knowledge, attitude of complimentary feeds and factors influencing age of complimentary feeds like, education, occupation, socio - economic status, religion and residence. The growth of child was assessed by re cording weight and length, and classified according to WHO criterion by using WHO Anthro software. RESULTS: Knowledge and attitude were assessed in 500 mothers. The m ean age of complimentary feeds wa s 8.24±2.79 months. 23% of mothers started complimentary feeds at 6 months of age . I lliterate mothers, low socio - economic group and rural mothers tend to wean late (p0.05. 34.1%, 34.5% and 23.8% of children were under weight, stunt ed and wasted respectively. There wa s significant association between delayed complimentary feeds and malnutrition of the child. CONCLUSION: Mothers knowledge rega rding complimentary feeds time wa s inadequate and practices i nappropriate, majority of them w e re not aware of current recommendations. M ean age of complimentary feeds wa s delayed due to improper information, false beliefs and attitudes, illiteracy, low socio - economic status and rural mothers, thus leading to malnutrition of the child. Hence, accurate information and education should be given to mothers and caregivers about timely complimentary feeds, complimentary feeds foods, preparation and practice to prevent malnutrition and improve the health status of the children KEYWORDS: Complimentar y feeds; Attitude; Practices; Complementary feeding; Mothers knowledge; Malnutrition.

  20. Extending employment beyond the pensionable age: a cohort study of the influence of chronic diseases, health risk factors, and working conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Virtanen

    Full Text Available In response to the economic consequences of ageing of the population, governments are seeking ways with which people might work into older age. We examined the association of working conditions and health with extended employment (defined as >6 months beyond the pensionable age in a cohort of older, non-disabled employees who have reached old-age retirement.A total of 4,677 Finnish employees who reached their old-age pensionable date between 2005 and 2011 (mean age 59.8 years in 2005, 73% women had their survey responses before pensionable age linked to national health and pension registers, resulting in a prospective cohort study.In all, 832 participants (17.8% extended their employment by more than 6 months beyond the pensionable date. After multivariable adjustment, the following factors were associated with extended employment: absence of diagnosed mental disorder (OR 1.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.54 and psychological distress (OR 1.68; 1.35-2.08 and of the work characteristics, high work time control (OR 2.31; 1.88-2.84. The projected probability of extended employment was 21.3% (19.5-23.1 among those free of psychiatric morbidity and with high work time control, while the corresponding probability was only 9.2% (7.4-11.4 among those with both psychiatric morbidity and poor work time control. The contribution of chronic somatic diseases was modest.In the present study, good mental health in combination with the opportunity to control work time seem to be key factors in extended employment into older age. In addition, high work time control might promote work life participation irrespective of employees' somatic disease status.

  1. Association of parental history of type 2 diabetes with age, lifestyle, anthropometric factors, and clinical severity at type 2 diabetes diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Berencsi, Klara; Sander, Simone;

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes cohort. We examined the prevalence ratios (PR) of demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, and clinical factors according to parental history, using Poisson regression adjusting for age and gender. RESULTS: Of 2825 T2D patients, 34% (n = 964) had a parental history of T2D. Parental......BACKGROUND: We investigated whether parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with age, lifestyle, anthropometric factors, and clinical severity at the time of T2D diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in...... diabetes complications or comorbidities at T2D diagnosis was not associated with parental history. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of an association between parental history and adverse lifestyle factors indicates that T2D patients do not inherit a particular propensity for overeating or inactivity, whereas patients...

  2. Age- and Sex-related Risk Factors for Influenza-associated Mortality in the United States Between 1997–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Quandelacy, Talia M.; Viboud, Cecile; Charu, Vivek; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Limited information on age- and sex-specific estimates of influenza-associated death with different underlying causes is currently available. We regressed weekly age- and sex-specific US mortality outcomes underlying several causes between 1997 and 2007 to incidence proxies for influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and B that combine data on influenzalike illness consultations and respiratory specimen testing, adjusting for seasonal baselines and time trends. Adults older than 75 years of age had the hig...

  3. Circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor and indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Golden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Besides its well-established role in nerve cell survival and adaptive plasticity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is also involved in energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Although BDNF is present in the systemic circulation, it is unknown whether plasma BDNF correlates with circulating markers of dysregulated metabolism and an adverse cardiovascular profile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether circulating BDNF correlates with indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health, we measured plasma BDNF levels in 496 middle-age and elderly subjects (mean age approximately 70, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Linear regression analysis revealed that plasma BDNF is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, regardless of age. In females, BDNF was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, and inversely correlated with folate. In males, BDNF was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, free thiiodo-thyronine (FT3, and bioavailable testosterone, and inversely correlated with sex-hormone binding globulin, and adiponectin. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Plasma BDNF significantly correlates with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular dysfunction. Whether BDNF contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders or functions in adaptive responses to cellular stress (as occurs in the brain remains to be determined.

  4. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  5. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses...

  6. Core features of suicide. Gender, age, alcohol and other putative risk factors in a low-incidence population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, August G; Stórá, Tormódur

    2009-01-01

    25-64 years, unmarried, divorced and alcohol intoxicated. The main conclusion was that a low-incidence population of suicide population confirmed some supposed core features of the suicide phenomenon. Others, related to age and psychiatric disorders, were only partially confirmed. In periods of...... increase, the most vulnerable were the young and middle-aged males, unmarried, divorced, and alcohol played a crucial role....

  7. Core features of suicide. Gender, age, alcohol and other putative risk factors in a low-incidence population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stora, T.; Wang, August Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    25-64 years, unmarried, divorced and alcohol intoxicated. The main conclusion was that a low-incidence population of suicide population confirmed some supposed core features of the suicide phenomenon. Others, related to age and psychiatric disorders, were only partially confirmed. In periods of...... increase, the most vulnerable were the young and middle-aged males, unmarried, divorced, and alcohol played a crucial role Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/10...

  8. Age-specific risk factor profiles of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus: A pooled analysis from the international BEACON consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahos, Jennifer; Xiao, Qian; Risch, Harvey A; Freedman, Neal D; Abnet, Christian C; Anderson, Lesley A; Bernstein, Leslie; Brown, Linda; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gammon, Marilie D; Kamangar, Farin; Liao, Linda M; Murray, Liam J; Ward, Mary H; Ye, Weimin; Wu, Anna H; Vaughan, Thomas L; Whiteman, David C; Cook, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal (EA) and esophagogastric junction (EGJA) adenocarcinoma have been steadily increasing in frequency in younger people; however, the etiology of these cancers is poorly understood. We therefore investigated associations of body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, gastroesophageal reflux and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in relation to age-specific risks of EA and EGJA. We pooled individual participant data from eight population-based, case-control studies within the international Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON). The analysis included 1,363 EA patients, 1,472 EGJA patients and 5,728 control participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for age-specific (<50, 50-59, 60-69, ≥70 years) cancer outcomes, as well as interactions by age. BMI, smoking status and pack-years, recurrent gastroesophageal reflux and frequency of gastroesophageal reflux were positively associated with EA and EGJA in each age group. Early-onset EA (<50 years) had stronger associations with recurrent gastroesophageal reflux (OR = 8.06, 95% CI: 4.52, 14.37; peffect modification  = 0.01) and BMI (ORBMI ≥ 30 vs . <25  = 4.19, 95% CI: 2.23, 7.87; peffect modification  = 0.04), relative to older age groups. In contrast, inverse associations of NSAID use were strongest in the oldest age group (≥70 years), although this apparent difference was not statistically significant. Age-specific associations with EGJA showed similar, but slightly weaker patterns and no statistically significant differences by age were observed. Our study provides evidence that associations between obesity and gastroesophageal reflux are stronger among earlier onset EA cancers. PMID:26175109

  9. A comparative study of age-related hearing loss in wild type and insulin-like growth factor I deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Riquelme

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I belongs to the family of insulin-related peptides that fulfils a key role during the late development of the nervous system. Human IGF1 mutations cause profound deafness, poor growth and mental retardation. Accordingly, Igf1−/− null mice are dwarfs that have low survival rates, cochlear alterations and severe sensorineural deafness. Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss is a common disorder associated with aging that causes social and cognitive problems. Aging is also associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I levels and this reduction has been related to cognitive and brain alterations, although there is no information as yet regarding the relationship between presbycusis and IGF-I biodisponibility. Here we present a longitudinal study of wild type Igf1+/+ and null Igf1−/− mice from 2 to 12 months of age comparing the temporal progression of several parameters: hearing, brain morphology, cochlear cytoarchitecture, insulin-related factors and IGF gene expression and IGF-I serum levels. Complementary invasive and non-invasive techniques were used, including auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR recordings and in vivo MRI brain imaging. Igf1−/− null mice presented profound deafness at all the ages studied, without any obvious worsening of hearing parameters with aging. Igf1+/+ wild type mice suffered significant age-related hearing loss, their auditory thresholds and peak I latencies augmenting as they aged, in parallel with a decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-I. Accordingly, there was an age-related spiral ganglion degeneration in wild type mice that was not evident in the Igf1 null mice. However, the Igf1−/− null mice in turn developed a prematurely aged stria vascularis reminiscent of the diabetic strial phenotype. Our data indicate that IGF-I is required for the correct development and maintenance of hearing, supporting the idea that IGF-I-based therapies could contribute to

  10. Association between Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study from 2003 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Chao, Jane C-J

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality and loss of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries. This study derived a dietary pattern using an a priori method and additionally derived dietary patterns using a posteriori methods, and assessed the relationship with CVD risk factors in Taiwanese middle-aged and elderly adults. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of 62,965 subjects aged 40 years and above from the Mei Jau (MJ) database collected between 2003 and 2012 in Taiwan. Diet was assessed using a 22 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using this information, three dietary patterns were generated. The a priori diet was labeled the Taiwanese dietary pattern and was derived using hypothesized effect of 22 food groups, while two a posteriori dietary patterns, “vegi-fruits” and “meat-processed”, were derived using principal component analysis. The association between dietary patterns and a range of CVD risk factors (i.e. blood lipids, blood glucose and C-reactive protein) was evaluated using linear regression. Results The results showed that high intake (Q5, quintile 5) of Taiwanese diet was negatively associated with CVD risk factors at (p meat-processed dietary pattern (Q5) was positively associated with CVD risk factors (p meat-processed dietary pattern and CVD risk factors. The findings suggested that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits has a beneficial effect in the management of CVD risk factors. PMID:27366909

  11. Socioeconomic Status and Overweight Prevalence in Polish Adolescents: The Impact of Single Factors and a Complex Index of Socioeconomic Status in Respect to Age and Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kowalkowska; Lidia Wadolowska; Justyna Weronika Wuenstel; Małgorzata Anna Słowińska; Ewa Niedźwiedzka

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and ag...

  12. Association between fish and shellfish, and omega-3 PUFAs intake and CVD risk factors in middle-aged female patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyesook; Park, Seokyung; Yang, Hyesu; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum; Chang, Namsoo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the association between the dietary intake of fish and shellfish, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the middle-aged Korean female patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). SUBJECTS/METHODS A cross-sectional analysis was performed with 356 female patients (means age: 55.5 years), who were recruited from the Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul, Korea between 2005 and 2011. The diet...

  13. Socioeconomic status and overweight prevalence in polish adolescents: the impact of single factors and a complex index of socioeconomic status in respect to age and sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kowalkowska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex.This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards.The odds ratio (OR for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P < 0.05 by Polish standards and 0.22 (95%CI:0.05-0.95; P < 0.05 by international standards, in comparison to the reference group (low SESI. In total girls who had mothers with higher education level, the OR adjusted for age was 0.44 (95%CI:0.21-0.90; P <0.05 by Polish standards and 0.35 (95%CI:0.15-0.81; P < 0.05 by international standards, in comparison to the reference group (maternal elementary education. The other single SES factors were not significant for overweight prevalence.The relationship between socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls.

  14. Influence of Biomedical Factors on the Five Viscera Score (FVS on Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals: Application of Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Tomura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The five viscera score (FVS is a diagnostic scale for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. The purposes of current study are to elucidate the characteristics of FVS obtained from middle-aged to elderly individuals and to investigate the validity of FVS using biological medical data of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to conduct assessments between FVS and medical data. Eighty men and 99 women participated in this study, whose mean ages (SD were 58 ± 7 years in both genders showing no significant difference. FVS of women was significantly higher than that of men in the spleen of the 50s (P=0.019 and liver of the 60s age group (P=0.030. By SEM, the following biomedical factors were found to influence viscera: gender, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-C for the liver; GLU, GOT, and γ-GTP for the spleen; age, BMI, and HCRP for the lungs; and HbA1c and creatinine clearance for the kidneys. These results provide objective evidence that FVS can be used for TCM diagnosis in middle-aged and elderly individuals.

  15. Age-specific Prevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis A in Children and Adolescents from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1978 and 1995: Relationship of Prevalence to Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia L Vitral

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV was determined in two different population groups with low socio-economic status from Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, whose serum samples were collected 17 years apart (Population 1, 1978; Population 2, 1995. In Population 2, analysis of the anti-HAV prevalence was also carried out with respect to environmental factors. Population 1 was composed of 520 stored sera collected from the umbilical cord of term neonates and children aged 1 month to 6 years. In population 2, 720 serum samples were collected from children and adolescents with ages ranging from 1 to 23 years. The overall prevalence rate of anti-HAV in Population 1 and Population 2 was 65.6% and 32.1%, respectively. In Population 1, the anti-HAV prevalence reached 88% at the age of 3, while in Population 2, it increased from 4.5% in children under the age of 3 to 66% in the group of adolescents over the age of 14. The low exposure to HAV infection in younger children from Population 2 could be a result of improved environmental hygiene and sanitation, as demonstrated by the presence of piped water, waste and sewage disposal systems in most houses from this population group. These findings indicate a possible change in the prevalence of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro

  16. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Bernardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.

  17. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and correlated risk factors in preschool and school-aged children in rural Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Wang

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of 1707 children in 141 impoverished rural areas of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces in Southwest China. Kato-Katz smear testing of stool samples elucidated the prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections in pre-school and school aged children. Demographic, hygiene, household and anthropometric data were collected to better understand risks for infection in this population. 21.2 percent of pre-school children and 22.9 percent of school aged children were infected with at least one of the three types of STH. In Guizhou, 33.9 percent of pre-school children were infected, as were 40.1 percent of school aged children. In Sichuan, these numbers were 9.7 percent and 6.6 percent, respectively. Number of siblings, maternal education, consumption of uncooked meat, consumption of unboiled water, and livestock ownership all correlated significantly with STH infection. Through decomposition analysis, we determined that these correlates made up 26.7 percent of the difference in STH infection between the two provinces. Multivariate analysis showed that STH infection is associated with significantly lower weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores; moreover, older children infected with STHs lag further behind on the international growth scales than younger children.

  18. Older age at ifrst birth is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Jing Luo; Rui-Hua Feng; Xiao-Wan Wang; Fu-Zhi Wang

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some studies found that age at ifrst birth is associated with pancreatic cancer; others did not. The present meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between age at ifrst birth and pancreatic cancer in women. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Co-chrane Library for relevant publications on age at ifrst birth and pancreatic cancer up to April, 2014. The eligible studies (six cohorts and ifve case-controls) were independently select-ed by two authors. Pooled relative risk (RR) estimates and cor-responding 95% conifdence interval (95% CI) were calculated using the inverse-variance method. RESULTS: The pooled RR of pancreatic cancer risk for the highest versus lowest categories of age at ifrst birth was 1.21 (95% CI: 1.01-1.45,P=0.314,I2=13.7%). Consistent relation-ships were also observed within subgroup analyses stratiifed by study design, geographic region, and whether the studies included adjustment for cigarette smoking, diabetes, or all of the confounders. In this meta-analysis, no publication bias among studies was observed using Egger’s test (P=0.383) or Begg’s test (P=0.436). CONCLUSION: Our ifndings suggest that older age at ifrst birth is associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in women and the exact functional mechanism needs further investigation.

  19. Treatment with a corticotrophin releasing factor 2 receptor agonist modulates skeletal muscle mass and force production in aged and chronically ill animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Leonardo F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle weakness is associated with a variety of chronic disorders such as emphysema (EMP and congestive heart failure (CHF as well as aging. Therapies to treat muscle weakness associated with chronic disease or aging are lacking. Corticotrophin releasing factor 2 receptor (CRF2R agonists have been shown to maintain skeletal muscle mass and force production in a variety of acute conditions that lead to skeletal muscle wasting. Hypothesis We hypothesize that treating animals with a CRF2R agonist will maintain skeletal muscle mass and force production in animals with chronic disease and in aged animals. Methods We utilized animal models of aging, CHF and EMP to evaluate the potential of CRF2R agonist treatment to maintain skeletal muscle mass and force production in aged animals and animals with CHF and EMP. Results In aged rats, we demonstrate that treatment with a CRF2R agonist for up to 3 months results in greater extensor digitorum longus (EDL force production, EDL mass, soleus mass and soleus force production compared to age matched untreated animals. In the hamster EMP model, we demonstrate that treatment with a CRF2R agonist for up to 5 months results in greater EDL force production in EMP hamsters when compared to vehicle treated EMP hamsters and greater EDL mass and force in normal hamsters when compared to vehicle treated normal hamsters. In the rat CHF model, we demonstrate that treatment with a CRF2R agonist for up to 3 months results in greater EDL and soleus muscle mass and force production in CHF rats and normal rats when compared to the corresponding vehicle treated animals. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the underlying physiological conditions associated with chronic diseases such as CHF and emphysema in addition to aging do not reduce the potential of CRF2R agonists to maintain skeletal muscle mass and force production.

  20. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs - Occurrence and management associated risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2006-01-01

    To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and...... Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age...

  1. The relationship between maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGFBP-3 to gestational age and preterm delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 1650 low-risk Caucasian women in a London University teaching hospital. Maternal IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 were measured in maternal blood at booking and analyzed with respect to gestational age at delivery. RESULTS: There was no significant association between maternal IGF-1 or IGF-2 and preterm birth (PTB). A significant reduction in mean IGFBP-3 levels was noted with delivery <32 completed weeks (P=0.02). CONCLUSION: Maternal mean IGFBP-3 levels are significantly reduced in cases complicated by delivery <32 completed weeks.

  2. Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Age Related Macular Degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Y Yip

    Full Text Available To examine the cross sectional and longitudinal relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD in a large British cohort study.The EPIC Norfolk Eye study is nested in a larger prospective cohort study. Data on cardiovascular risk factors were collected at baseline (1993-1997 and follow up (2006-2011 via clinical examination, validated lifestyle questionnaires and serum blood samples. AMD was ascertained using standardised grading of fundus photographs at the follow up. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline and follow up risk factors with AMD.5,344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623 of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD in participants with mean age of 67.4 years old (range 44-91 at diagnosis. There were 28 cases of late AMD (0.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI=0.3-0.8% and 645 cases of early AMD (12.1%, 95%CI=11.2-13.0.%. In multivariable analysis, older people with higher levels of baseline high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C and C-reactive protein (CRP were more likely to have any signs of AMD, after adjusting for sex, education, smoking, and systolic blood pressure. In cross sectional analysis, only older age and higher HDL were significantly associated with AMD.We have found that older age and higher levels of CRP and HDL-C were associated with increased odds of AMD in this population in the longitudinal analysis, but older age and HDL-C, not CRP was significantly associated with AMD in the cross sectional analysis. The prevalence of AMD in this cohort was low compared to other cohorts in Europe, the US and Australia, and probably reflects the some selection biases in follow up participation as well as the low rate of smoking among our healthy participants.

  3. Sociological study of affecting factors on young offender's deviant behavior Aged 15 to 24 years old (Case study of young offenders in prison in Shiraz)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jamalzadeh; Hemmat Ali Heydari

    2014-01-01

    this study is implemented to evaluate affecting factors on the deviant behavior of young offenders aged 15 to 24 years old. The  statically population of this study, is all 15 to 24 years old offenders on the city's jails that randomly out of 254 cases that, by using Cochran formula and Lin table is calculated  , were interviewed using a questionnaire. In this study, Social discrimination is one of the main factors on the deviant behavior of youth from the perspective of the studied subjects ...

  4. Zinc-induced self-association of complement C3b and Factor H: implications for inflammation and age-related macular degeneration.

    OpenAIRE

    Nan, R.; Tetchner, S; Rodriguez, E.; Pao, P. J.; Gor, J.; Lengyel, I; Perkins, S J

    2013-01-01

    The sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits (sRPEds) that are a hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) contain both C3b and mM levels of zinc. C3 is the central protein of complement, while C3u is formed by the spontaneous hydrolysis of the thioester bridge in C3. During activation, C3 is cleaved to form active C3b, then C3b is inactivated by Factor I and Factor H to form the C3c and C3d fragments. The interaction of zinc with C3 was quantified using analytical ultracentrifugation...

  5. Diarrhoea prevalence in children under five years of age in rural Burundi: an assessment of social and behavioural factors at the household level

    OpenAIRE

    Diouf, Katharina; Tabatabai, Patrik; Rudolph, Jochen; Marx, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Low- and middle-income countries are particularly burdened with this both preventable and treatable condition. Targeted interventions include the provision of safe water, the use of sanitation facilities and hygiene education, but are implemented with varying local success.Objective: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with diarrhoea in children under five years of age in rural Burundi.Design: A ...

  6. Prevalence and associated factors of goiter among rural children aged 6-12 years old in Northwest Ethiopia, cross -sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mesele, Molla; Degu, Getu; Gebrehiwot, Haimanot

    2014-01-01

    Background Goiter, an indicator of chronic iodine deficiency, is a major public health problem for populations living with iodine deficient environment, particularly for young children. It is a threat to the social and economic development of many developing countries including Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of goiter among rural children aged 6-12 years, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was employed from J...

  7. Citation Advantage For OA Self-Archiving Is Independent of Journal Impact Factor, Article Age, and Number of Co-Authors

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjem, Chawki; Harnad, Stevan

    2007-01-01

    Eysenbach has suggested that the OA (Green) self-archiving advantage might just be an artifact of potential uncontrolled confounding factors such as article age (older articles may be both more cited and more likely to be self-archived), number of authors (articles with more authors might be more cited and more self-archived), subject matter (the subjects that are cited more, self-archive more), country (same thing), number of authors, citation counts of authors, etc. Chawki Hajjem (doctoral ...

  8. Nocturnal enuresis: prevalence and risk factors among school-aged children with sickle-cell anaemia in a South-east Nigerian city

    OpenAIRE

    Eneh, Chizoma I.; Okafor, Henrietta U.; Ikefuna, Anthony N; Uwaezuoke, Samuel N

    2015-01-01

    Background Sickle-cell anaemia (SCA) is the most common inherited haemoglobinopathy affecting the Negroid race. Renal complications such as enuresis can occur during childhood. Reports show that children and adolescents with SCA may be at a higher risk of nocturnal enuresis than their counterparts with normal haemoglobin genotype. Aims The study aims to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and possible risk factors among school-aged children with SCA in a South-east Nigerian city. M...

  9. Cigarette smoking and male sex are independent and age concomitant risk factors for the development of ocular sarcoidosis in a new orleans sarcoidosis population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, Adam C.; Huscher, Dörte; Walker, McCall; Grewal, Harmanjot K.; Yu, Mary; Lammi, Matthew R.; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ system granulomatous disease of unknown origin with an incidence of 1–40/100,000. Though pulmonary manifestations are predominant, ocular sarcoidosis (OS) affects 25–50% of patients with sarcoidosis and can lead to blindness. Methods A retrospective, single-center chart review of sarcoidosis cases investigated variables associated with the development of OS. Inclusion criteria were biopsy-proven sarcoidosis, disease duration greater than 1 year, documented smoking status on chart review and documentation of sarcoid-related eye disease. Multivariate analysis identified independent risk factors for OS. Results Of 269 charts reviewed, 109 patients met inclusion criteria. The OS group had a significantly higher proportion of smokers (71.4%) than without OS (42.0%, p=0.027) with no difference (p=0.61) in median number of pack years. Male sex was significantly higher in the OS group (57.1% versus 26.1%, p=0.009). Median duration of sarcoidosis was higher in the OS group (10 versus 4 years, p=0.031). Multivariate regression identified tobacco exposure (OR=5.25, p=0.007, 95% CI 1.58–17.41), male sex (OR=7.48, p=0.002, 95% CI 2.15–26.01), and age (OR=1.114, p=0.002, 95% CI 1.04–1.19) as concomitant risk factors for the development of OS. Conclusion To date, there are few dedicated investigations of risk factors for OS, especially smoking. This investigation identified male sex, age, and tobacco exposure as independent risk factors for OS. Though disease duration did not withstand regression analysis in this moderately sized group, age at chart review suggests screening for OS should not remit but rather intensify in aging patients with sarcoidosis. PMID:26278693

  10. Joint Association of Sitting Time and Physical Activity with Metabolic Risk Factors among Middle-Aged Malays in a Developing Country: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Anne H. Y.; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background Prolonged sitting is associated with increased weight and higher risks for abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension among the adult population. This has been well documented in the West, but studies on these associations are lacking in developing countries, including Malaysia. Objective This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the joint association of sitting time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged working adults. Methodo...

  11. Age-related macular degeneration: Prevalence and risk factors - a cross-sectional study : The Tromsø Study 2007/2008

    OpenAIRE

    Erke, Maja Gran

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an important cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. The number of people affected by the disease is expected to rise due to increasing longevity. Development of adequate eye care for these patients should be based on knowledge about the prevalence of AMD. Further, preventive measures are the best strategy for any disease. The aims of this thesis were to estimate the prevalence of AMD and examine risk factors associated with AMD. ...

  12. An investigation of factors identified at birth in relation to anxiety and depression in old age: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

    OpenAIRE

    Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Stewart, Robert; Mykletun, Arnstein; Knapstad, Marit; Øverland, Simon Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although life course influences have long been recognised in affective disorder, little is known about the influence of early life factors on late life anxiety and depression. The aim was to investigate the extent to which birth measures, maternal health and family circumstances were associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in late life.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was constructed from a cross-sectional survey sample of community residents aged...

  13. Effectiveness of exercise intervention and health promotion on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men: a protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    From, Svetlana; Liira, Helena; Leppävuori, Jenni; Remes-Lyly, Taina; Tikkanen, Heikki; Pitkälä, Kaisu

    2013-01-01

    Background Although cardiovascular disease has decreased, there is still potential for prevention as obesity and diabetes increase. Exercise has a positive effect on many cardiovascular risk factors, and it can significantly reduce the components of metabolic syndrome. The main challenge with exercise in primary care is how to succeed in motivating the patients at risk to change and increase their exercise habits. The objective of this study is to modify the cardiovascular risk in middle-aged...

  14. In patients with myelodysplastic syndromes with del(5q), factors other than age and sex contribute to the prognostic advantage, which diminishes over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauseker, Michael; Schemenau, Jennifer; Strupp, Corinna; Kündgen, Andrea; Gattermann, Norbert; Hasford, Joerg; Germing, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent to which the prognostic advantage of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with del(5q) is due to the more favourable age and sex distribution of patients in that group when compared to other MDS subtypes. A total of 1912 MDS patients from the Duesseldorf registry with less than 5% blasts in the bone marrow were evaluable and had complete covariates. As endpoints, overall survival and progression to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) were considered. Cox models were computed for both outcomes. A multivariate Cox model for survival confirmed higher age and male sex as risk factors. In addition, we found a survival advantage of 9·1 years for MDS del(5q) patients compared to refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia, while the survival advantage of MDS del(5q) over refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia was 18·6 years. Considering progression to AML, we did not find any significant differences between the World Health Organization classification subtypes. Our analyses show that the higher survival probabilities of MDS del(5q) patients are not only due to age and sex, although higher age and male sex were also important risk factors. Interestingly, it seems that the survival advantage of MDS del(5q) decreases over time. PMID:25960152

  15. Subcortical white matter pathology as a mediating factor for age-related decreased performance in dichotic listening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gootjes, Liselotte; Scheltens, Philip; Van Strien, Jan W.; Bouma, Anke

    2007-01-01

    Cortical 'disconnection', involving disruption of white matter tracts in the brain, has been hypothesized as a mechanism of age-related cognitive decline. Diffuse hyperintensities in the white matter (so called white matter hyperintensities, WMH) on T2-weighted MRI scans are regarded to represent is

  16. Indications of CT scan after minor head trauma in children. Can age younger than 2 years be a risk factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indications of CT scan after minor head trauma in children are often discussed, including risks of radiation-induced malignancy. Our aim is to identify whether children younger than 2 years have greater risk of traumatic brain injury compared to older children. We enrolled and analysed 1,830 patients younger than 7 years who underwent CT scans after head trauma in our institute. Patients without any symptoms (n=916) were defined as Group A (age<2: n=391, age 2-6: n=525). Patients with extracranial traumatic findings such as scalp hematoma or laceration, and without any neurological symptoms (n=600) were defined as Group B (age<2: n=163, age 2-6: n=437). In order to analyze whether children younger than 2 years have risks of abnormal CT findings due to head trauma, we used the chi-square test in both Group A and Group B. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. In Group A, there was no significant difference in the frequency of abnormal CT findings between the younger and older groups (p=0.526). In Group B, however, there was a significant difference between those groups (p=0.0186). We suggest that, based on our findings, children younger than 2 years without any symptoms don't have a greater risk of brain injury compared to older children after minor head trauma. This study might contribute to save those children from receiving unnecessary radiation. (author)

  17. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225

  18. Comparative analysis of characteristics and risk factors of traffic injury in aged people from urban and rural areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang; ZHOU Ji-hong; QIU Jun; ZHANG Xiu-zhu; YUAN Dan-feng; GAO Zhi-ming; DAI Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among people over 60 years old in the Nan' an district(urban)and Jiangjin district(rural)of Chongqing,and to discuss the corresponding strategies for its prevention and cure.Methods:Records of traffic injuries in people over 60 years old registered by the traffic police between 2000 and 2006 in Nan'an district and Jiangjin district were collected in the Database of Road Traffic Accidents and Traffic Injuries.Epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among the aged people were analyzed and compared.Results:Between the year 2000 and 2006,the average annual incidence of traffic injuries and mortality rate in the aged people in Nan' an district were 124.62/100 000 and 13.85/100 000 respectively,higher than that in Jiangjin district(27.49/100 000,7.13/100 000,P<0.01).However,the mortality rate for the aged people who were involved in traffic injuries in Jiangjin district was 20.60%,higher than that in Nan'an district(10.00%,P<0.01).Head injury was the primary cause of death.Totally 76.58% of casualties were pedestrians.Over 90% of the traffic accidents occurred in the areas with no traffic signal or traffic control system.Conclusions:The traffic environment is unfavorable to the aged people.It is important to enhance traffic safety consciousness of drivers and the elderly and to strengthen traffic safety system and traffic law,so as to provide a safe road traffic environment for the aged people.

  19. An IGF-I promoter polymorphism modifies the relationships between birth weight and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes at age 36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehouwer Coen DA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate whether IGF-I promoter polymorphism was associated with birth weight and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and whether the birth weight – risk factor relationship was the same for each genotype. Design and participants 264 subjects (mean age 36 years had data available on birth weight, IGF-I promoter polymorphism genotype, CVD and T2DM risk factors. Student's t-test and regression analyses were applied to analyse differences in birth weight and differences in the birth weight – risk factors relationship between the genotypes. Results Male variant carriers (VCs of the IGF-I promoter polymorphism had a 0.2 kg lower birth weight than men with the wild type allele (p = 0.009. Of the risk factors for CVD and T2DM, solely LDL concentration was associated with the genotype for the polymorphism. Most birth weight – risk factor relationships were stronger in the VC subjects; among others the birth weight – systolic blood pressure relationship: 1 kg lower birth weight was related to an 8.0 mmHg higher systolic blood pressure Conclusion The polymorphism in the promoter region of the IGF-I gene is related to birth weight in men only, and to LDL concentration only. Furthermore, the genotype for this polymorphism modified the relationships between birth weight and the risk factors, especially for systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  20. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Design Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence. PMID:26950567

  1. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oanh Thi Hoang Trinh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective: This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Design: Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011 with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results: Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%. Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion: Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.

  2. Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Men and Women Aged 40 Years and Older in a Rural Area of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Kusano, Yosuke; Takamura, Noboru; Abe, Yasuyo; Osaki, Makoto; Une, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most common health problems, and is recognized worldwide as an "escalating epidemic." For the establishment of an obesity-prevention strategy in Japan, it is important to assess the association between obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we conducted anthropometric measures of obesity and investigated the association of obesity with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia among community-dwelling men (N=85) and women (...

  3. Age-related guanine nucleotide exchange factor, mouse Zizimin2, induces filopodia in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sakabe Isamu; Asai Azusa; Iijima Junko; Maruyama Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We recently isolated and identified Zizimin2 as a functional factor that is highly expressed in murine splenic germinal center B cells after immunization with T-cell-dependent antigen. Zizimin2 was revealed to be a new family member of Dock (dedicator of cytokinesis), Dock11, which is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42, a low-molecular-weight GTPase. However, the molecular function of Zizimin2 in acquired immunity has not been elucidated. Results In this stud...

  4. Effect of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Human Placental Explants Infected with Toxoplasma gondii Depends on Gestational Age

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Gomes, Angelica; de Oliveira Silva, Deise Aparecida; Silva, Neide Maria; de Freitas Barbosa, Bellisa; Franco, Priscila Silva; Angeloni, Mariana Bodini; Fermino, Marise Lopes; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Bechi, Nicoletta; Paulesu, Luana Ricci; dos Santos, Maria Célia; Mineo, José Roberto; Ferro, Eloisa Amália Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Because macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key cytokine in pregnancy and has a role in inflammatory response and pathogen defense, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of MIF in first- and third-trimester human placental explants infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Explants were treated with recombinant MIF, IL-12, interferon-γ, transforming growth factor-β1, or IL-10, followed by infection with T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites. Supernatants of cultured...

  5. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Six Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    OpenAIRE

    Supa Pengpid; Karl Peltzer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13–16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and ov...

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from concrete can be reduced by using mix proportions, geometric aspects, and age as design factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sabbie A.; Horvath, Arpad; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.; Ostertag, Claudia P.

    2015-11-01

    With increased awareness of the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the significant contribution from the cement industry, research efforts are being advanced to reduce the impacts associated with concrete production and consumption. A variety of methods have been proposed, one of the most common being the replacement of cement as a binder in concrete with supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash (FA), which can have lower environmental effects. The use of FA can change the kinetics of the hydration reactions and, consequently, modify the evolution of the concrete strength over time. Yet the influence of designing structural elements to obtain the required strength at later ages has not been examined in terms of their influence on global warming potential (GWP) of concrete. This research investigates the influence of design age, in addition to mix proportions and geometric aspects, on the GWP associated with making beams, columns, and a concrete building frame. Findings suggest that while the GWP for beams is not highly dependent on concrete mixture strength, the GWP for columns is dependent on strength, thus the influence of required strength at later ages influences GWP of making columns more so than beams. For the concrete frame analyzed, a potential 45% reduction in GWP, depending on mix proportions and design age, was found. Using the findings from this research, the GWP associated with production of concrete in California could be reduced by approximately 1.8 million metric tons of CO2-eq emissions, equivalent to approximately 2% of all industrial GHG emissions in California.

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration in Tunisian population

    OpenAIRE

    Habibi, Imen; Sfar, Imen; Chebil, Ahmed; Kort, Fedra; Bouraoui, Rim; Jendoubi-Ayed, Salwa; Makhlouf, Mouna; Abdallah, Taïeb Ben; El Matri, Leila; Gorgi, Yousr

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Three VEGF SNPs (−2578) C/A, (+405) G/C and (+936) C/T were investigated in Tunisian exudative AMD patients in order to determine their association with the disease susceptibility and their influence to intravitreal bevacizumab therapy response. Methods 145 AMD patients and 207 age-matched controls were included. 68 patients were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab. SNPs genotyping were performed using direct sequencing. The serum VEGF was assayed by ELISA (R&D). Results The (+405) ...

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from concrete can be reduced by using mix proportions, geometric aspects, and age as design factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increased awareness of the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the significant contribution from the cement industry, research efforts are being advanced to reduce the impacts associated with concrete production and consumption. A variety of methods have been proposed, one of the most common being the replacement of cement as a binder in concrete with supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash (FA), which can have lower environmental effects. The use of FA can change the kinetics of the hydration reactions and, consequently, modify the evolution of the concrete strength over time. Yet the influence of designing structural elements to obtain the required strength at later ages has not been examined in terms of their influence on global warming potential (GWP) of concrete. This research investigates the influence of design age, in addition to mix proportions and geometric aspects, on the GWP associated with making beams, columns, and a concrete building frame. Findings suggest that while the GWP for beams is not highly dependent on concrete mixture strength, the GWP for columns is dependent on strength, thus the influence of required strength at later ages influences GWP of making columns more so than beams. For the concrete frame analyzed, a potential 45% reduction in GWP, depending on mix proportions and design age, was found. Using the findings from this research, the GWP associated with production of concrete in California could be reduced by approximately 1.8 million metric tons of CO2-eq emissions, equivalent to approximately 2% of all industrial GHG emissions in California. (letter)

  9. Gender and age disparities in the associations of occupational factors with alcohol abuse and smoking in the French working population

    OpenAIRE

    Legleye, Stephane; Baumann, Michèle

    2011-01-01

    Background. – This study assessed the associations of short-term employment, physical and psychological occupational demands, and job dissatisfaction with alcohol abuse (using the Audit-C test) and daily smoking among working French men and women in different age groups. Methods. – The sample included 13,241 working people, 18–29, 30–39, and 40–59-years-old, randomly selected in France and interviewed by phone. Occupation, type of employment, physical demands, psychological demands, job dissa...

  10. Prospective analysis of factors associated with dental behavior management problems, in children aged 7-11 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya Pai; Praveenkumar Mandroli; Deepa Benni; Pallavi Pujar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of child behavior management problems (BMP) and to analyze the influence and predictive power of nondental and dental background variables on BMP. Study Design: Prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: The study group included 165 children aged 7-11 years who received comprehensive dental treatment, after obtaining written informed consent. Parents/guardians were interviewed using standardized questionnaire to obtain background information. Each ch...

  11. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gitanjali M Singh; Goodarz Danaei; Farshad Farzadfar; Stevens, Gretchen A; Mark Woodward; David Wormser; Stephen Kaptoge; Gary Whitlock; Qing Qiao; Sarah Lewington; Emanuele Di Angelantonio; Stephen Vander Hoorn; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K; Dariush Mozaffarian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. METHODS: We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HH...

  12. Hypertension and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in a community in Southeast Brazil: the Bambuí Health and Ageing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto Sandhi Maria

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - A population-based prospective study was analysed to: a determine the prevalence of hypertension; b investigate the clustering of other cardiovascular risk factors and c verify whether older differed from younger adults in the pattern of clustering. METHODS - The data comprised a representative sample of the population of Bambuí, Brazil. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the independent association between hypertension and selected factors. RESULTS - A total of 820 younger adults (82.5% and 1494 older adults (85.9% participated in this study. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 24.8% (SE=1.4 %, being higher in women (26.9±1.5% than in men (22.0± 1.7% (p=0.033. Hypertension was positively and significantly associated with physical inactivity, overweight, hypercholesterolemia hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The coexistence of hypertension with 4 or more of these risk factors occurred 6 times more than expected by chance, after adjusting for age and sex (OR=6.3; 95%CI: 3.4-11.9. The pattern of risk factor clustering in hypertensive individuals differed with age. CONCLUSION - Our results reinforce the need to increase detection and treatment of hypertension and to approach patients' global risk profiles.

  13. Factors affecting the age-C resident fish community along shorelines of the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Wagner, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Reach is one of the few remaining unimpounded sections of the Columbia River. However, because of flow management at upstream dams, there are often large fluctuations in water level. To determine how environmental conditions might affect age-0 resident fishes in the Hanford Reach, we evaluated species composition, distribution, abundance, and standard lengths of larval and juvenile fishes along shoreline habitats during July and August 1998, 1999, and 2000. Catches in beach seine hauls during all three years were highly variable. The four most abundant taxa collected were three cyprinids, peamouth (Mylocheilus caurinus), northern pikeminnow (Plychocheilus oregonensis), and redside shiner (Richardson ius balteatus); and suckers (Catostoinus spp.). Highest overall catches were in sloughs of the Hanford Reach in 1999, a year with high flows, lower water level fluctuations, and more vegetation. Mean shoreline summer water temperatures were higher in 1998 than in 1999 and 2000, and mean lengths of the four most abundant taxa in late August were also greater in 1998, due presumably to enhanced growth or an earlier spawning season. In spite of flow fluctuations, overall catches of age-0 resident fishes were greater in the riverine Hanford Reach compared to past catches in a more lentic Columbia River reservoir. High abundances of age-0 resident fishes in the Hanford Reach could be due to more spawning and rearing habitat in this structurally complex area, and may mitigate for negative effects of variable flow regimes.

  14. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  15. Association between fish and shellfish, and omega-3 PUFAs intake and CVD risk factors in middle-aged female patients with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesook; Park, Seokyung; Yang, Hyesu; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the association between the dietary intake of fish and shellfish, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the middle-aged Korean female patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). SUBJECTS/METHODS A cross-sectional analysis was performed with 356 female patients (means age: 55.5 years), who were recruited from the Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul, Korea between 2005 and 2011. The dietary intake was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and analyzed using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis program (CAN-Pro) version 4.0 software. RESULTS In a multiple regression analysis after the adjustment for confounding factors such as age, BMI, duration of diagnosed T2D, alcohol consumption, fiber intake, sodium intake, and total energy intake, fish and shellfish intake of the subjects was negatively associated with triglyceride and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Omega-3 PUFAs intake was negatively associated with triglyceride, systolic blood pressures, diastolic blood pressures, and PWV. The multiple logistic regression analysis with the covariates showed a significant inverse relationship between the omega-3 PUFAs consumption and prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia [OR (95% CI) for greater than the median compared to less than the median: 0.395 (0.207-0.753)]. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that the consumption of fish and shellfish, good sources of omega-3 PUFAs, may reduce the risk factors for CVD in the middle-aged female patients with T2D. PMID:26425279

  16. The coexistence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: prevalence and risk factors in young, middle-aged and elderly people from the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de Marco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The joint distribution of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has not been well described. This study aims at determining the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnoses of asthma, COPD and of the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome and to assess whether these conditions share a common set of risk factors. METHODS: A screening questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, diagnoses and risk factors was administered by mail or phone to random samples of the general Italian population aged 20-44 (n = 5163 45-64 (n = 2167 and 65-84 (n = 1030 in the frame of the multicentre Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD study. RESULTS: A physician diagnosis of asthma or COPD (emphysema/chronic bronchitis/COPD was reported by 13% and 21% of subjects aged <65 and 65-84 years respectively. Aging was associated with a marked decrease in the prevalence of diagnosed asthma (from 8.2% to 1.6% and with a marked increase in the prevalence of diagnosed COPD (from 3.3% to 13.3%. The prevalence of the overlap of asthma and COPD was 1.6% (1.3%-2.0%, 2.1% (1.5%-2.8% and 4.5% (3.2%-5.9% in the 20-44, 45-64 and 65-84 age groups. Subjects with both asthma and COPD diagnoses were more likely to have respiratory symptoms, physical impairment, and to report hospital admissions compared to asthma or COPD alone (p<0.01. Age, sex, education and smoking showed different and sometimes opposite associations with the three conditions. CONCLUSION: Asthma and COPD are common in the general population, and they coexist in a substantial proportion of subjects. The asthma-COPD overlap syndrome represents an important clinical phenotype that deserves more medical attention and further research.

  17. Age as a risk factor for acute mountain sickness upon rapid ascent to 3,700 m among young adult Chinese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang XG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xu-gang Tang,1 Ji-hang Zhang,1 Jun Qin,1 Xu-bin Gao,1 Qian-ning Li,2 Jie Yu,1 Xiao-han Ding,1 Lan Huang1 1Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2Department of Neurology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age and acute mountain sickness (AMS when subjects are exposed suddenly to high altitude.Methods: A total of 856 young adult men were recruited. Before and after acute altitude exposure, the Athens Insomnia Scale score (AISS was used to evaluate the subjective sleep quality of subjects. AMS was assessed using the Lake Louise scoring system. Heart rate (HR and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 were measured.Results: Results showed that, at 500 m, AISS and insomnia prevalence were higher in older individuals. After acute exposure to altitude, the HR, AISS, and insomnia prevalence increased sharply, and the increase in older individuals was more marked. The opposite trend was observed for SaO2. At 3,700 m, the prevalence of AMS increased with age, as did severe AMS, and AMS symptoms (except gastrointestinal symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age was a risk factor for AMS (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.13, P<0.05, as well as AISS (adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.28–1.51, P<0.001.Conclusion: The present study is the first to demonstrate that older age is an independent risk factor for AMS upon rapid ascent to high altitude among young adult Chinese men, and pre-existing poor subjective sleep quality may be a contributor to increased AMS prevalence in older subjects. Keywords: acute mountain sickness, age, Athens Insomnia Scale, rapid ascent, sleep

  18. Discriminant factors for adolescent sexual offending: On the usefulness of considering both victim age and sibling incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyal, Christian C; Carpentier, Julie; Martin, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the pathways and circumstances of juvenile sexual offending is of utmost importance. However, juvenile sexual offenders (JSO) represent an especially diverse group of individuals, and several categorizations have been proposed to obtain more homogeneous subgroups. Victim age-based and family relation-based categorizations are particularly promising because they seem theoretically and clinically relevant. Empirical results however are still inconsistent, and most studies have not considered these two dimensions jointly. The first goal of this study was to further examine the value of subgrouping JSO according to the age of their victim. A second goal was to determine the supplementary value, if any, of considering sibling incest. Based on a sample of 351 male JSO, it was first confirmed that sexual abuse of children was more strongly related to asociality (social skill deficits) than sexual abuse of peers, the latter being more closely associated with antisociality (general delinquency). The relevance of considering mixed-type JSO (with both child and peer victims) separately was also confirmed. More importantly, multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that adding sibling incest to the equation was useful. JSO of intra-familial child were significantly more likely to have been victimized during their own childhood compared to JSO with extra-familial victims. Nevertheless, adolescents who had committed sibling incest obtained middle ground results on most variables (except for crime severity), suggesting that they constitute a distinct but not extreme, subgroup. This study confirmed the utility of using both the age and the family relation with the victim in characterizing juvenile sexual offending. PMID:26901696

  19. Factors Influencing Administration of Hepatitis B Vaccine to Community-Dwelling Teenagers Aged 12-18 with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to determine hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates among community-dwelling teenagers with an intellectual disability in Taiwan and to identify the possible influencing factors of their vaccination. The present paper was part of the results of the "2007 National Survey on Healthy Behaviors and Preventive Health Utilizations of…

  20. Diversity of native and alien plant species on rubbish dumps: effects of dump age, environmental factors and toxicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, A.; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, V.; Hájek, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2003), s. 177-189. ISSN 1366-9516 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA526/00/1443 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : altitude * archaeophytes * biological invasions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.109, year: 2002