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Sample records for age exhibited reduced

  1. Men without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships, women exhibit reduced partnership security - a reanalysis of previously published data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Bojanowski, Viola; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Olfactory function influences social behavior. For instance, olfaction seems to play a key role in mate choice and helps detecting emotions in other people. In a previous study, we showed that people who were born without a sense of smell exhibit enhanced social insecurity. Based on the comments to this article we decided to have a closer look to whether the absence of the sense of smell affects men and women differently. Under this focus questionnaire data of 32 patients, diagnosed with isolated congenital anosmia (10 men, 22 women) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (15 men, 21 women) was reanalyzed. In result, men and women without a sense of smell reported enhanced social insecurity, but with different consequences: Men who were born without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships and women are affected such that they feel less secure about their partner. This emphasizes the importance of the sense of smell for intimate relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 4858 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century)'' AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION... to the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century). The referenced notice... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century...

  3. 76 FR 60112 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7615] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century)'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of... included in the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from...

  4. Adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments from aged donors exhibit an impaired vascularisation capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MW Laschke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments are promising vascularisation units for applications in the field of tissue engineering. Elderly patients are the major future target population of such applications due to an increasing human life expectancy. Therefore, we herein investigated the effect of aging on the fragments’ vascularisation capacity. Microvascular fragments were isolated from epididymal fat pads of adult (8 months and aged (16 months C57BL/6 donor mice. These fragments were seeded onto porous polyurethane scaffolds, which were implanted into dorsal skinfold chambers to study their vascularisation using intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry. Scaffolds seeded with fragments from aged donors exhibited a significantly lower functional microvessel density and intravascular blood flow velocity. This was associated with an impaired vessel maturation, as indicated by vessel wall irregularities, constantly elevated diameters and a lower fraction of CD31/α-smooth muscle actin double positive microvessels in the implants’ border and centre zones. Additional in vitro analyses revealed that microvascular fragments from adult and aged donors do not differ in their stem cell content as well as in their release of angiogenic growth factors, survival and proliferative activity under hypoxic conditions. However, fragments from aged donors exhibit a significantly lower number of matrix metalloproteinase -9-positive perivascular cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that aging is a crucial determinant for the vascularisation capacity of isolated microvascular fragments.

  5. Oxytocin Neurons Exhibit Extensive Functional Plasticity Due To Offspring Age in Mothers and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aubrey M; Hiura, Lisa C; Saunders, Alexander G; Ophir, Alexander G

    2017-09-01

    The needs of offspring change as they develop. Thus, parents should concomitantly change their investment based on the age-related needs of the offspring as they mature. Due to the high costs of parental care, it is optimal for parents to exhibit a shift from intense caregiving of young offspring to promoting independence in older offspring. Yet, the neural mechanisms that underlie shifts in parental behavior are poorly understood, and little is known about how the parental brain responds to offspring of different ages. To elucidate mechanisms that relate to shifts in parental behavior as offspring develop, we examined behavioral and neural responses of male and female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), a biparental rodent, to interactions with offspring at different stages of development (ranging from neonatal to weaning age). Importantly, in biparental species, males and females may adjust their behavior differentially as offspring develop. Because the nonapeptides, vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT), are well known for modulating aspects of parental care, we focused on functional activity of distinct VP and OT cell groups within the maternal and paternal brain in response to separation from, reunion (after a brief period of separation) with, or no separation from offspring of different ages. We found several differences in the neural responses of individual VP and OT cell groups that varied based on the age of pups and sex of the parent. Hypothalamic VP neurons exhibit similar functional responses in both mothers and fathers. However, hypothalamic and amygdalar OT neurons exhibit differential functional responses to being separated from pups based on the sex of the parent. Our results also reveal that the developmental stage of offspring significantly impacts neural function within OT, but not VP, cell groups of both mothers and fathers. These findings provide insight into the functional plastic capabilities of the nonapeptide system, specifically in relation

  6. Reduced Ang2 expression in aging endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohensinner, P.J.; Ebenbauer, B.; Kaun, C.; Maurer, G.; Huber, K.; Wojta, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aging endothelial cells are characterized by increased cell size, reduced telomere length and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we describe here that aging reduces the migratory distance of endothelial cells. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the quiescence protein Ang1 and a decrease of the endothelial activation protein Ang2 upon aging. Supplementing Ang2 to aged endothelial cells restored their migratory capacity. We conclude that aging shifts the balance of the Ang1/Ang2 network favouring a quiescent state. Activation of endothelial cells in aging might be necessary to enhance wound healing capacities. -- Highlights: •Endothelial cells display signs of aging before reaching proliferative senescence. •Aging endothelial cells express more angiopoietin 1 and less angiopoietin 2 than young endothelial cells. •Migratory capacity is reduced in aging endothelial cells.

  7. Reduced Ang2 expression in aging endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohensinner, P.J., E-mail: philipp.hohensinner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ebenbauer, B. [Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster for Cardiovascular Research, Vienna (Austria); Kaun, C.; Maurer, G. [Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Huber, K. [Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster for Cardiovascular Research, Vienna (Austria); 3rd Medical Department, Wilhelminenhospital, Vienna (Austria); Sigmund Freud University, Medical Faculty, Vienna (Austria); Wojta, J. [Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster for Cardiovascular Research, Vienna (Austria); Core Facilities, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-03

    Aging endothelial cells are characterized by increased cell size, reduced telomere length and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we describe here that aging reduces the migratory distance of endothelial cells. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the quiescence protein Ang1 and a decrease of the endothelial activation protein Ang2 upon aging. Supplementing Ang2 to aged endothelial cells restored their migratory capacity. We conclude that aging shifts the balance of the Ang1/Ang2 network favouring a quiescent state. Activation of endothelial cells in aging might be necessary to enhance wound healing capacities. -- Highlights: •Endothelial cells display signs of aging before reaching proliferative senescence. •Aging endothelial cells express more angiopoietin 1 and less angiopoietin 2 than young endothelial cells. •Migratory capacity is reduced in aging endothelial cells.

  8. Overexpression of catalase in mice reduces age-related oxidative stress and maintains sperm production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, Johanna; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-11-01

    Advanced paternal age is associated with increased complications in pregnancy and genetic diseases in offspring. Oxidative stress is a major contributor to the damage accumulated in sperm during aging. Complex networks of antioxidants regulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the testis. While mounting evident shows that redox dysfunction compromises the quality of developing male germ cells, the mechanisms by which aging causes this remain unclear. Furthermore, therapies to successfully alleviate aging-associated loss in germ cell quality are limited. The antioxidant catalase (CAT) has been used in aging-associated pathologies to alleviate oxidative stress. We used mice overexpressing CAT (MCAT) to determine whether CAT overexpression alleviates the redox dysfunction observed with aging. We found that MCAT mice did not exhibit the age-dependent loss of spermatozoa, nor did they show aging associated loss in testicular germ and Sertoli cells seen in wild type (WT). Low overall ROS and reduced peroxynitrite levels were detected in spermatocytes from aged MCAT mice, following exposure to the pro-oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Germ cells from young MCATs showed elevated levels of DNA-damage repair markers, γ-H2AX and 53BP1, but this response was lost with aging. Finally, we found oxidative stress induced 8-oxodG lesions to increase in sperm with aging; these lesions were significantly reduced in aged MCAT and these mice showed no decrease in the age-dependent number of pups per litter. Thus we conclude that aged MCAT mice generate sperm at the same rate as young mice; these sperm are protected from oxidative stress associated damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced Ang2 expression in aging endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensinner, P J; Ebenbauer, B; Kaun, C; Maurer, G; Huber, K; Wojta, J

    2016-06-03

    Aging endothelial cells are characterized by increased cell size, reduced telomere length and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we describe here that aging reduces the migratory distance of endothelial cells. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the quiescence protein Ang1 and a decrease of the endothelial activation protein Ang2 upon aging. Supplementing Ang2 to aged endothelial cells restored their migratory capacity. We conclude that aging shifts the balance of the Ang1/Ang2 network favouring a quiescent state. Activation of endothelial cells in aging might be necessary to enhance wound healing capacities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanistic basis of an epistatic interaction reducing age at onset in hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Timothy; Allison, Rachel; Edgar, James R; Lumb, Jennifer H; Rodger, Catherine E; Manna, Paul T; Rizo, Tania; Kohl, Zacharias; Nygren, Anders O H; Arning, Larissa; Schüle, Rebecca; Depienne, Christel; Goldberg, Lisa; Frahm, Christiane; Stevanin, Giovanni; Durr, Alexandra; Schöls, Ludger; Winner, Beate; Beetz, Christian; Reid, Evan

    2018-05-01

    Many genetic neurological disorders exhibit variable expression within affected families, often exemplified by variations in disease age at onset. Epistatic effects (i.e. effects of modifier genes on the disease gene) may underlie this variation, but the mechanistic basis for such epistatic interactions is rarely understood. Here we report a novel epistatic interaction between SPAST and the contiguous gene DPY30, which modifies age at onset in hereditary spastic paraplegia, a genetic axonopathy. We found that patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by genomic deletions of SPAST that extended into DPY30 had a significantly younger age at onset. We show that, like spastin, the protein encoded by SPAST, the DPY30 protein controls endosomal tubule fission, traffic of mannose 6-phosphate receptors from endosomes to the Golgi, and lysosomal ultrastructural morphology. We propose that additive effects on this pathway explain the reduced age at onset of hereditary spastic paraplegia in patients who are haploinsufficient for both genes.

  11. Age-ordered shirt numbering reduces the selection bias associated with the relative age effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, David L; van Ginneken, Pleun J M A

    2017-04-01

    When placed into age groups for junior sporting competition, the relative differences in age between children leads to a bias in who is evaluated as being talented. While the impact of this relative age effect (RAE) is clear, until now there has been no evidence to show how to reduce it. The aim of this study was to determine whether the selection bias associated with the RAE could be reduced. Talent scouts from an elite football club watched junior games and ranked players on the basis of their potential. Scouts were allocated to one of three groups provided with contrasting information about the age of the players: (1) no age information, (2) players' birthdates or (3) knowledge that the numbers on the playing shirts corresponded to the relative age of the players. Results revealed a significant selection bias for the scouts in the no-age information group, and that bias remained when scouts knew the players' dates-of-birth. Strikingly though, the selection bias was eliminated when scouts watched the games knowing the shirt numbers corresponded to the relative ages of the players. The selection bias associated with the RAE can be reduced if information about age is presented appropriately.

  12. The origin of early age expansions induced in cementitious materials containing shrinkage reducing admixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant, Gaurav; Lothenbach, Barbara; Juilland, Patrick; Le Saout, Gwenn; Weiss, Jason; Scrivener, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the early-age shrinkage behavior of cement pastes, mortars, and concretes containing shrinkage reducing admixtures (SRAs) have indicated these mixtures frequently exhibit an expansion shortly after setting. While the magnitude of the expansion has been noted to be a function of the chemistry of the cement and the admixture dosage; the cause of the expansion is not clearly understood. This investigation uses measurements of autogenous deformation, X-ray diffraction, pore solution analysis, thermogravimetry, and scanning electron microscopy to study the early-age properties and describe the mechanism of the expansion in OPC pastes made with and without SRA. The composition of the pore solution indicates that the presence of the SRA increases the portlandite oversaturation level in solution which can result in higher crystallization stresses which could lead to an expansion. This observation is supported by deformation calculations for the systems examined.

  13. Aging Educational Program to Reduce Ageism: Intergenerational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Sum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ageing brings different experiences for individuals. Any individual learn about ageing from childhood whatever formal or informal. No matter they learn, what and how they learn is important. This study aimed to assess impact of an educational program on ageism in those people lower 20 years of age. Methods: This interventional study was conducted among school and university students of Babol city, Mazandaran province, Iran. Study was carried out in two stages. First 373 participants (187 school students and 186 university undergraduate students under age of 20 who recruited form Babol department of education and Babol University of Medical Sciences went under study of assessing attitudes toward ageing. In the second stage, courses on lifespan human development were delivered in 10 workshops for 151 people. Sampling method was stratified randomly from different age groups.  Workshops consisted of lecturing, discussion, watching movie, reading pamphlets and having conversations with experienced older adults. Data was gathered by a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics and The Fraboni Scale of Ageism. Results: The mean of ageism score among school and university students were 49.93 ± 9.25 and 46.96 ± 7.64 respectively. There was statistically significant difference between two groups in ageism scores (p = 0.001 so that ageism was higher among school students However after implementation of education program, ageism score reduced for all 151 students from 46.92 ± 7.82 to 45.85 ± 7.79 which was statistically significant (p = 0.001. Conclusion: Educational program to reduce ageism is beneficial and could reduce the level of ageism. Suggestions for educators to combat ageism are provided.

  14. Auditory white noise reduces age-related fluctuations in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J M; Will, O J; McGann, Z; Balasubramaniam, R

    2016-09-06

    Fall prevention technologies have the potential to improve the lives of older adults. Because of the multisensory nature of human balance control, sensory therapies, including some involving tactile and auditory noise, are being explored that might reduce increased balance variability due to typical age-related sensory declines. Auditory white noise has previously been shown to reduce postural sway variability in healthy young adults. In the present experiment, we examined this treatment in young adults and typically aging older adults. We measured postural sway of healthy young adults and adults over the age of 65 years during silence and auditory white noise, with and without vision. Our results show reduced postural sway variability in young and older adults with auditory noise, even in the absence of vision. We show that vision and noise can reduce sway variability for both feedback-based and exploratory balance processes. In addition, we show changes with auditory noise in nonlinear patterns of sway in older adults that reflect what is more typical of young adults, and these changes did not interfere with the typical random walk behavior of sway. Our results suggest that auditory noise might be valuable for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes in older adults with typical age-related balance variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Do Patients With Parkinson’s Disease Exhibit Reduced Cheating Behavior? A Neuropsychological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhito Abe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopamine neurons. Since a seminal report was published in the early twentieth century, a growing body of literature has suggested that patients with PD display characteristic personality traits, such as cautiousness and inflexibility. Notably, PD patients have also been described as “honest,” indicating that they have a remarkable tendency to avoid behaving dishonestly. In this study, we predicted that PD patients show reduced cheating behavior in opportunities for dishonest gain due to dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system. Thirty-two PD patients without dementia and 20 healthy controls (HC completed an incentivized prediction task where participants were rewarded based on their self-reported accuracy, affording them the opportunity to behave dishonestly. Compared with HC, PD patients showed significantly lower accuracy in the prediction task. Furthermore, the mean accuracy of PD patients was virtually equivalent to the chance level. These results indicate that PD patients exhibit reduced cheating behavior when confronted with opportunities for dishonest gain.

  16. Elite suppressor-derived HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins exhibit reduced entry efficiency and kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara G Lassen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Elite suppressors (ES are a rare subset of HIV-1-infected individuals who are able to maintain HIV-1 viral loads below the limit of detection by ultra-sensitive clinical assays in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. Mechanism(s responsible for this elite control are poorly understood but likely involve both host and viral factors. This study assesses ES plasma-derived envelope glycoprotein (env fitness as a function of entry efficiency as a possible contributor to viral suppression. Fitness of virus entry was first evaluated using a novel inducible cell line with controlled surface expression levels of CD4 (receptor and CCR5 (co-receptor. In the context of physiologic CCR5 and CD4 surface densities, ES envs exhibited significantly decreased entry efficiency relative to chronically infected viremic progressors. ES envs also demonstrated slow entry kinetics indicating the presence of virus with reduced entry fitness. Overall, ES env clones were less efficient at mediating entry than chronic progressor envs. Interestingly, acute infection envs exhibited an intermediate phenotypic pattern not distinctly different from ES or chronic progressor envs. These results imply that lower env fitness may be established early and may directly contribute to viral suppression in ES individuals.

  17. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Reduced the Compensatory Effects of IGF-I Growth Signaling in the Aging Rat Hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Ping; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Han, Chien-Kuo; Pai, Peiying; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Lin, Chien-Chung; Padma, V Vijaya; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Aging is a physiological process that involves progressive impairment of normal heart functions due to increased vulnerability to damage. This study examines secondhand smoke exposure in aging rats to determine the age-related death-survival balance. Rats were placed into a SHS exposure chamber and exposed to smog. Old age male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10 cigarettes for 30 min, day and night, continuing for one week. After 4 weeks the rats underwent morphological and functional studies. Left ventricular sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological examination. TUNEL detected apoptosis cells and protein expression related death and survival pathway were analyzed using western blot. Death receptor-dependent apoptosis upregulation pathways and the mitochondria apoptosis proteins were apparent in young SHS exposure and old age rats. These biological markers were enhanced in aging SHS-exposed rats. The survival pathway was found to exhibit compensation only in young SHS-exposed rats, but not in the aging rats. Further decrease in the activity of this pathway was observed in aging SHS-exposed rats. TUNEL apoptotic positive cells were increased in young SHS-exposed rats, and in aging rats with or without SHS-exposure. Aging reduces IGF-I compensated signaling with accelerated cardiac apoptotic effects from second-hand smoke.

  18. Students-exhibits interaction at a science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Agostinho; Morais, Ana M.

    2006-12-01

    In this study we investigate students' learning during their interaction with two exhibits at a science center. Specifically, we analyze both students' procedures when interacting with exhibits and their understanding of the scientific concepts presented therein. Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse (1990, 2000) provided the sociological foundation to assess the exhibit-student interaction and allowed analysis of the influence of the characteristics of students, exhibits, and interactions on students' learning. Eight students (ages 12ndash;13 years of age) with distinct sociological characteristics participated in the study. Several findings emerged from the results. First, the characteristics of the students, exhibits, and interactions appeared to influence student learning. Second, to most students, what they did interactively (procedures) seems not to have had any direct consequence on what they learned (concept understanding). Third, the data analysis suggest an important role for designers and teachers in overcoming the limitations of exhibit-student interaction.

  19. Two separate defects affecting true naive or virtual memory T cell precursors combine to reduce naive T cell responses with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Kristin R; Li, Gang; Wu, Angela; Smithey, Megan J; Nikolich-Žugich, Janko

    2014-01-01

    Naive T cell responses are eroded with aging. We and others have recently shown that unimmunized old mice lose ≥ 70% of Ag-specific CD8 T cell precursors and that many of the remaining precursors acquire a virtual (central) memory (VM; CD44(hi)CD62L(hi)) phenotype. In this study, we demonstrate that unimmunized TCR transgenic (TCRTg) mice also undergo massive VM conversion with age, exhibiting rapid effector function upon both TCR and cytokine triggering. Age-related VM conversion in TCRTg mice directly depended on replacement of the original TCRTg specificity by endogenous TCRα rearrangements, indicating that TCR signals must be critical in VM conversion. Importantly, we found that VM conversion had adverse functional effects in both old wild-type and old TCRTg mice; that is, old VM, but not old true naive, T cells exhibited blunted TCR-mediated, but not IL-15-mediated, proliferation. This selective proliferative senescence correlated with increased apoptosis in old VM cells in response to peptide, but decreased apoptosis in response to homeostatic cytokines IL-7 and IL-15. Our results identify TCR as the key factor in differential maintenance and function of Ag-specific precursors in unimmunized mice with aging, and they demonstrate that two separate age-related defects--drastic reduction in true naive T cell precursors and impaired proliferative capacity of their VM cousins--combine to reduce naive T cell responses with aging.

  20. Reduced age-related degeneration of the hippocampal subiculum in long-term meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Luders, Eileen

    2015-06-30

    Normal aging is known to result in a reduction of gray matter within the hippocampal complex, particularly in the subiculum. The present study was designed to address the question whether the practice of meditation can amend this age-related subicular atrophy. For this purpose, we established the correlations between subicular volume and chronological age within 50 long-term meditators and 50 control subjects. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were automatically processed combining cytoarchitectonically defined probabilistic maps with advanced tissue segmentation and registration methods. Overall, we observed steeper negative regression slopes in controls. The analysis further revealed a significant group-by-age interaction for the left subiculum with a significant negative correlation between age and subicular volume in controls, but no significant correlation in meditators. Altogether, these findings seem to suggest a reduced age-related atrophy of the left subiculum in meditators compared to healthy controls. Possible explanations might be a relative increase of subicular tissue over time through long-term training as meditation is a process that incorporates regular and ongoing mental efforts. Alternatively, because meditation is an established form of reducing stress, our observation might reflect an overall preservation of subicular tissue through a reduced neuronal vulnerability to negative effects of stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fragile DNA Repair Mechanism Reduces Ageing in Multicellular Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Juul, Jeppe Søgaard; Trusina, Ala

    2012-01-01

    increases the amount of unrepaired DNA damage. Despite this vicious circle, we ask, can cells maintain a high DNA repair capacity for some time or is repair capacity bound to continuously decline with age? We here present a simple mathematical model for ageing in multicellular systems where cells subjected...... to DNA damage can undergo full repair, go apoptotic, or accumulate mutations thus reducing DNA repair capacity. Our model predicts that at the tissue level repair rate does not continuously decline with age, but instead has a characteristic extended period of high and non-declining DNA repair capacity......DNA damages, as well as mutations, increase with age. It is believed that these result from increased genotoxic stress and decreased capacity for DNA repair. The two causes are not independent, DNA damage can, for example, through mutations, compromise the capacity for DNA repair, which in turn...

  2. Shrinkage-reducing admixtures and early-age desiccation in cement pastes and mortars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, D. P.; Geiker, Mette Rica; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental studies of the early-age desiccation of cement-based materials with and without a shrinkage-reducing admixture (SRA) have been performed. Studies have been conducted under both sealed and drying conditions. Physical measurements include mass loss, surface tension, X-ray absorption to ...... to low w/c ratio concretes undergoing self-desiccation, in addition to their normal usage to reduce drying shrinkage.......Fundamental studies of the early-age desiccation of cement-based materials with and without a shrinkage-reducing admixture (SRA) have been performed. Studies have been conducted under both sealed and drying conditions. Physical measurements include mass loss, surface tension, X-ray absorption...

  3. Reducing Ageism: Education About Aging and Extended Contact With Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Ashley; Levy, Sheri R

    2017-11-19

    Ageism is of increasing concern due to the growing older population worldwide and youth-centered focus of many societies. The current investigation tested the PEACE (Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences) model for the first time. Two online experimental studies examined 2 key factors for reducing ageism: education about aging (providing accurate information about aging) and extended contact (knowledge of positive intergenerational contact) as well as their potential combined effect (education plus extended contact). In Study 1, 354 undergraduates in all 3 experimental conditions (vs. control participants) reported less negative attitudes toward older adults (delayed post-test) and greater aging knowledge (immediate and delayed post-tests), when controlling for pre-study attitudes. In Study 2, 505 national community participants (ages 18-59) in all experimental conditions (vs. control participants) reported less negative attitudes toward older adults (immediate post-test) and greater aging knowledge (immediate and delayed post-tests). In summary, across 2 online studies, education about aging and knowledge of intergenerational extended contact improved attitudes toward older adults and aging knowledge. Thus, brief, online ageism-reduction strategies can be an effective way to combat ageism. These strategies hold promise to be tested in other settings, with other samples, and to be elaborated into more in-depth interventions that aim to reduce ageism in everyday culture. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. JNK inhibition reduces apoptosis and neovascularization in a murine model of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongjun; Sun, Xufang; Guma, Monica; Luo, Jing; Ouyang, Hong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zeng, Jing; Quach, John; Nguyen, Duy H; Shaw, Peter X; Karin, Michael; Zhang, Kang

    2013-02-05

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of registered blindness among the elderly and affects over 30 million people worldwide. It is well established that oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play critical roles in pathogenesis of AMD. In advanced wet AMD, although, most of the severe vision loss is due to bleeding and exudation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and it is well known that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in the growth of the abnormal blood vessels. VEGF suppression therapy improves visual acuity in AMD patients. However, there are unresolved issues, including safety and cost. Here we show that mice lacking c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) exhibit decreased inflammation, reduced CNV, lower levels of choroidal VEGF, and impaired choroidal macrophage recruitment in a murine model of wet AMD (laser-induced CNV). Interestingly, we also detected a substantial reduction in choroidal apoptosis of JNK1-deficient mice. Intravitreal injection of a pan-caspase inhibitor reduced neovascularization in the laser-induced CNV model, suggesting that apoptosis plays a role in laser-induced pathological angiogenesis. Intravitreal injection of a specific JNK inhibitor decreased choroidal VEGF expression and reduced pathological CNV. These results suggest that JNK1 plays a key role in linking oxidative stress, inflammation, macrophage recruitment apoptosis, and VEGF production in wet AMD and pharmacological JNK inhibition offers a unique and alternative avenue for prevention and treatment of AMD.

  5. Neurogenesis in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Deana M; Solano-Fonseca, Rene; Kokovay, Erzsebet

    2017-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis is the process of producing new neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) for integration into the brain circuitry. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, during aging, NSCs and their progenitors exhibit reduced proliferation and neuron production, which is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive impairment and reduced plasticity that is necessary for some types of brain repair. In this review, we describe NSCs and their niches during tissue homeostasis and how they undergo age-associated remodeling and dysfunction. We also discuss some of the functional ramifications in the brain from NSC aging. Finally, we discuss some recent insights from interventions in NSC aging that could eventually translate into therapies for healthy brain aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Toward Reducing Ageism: PEACE (Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sheri R

    2018-03-19

    The population of older adults is growing worldwide. Negative ageism (negative attitudes and behavior toward older adults) is a serious international concern that negatively influences not only older adults but also individuals across the age continuum. This article proposes and examines the application of an integrative theoretical model across empirical evidence in the literature on ageism in psychology, medicine, social work, and sociology. The proposed Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences (PEACE) model focuses on 2 key contributing factors expected to reduce negative ageism: (a) education about aging including facts on aging along with positive older role models that dispel negative and inaccurate images of older adulthood; and (b) positive contact experiences with older adults that are individualized, provide or promote equal status, are cooperative, involve sharing of personal information, and are sanctioned within the setting. These 2 key contributing factors have the potential to be interconnected and work together to reduce negative stereotypes, aging anxiety, prejudice, and discrimination associated with older adults and aging. This model has implications for policies and programs that can improve the health and well-being of individuals, as well as expand the residential, educational, and career options of individuals across the age continuum.

  7. Anti-aging drugs reduce hypothalamic inflammation in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadagurski, Marianna; Cady, Gillian; Miller, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Aging leads to hypothalamic inflammation, but does so more slowly in mice whose lifespan has been extended by mutations that affect GH/IGF-1 signals. Early-life exposure to GH by injection, or to nutrient restriction in the first 3 weeks of life, also modulate both lifespan and the pace of hypothalamic inflammation. Three drugs extend lifespan of UM-HET3 mice in a sex-specific way: acarbose (ACA), 17-α-estradiol (17αE2), and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), with more dramatic longevity increases in males in each case. In this study, we examined the effect of these anti-aging drugs on neuro-inflammation in hypothalamus and hippocampus. We found that age-associated hypothalamic inflammation is reduced in males but not in females at 12 months of age by ACA and 17αE2 and at 22 months of age in NDGA-treated mice. The three drugs blocked indices of hypothalamic reactive gliosis associated with aging, such as Iba-1-positive microglia and GFAP-positive astrocytes, as well as age-associated overproduction of TNF-α. This effect was not observed in drug-treated female mice or in the hippocampus of the drug-treated animals. On the other hand, caloric restriction (CR; an intervention that extends the lifespan in both sexes) significantly reduced hypothalamic microglia and TNF-α in both sexes at 12 months of age. Together, these results suggest that the extent of drug-induced changes in hypothalamic inflammatory processes is sexually dimorphic in a pattern that parallels the effects of these agents on mouse longevity and that mimics the changes seen, in both sexes, of long-lived nutrient restricted or mutant mice. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Visual determinants of reduced performance on the Stroop color-word test in normal aging individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, M P; ten Tusscher, M P; Metsemakers, J F; Willems, B; Jolles, J

    2001-10-01

    It is unknown to what extent the performance on the Stroop color-word test is affected by reduced visual function in older individuals. We tested the impact of common deficiencies in visual function (reduced distant and close acuity, reduced contrast sensitivity, and color weakness) on Stroop performance among 821 normal individuals aged 53 and older. After adjustment for age, sex, and educational level, low contrast sensitivity was associated with more time needed on card I (word naming), red/green color weakness with slower card 2 performance (color naming), and reduced distant acuity with slower performance on card 3 (interference). Half of the age-related variance in speed performance was shared with visual function. The actual impact of reduced visual function may be underestimated in this study when some of this age-related variance in Stroop performance is mediated by visual function decrements. It is suggested that reduced visual function has differential effects on Stroop performance which need to be accounted for when the Stroop test is used both in research and in clinical settings. Stroop performance measured from older individuals with unknown visual status should be interpreted with caution.

  9. Fisetin Reduces the Impact of Aging on Behavior and Physiology in the Rapidly Aging SAMP8 Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currais, Antonio; Farrokhi, Catherine; Dargusch, Richard; Armando, Aaron; Quehenberger, Oswald; Schubert, David; Maher, Pamela

    2018-03-02

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is rarely addressed in the context of aging even though there is an overlap in pathology. We previously used a phenotypic screening platform based on old age-associated brain toxicities to identify the flavonol fisetin as a potential therapeutic for AD and other age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Based on earlier results with fisetin in transgenic AD mice, we hypothesized that fisetin would be effective against brain aging and cognitive dysfunction in rapidly aging senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, a model for sporadic AD and dementia. An integrative approach was used to correlate protein expression and metabolite levels in the brain with cognition. It was found that fisetin reduced cognitive deficits in old SAMP8 mice while restoring multiple markers associated with impaired synaptic function, stress, and inflammation. These results provide further evidence for the potential benefits of fisetin for the treatment of age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Aging in a long-lived clonal tree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilara Ally

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available From bacteria to multicellular animals, most organisms exhibit declines in survivorship or reproductive performance with increasing age ("senescence". Evidence for senescence in clonal plants, however, is scant. During asexual growth, we expect that somatic mutations, which negatively impact sexual fitness, should accumulate and contribute to senescence, especially among long-lived clonal plants. We tested whether older clones of Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen from natural stands in British Columbia exhibited significantly reduced reproductive performance. Coupling molecular-based estimates of clone age with male fertility data, we observed a significant decline in the average number of viable pollen grains per catkin per ramet with increasing clone age in trembling aspen. We found that mutations reduced relative male fertility in clonal aspen populations by about 5.8 x 10(-5 to 1.6 x 10(-3 per year, leading to an 8% reduction in the number of viable pollen grains, on average, among the clones studied. The probability that an aspen lineage ultimately goes extinct rises as its male sexual fitness declines, suggesting that even long-lived clonal organisms are vulnerable to senescence.

  11. Microglia show altered morphology and reduced arborization in human brain during aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Danielle S; Ma, Jolande; Jegathees, Thuvarahan; Goldsbury, Claire

    2017-11-01

    Changes in microglia function are involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) for which ageing is the major risk factor. We evaluated microglial cell process morphologies and their gray matter coverage (arborized area) during ageing and in the presence and absence of AD pathology in autopsied human neocortex. Microglial cell processes were reduced in length, showed less branching and reduced arborized area with aging (case range 52-98 years). This occurred during normal ageing and without microglia dystrophy or changes in cell density. There was a larger reduction in process length and arborized area in AD compared to aged-matched control microglia. In AD cases, on average, 49%-64% of microglia had discontinuous and/or punctate Iba1 labeled processes instead of continuous Iba1 distribution. Up to 16% of aged-matched control microglia displayed discontinuous or punctate features. There was no change in the density of microglial cell bodies in gray matter during ageing or AD. This demonstrates that human microglia show progressive cell process retraction without cell loss during ageing. Additional changes in microglia occur with AD including Iba1 protein puncta and discontinuity. We suggest that reduced microglial arborized area may be an aging-related correlate of AD in humans. These variations in microglial cells during ageing and in AD could reflect changes in neural-glial interactions which are emerging as key to mechanisms involved in ageing and neurodegenerative disease. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  12. Senescent intervertebral disc cells exhibit perturbed matrix homeostasis phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Kevin; Patil, Prashanti; McGowan, Sara J; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Robbins, Paul D; Kang, James; Sowa, Gwendolyn; Vo, Nam

    2017-09-01

    Aging greatly increases the risk for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) as a result of proteoglycan loss due to reduced synthesis and enhanced degradation of the disc matrix proteoglycan (PG). How disc matrix PG homeostasis becomes perturbed with age is not known. The goal of this study is to determine whether cellular senescence is a source of this perturbation. We demonstrated that disc cellular senescence is dramatically increased in the DNA repair-deficient Ercc1 -/Δ mouse model of human progeria. In these accelerated aging mice, increased disc cellular senescence is closely associated with the rapid loss of disc PG. We also directly examine PG homeostasis in oxidative damage-induced senescent human cells using an in vitro cell culture model system. Senescence of human disc cells treated with hydrogen peroxide was confirmed by growth arrest, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, γH2AX foci, and acquisition of senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Senescent human disc cells also exhibited perturbed matrix PG homeostasis as evidenced by their decreased capacity to synthesize new matrix PG and enhanced degradation of aggrecan, a major matrix PG. of the disc. Our in vivo and in vitro findings altogether suggest that disc cellular senescence is an important driver of PG matrix homeostatic perturbation and PG loss. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. IceCube Polar Virtual Reality exhibit: immersive learning for learners of all ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Bravo Gallart, S.; Chase, A.; Dougherty, P.; Gagnon, D.; Pronto, K.; Rush, M.; Tredinnick, R.

    2017-12-01

    The IceCube Polar Virtual Reality project is an innovative, interactive exhibit that explains the operation and science of a flagship experiment in polar research, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The exhibit allows users to travel from the South Pole, where the detector is located, to the furthest reaches of the universe, learning how the detection of high-energy neutrinos has opened a new view to the universe. This novel exhibit combines a multitouch tabletop display system and commercially available virtual reality (VR) head-mounted displays to enable informal STEM learning of polar research. The exhibit, launched in early November 2017 during the Wisconsin Science Festival in Madison, WI, will study how immersive VR can enhance informal STEM learning. The foundation of this project is built upon a strong collaborative effort between the Living Environments Laboratory (LEL), the Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center (WIPAC), and the Field Day Laboratory groups from the University of Wisconsin-Madison campus. The project is funded through an NSF Advancing Informal STEM Learning (AISL) grant, under a special call for engaging students and the public in polar research. This exploratory pathways project seeks to build expertise to allow future extensions. The plan is to submit a subsequent AISL Broad Implementation proposal to add more 3D environments for other Antarctic research topics and locations in the future. We will describe the current implementation of the project and discuss the challenges and opportunities of working with an interdisciplinary team of scientists and technology and education researchers. We will also present preliminary assessment results, which seek to answer questions such as: Did users gain a better understanding of IceCube research from interacting with the exhibit? Do both technologies (touch table and VR headset) provide the same level of engagement? Is one technology better suited for specific learning outcomes?

  14. Telomere dysfunction reduces microglial numbers without fully inducing an aging phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Asif Manzoor; Babcock, Alicia; Saeed, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The susceptibility of the aging brain to neurodegenerative disease may in part be attributed to cellular aging of the microglial cells that survey it. We investigated the effect of cellular aging induced by telomere shortening on microglia by the use of mice lacking the telomerase RNA component...... (TERC) and design-based stereology. TERC knockout (KO) mice had a significantly reduced number of CD11b(+) microglia in the dentate gyrus. Because of an even greater reduction in dentate gyrus volume, microglial density was, however, increased. Microglia in TERC KO mice maintained a homogenous...... distribution and normal expression of CD45 and CD68 and the aging marker, ferritin, but were morphologically distinct from microglia in both adult and old wild-type mice. TERC KO mice also showed increased cellular apoptosis and impaired spatial learning. Our results suggest that individual microglia...

  15. Mitochondrial Complex 1 Activity Measured by Spectrophotometry Is Reduced across All Brain Regions in Ageing and More Specifically in Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Amelia Kate; Craig, Emma Louise; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function, in particular complex 1 of the electron transport chain (ETC), has been shown to decrease during normal ageing and in neurodegenerative disease. However, there is some debate concerning which area of the brain has the greatest complex 1 activity. It is important to identify the pattern of activity in order to be able to gauge the effect of age or disease related changes. We determined complex 1 activity spectrophotometrically in the cortex, brainstem and cerebellum of middle aged mice (70-71 weeks), a cerebellar ataxic neurodegeneration model (pcd5J) and young wild type controls. We share our updated protocol on the measurements of complex1 activity and find that mitochondrial fractions isolated from frozen tissues can be measured for robust activity. We show that complex 1 activity is clearly highest in the cortex when compared with brainstem and cerebellum (p<0.003). Cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria exhibit similar levels of complex 1 activity in wild type brains. In the aged brain we see similar levels of complex 1 activity in all three-brain regions. The specific activity of complex 1 measured in the aged cortex is significantly decreased when compared with controls (p<0.0001). Both the cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria also show significantly reduced activity with ageing (p<0.05). The mouse model of ataxia predictably has a lower complex 1 activity in the cerebellum, and although reductions are measured in the cortex and brain stem, the remaining activity is higher than in the aged brains. We present clear evidence that complex 1 activity decreases across the brain with age and much more specifically in the cerebellum of the pcd5j mouse. Mitochondrial impairment can be a region specific phenomenon in disease, but in ageing appears to affect the entire brain, abolishing the pattern of higher activity in cortical regions.

  16. Akita spontaneously type 1 diabetic mice exhibit elevated vascular arginase and impaired vascular endothelial and nitrergic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toque, Haroldo A; Nunes, Kenia P; Yao, Lin; Xu, Zhimin; Kondrikov, Dmitry; Su, Yunchao; Webb, R Clinton; Caldwell, Ruth B; Caldwell, R William

    2013-01-01

    Elevated arginase (Arg) activity is reported to be involved in diabetes-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction. It can reduce L-arginine availability to nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) and NO production. Akita mice, a genetic non-obese type 1 diabetes model, recapitulate human diabetes. We determined the role of Arg in a time-course of diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction in aorta and corpora cavernosa (CC) from Akita mice. Endothelium-dependent relaxation, Arg and NOS activity, and protein expression levels of Arg and constitutive NOS were assessed in aortas and CC from Akita and non-diabetic wild type (WT) mice at 4, 12 and 24 wks of age. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was assessed by tail cuff. In aorta and CC, Akita mice exhibited a progressive impairment of vascular endothelial and nitrergic function increased Arg activity and expression (Arg1 in aorta and both Arg1 and Arg2 in CC) compared with that of age-matched WT mice. Treatment of aorta and CC from Akita mice with an Arg inhibitor (BEC or ABH) reduced diabetes-induced elevation of Arg activity and restored endothelial and nitrergic function. Reduced levels of phospho-eNOS at Ser(1177) (in aorta and CC) and nNOS expression (in CC) were observed in Akita mice at 12 and 24 wks. Akita mice also had decreased NOS activity in aorta and CC at 12 and 24 wks that was restored by BEC treatment. Further, Akita mice exhibited moderately increased SBP at 24 wks and increased sensitivity to PE-induced contractions in aorta and sympathetic nerve stimulation in CC at 12 and 24 wks. Over 24 wks of diabetes in Akita mice, both aortic and cavernosal tissues exhibited increased Arg activity/expression, contributing to impaired endothelial and nitrergic function and reduced NO production. Our findings demonstrate involvement of Arg activity in diabetes-induced impairment of vascular function in Akita mouse.

  17. Akita spontaneously type 1 diabetic mice exhibit elevated vascular arginase and impaired vascular endothelial and nitrergic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo A Toque

    Full Text Available Elevated arginase (Arg activity is reported to be involved in diabetes-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction. It can reduce L-arginine availability to nitric oxide (NO synthase (NOS and NO production. Akita mice, a genetic non-obese type 1 diabetes model, recapitulate human diabetes. We determined the role of Arg in a time-course of diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction in aorta and corpora cavernosa (CC from Akita mice.Endothelium-dependent relaxation, Arg and NOS activity, and protein expression levels of Arg and constitutive NOS were assessed in aortas and CC from Akita and non-diabetic wild type (WT mice at 4, 12 and 24 wks of age. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was assessed by tail cuff. In aorta and CC, Akita mice exhibited a progressive impairment of vascular endothelial and nitrergic function increased Arg activity and expression (Arg1 in aorta and both Arg1 and Arg2 in CC compared with that of age-matched WT mice. Treatment of aorta and CC from Akita mice with an Arg inhibitor (BEC or ABH reduced diabetes-induced elevation of Arg activity and restored endothelial and nitrergic function. Reduced levels of phospho-eNOS at Ser(1177 (in aorta and CC and nNOS expression (in CC were observed in Akita mice at 12 and 24 wks. Akita mice also had decreased NOS activity in aorta and CC at 12 and 24 wks that was restored by BEC treatment. Further, Akita mice exhibited moderately increased SBP at 24 wks and increased sensitivity to PE-induced contractions in aorta and sympathetic nerve stimulation in CC at 12 and 24 wks.Over 24 wks of diabetes in Akita mice, both aortic and cavernosal tissues exhibited increased Arg activity/expression, contributing to impaired endothelial and nitrergic function and reduced NO production. Our findings demonstrate involvement of Arg activity in diabetes-induced impairment of vascular function in Akita mouse.

  18. Chronic exercise reduces hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β1 in middle-aged obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vagner R R; Katashima, Carlos K; Lenhare, Luciene; Silva, Carla G B; Morari, Joseane; Camargo, Rafael L; Velloso, Licio A; Saad, Mario A; da Silva, Adelino S R; Pauli, Jose Rodrigo; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete

    2017-08-28

    Obesity and aging are associated with hypothalamic inflammation, hyperphagia and abnormalities in the thermogenesis control. It has been demonstrated that the association between aging and obesity induces hypothalamic inflammation and metabolic disorders, at least in part, through the atypical hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1). Physical exercise has been used to modulate several metabolic parameters. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic exercise on TGF-β1 expression in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged mice submitted to a one year of high-fat diet (HFD) treatment. We observed that long-term of HFD-feeding induced hypothalamic TGF-β1 accumulation, potentiated the hypothalamic inflammation, body weight gain and defective thermogenesis of Middle-Aged mice when compared to Middle-Aged animals fed on chow diet. As expected, chronic exercise induced negative energy balance, reduced food consumption and increasing the energy expenditure, which promotes body weight loss. Interestingly, exercise training reduced the TGF-β1 expression and IkB-α ser32 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged obese mice. Taken together our study demonstrated that chronic exercise suppressed the TGF-β1/IkB-α axis in the hypothalamus and improved the energy homeostasis in an animal model of obesity-associated to aging.

  19. Metabolic flux rearrangement in the amino acid metabolism reduces ammonia stress in the α1-antitrypsin producing human AGE1.HN cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesnitz, Christian; Niklas, Jens; Rose, Thomas; Sandig, Volker; Heinzle, Elmar

    2012-03-01

    This study focused on metabolic changes in the neuronal human cell line AGE1.HN upon increased ammonia stress. Batch cultivations of α(1)-antitrypsin (A1AT) producing AGE1.HN cells were carried out in media with initial ammonia concentrations ranging from 0mM to 5mM. Growth, A1AT production, metabolite dynamics and finally metabolic fluxes calculated by metabolite balancing were compared. Growth and A1AT production decreased with increasing ammonia concentration. The maximum A1AT concentration decreased from 0.63g/l to 0.51g/l. Central energy metabolism remained relatively unaffected exhibiting only slightly increased glycolytic flux at high initial ammonia concentration in the medium. However, the amino acid metabolism was significantly changed. Fluxes through transaminases involved in amino acid degradation were reduced concurrently with a reduced uptake of amino acids. On the other hand fluxes through transaminases working in the direction of amino acid synthesis, i.e., alanine and phosphoserine, were increased leading to increased storage of excess nitrogen in extracellular alanine and serine. Glutamate dehydrogenase flux was reversed increasingly fixing free ammonia with increasing ammonia concentration. Urea production additionally observed was associated with arginine uptake by the cells and did not increase at high ammonia stress. It was therefore not used as nitrogen sink to remove excess ammonia. The results indicate that the AGE1.HN cell line can adapt to ammonia concentrations usually present during the cultivation process to a large extent by changing metabolism but with slightly reduced A1AT production and growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...

  1. Low cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with reduced lung function in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age.......Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....

  2. 75 FR 57102 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Titian and the Golden Age...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance. The... that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the High Museum of Art, Atlanta, GA, from on..., Minneapolis, MN, from on or about February 6, 2011 to on or about May 1, 2011; at the Museum of Fine Arts...

  3. Extracellular superoxide dismutase deficiency impairs wound healing in advanced age by reducing neovascularization and fibroblast function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Duscher, Dominik; Rustad, Kristine C; Kosaraju, Revanth; Rodrigues, Melanie; Whittam, Alexander J; Januszyk, Michael; Maan, Zeshaan N; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2016-03-01

    Advanced age is characterized by impairments in wound healing, and evidence is accumulating that this may be due in part to a concomitant increase in oxidative stress. Extended exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to lead to cellular dysfunction and organismal death via the destructive oxidation of intra-cellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD/SOD3) is a prime antioxidant enzyme in the extracellular space that eliminates ROS. Here, we demonstrate that reduced SOD3 levels contribute to healing impairments in aged mice. These impairments include delayed wound closure, reduced neovascularization, impaired fibroblast proliferation and increased neutrophil recruitment. We further establish that SOD3 KO and aged fibroblasts both display reduced production of TGF-β1, leading to decreased differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Taken together, these results suggest that wound healing impairments in ageing are associated with increased levels of ROS, decreased SOD3 expression and impaired extracellular oxidative stress regulation. Our results identify SOD3 as a possible target to correct age-related cellular dysfunction in wound healing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Epidemic model with vaccinated age that exhibits backward bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Junyuan; Zhang Fengqin; Li Xuezhi

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination of susceptibilities is included in a transmission model for a disease that confers immunity. In this paper, interplay of vaccination strategy together with vaccine efficacy and the vaccinated age is studied. In particular, vaccine efficacy can lead to a backward bifurcation. At the same time, we also discuss an abstract formulation of the problem, and establish the well-posedness of the model.

  5. Reduced dopamine receptors and transporters but not synthesis capacity in normal aging adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, Teresa M; Josef, Anika K; Mata, Rui; Morris, Evan D; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R

    2017-09-01

    Many theories of cognitive aging are based on evidence that dopamine (DA) declines with age. Here, we performed a systematic meta-analysis of cross-sectional positron emission tomography and single-photon emission-computed tomography studies on the average effects of age on distinct DA targets (receptors, transporters, or relevant enzymes) in healthy adults (N = 95 studies including 2611 participants). Results revealed significant moderate to large, negative effects of age on DA transporters and receptors. Age had a significantly larger effect on D1- than D2-like receptors. In contrast, there was no significant effect of age on DA synthesis capacity. The average age reductions across the DA system were 3.7%-14.0% per decade. A meta-regression found only DA target as a significant moderator of the age effect. This study precisely quantifies prior claims of reduced DA functionality with age. It also identifies presynaptic mechanisms (spared synthesis capacity and reduced DA transporters) that may partially account for previously unexplained phenomena whereby older adults appear to use dopaminergic resources effectively. Recommendations for future studies including minimum required samples sizes are provided. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 63701 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Anglo-Saxon Hoard: Gold...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7640] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Anglo-Saxon Hoard: Gold From England's Dark Ages'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the... exhibition ``Anglo-Saxon Hoard: Gold From England's Dark Ages,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  7. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    Science museums define the objectives of their exhibitions in terms of visitor learning outcomes. Yet, exhibit designers lack theoretical and empirical research findings on which to base the creation of such educational environments. Here, this shortcoming is addressed through the development...... of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for this development is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enactment, and analysis. In the design phase, an educational intervention is planned and carried out based...... on the generation of theoretical ideas for exhibit design is offered in a fourth and parallel research undertaking, namely the application of the notion of cultural border-crossing to a hypothetical case of exhibit design....

  8. Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John C; Covarrubias, Anthony J; Zhao, Minghao; Yu, Xinxing; Gut, Philipp; Ng, Che-Ping; Huang, Yu; Haldar, Saptarsi; Verdin, Eric

    2017-09-05

    Ketogenic diets recapitulate certain metabolic aspects of dietary restriction such as reliance on fatty acid metabolism and production of ketone bodies. We investigated whether an isoprotein ketogenic diet (KD) might, like dietary restriction, affect longevity and healthspan in C57BL/6 male mice. We find that Cyclic KD, KD alternated weekly with the Control diet to prevent obesity, reduces midlife mortality but does not affect maximum lifespan. A non-ketogenic high-fat diet (HF) fed similarly may have an intermediate effect on mortality. Cyclic KD improves memory performance in old age, while modestly improving composite healthspan measures. Gene expression analysis identifies downregulation of insulin, protein synthesis, and fatty acid synthesis pathways as mechanisms common to KD and HF. However, upregulation of PPARα target genes is unique to KD, consistent across tissues, and preserved in old age. In all, we show that a non-obesogenic ketogenic diet improves survival, memory, and healthspan in aging mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Impressive nonlinear optical response exhibited by Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabira, K.; Saheeda, P.; Divyasree, M. C.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, the nonlinear optical properties of free-standing films of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite are investigated to assess their suitability as efficient optical limiters. The PVDF/RGO nanocomposite films are generated by mixing different concentrations of RGO as the filler, with PVDF, using solution casting method. The XRD and FTIR data of these nanocomposite films confirm the enhancement in the β phase of PVDF when RGO is added to PVDF, which is one of the prime factors, enhancing the nonlinear response of the nanocomposite. The open aperture and closed aperture Z-scan technique under nanosecond excitation (532 nm, 7 ns) is used to investigate the nonlinear optical characteristics of the PVDF/RGO nanocomposite films. These films are found to exhibit two photon absorption assisted optical non linearity in the nanosecond regime. The highlight of the present work is the observation of quite low values of the normalized transmittance and low optical limiting threshold power in free standing films of PVDF/RGO nanocomposite. These flexible, free-standing and stable nanocomposite films offer high application prospects in the design of efficient optical limiting devices of any desired size or shape.

  10. Cleopatra's Egypt. A Museum Exhibition Explores Egypt during the Age of the Ptolemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historical premises behind a traveling exhibit of Egyptian Hellenistic art from the Ptolemic Period. Focuses on the uniquely Egyptian characteristics of this art, including religious symbolism, costume elements, and characteristics of craftsmanship. (LS)

  11. Technology Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1979-09-15

    Linked to the 25th Anniversary celebrations, an exhibition of some of CERN's technological achievements was opened on 22 June. Set up in a new 600 m{sup 2} Exhibition Hall on the CERN site, the exhibition is divided into eight technology areas — magnets, vacuum, computers and data handling, survey and alignment, radiation protection, beam monitoring and handling, detectors, and workshop techniques.

  12. Dicer expression exhibits a tissue-specific diurnal pattern that is lost during aging and in diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Yan

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of circadian rhythmicity is identified as a key factor in disease pathogenesis. Circadian rhythmicity is controlled at both a transcriptional and post-transcriptional level suggesting the role of microRNA (miRNA and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA in this process. Endonuclease Dicer controls miRNA and dsRNA processing, however the role of Dicer in circadian regulation is not known. Here we demonstrate robust diurnal oscillations of Dicer expression in central and peripheral clock control systems including suprachiasmatic nucleolus (SCN, retina, liver, and bone marrow (BM. The Dicer oscillations were either reduced or phase shifted with aging and Type 2 diabetes. The decrease and phase shift of Dicer expression was associated with a similar decrease and phase shift of miRNAs 146a and 125a-5p and with an increase in toxic Alu RNA. Restoring Dicer levels and the diurnal patterns of Dicer-controlled miRNA and RNA expression may provide new therapeutic strategies for metabolic disease and aging-associated complications.

  13. Reduced Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling Restores the Dynamic Properties of Key Stress Granule Proteins during Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie C. Lechler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Low-complexity “prion-like” domains in key RNA-binding proteins (RBPs mediate the reversible assembly of RNA granules. Individual RBPs harboring these domains have been linked to specific neurodegenerative diseases. Although their aggregation in neurodegeneration has been extensively characterized, it remains unknown how the process of aging disturbs RBP dynamics. We show that a wide variety of RNA granule components, including stress granule proteins, become highly insoluble with age in C. elegans and that reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 daf-2 receptor signaling efficiently prevents their aggregation. Importantly, stress-granule-related RBP aggregates are associated with reduced fitness. We show that heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF-1 is a main regulator of stress-granule-related RBP aggregation in both young and aged animals. During aging, increasing DAF-16 activity restores dynamic stress-granule-related RBPs, partly by decreasing the buildup of other misfolded proteins that seed RBP aggregation. Longevity-associated mechanisms found to maintain dynamic RBPs during aging could be relevant for neurodegenerative diseases. : Lechler et al. show that RNA-binding proteins (RBPs including stress granule proteins are prone to aggregate with age in C. elegans. Aggregation of stress granule RBPs with “prion-like” domains is associated with reduced fitness. Their aggregation is prevented by longevity pathways and promoted by the aggregation of other misfolded proteins. Keywords: neurodegenerative diseases, Caenorhabditis elegans, protein aggregation, aging, RNA-binding proteins, stress granules, HSF-1, DAF-2, longevity

  14. Differential Aging Trajectories of Modulation of Activation to Cognitive Challenge in APOE ε4 Groups: Reduced Modulation Predicts Poorer Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Chris M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Rodrigue, Karen M

    2017-07-19

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), ApolipoproteinE ε4 (APOEε4), on the ability of the brain to modulate activation in response to cognitive challenge in a lifespan sample of healthy human adults. A community-based sample of 181 cognitively intact, healthy adults were recruited from the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. Thirty-one APOEε4+ individuals (48% women), derived from the parent sample, were matched based on sex, age, and years of education to 31 individuals who were APOEε4-negative (APOEε4-). Ages ranged from 20 to 86 years of age. Blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging was collected during the performance of a visuospatial distance judgment task with three parametric levels of difficulty. Multiple regression was used in a whole-brain analysis with age, APOE group, and their interaction predicting functional brain modulation in response to difficulty. Results revealed an interaction between age and APOE in a large cluster localized primarily to the bilateral precuneus. APOEε4- individuals exhibited age-invariant modulation in response to task difficulty, whereas APOEε4+ individuals showed age-related reduction of modulation in response to increasing task difficulty compared with ε4- individuals. Decreased modulation in response to cognitive challenge was associated with reduced task accuracy as well as poorer name-face associative memory performance. Findings suggest that APOEε4 is associated with a reduction in the ability of the brain to dynamically modulate in response to cognitive challenge. Coupled with a significant genetic risk factor for AD, changes in modulation may provide additional information toward identifying individuals potentially at risk for cognitive decline associated with preclinical AD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding how risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) affect brain function and cognition in healthy adult samples

  15. Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; Saunders, Kerryn; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of…

  16. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  17. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  18. “Draw me a physicist” exhibition opens

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    From 12 to 23 June, the Globe of Science and Innovation will be hosting the “Draw me a physicist” exhibition: over 160 drawings and definitions that illustrate how children see the world of research.   In a child’s imagination, scientists are colourful, slightly eccentric figures with unusual powers. This is what emerges from the exhibition on the second floor of the Globe of Science and Innovation, opening on 12 June. “Draw me a physicist” brings together 160 drawings and definitions by children about the profession of research scientist. The exhibition is the result of a six-month project by CERN and 20 primary school classes from the Pays de Gex and the communes of Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier. Some 400 schoolchildren aged 9 to 11 were asked in class to make drawings and come up with definitions of a physicist. Subsequently they came to CERN, visited one of the Laboratory’s sites, and met and interviewed some physicists. They used t...

  19. Rib biomechanical properties exhibit diagnostic potential for accurate ageing in forensic investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicelli, Andrea; Xhemali, Bledar; Kranioti, Elena F.

    2017-01-01

    Age estimation remains one of the most challenging tasks in forensic practice when establishing a biological profile of unknown skeletonised remains. Morphological methods based on developmental markers of bones can provide accurate age estimates at a young age, but become highly unreliable for ages over 35 when all developmental markers disappear. This study explores the changes in the biomechanical properties of bone tissue and matrix, which continue to change with age even after skeletal maturity, and their potential value for age estimation. As a proof of concept we investigated the relationship of 28 variables at the macroscopic and microscopic level in rib autopsy samples from 24 individuals. Stepwise regression analysis produced a number of equations one of which with seven variables showed an R2 = 0.949; a mean residual error of 2.13 yrs ±0.4 (SD) and a maximum residual error value of 2.88 yrs. For forensic purposes, by using only bench top machines in tests which can be carried out within 36 hrs, a set of just 3 variables produced an equation with an R2 = 0.902 a mean residual error of 3.38 yrs ±2.6 (SD) and a maximum observed residual error 9.26yrs. This method outstrips all existing age-at-death methods based on ribs, thus providing a novel lab based accurate tool in the forensic investigation of human remains. The present application is optimised for fresh (uncompromised by taphonomic conditions) remains, but the potential of the principle and method is vast once the trends of the biomechanical variables are established for other environmental conditions and circumstances. PMID:28520764

  20. Spontaneous calcium waves in Bergman glia increase with age and hypoxia and may reduce tissue oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Claus; Brazhe, Alexey; Thomsen, Kirsten; Lauritzen, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Glial calcium (Ca(2+)) waves constitute a means to spread signals between glial cells and to neighboring neurons and blood vessels. These waves occur spontaneously in Bergmann glia (BG) of the mouse cerebellar cortex in vivo. Here, we tested three hypotheses: (1) aging and reduced blood oxygen saturation alters wave activity; (2) glial Ca(2+) waves change cerebral oxygen metabolism; and (3) neuronal and glial wave activity is correlated. We used two-photon microscopy in the cerebellar cortexes of adult (8- to 15-week-old) and aging (48- to 80-week-old) ketamine-anesthetized mice after bolus loading with OGB-1/AM and SR101. We report that the occurrence of spontaneous waves is 20 times more frequent in the cerebellar cortex of aging as compared with adult mice, which correlated with a reduction in resting brain oxygen tension. In adult mice, spontaneous glial wave activity increased on reducing resting brain oxygen tension, and ATP-evoked glial waves reduced the tissue O(2) tension. Finally, although spontaneous Purkinje cell (PC) activity was not associated with increased glia wave activity, spontaneous glial waves did affect intracellular Ca(2+) activity in PCs. The increased wave activity during aging, as well as low resting brain oxygen tension, suggests a relationship between glial waves, brain energy homeostasis, and pathology.

  1. Treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduces impairment of human osteoblast functions during cellular aging in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, M.; Rattan, Suresh; Eriksen, E.F.

    2001-01-01

    is due to impaired responsiveness to calcitriol known to be important for the regulation of biological activities of the osteoblasts. Thus, we examined changes in vitamin D receptor (VDR) system and the osteoblastic responses to calcitriol treatment during in vitro osteoblast aging. We found no change...... in the amount of VDR at either steady state mRNA level or protein level with increasing in vitro osteoblast age and examination of VDR localization, nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity revealed no in vitro age-related changes. Furthermore, calcitriol (10(-8)M) treatment of early-passage osteoblastic......Adequate responses to various hormones, such as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol) are a prerequisite for optimal osteoblast functions. We have previously characterized several human diploid osteoblastic cell lines that exhibit typical in vitro aging characteristics during long...

  2. Exhibition: Women and Sciences by Fiami

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info

    2011-01-01

    The 19-panel exhibition is on display at CERN's Microcosm from Monday to Saturday from 10.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.   Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry one hundred years ago. She is the only woman ever to win two Nobel Prizes, which is a testament to her remarkable work. But throughout history, women have played a role in science either in their own right or alongside other scientists. In this special exhibition, the comic-strip artist Fiami takes a look back at the relationship between women and science through his portraits of Mileva Einstein, Marie-Anne Lavoisier and, of course, Marie Curie. Fiami has recently published an entire album devoted to Marie Curie. Texts in French All ages - Entrance free Femmes et Sciences is on display at Microcosm: From Wednesday 21 September 2011 to Tuesday 20 December 2011.

  3. Hand Dominance and Age Have Interactive Effects on Motor Cortical Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Jessica A.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2012-01-01

    Older adults exhibit more bilateral motor cortical activity during unimanual task performance than young adults. Interestingly, a similar pattern is seen in young adults with reduced hand dominance. However, older adults report stronger hand dominance than young adults, making it unclear how handedness is manifested in the aging motor cortex. Here, we investigated age differences in the relationships between handedness, motor cortical organization, and interhemispheric communication speed. We...

  4. Spontaneous calcium waves in Bergman glia increase with age and hypoxia and may reduce tissue oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Claus; Brazhe, Alexey; Thomsen, Kirsten Joan

    2013-01-01

    Glial calcium (Ca(2+)) waves constitute a means to spread signals between glial cells and to neighboring neurons and blood vessels. These waves occur spontaneously in Bergmann glia (BG) of the mouse cerebellar cortex in vivo. Here, we tested three hypotheses: (1) aging and reduced blood oxygen sa...... activity during aging, as well as low resting brain oxygen tension, suggests a relationship between glial waves, brain energy homeostasis, and pathology.......Glial calcium (Ca(2+)) waves constitute a means to spread signals between glial cells and to neighboring neurons and blood vessels. These waves occur spontaneously in Bergmann glia (BG) of the mouse cerebellar cortex in vivo. Here, we tested three hypotheses: (1) aging and reduced blood oxygen...... saturation alters wave activity; (2) glial Ca(2+) waves change cerebral oxygen metabolism; and (3) neuronal and glial wave activity is correlated. We used two-photon microscopy in the cerebellar cortexes of adult (8- to 15-week-old) and aging (48- to 80-week-old) ketamine-anesthetized mice after bolus...

  5. The Particular Aspects of Science Museum Exhibits That Encourage Students' Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaby, Neta; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Tal, Tali

    2017-06-01

    This research explores learning in science museums through the most common activity in a science museum—interaction with exhibits. The goal of this study was to characterize the learning behaviors exhibited by students as they engage with interactive exhibits in order to draw insight regarding the design of the exhibits. In order to do so, we used a qualitative method of observation as well as the Visitor Engagement Framework (VEF) model, a visitor-based framework for assessing visitors' learning experiences with exhibits in a science center setting. The combined method produced a framework of nine learning behaviors exhibited during the visitors' interaction with the exhibits, grouped into three categories that reflect increasing levels of engagement and depth of the learning experience. Our research participants consisted of a total 1800 students aged 10-12 (4th, 5th, and 6th graders) who came to the museum with their class for a day visit. We observed nine exhibits, each visited by 200 students. Our observations revealed several design elements that contribute to engagement with exhibits in science museums. For example, exhibits that have familiar activation encourage visitors' interaction, exhibits that facilitate social interaction are more likely to increase engagement, and the highest levels of engagement can be found in exhibits that support large groups.

  6. Evaluating Education and Science in the KSC Visitor Complex Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lance K.

    2000-01-01

    The continuing development of exhibits at the Kennedy Space Center's Visitor Complex is an excellent opportunity for NASA personnel to promote science and provide insight into NASA programs and projects for the approximately 3 million visitors that come to KSC annually. Stated goals for the Visitor Complex, in fact, emphasize science awareness and recommend broadening the appeal of the displays and exhibits for all age groups. To this end, this summer project seeks to evaluate the science content of planned exhibits/displays in relation to these developing opportunities and identify specific areas for enhancement of existing or planned exhibits and displays. To help expand the educational and science content within the developing exhibits at the Visitor Complex, this project was structured to implement the goals of the Visitor Center Director. To accomplish this, the exhibits and displays planned for completion within the year underwent review and evaluation for science content and educational direction. Planning emphasis for the individual displays was directed at combining the elements of effective education with fundamental scientific integrity, within an appealing format.

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  8. In middle-aged and old obese patients, training intervention reduces leptin level: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Rostás

    Full Text Available Leptin is one of the major adipokines in obesity that indicates the severity of fat accumulation. It is also an important etiological factor of consequent cardiometabolic and autoimmune disorders. Aging has been demonstrated to aggravate obesity and to induce leptin resistance and hyperleptinemia. Hyperleptinemia, on the other hand, may promote the development of age-related abnormalities. While major weight loss has been demonstrated to ameliorate hyperleptinemia, obese people show a poor tendency to achieve lasting success in this field. The question arises whether training intervention per se is able to reduce the level of this adipokine.We aimed to review the literature on the effects of training intervention on peripheral leptin level in obesity during aging, in order to evaluate the independent efficacy of this method. In the studies that were included in our analysis, changes of adiponectin levels (when present were also evaluated.3481 records were identified through searching of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library Database. Altogether 19 articles were suitable for analyses.Empirical research papers were eligible provided that they reported data of middle-aged or older (above 45 years of age overweight or obese (body mass index above 25 individuals and included physical training intervention or at least fitness status of groups together with corresponding blood leptin values.We used random effect models in each of the meta-analyses calculating with the DerSimonian and Laird weighting methods. I-squared indicator and Q test were performed to assess heterogeneity. To assess publication bias Egger's test was applied. In case of significant publication bias, the Duval and Tweedie's trim and fill algorithm was used.Training intervention leads to a decrease in leptin level of middle-aged or older, overweight or obese male and female groups, even without major weight loss, indicated by unchanged serum adiponectin levels. Resistance training

  9. Selenoprotein-deficient transgenic mice exhibit enhanced exercise-induced muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Troy A; McLoughlin, Thomas J; Leszczynski, Jori K; Armstrong, Dustin D; Jameson, Ruth R; Bowen, Phyllis E; Hwang, Eun-Sun; Hou, Honglin; Moustafa, Mohamed E; Carlson, Bradley A; Hatfield, Dolph L; Diamond, Alan M; Esser, Karyn A

    2003-10-01

    Dietary intake of selenium has been implicated in a wide range of health issues, including aging, heart disease and cancer. Selenium deficiency, which can reduce selenoprotein levels, has been associated with several striated muscle pathologies. To investigate the role of selenoproteins in skeletal muscle biology, we used a transgenic mouse (referred to as i6A-) that has reduced levels of selenoproteins due to the introduction and expression of a dominantly acting mutant form of selenocysteine transfer RNA (tRNA[Ser]Sec). As a consequence, each organ contains reduced levels of most selenoproteins, yet these mice are normal with regard to fertility, overall health, behavior and blood chemistries. In the present study, although skeletal muscles from i6A- mice were phenotypically indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice, plantaris muscles were approximately 50% heavier after synergist ablation, a model of exercise overload. Like muscle in wild-type mice, the enhanced growth in the i6A- mice was completely blocked by inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Muscles of transgenic mice exhibited increased site-specific phosphorylation on both Akt and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k) (P accounting for the enhanced response to synergist ablation. Thus, a single genetic alteration resulted in enhanced skeletal muscle adaptation after exercise, and this is likely through subtle changes in the resting phosphorylation state of growth-related kinases.

  10. Assessing the User Resistance to Recommender Systems in Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulmo Koo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the paradigm shift toward smart tourism, the exhibition industry is making efforts to introduce innovative technologies that can provide more diverse and valuable experiences to attendees. However, various new information technologies have failed in a market in practice due to the user’s resistance against it. Since innovative technology, such as booth recommender systems (BRS, is changing, creating uncertainty among consumers, consumer’s resistance to innovative technology can be considered a normal reaction. Therefore, it is important for a company to understand the psychological aspect of the consumer’s resistance and make measures to overcome the resistance. Accordingly, based on the model of Kim and Kankanhalli (2009, by applying the perceived value, the technology acceptance model, and the status quo bias theory, this study focused on the importance of self-efficacy and technical support in the context of using BRS. To do this purpose, a total of 455 survey data that was collected from “Korea franchise exhibition” attendees were used to analyze the proposed model. Structural equation modeling was applied for data analysis. The result shows that perceived value was affected by relative advantage and switching cost, also switching cost reduced the perceived value. However, self-efficacy reduced the switching cost, thereby decreasing the resistance of exhibition attendees. In addition, technical support increased the relative advantage switching cost and the perceived value. Exhibition attendee’s resistance was significantly negatively affected by perceived value, and positively affected by switching cost. The results will provide balanced viewpoints between the relative advantage and switching cost for exhibition marketers, helping to strengthen the competitiveness in terms of sustainable tourism of exhibition.

  11. Dietary broccoli mildly improves neuroinflammation in aged mice but does not reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Brigitte E; Chen, Yung-Ju; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress and heightened inflammatory response to infection. Dietary interventions to reduce these changes are therefore desirable. Broccoli contains glucoraphanin, which is converted to sulforaphane (SFN) by plant myrosinase during cooking preparation or digestion. Sulforaphane increases antioxidant enzymes including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase and heme oxygenase I and inhibits inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that dietary broccoli would support an antioxidant response in brain and periphery of aged mice and inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and sickness. Young adult and aged mice were fed control or 10% broccoli diet for 28 days before an intraperitoneal LPS injection. Social interactions were assessed 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after LPS, and mRNA was quantified in liver and brain at 24 hours. Dietary broccoli did not ameliorate LPS-induced decrease in social interactions in young or aged mice. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was unaffected by broccoli consumption but was induced by LPS in brain and liver of adult and aged mice. In addition, IL-1β was elevated in brain of aged mice without LPS. Broccoli consumption decreased age-elevated cytochrome b-245 β, an oxidative stress marker, and reduced glial activation markers in aged mice. Collectively, these data suggest that 10% broccoli diet provides a modest reduction in age-related oxidative stress and glial reactivity, but is insufficient to inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. Thus, it is likely that SFN would need to be provided in supplement form to control the inflammatory response to LPS. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An outbreak of salmonellosis among children attending a reptile exhibit at a zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, C R; Torigian, C; Shillam, P J; Hoffman, R E; Heltzel, D; Beebe, J L; Malcolm, G; DeWitt, W E; Hutwagner, L; Griffin, P M

    1998-05-01

    In January 1996, an outbreak of diarrhea caused by Salmonella Enteritidis occurred in children attending a Komodo dragon exhibit at a metropolitan zoo. We sought to determine the extent of the outbreak and mode of transmission. A case-control study was conducted. Controls were randomly selected from zoo membership lists and matched to patients by age group and date of exhibit visit. Of 65 patients identified, 39 had confirmed and 26 had suspected cases. The median age was 7 years (range, 3 months to 48 years); 55% were enrolled in the case-control study. No patients and two (4%) controls reported touching a dragon; however, 83% of patients but only 52% of controls touched the wooden barrier that surrounded the dragon pen (odds ratio = 4.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 13.9). Washing hands at the zoo after visiting the dragons was highly protective (OR = 0.14, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.7). Cultures from the patients, one dragon, and the exhibit barriers yielded Salmonella Enteritidis, phage type 8. On the basis of an attack rate of 4.3% among exhibit attendees under 13 years old on whom data were collected, we estimate that 315 additional cases of salmonellosis occurred among visitors in this age group. This large outbreak demonstrates the importance of environmental contamination in the transmission of Salmonella from reptiles, and the protective value of hand washing. Recommendations regarding reptile exhibits and reptilian pets should emphasize this indirect route.

  13. Age Is Associated with Reduced Sharp-Wave Ripple Frequency and Altered Patterns of Neuronal Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Jean-Paul L; Gray, Daniel T; Schimanski, Lesley A; Lipa, Peter; Barnes, C A; Cowen, Stephen L

    2016-05-18

    Spatial and episodic memory performance declines with age, and the neural basis for this decline is not well understood. Sharp-wave ripples are brief (∼70 ms) high-frequency oscillatory events generated in the hippocampus and are associated with the consolidation of spatial memories. Given the connection between ripple oscillations and memory consolidation, we investigated whether the structure of ripple oscillations and ripple-triggered patterns of single-unit activity are altered in aged rats. Local field and single-unit activity surrounding sharp-wave ripple events were examined in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of old (n = 5) and young (n = 6) F344 rats during periods of rest preceding and following performance on a place-dependent eyeblink-conditioning task. Neural responses in aged rats differed from responses in young rats in several ways. First, compared with young rats, the rate of ripple occurrence (ripple density) is reduced in aged rats during postbehavior rest. Second, mean ripple frequency during prebehavior and postbehavior rest is lower in aged animals (aged: 132 Hz; young: 146 Hz). Third, single neurons in aged animals responded more consistently from ripple to ripple. Fourth, variability in interspike intervals was greater in aged rats. Finally, neurons were tuned to a narrower range of phases of the ripple oscillation relative to young animals. Together, these results suggest that the CA1 network in aged animals has a reduced "vocabulary" of available representational states. The hippocampus is a structure that is critical for the formation of episodic memories. Sharp-wave ripple events generated in the hippocampus have been implicated in memory consolidation processes critical to memory stabilization. We examine here whether these ripple oscillations are altered over the course of the life span, which could contribute to hippocampus-dependent memory deficits that occur during aging. This experiment used young and aged memory-impaired rats

  14. Exhibiting Epistemic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...

  15. Age-correlated changes in expression of micronuclear damage and repair in Paramecium tetraurelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodermel, S.R.; Smith-Sonneborn, J.

    1977-01-01

    In Paramecium, age is defined as the number of mitotic divisions which have elapsed since the previous cross-fertilization (conjugation) or self-fertilization (autogamy). As the mitotic interval between fertilization increases, the percentage of nonviable progeny clones increases. In the current study, resolution of conflicting previous reports on the pattern of increase of death and reduced viability in progeny from aging parent cells is found. Some exautogamous clones exhibit a high mortality at young clonal ages, others show no mortality throughout their life span, but most (73%) show an abrupt increase in the percent death and reduced viability in progeny from cells 50 to 80 fissions old. Ultraviolet-irradiation-induced micronuclear mutations, repairable by photoreactivation, increased with increased clonal age when monitored by percent death and reduced viability of exautogamous progeny of irradiated cells. Loss of dark repair is considered a contributor to the increased expression of micronuclear mutations with increased clonal age

  16. [Aging reduces contents of endogenous CO, cAMP and cGMP in rat penile tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen-Bo; Wang, Shu-Qiu; Li, Ming; Kang, Yu-Ming; Gui, Shi-Liang; Chi, Bao-Jin

    2009-02-01

    To explore the relationship of aging with the changes of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), cGMP and cAMP contents in the penile tissues of rats. Twenty-four male rats were equally divided into an 8-month, a 16-month and a 24-month group, and their penile erection was detected by injecting apomorphine, their penile cavernous body harvested, and the contents of CO, cAPM and cGMP detected by improved dual wavelength spectrophotometry. The contents of CO, cAPM and cGMP were reduced with the increase of age, with statistically significant differences between the three age groups (P < 0.01). Aging significantly decreased the contents of CO, cAMP and cGMP in the penile tissues of the rats, which suggests that aging might play an important role in erectile dysfunction.

  17. Hydrodynamic Drag Force Measurement Of A Functionalized Surface Exhibiting Superhydrophobic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    hydrodynamic skin friction is greatly reduced and the water is said to slip over the air layer [12]. A number of direct numerical simulations ( DNS ) [13...practical means of reducing drag. It is therefore important to investigate materials where in the passive state exhibit the desired qualities of

  18. Defective TFH Cell Function and Increased TFR Cells Contribute to Defective Antibody Production in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Peter T; Tan, Catherine L; Freeman, Gordon J; Haigis, Marcia; Sharpe, Arlene H

    2015-07-14

    Defective antibody production in aging is broadly attributed to immunosenescence. However, the precise immunological mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate an increase in the ratio of inhibitory T follicular regulatory (TFR) cells to stimulatory T follicular helper (TFH) cells in aged mice. Aged TFH and TFR cells are phenotypically distinct from those in young mice, exhibiting increased programmed cell death protein-1 expression but decreased ICOS expression. Aged TFH cells exhibit defective antigen-specific responses, and programmed cell death protein-ligand 1 blockade can partially rescue TFH cell function. In contrast, young and aged TFR cells have similar suppressive capacity on a per-cell basis in vitro and in vivo. Together, these studies reveal mechanisms contributing to defective humoral immunity in aging: an increase in suppressive TFR cells combined with impaired function of aged TFH cells results in reduced T-cell-dependent antibody responses in aged mice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduced gamma frequency in the medial frontal cortex of aged rats during behavior and rest: implications for age-related behavioral slowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Nathan; Patron, Lilian A; Hoang, Lan T; Nematollahi, Saman; Schimanski, Lesley A; Lipa, Peter; Barnes, Carol A

    2012-11-14

    Age-related cognitive and behavioral slowing may be caused by changes in the speed of neural signaling or by changes in the number of signaling steps necessary to achieve a given function. In the mammalian cortex, neural communication is organized by a 30-100 Hz "gamma" oscillation. There is a putative link between the gamma frequency and the speed of processing in a neural network: the dynamics of pyramidal neuron membrane time constants suggest that synaptic integration is framed by the gamma cycle, and pharmacological slowing of gamma also slows reaction times on behavioral tasks. The present experiments identify reductions in a robust 40-70 Hz gamma oscillation in the aged rat medial frontal cortex. The reductions were observed in the form of local field potentials, later peaks in fast-spiking neuron autocorrelations, and delays in the spiking of inhibitory neurons following local excitatory signals. Gamma frequency did not vary with movement speed, but rats with slower gamma also moved more slowly. Gamma frequency age differences were not observed in hippocampus. Hippocampal CA1 fast-spiking neurons exhibited interspike intervals consistent with a fast (70-100 Hz) gamma frequency, a pattern maintained across theta phases and theta frequencies independent of fluctuations in the average firing rates of the neurons. We propose that an average lengthening of the cortical 15-25 ms gamma cycle is one factor contributing to age-related slowing and that future attempts to offset cognitive declines will find a target in the response of fast-spiking inhibitory neurons to excitatory inputs.

  20. Aging increases the susceptibility to motor memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    2014-01-01

    Declines in the ability to learn motor skills in older adults are commonly attributed to deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during motor practice. We investigated whether aging also impairs motor memory consolidation by assessing the susceptibility to memory interference and off...... greater susceptibility to memory interference and no off-line gains in motor skill learning. Performing B produced memory interference and reduced off-line gains only in the older group. However, older adults also showed deficits in memory consolidation independent of the interfering effects of B. Age......-related declines in motor skill learning are not produced exclusively by deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during practice. Aging also increases the susceptibility to memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning after practice....

  1. Poor nutrition at age 3 and schizotypal personality at age 23: the mediating role of age 11 cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Peter H; Raine, Adrian

    2012-08-01

    Poor prenatal nutrition has been associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in the Netherlands and China, and it has been suggested that perinatal and postnatal nutritional factors lead to the development of schizophrenia and the exhibition of schizotypal traits later in life. There appears to be no prior research on the existence of possible factors that may mediate the relationship between malnutrition and schizophrenia spectrum disorders or whether this association is a direct one. The authors tested the hypothesis that low IQ mediates the relationship between early childhood malnutrition and adult schizotypal personality. Participants were drawn from a birth cohort of 1,795 boys and girls who were followed prospectively. Objective indicators of malnutrition (anemia and stunting) were assessed at age 3. Verbal and performance intelligence were assessed at age 11, and schizotypal personality was assessed at age 23. Both stunting and anemia at age 3 were associated with low IQ at age 11. Low performance IQ at age 11 was associated with increased interpersonal and disorganized features of schizotypal personality at age 23. Poor performance IQ was found to mediate the relationship between poor nutrition at age 3 and interpersonal and disorganized features of schizotypy at age 23. Findings in female participants were replicated in male participants. Given that poor nutrition is an alterable risk factor, these findings suggest that nutritional enhancements may improve brain functioning and possibly reduce some features of schizotypal personality disorder.

  2. Exposure to aged crumb rubber reduces survival time during a stress test in earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochron, Sharon; Nikakis, Jacqueline; Illuzzi, Kyra; Baatz, Andrea; Demirciyan, Loriana; Dhillon, Amritjot; Gaylor, Thomas; Manganaro, Alexa; Maritato, Nicholas; Moawad, Michael; Singh, Rajwinder; Tucker, Clara; Vaughan, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste management struggles with the sustainable disposal of used tires. One solution involves shredding used tires into crumb rubber and using the material as infill for artificial turf. However, crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals, and it travels into the environment. Earthworms living in soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil, but the impact of aged crumb rubber on the earthworms is unknown. Since many athletic fields contain aged crumb rubber, we compared the body weight, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress for earthworms living in clean topsoil to those living in topsoil contaminated with aged crumb rubber. We also characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published values for soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber. Consistent with earlier research, we found that contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates. Aged crumb rubber, like new crumb rubber, had high levels of zinc. However, while exposure to aged crumb rubber did not reduce earthworm body weight as did exposure to new crumb rubber, exposure to aged crumb rubber reduced earthworm survival time during a stress test by a statistically significant 38 min (16.2%) relative to the survival time for worms that had lived in clean soil. Aged crumb rubber and new crumb rubber appear to pose similar toxic risks to earthworms. This study suggests an environmental cost associated with the current tire-recycling solution.

  3. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  4. Absence of Non-histone Protein Complexes at Natural Chromosomal Pause Sites Results in Reduced Replication Pausing in Aging Yeast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleny Cabral

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence that genomic instability increases during aging. Replication pausing (and stalling at difficult-to-replicate chromosomal sites may induce genomic instability. Interestingly, in aging yeast cells, we observed reduced replication pausing at various natural replication pause sites (RPSs in ribosomal DNA (rDNA and non-rDNA locations (e.g., silent replication origins and tRNA genes. The reduced pausing occurs independent of the DNA helicase Rrm3p, which facilitates replication past these non-histone protein-complex-bound RPSs, and is independent of the deacetylase Sir2p. Conditions of caloric restriction (CR, which extend life span, also cause reduced replication pausing at the 5S rDNA and at tRNA genes. In aged and CR cells, the RPSs are less occupied by their specific non-histone protein complexes (e.g., the preinitiation complex TFIIIC, likely because members of these complexes have primarily cytosolic localization. These conditions may lead to reduced replication pausing and may lower replication stress at these sites during aging.

  5. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makpol, Suzana; Yeoh, Thong Wei; Ruslam, Farah Adilah Che; Arifin, Khaizurin Tajul; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2013-08-16

    Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs.

  6. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  7. HYPERANDROGENISM OF PUBERTY AGE AS A FACTOR REDUCING FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bogatyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Hyperandrogenism is a common cause of infertility in women. The onset of symptoms of hyperandrogenism takes place during puberty in the majority of women. Hyperandrogenism reduces reproductive potential,so early detection and development of its prognostic factors, allows us to solve serious problems of puberty and prevent infertility.Materials and methods. 113 adolescent girls with hyperandrogenism from 14 to 19 years were included. The control group consists of 25 healthy girls of a similar age. To confirm the prediction of decreased reproductive capacity were examined 35 women with hyperandrogenism from 19 to 36 years. In addition to routine methods of examination (anamnesis, physical examination, anthropometry, assessment of the hairline using Ferriman – Gallwey scale, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, the definition of the hormonal status (LH, FSH, prolactin, 17-OHP, estradiol, TSH, DHEAS-s, GHPG, testosterone, glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance test and dexamethasone suppression test when necessary.Results. We have proved the reduction of reproductive potential of adolescent girls with high free androgen index (FAI. When the FAI has increased from 36 to 100 conventional units it caused reduction of the reproductive capacity in 9.7 times in comparison with control group (χ2=56,24; p < 0.001; overall prediction accuracy of 92.8%.Conclusion. Free androgen index more than 36 conventional units is a high risk factor of reduced fertility.

  8. Could Visual Impairment in the Pediatric Age Group Be Reduced?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Ceyhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric age is the most important period for preventive eye care services and research. Vision loss in this period could cause a long life without sight and also significant financial and moral losses, in terms of people and society. Rational screening programs may reduce vision loss in childhood and this issue increases the value of the subject. Retinopathy of prematurity, congenital/infantile cataracts and glaucoma, optic nerve and retinal pathologies, refractive errors, amblyopia, and strabismus are the major clinical pictures causing visual loss in childhood. Using the epidemiological data, it could be estimated that every year approximately two to three thousand children suffer an ophthalmologic disease that causes significant visual loss. Regarding the refractive errors and amblyopia, it could be estimated that hundreds of thousands of children need ophthalmological follow-up in the country. For the timely treatment of these pathologies, a couple of short eye examination programs seem more realistic. Childhood vision loss in the country could be reduced, by informing pediatricians and family physicians and by proper guiding of the public opinion. Effective eye screening could be achieved with the implementation of simple methods like red reflex/Brückner test with ophthalmoscopy, or simultaneous (binocular retinoscopy and ophthalmoscopy of both eyes. Screening programs could be spread throughout the country by appropriate training of the physicians in the health institutions of the country. Screening programs will contribute to reduce the rate of visual disability by disseminating ophthalmologic practices throughout the country. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 195-201

  9. Brain SERT Expression of Male Rats Is Reduced by Aging and Increased by Testosterone Restitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jaime Herrera-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In preclinical and clinical studies aging has been associated with a deteriorated response to antidepressant treatment. We hypothesize that such impairment is explained by an age-related decrease in brain serotonin transporter (SERT expression associated with low testosterone (T levels. The objectives of this study were to establish (1 if brain SERT expression is reduced by aging and (2 if the SERT expression in middle-aged rats is increased by T-restitution. Intact young rats (3–5 months and gonad-intact middle-aged rats with or without T-restitution were used. The identification of the brain SERT expression was done by immunofluorescence in prefrontal cortex, lateral septum, hippocampus, and raphe nuclei. An age-dependent reduction of SERT expression was observed in all brain regions examined, while T-restitution recovered the SERT expression only in the dorsal raphe of middle-aged rats. This last action seems relevant since dorsal raphe plays an important role in the antidepressant action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. All data suggest that this mechanism accounts for the T-replacement usefulness to improve the response to antidepressants in the aged population.

  10. Reduced mismatch negativity in mild cognitive impairment: associations with neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowszowski, Loren; Hermens, Daniel F; Diamond, Keri; Norrie, Louisa; Hickie, Ian B; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to a transitory state between healthy aging and dementia. Biomarkers are needed to facilitate early identification of MCI and predict progression to dementia. One potential neurophysiological biomarker, mismatch negativity (MMN), is an event-related potential reflecting fundamental, pre-attentive cognitive processes. MMN is reduced in normal aging and dementia and in neuropsychiatric samples and is associated with verbal memory deficits and poor executive functioning. This study aimed to investigate auditory MMN and its relationship to neuropsychological performance in MCI. Twenty-eight MCI participants and fourteen controls, aged ≥50 years, underwent neurophysiological and neuropsychological assessment, and completed questionnaires pertaining to disability. Relative to controls, the MCI group demonstrated reduced temporal MMN amplitude (p patients with MCI exhibit altered pre-attentive information processing, which in turn is associated with memory and psychosocial deficits. These findings overall suggest that MMN may be a viable neurophysiological biomarker of underlying disease in this 'at risk' group.

  11. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  12. Advanced Maternal Age Worsens Postpartum Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude S. Morton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The age at which women experience their first pregnancy has increased throughout the decades. Pregnancy has an important influence on maternal short- and long-term cardiovascular outcomes. Pregnancy at an advanced maternal age increases maternal risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, placenta previa and caesarian delivery; complications which predict worsened cardiovascular health in later years. Aging also independently increases the risk of cardiovascular disease; therefore, combined risk in women of advanced maternal age may lead to detrimental cardiovascular outcomes later in life. We hypothesized that pregnancy at an advanced maternal age would lead to postpartum vascular dysfunction. We used a reproductively aged rat model to investigate vascular function in never pregnant (virgin, previously pregnant (postpartum and previously mated but never delivered (nulliparous rats at approximately 13.5 months of age (3 months postpartum or equivalent. Nulliparous rats, in which pregnancy was spontaneously lost, demonstrated significantly reduced aortic relaxation responses (methylcholine [MCh] Emax: 54.2 ± 12.6% vs. virgin and postpartum rats (MCh Emax: 84.8 ± 3.5% and 84.7 ± 3.2% respectively; suggesting pregnancy loss causes a worsened vascular pathology. Oxidized LDL reduced relaxation to MCh in aorta from virgin and postpartum, but not nulliparous rats, with an increased contribution of the LOX-1 receptor in the postpartum group. Further, in mesenteric arteries from postpartum rats, endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH-mediated vasodilation was reduced and a constrictive prostaglandin effect was apparent. In conclusion, aged postpartum rats exhibited vascular dysfunction, while rats which had pregnancy loss demonstrated a distinct vascular pathology. These data demonstrate mechanisms which may lead to worsened outcomes at an advanced maternal age; including early pregnancy loss and later life cardiovascular dysfunction.

  13. Candida species from oral cavity of HIV-infected children exhibit reduced virulence factors in the HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Lima de Amorim, Elaine; Santos, Adrielle Mangabeira; Alexandre da Rocha Curvelo, José; de Oliveira Martins, Karol; Capillé, Cauli Lima; Maria de Araújo Soares, Rosangela; Barbosa de Araújo Castro, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess, in vitro, the biofilm viability and the phospholipase and protease production of Candida spp. from the saliva of HIV infected children and healthy controls, and to correlate the results with the use of medical data. A total of 79 isolates were analyzed: 48 Candida albicans isolates (33/15) and 20 Candida parapsilosis sensu lato complex isolates (12/8) (from HIV/control patients, respectively), and 8 Candida krusei, 1 Candida tropicalis, 1 Candida dubliniensis and 1 Candida guilliermondii from HIV patients. The XTT (2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) reduction assay analyzed the biofilm viability. Phospholipase and protease assays were performed using the egg yolk and Bovine Serum Albumin agar plate methods, respectively. All isolates were able to form biofilm with cell viability. Quantitatively, Candida isolates from both groups presented a similar ability to form biofilm (p > 0.05). The biofilm viability activity was higher in C. albicans isolates than in non-albicans Candida isolates (p Candida spp. isolates from HIV-positive children presented higher phospholipase production, in vitro they exhibited reduced virulence factors compared to isolates from healthy individuals. This finding may enlighten the role played by immunosuppression in the modulation of Candida virulence attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In utero bisphenol A exposure disrupts germ cell nest breakdown and reduces fertility with age in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei, E-mail: weiwang2@illinois.edu; Hafner, Katlyn S., E-mail: katlynhafner@gmail.com; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2014-04-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known reproductive toxicant in rodents. However, the effects of in utero BPA exposure on early ovarian development and the consequences of such exposure on female reproduction in later reproductive life are unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of in utero BPA exposure during a critical developmental window on germ cell nest breakdown, a process required for establishment of the finite primordial follicle pool, and on female reproduction. Pregnant FVB mice (F0) were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-striped corn oil (vehicle), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg, positive control), or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg) from gestational day 11 until birth. Ovarian morphology and gene expression profiles then were examined in F1 female offspring on postnatal day (PND) 4 and estrous cyclicity was examined daily after weaning for 30 days. F1 females were also subjected to breeding studies with untreated males at three to nine months. The results indicate that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown via altering expression of selected apoptotic factors. BPA also significantly advances the age of first estrus, shortens the time that the females remain in estrus, and increases the time that the females remain in metestrus and diestrus compared to controls. Further, F1 females exposed to low doses of BPA exhibit various fertility problems and have a significantly higher percentage of dead pups compared to controls. These results indicate that in utero exposure to low doses of BPA during a critical ovarian developmental window interferes with early ovarian development and reduces fertility with age. - Highlights: • In utero BPA exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown in female mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure alters expression of apoptosis regulators in the ovaries of mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure advances first estrus age and alters cyclicity in mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure causes various fertility problems in

  15. In utero bisphenol A exposure disrupts germ cell nest breakdown and reduces fertility with age in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Hafner, Katlyn S.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known reproductive toxicant in rodents. However, the effects of in utero BPA exposure on early ovarian development and the consequences of such exposure on female reproduction in later reproductive life are unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of in utero BPA exposure during a critical developmental window on germ cell nest breakdown, a process required for establishment of the finite primordial follicle pool, and on female reproduction. Pregnant FVB mice (F0) were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-striped corn oil (vehicle), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg, positive control), or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg) from gestational day 11 until birth. Ovarian morphology and gene expression profiles then were examined in F1 female offspring on postnatal day (PND) 4 and estrous cyclicity was examined daily after weaning for 30 days. F1 females were also subjected to breeding studies with untreated males at three to nine months. The results indicate that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown via altering expression of selected apoptotic factors. BPA also significantly advances the age of first estrus, shortens the time that the females remain in estrus, and increases the time that the females remain in metestrus and diestrus compared to controls. Further, F1 females exposed to low doses of BPA exhibit various fertility problems and have a significantly higher percentage of dead pups compared to controls. These results indicate that in utero exposure to low doses of BPA during a critical ovarian developmental window interferes with early ovarian development and reduces fertility with age. - Highlights: • In utero BPA exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown in female mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure alters expression of apoptosis regulators in the ovaries of mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure advances first estrus age and alters cyclicity in mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure causes various fertility problems in

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT STRENGTHENS CORTICOCORTICAL INTERACTIONS AND REDUCES AMYLOID-β OLIGOMERS IN AGED MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eMainardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain aging is characterized by global changes which are thought to underlie age-related cognitive decline. These include variations in brain activity and the progressive increase in the concentration of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ oligomers, directly impairing synaptic function and plasticity even in the absence of any neurodegenerative disorder. Considering the high social impact of the decline in brain performance associated to aging, there is an urgent need to better understand how it can be prevented or contrasted. Lifestyle components, such as social interaction, motor exercise and cognitive activity, are thought to modulate brain physiology and its susceptibility to age-related pathologies. However, the precise functional and molecular factors that respond to environmental stimuli and might mediate their protective action again pathological aging still need to be clearly identified. To address this issue, we exploited environmental enrichment (EE, a reliable model for studying the effect of experience on the brain based on the enhancement of cognitive, social and motor experience, in aged wild-type mice. We analyzed the functional consequences of EE on aged brain physiology by performing in vivo local field potential (LFP recordings with chronic implants. In addition, we also investigated changes induced by EE on molecular markers of neural plasticity and on the levels of soluble Aβ oligomers. We report that EE induced profound changes in the activity of the primary visual and auditory cortices and in their functional interaction. At the molecular level, EE enhanced plasticity by an upward shift of the cortical excitation/inhibition balance. In addition, EE reduced brain Aβ oligomers and increased synthesis of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Our findings strengthen the potential of EE procedures as a non-invasive paradigm for counteracting brain aging processes.

  17. Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; Saunders, Kerryn; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-07-01

    High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of Ear-Level Remote Microphone devices and Classroom Amplification systems resulted in significantly improved listening, communication and social interaction and a reduction in physiologic stress levels (salivary cortisol) in both one-on-one and group listening situations.

  18. Dietary restriction delays the secretion of senescence associated secretory phenotype by reducing DNA damage response in the process of renal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2017-09-13

    Dietary restriction (DR) has multiple and essential effects in protecting against DNA damage in model organisms. Persistent DNA damage plays a central role in the process of aging. Senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), as a product of cellular aging, can accelerate the process of cellular senescence as a feedback. In this study, we directly observed whether a DR of 30% for 6months in aged rats could retard SASP by delaying the progression of DNA damage and also found the specific mechanism. The results revealed that a 30% DR could significantly improve renal pathology and some metabolic characteristics. The biomarkers and products of DNA damage were decreased in the process of renal aging on a 30% DR. A series of SASP, notably cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor, were obviously reduced by DR during renal aging. The phosphorylation levels of NF-κB and IκBα in aged kidneys of DR group were markedly reduced. These findings suggest that a 30% DR for 6months can delay renal aging and reduce the accumulation of SASP by retarding the progression of DNA damage and decreasing the transcription activity of NF-κB, thus providing a target to delay renal aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  20. Thrombospondin-4 is a putative tumour-suppressor gene in colorectal cancer that exhibits age-related methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greco, Sonia A; Leggett, Barbara A; Whitehall, Vicki LJ; Chia, June; Inglis, Kelly J; Cozzi, Sarah-Jane; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Buttenshaw, Ronald L; Spring, Kevin J; Boyle, Glen M; Worthley, Daniel L

    2010-01-01

    Thrombospondin-4 (THBS4) is a member of the extracellular calcium-binding protein family and is involved in cell adhesion and migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of deregulation of THBS4 expression in colorectal carcinogenesis. Of particular interest was the possible silencing of expression by methylation of the CpG island in the gene promoter. Fifty-five sporadic colorectal tumours stratified for the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) were studied. Immunohistochemical staining of THBS4 protein was assessed in normal and tumour specimens. Relative levels of THBS4 transcript expression in matched tumours and normal mucosa were also determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Colony forming ability was examined in 8 cell lines made to overexpress THBS4. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation was investigated as a possible mechanism of gene disruption using MethyLight. Methylation was also assessed in the normal colonic tissue of 99 patients, with samples biopsied from four regions along the length of the colon. THBS4 expression was significantly lower in tumour tissue than in matched normal tissue. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that THBS4 protein was generally absent from normal epithelial cells and tumours, but was occasionally expressed at low levels in the cytoplasm towards the luminal surface in vesicular structures. Forced THBS4 over-expression caused a 50-60% repression of tumour colony growth in all eight cell lines examined compared to control cell lines. Tumours exhibited significantly higher levels of methylation than matched normal mucosa, and THBS4 methylation correlated with the CpG island methylator phenotype. There was a trend towards decreased gene expression in tumours exhibiting high THBS4 methylation, but the correlation was not significant. THBS4 methylation was detectable in normal mucosal biopsies where it correlated with increasing patient age and negatively with the occurrence of adenomas elsewhere in the

  1. Thrombospondin-4 is a putative tumour-suppressor gene in colorectal cancer that exhibits age-related methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greco Sonia A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombospondin-4 (THBS4 is a member of the extracellular calcium-binding protein family and is involved in cell adhesion and migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of deregulation of THBS4 expression in colorectal carcinogenesis. Of particular interest was the possible silencing of expression by methylation of the CpG island in the gene promoter. Methods Fifty-five sporadic colorectal tumours stratified for the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP were studied. Immunohistochemical staining of THBS4 protein was assessed in normal and tumour specimens. Relative levels of THBS4 transcript expression in matched tumours and normal mucosa were also determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Colony forming ability was examined in 8 cell lines made to overexpress THBS4. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation was investigated as a possible mechanism of gene disruption using MethyLight. Methylation was also assessed in the normal colonic tissue of 99 patients, with samples biopsied from four regions along the length of the colon. Results THBS4 expression was significantly lower in tumour tissue than in matched normal tissue. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that THBS4 protein was generally absent from normal epithelial cells and tumours, but was occasionally expressed at low levels in the cytoplasm towards the luminal surface in vesicular structures. Forced THBS4 over-expression caused a 50-60% repression of tumour colony growth in all eight cell lines examined compared to control cell lines. Tumours exhibited significantly higher levels of methylation than matched normal mucosa, and THBS4 methylation correlated with the CpG island methylator phenotype. There was a trend towards decreased gene expression in tumours exhibiting high THBS4 methylation, but the correlation was not significant. THBS4 methylation was detectable in normal mucosal biopsies where it correlated with increasing patient age and

  2. 20 CFR 404.412 - After my benefits are reduced for age when and how will adjustments to that reduction be made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false After my benefits are reduced for age when and how will adjustments to that reduction be made? 404.412 Section 404.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.412 After my benefits are reduced for age when and how will...

  3. A Larger Social Network Enhances Novel Object Location Memory and Reduces Hippocampal Microgliosis in Aged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryon M.; Yao, Xinyue; Chen, Kelly S.; Kirby, Elizabeth D.

    2018-01-01

    The mammalian hippocampus shows marked decline in function with aging across many species, including humans and laboratory rodent models. This decline frequently manifests in memory impairments that occur even in the absence of dementia pathology. In humans, a number of factors correlate with preserved hippocampal memory in aging, such as exercise, cognitive stimulation and number of social ties. While interventional studies and animal models clearly indicate that exercise and cognitive stimulation lead to hippocampal preservation, there is relatively little research on whether a decline in social ties leads to cognitive decline or vice versa. Even in animal studies of environmental enrichment in aging, the focus typically falls on physical enrichment such as a rotating cast of toys, rather than the role of social interactions. The present studies investigated the hypothesis that a greater number of social ties in aging mice would lead to improved hippocampal function. Aged, female C57/Bl6 mice were housed for 3 months in pairs or large groups (7 mice per cage). Group-housed mice showed greater novel object location memory and stronger preference for a spatial navigation strategy in the Barnes maze, though no difference in escape latency, compared to pair-housed mice. Group-housed mice did not differ from pair-housed mice in basal corticosterone levels or adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Group-housed mice did, however, show reduced numbers of Iba1/CD68+ microglia in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that group housing led to better memory function and reduced markers of neuroinflammation in aged mice. More broadly, they support a causative link between social ties and hippocampal function, suggesting that merely having a larger social network can positively influence the aging brain. Future research should address the molecular mechanisms by which a greater number of social ties alters hippocampal function. PMID:29904345

  4. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  5. Aging, health behaviors, and the Diurnal rhythm and awakening response of salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Jennifer L. J.; Phillips, Anna C.; Carroll, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the awakening response and diurnal rhythm of cortisol in young versus older adults in relation to health behaviours. Older adults displayed significantly reduced cortisol upon awakening, a lower cortisol awakening response and a flatter diurnal profile represented by a reduced area under the curve and cortisol slope. There was also a significant interaction of age, cortisol and diet; younger adults with a higher fat and lower fruit and vegetable intake exhibited the flatte...

  6. Aging-associated inflammation promotes selection for adaptive oncogenic events in B cell progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Curtis J; Casás-Selves, Matias; Kim, Jihye; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Aghili, Leila; Daniel, Ashley E; Jimenez, Linda; Azam, Tania; McNamee, Eoin N; Clambey, Eric T; Klawitter, Jelena; Serkova, Natalie J; Tan, Aik Choon; Dinarello, Charles A; DeGregori, James

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of cancer is higher in the elderly; however, many of the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that B cell progenitors in old mice exhibit marked signaling, gene expression, and metabolic defects. Moreover, B cell progenitors that developed from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transferred from young mice into aged animals exhibited similar fitness defects. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of the oncogenes BCR-ABL, NRAS(V12), or Myc restored B cell progenitor fitness, leading to selection for oncogenically initiated cells and leukemogenesis specifically in the context of an aged hematopoietic system. Aging was associated with increased inflammation in the BM microenvironment, and induction of inflammation in young mice phenocopied aging-associated B lymphopoiesis. Conversely, a reduction of inflammation in aged mice via transgenic expression of α-1-antitrypsin or IL-37 preserved the function of B cell progenitors and prevented NRAS(V12)-mediated oncogenesis. We conclude that chronic inflammatory microenvironments in old age lead to reductions in the fitness of B cell progenitor populations. This reduced progenitor pool fitness engenders selection for cells harboring oncogenic mutations, in part due to their ability to correct aging-associated functional defects. Thus, modulation of inflammation--a common feature of aging--has the potential to limit aging-associated oncogenesis.

  7. Female scarcity reduces women's marital ages and increases variance in men's marital ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fitzgerald, Carey J; Peterson, Tom

    2010-08-05

    When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  8. Female Scarcity Reduces Women's Marital Ages and Increases Variance in Men's Marital Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  9. Biobreeding rat islets exhibit reduced antioxidative defense and N-acetyl cysteine treatment delays type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdani, Marika; Henschel, Angela M.; Kansra, Sanjay; Fuller, Jessica M.; Geoffrey, Rhonda; Jia, Shuang; Kaldunski, Mary L.; Pavletich, Scott; Prosser, Simon; Chen, Yi-Guang; Lernmark, Åke; Hessner, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Islet-level oxidative stress has been proposed as a trigger for type 1 diabetes (T1D), and release of cytokines by infiltrating immune cells further elevates reactive oxygen species (ROS), exacerbating β cell duress. To identify genes/mechanisms involved with diabeto-genesis at the β cell level, gene expression profiling and targeted follow-up studies were used to investigate islet activity in the biobreeding (BB) rat. Forty-day-old spontaneously diabetic lymphopenic BB DRlyp/lyp rats (before T cell insulitis) as well as nondiabetic BB DR+/+ rats, nondiabetic but lymphopenic F344lyp/lyp rats, and healthy Fischer (F344) rats were examined. Gene expression profiles of BB rat islets were highly distinct from F344 islets and under-expressed numerous genes involved in ROS metabolism, including glutathione S-transferase (GST) family members (Gstm2, Gstm4, Gstm7, Gstt1, Gstp1, and Gstk1), superoxide dismutases (Sod2 and Sod3), peroxidases, and peroxiredoxins. This pattern of under-expression was not observed in brain, liver, or muscle. Compared with F344 rats, BB rat pancreata exhibited lower GST protein levels, while plasma GST activity was found significantly lower in BB rats. Systemic administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine to DRlyp/lyp rats altered abundances of peripheral eosinophils, reduced severity of insulitis, and significantly delayed but did not prevent diabetes onset. We find evidence of β cell dysfunction in BB rats independent of T1D progression, which includes lower expression of genes related to antioxidative defense mechanisms during the pre-onset period that may contribute to overall T1D susceptibility. PMID:23111281

  10. Obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and reduced mobility in Brazilian older people aged 80 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanessa Ribeiro Dos; Gomes, Igor Conterato; Bueno, Denise Rodrigues; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Freitas, Ismael Forte; Gobbo, Luis Alberto

    2017-01-01

    To analyze which abnormalities in body composition (obesity, sarcopenia or sarcopenic obesity) are related to reduced mobility in older people aged 80 years and older. The sample included 116 subjects aged 80 years and older. The body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and mobility was assessed by motor tests. The χ2 test was used to analyze the proportion of older people with sarcopenia, obesity and sarcopenic obesity based on sex as well as to indicate an association between obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and mobility. Binary logistic regression, adjusted for the variables (sex and osteoarticular diseases), was used to express the magnitude of these associations. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the mobility of four groups (Normal, Obesity, Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity). The Sarcopenia Group had lower performance in the lower limbs strength test and in sum of two tests compared with Obesity and Normal Groups. Older people with sarcopenia had higher chance of reduced mobility (OR: 3.44; 95%CI: 1.12-10.52). Older people aged 80 years and older with sarcopenia have more chance for reduction in mobility.

  11. A SHORT-TERM CIRCUIT RESISTANCE PROGRAMME REDUCED EPICARDIAL FAT IN OBESE AGED WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosety, Miguel Angel; Pery, Maria Teresa; Rodriguez-Pareja, Maria Antonia; Diaz, Antonio; Rosety, Jesus; Garcia, Natalia; Brenes-Martin, Francisco; Rosety-Rodríguez, Manuel; Toro, Rocío; Ordoñez, Francisco Javier; Rosety, Ignacio

    2015-11-01

    this study was conducted to ascertain the effects of resistance circuit training on epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in obese aged women. A secondary objective was to assess muscle damage induced by supervised resistance training to confirm the intervention program was effective and safe. in the present interventional study, a total of 48 obese aged women were recruited from the community. Twenty-four of them were randomly assigned to perform a 12-week resistance circuit training programme, 3-days per week. This training was circularly performed in 6 stations: arm curl, leg extension, seated row, leg curl, triceps extension and leg press. The Jamar handgrip electronic dynamometer was used to assess maximal handgrip strength of the dominant hand. Two experienced observers assessed EAT by transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiography. Lastly, serum samples were analysed using one-step sandwich assays for creatine kinase activity (CK) and myoglobin (MB) concentration. as was hypothesized, resistance training significantly reduced EAT thickness (8.4 ± 1.0 vs. 7.3 ± 1.3 mm; p = 0.014; d = 0.76) in the experimental group. Resistance training induced no significant changes in markers of muscle damage such as CK (181.6 ± 36.9 vs. 194.2 ± 37.8 U/l; p = 0.31) and MB (62.4 ± 7.1 vs. 67.3 ± 7.7 ng/ml; p = 0.26). No significant changes in any of the tested outcomes were found in the control group. resistance training reduced EAT in aged obese women. A secondary finding was that the training program was effective and safe. While current results are promising, future studies are still required to consolidate this approach in clinical application. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Discrimination? - Exhibition of posters

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Participation in the exhibition with the students form the Art Academy. The exhibition consisted of 15 posters tackling the subjects of hate speech and discrimination. The exhibition happened thanks to the invitation of the Faculty of Law at UGD, and it was a part of a larger event of launching books on the aforementioned subjects.

  13. Reducing the Noise in Behavioral Assays: Sex and Age in Adult Zebrafish Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Philpott, Catelyn; Donack, Corey J.; Cousin, Margot A.; Pierret, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many assays are used in animal model systems to measure specific human disease-related behaviors. The use of both adult and larval zebrafish as a behavioral model is gaining popularity. As this work progresses and potentially translates into new treatments, we must do our best to improve the sensitivity of these assays by reducing confounding factors. Scientists who use the mouse model system have demonstrated that sex and age can influence a number of behaviors. As a community, they have mov...

  14. The Presentation of Self in the Age of Social Media: Distinguishing Performances and Exhibitions Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Bernie

    2010-01-01

    Presentation of self (via Goffman) is becoming increasingly popular as a means for explaining differences in meaning and activity of online participation. This article argues that self-presentation can be split into performances, which take place in synchronous "situations," and artifacts, which take place in asynchronous "exhibitions." Goffman's…

  15. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  16. Exhibiting the Human/Exhibiting the Cyborg: “Who Am I?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Vackimes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the museum in shaping our relationship to science and technology, particularly cyborgization, is illuminated by a close examination of the Who Am I permanent exhibition in the Wellcome Wing of the Science Museum of London. This innovative exhibition raises real questions both about the human-technology-science relationship but also about museography. In the context of the history and current practices of museums engaging contemporary technological developments the evidence suggest that even as the Who am I? exhibit did break somewhat from previous approaches, especially the didactic presentation of the socially useful, it has not changed the feld as a whole.

  17. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  18. Metallurgical properties of reduced activation martensitic steel Eurofer'97 in the as-received condition and after thermal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Lancha, A.M.; Lapena, J.; Serrano, M.; Hernandez-Mayoral, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the microstructural studies and the mechanical testing (hardness, tensile and charpy tests) performed on the Eurofer'97 steel in the as-received condition and after thermal ageing treatments up to 600 deg. C. In addition, fracture toughness tests on the as-received condition have been carried out in order to determine the Master Curve. During the thermal ageing treatments studied (500 deg. C/5000 h and 600 deg. C/1000 h) the general microstructure of the steel (tempered martensite with M 23 C 6 and MX precipitates) remained stable. Only a slight growth of the particles has been observed. In terms of mechanical properties, the Eurofer'97 steel exhibited similar values of tensile properties (tensile and yield strength) and ductile-brittle transition temperature regardless of the material condition studied.

  19. Exhibition; Image display agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normazlin Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This article touches on the role of Malaysian Nuclear Agency as nuclear research institutions to promote, develop and encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in its agricultural, medical, manufacturing, industrial, health and environment for the development of the country running successfully. Maturity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency in dealing with nuclear technology that are very competitive and globalization cannot be denied. On this basis Malaysian Nuclear Agency was given the responsibility to strengthen the nuclear technology in Malaysia. One way is through an exhibition featuring the research, discoveries and new technology products of the nuclear technology. Through this exhibition is to promote the nuclear technology and introduce the image of the agency in the public eye. This article also states a number of exhibits entered by the Malaysian Nuclear Agency and achievements during the last exhibition. Authors hope that the exhibition can be intensified further in the future.

  20. Endurance exercise rescues progeroid aging and induces systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation in mtDNA mutator mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Adeel; Bourgeois, Jacqueline M.; Ogborn, Daniel I.; Little, Jonathan P.; Hettinga, Bart P.; Akhtar, Mahmood; Thompson, James E.; Melov, Simon; Mocellin, Nicholas J.; Kujoth, Gregory C.; Prolla, Tomas A.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    A causal role for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis in mammalian aging is supported by recent studies demonstrating that the mtDNA mutator mouse, harboring a defect in the proofreading-exonuclease activity of mitochondrial polymerase gamma, exhibits accelerated aging phenotypes characteristic of human aging, systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, multisystem pathology, and reduced lifespan. Epidemiologic studies in humans have demonstrated that endurance training reduces the risk of chronic diseases and extends life expectancy. Whether endurance exercise can attenuate the cumulative systemic decline observed in aging remains elusive. Here we show that 5 mo of endurance exercise induced systemic mitochondrial biogenesis, prevented mtDNA depletion and mutations, increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and respiratory chain assembly, restored mitochondrial morphology, and blunted pathological levels of apoptosis in multiple tissues of mtDNA mutator mice. These adaptations conferred complete phenotypic protection, reduced multisystem pathology, and prevented premature mortality in these mice. The systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation through endurance exercise promises to be an effective therapeutic approach to mitigating mitochondrial dysfunction in aging and related comorbidities. PMID:21368114

  1. Hand dominance and age have interactive effects on motor cortical representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Bernard

    Full Text Available Older adults exhibit more bilateral motor cortical activity during unimanual task performance than young adults. Interestingly, a similar pattern is seen in young adults with reduced hand dominance. However, older adults report stronger hand dominance than young adults, making it unclear how handedness is manifested in the aging motor cortex. Here, we investigated age differences in the relationships between handedness, motor cortical organization, and interhemispheric communication speed. We hypothesized that relationships between these variables would differ for young and older adults, consistent with our recent proposal of an age-related shift in interhemispheric interactions. We mapped motor cortical representations of the right and left first dorsal interosseous muscles using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in young and older adults recruited to represent a broad range of the handedness spectrum. We also measured interhemispheric communication speed and bimanual coordination. We observed that more strongly handed older adults exhibited more ipsilateral motor activity in response to TMS; this effect was not present in young adults. Furthermore, we found opposing relationships between interhemispheric communication speed and bimanual performance in the two age groups. Thus, handedness manifests itself differently in the motor cortices of young and older adults and has interactive effects with age.

  2. Human aging reduces the neurobehavioral influence of motivation on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Maiya R; Mattfeld, Aaron T; Angeles, Carlo de Los; Keshavan, Anisha; Gabrieli, John D E

    2018-05-01

    The neural circuitry mediating the influence of motivation on long-term declarative or episodic memory formation is delineated in young adults, but its status is unknown in healthy aging. We examined the effect of reward and punishment anticipation on intentional declarative memory formation for words using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) monetary incentive encoding task in twenty-one younger and nineteen older adults. At 24-hour memory retrieval testing, younger adults were significantly more likely to remember words associated with motivational cues than neutral cues. Motivational enhancement of memory in younger adults occurred only for recollection ("remember" responses) and not for familiarity ("familiar" responses). Older adults had overall diminished memory and did not show memory gains in association with motivational cues. Memory encoding associated with monetary rewards or punishments activated motivational (substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area) and memory-related (hippocampus) brain regions in younger, but not older, adults during the target word periods. In contrast, older and younger adults showed similar activation of these brain regions during the anticipatory motivational cue interval. In a separate monetary incentive delay task that did not require learning, we found evidence for relatively preserved striatal reward anticipation in older adults. This supports a potential dissociation between incidental and intentional motivational processes in healthy aging. The finding that motivation to obtain rewards and avoid punishments had reduced behavioral and neural influence on intentional episodic memory formation in older compared to younger adults is relevant to life-span theories of cognitive aging including the dopaminergic vulnerability hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Better together: Left and right hemisphere engagement to reduce age-related memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Michela; Manenti, Rosa; Ferrari, Clarissa; Cotelli, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Episodic memory is a cognitive function that appears more susceptible than others to the effects of aging. The main aim of this study is to investigate if the magnitude of functional hemispheric lateralization during episodic memory test was positively correlated with memory performance, proving the presence of a beneficial pattern of neural processing in high-performing older adults but not in low-performing participants. We have applied anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) or sham stimulation over left and right hemisphere in a group of young subjects and in high-performing and low-performing older participants during an experimental verbal episodic memory task. Remarkably, young individuals and high-performing older adults exhibited similar performances on episodic memory tasks and both groups showed symmetrical recruitment of left and right areas during memory retrieval. In contrast, low-performing older adults, who obtained lower scores on the memory tasks, demonstrated a greater engagement of the left hemisphere during verbal memory task. Furthermore, structural equation model was performed for analyzing the interrelations between the index of interhemispheric asymmetry and several neuropsychological domains. We found that the bilateral engagement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex regions had a direct correlation with memory and executive functions evaluated as latent constructs. These findings drew attention to brain maintenance hypothesis. The potential of neurostimulation in cognitive enhancement is particularly promising to prevent memory loss during aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-related reduced prefrontal-amygdala structural connectivity is associated with lower trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewett, David; Bachman, Shelby; Mather, Mara

    2014-07-01

    A current neuroanatomical model of anxiety posits that greater structural connectivity between the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) facilitates regulatory control over the amygdala and helps reduce anxiety. However, some neuroimaging studies have reported contradictory findings, demonstrating a positive rather than negative association between trait anxiety and amygdala-vPFC white matter integrity. To help reconcile these findings, we tested the regulatory hypothesis of anxiety circuitry using aging as a model of white matter decline in the amygdala-vPFC pathway. We used probabilistic tractography to trace connections between the amygdala and vPFC in 21 younger, 18 middle-aged, and 15 healthy older adults. The resulting tract estimates were used to extract 3 indices of white-matter integrity: fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD). The relationship between these amygdala-vPFC structural connectivity measures and age and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores were assessed. The tractography results revealed age-related decline in the FA (p = .005) and radial diffusivity (p = .002) of the amygdala-vPFC pathway. Contrary to the regulatory hypothesis, we found a positive rather than negative association between trait anxiety and right amygdala-vPFC FA (p = .01). These findings argue against the notion that greater amygdala-vPFC structural integrity facilitates better anxiety outcomes in healthy adults. Instead, our results suggest that white matter degeneration in this network relates to lower anxiety in older adults.

  5. Age-related reduced prefrontal-amygdala structural connectivity is associated with lower trait anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewett, David; Bachman, Shelby; Mather, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Objective A current neuroanatomical model of anxiety posits that greater structural connectivity between the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) facilitates regulatory control over the amygdala and helps reduce anxiety. However, some neuroimaging studies have reported contradictory findings, demonstrating a positive rather than negative association between trait anxiety and amygdala-vPFC white matter integrity. To help reconcile these findings, we tested the regulatory hypothesis of anxiety circuitry using aging as a model of white matter decline in the amygdala-vPFC pathway. Methods We used probabilistic tractography to trace connections between the amygdala and vPFC in 21 younger, 18 middle-aged, and 15 healthy older adults. The resulting tract estimates were used to extract three indices of white-matter integrity: fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). The relationship between these amygdala-vPFC structural connectivity measures and age and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores were assessed. Results The tractography results revealed age-related decline in the FA (p = .005) and radial diffusivity (p = .002) of the amygdala-vPFC pathway. Contrary to the regulatory hypothesis, we found a positive rather than negative association between trait anxiety and right amygdala-vPFC FA (p = .01). Conclusion These findings argue against the notion that greater amygdala-vPFC structural integrity facilitates better anxiety outcomes in healthy adults. Instead, our results suggest that white matter degeneration in this network relates to lower anxiety in older adults. PMID:24635708

  6. Senior Adult Sexuality in Age Segregated and Age Integrated Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Stellye; Rosen, Efrem

    1988-01-01

    Middle-income older adults (N=314) responded to senior adult sexuality scale. Results showed that respondents who selected to reside in age-segregated leisure-type retirement communities exhibited significantly more sexual interest, sexual activities, and liberal sexual attitudes than did respondents residing in age-integrated mainstream…

  7. Theta power is reduced in healthy cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Tarrant D R; Finnigan, Simon

    2007-10-01

    The effects of healthy cognitive aging on electroencephalographic (EEG) theta (4.9-6.8 Hz) power were examined during performance of a modified Sternberg, S., 1966. High-speed scanning in human memory. Science 153, 652-654.) word recognition task. In a sample of fourteen young (mean age 21.9 years, range=18-27) and fourteen older (mean age 68.4 years, range=60-80) participants, theta power was found to be significantly lower in older adults during both the retention and recognition intervals. This theta power difference was greatest at the fronto-central midline electrode and occurred in parallel with a small, non-significant decrease in recognition accuracy in the older sample. A significant decrease in older adults' mean theta power was also observed in resting EEG, however, it was of substantially smaller magnitude than the task-related theta difference. It is proposed that a neurophysiological measure(s), such as task-specific frontal midline theta (fmtheta) power, may be a more sensitive marker of cognitive aging than task performance measures. Furthermore, as recent research indicates that fmtheta is generated primarily in the anterior cingulate cortex, the current findings support evidence that the function of brain networks incorporating this structure may be affected in cognitive aging.

  8. Reducing age of autism diagnosis: developmental social neuroscience meets public health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klin, Ami; Klaiman, Cheryl; Jones, Warren

    2015-02-25

    Autism spectrum disorder (autism) is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous family of neurodevelopmental disorders of genetic origins with potentially devastating implications for child, family, health and educational systems. Despite advances in paper-and-pencil screening and in standardization of diagnostic procedures, diagnosis of autism in the US still hovers around the ages of four or five years, later still in disadvantaged communities, and several years after the age of two to three years when the condition can be reliably diagnosed by expert clinicians. As early detection and treatment are two of the most important factors optimizing outcome, and given that diagnosis is typically a necessary condition for families to have access to early treatment, reducing age of diagnosis has become one of the greatest priorities of the field. Recent advances in developmental social neuroscience promise the advent of cost-effective and community-viable, performance-based procedures, and suggest a complementary method for promoting universal screening and much greater access to the diagnosis process. Small but critical studies have already reported on experiments that differentiate groups of children at risk for autism from controls, and at least one study so far could predict diagnostic classification and level of disability on the basis of a brief experiment. Although the road to translating such procedures into effective devices for screening and diagnosis is still a long one, and premature claims should be avoided, this effort could be critical in addressing this worldwide public health challenge.

  9. Twenty-four hours hypothermia has temporary efficacy in reducing brain infarction and inflammation in aged rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandu, Raluca Elena; Buga, Ana Maria; Balseanu, Adrian Tudor

    2016-01-01

    in aged animals. Because the duration of hypothermia in most clinical trials is between 24 and 48 hours, we questioned whether 24 hours exposure to gaseous hypothermia confers the same neuroprotective efficacy as 48 hours exposure. We found that a shorter exposure to hypothermia transiently reduced both...... inflammation and infarct size. However, after 1 week, the infarct size became even larger than in controls and after 2 weeks there was no beneficial effect on regenerative processes such as neurogenesis. Behaviorally, hypothermia also had a limited beneficial effect. Finally, after hydrogen sulfide......-induced hypothermia, the poststroke aged rats experienced a persistent sleep impairment during their active nocturnal period. Our data suggest that cellular events that are delayed by hypothermia in aged rats may, in the long term, rebound, and diminish the beneficial effects....

  10. Reduced mitochondrial mass and function add to age-related susceptibility toward diet-induced fatty liver in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Kerstin; Pachl, Fiona; Moghaddas Gholami, Amin; Geillinger, Kerstin E; Daniel, Hannelore; Kuster, Bernhard; Klingenspor, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health burden in the aging society with an urging medical need for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered critical in the development of hepatic steatosis, the hallmark of NAFLD. Our study addressed in C57BL/6J mice the effect of high fat diet feeding and age on liver mitochondria at an early stage of NAFLD development. We therefore analyzed functional characteristics of hepatic mitochondria and associated alterations in the mitochondrial proteome in response to high fat feeding in adolescent, young adult, and middle-aged mice. Susceptibility to diet-induced obesity increased with age. Young adult and middle-aged mice developed fatty liver, but not adolescent mice. Fat accumulation was negatively correlated with an age-related reduction in mitochondrial mass and aggravated by a reduced capacity of fatty acid oxidation in high fat-fed mice. Irrespective of age, high fat diet increased ROS production in hepatic mitochondria associated with a balanced nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 like 2 (NFE2L2) dependent antioxidative response, most likely triggered by reduced tethering of NFE2L2 to mitochondrial phosphoglycerate mutase 5. Age indirectly influenced mitochondrial function by reducing mitochondrial mass, thus exacerbating diet-induced fat accumulation. Therefore, consideration of age in metabolic studies must be emphasized. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  11. Aging in the Male Face: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaney, Terrence C

    2016-07-01

    Gender is one of the most significant factors that influence facial anatomy and behavior, both key factors in the aging process. To review male facial anatomy, physiology, and behavior and how it contributes to sexual dimorphism in facial aging. A MEDLINE search was performed for publications on gender differences in facial anatomy, aging, cutaneous physiology, and behavior. There are differences in both intrinsic and extrinsic aging factors in men. Men have a thicker epidermis and dermis with more active cutaneous appendages including hair growth. Male skin has a reduced antioxidant capacity and increased ultraviolet-induced immunosuppression. The male face is larger and has a unique square shape with less subcutaneous soft tissue, especially at the medial cheek. Men are also more prone to smoking and exhibiting poor sun-protective behavior. The differences in intrinsic and extrinsic aging factors contribute to poor facial aging in men. Men develop more severe rhytides in a unique pattern, show increased periocular aging changes, and are more prone to hair loss. This review provides insight into the factors contributing to accelerated male facial aging. Understanding gender differences in aging will help physicians tailor cosmetic treatments for men and minimize extrinsic aging factors.

  12. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  13. Low-Fat Diet With Caloric Restriction Reduces White Matter Microglia Activation During Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoran Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rodent models of both aging and obesity are characterized by inflammation in specific brain regions, notably the corpus callosum, fornix, and hypothalamus. Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, are important for brain development, neural support, and homeostasis. However, the effects of diet and lifestyle on microglia during aging are only partly understood. Here, we report alterations in microglia phenotype and functions in different brain regions of mice on a high-fat diet (HFD or low-fat diet (LFD during aging and in response to voluntary running wheel exercise. We compared the expression levels of genes involved in immune response, phagocytosis, and metabolism in the hypothalamus of 6-month-old HFD and LFD mice. We also compared the immune response of microglia from HFD or LFD mice to peripheral inflammation induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Finally, we investigated the effect of diet, physical exercise, and caloric restriction (40% reduction compared to ad libitum intake on microglia in 24-month-old HFD and LFD mice. Changes in diet caused morphological changes in microglia, but did not change the microglia response to LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Expression of phagocytic markers (i.e., Mac-2/Lgals3, Dectin-1/Clec7a, and CD16/CD32 in the white matter microglia of 24-month-old brain was markedly decreased in calorically restricted LFD mice. In conclusion, LFD resulted in reduced activation of microglia, which might be an underlying mechanism for the protective role of caloric restriction during aging-associated decline.

  14. Low-Fat Diet With Caloric Restriction Reduces White Matter Microglia Activation During Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhuoran; Raj, Divya D; Schaafsma, Wandert; van der Heijden, Roel A; Kooistra, Susanne M; Reijne, Aaffien C; Zhang, Xiaoming; Moser, Jill; Brouwer, Nieske; Heeringa, Peter; Yi, Chun-Xia; van Dijk, Gertjan; Laman, Jon D; Boddeke, Erik W G M; Eggen, Bart J L

    2018-01-01

    Rodent models of both aging and obesity are characterized by inflammation in specific brain regions, notably the corpus callosum, fornix, and hypothalamus. Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, are important for brain development, neural support, and homeostasis. However, the effects of diet and lifestyle on microglia during aging are only partly understood. Here, we report alterations in microglia phenotype and functions in different brain regions of mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) during aging and in response to voluntary running wheel exercise. We compared the expression levels of genes involved in immune response, phagocytosis, and metabolism in the hypothalamus of 6-month-old HFD and LFD mice. We also compared the immune response of microglia from HFD or LFD mice to peripheral inflammation induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Finally, we investigated the effect of diet, physical exercise, and caloric restriction (40% reduction compared to ad libitum intake) on microglia in 24-month-old HFD and LFD mice. Changes in diet caused morphological changes in microglia, but did not change the microglia response to LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Expression of phagocytic markers (i.e., Mac-2/Lgals3, Dectin-1/Clec7a, and CD16/CD32) in the white matter microglia of 24-month-old brain was markedly decreased in calorically restricted LFD mice. In conclusion, LFD resulted in reduced activation of microglia, which might be an underlying mechanism for the protective role of caloric restriction during aging-associated decline.

  15. Exhibition at the AAA library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Sonnesgade 11 The exhibition at the AAA library presents selected work produced by students prior to the exhibition of installations in project and praxis constructing an archive at Sonnesgade 11. The exhibition at Sonnesgade 11 was the culmination of collaboration with SLETH architects and studio...

  16. Identifying advanced glycation end products as a major source of oxidants in aging: implications for the management and/or prevention of reduced renal function in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassara, Helen; Uribarri, Jaime; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cai, Weijing; Torreggiani, Massimo; Post, James B; Zheng, Feng; Striker, Gary E

    2009-11-01

    Aging is characterized by increasing inflammation and oxidant stress (OS). Reduced renal function was present in more than 20% of normal-aged individuals sampled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cross-sectional study of the US population. Longitudinal studies in the United States and Italy showed that renal function does not decline in some individuals, suggesting that a search for causes of the loss of renal function in some persons might be indicated and interventions to reduce this outcome should be sought. Because advanced glycation end products (AGEs) induce both inflammation and OS, accumulate with age, and primarily are excreted by the kidney, one outcome of reduced renal function in aging could be decreased AGE disposal. The build-up of AGEs with reduced renal function could contribute to inflammation, increased oxidant stress, and accumulation of AGEs in aging. In fact, results from a longitudinal study of normal aging adults in Italy showed that the most significant correlation with mortality was the level of renal function. A clear link between inflammation, OS, AGEs, and chronic disease was shown in studies of mice that showed that reduction of AGE levels by drugs or decreased intake of AGEs reduces chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease of aging. The data support a role for AGEs in the development of renal lesions in aging mice and reveal that AGEs in the diet are very important contributors to renal and cardiovascular lesions. AGEs signal through two receptors, one of which is anti-inflammatory (AGER1) and the other is proinflammatory (RAGE). Overexpression of AGER1 protects against OS and acute vascular injury. The reduction of AGEs in the diet is as efficient in preventing aging-related cardiovascular and renal lesions in mice as that seen with calorie restriction. Studies in normal adults of all ages and those with CKD suggest that the findings in mice may be directly applicable to both aging and CKD

  17. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  18. Attentional function and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron morphology during aging in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Ash, Jessica A; Strawderman, Myla S; Alldred, Melissa J; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2016-12-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit intellectual disability and develop Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathology during the third decade of life. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS exhibits key features of both disorders, including impairments in learning, attention and memory, as well as atrophy of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). The present study evaluated attentional function in relation to BFCN morphology in young (3 months) and middle-aged (12 months) Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) controls. Ts65Dn mice exhibited attentional dysfunction at both ages, with greater impairment in older trisomics. Density of BFCNs was significantly lower for Ts65Dn mice independent of age, which may contribute to attentional dysfunction since BFCN density was positively associated with performance on an attention task. BFCN volume decreased with age in 2N but not Ts65Dn mice. Paradoxically, BFCN volume was greater in older trisomic mice, suggestive of a compensatory response. In sum, attentional dysfunction occurred in both young and middle-aged Ts65Dn mice, which may in part reflect reduced density and/or phenotypic alterations in BFCNs.

  19. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  20. Phonological complexity in school-aged children who stutter and exhibit a language disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Lesley; LaSalle, Lisa R

    2015-03-01

    The Index of Phonological Complexity and the Word Complexity Measure are two measures of the phonological complexity of a word. Other phonological measures such as phonological neighborhood density have been used to compare stuttered versus fluent words. It appears that in preschoolers who stutter, the length and complexity of the utterance is more influential than the phonetic features of the stuttered word. The present hypothesis was that in school-age children who stutter, stuttered words would be more phonologically complex than fluent words, when the length and complexity of the utterance containing them is comparable. School-age speakers who stutter were hypothesized to differ from those with a concomitant language disorder. Sixteen speakers, six females and ten males (M age=12;3; Range=7;7 to 19;5) available from an online database, were divided into eight who had a concomitant language disorder (S+LD) and eight age- and sex-matched speakers who did not (S-Only). When all stuttered content words were identified, S+LD speakers produced more repetitions, and S-Only speakers produced more inaudible sound prolongations. When stuttered content words were matched to fluent content words and when talker groups were combined, stuttered words were significantly (p≤0.01) higher in both the Index of Phonological Complexity and the Word Complexity Measure and lower in density ("sparser") than fluent words. Results corroborate those of previous researchers. Future research directions are suggested, such as cross-sectional designs to evaluate developmental patterns of phonological complexity and stuttering plus language disordered connections. The reader will be able to: (a) Define and describe phonological complexity; (b) Define phonological neighborhood density and summarize the literature on the topic; (c) Describe the Index of Phonological Complexity (IPC) for a given word; (d) Describe the Word Complexity Measure (WCM) for a given word; (e) Summarize two findings

  1. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging...... density. Hippocampal BDNF protein levels were measured by ELISA. An exacerbated age-related loss of serotonin fiber density specific for the CA1 area was observed in the cLH animals, whereas reduced hippocampal BDNF levels were seen in young and old cLH when compared with age-matched cNLH controls...

  2. Alzheimer’s Disease Mutant Mice Exhibit Reduced Brain Tissue Stiffness Compared to Wild-type Mice in both Normoxia and following Intermittent Hypoxia Mimicking Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Menal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence from patients and animal models suggests that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and that AD is associated with reduced brain tissue stiffness.AimTo investigate whether intermittent hypoxia (IH alters brain cortex tissue stiffness in AD mutant mice exposed to IH mimicking OSA.MethodsSix-eight month old (B6C3-Tg(APPswe,PSEN1dE985Dbo/J AD mutant mice and wild-type (WT littermates were subjected to IH (21% O2 40 s to 5% O2 20 s; 6 h/day or normoxia for 8 weeks. After euthanasia, the stiffness (E of 200-μm brain cortex slices was measured by atomic force microscopy.ResultsTwo-way ANOVA indicated significant cortical softening and weight increase in AD mice compared to WT littermates, but no significant effects of IH on cortical stiffness and weight were detected. In addition, reduced myelin was apparent in AD (vs. WT, but no significant differences emerged in the cortex extracellular matrix components laminin and glycosaminoglycans when comparing baseline AD and WT mice.ConclusionAD mutant mice exhibit reduced brain tissue stiffness following both normoxia and IH mimicking sleep apnea, and such differences are commensurate with increased edema and demyelination in AD.

  3. [The correlations between aging of the human body, oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiak, Jakub; Markiewicz-Górka, Iwona

    2014-12-15

    The article presents an current knowledge overview about the importance of oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair processes during the aging process of the human body. Oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids), are formed under the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They are the part of important mechanism which is responsible for the process of aging and the development of many diseases. The most important effects result from DNA damage, due to the mutations formation, which can lead to the development of tumors. However, a well-functioning repair systems (i.a. homologous recombination) remove the damage and prevent harmful changes in the cells. Lipid peroxidation products also cause oxidative modification of nucleic acids (and proteins). Proteins and fats also have repair systems, but much simpler than those responsible for the repair of nucleic acids. Unfortunately, with increasing age, they are more weakened, which contributes to increase numbers of cell damage, and consequently development of diseases specific to old age: cancer, neurodegenerative diseases or atherosclerosis.

  4. Ablations of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor exhibit differential metabolic phenotypes and thermogenic capacity during aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a hallmark of aging in many Western societies, and is a precursor to numerous serious age-related diseases. Ghrelin ("Ghrl"), via its receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHS-R), is shown to stimulate GH secretion and appetite. Surprisingly, our previous studies showed that "Gh...

  5. Depth-dependent variations in Achilles tendon deformations with age are associated with reduced plantarflexor performance during walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Darryl G.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical arrangement of the Achilles tendon (AT), with distinct fascicle bundles arising from the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, may facilitate relatively independent behavior of the triceps surae muscles. A reduced capacity for sliding between adjacent tendon fascicles with age may couple gastrocnemius and soleus muscle behavior, thereby potentially contributing to diminished plantarflexor performance commonly observed in old adults. Nine healthy young (mean age, 23.9 yr) and eight healthy old (69.9 yr) adults walked at three speeds (0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 m/s) on a force-sensing treadmill. We coupled dynamic ultrasound imaging of the free AT with motion capture and inverse dynamic analyses to compute, in part: 1) depth-dependent variations in AT tissue displacements and elongations and 2) net ankle joint kinetics during push-off. The difference in displacements between superficial and deep AT regions, and in their corresponding elongations, did not differ between old and young adults at the slower two walking speeds (P > 0.61). However, old adults walked with 41% smaller depth-dependent variations in free AT displacements and elongations at 1.25 m/s (P = 0.02). These more uniform tendon deformations in old adults most strongly correlated with reduced peak ankle moment (R2 = 0.40), but also significantly correlated with reduced peak power generation (R2 = 0.15) and positive ankle work during push-off (R2 = 0.19) (P > 0.01). Our findings: 1) demonstrate a potential role for nonuniform AT deformations in governing gastrocnemius and soleus muscle-tendon function and 2) allude to altered tendon behavior that may contribute to the age-related reduction in plantarflexor performance during walking. PMID:26023223

  6. Active commuting reduces the risk of wrist fractures in middle-aged women-the UFO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, U; Nordström, P; Nilsson, J; Hallmans, G; Svensson, O; Bergström, U; Pettersson-Kymmer, U

    2013-02-01

    Middle-aged women with active commuting had significantly lower risk for wrist fracture than women commuting by car/bus. Our purpose was to investigate whether a physically active lifestyle in middle-aged women was associated with a reduced risk of later sustaining a low-trauma wrist fracture. The Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis (UFO) study is a population-based nested case-control study investigating associations between lifestyle and fragility fractures. From a cohort of ~35,000 subjects, we identified 376 female wrist fracture cases who had reported data regarding their commuting habits, occupational, and leisure physical activity, before they sustained their fracture. Each fracture case was compared with at least one control drawn from the same cohort and matched for age and week of reporting data, yielding a total of 778 subjects. Mean age at baseline was 54.3 ± 5.8 years, and mean age at fracture was 60.3 ± 5.8 years. Conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for height, body mass index, smoking, and menopausal status showed that subjects with active commuting (especially walking) were at significantly lower risk of sustaining a wrist fracture (OR 0.48; 95 % CI 0.27-0.88) compared with those who commuted by car or bus. Leisure time activities such as dancing and snow shoveling were also associated with a lower fracture risk, whereas occupational activity, training, and leisure walking or cycling were unrelated to fracture risk. This study suggests that active commuting is associated with a lower wrist fracture risk, in middle-aged women.

  7. Age-related changes in mouse taste bud morphology, hormone expression, and taste responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Kyong; Cong, Wei-na; Cai, Huan; Kim, Wook; Maudsley, Stuart; Egan, Josephine M; Martin, Bronwen

    2012-04-01

    Normal aging is a complex process that affects every organ system in the body, including the taste system. Thus, we investigated the effects of the normal aging process on taste bud morphology, function, and taste responsivity in male mice at 2, 10, and 18 months of age. The 18-month-old animals demonstrated a significant reduction in taste bud size and number of taste cells per bud compared with the 2- and 10-month-old animals. The 18-month-old animals exhibited a significant reduction of protein gene product 9.5 and sonic hedgehog immunoreactivity (taste cell markers). The number of taste cells expressing the sweet taste receptor subunit, T1R3, and the sweet taste modulating hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1, were reduced in the 18-month-old mice. Concordant with taste cell alterations, the 18-month-old animals demonstrated reduced sweet taste responsivity compared with the younger animals and the other major taste modalities (salty, sour, and bitter) remained intact.

  8. Age-associated intracellular superoxide dismutase deficiency potentiates dermal fibroblast dysfunction during wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Dohi, Teruyuki; Maan, Zeshaan N; Rustad, Kristine C; Kwon, Sun Hyung; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Whittam, Alexander J; Suga, Hirotaka; Duscher, Dominik; Rodrigues, Melanie; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2017-07-04

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) impair wound healing through destructive oxidation of intracellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD1) regulates ROS levels and plays a critical role in tissue homoeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that age-associated wound healing impairments may partially result from decreased SOD1 expression. We investigated the mechanistic basis by which increased oxidative stress links to age-associated impaired wound healing. Fibroblasts were isolated from unwounded skin of young and aged mice, and myofibroblast differentiation was assessed by measuring α-smooth muscle actin and collagen gel contraction. Excisional wounds were created on young and aged mice to study the healing rate, ROS levels and SOD1 expression. A mechanistic link between oxidative stress and fibroblast function was explored by assessing the TGF-β1 signalling pathway components in young and aged mice. Age-related wounds displayed reduced myofibroblast differentiation and delayed wound healing, consistent with a decrease in the in vitro capacity for fibroblast-myofibroblast transition following oxidative stress. Young fibroblasts with normal SOD1 expression exhibited increased phosphorylation of ERK in response to elevated ROS. In contrast, aged fibroblasts with reduced SOD1 expression displayed a reduced capacity to modulate intracellular ROS. Collectively, age-associated wound healing impairments are associated with fibroblast dysfunction that is likely the result of decreased SOD1 expression and subsequent dysregulation of intracellular ROS. Strategies targeting these mechanisms may suggest a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of chronic non-healing wounds in the aged population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  10. L-cysteine efflux in erythrocytes as a function of human age: correlation with reduced glutathione and total anti-oxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prabhanshu; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Thiol compounds such as cysteine (Cys) and reduced glutathione (GSH) play an important role in human aging and age-related diseases. In erythrocytes, GSH is synthesized by glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine, but the rate of GSH synthesis is determined only by the availability of L-cysteine. Cysteine supplementation has been shown to ameliorate several parameters that are known to degenerate during human aging. We have studied L-cysteine efflux in vitro in human erythrocytes as a function of age by suspending cells in solution containing 10 mM L-cysteine for uptake; later cells were re-suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-glucose to allow efflux. Change in the free sulfhydryl (-SH) concentration was then measured to calculate the rate of efflux. The GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio was taken as a control to study the oxidation/reduction state of the erythrocyte. The total anti-oxidant potential of plasma was measured in terms of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) values. We have shown a significant (pL-cysteine in erythrocytes during human aging, and the GSH/GSSG ratio decreases as a function of human age. The decline in L-cysteine efflux during aging correlates with the decrease in GSH and the FRAP value. This finding may help to explain the shift in the redox status and low GSH concentration that might determine the rate of L-cysteine efflux observed in erythrocytes and an important factor in the development of oxidative stress in erythrocytes during aging.

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  12. System for automatic detection of lung nodules exhibiting growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Carol L.; Shen, Hong; Odry, Benjamin L.; Ko, Jane P.; Naidich, David P.

    2004-05-01

    Lung nodules that exhibit growth over time are considered highly suspicious for malignancy. We present a completely automated system for detection of growing lung nodules, using initial and follow-up multi-slice CT studies. The system begins with automatic detection of lung nodules in the later CT study, generating a preliminary list of candidate nodules. Next an automatic system for registering locations in two studies matches each candidate in the later study to its corresponding position in the earlier study. Then a method for automatic segmentation of lung nodules is applied to each candidate and its matching location, and the computed volumes are compared. The output of the system is a list of nodule candidates that are new or have exhibited volumetric growth since the previous scan. In a preliminary test of 10 patients examined by two radiologists, the automatic system identified 18 candidates as growing nodules. 7 (39%) of these corresponded to validated nodules or other focal abnormalities that exhibited growth. 4 of the 7 true detections had not been identified by either of the radiologists during their initial examinations of the studies. This technique represents a powerful method of surveillance that may reduce the probability of missing subtle or early malignant disease.

  13. The influence of age on the effectiveness of DTPA in reducing 141Ce retention in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kargacin, B.; Kostial, K.; Landeka, M.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of age on the effectiveness of chelation treatment in reducing retention of radioactive cerium was studied in two- and six-week-old albino rats. 141 Ce was administered intraperitoneally, followed immediately and after 24 and 48 hours by intraperitoneal administration of the tri-sodium calcium salt of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-Na 3 (CaDTPA) at 380 μmol/kg body weight. The whole-body retention was determined 2, 4 and 6 days after radiocerium administration, when the animals were killed and the organ retention was determined. The chelation therapy significantly reduced the whole-body retention of radiocerium. This treatment was however twice as effective in older as in younger animals. (author)

  14. Subclinical cognitive decline in middle-age is associated with reduced task-induced deactivation of the brain's default mode network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Naja Liv; Lauritzen, Martin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    range of neurodegenerative diseases involving cognitive symptoms, in conditions with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, and even in advanced but healthy aging. Here, we investigated brain activation and deactivation during a visual-motor task in 185 clinically healthy males from a Danish birth......Cognitive abilities decline with age, but with considerable individual variation. The neurobiological correlate of this variation is not well described. Functional brain imaging studies have demonstrated reduced task-induced deactivation (TID) of the brain's default mode network (DMN) in a wide...... cohort, whose cognitive function was assessed in youth and midlife. Using each individual as his own control, we defined a group with a large degree of cognitive decline, and a control group. When correcting for effects of total cerebral blood flow and hemoglobin level, we found reduced TID...

  15. Role of oxidants/inflammation in declining renal function in chronic kidney disease and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassara, Helen; Torreggiani, Massimo; Post, James B; Zheng, Feng; Uribarri, Jaime; Striker, Gary E

    2009-12-01

    Oxidant stress (OS) and inflammation increase in normal aging and in chronic kidney disease (CKD), as observed in human and animal studies. In cross-sectional studies of the US population, these changes are associated with a decrease in renal function, which is exhibited by a significant proportion of the population. However, since many normal adults have intact renal function, and longitudinal studies show that some persons maintain normal renal function with age, the link between OS, inflammation, and renal decline is not clear. In aging mice, greater oxidant intake is associated with increased age-related CKD and mortality, which suggests that interventions that reduce OS and inflammation may be beneficial for older individuals. Both OS and inflammation can be readily lowered in normal subjects and patients with CKD stage 3-4 by a simple dietary modification that lowers intake and results in reduced serum and tissue levels of advanced glycation end products. Diabetic patients, including those with microalbuminuria, have a decreased ability to metabolize and excrete oxidants prior to observable changes in serum creatinine. Thus, OS and inflammation may occur in the diabetic kidney at an early time. We review the evidence that oxidants in the diet directly lead to increased serum levels of OS and inflammatory mediators in normal aging and in CKD. We also discuss a simple dietary intervention that helps reduce OS and inflammation, an important and achievable therapeutic goal for patients with CKD and aging individuals with reduced renal function.

  16. Reduced satellite cell numbers and myogenic capacity in aging can be alleviated by endurance exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Shefer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells that reside on the myofiber surface. Reduced numbers and/or decreased myogenic aptitude of these cells may impede proper maintenance and contribute to the age-associated decline in muscle mass and repair capacity. Endurance exercise was shown to improve muscle performance; however, the direct impact on satellite cells in aging was not yet thoroughly determined. Here, we focused on characterizing the effect of moderate-intensity endurance exercise on satellite cell, as possible means to attenuate adverse effects of aging. Young and old rats of both genders underwent 13 weeks of treadmill-running or remained sedentary.Gastrocnemius muscles were assessed for the effect of age, gender and exercise on satellite-cell numbers and myogenic capacity. Satellite cells were identified in freshly isolated myofibers based on Pax7 immunostaining (i.e., ex-vivo. The capacity of individual myofiber-associated cells to produce myogenic progeny was determined in clonal assays (in-vitro. We show an age-associated decrease in satellite-cell numbers and in the percent of myogenic clones in old sedentary rats. Upon exercise, there was an increase in myofibers that contain higher numbers of satellite cells in both young and old rats, and an increase in the percent of myogenic clones derived from old rats. Changes at the satellite cell level in old rats were accompanied with positive effects on the lean-to-fat Gast muscle composition and on spontaneous locomotion levels. The significance of these data is that they suggest that the endurance exercise-mediated boost in both satellite numbers and myogenic properties may improve myofiber maintenance in aging.

  17. The hallmarks of fibroblast ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Julia; Krutmann, Jean; Fritsche, Ellen; Haendeler, Judith; Schaal, Heiner; Fischer, Jens W; Kalfalah, Faiza; Reinke, Hans; Reifenberger, Guido; Stühler, Kai; Ventura, Natascia; Gundermann, Sabrina; Boukamp, Petra; Boege, Fritz

    2014-06-01

    Ageing is influenced by the intrinsic disposition delineating what is maximally possible and extrinsic factors determining how that frame is individually exploited. Intrinsic and extrinsic ageing processes act on the dermis, a post-mitotic skin compartment mainly consisting of extracellular matrix and fibroblasts. Dermal fibroblasts are long-lived cells constantly undergoing damage accumulation and (mal-)adaptation, thus constituting a powerful indicator system for human ageing. Here, we use the systematic of ubiquitous hallmarks of ageing (Lopez-Otin et al., 2013, Cell 153) to categorise the available knowledge regarding dermal fibroblast ageing. We discriminate processes inducible in culture from phenomena apparent in skin biopsies or primary cells from old donors, coming to the following conclusions: (i) Fibroblasts aged in culture exhibit most of the established, ubiquitous hallmarks of ageing. (ii) Not all of these hallmarks have been detected or investigated in fibroblasts aged in situ (in the skin). (iii) Dermal fibroblasts aged in vitro and in vivo exhibit additional features currently not considered ubiquitous hallmarks of ageing. (iv) The ageing process of dermal fibroblasts in their physiological tissue environment has only been partially elucidated, although these cells have been a preferred model of cell ageing in vitro for decades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Cr and Mo on strain ageing behaviour of low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereloma, E.V.; Bata, V.; Scott, R.I.; Smith, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the effects of Cr (0.26-0.74 wt%) and Mo (0.09-0.3 wt%) additions on the kinetics of strain ageing process in low carbon steel. The strain ageing behaviour of the steels was investigated by using tensile tests and transmission electron microscopy. The results have shown that Mo-alloyed steels undergo the same four stages of ageing as unalloyed low carbon steel, whereas Cr-alloyed steels exhibit only three stages of ageing. At the same time, the addition of Mo accelerates the ageing response, while alloying with Cr reduces the rate of strain ageing by ∼3 times in comparison with non-alloyed low carbon steel. It especially delays the offset of Stage III. This is explained by the reduction of carbon content in ferrite due to the enrichment of cementite with Cr leading to the reduction of its equilibrium solubility in ferrite.

  19. Effect of Cr and Mo on strain ageing behaviour of low carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereloma, E.V., E-mail: elenap@uow.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Bata, V. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University (Australia); Scott, R.I.; Smith, R.M. [BlueScope Steel Limited, Port Kembla (Australia)

    2010-04-25

    This work explores the effects of Cr (0.26-0.74 wt%) and Mo (0.09-0.3 wt%) additions on the kinetics of strain ageing process in low carbon steel. The strain ageing behaviour of the steels was investigated by using tensile tests and transmission electron microscopy. The results have shown that Mo-alloyed steels undergo the same four stages of ageing as unalloyed low carbon steel, whereas Cr-alloyed steels exhibit only three stages of ageing. At the same time, the addition of Mo accelerates the ageing response, while alloying with Cr reduces the rate of strain ageing by {approx}3 times in comparison with non-alloyed low carbon steel. It especially delays the offset of Stage III. This is explained by the reduction of carbon content in ferrite due to the enrichment of cementite with Cr leading to the reduction of its equilibrium solubility in ferrite.

  20. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition......? With those questions in mind, the intention and challenge for the Nordes 2013 Design Research Exhibition was to expand on current notions of staging research enquires in design research conference contexts. Artefacts, installations, performances, and other materialities that relate to the theme...... of the conference - Experiments in Design Research – were displayed as tools to express and communicate different design research enquires. Through this paper we will describe the Nordes exhibition as a specific case that renders questions visible in relation to how to utilize a design research exhibition...

  1. A mini-exhibition with maximum content

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    The University of Budapest has been hosting a CERN mini-exhibition since 8 May. While smaller than the main travelling exhibition it has a number of major advantages: its compact design alleviates transport difficulties and makes it easier to find suitable venues in the Member States. Its content can be updated almost instantaneously and it will become even more interactive and high-tech as time goes by.   The exhibition on display in Budapest. The purpose of CERN's new mini-exhibition is to be more interactive and easier to install. Due to its size, the main travelling exhibition cannot be moved around quickly, which is why it stays in the same country for 4 to 6 months. But this means a long waiting list for the other Member States. To solve this problem, the Education Group has designed a new exhibition, which is smaller and thus easier to install. Smaller maybe, but no less rich in content, as the new exhibition conveys exactly the same messages as its larger counterpart. However, in the slimm...

  2. Forecasting Trends in Disability in a Super-Aging Society: Adapting the Future Elderly Model to Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian K.; Jalal, Hawre; Hashimoto, Hideki; Suen, Sze-chuan; Eggleston, Karen; Hurley, Michael; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Japan has experienced pronounced population aging, and now has the highest proportion of elderly adults in the world. Yet few projections of Japan’s future demography go beyond estimating population by age and sex to forecast the complex evolution of the health and functioning of the future elderly. This study estimates a new state-transition microsimulation model – the Japanese Future Elderly Model (FEM) – for Japan. We use the model to forecast disability and health for Japan’s future elderly. Our simulation suggests that by 2040, over 27 percent of Japan’s elderly will exhibit 3 or more limitations in IADLs and social functioning; almost one in 4 will experience difficulties with 3 or more ADLs; and approximately one in 5 will suffer limitations in cognitive or intellectual functioning. Since the majority of the increase in disability arises from the aging of the Japanese population, prevention efforts that reduce age-specific morbidity can help reduce the burden of disability but may have only a limited impact on reducing the overall prevalence of disability among Japanese elderly. While both age and morbidity contribute to a predicted increase in disability burden among elderly Japanese in the future, our simulation results suggest that the impact of population aging exceeds the effect of age-specific morbidity on increasing disability in Japan’s future. PMID:28580275

  3. Glyoxalase I reduces glycative and oxidative stress and prevents age-related endothelial dysfunction through modulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo-Watanabe, Airi; Ohse, Takamoto; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Masao; Ikeda, Yoichiro; Wada, Takehiko; Shirakawa, Jun-ichi; Nagai, Ryoji; Miyata, Toshio; Nagano, Tetsuo; Hirata, Yasunobu; Inagi, Reiko; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2014-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly in elderly people. Studies have demonstrated the role of glycation in endothelial dysfunction in nonphysiological models, but the physiological role of glycation in age-related endothelial dysfunction has been poorly addressed. Here, to investigate how vascular glycation affects age-related endothelial function, we employed rats systemically overexpressing glyoxalase I (GLO1), which detoxifies methylglyoxal (MG), a representative precursor of glycation. Four groups of rats were examined, namely young (13 weeks old), mid-age (53 weeks old) wild-type, and GLO1 transgenic (WT/GLO1 Tg) rats. Age-related acceleration in glycation was attenuated in GLO1 Tg rats, together with lower aortic carboxymethyllysine (CML) and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels. Age-related impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was attenuated in GLO1 Tg rats, whereas endothelium-independent vasorelaxation was not different between WT and GLO1 Tg rats. Nitric oxide (NO) production was decreased in mid-age WT rats, but not in mid-age GLO1 Tg rats. Age-related inactivation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) due to phosphorylation of eNOS on Thr495 and dephosphorylation on Ser1177 was ameliorated in GLO1 Tg rats. In vitro, MG increased phosphorylation of eNOS (Thr495) in primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs), and overexpression of GLO1 decreased glycative stress and phosphorylation of eNOS (Thr495). Together, GLO1 reduced age-related endothelial glycative and oxidative stress, altered phohphorylation of eNOS, and attenuated endothelial dysfunction. As a molecular mechanism, GLO1 lessened inhibitory phosphorylation of eNOS (Thr495) by reducing glycative stress. Our study demonstrates that blunting glycative stress prevents the long-term impact of endothelial dysfunction on vascular aging. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons

  4. Menopause accelerates biological aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Morgan E.; Lu, Ake T.; Chen, Brian H.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salfati, Elias; Manson, JoAnn E.; Quach, Austin; Kusters, Cynthia D. J.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Widschwendter, Martin; Ritz, Beate R.; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Horvath, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Although epigenetic processes have been linked to aging and disease in other systems, it is not yet known whether they relate to reproductive aging. Recently, we developed a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of age (known as the “epigenetic clock”), which is based on DNA methylation levels. Here we carry out an epigenetic clock analysis of blood, saliva, and buccal epithelium using data from four large studies: the Women's Health Initiative (n = 1,864); Invecchiare nel Chianti (n = 200); Parkinson's disease, Environment, and Genes (n = 256); and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (n = 790). We find that increased epigenetic age acceleration in blood is significantly associated with earlier menopause (P = 0.00091), bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0018), and a longer time since menopause (P = 0.017). Conversely, epigenetic age acceleration in buccal epithelium and saliva do not relate to age at menopause; however, a higher epigenetic age in saliva is exhibited in women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0079), while a lower epigenetic age in buccal epithelium was found for women who underwent menopausal hormone therapy (P = 0.00078). Using genetic data, we find evidence of coheritability between age at menopause and epigenetic age acceleration in blood. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we find that two SNPs that are highly associated with age at menopause exhibit a significant association with epigenetic age acceleration. Overall, our Mendelian randomization approach and other lines of evidence suggest that menopause accelerates epigenetic aging of blood, but mechanistic studies will be needed to dissect cause-and-effect relationships further. PMID:27457926

  5. Change of Charpy impact fracture behavior of precracked ferritic specimens due to thermal aging in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, W.L.

    1985-12-01

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of sodium on the impact fracture behavior of precracked Charpy specimens made of HT-9 weldment. One set of samples was precracked prior to sodium aging and the other set was precracked after aging in sodium. Both set of specimens exhibited the same DBTT. Samples precracked prior to sodium exposure, however, showed a 40% reduction in the upper shelf energy (USE) as compared to the set precracked after aging. The results suggest that the fracture toughness of the material may be reduced if an existing crack was soaked in sodium at elevated temperature for a period of time

  6. Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Sik Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control. Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress.

  7. Tests of the DRYAD theory of the age-related deficit in memory for context: Not about context, and not about aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Diaz, Michael; Matzen, Laura E.; Johnson, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Older adults exhibit a disproportionate deficit in their ability to recover contextual elements or source information about prior encounters with stimuli. A recent theoretical account, DRYAD (Benjamin, 2010), attributes this selective deficit to a global decrease in memory fidelity with age, moderated by weak representation of contextual information. The predictions of DRYAD are tested here in three experiments. We show that an age-related deficit obtains for whichever aspect of the stimulus subjects’ attention is directed away from during encoding (Experiment 1), suggesting a central role for attention in producing the age-related deficit in context. We also show that an analogous deficit can be elicited within young subjects with a manipulation of study time (Experiment 2), suggesting that any means of reducing memory fidelity yields an interaction of the same form as the age-related effect. Experiment 3 evaluates the critical prediction of DRYAD that endorsement probability in an exclusion task should vary nonmonotonically with memory strength. This prediction was confirmed by assessing the shape of the forgetting function in a continuous exclusion task. The results are consistent with the DRYAD account of aging and memory judgments and do not support the widely held view that aging entails the selective disruption of processes involved in encoding, storing, or retrieving contextual information. PMID:21875219

  8. Reduced blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle in ageing humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    The ability to sustain a given absolute submaximal workload declines with advancing age likely due to a lower level of blood flow and O2 delivery to the exercising muscles. Given that physical inactivity mimics many of the physiological changes associated with ageing, separating the physiological...... consequences of ageing and physical inactivity can be challenging; yet, observations from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the effects of physical activity have provided some insight. Physical activity has the potential to offset the age-related decline in blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle...... the O2 demand of the active skeletal muscle of aged individuals during conditions where systemic blood flow is not limited by cardiac output seems to a large extent to be related to the level of physical activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  9. Reduced employment and financial hardship among middle-aged individuals with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Louisa G; Beesley, Vanessa L; Mihala, Gabor; Koczwara, Bogda; Lynch, Brigid M

    2017-09-01

    Financial hardship may affect up to 30% of cancer survivors, however, little research has addressed the effect of employment change on financial hardship. This study compared the self-reported financial hardship of middle-aged (45-64 years) colorectal cancer survivors (n = 187) at 6 and 12 months following diagnosis with that of a matched general population group (n = 355). Colorectal cancer survivors were recruited through the Queensland Cancer Registry, Australia; data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey were used for the general population group. Pearson chi-square tests were used to assess the differences in proportions between the two groups and McNemar tests to assess differences across time among the same group. Generalised linear modelling was performed to produce prevalence ratios. A higher proportion of workers with colorectal cancer reported financial strain (money shortage for living essentials) at 6 months (15%) but eased and was comparable to the comparison group at 12 months (7%). Middle-aged working cancer survivors who ceased or reduced work were more likely to report not being financially comfortable, compared with those who had continued work (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.66, 95%CI: 1.12, 2.44) at 12 months. Health professionals, employers and government services should address the impact of impaired employment on financial hardship among cancer survivors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The pace and shape of ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baudisch, Annette

    2011-01-01

    exhibits negligible ageing - contrary to the commonly held view that long-lived species are good candidates for negligible ageing. 5.Analysis of species in pace-shape space provides a tool to identify key determinants of the evolution of ageing for species across the tree of life....

  11. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  12. Interaction between FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Based on the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality...... at advanced ages. Such significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p =0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p =0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers...... of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably...

  13. Strategic insight and age-related goal-neglect influence risky decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Andrew; Martins, Bruna S; Yarkoni, Tal; Braver, Todd S

    2012-01-01

    Maximizing long-run gains often requires taking on some degree of risk, yet decision-makers often exhibit risk aversion (RA), rejecting risky prospects even when these have higher expected value (EV) than safer alternatives. We investigated whether explicit strategy instruction and practice can decrease prepotent RA, and whether aging impacts the efficacy of such an intervention. Participants performed a paired lottery task with options varying in risk and magnitude, both before and after practice with a similar task that encouraged maximization of EV and instruction to use this strategy in risky decisions. In both younger and older adults (OAs), strategy training reduced RA. Although RA was age-equivalent at baseline, larger training effects were observed in younger adults (YAs). These effects were not explained by risk-related (i.e., affective) interference effects or computation ability, but were consistent with a progressive, age-related neglect of the strategy across trials. Our findings suggest that strategy training can diminish RA, but that training efficacy is reduced among OAs, potentially due to goal neglect. We discuss implications for neural mechanisms that may distinguish older and YAs' risky decision-making.

  14. Aging and Autophagic Function Influences the Progressive Decline of Adult Drosophila Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Ratliff

    Full Text Available Multiple neurological disorders are characterized by the abnormal accumulation of protein aggregates and the progressive impairment of complex behaviors. Our Drosophila studies demonstrate that middle-aged wild-type flies (WT, ~4-weeks exhibit a marked accumulation of neural aggregates that is commensurate with the decline of the autophagy pathway. However, enhancing autophagy via neuronal over-expression of Atg8a (Atg8a-OE reduces the age-dependent accumulation of aggregates. Here we assess basal locomotor activity profiles for single- and group-housed male and female WT flies and observed that only modest behavioral changes occurred by 4-weeks of age, with the noted exception of group-housed male flies. Male flies in same-sex social groups exhibit a progressive increase in nighttime activity. Infrared videos show aged group-housed males (4-weeks are engaged in extensive bouts of courtship during periods of darkness, which is partly repressed during lighted conditions. Together, these nighttime courtship behaviors were nearly absent in young WT flies and aged Atg8a-OE flies. Previous studies have indicated a regulatory role for olfaction in male courtship partner choice. Coincidently, the mRNA expression profiles of several olfactory genes decline with age in WT flies; however, they are maintained in age-matched Atg8a-OE flies. Together, these results suggest that middle-aged male flies develop impairments in olfaction, which could contribute to the dysregulation of courtship behaviors during dark time periods. Combined, our results demonstrate that as Drosophila age, they develop early behavior defects that are coordinate with protein aggregate accumulation in the nervous system. In addition, the nighttime activity behavior is preserved when neuronal autophagy is maintained (Atg8a-OE flies. Thus, environmental or genetic factors that modify autophagic capacity could have a positive impact on neuronal aging and complex behaviors.

  15. Spontaneous calcium waves in Bergman glia increase with age and hypoxia and may reduce tissue oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiesen, Claus; Brazhe, Alexey; Thomsen, Kirsten; Lauritzen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Glial calcium (Ca2+) waves constitute a means to spread signals between glial cells and to neighboring neurons and blood vessels. These waves occur spontaneously in Bergmann glia (BG) of the mouse cerebellar cortex in vivo. Here, we tested three hypotheses: (1) aging and reduced blood oxygen saturation alters wave activity; (2) glial Ca2+ waves change cerebral oxygen metabolism; and (3) neuronal and glial wave activity is correlated. We used two-photon microscopy in the cerebellar cortexes of...

  16. Effects of reduced dietary energy and amino acid density on Pectoralis major myopathies in broiler chickens at 36 and 49 days of age1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloche, K J; Fancher, B I; Emmerson, D A; Bilgili, S F; Dozier, W A

    2018-05-01

    Two experiments (Exp) were conducted to determine if reductions in the incidence and severity of wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) may be obtained by reducing dietary nutrient density. In each Exp, Yield Plus × Ross 708 male broiler chicks were placed into 63 pens (22 birds/pen). All birds received an identical prestarter diet until 7 d of age, after which time each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of the following 7 dietary treatments (TRT) for the starter (8 to 14 d), grower (15 to 24 d), finisher 1 (Exp 1: 26 to 35 d; Exp 2: 26 to 42 d), and withdrawal (Exp 2: 43 to 48 d) phases: 1) 100% of primary breeder recommendations for digestible amino acid and metabolizable energy density throughout Exp; 2) 95% of TRT 1 until 14 d of age, then as TRT 1; 3) 95% of TRT 1 until 24 d of age, then as TRT 1; 4) 95% of TRT 1 throughout Exp; 5) 90% of TRT 1 until 14 d of age, then as TRT 1; 6) 90% of TRT 1 until 24 d of age, then as TRT 1; 7) 90% of TRT 1 throughout Exp. At 36 d (Exp 1) and 49 d (Exp 2), 18 birds per pen were processed and evaluated for WS and WB. In Exp 1, reduced dietary density in the starter phase (TRT 2 and TRT 5) resulted in increased (P ≤ 0.05) incidences of severe WB (32.9% and 34.7%) relative to TRT 1 (18.2%). In Exp 2, broilers assigned to TRT 7 had reduced (P 36.5%; WS: 64.5%). In both Exp, plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing scores for WB and WS. Reducing dietary nutrient density from 8 to 14 d may exacerbate fillet myopathies in broilers reared to 35 d of age. Although reducing dietary energy and amino acid density to 90% of recommendations from 1 to 48 d reduced the severity of myopathies, these reductions occurred with compromises in live performance. Altogether, these results indicated that concurrent manipulation of dietary amino acid and energy density is not a viable practical solution for breast myopathies.

  17. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of “microglia aging.” This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging.

  18. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of "microglia aging." This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging.

  19. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  20. Creating National Narrative: The Red Guard Art Exhibitions and the National Exhibitions in the Chinese Cultural Revolution 1966 - 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Tsang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The artistic development in China experienced drastic changes during the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976. Traditional Chinese art was denounced, whereas propaganda art became predominant in shaping the public’s loyalty towards the Communist Party and the country. Two major groups of art exhibitions emerged during the Revolution—the unofficial Red Guard art exhibitions organized by student activists in collaboration with local communes and art schools between 1966 and 1968, and the state-run national exhibitions from 1972 to 1975. These exhibitions were significant to this period because they were held frequently in the capital city Beijing and occasionally elsewhere, and through art they presented unique revolutionary beliefs to the Chinese people in a public setting. While the Red Guard art exhibitions and the national exhibitions certainly created different national narratives, I argue that the national exhibitions were in fact an attempt to revise the national narrative created by the Red Guard art exhibitions in order to re-establish a more utopian, consistent, and official national narrative. This paper unravels the intricate relationship between the two groups of exhibitions by comparing their exhibition venues, ideological focuses, work selection and quality editing. 

  1. Immune response to the West Nile virus in aged non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Wertheimer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk of encephalitis from West Nile virus (WNV infection increases dramatically with age. Understanding the basis of this susceptibility requires development of suitable animal models. Here, we investigated the immune response to WNV in old non-human primates.We investigated clinical, immunological and virological correlates of WNV infection in aging non-human primates. Aged (17-30 yrs and adult (6-9 yrs Rhesus macaques (RM were challenged with WNV in the presence or the absence of the mosquito salivary gland extract (SGE to approximate natural infection. None of the 26 animals exhibited clinical signs of the disease. Quantitative PCR suggested discrete and short-lived viremia, but infectious virus was never isolated. There was markedly increased, age-independent, proliferation of CD3(- non-B cells, followed by B-cell proliferation, which correlated to the loss of detectable WNV genomes. Moreover, animals primed with mosquito salivary gland extract exhibited reduced circulating WNV RNA. While we found the expected age-associated reduction in T cell proliferation, adaptive immunity did not correlate with infection outcome. That was further confirmed in a cohort of thymectomized and/or CD8 T-cell depleted Cynomolgus macaques (CM; N = 15, who also failed to develop WNV disease.Results are consistent with strong and age-independent innate resistance of macaques against WNV challenge. This animal model is therefore not suitable for vaccine and therapeutic testing against WNV. However, understanding the basis of their innate resistance against WNV in macaques could provide helpful clues to improve anti-WNV protection of older adults.

  2. Mindful eating reduces impulsive food choice in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Kelsie L; Rasmussen, Erin B

    2017-03-01

    The present study tested the extent to which age and obesity predicted impulsive choices for food and monetary outcomes and tested how a brief mindful-eating training would alter delay discounting for food and money choices compared with control groups. First, 172 adolescents (M age = 13.13 years) and 176 (M age = 23.33 years) adults completed the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) as measures of food and money delay discounting, respectively. Then, participants returned to the lab and were randomly assigned to complete a brief mindful-eating training, watch a DVD on nutrition, or serve as a control. Participants completed the FCQ and MCQ again as a postmanipulation measure. Participants with high percent body fat (PBF) were more impulsive for food than those with low PBF. Adults with high PBF were also more impulsive for money compared with adults with low PBF; no PBF-related differences were found for adolescents. Participants in the mindful-eating group exhibited more self-controlled choices for food, but not for money. The control conditions did not exhibit changes. The study suggests that individuals with high PBF make more impulsive food choices relative to those with low PBF, which could increase the risk of obesity over time. It also is the first to demonstrate shifts in choice patterns for food and money using a brief mindful-eating training with adolescents. Mindful eating is a beneficial strategy to reduce impulsive food choice, at least temporarily, that may impede weight gain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Reduced telomere length is not associated with early signs of vascular aging in young men born after intrauterine growth restriction: a paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laganovic, M.; Bendix, L.; Rubelj, I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The mechanisms that increase cardiovascular risk in individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are not well understood. Telomere shortening has been suggested to be a predictor of disease onset. Our aim was to determine whether impaired intrauterine growth is associated with earl...... of cardiovascular risk in SGA participants. Follow-up of this cohort will clarify hypothesis and validate telomere dynamics as indicators of future health risks.......Objective: The mechanisms that increase cardiovascular risk in individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are not well understood. Telomere shortening has been suggested to be a predictor of disease onset. Our aim was to determine whether impaired intrauterine growth is associated with early......IMT, and a trend to increased SBP and heart rate in comparison to the AGA group. Interestingly, SGA men exhibited a 42% longer LTL than the AGA group. LTL was inversely associated with age, BMI, BP and birth parameters. In multiple regression analysis, BMI was the key determinant of SBP and cIMT. Conclusion: Young...

  4. Kallistatin reduces vascular senescence and aging by regulating microRNA-34a-SIRT1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Youming; Li, Pengfei; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Jingmei; Yang, Zhirong; Bledsoe, Grant; Chang, Eugene; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2017-08-01

    Kallistatin, an endogenous protein, protects against vascular injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation in hypertensive rats and enhancing the mobility and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). We aimed to determine the role and mechanism of kallistatin in vascular senescence and aging using cultured EPCs, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Human kallistatin significantly decreased TNF-α-induced cellular senescence in EPCs, as indicated by reduced senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression, and elevated telomerase activity. Kallistatin blocked TNF-α-induced superoxide levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and microRNA-21 (miR-21) and p16 INK 4a synthesis. Kallistatin prevented TNF-α-mediated inhibition of SIRT1, eNOS, and catalase, and directly stimulated the expression of these antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, kallistatin inhibited miR-34a synthesis, whereas miR-34a overexpression abolished kallistatin-induced antioxidant gene expression and antisenescence activity. Kallistatin via its active site inhibited miR-34a, and stimulated SIRT1 and eNOS synthesis in EPCs, which was abolished by genistein, indicating an event mediated by tyrosine kinase. Moreover, kallistatin administration attenuated STZ-induced aortic senescence, oxidative stress, and miR-34a and miR-21 synthesis, and increased SIRT1, eNOS, and catalase levels in diabetic mice. Furthermore, kallistatin treatment reduced superoxide formation and prolonged wild-type C. elegans lifespan under oxidative or heat stress, although kallistatin's protective effect was abolished in miR-34 or sir-2.1 (SIRT1 homolog) mutant C. elegans. Kallistatin inhibited miR-34, but stimulated sir-2.1 and sod-3 synthesis in C. elegans. These in vitro and in vivo studies provide significant insights into the role and mechanism of kallistatin in vascular senescence and aging by regulating miR-34a-SIRT1

  5. Balance training reduces falls risk in older individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven; Colberg, Sheri R; Mariano, Mira; Parson, Henri K; Vinik, Arthur I

    2010-04-01

    This study assessed the effects of balance/strength training on falls risk and posture in older individuals with type 2 diabetes. Sixteen individuals with type 2 diabetes and 21 age-matched control subjects (aged 50-75 years) participated. Postural stability and falls risk was assessed before and after a 6-week exercise program. Diabetic individuals had significantly higher falls risk score compared with control subjects. The diabetic group also exhibited evidence of mild-to-moderate neuropathy, slower reaction times, and increased postural sway. Following exercise, the diabetic group showed significant improvements in leg strength, faster reaction times, decreased sway, and, consequently, reduced falls risk. Older individuals with diabetes had impaired balance, slower reactions, and consequently a higher falls risk than age-matched control subjects. However, all these variables improved after resistance/balance training. Together these results demonstrate that structured exercise has wide-spread positive effects on physiological function for older individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A; Knudsen, Gitte M; Henn, Fritz; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara

    2010-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging. Brains from young (5 months old) and old (13 months old) congenital Learned Helplessness rats (cLH), and congenital Non Learned Helplessness rats (cNLH) were immunohistochemically stained for the serotonin transporter and subsequently stereologically quantified for estimating hippocampal serotonin fiber density. Hippocampal BDNF protein levels were measured by ELISA. An exacerbated age-related loss of serotonin fiber density specific for the CA1 area was observed in the cLH animals, whereas reduced hippocampal BDNF levels were seen in young and old cLH when compared with age-matched cNLH controls. These observations indicate that aging should be taken into account when studying the neurobiological factors behind the vulnerability for depression and that understanding the effect of aging on genetically predisposed individuals may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology behind depression, particularly in the elderly.

  7. Designing immersion exhibits as border-crossing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    2010-01-01

    be applied to achieve an understanding of the immersion exhibit form. The argument proceeds by demonstrating how the characteristics of immersion exhibits, and visitors to them, classify them as microcultures, and examining the implications of this for exhibit design using a hypothetical immersion exhibit...

  8. Dietary HMB and β-alanine co-supplementation does not improve in situ muscle function in sedentary, aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, David W; Acksel, Cara; Boyd, Iva M; Maynard, John; McCorkle, Katherine W; Edens, Neile K; Garvey, Sean M

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) combined with β-alanine (β-Ala) in sedentary, aged male rats. It has been suggested that dietary HMB or β-Ala supplementation may mitigate age-related declines in muscle strength and fatigue resistance. A total of 20 aged Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. At age 20 months, 10 rats were administered a control, purified diet and 10 rats were administered a purified diet supplemented with both HMB and β-Ala (HMB+β-Ala) for 8 weeks (approximately equivalent to 3 and 2.4 g per day human dose). We measured medial gastrocnemius (MG) size, force, fatigability, and myosin composition. We also evaluated an array of protein markers related to muscle mitochondria, protein synthesis and breakdown, and autophagy. HMB+β-Ala had no significant effects on body weight, MG mass, force or fatigability, myosin composition, or muscle quality. Compared with control rats, those fed HMB+β-Ala exhibited a reduced (41%, P = 0.039) expression of muscle RING-finger protein 1 (MURF1), a common marker of protein degradation. Muscle from rats fed HMB+β-Ala also exhibited a 45% reduction (P = 0.023) in p70s6K phosphorylation following fatiguing stimulation. These data suggest that HMB+β-Ala at the dose studied may reduce muscle protein breakdown by reducing MURF1 expression, but has minimal effects on muscle function in this model of uncomplicated aging. They do not, however, rule out potential benefits of HMB+β-Ala co-supplementation at other doses or durations of supplementation in combination with exercise or in situations where extreme muscle protein breakdown and loss of mass occur (e.g., bedrest, cachexia, failure-to-thrive).

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  10. The Culture of Exhibitions and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doumas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on temporary exhibitions from a theoretical as well as practical perspective. Regarded as a particularly effective mass-communication medium, exhibitions have a dual nature: they are scholarly undertakings, bringing off a curator’s vision and, simultaneously, they are projects with economic implications that need to be well managed and administered. The role of conservation in the making of temporary exhibitions, either in-house or touring, is here discussed in relation to how work is planned and prioritized as well as how time is managed and staff is allocated. Reference to weaknesses that lessen the crucial input of conservation in the decision-making process is also made. Much of the debate, which focuses on art exhibitions, concerns practicalities encountered in a private museum that extend from the very early stages of selecting objects for display to the mounting of an exhibition.

  11. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  12. IGF-1 Regulates Vertebral Bone Aging Through Sex-Specific and Time-Dependent Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpole, Nicole M; Herron, Jacquelyn C; Mitschelen, Matthew C; Farley, Julie A; Logan, Sreemathi; Yan, Han; Ungvari, Zoltan; Hodges, Erik L; Csiszar, Anna; Ikeno, Yuji; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Sonntag, William E

    2016-02-01

    Advanced aging is associated with increased risk of bone fracture, especially within the vertebrae, which exhibit significant reductions in trabecular bone structure. Aging is also associated with a reduction in circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). Studies have suggested that the reduction in IGF-1 compromises healthspan, whereas others report that loss of IGF-1 is beneficial because it increases healthspan and lifespan. To date, the effect of decreases in circulating IGF-1 on vertebral bone aging has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we delineate the consequences of a loss of circulating IGF-1 on vertebral bone aging in male and female Igf(f/f) mice. IGF-1 was reduced at multiple specific time points during the mouse lifespan: early in postnatal development (crossing albumin-cyclic recombinase [Cre] mice with Igf(f/f) mice); and in early adulthood and in late adulthood using hepatic-specific viral vectors (AAV8-TBG-Cre). Vertebrae bone structure was analyzed at 27 months of age using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and quantitative bone histomorphometry. Consistent with previous studies, both male and female mice exhibited age-related reductions in vertebral bone structure. In male mice, reduction of circulating IGF-1 induced at any age did not diminish vertebral bone loss. Interestingly, early-life loss of IGF-1 in females resulted in a 67% increase in vertebral bone volume fraction, as well as increased connectivity density and increased trabecular number. The maintenance of bone structure in the early-life IGF-1-deficient females was associated with increased osteoblast surface and an increased ratio of osteoprotegerin/receptor-activator of NF-κB-ligand (RANKL) levels in circulation. Within 3 months of a loss of IGF-1, there was a 2.2-fold increase in insulin receptor expression within the vertebral bones of our female mice, suggesting that local signaling may compensate for the loss of circulating IGF-1. Together, these data

  13. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  14. Holland at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored by EVD, an agency of the Dutch Ministry of the Economy From 8 to 11 November 2010 Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg. 61 9-00 - 17-30 Twenty seven companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition "Holland at CERN". Dutch industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place directly at the stands in the Main Building. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm#Industrial_exhibitions You will find the list of exhibitors below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: Schelde Exotech Vernooy BV Triumph Group INCAA Computers DeMaCo Holland bv TNO Science & Industry Janssen Precision Engi...

  15. Genome-wide DNA-(de)methylation is associated with Noninfectious Bud-failure exhibition in Almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D.A.Webb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Chan, Helen M; Parfitt, Dan E; Crisosto, Carlos H; Gradziel, Thomas M

    2017-02-16

    Noninfectious bud-failure (BF) remains a major threat to almond production in California, particularly with the recent rapid expansion of acreage and as more intensive cultural practices and modern cultivars are adopted. BF has been shown to be inherited in both vegetative and sexual progeny, with exhibition related to the age and propagation history of scion clonal sources. These characteristics suggest an epigenetic influence, such as the loss of juvenility mediated by DNA-(de)methylation. Various degrees of BF have been reported among cultivars as well as within sources of clonal propagation of the same cultivar. Genome-wide methylation profiles for different clones within almond genotypes were developed to examine their association with BF levels and association with the chronological time from initial propagation. The degree of BF exhibition was found to be associated with DNA-(de)methylation and clonal age, which suggests that epigenetic changes associated with ageing may be involved in the differential exhibition of BF within and among almond clones. Research is needed to investigate the potential of DNA-(de)methylation status as a predictor for BF as well as for effective strategies to improve clonal selection against age related deterioration. This is the first report of an epigenetic-related disorder threatening a major tree crop.

  16. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor-depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current-induced resistive state

  17. Aging Reduces an ERRalpha-Directed Mitochondrial Glutaminase Expression Suppressing Glutamine Anaplerosis and Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tongling; Liu, Renzhong; Fu, Xuekun; Yao, Dongsheng; Yang, Meng; Liu, Qingli; Lu, William W; Wu, Chuanyue; Guan, Min

    2017-02-01

    Aging deteriorates osteogenic capacity of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), contributing to imbalanced bone remodeling and osteoporosis. Glutaminase (Gls) catabolizes glutamine into glutamate at the first step of mitochondrial glutamine (Gln)-dependent anaplerosis which is essential for MSCs upon osteogenic differentiation. Estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) regulates genes required for mitochondrial function. Here, we found that ERRα and Gls are upregulated by osteogenic induction in human MSCs (hMSCs). In contrast, osteogenic differentiation capacity and glutamine consumption of MSCs, as well as ERRα, Gls and osteogenic marker genes are significantly reduced with age. We demonstrated that ERRα binds to response elements on Gls promoter and affects glutamine anaplerosis through transcriptional induction of Gls. Conversely, mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, ERRα inverse agonist compound 29 or Gls inhibitor BPTES leads to reduced Gln anaplerosis and deteriorated osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Importantly, overexpression of ERRα or Gls restored impairment by these inhibitors. Finally, we proved that compensated ERRα or Gls expression indeed potentiated Gln anaplerosis and osteogenic capability of elderly mice MSCs in vitro. Together, we establish that Gls is a novel ERRα target gene and ERRα/Gls signaling pathway plays an important role in osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, providing new sights into novel regenerative therapeutics development. Our findings suggest that restoring age-related mitochondrial Gln-dependent anaplerosis may be beneficial for degenerative bone disorders such as osteoporosis. Stem Cells 2017;35:411-424. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Disruption of the Cx43/miR21 pathway leads to osteocyte apoptosis and increased osteoclastogenesis with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Hannah M; Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Atkinson, Emily G; Brun, Lucas R; Gortazar, Arancha R; Harris, Julia; Hiasa, Masahiro; Bolarinwa, Surajudeen A; Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Ivan, Mircea; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Bellido, Teresita; Plotkin, Lilian I

    2017-06-01

    Skeletal aging results in apoptosis of osteocytes, cells embedded in bone that control the generation/function of bone forming and resorbing cells. Aging also decreases connexin43 (Cx43) expression in bone; and osteocytic Cx43 deletion partially mimics the skeletal phenotype of old mice. Particularly, aging and Cx43 deletion increase osteocyte apoptosis, and osteoclast number and bone resorption on endocortical bone surfaces. We examined herein the molecular signaling events responsible for osteocyte apoptosis and osteoclast recruitment triggered by aging and Cx43 deficiency. Cx43-silenced MLO-Y4 osteocytic (Cx43 def ) cells undergo spontaneous cell death in culture through caspase-3 activation and exhibit increased levels of apoptosis-related genes, and only transfection of Cx43 constructs able to form gap junction channels reverses Cx43 def cell death. Cx43 def cells and bones from old mice exhibit reduced levels of the pro-survival microRNA miR21 and, consistently, increased levels of the miR21 target phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and reduced phosphorylated Akt, whereas PTEN inhibition reduces Cx43 def cell apoptosis. miR21 reduction is sufficient to induce apoptosis of Cx43-expressing cells and miR21 deletion in miR21 fl/fl bones increases apoptosis-related gene expression, whereas a miR21 mimic prevents Cx43 def cell apoptosis, demonstrating that miR21 lies downstream of Cx43. Cx43 def cells release more osteoclastogenic cytokines [receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL)/high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1)], and caspase-3 inhibition prevents RANKL/HMGB1 release and the increased osteoclastogenesis induced by conditioned media from Cx43 def cells, which is blocked by antagonizing HMGB1-RAGE interaction. These findings identify a novel Cx43/miR21/HMGB1/RANKL pathway involved in preventing osteocyte apoptosis that also controls osteoclast formation/recruitment and is impaired with aging. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from concrete can be reduced by using mix proportions, geometric aspects, and age as design factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sabbie A.; Horvath, Arpad; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.; Ostertag, Claudia P.

    2015-11-01

    With increased awareness of the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the significant contribution from the cement industry, research efforts are being advanced to reduce the impacts associated with concrete production and consumption. A variety of methods have been proposed, one of the most common being the replacement of cement as a binder in concrete with supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash (FA), which can have lower environmental effects. The use of FA can change the kinetics of the hydration reactions and, consequently, modify the evolution of the concrete strength over time. Yet the influence of designing structural elements to obtain the required strength at later ages has not been examined in terms of their influence on global warming potential (GWP) of concrete. This research investigates the influence of design age, in addition to mix proportions and geometric aspects, on the GWP associated with making beams, columns, and a concrete building frame. Findings suggest that while the GWP for beams is not highly dependent on concrete mixture strength, the GWP for columns is dependent on strength, thus the influence of required strength at later ages influences GWP of making columns more so than beams. For the concrete frame analyzed, a potential 45% reduction in GWP, depending on mix proportions and design age, was found. Using the findings from this research, the GWP associated with production of concrete in California could be reduced by approximately 1.8 million metric tons of CO2-eq emissions, equivalent to approximately 2% of all industrial GHG emissions in California.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from concrete can be reduced by using mix proportions, geometric aspects, and age as design factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Sabbie A; Horvath, Arpad; Monteiro, Paulo J M; Ostertag, Claudia P

    2015-01-01

    With increased awareness of the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the significant contribution from the cement industry, research efforts are being advanced to reduce the impacts associated with concrete production and consumption. A variety of methods have been proposed, one of the most common being the replacement of cement as a binder in concrete with supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash (FA), which can have lower environmental effects. The use of FA can change the kinetics of the hydration reactions and, consequently, modify the evolution of the concrete strength over time. Yet the influence of designing structural elements to obtain the required strength at later ages has not been examined in terms of their influence on global warming potential (GWP) of concrete. This research investigates the influence of design age, in addition to mix proportions and geometric aspects, on the GWP associated with making beams, columns, and a concrete building frame. Findings suggest that while the GWP for beams is not highly dependent on concrete mixture strength, the GWP for columns is dependent on strength, thus the influence of required strength at later ages influences GWP of making columns more so than beams. For the concrete frame analyzed, a potential 45% reduction in GWP, depending on mix proportions and design age, was found. Using the findings from this research, the GWP associated with production of concrete in California could be reduced by approximately 1.8 million metric tons of CO 2 -eq emissions, equivalent to approximately 2% of all industrial GHG emissions in California. (letter)

  1. Individuals with Asperger’s Disorder Exhibit Difficulty in Switching Attention from a Local Level to a Global Level

    OpenAIRE

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger’s disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger’s disorder and 11 age- and gendermatched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navontype hierarchical stimuli. In both groups, level-repetition was beneficial at both levels. Furthermore, individuals with Asperger’s disorder exhibited difficulty in switchi...

  2. Long-Term Flexural Behaviors of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams Exposed to Accelerated Aging Exposure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonho Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of accelerated aging conditions on the long-term flexural behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete (RC members with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars (RC-GFRP specimen and steel bars (RC-steel specimen. A total of thirty six specimens were designed with different amounts of reinforcement with three types of reinforcing bars (i.e., helically wrapped GFRP, sand-coated surface GFRP and steel. Eighteen specimens were subjected to sustained loads and accelerated aging conditions (i.e., 47 °C and 80% relative humidity in a chamber. The flexural behavior of specimens under 300-day exposure was compared to that of the companion specimens without experiencing accelerated aging conditions. Results indicate that the accelerated aging conditions reduced flexural capacity in not only RC-steel, but also RC-GFRP specimens, with different rates of reduction. Different types of GFRP reinforcement exhibited different rates of degradation of the flexural capacity when embedded in concrete under the same exposure conditions. Several existing models were compared with experimental results for predicting the deflection and deformability index for specimens. Bischoff and Gross’s model exhibited an excellent prediction of the time-dependent deflections. Except for the deformability index proposed by Jaeger, there was no general trend related to the aging duration. This study recommends the need for further investigation on the prediction of the deformability index.

  3. Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  4. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth eFulton; Elizabeth eFulton; Valsamma eEapen; Valsamma eEapen; Rudi eČrnčec; Amelia eWalter; Amelia eWalter; Sally eRogers

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  5. Histone deacetylase 3 is required for maintenance of bone mass during aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Dudakovic, Amel; Carlson, Samuel W.; Ryan, Zachary C.; Kumar, Rajiv; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) is a nuclear enzyme that removes acetyl groups from lysine residues in histones and other proteins to epigenetically regulate gene expression. Hdac3 interacts with bone-related transcription factors and co-factors such as Runx2 and Zfp521, and thus is poised to play a key role in the skeletal system. To understand the role of Hdac3 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, Hdac3 conditional knockout (CKO) mice were created with the Osteocalcin (OCN) promoter driving Cre expression. Hdac3 CKOOCN mice were of normal size and weight, but progressively lost trabecular and cortical bone mass with age. The Hdac3 CKOOCN mice exhibited reduced cortical bone mineralization and material properties and suffered frequent fractures. Bone resorption was lower, not higher, in the Hdac3 CKOOCN mice, suggesting that primary defects in osteoblasts caused the reduced bone mass. Indeed, reductions in bone formation were observed. Osteoblasts and osteocytes from Hdac3 CKOOCN mice showed increased DNA damage and reduced functional activity in vivo and in vitro. Thus, Hdac3 expression in osteoblasts and osteocytes is essential for bone maintenance during aging. PMID:23085085

  6. Physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of atrial fibrillation in middle-aged and elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drca, Nikola; Wolk, Alicja; Jensen-Urstad, Mats; Larsson, Susanna C

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have found that regular participation in intense physical activity increases the risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF) in men, but it remains unclear how physical activity influences the risk of AF in women. We aimed to examine whether physical activity of different types and at different ages influences the development of AF in women. In the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort, information about physical activity was obtained from 36 513 AF-free women (49-83 years old, median age 60 years) who had completed a questionnaire at study entry (1997). Participants reported their time spent on leisure-time exercise and on walking or bicycling throughout their lifetime (at study entry, and at 30 and 50 years of age). We used the Swedish National Inpatient Register (IPR) to determine whether the participants were diagnosed with AF. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) with 95% CI, adjusted for potential confounders. During a median follow-up of 12 years (10th percentile 7.5 years, 90th percentile 12.0 years), 2915 cases of AF were diagnosed. The risk of AF decreased with increasing levels of leisure-time exercise at study entry (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.95 for ≥4 h/week vs Physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of AF in women. Moderate amount of physical activity was sufficient to significantly reduce AF risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Telomerase-Deficient Mice Exhibit Bone Loss Owing to Defects in Osteoblasts and Increased Osteoclastogenesis by Inflammatory Microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, H.; Abdallah, B. M.; Ditzel, N.

    2011-01-01

    Telomere shortening owing to telomerase deficiency leads to accelerated senescence of human skeletal (mesenchymal) stem cells (MSCs) in vitro, whereas overexpression leads to telomere elongation, extended life span, and enhanced bone formation. To study the role of telomere shortening in vivo, we...... studied the phenotype of telomerase-deficient mice (Terc(-/-)).Terc(-/-) mice exhibited accelerated age-related bone loss starting at 3 months of age and during 12 months of follow-up revealed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) scanning and by micro-computed tomography (mu CT). Bone...... histomorphometry revealed decreased mineralized surface and bone-formation rate as well as increased osteoclast number and size in Terc(-/-) mice. Also, serum total deoxypyridinoline (tDPD) was increased in Terc(-/-) mice. MSCs and osteoprogenitors isolated from Terc(-l-) mice exhibited intrinsic defects...

  8. Tick-Tock Chimes the Kidney Clock – from Biology of Renal Ageing to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Rowland

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing of the kidney is a multi-dimensional process that occurs simultaneously at the molecular, cellular, histological, anatomical and physiological level. Nephron number and renal cortical volume decline, renal tubules become atrophic and glomeruli become sclerotic with age. These structural changes are accompanied by a decline in glomerular filtration rate, decreased sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion, reduced urinary concentrating capacity and alterations in the endocrine activity of the kidney. However, the pace of progression of these changes is not identical in everyone - individuals of the same age and seemingly similar clinical profile often exhibit stark differences in the age-related decline in renal health. Thus, chronological age poorly reflects the time-dependent changes that occur in the kidney. An ideal measure of renal vitality is biological kidney age – a measure of the age-related changes in physiological function. Replacing chronological age with biological age could provide numerous clinical benefits including improved prognostic accuracy in renal transplantation, better stratification of risk and identification of those who are on a fast trajectory to an age-related drop in kidney health.

  9. The developmental progression of age 14 behavioral disinhibition, early age of sexual initiation, and subsequent sexual risk-taking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Iacono, William G; Keyes, Margaret A; Epstein, Marina; Bornovalova, Marina A; McGue, Matt

    2014-07-01

    Research has demonstrated a consistent relationship between early sexual experience and subsequent sexual risk-taking behaviors. We hypothesized that this relationship is due to a general predisposition toward behavioral disinhibition (BD), and that relationships among BD, early sex, and subsequent risky sexual behavior may be influenced by common genetic influences for males and common environmental influences for females. A prospective sample of 1,512 same-sex adolescent twins (50.2% female) was used. Adolescent BD was measured by clinical symptom counts of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and self-reported delinquent behavior (age 14). Age of sexual initiation was defined as first age of consensual oral or penetrative sex (mean age ~17). Adult risky sexual behavior was defined by sexual behaviors under the influence of drugs and alcohol and number of casual sexual partners in the past year (age 24). Multivariate analyses showed evidence for substantial common genetic variance among age 14 BD, age at sexual initiation, and adult risky sexual behavior for males, but not females. There was no significant difference in the degree of common environmental influence on these variables for females compared to males. Notably, age of sexual initiation was not significantly correlated with age 24 risky sexual behavior for females. The relationship between early sex and later risky sex can be better understood through a general liability toward BD, which is influenced primarily by genetic factors for males. The association between age 14 BD and age of sexual initiation was influenced through a combination of genetic and environmental factors for females; however, age of sexual initiation does not appear to be a salient predictor of adult women’s sexual risk-taking behavior. Findings suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing sexual risk behavior might target youth exhibiting BD by age 14, particularly males. More research is needed on what predicts

  10. Combining voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to detect age-related brain changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmbeck, Jan T; Brassen, Stefanie; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Braus, Dieter F

    2006-04-03

    The present study combined optimized voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to detect age-related brain changes. We compared grey matter density maps (grey matter voxel-based morphometry) and white matter fractional anisotropy maps (diffusion tensor imaging-voxel-based morphometry) between two groups of 17 younger and 17 older women. Older women exhibited reduced white matter fractional anisotropy as well as decreased grey matter density most prominently in the frontal, limbic, parietal and temporal lobes. A discriminant analysis identified four frontal and limbic grey and white matter areas that separated the two groups most effectively. We conclude that grey matter voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging voxel-based morphometry are well suited for the detection of age-related changes and their combination provides high accuracy when detecting the neural correlates of aging.

  11. Lessons from life: Learning from exhibits, animals and interaction in a museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, Alexander Noah

    This study examines the effect of interaction on visitor behavior at a public aquarium, experimentally comparing one exhibit under interactive and noninteractive conditions. A quantitative analysis showed that the time visitor groups spent in the study area significantly increased in the interactive condition (median 73 vs. 32 seconds). Further, this effect extended only to those groups within the interactive condition in which at least one member operated the exhibit (median 102 vs. 36 seconds). Both median times and survival curves are compared, and the analysis controlled for group size, age and sex ratios, visitor density, queuing time, and animal activity. Qualitative analyses focused on visitors' spontaneous conversation at the exhibit. Interactive visitors were found to engage in more in-depth exploration, including conducting informal experiments. The amount of discussion was found to correlate with stay time (r = 0.47). Visitor discussion centered on the exhibit, with frequent observations of penguin behavior. Greater enthusiasm was observed for interactive visitors, and coding showed interactive visitors laughed more frequently, and were significantly more likely to speculate on the penguins' reactions and motivations for behaviors. The experimental setup included a control condition consisting of a typical aquarium exhibit, including live penguins, naturalistic habitat, and graphics. The interactive condition added a device designed to mediate a two-way interaction between the visitors and penguins: visitors moved a light beam across the bottom of the pool. The penguins, intern, chased the light. This exhibit was designed both to benefit visitors and to serve as behavioral enrichment for the penguins. A third condition employed an automatically moving light, which elicited similar penguin behaviors, but without allowing visitor interaction. Videotaped data was analyzed for 301 visitor groups (756 individuals). A supplemental study employed video recall

  12. Chronic maternal depression is associated with reduced weight gain in latino infants from birth to 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Holbrook, Katherine; Lustig, Robert H; Epel, Elissa; Caughey, Aaron B; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Shiboski, Stephen C; Heyman, Melvin B

    2011-02-23

    Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age. At 6, 12 and 24 months of age, infants were weighed and measured. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Women who had high depressive symptoms at both time periods were defined as having chronic depression. Logistic mixed models were applied to compare growth curves and risk for overweight and underweight based on exposure to maternal depression. We followed 181 infants to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months, respectively, 27.4% and 40.5% were overweight, and 5.6% and 2.2% were underweight. Exposure to chronic maternal depression was associated with underweight (OR = 12.12, 95%CI 1.86-78.78) and with reduced weight gain in the first 2 years of life (Coef = -0.48, 95% CI -0.94-0.01) compared with unexposed infants or infants exposed to episodic depression (depression at one time point). Exposure to chronic depression was also associated with reduced risk for overweight in the first 2 years of life (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.03-0.92). Exposure to chronic maternal depression in the pre- and postnatal period was associated with reduced weight gain in the first two years of life and greater risk for failure to thrive, in comparison with unexposed infants or those exposed episodically. The infants of mothers with chronic depression may need additional nutritional monitoring and intervention.

  13. Slower Dynamics and Aged Mitochondria in Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargini, Ricardo; García, Esther; Perry, George

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease corresponds to 95% of cases whose origin is multifactorial and elusive. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major feature of Alzheimer's pathology, which might be one of the early events that trigger downstream principal events. Here, we show that multiple genes that control mitochondrial homeostasis, including fission and fusion, are downregulated in Alzheimer's patients. Additionally, we demonstrate that some of these dysregulations, such as diminished DLP1 levels and its mitochondrial localization, as well as reduced STOML2 and MFN2 fusion protein levels, take place in fibroblasts from sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients. The analysis of mitochondrial network disruption using CCCP indicates that the patients' fibroblasts exhibit slower dynamics and mitochondrial membrane potential recovery. These defects lead to strong accumulation of aged mitochondria in Alzheimer's fibroblasts. Accordingly, the analysis of autophagy and mitophagy involved genes in the patients demonstrates a downregulation indicating that the recycling mechanism of these aged mitochondria might be impaired. Our data reinforce the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the key early events of the disease intimately related with aging. PMID:29201274

  14. Tea Consumption Reduces the Incidence of Neurocognitive Disorders: Findings from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, L; Chong, M-S; Lim, W-S; Gao, Q; Nyunt, M S; Lee, T-S; Collinson, S L; Tsoi, T; Kua, E-H; Ng, T-P

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between tea consumption habits and incident neurocognitive disorders (NCD) and explore potential effect modification by gender and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Population-based longitudinal study. The Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study (SLAS). 957 community-living Chinese elderly who were cognitively intact at baseline. We collected tea consumption information at baseline from 2003 to 2005 and ascertained incident cases of neurocognitive disorders (NCD) from 2006 to 2010. Odds ratio (OR) of association were calculated in logistic regression models that adjusted for potential confounders. A total of 72 incident NCD cases were identified from the cohort. Tea intake was associated with lower risk of incident NCD, independent of other risk factors. Reduced NCD risk was observed for both green tea (OR=0.43) and black/oolong tea (OR=0.53) and appeared to be influenced by the changing of tea consumption habit at follow-up. Using consistent non-tea consumers as the reference, only consistent tea consumers had reduced risk of NCD (OR=0.39). Stratified analyses indicated that tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of NCD among females (OR=0.32) and APOE ε4 carriers (OR=0.14) but not males and non APOE ε4 carriers. Regular tea consumption was associated with lower risk of neurocognitive disorders among Chinese elderly. Gender and genetic factors could possibly modulate this association.

  15. Reduced peripheral arterial blood flow with preserved cardiac output during submaximal bicycle exercise in elderly heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng Xiaoyan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older heart failure (HF patients exhibit exercise intolerance during activities of daily living. We hypothesized that reduced lower extremity blood flow (LBF due to reduced forward cardiac output would contribute to submaximal exercise intolerance in older HF patients. Methods and Results Twelve HF patients both with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF (aged 68 ± 10 years without large (aorta or medium sized (iliac or femoral artery vessel atherosclerosis, and 13 age and gender matched healthy volunteers underwent a sophisticated battery of assessments including a peak exercise oxygen consumption (peak VO2, b physical function, c cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR submaximal exercise measures of aortic and femoral arterial blood flow, and d determination of thigh muscle area. Peak VO2 was reduced in HF subjects (14 ± 3 ml/kg/min compared to healthy elderly subjects (20 ± 6 ml/kg/min (p = 0.01. Four-meter walk speed was 1.35 ± 0.24 m/sec in healthy elderly verses 0.98 ± 0.15 m/sec in HF subjects (p p ≤ 0.03. Conclusion During CMR submaximal bike exercise in the elderly with heart failure, mechanisms other than low cardiac output are responsible for reduced lower extremity blood flow.

  16. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  17. Aging causes collateral rarefaction and increased severity of ischemic injury in multiple tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, James E.; Zhang, Hua; Lassance-Soares, Roberta M.; Prabhakar, Pranay; Najafi, Amir H.; Burnett, Mary Susan; Epstein, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Aging is a major risk factor for increased ischemic tissue injury. Whether collateral rarefaction and impaired remodeling contribute to this is unknown. We quantified the number and diameter of native collaterals, and their remodeling in 3-, 16-, 24-, and 31-months-old mice. Methods and Results Aging caused an “age-dose-dependent” greater drop in perfusion immediately after femoral artery ligation, followed by a diminished recovery of flow and increase in tissue injury. These effects were associated with a decline in collateral number, diameter and remodeling. Angiogenesis was also impaired. Mechanistically, these changes were not accompanied by reduced recruitment of T-cells or macrophages to remodeling collaterals. However, eNOS signaling was dysfunctional, as indicated by increased protein nitrosylation and less phosphorylated eNOS and VASP in collateral wall cells. The cerebral circulation exhibited a similar age-dose-dependent loss of collateral number and diameter and increased tortuosity, resulting in an increase in collateral resistance and infarct volume (e.g., 6- and 3-fold, respectively, in 24-months-old mice) after artery occlusion. This was not associated with rarefaction of similarly-sized arterioles. Collateral remodeling was also reduced. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that aging causes rarefaction and insufficiency of the collateral circulation in multiple tissues, resulting in more severe ischemic tissue injury. PMID:21617137

  18. Aging-Resistant Functionalized LDH⁻SAS/Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber Composites: Preparation and Study of Aging Kinetics/Anti-Aging Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxiang; Shi, Zhengren; He, Xianru; Jiang, Ping; Lu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xin

    2018-05-18

    With the aim of improving the anti-aging properties of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), a functional organic filler, namely LDH⁻SAS, prepared by intercalating 4-amino-benzenesulfonic acid monosodium salt (SAS) into layered double hydroxides (LDHs) through anion exchange, was added to nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), giving the NBR/LDH⁻SAS composites. Successful preparation of LDH⁻SAS was confirmed by XRD, TGA and FTIR. LDH⁻SAS was well dispersed in the NBR matrix, owing to its strong interaction with the nitrile group of NBR. The obtained NBR/LDH⁻SAS composites exhibited excellent thermo-oxidative aging resistance as shown by TGA-DSC. Further investigation by ATR-FTIR indicated that SAS can capture the radical groups, even during the aging process, which largely accounts for the improved aging resistance.

  19. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  20. Successful Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrahman Nasihun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging concept of successful aging is based on evidence that in healthy individual when they get aged, there are  considerable variations in physiological functions alteration. Some people exhibiting greater, but others very few or no age related alteration. The first is called poor aging and the later is called successful pattern of aging (Lambert SW, 2008. Thus, in the simple words the successful aging concept is define as an opportunity of old people to stay  active and productive condition despite they get aged chronologically. Aging itself might be defined as the progressive accumulation of changes with time associated with or responsible for the ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and death which accompanies advancing age (Harman D, 1981. The time needed to accumulate changes is attributable to aging process. The marked emerging questions are how does aging happen and where does aging start? To answer these questions and because of the complexity of aging process, there are more than 300 aging theories have been proposed to explain how and where aging occured and started respectively. There are too many to enumerate theories and classification of aging process. In summary, all of these aging theories can be grouped into three clusters: 1. Genetics program theory, this theory suggests that aging is resulted from program directed by the genes; 2. Epigenetic theory, in these theory aging is resulted from environmental random events not determined by the genes; 3. Evolutionary theory, which propose that aging is a medium for disposal mortal soma in order to avoid competition between organism and their progeny for food and space, did not try to explain how aging occur, but possibly answer why aging occur (De la Fuente. 2009. Among the three groups of aging theories, the epigenetic theory is useful to explain and try to solve the enigma of aging which is prominently caused by internal and external environmental influences

  1. Cytochrome P450-2E1 is involved in aging-related kidney damage in mice through increased nitroxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A; Choi, Youngshim; Ha, Seung-Kwoon; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) in aging-dependent kidney damage since it is poorly understood. Young (7 weeks) and aged female (16-17 months old) wild-type (WT) and Cyp2e1-null mice were used. Kidney histology showed that aged WT mice exhibited typical signs of kidney aging such as cell vacuolation, inflammatory cell infiltration, cellular apoptosis, glomerulonephropathy, and fibrosis, along with significantly elevated levels of renal TNF-α and serum creatinine than all other groups. Furthermore, the highest levels of renal hydrogen peroxide, protein carbonylation and nitration were observed in aged WT mice. These increases in the aged WT mice were accompanied by increased levels of iNOS and mitochondrial nitroxidative stress through altered amounts and activities of the mitochondrial complex proteins and significantly reduced levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). In contrast, the aged Cyp2e1-null mice exhibited significantly higher antioxidant capacity with elevated heme oxygenase-1 and catalase activities compared to all other groups, while maintaining normal GSH levels with significantly less mitochondrial nitroxidative stress compared to the aged WT mice. Thus, CYP2E1 is important in causing aging-related kidney damage most likely through increasing nitroxidative stress and that CYP2E1 could be a potential target in preventing aging-related kidney diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Fisetin Acts on Multiple Pathways to Reduce the Impact of Age and Disease on CNS Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that neurological diseases are multi-factorial involving disruptions in multiple cellular systems. Thus, while each disease has its own initiating mechanisms and pathologies, certain common pathways appear to be involved in most, if not all, neurological diseases described to date. Thus, it is unlikely that modulating only a single factor will be effective at either preventing disease development or slowing disease progression. A better approach is to identify small (fisetin. Fisetin not only has direct antioxidant activity but it can also increase the intracellular levels of glutathione, the major intracellular antioxidant. Fisetin can also activate key neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. In addition, it has anti-inflammatory activity against microglial cells and inhibits the activity of lipoxygenases, thereby reducing the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and their by-products. This wide range of actions suggests that fisetin has the ability to reduce the impact of age-related neurological diseases on brain function. PMID:25961687

  3. Fascicles and the interfascicular matrix show decreased fatigue life with ageing in energy storing tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Riley, Graham P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C

    2017-07-01

    Tendon is composed of rope-like fascicles bound together by interfascicular matrix (IFM). The IFM is critical for the function of energy storing tendons, facilitating sliding between fascicles to allow these tendons to cyclically stretch and recoil. This capacity is required to a lesser degree in positional tendons. We have previously demonstrated that both fascicles and IFM in energy storing tendons have superior fatigue resistance compared with positional tendons, but the effect of ageing on the fatigue properties of these different tendon subunits has not been determined. Energy storing tendons become more injury-prone with ageing, indicating reduced fatigue resistance, hence we tested the hypothesis that the decline in fatigue life with ageing in energy storing tendons would be more pronounced in the IFM than in fascicles. We further hypothesised that tendon subunit fatigue resistance would not alter with ageing in positional tendons. Fascicles and IFM from young and old energy storing and positional tendons were subjected to cyclic fatigue testing until failure, and mechanical properties were calculated. The results show that both IFM and fascicles from the SDFT exhibit a similar magnitude of reduced fatigue life with ageing. By contrast, the fatigue life of positional tendon subunits was unaffected by ageing. The age-related decline in fatigue life of tendon subunits in energy storing tendons is likely to contribute to the increased risk of injury in aged tendons. Full understanding of the mechanisms resulting in this reduced fatigue life will aid in the development of treatments and interventions to prevent age-related tendinopathy. Understanding the effect of ageing on tendon-structure function relationships is crucial for the development of effective preventative measures and treatments for age-related tendon injury. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the fatigue resistance of the interfascicular matrix decreases with ageing in energy

  4. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  5. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  6. Engineering a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast that exhibits reduced ethanol production during fermentation under controlled microoxygenation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heux, Stéphanie; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Cachon, Rémy; Dequin, Sylvie

    2006-09-01

    We recently showed that expressing an H(2)O-NADH oxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae drastically reduces the intracellular NADH concentration and substantially alters the distribution of metabolic fluxes in the cell. Although the engineered strain produces a reduced amount of ethanol, a high level of acetaldehyde accumulates early in the process (1 g/liter), impairing growth and fermentation performance. To overcome these undesirable effects, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the impact of oxygen on the metabolic network of the same NADH oxidase-expressing strain. While reducing the oxygen transfer rate led to a gradual recovery of the growth and fermentation performance, its impact on the ethanol yield was negligible. In contrast, supplying oxygen only during the stationary phase resulted in a 7% reduction in the ethanol yield, but without affecting growth and fermentation. This approach thus represents an effective strategy for producing wine with reduced levels of alcohol. Importantly, our data also point to a significant role for NAD(+) reoxidation in controlling the glycolytic flux, indicating that engineered yeast strains expressing an NADH oxidase can be used as a powerful tool for gaining insight into redox metabolism in yeast.

  7. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces oxidative stress and improves skeletal muscle function in response to electrically stimulated isometric contractions in aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael J.; Jackson, Janna R.; Hao, Yanlei; Leonard, Stephen S.; Alway, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a putative factor responsible for reducing function and increasing apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle with aging. This study examined the contribution and functional significance of the xanthine oxidase enzyme as a potential source of oxidant production in aged skeletal muscle during repetitive in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions. Xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited in young adult and aged mice via a subcutaneously placed time release (2.5 mg/day) allopurinol pellet, 7 days prior to the start of in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions. Gastrocnemius muscles were electrically activated with 20 maximal contractions for three consecutive days. Xanthine oxidase activity was 65% greater in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged mice compared to young mice. Xanthine oxidase activity also increased after in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions in muscles from both young (33%) and aged (28%) mice, relative to contralateral non-contracted muscles. Allopurinol attenuated the exercise-induced increase in oxidative stress, but it did not affect the elevated basal levels of oxidative stress that was associated with aging. In addition, inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity decreased caspase 3 activity, but it had no effect on other markers of mitochondrial associated apoptosis. Our results show that compared to control conditions, suppression of xanthine oxidase activity by allopurinol reduced xanthine oxidase activity, H2O2 levels, lipid peroxidation and caspase-3 activity, prevented the in situ electrically stimulated isometric contraction-induced loss of glutathione, prevented the increase of catalase and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activities, and increased maximal isometric force in the plantar flexor muscles of aged mice after repetitive electrically evoked contractions. PMID:21530649

  8. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ligen; Lee, Jong Han; Buras, Eric D; Yu, Kaijiang; Wang, Ruitao; Smith, C Wayne; Wu, Huaizhu; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Sun, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), increases in adipose tissues during aging, and old Ghsr(-/-) mice exhibit a lean and insulin-sensitive phenotype. Macrophages are major mediators of adipose tissue inflammation, which consist of pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes. Here, we show that in aged mice, GHS-R ablation promotes macrophage phenotypical shift toward anti-inflammatory M2. Old Ghsrp(-/-) mice have reduced macrophage infiltration, M1/M2 ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in white and brown adipose tissues. We also found that peritoneal macrophages of old Ghsrp(-/-) mice produce higher norepinephrine, which is in line with increased alternatively-activated M2 macrophages. Our data further reveal that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in macrophages, and GHS-R antagonist suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that ghrelin signaling has an important role in macrophage polarization and adipose tissue inflammation during aging. GHS-R antagonists may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic option for age-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

  9. Creating Virtual Exhibitions for Educational and Cultural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DUMITRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents different tools and mechanisms to implement a virtual exhibition in different cultural areas, such as museums and libraries. Quality characteristics of virtual exhibitions are identified and described. The possibility to create native mobile applications for virtual exhibitions presentation is analyzed. The functional flow of creating a virtual exhibition is presented and discussed. The Seals - History Treasure exhibition is presented and significant historical documents are revealed.

  10. Periodicity in Age-Resolved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esipov, Sergei

    We discuss the interplay between the non-linear diffusion and age-resolved population dynamics. Depending on the age properties of collective migration the system may exhibit continuous joint expansion of all ages or continuous expansion with age segregation. Between these two obvious limiting regimes there is an interesting window of periodic expansion, which has been previously used by us in modeling bacterial colonies of Proteus mirabilis. In order to test whether the age-dependent collective migration leads to periodicity in other systems we performed a Fourier analysis of historical data on ethnic expansions and found multiple co-existing periods of activity.

  11. The exploration of the exhibition informatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    The construction and management of exhibition informatization is the main task and choke point during the process of Chinese exhibition industry’s transformation and promotion. There are three key points expected to realize a breakthrough during the construction of Chinese exhibition informatization, and the three aspects respectively are adopting service outsourcing to construct and maintain the database, adopting advanced chest card technology to collect various kinds of information, developing statistics analysis to maintain good cutomer relations. The success of Chinese exhibition informatization mainly calls for mature suppliers who can provide construction and maintenance of database, the proven technology, a sense of data security, advanced chest card technology, the ability of data mining and analysis and the ability to improve the exhibition service basing on the commercial information got from the data analysis. Several data security measures are expected to apply during the process of system developing, including the measures of the terminal data security, the internet data security, the media data security, the storage data security and the application data security. The informatization of this process is based on the chest card designing. At present, there are several types of chest card technology: bar code chest card; two-dimension code card; magnetic stripe chest card; smart-chip chest card. The information got from the exhibition data will help the organizers to make relevant service strategies, quantify the accumulated indexes of the customers, and improve the level of the customer’s satisfaction and loyalty, what’s more, the information can also provide more additional services like the commercial trips, VIP ceremonial reception.

  12. Female mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA mice exhibit hyperactivity and a reduced sense of danger in the open field test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Langford-Smith

    Full Text Available Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A, is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. Female mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA mice exhibit hyperactivity and a reduced sense of danger in the open field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Langford-Smith, Kia J; Jones, Simon A; Wynn, Robert F; Wraith, J E; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Bigger, Brian W

    2011-01-01

    Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A), is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Von L. [Advanced Technology Inst., Virginia Beach, VA (United States)

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  15. Digital Natives: Creating Emergent Exhibitions through Digital Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2011-01-01

    . In this way, digital technology can contribute to the creation of emergent exhibitions in which the exhibition is created in dialogue between audiences and the museum. We present experiences from a current research project, the Digital Natives exhibition, in which digital technology was designed......Digital Technology can support the creation of dialogical spaces in the museum, both playful and reflective, that allow audiences to engage in the ongoing construction and reproduction of cultural heritage creating novel connections between self and others and between past, present and future...... as an integral part of the exhibition to encourage dialogue between audiences and the exhibition materials and thereby investigate how the exhibition emerge as a result of this dialogic co-construction inside the exhibition space. In short, the opportunities offered by digital technologies prompts us to consider...

  16. Video games as a means to reduce age-related cognitive decline: attitudes, compliance, and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a "brain fitness" game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants' ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why.

  17. Video Games as a Means to Reduce Age-related Cognitive Decline: Attitudes, Compliance, and Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Boot

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a brain fitness game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants’ ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why.

  18. Artefacts and the performance of an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the role of mediating artefacts in children's encounters with a museum of natural history. Using actor network theory it explores how a specific artefact shapes the way users relate to exhibited objects and how the artefact guides users' movements in the exhibition....... The mediated performance of an exhibition is explored through an empirical case....

  19. A content-oriented model for science exhibit engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Recently, science museums have begun to review their educational purposes and redesign their pedagogies. At the most basic level, this entails accounting for the performance of individual exhibits, and indeed, in some cases, research indicates shortcomings in exhibit design: While often successful......: as a means to operationalize the link between exhibit features and visitor activities; and as a template to transform scientists’ practices in the research context into visitors’ activities in the exhibit context. The resulting model of science exhibit engineering is presented and exemplified, and its...... implications for science exhibit design are discussed at three levels: the design product, the design process, and the design methodology....

  20. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  1. Influence of Extrusion Temperature on the Aging Behavior and Mechanical Properties of an AA6060 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Berndt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing of AA6060 aluminum alloys for semi-products usually includes hot extrusion with subsequent artificial aging for several hours. Processing below the recrystallization temperature allows for an increased strength at a significantly reduced annealing time by combining strain hardening and precipitation hardening. In this study, we investigate the potential of cold and warm extrusion as alternative processing routes for high strength aluminum semi-products. Cast billets of the age hardening aluminum alloy AA6060 were solution annealed and then extruded at room temperature, 120 or 170 °C, followed by an aging treatment. Electron microscopy and mechanical testing were performed on the as-extruded as well as the annealed materials to characterize the resulting microstructural features and mechanical properties. All of the extruded profiles exhibit similar, strongly graded microstructures. The strain gradients and the varying extrusion temperatures lead to different stages of dynamic precipitation in the as-extruded materials, which significantly alter the subsequent aging behavior and mechanical properties. The experimental results demonstrate that extrusion below recrystallization temperature allows for high strength at a massively reduced aging time due to dynamic precipitation and/or accelerated precipitation kinetics. The highest strength and ductility were achieved by extrusion at 120 °C and subsequent short-time aging.

  2. Temporary and Travelling Exhibitions. Museums and Monuments, X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daifuku, Hiroshi; And Others

    The permanent exhibition, the most typical form of museum exhibition, has failed to attract repeated visitation, since visitors quickly become familiar with the objects shown. The temporary exhibition evolved as a result for the need of repeated visitation. The temporary exhibition, set up for a period of one to six months, introduces fresh…

  3. Aging-Resistant Functionalized LDH–SAS/Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber Composites: Preparation and Study of Aging Kinetics/Anti-Aging Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxiang; Shi, Zhengren; He, Xianru; Jiang, Ping; Lu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Rui

    2018-01-01

    With the aim of improving the anti-aging properties of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), a functional organic filler, namely LDH–SAS, prepared by intercalating 4-amino-benzenesulfonic acid monosodium salt (SAS) into layered double hydroxides (LDHs) through anion exchange, was added to nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), giving the NBR/LDH–SAS composites. Successful preparation of LDH–SAS was confirmed by XRD, TGA and FTIR. LDH–SAS was well dispersed in the NBR matrix, owing to its strong interaction with the nitrile group of NBR. The obtained NBR/LDH–SAS composites exhibited excellent thermo-oxidative aging resistance as shown by TGA-DSC. Further investigation by ATR-FTIR indicated that SAS can capture the radical groups, even during the aging process, which largely accounts for the improved aging resistance. PMID:29783656

  4. CERN Industrials Exhibitions - Over 30 Years of Tradition

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Industrial exhibitions have been part of the CERN landscape for 33 years. At least once each year several companies from the same country come to CERN to present their products and services. Now, a new scheme of one-day visits is giving potential exhibitors at CERN a lighter option. The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present. Four years after joining CERN, Poland inaugurated its first exhibition at CERN in 1995 in the presence of the former Director-General Chris Llewellyn-Smith. Almost all the Member States have held industrial exhibitions at the Organization. May '68 wasn't only revolutionary in Paris. For the very first time, an industrial exhibition took place at CERN. Great Britain was first to come with eight companies and remains until this day the most devoted country to the programme with 17 exhibitions and ...

  5. Sexual dimorphism in development of kidney damage in aging Fischer-344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, Jennifer M; Akinsiku, Oladele; Moningka, Natasha C; Jerzewski, Katie; Baylis, Chris; LeBlanc, Amanda J; Kang, Lori S; Sindler, Amy L; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2012-08-01

    Aging kidneys exhibit slowly developing injury and women are usually protected compared with men, in association with maintained renal nitric oxide. Our purpose was to test 2 hypotheses: (1) that aging intact Fischer-344 (F344) female rats exhibit less glomerular damage than similarly aged males, and (2) that loss of female ovarian hormones would lead to greater structural injury and dysregulation of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system in aging F344 rat kidneys. We compared renal injury in F344 rats in intact, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized with estrogen replaced young (6 month) and old (24 month) female rats with young and old intact male rats and measured renal protein abundance of NOS isoforms and oxidative stress. There was no difference in age-dependent glomerular damage between young or old intact male and female F344 rats, and neither ovariectomy nor estrogen replacement affected renal injury; however, tubulointerstitial injury was greater in old males than in old females. These data suggest that ovarian hormones do not influence these aspects of kidney aging in F344 rats and that the greater tubulointerstitial injury is caused by male sex. Old males had greater kidney cortex NOS3 abundance than females, and NOS1 abundance (alpha and beta isoforms) was increased in old males compared with both young males and old females. NOS abundance was preserved with age in intact females, ovariectomy did not reduce NOS1 or NOS3 protein abundance, and estrogen replacement did not uniformly elevate NOS proteins, suggesting that estrogens are not primary regulators of renal NOS abundance in this strain. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent superoxide production and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity were increased in aging male rat kidneys compared with females, which could compromise renal nitric oxide production and/or bioavailability. The kidney damage expressed in aging F344 rats is fairly mild and is not related to loss of renal cortex NOS3

  6. Memory and Mourning: An Exhibit History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2005-01-01

    Mounted by the Strong Museum in Rochester, New York, in 1993, and traveling nationally thereafter, the exhibit Memory and Mourning provided historical and contemporary perspectives to help museum guests explore their own reactions to loss and grief. In the process the exhibit's development team encountered a range of philosophical, historical,…

  7. American Modern Design for a New Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the exhibition titled "American Modern, 1925-1940: Design for a New Age" that documents the efforts and achievements of the United States in the area of design arts. States that the exhibition features more than 150 objects, including furniture, posters, and radios, by leading designers of the early and mid century. (CMK)

  8. The Road Transport world exhibition in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Following the agreement between French and German professionals of automobile and industrial vehicle, the Road Transport world exhibition will take place alternatively in Paris and Hanover. The 1995 meeting has taken place in Paris (September 15-21) and about 20 countries were represented. Road transport is the principal way of goods transportation in France and represent 88% of the traffic explained in tons gross and 70% in tons km. The petroleum dependence of the transportation sector is becoming a worrying problem as the gasoline and diesel fuels taxes will be discussed in the 1996 financial laws project. According to the last ''Worldwide energetic perspectives'' report published by the IEA, in 2010 the transportation sector could absorb more than 60% of the worldwide petroleum consumption. This increase represents a challenge to the petroleum industry to increase the energetic efficiency of the vehicle fuels and the production of diesel fuels, and conversely to reduce the pollution effluents. (J.S.). 4 tabs

  9. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  10. CERN’s travelling exhibition goes to Austria

    CERN Multimedia

    Mélissa Lanaro

    2011-01-01

    Since April 2009 CERN’s travelling exhibition has been touring through some of the Organization's Member States. After Italy and Denmark it has been on show since February at Austria’s Hartberg Ökopark, a very popular science museum situated some one hundred kilometres from Vienna. To coincide with the CERN exhibition, Austria’s scientific community has organised a series of events for the general public which have had marked success. The exhibition's next destination will be Portugal and preparations are already underway to ensure that it is another resounding success   The travelling exhibition was designed in collaboration with the University of Geneva, as part of the celebrations for its 450th anniversary, and has already notched up a good number of kilometres as it travels from country to country. “In 2010 the exhibition already had around 55,000 visitors,” explains Rolf Landua, who heads the Education Group. Since its inauguration ...

  11. “Accelerating Science” exhibition zooms to Turkey

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    'Accelerating Science', CERN’s travelling science outreach exhibition, has just arrived at the Middle East Technical University (METU) in Ankara, Turkey for a four-month stay there. This is the first time it has moved outside the circle of the Member States. The Turkish venue will inaugurate some new exhibits that have recently been developed by CERN’s software developers.   “It’s been a very busy day,” says Bilge Demirkoz, an associate professor of physics at METU and a member of AMS-02, who had been overseeing the unloading of the lorries when we spoke to her. “As the University doesn’t have a specific exhibition space, the CERN exhibits are going to be housed in the covered tennis courts just behind the cultural and congress centre. It’s a beautiful venue, and there are plenty of parking spaces.” The University has sent invitations to the exhibition to high schools and to about 100 ...

  12. Chronic maternal depression is associated with reduced weight gain in latino infants from birth to 2 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Wojcicki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. METHODS: We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age. At 6, 12 and 24 months of age, infants were weighed and measured. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Women who had high depressive symptoms at both time periods were defined as having chronic depression. Logistic mixed models were applied to compare growth curves and risk for overweight and underweight based on exposure to maternal depression. RESULTS: We followed 181 infants to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months, respectively, 27.4% and 40.5% were overweight, and 5.6% and 2.2% were underweight. Exposure to chronic maternal depression was associated with underweight (OR = 12.12, 95%CI 1.86-78.78 and with reduced weight gain in the first 2 years of life (Coef = -0.48, 95% CI -0.94-0.01 compared with unexposed infants or infants exposed to episodic depression (depression at one time point. Exposure to chronic depression was also associated with reduced risk for overweight in the first 2 years of life (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.03-0.92. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to chronic maternal depression in the pre- and postnatal period was associated with reduced weight gain in the first two years of life and greater risk for failure to thrive, in comparison with unexposed infants or those exposed episodically. The infants of mothers with chronic depression may need additional nutritional monitoring and intervention.

  13. Age affects the contraction-induced mitochondrial redox response in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis R Claflin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Compromised mitochondrial respiratory function is associated with advancing age. Damage due to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS with age is thought to contribute to the mitochondrial deficits. The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in its reduced (NADH and oxidized (NAD+ forms plays an essential role in the cyclic sequence of reactions that result in the regeneration of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Monitoring mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ redox status during recovery from an episode of high energy demand thus allows assessment of mitochondrial function. NADH fluoresces when excited with ultraviolet light in the UV-A band and NAD+ does not, allowing NADH/NAD+ to be monitored in real time using fluorescence microscopy. Our goal was to assess mitochondrial function by monitoring the NADH fluorescence response following a brief period of high energy demand in muscle from adult and old wild-type (WT mice. This was accomplished by isolating whole lumbrical muscles from the hind paws of 7- and 28-month-old WT mice and making simultaneous measurements of force and NADH fluorescence responses during and after a 5 s maximum isometric contraction. All muscles exhibited fluorescence oscillations that were qualitatively similar and consisted of a brief transient increase followed by a longer transient period of reduced fluorescence and, finally, an increase that included an overshoot before recovering to resting level. Compared with the adult WT mice, muscles from the 28 mo WT mice exhibited a delayed peak during the first fluorescence transient and an attenuated recovery following the second transient. These findings indicate an impaired mitochondrial capacity to maintain NADH/NAD+ redox homeostasis during contractile activity in skeletal muscles of old mice.

  14. Notch signaling mediates the age-associated decrease in adhesion of germline stem cells to the niche.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yuan Tseng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have an innate ability to occupy their stem cell niche, which in turn, is optimized to house stem cells. Organ aging is associated with reduced stem cell occupancy in the niche, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we report that Notch signaling is increased with age in Drosophila female germline stem cells (GSCs, and this results in their removal from the niche. Clonal analysis revealed that GSCs with low levels of Notch signaling exhibit increased adhesiveness to the niche, thereby out-competing their neighbors with higher levels of Notch; adhesiveness is altered through regulation of E-cadherin expression. Experimental enhancement of Notch signaling in GSCs hastens their age-dependent loss from the niche, and such loss is at least partially mediated by Sex lethal. However, disruption of Notch signaling in GSCs does not delay GSC loss during aging, and nor does it affect BMP signaling, which promotes self-renewal of GSCs. Finally, we show that in contrast to GSCs, Notch activation in the niche (which maintains niche integrity, and thus mediates GSC retention is reduced with age, indicating that Notch signaling regulates GSC niche occupancy both intrinsically and extrinsically. Our findings expose a novel role of Notch signaling in controlling GSC-niche adhesion in response to aging, and are also of relevance to metastatic cancer cells, in which Notch signaling suppresses cell adhesion.

  15. Rheumatoid arthritis patients exhibit impaired Candida albicans-specific Th17 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishu, Shrinivas; Su, Ee Wern; Wilkerson, Erich R; Reckley, Kelly A; Jones, Donald M; McGeachy, Mandy J; Gaffen, Sarah L; Levesque, Marc C

    2014-02-11

    Accumulating data implicate the CD4+ T cell subset (Th17 cells) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-17 is an inflammatory cytokine that induces tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL-1β and IL-6, all of which are targets of biologic therapies used to treat RA. RA patients are well documented to experience more infections than age-matched controls, and biologic therapies further increase the risk of infection. The Th17/IL-17 axis is vital for immunity to fungi, especially the commensal fungus Candida albicans. Therefore, we were prompted to examine the relationship between RA and susceptibility to C. albicans because of the increasing interest in Th17 cells and IL-17 in driving autoimmunity, and the advent of new biologics that target this pathway. We analyzed peripheral blood and saliva from 48 RA and 33 healthy control subjects. To assess C. albicans-specific Th17 responses, PBMCs were co-cultured with heat-killed C. albicans extract, and IL-17A levels in conditioned supernatants were measured by ELISA. The frequency of Th17 and Th1 cells was determined by flow cytometry. As a measure of IL-17A-mediated effector responses, we evaluated C. albicans colonization rates in the oral cavity, salivary fungicidal activity and levels of the antimicrobial peptide β-defensin 2 (BD2) in saliva. Compared to controls, PBMCs from RA subjects exhibited elevated baseline production of IL-17A (P = 0.004), although they had similar capacity to produce IL-17A in response to Th17 cell differentiating cytokines (P = 0.91). However RA PBMCs secreted less IL-17A in response to C. albicans antigens (P = 0.006). Significantly more RA patients were colonized with C. albicans in the oral cavity than healthy subjects (P = 0.02). Concomitantly, RA saliva had reduced concentrations of salivary BD2 (P = 0.02). Nonetheless, salivary fungicidal activity was preserved in RA subjects (P = 0.70). RA subjects exhibit detectable impairments in oral immune responses to C. albicans, a

  16. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  17. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from aged patients with coronary artery disease keep mesenchymal stromal cell properties but exhibit characteristics of aging and have impaired angiogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, Anastasia; Dzhoyashvili, Nina; Kalinina, Natalia; Kochegura, Tatiana; Akchurin, Renat; Tkachuk, Vsevolod; Parfyonova, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Tissue regeneration is impaired in aged individuals. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADSCs), a promising source for cell therapy, were shown to secrete various angiogenic factors and improve vascularization of ischemic tissues. We analyzed how patient age affected the angiogenic properties of ADSCs. ADSCs were isolated from subcutaneous fat tissue of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD; n = 64, 43-77 years old) and without CAD (n = 31, 2-82 years old). ADSC phenotype characterized by flow cytometry was CD90(+)/CD73(+)/CD105(+)/CD45(-)/CD31(-) for all samples, and these cells were capable of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. ADSCs from aged patients had shorter telomeres (quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and a tendency to attenuated telomerase activity. ADSC-conditioned media (ADSC-CM) stimulated capillary-like tube formation by endothelial cells (EA.hy926), and this effect significantly decreased with the age of patients both with and without CAD. Angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, angiopoetin-1, and angiogenin) in ADSC-CM measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay significantly decreased with patient age, whereas levels of antiangiogenic factors thrombospondin-1 and endostatin did not. Expression of angiogenic factors in ADSCs did not change with patient age (real-time polymerase chain reaction); however, gene expression of factors related to extracellular proteolysis (urokinase and its receptor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor surface expression increased in ADSCs from aged patients with CAD. ADSCs from aged patients both with and without CAD acquire aging characteristics, and their angiogenic potential declines because of decreasing proangiogenic factor secretion. This could restrict the effectiveness of autologous cell therapy with ADSCs in aged patients.

  18. The Association Between P3 Amplitude at Age 11 and Criminal Offending at Age 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced P3 amplitude to targets is an information-processing deficit associated with adult antisocial behavior and may reflect dysfunction of the temporal-parietal junction. This study aims to examine whether this deficit precedes criminal offending. From a birth cohort of 1,795 children, 73 individuals who become criminal offenders at age 23 and 123 noncriminal individuals were assessed on P3 amplitude. The two groups did not differ on gender, ethnicity, and social adversity. P3 amplitude was measured over the temporal-parietal junction during a visual continuous performance task at age 11, together with antisocial behavior. Criminal convictions were assessed at age 23. Reduced P3 amplitude at age 11 was associated with increased antisocial behavior at age 11. Criminal offenders showed significantly reduced P3 amplitudes to target stimuli compared to controls. Findings remained significant after controlling for antisocial behavior and hyperactivity at age 11 and alcoholism at age 23. P3 deficits at age 11 are associated with adult crime at age 23, suggesting that reduced P3 may be an early neurobiological marker for cognitive and affective processes subserved by the temporal-parietal junction that place a child at risk for adult crime. PMID:22963083

  19. Constitutive modelling of creep-ageing behaviour of peak-aged aluminium alloy 7050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yo-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The creep-ageing behaviour of a peak-aged aluminium alloy 7050 was investigated under different stress levels at 174 ∘C for up to 8 h. Interrupted creep tests and tensile tests were performed to investigate the influences of creep-ageing time and applied stress on yield strength. The mechanical testing results indicate that the material exhibits an over-ageing behaviour which increases with the applied stress level during creep-ageing. As creep-ageing time approaches 8 h, the material's yield strength under different stress levels gradually converge, which suggests that the difference in mechanical properties under different stress conditions can be minimised. This feature can be advantageous in creep-age forming to the formed components such that uniformed mechanical properties across part area can be achieved. A set of constitutive equations was calibrated using the mechanical test results and the alloy-specific material constants were obtained. A good agreement is observed between the experimental and calibrated results.

  20. The Interaction Between IGF-1, Atherosclerosis and Vascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Yusuke; Quevedo, Henry C.; Tiwari, Summit; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Anwar, Asif; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    The process of vascular aging encompasses alterations in the function of endothelial (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via oxidation, inflammation, cell senescence and epigenetic modifications, increasing the probability of atherosclerosis. Aged vessels exhibit decreased endothelial antithrombogenic properties, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inflammatory signaling, increased migration of VSMCs to the subintimal space, impaired angiogenesis and increased elastin degradation. The key initiating step in atherogenesis is subendothelial accumulation of apolipoprotein-B containing low density lipoproteins resulting in activation of endothelial cells and recruitment of monocytes. Activated endothelial cells secrete “chemokines” that interact with cognate chemokine receptors on monocytes and promote directional migration. Recruitment of immune cells establishes a pro-inflammatory status, further causing elevated oxidative stress, which in turn triggers a series of events including apoptotic or necrotic death of vascular and non-vascular cells. Increased oxidative stress is also considered to be a key factor in mechanisms of aging-associated changes in tissue integrity and function. Experimental evidence indicates that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) exerts anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-survival effects on the vasculature, reducing atherosclerotic plaque burden and promoting features of atherosclerotic plaque stability. PMID:24943302

  1. Parkinson phenotype in aged PINK1-deficient mice is accompanied by progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in absence of neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Gispert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD is an adult-onset movement disorder of largely unknown etiology. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations of the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1 cause the recessive PARK6 variant of PD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Now we generated a PINK1 deficient mouse and observed several novel phenotypes: A progressive reduction of weight and of locomotor activity selectively for spontaneous movements occurred at old age. As in PD, abnormal dopamine levels in the aged nigrostriatal projection accompanied the reduced movements. Possibly in line with the PARK6 syndrome but in contrast to sporadic PD, a reduced lifespan, dysfunction of brainstem and sympathetic nerves, visible aggregates of alpha-synuclein within Lewy bodies or nigrostriatal neurodegeneration were not present in aged PINK1-deficient mice. However, we demonstrate PINK1 mutant mice to exhibit a progressive reduction in mitochondrial preprotein import correlating with defects of core mitochondrial functions like ATP-generation and respiration. In contrast to the strong effect of PINK1 on mitochondrial dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster and in spite of reduced expression of fission factor Mtp18, we show reduced fission and increased aggregation of mitochondria only under stress in PINK1-deficient mouse neurons. CONCLUSION: Thus, aging Pink1(-/- mice show increasing mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in impaired neural activity similar to PD, in absence of overt neuronal death.

  2. Age-Dependent Metabolic and Immunosuppressive Effects of Tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzien, F; Quante, M; Heinbokel, T; Seyda, M; Minami, K; Uehara, H; Biefer, H R C; Schuitenmaker, J M; Gabardi, S; Splith, K; Schmelzle, M; Petrides, A K; Azuma, H; Pratschke, J; Li, X C; ElKhal, A; Tullius, S G

    2017-05-01

    Immunosuppression in elderly recipients has been underappreciated in clinical trials. Here, we assessed age-specific effects of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (TAC) in a murine transplant model and assessed its clinical relevance on human T cells. Old recipient mice exhibited prolonged skin graft survival compared with young animals after TAC administration. More important, half of the TAC dose was sufficient in old mice to achieve comparable systemic trough levels. TAC administration was able to reduce proinflammatory interferon-γ cytokine production and promote interleukin-10 production in old CD4 + T cells. In addition, TAC administration decreased interleukin-2 secretion in old CD4 + T cells more effectively while inhibiting the proliferation of CD4 + T cells in old mice. Both TAC-treated murine and human CD4 + T cells demonstrated an age-specific suppression of intracellular calcineurin levels and Ca 2+ influx, two critical pathways in T cell activation. Of note, depletion of CD8 + T cells did not alter allograft survival outcome in old TAC-treated mice, suggesting that TAC age-specific effects were mainly CD4 + T cell mediated. Collectively, our study demonstrates age-specific immunosuppressive capacities of TAC that are CD4 + T cell mediated. The suppression of calcineurin levels and Ca 2+ influx in both old murine and human T cells emphasizes the clinical relevance of age-specific effects when using TAC. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Age Differences in Attention Lapses Mask Age Differences in Memory Failures: A Methodological Note on Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    James Allan Cheyne; Jonathan S. A. Carriere; Dan eSmilek

    2013-01-01

    Although objective measures of memory performance typically indicate memory declines with age, self-reported memory failures often show no relation to age. In contrast, self-reported attention failures are reliably negatively correlated with age. This contrast suggests the possibility that age-related awareness and reporting of memory failures might be masked by a concurrent decrease in attention failures, which would reduce encoding failures with age and hence reduce perceived memory failure...

  4. Impact on the physical and sensory properties of salt-and fat-reduced traditional Irish breakfast sausages on various age cohorts acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paula M; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hamill, Ruth M; Kerry, Joseph P

    2018-09-01

    The properties of varying salt and fat levels in traditional breakfast sausages were investigated. Sausages were produced with fat levels of: 30%, 20% and 15%. Fat was replaced with pea extract. Salt levels employed were: 2.5%, 1.1% and 0.0%. A reduced sodium salt which contains 45% less sodium than standard salt was used. Sensory analysis was conducted on consumers (n = 228): 18-40 yrs., 41-64 yrs. and 65-85 yrs. The 18-40 yr. olds preferred sausages containing 20% fat, 41-64 yr. olds preferred sausages with 15% fat, 65+ age group preferred sausages containing 30% fat. The 18-40 yr. olds preferred high salt samples, 41-64 yr. olds displayed no salt preference, while the 65+ age group preferred high salt sausages. Sausage formulation choice was found to be driven by texture for the younger age cohort, flavour for the middle age cohort and visual aspects from the oldest age cohort. There is a need to understand how meat products might be reformulated different age palates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cells derived from young bone marrow alleviate renal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Chun; Rossini, Michele; Ma, Li-Jun; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji; Fogo, Agnes B

    2011-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cells may modulate renal injury, but the effects may depend on the age of the stem cells. Here we investigated whether bone marrow from young mice attenuates renal aging in old mice. We radiated female 12-mo-old 129SvJ mice and reconstituted them with bone marrow cells (BMC) from either 8-wk-old (young-to-old) or 12-mo-old (old-to-old) male mice. Transfer of young BMC resulted in markedly decreased deposition of collagen IV in the mesangium and less β-galactosidase staining, an indicator of cell senescence. These changes paralleled reduced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), PDGF-B (PDGF-B), the transdifferentiation marker fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), and senescence-associated p16 and p21. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular cells derived from the transplanted BMC did not show β-galactosidase activity, but after 6 mo, there were more FSP-1-expressing bone marrow-derived cells in old-to-old mice compared with young-to-old mice. Young-to-old mice also exhibited higher expression of the anti-aging gene Klotho and less phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor β. Taken together, these data suggest that young bone marrow-derived cells can alleviate renal aging in old mice. Direct parenchymal reconstitution by stem cells, paracrine effects from adjacent cells, and circulating anti-aging molecules may mediate the aging of the kidney.

  6. Role of an encapsulating layer for reducing resistance drift in phase change random access memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase change random access memory (PCRAM devices exhibit a steady increase in resistance in the amorphous phase upon aging and this resistance drift phenomenon directly affects the device reliability. A stress relaxation model is used here to study the effect of a device encapsulating layer material in addressing the resistance drift phenomenon in PCRAM. The resistance drift can be increased or decreased depending on the biaxial moduli of the phase change material (YPCM and the encapsulating layer material (YELM according to the stress relationship between them in the drift regime. The proposed model suggests that the resistance drift can be effectively reduced by selecting a proper material as an encapsulating layer. Moreover, our model explains that reducing the size of the phase change material (PCM while fully reset and reducing the amorphous/crystalline ratio in PCM help to improve the resistance drift, and thus opens an avenue for highly reliable multilevel PCRAM applications.

  7. Microglial cell dysregulation in brain aging and neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    von Bernhardi, Rommy; Eugen?n-von Bernhardi, Laura; Eugen?n, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. In aging, microglia undergoes phenotypic changes compatible with their activation. Glial activation can lead to neuroinflammation, which is increasingly accepted as part of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesize that in aging, aberrant microglia activation leads to a deleterious environment and neurodegeneration. In aged mice, microglia exhibit an increased expression of c...

  8. Theory of Mind Indexes the Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with Autism at School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tawny; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Hutman, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical variants of the social-communicative challenges and rigidity that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are known as the broader autism phenotype (BAP). The BAP has been conceptualized categorically (as specific to a subset of relatives of individuals with ASD) and dimensionally (as continuously distributed within the general population). The current study examined the compatibility of these two approaches by assessing associations among autism symptoms and social-communicative skills in young school-age children with ASD, children who have a sibling with ASD, and children without a sibling with ASD. Autism symptoms were associated with reduced Theory of Mind (ToM), adaptive skills, cognitive empathy, and language skills across the full sample. Reduced ToM was a core aspect of the BAP in the current sample regardless of whether the BAP was defined categorically (in terms of siblings of children with ASD who exhibited atypical developmental) or dimensionally (in terms of associations with autism symptoms across the entire sample). Early language skills predicted school-age ToM. Findings support the compatibility of categorical and dimensional approaches to the BAP, highlight reduced ToM as a core aspect of the school-age BAP, and suggest that narrative-based approaches to promoting ToM may be beneficial for siblings of children with ASD.

  9. Theory of Mind Indexes the Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with Autism at School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawny Tsang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical variants of the social-communicative challenges and rigidity that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD are known as the broader autism phenotype (BAP. The BAP has been conceptualized categorically (as specific to a subset of relatives of individuals with ASD and dimensionally (as continuously distributed within the general population. The current study examined the compatibility of these two approaches by assessing associations among autism symptoms and social-communicative skills in young school-age children with ASD, children who have a sibling with ASD, and children without a sibling with ASD. Autism symptoms were associated with reduced Theory of Mind (ToM, adaptive skills, cognitive empathy, and language skills across the full sample. Reduced ToM was a core aspect of the BAP in the current sample regardless of whether the BAP was defined categorically (in terms of siblings of children with ASD who exhibited atypical developmental or dimensionally (in terms of associations with autism symptoms across the entire sample. Early language skills predicted school-age ToM. Findings support the compatibility of categorical and dimensional approaches to the BAP, highlight reduced ToM as a core aspect of the school-age BAP, and suggest that narrative-based approaches to promoting ToM may be beneficial for siblings of children with ASD.

  10. Insufficient DNA methylation affects healthy aging and promotes age-related health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; van Groen, Thomas; Kadish, Inga; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Deli; James, Smitha R; Karpf, Adam R; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2011-08-01

    DNA methylation plays an integral role in development and aging through epigenetic regulation of genome function. DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) is the most prevalent DNA methyltransferase that maintains genomic methylation stability. To further elucidate the function of Dnmt1 in aging and age-related diseases, we exploited the Dnmt1+/- mouse model to investigate how Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency impacts the aging process by assessing the changes of several major aging phenotypes. We confirmed that Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency indeed decreases DNA methylation as a result of reduced Dnmt1 expression. To assess the effect of Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency on general body composition, we performed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis and showed that reduced Dnmt1 activity decreased bone mineral density and body weight, but with no significant impact on mortality or body fat content. Using behavioral tests, we demonstrated that Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency impairs learning and memory functions in an age-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings point to the interesting likelihood that reduced genomic methylation activity adversely affects the healthy aging process without altering survival and mortality. Our studies demonstrated that cognitive functions of the central nervous system are modulated by Dnmt1 activity and genomic methylation, highlighting the significance of the original epigenetic hypothesis underlying memory coding and function.

  11. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  12. Microstructural evolution of Cu-1at% Ti alloy aged in a hydrogen atmosphere and its relation with the electrical conductivity

    KAUST Repository

    Semboshi, Satoshi

    2009-04-01

    Copper alloys with titanium additions between 1 and 6 at% Ti emerge currently as attractive conductive materials for electrical and electronic commercial products, since they exhibit superior mechanical and electrical properties. However, their electrical conductivity is reduced owing to the residual amount of Ti solutes in the Cu solid solution (Cu(ss)) phase. Since Cu shows only poor reactivity with hydrogen (H), while Ti exhibits high affinity to it, we were inspired by the idea that hydrogenation of Cu-Ti alloys would influence their microstructure, resulting in a significant change of their properties. In this contribution, the influence of aging under a deuterium (D(2)) atmosphere of Cu-1 at% Ti alloys on their microstructure is investigated to explore the effects on the electrical conductivity. The specimens were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field ion microscopy (FIM), computer-aided field ion image tomography (cFIIT), and atom probe tomography (APT). At an early aging stage at 623 K in a D(2) atmosphere of 0.08 Wit, ellipsoidal alpha-Cu(4)Ti precipitates are formed in the alloy, and during subsequent aging, delta-TiD(2) is competitively nucleated instead of growth of alpha-Cu(4)Ti particles. The co-precipitation of alpha-Cu(4)Ti and delta-TiD(2) efficiently reduces the Ti concentration of Cuss matrix, particularly in the later aging stages in comparison to the aging in vacuum conditions. The electrical conductivity of the alloy aged in the D(2) atmosphere increases steeply up to 48% International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) after 1030 It, while it saturates to approximately 20% IACS in the alloy aged in vacuum. The outstanding increase of electrical conductivity during aging in D2 atmosphere can be basically explained by the reduction of Ti solute concentration in Cuss matrix. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Turning movements, vehicle offsets and ageing drivers driving behaviour at channelized and unchannelized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaisung; Tay, Richard; Kim, Sangyoup; Jeong, Seungwon

    2017-11-01

    Ageing drivers experience a higher risk of intersection crashes because of their decrease in driving efficiency, including the decline in cognitive ability, head and neck flexibility, and visual acuity. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with ageing driver crashes at intersections, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors related to ageing drivers' turning paths and intersection geometric features. This study aims to improve the safety of ageing drivers at intersections by identifying the maneuvers that are risky for them and tracking their turning movements at selected intersections. We find that ageing drivers experience more crashes at intersections than younger drivers, especially crashes involving turning movements. Furthermore, ageing drivers experience more crashes at unchannelized intersections compared to channelized intersections. In addition, this study finds that ageing drivers exhibit greater and more inconsistent offsets during turning movements compared to those of younger drivers at both channelized and unchannelized intersections. Ageing drivers also tend to make relatively sharper or tighter turns than younger drivers. Hence, transportation engineers and road safety professionals should consider appropriate countermeasures to reduce the risks of crashes involving ageing drivers at intersections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects ...

  15. Individuals with Asperger's Disorder Exhibit Difficulty in Switching Attention from a Local Level to a Global Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical…

  16. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...

  17. A Salamander Tale: Effective Exhibits and Attitude Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Jeffrey; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2017-01-01

    Little information exists regarding intention behind the design and development of Extension outreach and educational exhibits. An evaluation of response to the exhibit "A Salamander Tale" indicates that the methods used to develop the exhibit resulted in an effective way to present information to an adult audience. Survey questions were…

  18. Knowledge Generation in Technology-Enhanced Health Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Kharlamov, Nikita; Zachariasssen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from eye-tracking studies of audience interaction and knowledge generation in the technology-enhanced health promotion exhibition PULSE at a science centre in Copenhagen, Denmark. The main purpose of the study was to understand what types of knowledge audiences build...... in health promotion exhibitions designed to include direct physical interaction. The current study is part of the larger PULSE project, which aims to develop innovative health promotion activities that include a science museum exhibition as a key setting. The primary target group is families with children...

  19. Comparative Thermal Aging Effects on PM-HIP and Forged Inconel 690

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullens, Alexander L.; Bautista, Esteban; Jaye, Elizabeth H.; Vas, Nathaniel L.; Cain, Nathan B.; Mao, Keyou; Gandy, David W.; Wharry, Janelle P.

    2018-03-01

    This study compares thermal aging effects in Inconel 690 (IN690) produced by forging and powder metallurgy with hot isostatic pressing (PM-HIP). Isothermal aging is carried out over 400-800°C for up to 1000 h and then metallography and nanoindentation are utilized to relate grain microstructure with hardness and yield strength. The PM-HIP IN690 maintains a constant grain size through all aging conditions, while the forged IN690 exhibits limited grain growth at the highest aging temperature and longest aging time. The PM-HIP IN690 exhibits comparable mechanical integrity as the forged material throughout aging: hardness and yield strength are unchanged with 100 h aging, but increase after 1000 h aging at all temperatures. In both the PM-HIP and forged IN690, the Hall-Petch relationship for Ni-based superalloys predicts yield strength for 0-100 h aged specimens, but underestimates yield strength in the 1000 h aged specimens because of thermally induced precipitation.

  20. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation enhances hippocampal functionality in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora eCutuli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As major components of neuronal membranes, omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA exhibit a wide range of regulatory functions, modulating from synaptic plasticity to neuroinflammation, from oxidative stress to neuroprotection. Recent human and animal studies indicated the n-3 PUFA neuroprotective properties in aging, with a clear negative correlation between n-3 PUFA levels and hippocampal deficits. The present multidimensional study was aimed at associating cognition, hippocampal neurogenesis, volume, neurodegeneration and metabolic correlates to verify n-3 PUFA neuroprotective effects in aging. To this aim 19 month-old mice were given n-3 PUFA mixture, or olive oil or no dietary supplement for 8 weeks during which hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions were tested. At the end of behavioral testing morphological and metabolic correlates were analyzed. n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibited better object recognition memory, spatial and localizatory memory, and aversive response retention, without modifications in anxiety levels in comparison to controls. These improved hippocampal cognitive functions occurred in the context of an enhanced cellular plasticity and a reduced neurodegeneration. In fact, n-3 PUFA supplementation increased hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic arborization of newborn neurons, volume, neuronal density and microglial cell number, while it decreased apoptosis, astrocytosis and lipofuscin accumulation in the hippocampus. The increased levels of some metabolic correlates (blood Acetyl-L-Carnitine and brain n-3 PUFA concentrations found in n-3 PUFA supplemented mice also pointed towards an effective neuroprotection.On the basis of the present results n-3 PUFA supplementation appears to be a useful tool in health promotion and cognitive decline prevention during aging.

  1. A Modified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG Vaccine with Reduced Activity of Antioxidants and Glutamine Synthetase Exhibits Enhanced Protection of Mice despite Diminished in Vivo Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Kernodle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune suppressive capacity. We made four modifications to BCG Tice to produce 4dBCG and compared it to the parent vaccine in C57Bl/6 mice. The modifications included elimination of the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH, elimination of the SecA2 secretion channel, and reductions in the activity of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. After IV inoculation of 4dBCG, 95% of vaccine bacilli were eradicated from the spleens of mice within 60 days whereas the titer of BCG Tice was not significantly reduced. Subcutaneous vaccination with 4dBCG produced greater protection than vaccination with BCG against dissemination of an aerosolized challenge of M. tuberculosis to the spleen at 8 weeks post-challenge. At this time, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice also exhibited altered lung histopathology compared to BCG-vaccinated mice and control mice with less well-developed lymphohistiocytic nodules in the lung parenchyma. At 26 weeks post-challenge, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice but not BCG-vaccinated mice had significantly fewer challenge bacilli in the lungs than control mice. In conclusion, despite reduced persistence in mice a modified BCG vaccine with diminished antioxidants and glutamine synthetase is superior to the parent vaccine in conferring protection against M. tuberculosis. The targeting of multiple immune suppressive factors produced by BCG is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving vaccine safety and effectiveness.

  2. Does health insurance reduce out-of-pocket expenditure? Heterogeneity among China's middle-aged and elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anwen; Nikoloski, Zlatko; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-10-01

    China's recent healthcare reforms aim to provide fair and affordable health services for its huge population. In this paper, we investigate the association between China's health insurance and out-of-pocket (OOP) healthcare expenditure. We further explore the heterogeneity in this association. Using data of 32,387 middle-aged and elderly individuals drawn from the 2011 and 2013 waves of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), we report five findings. First, having health insurance increases the likelihood of utilizing healthcare and reduces inpatient OOP expenditure. Second, healthcare benefits are distributed unevenly: while low- and medium-income individuals are the main beneficiaries with reduced OOP expenditure, those faced with very high medical bills are still at risk, owing to limited and shallow coverage in certain aspects. Third, rural migrants hardly benefit from having health insurance, suggesting that institutional barriers are still in place. Fourth, health insurance does not increase patient visits to primary care facilities; hospitals are still the main provider of healthcare. Nonetheless, there is some evidence that patients shift from higher-tier to lower-tier hospitals. Last, OOP spending on pharmaceuticals is reduced for inpatient care but not for outpatient care, suggesting that people rely on inpatient care to obtain reimbursable drugs, putting further pressure on the already overcrowded hospitals. Our findings suggest that China's health insurance system has been effective in boosting healthcare utilization and lowering OOP hospitalization expenditure, but there still remain challenges due to the less generous rural scheme, shallow outpatient care coverage, lack of insurance portability, and an underdeveloped primary healthcare system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exhibition Review | A Collection Worthy of a Cosmopolitan Patron of the Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Milam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is, perhaps, no more appropriate exhibition within recent memory to display the ‘cosmopolitan moment’ of Enlightenment art patronage and collecting than Masterpieces from the Hermitage: The Legacy of Catherine the Great. Touted as a ‘sweeping survey of art from the Russian court’, the exhibition provided visitors with the most extraordinary glimpse into to the cosmopolitan taste of Catherine II, who ruled Russia for 34 years, between 1762 and 1796. Her reign spanned the period of Enlightenment and the revolutions that Enlightenment thinking gave rise to in America and France. A frequent correspondent with French philosophes, such as Voltaire and Diderot, she became disillusioned with Enlightenment ideas following the imprisonment and execution of Louis XVI and the violence of the Terror. Her collections, nevertheless, stand as visual evidence of her interest in art, not only as an extension of her grandeur as a ruler, which was typical of the age of absolutism, but also as the material expression of her intellectual curiosity and openness to other cultures.

  4. Aging and low-grade inflammation reduce renal function in middle-aged and older adults in Japan and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello-White, Reagan; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low-grade inflammation on age-related changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in middle-aged and older white Americans, African-Americans, and Japanese adults. Serum creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were determined for 1570 adult participants in two surveys of aging in the USA and Japan (N = 1188 and 382, respectively). Kidney function declined with age in both countries and was associated with IL-6 and CRP. IL-6 and CRP also influenced the extent of the arithmetic bias when calculating the GFR using the chronic kidney disease epidemiology (CKD-EPI) formula with just serum creatinine. Younger African-Americans initially had the highest GFR but showed a steep age-related decrement that was associated with elevated inflammation. Japanese adults had the lowest average GFR but evinced a large effect of increased inflammatory activity when over 70 years of age. Importantly, our results also indicate that low-grade inflammation is important to consider when evaluating kidney function solely from serum creatinine.

  5. 77 FR 31909 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... exhibition ``50th Anniversary Remembrance of the Tragedy at Orly,'' imported from abroad by the High Museum of Art for temporary exhibition within the United States, is of cultural significance. The object is... exhibition or display of the exhibit object at the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, Georgia from on or about...

  6. Placental Dysfunction Underlies Increased Risk of Fetal Growth Restriction and Stillbirth in Advanced Maternal Age Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Samantha C; Heazell, Alexander E P; Dilworth, Mark R; Mills, Tracey A; Jones, Rebecca L

    2017-08-29

    Pregnancies in women of advanced maternal age (AMA) are susceptible to fetal growth restriction (FGR) and stillbirth. We hypothesised that maternal ageing is associated with utero-placental dysfunction, predisposing to adverse fetal outcomes. Women of AMA (≥35 years) and young controls (20-30 years) with uncomplicated pregnancies were studied. Placentas from AMA women exhibited increased syncytial nuclear aggregates and decreased proliferation, and had increased amino acid transporter activity. Chorionic plate and myometrial artery relaxation was increased compared to controls. AMA was associated with lower maternal serum PAPP-A and sFlt and a higher PlGF:sFlt ratio. AMA mice (38-41 weeks) at E17.5 had fewer pups, more late fetal deaths, reduced fetal weight, increased placental weight and reduced fetal:placental weight ratio compared to 8-12 week controls. Maternofetal clearance of 14 C-MeAIB and 3 H-taurine was reduced and uterine arteries showed increased relaxation. These studies identify reduced placental efficiency and altered placental function with AMA in women, with evidence of placental adaptations in normal pregnancies. The AMA mouse model complements the human studies, demonstrating high rates of adverse fetal outcomes and commonalities in placental phenotype. These findings highlight placental dysfunction as a potential mechanism for susceptibility to FGR and stillbirth with AMA.

  7. Individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical stimuli. In both groups, level-repetition was beneficial at both levels. Furthermore, individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibited difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level compared to control individuals. These findings suggested that there is a problem with the inhibitory mechanism that influences the output of enhanced local visual processing in Asperger's disorder.

  8. Aging and oxidative stress reduce the response of human articular chondrocytes to insulin-like growth factor 1 and osteogenic protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, Richard F; Gandhi, Uma; Long, David L; Yin, Weihong; Chubinskaya, Susan

    2014-08-01

    To determine the effects of aging and oxidative stress on the response of human articular chondrocytes to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and osteogenic protein 1 (OP-1). Chondrocytes isolated from normal articular cartilage obtained from tissue donors were cultured in alginate beads or monolayer. Cells were stimulated with 50-100 ng/ml of IGF-1, OP-1, or both. Oxidative stress was induced using tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Sulfate incorporation was used to measure proteoglycan synthesis, and immunoblotting of cell lysates was performed to analyze cell signaling. Confocal microscopy was performed to measure nuclear translocation of Smad4. Chondrocytes isolated from the articular cartilage of tissue donors ranging in age from 24 years to 81 years demonstrated an age-related decline in proteoglycan synthesis stimulated by IGF-1 and IGF-1 plus OP-1. Induction of oxidative stress inhibited both IGF-1- and OP-1-stimulated proteoglycan synthesis. Signaling studies showed that oxidative stress inhibited IGF-1-stimulated Akt phosphorylation while increasing phosphorylation of ERK, and that these effects were greater in cells from older donors. Oxidative stress also increased p38 phosphorylation, which resulted in phosphorylation of Smad1 at the Ser(206) inhibitory site and reduced nuclear accumulation of Smad1. Oxidative stress also modestly reduced OP-1-stimulated nuclear translocation of Smad4. These results demonstrate an age-related reduction in the response of human chondrocytes to IGF-1 and OP-1, which are 2 important anabolic factors in cartilage, and suggest that oxidative stress may be a contributing factor by altering IGF-1 and OP-1 signaling. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Caring More and Knowing More Reduces Age-Related Differences in Emotion Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional emotion perception tasks show that older adults are less accurate than young adults at recognizing facial expressions of emotion. Recently, we proposed that socioemotional factors might explain why older adults seem impaired in lab tasks but less so in everyday life (Isaacowitz & Stanley, 2011). Thus, in the present research we empirically tested whether socioemotional factors such as motivation and familiarity can alter this pattern of age effects. In one task, accountability instructions eliminated age differences in the traditional emotion perception task. Using a novel emotion perception paradigm featuring spontaneous dynamic facial expressions of a familiar romantic partner versus a same-age stranger, we found that age differences in emotion perception accuracy were attenuated in the familiar partner condition, relative to the stranger condition. Taken together, the results suggest that both overall accuracy as well as specific patterns of age effects differ appreciably between traditional emotion perception tasks and emotion perception within a socioemotional context. PMID:26030775

  10. Caring more and knowing more reduces age-related differences in emotion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2015-06-01

    Traditional emotion perception tasks show that older adults are less accurate than are young adults at recognizing facial expressions of emotion. Recently, we proposed that socioemotional factors might explain why older adults seem impaired in lab tasks but less so in everyday life (Isaacowitz & Stanley, 2011). Thus, in the present research we empirically tested whether socioemotional factors such as motivation and familiarity can alter this pattern of age effects. In 1 task, accountability instructions eliminated age differences in the traditional emotion perception task. Using a novel emotion perception paradigm featuring spontaneous dynamic facial expressions of a familiar romantic partner versus a same-age stranger, we found that age differences in emotion perception accuracy were attenuated in the familiar partner condition, relative to the stranger condition. Taken together, the results suggest that both overall accuracy as well as specific patterns of age effects differ appreciably between traditional emotion perception tasks and emotion perception within a socioemotional context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Education or business? - exhibition of human corpses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Wróbel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exhibition "BODY WORLDS" which are presented exhibits of human remains are presented all over the world and are a major problem for the modern man, as presented on the preparations of the human not only serve scientific research, are not transferred to the medical schools to educate future doctors, but they were made available to the general public in the form of commercial and ambiguous. The aim of this study was to assess the ethical commercialization of human corpses "BODY WORLDS" exhibitions. Individual approach to the problems presented the dignity and value of human remains after death, of course, strongly related to the professed worldview. In the exhibits can be seen in both the scientific interest anatomical structures, as well as desecrated human remains or beautiful by its functional perfection of the body, understood also in terms of art. The question of ethics determines the right to decide for themselves, on the other hand, allows you to protect bodily integrity even after death. "BODY WORLDS" exhibition goes for the moral and ethical boundaries. In terms of people Gunther von Hagens for plastination of human remains which became a very profitable business, and its current activities defined as "plastination business" should be firmly said about the lack of moral principles.

  12. Aging and Osteoarthritis: An Inevitable Encounter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hügle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a major health burden of our time. Age is the most prominent risk factor for the development and progression of OA. The mechanistic influence of aging on OA has different facets. On a molecular level, matrix proteins such as collagen or proteoglycans are modified, which alters cartilage function. Collagen cross-linking within the bone results in impaired plasticity and increased stiffness. Synovial or fat tissue, menisci but also ligaments and muscles play an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. In the elderly, sarcopenia or other causes of muscle atrophy are frequently encountered, leading to a decreased stability of the joint. Inflammation in form of cellular infiltration of synovial tissue or subchondral bone and expression of inflammatory cytokines is more and more recognized as trigger of OA. It has been demonstrated that joint movement can exhibit anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Therefore physical activity or physiotherapy in the elderly should be encouraged, also in order to increase the muscle mass. A reduced stem cell capacity in the elderly is likely associated with a decrease of repair mechanisms of the musculoskeletal system. New treatment strategies, for example with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are investigated, despite clear evidence for their efficacy is lacking.

  13. Age and muscle strength mediate the age-related biomechanical plasticity of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Rider, Patrick; Gruber, Allison H.; DeVita, Paul

    Old compared with young adults walk with reduced ankle and increased hip mechanical output. We examined the idea that age, leg strength, or both are related to the age-related changes in mechanical output during gait. Healthy young (n = 32, age 21.5 years) and old adults (n = 32, age 76.8 years)

  14. Medan Convention & Exhibition Center (Arsitektur Ekspresionisme)

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar, Nurul Auni

    2015-01-01

    Medan is one of the third largest city in Indonesia, which is currently being developed, and a city with lots of activities. In the city of Medan has a high investment opportunities for a convention, because of its strategic position in Southeast Asia and also supported by the facility and the potential for tourism in North Sumatra, Medan city has the potential for industrial MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference, Exhibition). The construction of Medan Convention & Exhibition Cente...

  15. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    in the scientific field of designing transmedia experience in an exhibition context that links the pre- and post-activities to the actual visit (during-activities). The result of this study is a preliminary heuristic for establishing a relation between the platform and content complexity in transmedia exhibitions....

  16. Amphipathic DNA polymers exhibit antiviral activity against systemic Murine Cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juteau Jean-Marc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorothioated oligonucleotides (PS-ONs have a sequence-independent, broad spectrum antiviral activity as amphipathic polymers (APs and exhibit potent in vitro antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of herpesviruses: HSV-1, HSV-2, HCMV, VZV, EBV, and HHV-6A/B, and in vivo activity in a murine microbiocide model of genital HSV-2 infection. The activity of these agents against animal cytomegalovirus (CMV infections in vitro and in vivo was therefore investigated. Results In vitro, a 40 mer degenerate AP (REP 9 inhibited both murine CMV (MCMV and guinea pig CMV (GPCMV with an IC50 of 0.045 μM and 0.16 μM, respectively, and a 40 mer poly C AP (REP 9C inhibited MCMV with an IC50 of 0.05 μM. Addition of REP 9 to plaque assays during the first two hours of infection inhibited 78% of plaque formation whereas addition of REP 9 after 10 hours of infection did not significantly reduce the number of plaques, indicating that REP 9 antiviral activity against MCMV occurs at early times after infection. In a murine model of CMV infection, systemic treatment for 5 days significantly reduced virus replication in the spleens and livers of infected mice compared to saline-treated control mice. REP 9 and REP 9C were administered intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days at 10 mg/kg, starting 2 days prior to MCMV infection. Splenomegaly was observed in infected mice treated with REP 9 but not in control mice or in REP 9 treated, uninfected mice, consistent with mild CpG-like activity. When REP 9C (which lacks CpG motifs was compared to REP 9, it exhibited comparable antiviral activity as REP 9 but was not associated with splenomegaly. This suggests that the direct antiviral activity of APs is the predominant therapeutic mechanism in vivo. Moreover, REP 9C, which is acid stable, was effective when administered orally in combination with known permeation enhancers. Conclusion These studies indicate that APs exhibit potent, well tolerated

  17. Microglial cell dysregulation in Brain Aging and Neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommy eVon Bernhardi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. In aging, microglia undergo phenotypic changes compatible with their activation. Glial activation can lead to neuroinflammation, which is increasingly accepted as part of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD. We hypothesize that in aging, aberrant microglia activation leads to a deleterious environment and neurodegeneration. In aged mice, microglia exhibit an increased expression of cytokines and an exacerbated inflammatory response to pathological changes. Whereas LPS increases nitric oxide secretion in microglia from young mice, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS predominates in older mice. Furthermore, there is accumulation of DNA oxidative damage in mitochondria of microglia during aging, and also an increased intracellular ROS production. Increased ROS activates the redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa B, which promotes more neuroinflammation, and can be translated in functional deficits, such as cognitive impairment. Mitochondria-derived ROS and cathepsin B, are also necessary for the microglial cell production of interleukin-1β, a key inflammatory cytokine. Interestingly, whereas the regulatory cytokine TGFβ1 is also increased in the aged brain, neuroinflammation persists. Assessing this apparent contradiction, we have reported that TGFβ1 induction and activation of Smad3 signaling after inflammatory stimulation are reduced in adult mice. Other protective functions, such as phagocytosis, although observed in aged animals, become not inducible by inflammatory stimuli and TGFβ1. Here, we discuss data suggesting that mitochondrial and endolysosomal dysfunction could at least partially mediate age-associated microglial cell changes, and, together with the impairment of the TGFβ1-Smad3 pathway, could result in a reduction of protective activation and a facilitation of cytotoxic activation of microglia, resulting in the

  18. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  19. Dutch hi-tech companies exhibit at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-seven Dutch companies will present the state of the art of their technological developments at the industrial exhibition Holland @ CERN from 8 to 11 November. The exhibition is designed to help strengthen the ties between fundamental science and Dutch industry.   The exhibition, supported by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and organised by the Netherlands National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), in cooperation with the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), the FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, and Dutch Scientific, an association of manufacturers of scientific equipment, will be held in the Main Building from 8 to11 November. “The last Holland @ CERN exhibition took place fifteen years ago”, says Robert Klöpping from Nikhef, Dutch Industrial Liaison Officer for CERN and Purchasing Advisor for Grenoble ESRF. “This kind of event is very important for Dutch industry as it allows us to show what Dutch companies c...

  20. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exportation of such articles, an application on Customs Form 4455 (accompanied by an appropriate inventory... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Exported for...

  1. Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Inder, Warrick J; Abraham, Suzanne; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract on the symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, sexual function and serum androgen concentrations in healthy aging males. This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial involving 120 healthy men aged between 43 and 70 years of age. The active treatment was standardised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at a dose of 600 mg/day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Aging Male Symptom questionnaire (AMS), a measure of possible androgen deficiency symptoms; secondary outcome measures were sexual function and serum testosterone. There was a significant decrease in AMS score over time and between the active and placebo groups. Sexual function improved, including number of morning erections and frequency of sexual activity. Both total serum testosterone and free testosterone increased compared to placebo after 12 weeks of active treatment. Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract is a safe and effective treatment for reducing symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, improves sexual function and increases serum testosterone in healthy middle-aged and older men.

  2. Reduced body size and cub recruitment in polar bears associated with sea ice decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of reproduction and survival are dependent upon adequate body size and condition of individuals. Declines in size and condition have provided early indicators of population decline in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) near the southern extreme of their range. We tested whether patterns in body size, condition, and cub recruitment of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska were related to the availability of preferred sea ice habitats and whether these measures and habitat availability exhibited trends over time, between 1982 and 2006. The mean skull size and body length of all polar bears over three years of age declined over time, corresponding with long‐term declines in the spatial and temporal availability of sea ice habitat. Body size of young, growing bears declined over time and was smaller after years when sea ice availability was reduced. Reduced litter mass and numbers of yearlings per female following years with lower availability of optimal sea ice habitat, suggest reduced reproductive output and juvenile survival. These results, based on analysis of a long‐term data set, suggest that declining sea ice is associated with nutritional limitations that reduced body size and reproduction in this population.

  3. Physical Aging, Plasticization and Their Effects on Gas Permeation in “Rigid” Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2015-08-29

    Long-term physical aging and plasticization, two mobility-based phenomena that are counterintuitive in the context of “rigid” polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs), were evaluated using pure- and mixed-gas permeation data for representative ladder and semiladder PIMs. PIMs between 1 and 4 years old retained from 10- to 1000-fold higher H2 and O2 permeabilities than commercial membrane materials with similar or higher selectivities. A triptycene-based ladder polymer (TPIM-1) exhibited very large selectivity gains outweighing permeability losses after 780 days, resulting in unprecedented performance for O2/N2 (P(O2) = 61 Barrer, α(O2/N2) = 8.6) and H2/N2 (P(H2) = 1105 Barrer, α(H2/N2) = 156) separations. Interestingly, TPIM-1 aged more and faster than its more flexible counterpart, PIM-1, which exhibited P(O2) = 317 Barrer and α(O2/N2) = 5.0 at 1380 days. Additionally, the more “rigid” TPIM-1 plasticized more significantly than PIM-1 (i.e., TPIM-1 endured ∼93% increases in mixed-gas CH4 permeability over pure-gas values compared to ∼60% for PIM-1). A flexible 9,10-bridgehead (i.e., TPIM-2) mitigated the enhancements induced by physical aging but reduced plasticization. Importantly, intra-chain rigidity alone, without consideration of chain architecture and ultra-microporosity, is insufficient for designing aging- and plasticization-resistant gas separation membranes with high permeability and high selectivity

  4. Molecular events in matrix protein metabolism in the aging kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Feliers, Denis; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M.; Lee, Hak Joo; Lee, Myung Ja; Day, Robert T.; Yalamanchili, Hima Bindu; Choudhury, Goutam G.; Barnes, Jeffrey L.; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.

    2018-01-01

    Summary We explored molecular events associated with aging-induced matrix changes in the kidney. C57BL6 mice were studied in youth, middle age, and old age. Albuminuria and serum cystatin C level (an index of glomerular filtration) increased with aging. Renal hypertrophy was evident in middle-aged and old mice and was associated with glomerulomegaly and increase in mesangial fraction occupied by extracellular matrix. Content of collagen types I and III and fibronectin was increased with aging; increment in their mRNA varied with the phase of aging. The content of ZEB1 and ZEB2, collagen type I transcription inhibitors, and their binding to the collagen type Iα2 promoter by ChIP assay also showed age-phase-specific changes. Lack of increase in mRNA and data from polysome assay suggested decreased degradation as a potential mechanism for kidney collagen type I accumulation in the middle-aged mice. These changes occurred with increment in TGFβ mRNA and protein and activation of its SMAD3 pathway; SMAD3 binding to the collagen type Iα2 promoter was also increased. TGFβ-regulated microRNAs (miRs) exhibited selective regulation. The renal cortical content of miR-21 and miR-200c, but not miR-192, miR-200a, or miR-200b, was increased with aging. Increased miR-21 and miR-200c contents were associated with reduced expression of their targets, Sprouty-1 and ZEB2, respectively. These data show that aging is associated with complex molecular events in the kidney that are already evident in the middle age and progress to old age. Agephase-specific regulation of matrix protein synthesis occurs and involves matrix protein-specific transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. PMID:23020145

  5. 19 CFR 212.11 - Net worth exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 212.11 Section 212.11 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 212.11 Net worth exhibit...

  6. 77 FR 31420 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Museum of Modern Art, New...: Game Plan'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural...

  7. Turning energy around: an interactive exhibition experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kellberg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A transition from the fossil-fuel driven to a sustainable energy system is an enormous global challenge: climate change and finite resources require countries all over the world to change their way of producing, transporting and using energy. The Energiewende (energy transition will require major changes in the current energy supply system in Germany – but also worldwide. These changes will not only affect the technical sector but will also include ecological questions, social issues and political matters. Whether any transition is going to favour large scale solutions or decentralised technologies depends on local situations and global interconnections, and above all on a democratic process. Hence energy transition succeeds or fails with the acceptance and participation of society. To deal with this overwhelmingly complex topic and its multi-layered dependencies, the Deutsches Museum has designed an exhibition providing visitors with background knowledge about the necessities and challenges of energy transition, unpicking the links between the different technical, economic and social challenges. The exhibition accomplishes the task with an engaging and facilitating approach while taking into account the highly emotive aspects of energy transition as a societal issue. This paper presents the concept of the travelling exhibition energie.wenden, relating it to the Deutsches Museum´s tradition of exhibitions as well as to the challenge of how to deal with socio-scientific topics in scientific exhibitions.

  8. Protective role of female gender in programmed accelerated renal aging in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijacka, Wioletta; Clifford, Bethan; Tilburgs, Chantal; Joles, Jaap A; Langley-Evans, Simon; McMullen, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    The aging kidney exhibits a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate, accompanied by inflammatory and oxidative damage. We hypothesized that accelerated, age-related progression of renal injury is ovarian hormones-dependant. To address this we used an established model of developmentally programmed accelerated renal aging in the rat, superimposed by ovariectomy to assess interactions between ovarian hormones and the aging process. Under our experimental conditions, we found that kidney function worsens with age, that is GFR reduces over 18 month analyzed time-course and this was worsened by fetal exposure to maternal low-protein diet and absence of estrogen. Reduction in GFR was followed by increases in albuminuria, proteinuria, inflammatory markers, and tissue carbonyls, all suggesting inflammatory response and oxidative stress. This was associated with changes in AGTR2 expression which was greater at 18 months of age compared to earlier time points, but in MLP offspring only. Our studies show an influence of ovarian hormones on programmed accelerated renal aging and the AGTR2 across the lifespan. The main findings are that ovariectomy is a risk factor for increased aging-related renal injury and that this and oxidative damage might be related to changes in AGTR2 expression. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  9. Let's play game exhibitions : A curator's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Jesse; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447; van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision is home to The Experience, a museum exhibiting the history of media in the Netherlands. For ten months in 2016 and 2017, The Experience hosted a temporary exhibition entitled Let’s YouTube . During the Let’s YouTube game month, we programmed a ten-day

  10. Involvement of p53 and Bcl-2 in sensory cell degeneration in aging rat cochleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Yang, Wei Ping; Hu, Bo Hua; Yang, Shiming; Henderson, Donald

    2017-06-01

    p53 and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) are involved in the process of sensory cell degeneration in aging cochleae. To determine molecular players in age-related hair cell degeneration, this study examined the changes in p53 and Bcl-2 expression at different stages of apoptotic and necrotic death of hair cells in aging rat cochleae. Young (3-4 months) and aging (23-24 months) Fisher 344/NHsd rats were used. The thresholds of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) were measured to determine the auditory function. Immunolabeling was performed to determine the expression of p53 and Bcl-2 proteins in the sensory epithelium. Propidium iodide staining was performed to determine the morphologic changes in hair cell nuclei. Aging rats exhibited a significant elevation in ABR thresholds at all tested frequencies (p aging hair cells showing the early signs of apoptotic changes in their nuclei. The Bcl-2 expression increase was also observed in hair cells displaying early signs of necrosis. As the hair cell degenerative process advanced, p53 and Bcl-2 immunoreactivity became reduced or absent. In the areas where no detectable nuclear staining was present, p53 and Bcl-2 immunoreactivity was absent.

  11. Major depressive disorder mediates accelerated aging in rats subjected to chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoxian; Chen, Yangyang; Ma, Lingyan; Shen, Qichen; Huang, Liangfeng; Zhao, Binggong; Wu, Tao; Fu, Zhengwei

    2017-06-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has a complex etiology and is characterized by a change in mood and psychophysiological state. MDD has been shown to mediate accelerated biological aging in patients, although the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In the present study, we used a chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm to induce anhedonia, one of the main symptoms of MDD. CMS induced depression-like symptoms in rats, including reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swim test. Moreover, stressed rats travelled a shorter total distance, had fewer grid line crossings, and spent less time in the outer zone in the open field test than controls. CMS altered the levels of 5-hydroxytryptophan, dopamine, and corticosterone in the serum and hippocampus (P<0.05); these rats also exhibited impaired liver function, decreased telomerase activity, and telomere shortening, which was associated with increased oxidative damage along with decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities. Mitochondria in CMS-treated rats showed ultrastructural damage as well as reduced DNA content and integrity. These findings provide physiological and cellular evidence that the MDD can mediate accelerated aging in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. AGEMAP: a gene expression database for aging in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Zahn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the AGEMAP (Atlas of Gene Expression in Mouse Aging Project gene expression database, which is a resource that catalogs changes in gene expression as a function of age in mice. The AGEMAP database includes expression changes for 8,932 genes in 16 tissues as a function of age. We found great heterogeneity in the amount of transcriptional changes with age in different tissues. Some tissues displayed large transcriptional differences in old mice, suggesting that these tissues may contribute strongly to organismal decline. Other tissues showed few or no changes in expression with age, indicating strong levels of homeostasis throughout life. Based on the pattern of age-related transcriptional changes, we found that tissues could be classified into one of three aging processes: (1 a pattern common to neural tissues, (2 a pattern for vascular tissues, and (3 a pattern for steroid-responsive tissues. We observed that different tissues age in a coordinated fashion in individual mice, such that certain mice exhibit rapid aging, whereas others exhibit slow aging for multiple tissues. Finally, we compared the transcriptional profiles for aging in mice to those from humans, flies, and worms. We found that genes involved in the electron transport chain show common age regulation in all four species, indicating that these genes may be exceptionally good markers of aging. However, we saw no overall correlation of age regulation between mice and humans, suggesting that aging processes in mice and humans may be fundamentally different.

  13. Presentation and exhibition activities for promoting theexportof transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Vladimirovna Nesterova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of presentation and exhibition activities is considered as an important factor in providing new competitive advantages at the strategic markets for exporting of transportation services. A specific role for exhibition activities as a factor to overcome market failures arose from imperfect information and incomplete markets is displayed. Exhibitions are considered as a true reflection of most market parameters, as a means to get correct information concerning market capacity and its borders, as an instrument to access to new markets. At the firm level presentation and branding activities should be considered as a modern technology (especially it concerns Russian companies which provide to hold up already existed markets and to conquer new ones. Presentation and branding activities are an effective technology to promote company trade-mark, competitive advantages for market demand increasing. Comparative analysis of the main exhibitions on transport and logistics issues is fulfilled on the data basecollected by authors. Data observes geographical distribution of transport exhibition and exhibition facilities development at several regions for the last years. The analyses allow to revealing a geographical structure of the exhibitions and its distribution by type of transport. The most promising and economically favorable exhibition areas for the promotion of Russian transport services are shown.

  14. The Eugenides Foundation Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiannis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology is installed in an area of 1200 m2 at the Eugenides Foundation. 65 interactive exhibits, designed by the "Cites des Science et de l' Industrie" are organised in themes, stimulate the visitors' mind and provoke scientific thinking. Parallel activities take place inside the exhibition, such as live science demonstrations, performed by young scientists. Extra material such as news bulletins (short news, science comics and portraits), educational paths and treasure-hunting based games, all available online as well, are prepared on a monthly basis and provided along with the visit to the exhibition. Through these exhibits and activities, scientific facts are made simple and easy to comprehend using modern presentation tools. We present details on how this exhibition acts complementary to the science education provided by schools, making it a highly sophisticated educational tool.

  15. Reducing health inequalities for older LGBTQ+ people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ben

    2016-10-26

    The recent LGBTQ+ history exhibition Speak Out London, Diversity City presented a fantastic collection of stories, documents and photographs from LGBTQ+ Londoners. It also provided a reminder of how far we have come in reducing stigma, prejudice and discrimination.

  16. [Forensic age estimation in juveniles and young adults: Reducing the range of scatter in age diagnosis by combining different methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sven; Schramm, Danilo; Ribbecke, Sebastian; Schulz, Ronald; Wittschieber, Daniel; Olze, Andreas; Vieth, Volker; Ramsthaler, H Frank; Pfischel, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Geserick, Gunther; Schmeling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic rise in the number of refugees entering Germany means that age estimation for juveniles and young adults whose age is unclear but relevant to legal and official procedures has become more important than ever. Until now, whether and to what extent the combination of methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics has resulted in a reduction of the range of scatter of the summarized age diagnosis has been unclear. Hand skeletal age, third molar mineralization stage and ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphyses were determined for 307 individuals aged between 10 and 29 at time of death on whom autopsies were performed at the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Berlin, Frankfurt am Main and Hamburg between 2001 and 2011. To measure the range of scatter, linear regression analysis was used to calculate the standard error of estimate for each of the above methods individually and in combination. It was found that combining the above methods led to a reduction in the range of scatter. Due to various limitations of the study, the statistical parameters determined cannot, however, be used for age estimation practice.

  17. The Impact of New Age Music as Treatment to Reduce Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Salve, Henny Regina

    2007-01-01

    New Age music is the same as Alternative music. The term New Age take various forms and directions. This music draws on some of the flow of the music on this list, temasuk Ambient, Minimalism, Native American, Drum and Percussion, World, Electronic, Celtic, and Alternative. In music also use this technique entrainment and binaural beats. Entrainment is a principle in physics and is defined as the synchronization of two or more rounds rhythm (synchronization of two or more cycles rhytmic). The...

  18. Chronic ingestion of advanced glycation end products induces degenerative spinal changes and hypertrophy in aging pre-diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Hecht, Andrew C; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E; Iatridis, James C

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions.

  19. Chronic ingestion of advanced glycation end products induces degenerative spinal changes and hypertrophy in aging pre-diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Illien-Jünger

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs, cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+ or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG. dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions.

  20. Phenotypic and gene expression modification with normal brain aging in GFAP-positive astrocytes and neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Giovanna M; Peterson, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Astrocytes secrete growth factors that are both neuroprotective and supportive for the local environment. Identified by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, astrocytes exhibit heterogeneity in morphology and in the expression of phenotypic markers and growth factors throughout different adult brain regions. In adult neurogenic niches, astrocytes secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) within the neurogenic niche and are also a source of special GFAP-positive multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs). Normal aging is accompanied by a decline in CNS function and reduced neurogenesis. We asked whether a decreased availability of astrocyte-derived factors may contribute to the age-related decline in neurogenesis. Determining alterations of astrocytic activity in the aging brain is crucial for understanding CNS homeostasis in aging and for assessing appropriate therapeutic targets for an aging population. We found region-specific alterations in the gene expression of GFAP, VEGF, and FGF-2 and their receptors in the aged brain corresponding to changes in astrocytic reactivity, supporting astrocytic heterogeneity and demonstrating a differential aging effect. We found that GFAP-positive NSCs uniquely coexpress both VEGF and its key mitotic receptor Flk-1 in both young and aged hippocampus, indicating a possible autocrine/paracrine signaling mechanism. VEGF expression is lost once NSCs commit to a neuronal fate, but Flk-1-mediated sensitivity to VEGF signaling is maintained. We propose that age-related astrocytic changes result in reduced VEGF and FGF-2 signaling, which in turn limits NSC and progenitor cell maintenance and contributes to decreased neurogenesis. © 2011 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Does progressive resistance and balance exercise reduce falls in residential aged care? Randomized controlled trial protocol for the SUNBEAM program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Jennifer; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Goodall, Stephen; Henwood, Timothy; Clemson, Lindy

    2014-01-01

    Falls are common among older adults. It is reported that approximately 60% of residents of aged care facilities fall each year. This is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and a significant burden for health care providers and the health system. Among community dwelling older adults, exercise appears to be an effective countermeasure, but data are limited and inconsistent among studies in residents of aged care communities. This trial has been designed to evaluate whether the SUNBEAM program (Strength and Balance Exercise in Aged Care) reduces falls in residents of aged care facilities. Is the program more effective and cost-effective than usual care for the prevention of falls? Single-blinded, two group, cluster randomized trial. 300 residents, living in 20 aged care facilities. Progressive resistance and balance training under the guidance of a physiotherapist for 6 months, then facility-guided maintenance training for 6 months. Usual care. Number of falls, number of fallers, quality of life, mobility, balance, fear of falling, cognitive well-being, resource use, and cost-effectiveness. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The number of falls will be analyzed using a Poisson mixed model. A logistic mixed model will be used to analyze the number of residents who fall during the study period. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. This study addresses a significant shortcoming in aged care research, and has potential to impact upon a substantial health care problem. Outcomes will be used to inform care providers, and guide health care policies.

  2. Lifelong exercise and locally produced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have a modest influence on reducing age-related muscle wasting in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C D; Chai, R; Radley-Crabb, H G; Watson, T; Matthews, K G; Sheard, P W; Soffe, Z; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2014-12-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is termed sarcopenia and has been attributed to a decline in concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We hypothesized that constitutively expressed IGF-1 within skeletal muscles with or without exercise would prevent sarcopenia. Male transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-1 Ea in skeletal muscles were compared with wild-type littermates. Four-month-old mice were assigned to be sedentary, or had access to free-running wheels, until 18 or 28 months of age. In wild-type mice, the mass of the quadriceps muscles was reduced at 28 months and exercise prevented such loss, without affecting the diameter of myofibers. Conversely, increased IGF-1 alone was ineffective, whereas the combination of exercise and IGF-1 was additive in maintaining the diameter of myofibers in the quadriceps muscles. For other muscles, the combination of IGF-1 and exercise was variable and either increased or decreased the mass at 18 months of age, but was ineffective thereafter. Despite an increase in the diameter of myofibers, grip strength was not improved. In conclusion, our data show that exercise and IGF-1 have a modest effect on reducing aged-related wasting of skeletal muscle, but that there is no improvement in muscle function when assessed by grip strength. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Aging in bacteria, immortality or not-a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José M G

    2010-12-01

    Bacteria were traditionally thought to have a symmetrical binary fission without a clear distinction between soma and germ-line, being thus considered as immortal biological entities. Yet it has been recently described that bacteria also undergo replicative aging (RA). That is, they exhibit finite replicative abilities under good conditions to growth. The apparently initial indistinguishability of sibling cells after cytokinesis is broken. After division, the daughter cell that inherits the "old" pole present in the "mother cell" progressively exhibits a decline in its proliferative capacity with increasing cell pole age. This is a clear hallmark and phenotypic manifestation of a bona fide RA phenomenon in toto. While the exact molecular mechanism(s) underlying to this lost of replicative potential are not yet fully understood, the "old pole cell" is considered as an aging parent that in a repeatedly manner is able to produce rejuvenated offspring which inherit a resetting of the biological clock. On the order hand, bacteria exhibit in addition to this "mandatory" RA the dubbed conditional senescence (CS). CS is defined as a decline in cellular viability observed in arrested-growing bacteria populations, a phenomenon apparently not related to RA under growing active conditions. To understand bacterial aging, it is necessary to put it within the sociality-multicellularity framework. This is a new conceptual paradigm that expresses the natural reality of the bacterial world. From this more ecological perspective these bacterial aging phenomena probably should represent an insurance/bethedging anticipative survival strategy. This is underpinned in a self-generation of an appropriate level of populational phenotypic diversity. That is, bacterial aging could be considered a communitarian adaptive response to cope with different environmental stresses and threats. I have highlighted the necessity to construct an integrative conceptual framework to achieve a unified view

  4. Collaborative remembering in older adults: age-invariant outcomes in the context of episodic recall deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Linda A; Rajaram, Suparna

    2011-09-01

    Rapidly growing research reveals complex yet systematic consequences of collaboration on memory in young adults, but much less is known about this phenomenon in older adults. Young and older adults studied a list of categorized words and took three successive recall tests. Test 1 and 3 were always taken individually, and Test 2 was done either in triads or alone. Despite older adults recalling less overall than young adults, both age groups exhibited similar costs and benefits of collaboration: Collaboration reduced both correct and false recall during collaborative remembering, was associated with more positive beliefs about its value, and produced reminiscence, collective memory, and some forgetting in its cascading effects on postcollaborative recall. We examine the role of retrieval organization in these effects. As environmental support may play a substantial role in healthy aging, the relatively preserved effects of collaboration on memory in older adults hold promise for testing judicious uses of group remembering in aging.

  5. Travelling CERN Exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The European Laboratory for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics together with the Institute of Physics of the Jagiellonian University and the University of Mining and Metallurgy, and under the auspices of the Polish National Atomic Energy Agency organized in the Museum of Nature in Cracow from October 16 till December 16, 2000 the exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''. The Office of the ''Festival Cracow 2000'' was the main sponsor of that event. The exhibition was a part of the F estival Cracow 2000'' called ''Festival of Youngsters Cracow 2000''. Invitations, posters and information leaflets were sent to more than 3000 schools in southern Poland. The exhibition was divided into four specially designed quadrants. In the first the visitor was informed what kind of scales are in use to describe the Universe and the atom. The second introduced elementary particles via the cosmic ray demonstrations. Particle acceleration was demonstrated with the help of a TV set. The third segment was devoted to the Large Hadron Collider and its experiments: CMS, ATLAS, ALICE and LHCb. The last segment was an attempt to explain what are quarks, leptons and intermediate bosons. In addition it was also explained what is antimatter and why symmetry is broken in Nature. In one of the rooms we arranged the cinema where five movies was continuously presented. Thanks to the Cracow TV it was possible to prepare Polish translations of the films: B ack to creation , P owers of ten , L HC - time machine , S tars underground , and G eneva event . Another attraction of the exhibition was the Internet room equipped with the help of Polish Telecommunication. The exhibition was open seven days per week from 10 to 17 h. During the working days every 20 minutes a new group of about 25-30 people was visiting the exhibition. Each group was guided by students and PhD students from our Institute, Jagiellonian University and University of Mining

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Aging Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter M; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Guo, Hengchang; Anderson, Erik; Falola, Reuben; Chen, Yu

    2016-12-01

    The aging kidney exhibits a progressive decline in renal function with characteristic histopathologic changes and is a risk factor for renal transplant. However, the degree to which the kidney exhibits this decline depends on several factors that vary from one individual to the next. Optical coherence tomography is an evolving noninvasive imaging technology that has recently been used to evaluate acute tubular necrosis of living-human donor kidneys before their transplant. With the increasing use of kidneys from older individuals, it is important to determine whether optical coherence tomography also can distinguish the histopathology associated with aging. In this investigation, we used Munich-Wistar rats to evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography to detect histopathologic changes associated with aging. Optical coherence tomography observations were correlated with renal function and conventional light microscopic evaluation of these same kidneys. With the onset of severe proteinuria at 10 to 12 months of age, optical coherence tomography revealed tubular necrosis/atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, tubular dilation, and glomerulosclerosis. With a further deterioration in kidney function at 16 to 18 months of age (as indicated by rising creatinine levels), optical coherence tomography revealed more extensive interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, increased tubular dilation with cyst formation and more sclerotic glomeruli. The foregoing observations suggest that optical coherence tomography can be used to detect the histopathology of progressive nephropathy associated with aging.

  7. Exhibition: Dialogue between Science and religion

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Can the theory of the Big Bang reached by physicists and the concept of creation beloved of religion ever be reconciled? The two approaches have at least one point in common: they do not provide a final answer to the mysteries of the birth of the Universe. And this means that dialogue is alays possible between the two. It is to show the potential of such an exchange that Geneva's Société Evangélique organization is opening an exhibition under the title 'Big Bang and Creation', at the Planète Charmilles shopping centre, to run from 19 to 30 March. View of the 'Big Bang and Creation' exhibition. The exhibition is divided into three sections, showing the views of the scientist and those of the believer without setting them up in opposition to one another. In the first section, under a representation of the vault of heaven, the visitor will discover the different ideas explaining the birth of the Universe: Genesis and the Big Bang, and the different dominant theories ...

  8. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  9. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  10. Age-related memory impairments due to reduced blood glucose responses to epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ken A; Chang, Qing; Mohler, Eric G; Gold, Paul E

    2010-12-01

    Increases in blood glucose levels are an important component of the mechanisms by which epinephrine enhances memory formation. The present experiments addressed the hypothesis that a dysfunction in the blood glucose response to circulating epinephrine contributes to age-related memory impairments. Doses of epinephrine and glucagon that significantly increased blood glucose levels in young adult rats were far less effective at doing so in 2-year-old rats. In young rats, epinephrine and glucose were about equally effective in enhancing memory and in prolonging post-training release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. However, glucose was more effective than epinephrine in enhancing both memory and acetylcholine release in aged rats. These results suggest that an uncoupling between circulating epinephrine and glucose levels in old rats may lead to an age-related reduction in the provision of glucose to the brain during training. This in turn may contribute to age-related changes in memory and neural plasticity. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CERN exhibition attracts over 100,000 visitors in Belgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    “This must be an 'all-time record',” says Ray Lewis, CERN travelling exhibition manager. “In all my time with the various permanent and travelling exhibitions that have taken place locally and within our Member States I have never experienced such figures.”   Zarko Obradovic (left), Serbian Minister of Education, Science and Technology, and Rolf Heuer (right), CERN Director-General, at the CERN travelling exhibition in Belgrade. Indeed, in approximately 20 days of exhibition time about 120,000 people, mainly school visiters and the general public, visited the 100 m2 CERN mini-exhibition. It was set up in the centre of Belgrade in October, in association with the meeting of the Restricted European Committee for Future Accelerators (RECFA). After attending the RECFA meeting, CERN's Director-General Rofl Heuer opened the CERN exhibition on the evening of 19 October. Lectures about CERN were held every afternoon, and two public de...

  12. Designing museum exhibits that facilitate visitor reflection and discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Andersen, Hanne Møller; King, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire and inte......This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire...... and interview data. The implementation of design principles resulted in a variety of exhibits which variously prompted reflection and discussion on the part of visitors. Exhibits with narratives, for example, here defined as both personal and expert narratives, were found to be effective in facilitating...... personal reflection but also prompted discussion. Participation, defined as including both physical interaction with exhibits, and dialogic interaction between visitors, facilitated the sharing of ideas and feelings between visitors. Exhibits with elements of curiosity and challenge were found to attract...

  13. Fracture, aging and disease in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, J.W.; Balooch, G.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2006-02-01

    From a public health perspective, developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the well-known increase in fracture risk of human bone with age is essential. This also represents a challenge from materials science and fracture mechanics viewpoints. Bone has a complex, hierarchical structure with characteristic features ranging from nanometer to macroscopic dimensions; it is therefore significantly more complex than most engineering materials. Nevertheless, by examining the micro-/nano-structural changes accompanying the process of aging using appropriate multiscale experimental methods and relating them to fracture mechanics data, it is possible to obtain a quantitative picture of how bone resists fracture. As human cortical bone exhibits rising ex vivo crack-growth resistance with crack extension, its fracture toughness must be evaluated in terms of resistance-curve (R-curve) behavior. While the crack initiation toughness declines with age, the more striking finding is that the crack-growth toughness declines even more significantly and is essentially absent in bone from donors exceeding 85 years in age. To explain such an age-induced deterioration in the toughness of bone, we evaluate its fracture properties at multiple length scales, specifically at the molecular and nanodimensions using pico-force atomic-force microscopy, nanoindentation and vibrational spectroscopies, at the microscale using electron microscopy and hard/soft x-ray computed tomography, and at the macroscale using R-curve measurements. We show that the reduction in crack-growth toughness is associated primarily with a degradation in the degree of extrinsic toughening, in particular involving crack bridging, and that this occurs at relatively coarse size-scales in the range of tens to hundreds of micrometers. Finally, we briefly describe how specific clinical treatments, e.g., with steroid hormones to treat various inflammatory conditions, can prematurely damage bone, thereby reducing its

  14. Exhibits in libraries a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    "Ccomprehensive...detailed"--Booklist; "thoroughly reseached...highly recommended"--Journal of Access Services. Library exhibits are more than entertainment for patrons. They can inspire and educate, stimulate an interest that can be explored in a book, or attract visitors who otherwise wouldn't stop by. Displays are also an opportunity for a library to put its creative foot forward or help patrons navigate the facility itself. This comprehensive "how-to" includes everything a librarian or staff member needs to know to put on an exhibit, from hatching ideas to evaluating the end result. Illustrations and photographs show practical methods of planning, labeling and displaying.

  15. Protein Oxidation in Aging: Does It Play a Role in Aging Progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeg, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: A constant accumulation of oxidized proteins takes place during aging. Oxidation of proteins leads to a partial unfolding and, therefore, to aggregation. Protein aggregates impair the activity of cellular proteolytic systems (proteasomes, lysosomes), resulting in further accumulation of oxidized proteins. In addition, the accumulation of highly crosslinked protein aggregates leads to further oxidant formation, damage to macromolecules, and, finally, to apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, protein oxidation seems to play a role in the development of various age-related diseases, for example, neurodegenerative diseases. Recent Advances: The highly oxidized lipofuscin accumulates during aging. Lipofuscin formation might cause impaired lysosomal and proteasomal degradation, metal ion accumulation, increased reactive oxygen species formation, and apoptosis. Critical Issues: It is still unclear to which extent protein oxidation is involved in the progression of aging and in the development of some age-related diseases. Future Directions: An extensive knowledge of the effects of protein oxidation on the aging process and its contribution to the development of age-related diseases could enable further strategies to reduce age-related impairments. Strategies aimed at lowering aggregate formation might be a straightforward intervention to reduce age-related malfunctions of organs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 239–255. PMID:25178482

  16. Exhibition Session of the exp.at’11 International Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Man has been the humanity’s engineer for ages - human knowledge has been continuously built on conceptualization based on constant learning by doing activities. The observation and understanding of concepts and principles in action are the bases of the experimental activity leading to the correlation between reality and theory. Experimental activities are really important, contributing to prepare the future engineers for solving practical problems and for consolidating theoretical understanding and volatile knowledge based on abstract concepts. Therefore, experimental activity has been an essential part of education and training for engineers and engineering scientists. exp.at’11 (the 1st Experiment@ International Conference has been the first event of a new International Conference Experiment@ series devoted to online experimentation, enlarging the world capabilities in this particular area and contributing to collaborative work in emergent technologies, bringing together engineers, researchers and professionals from different areas. In its Exhibition Session, participants demonstrated their systems within developments of educational, medical and industrial applications.

  17. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population.

  18. 78 FR 7849 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Century,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Yale Center for British Art..., Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Department of State. [FR Doc. 2013-02401 Filed 2-1-13; 8:45...

  19. Restoration of Mitochondrial NAD+ Levels Delays Stem Cell Senescence and Facilitates Reprogramming of Aged Somatic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myung Jin; Kwon, Youjeong; Son, Taekwon; Cho, Yee Sook

    2016-12-01

    The fundamental tenet that aging is irreversible has been challenged by the development of reprogramming technology that can restore molecular and cellular age by reversing the progression of aging. The use of cells from aged individuals as sources for reprogramming or transplantation creates a major barrier in stem cell therapy with respect to cell quality and quantity. Here, we investigated the molecular features underlying senescence and rejuvenation during aged cell reprogramming and identified novel factors that can overcome age-associated barriers. Enzymes, such as nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) and nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 3 (NMNAT3), that control mitochondrial NAD + levels appear to be susceptible to aging. In aged cells, mitochondrial NAD + levels decrease, accompanied by reduced SIRT3 activity; these changes severely impede cell fate transition. However, in cells collected from aged p16 knockout mice, which exhibit delayed cellular senescence, no changes in NNT or NMNAT3 expression were found. Importantly, restoring mitochondrial NAD + levels by overexpressing NNT and NMNAT3 enhanced reprogramming efficiency of aged somatic cells and extended the lifespan of human mesenchymal stem cells by delaying replicative senescence. These results demonstrate that maintenance of mitochondrial NAD + levels is critical for reversing the mechanisms of aging and ensuring that cells collected from aged individuals are of high quality. Stem Cells 2016;34:2840-2851. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  20. Age friendly Cities and action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John

    Pater til workshop om Community and Spatial Exclusion til ROSEnet konference: Reducing Old-age Social Exclusion: Collaborations in Research and Policy......Pater til workshop om Community and Spatial Exclusion til ROSEnet konference: Reducing Old-age Social Exclusion: Collaborations in Research and Policy...

  1. Cholesterol Removal from Adult Skeletal Muscle impairs Excitation-Contraction Coupling and Aging reduces Caveolin-3 and alters the Expression of other Triadic Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genaro eBarrientos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol and caveolin are integral membrane components that modulate the function/location of many cellular proteins. Skeletal muscle fibers, which have unusually high cholesterol levels in transverse tubules, express the caveolin-3 isoform but its association with transverse tubules remains contentious. Cholesterol removal impairs excitation-contraction coupling in amphibian and mammalian fetal skeletal muscle fibers. Here, we show that treating single muscle fibers from adult mice with the cholesterol removing agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased fiber cholesterol by 26%, altered the location pattern of caveolin-3 and of the voltage dependent calcium channel Cav1.1, and suppressed or reduced electrically evoked Ca2+ transients without affecting membrane integrity or causing sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium depletion. We found that transverse tubules from adult muscle and triad fractions that contain ~10% attached transverse tubules, but not sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes, contained caveolin-3 and Cav1.1; both proteins partitioned into detergent-resistant membrane fractions highly enriched in cholesterol. Aging entails significant deterioration of skeletal muscle function. We found that triad fractions from aged rats had similar cholesterol and RyR1 protein levels compared to triads from young rats, but had lower caveolin-3 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and increased Na+/K+-ATPase protein levels. Both triad fractions had comparable NADPH oxidase (NOX activity and protein content of NOX2 subunits (p47phox and gp91phox, implying that NOX activity does not increase during aging. These findings show that partial cholesterol removal impairs excitation-contraction coupling and alters caveolin-3 and Cav1.1 location pattern, and that aging reduces caveolin-3 protein content and modifies the expression of other triadic proteins. We discuss the possible implications of these findings for skeletal muscle function in young and aged

  2. Environment construction and bottleneck breakthrough in the improvement of wisdom exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-08-01

    Wisdom exhibition is an inexorable trend in convention and exhibition industry in China. Information technology must be utilized by exhibition industry to achieve intelligent application and wisdom management, breaking the limitation of time as well as space, which raise the quality of exhibition service and level of operation to a totally new standard. Accordingly, exhibition industry should optimize mobile internet, a fundamental technology platform, during the advancing process of wisdom exhibition and consummate the combination among three plates including wisdom connection of information, wisdom exhibition environment and wisdom application of technology. Besides, the industry should realize the wisdom of external environment including wisdom of exhibition city, exhibition place, exhibition resource deal etc and break through bottle-neck in construction of wisdom exhibition industry, which includes construction of big data center, development of Mobile Internet application platform, promotion of information construction, innovative design of application scenarios.

  3. Aging and cellular defense mechanisms: age-related changes in resistance of mice to Listeria monocytogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, P J

    1981-01-01

    Age-related changes in resistance of mice to infection with Listeria monocytogenes were investigated. One-month-old mice exhibited the least resistance, and the resistance level increased over the first few months to reach a maximum by 8 months. Increase in age thereafter was accompanied by a slow but progressive decrease in resistance. Thus, 50% lethal doses for 1-, 8-, and 24-month-old mice were 10(4.2), 10(6.6), and 10(5.2), respectively. In spite of differences in resistance, the growth o...

  4. 76 FR 68808 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the Onassis Cultural Center... Century AD,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural... Cultural Affairs, Department of State. [FR Doc. 2011-28805 Filed 11-4-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4710-05-P ...

  5. Effect of thermal aging on the tensile bond strength at reduced areas of seven current adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracco, Bruno; Fuentes, M Victoria; Garrido, Miguel A; González-López, Santiago; Ceballos, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the micro-tensile bond strength (MTBS) to dentin of seven adhesive systems (total and self-etch adhesives) after 24 h and 5,000 thermocycles. Dentin surfaces of human third molars were exposed and bonded with two total-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and XP Bond), two two-step self-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond SE and Filtek Silorane Adhesive System) and three one-step self-etch adhesives (G-Bond, Xeno V and Bond Force). All adhesive systems were applied following manufacturers' instructions. Composite buildups were constructed and the bonded teeth were then stored in water (24 h, 37 °C) or thermocycled (5,000 cycles) before being sectioned and submitted to MTBS test. Two-way ANOVA and subsequent comparison tests were applied at α = 0.05. Characteristic de-bonded specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 24 h water storage, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT, Filtek Silorane Adhesive System and Adper Scotchbond SE and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. After thermocycling, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, followed by Filtek Silorane Adhesive System, Adper Scotchbond SE and Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. Thermal aging induced a significant decrease in MTBS values with all adhesives tested. The resistance of resin-dentin bonds to thermal-aging degradation was material dependent. One-step self-etch adhesives obtained the lowest MTBS results after both aging treatments, and their adhesive capacity was significantly reduced after thermocycling.

  6. Hyperphagia, lower body temperature, and reduced running wheel activity precede development of morbid obesity in New Zealand obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Hella S; Schürmann, Annette; Kluge, Reinhart; Ortmann, Sylvia; Klaus, Susanne; Joost, Hans-Georg; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2006-04-13

    Among polygenic mouse models of obesity, the New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse exhibits the most severe phenotype, with fat depots exceeding 40% of total body weight at the age of 6 mo. Here we dissected the components of energy balance including feeding behavior, locomotor activity, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis compared with the related lean New Zealand black (NZB) and obese B6.V-Lep(ob)/J (ob/ob) strains (11% and 65% fat at 23 wk, respectively). NZO mice exhibited a significant hyperphagia that, when food intake was expressed per metabolic body mass, was less pronounced than that of the ob/ob strain. Compared with NZB, NZO mice exhibited increased meal frequency, meal duration, and meal size. Body temperature as determined by telemetry with implanted sensors was reduced in NZO mice, but again to a lesser extent than in the ob/ob strain. In striking contrast to ob/ob mice, NZO mice were able to maintain a constant body temperature during a 20-h cold exposure, thus exhibiting a functioning cold-induced thermogenesis. No significant differences in spontaneous home cage activity were observed among NZO, NZB, and ob/ob strains. When mice had access to voluntary running wheels, however, running activity was significantly lower in NZO than NZB mice and even lower in ob/ob mice. These data indicate that obesity in NZO mice, just as in humans, is due to a combination of hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure, and insufficient physical activity. Because NZO mice differ strikingly from the ob/ob strain in their resistance to cold stress, we suggest that the molecular defects causing hyperphagia in NZO mice are located distal from leptin and its receptor.

  7. Strain modulations as a mechanism to reduce stress relaxation in laryngeal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J; Siegmund, Thomas; Chan, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold tissues in animal and human species undergo deformation processes at several types of loading rates: a slow strain involved in vocal fold posturing (on the order of 1 Hz or so), cyclic and faster posturing often found in speech tasks or vocal embellishment (1-10 Hz), and shear strain associated with vocal fold vibration during phonation (100 Hz and higher). Relevant to these deformation patterns are the viscous properties of laryngeal tissues, which exhibit non-linear stress relaxation and recovery. In the current study, a large strain time-dependent constitutive model of human vocal fold tissue is used to investigate effects of phonatory posturing cyclic strain in the range of 1 Hz to 10 Hz. Tissue data for two subjects are considered and used to contrast the potential effects of age. Results suggest that modulation frequency and extent (amplitude), as well as the amount of vocal fold overall strain, all affect the change in stress relaxation with modulation added. Generally, the vocal fold cover reduces the rate of relaxation while the opposite is true for the vocal ligament. Further, higher modulation frequencies appear to reduce the rate of relaxation, primarily affecting the ligament. The potential benefits of cyclic strain, often found in vibrato (around 5 Hz modulation) and intonational inflection, are discussed in terms of vocal effort and vocal pitch maintenance. Additionally, elderly tissue appears to not exhibit these benefits to modulation. The exacerbating effect such modulations may have on certain voice disorders, such as muscle tension dysphonia, are explored.

  8. Strain modulations as a mechanism to reduce stress relaxation in laryngeal tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Hunter

    Full Text Available Vocal fold tissues in animal and human species undergo deformation processes at several types of loading rates: a slow strain involved in vocal fold posturing (on the order of 1 Hz or so, cyclic and faster posturing often found in speech tasks or vocal embellishment (1-10 Hz, and shear strain associated with vocal fold vibration during phonation (100 Hz and higher. Relevant to these deformation patterns are the viscous properties of laryngeal tissues, which exhibit non-linear stress relaxation and recovery. In the current study, a large strain time-dependent constitutive model of human vocal fold tissue is used to investigate effects of phonatory posturing cyclic strain in the range of 1 Hz to 10 Hz. Tissue data for two subjects are considered and used to contrast the potential effects of age. Results suggest that modulation frequency and extent (amplitude, as well as the amount of vocal fold overall strain, all affect the change in stress relaxation with modulation added. Generally, the vocal fold cover reduces the rate of relaxation while the opposite is true for the vocal ligament. Further, higher modulation frequencies appear to reduce the rate of relaxation, primarily affecting the ligament. The potential benefits of cyclic strain, often found in vibrato (around 5 Hz modulation and intonational inflection, are discussed in terms of vocal effort and vocal pitch maintenance. Additionally, elderly tissue appears to not exhibit these benefits to modulation. The exacerbating effect such modulations may have on certain voice disorders, such as muscle tension dysphonia, are explored.

  9. Endurance- and Resistance-Trained Men Exhibit Lower Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Than Untrained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröpel, Peter; Urner, Maren; Pruessner, Jens C; Quirin, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical exercise reduces physiological reactivity to psychosocial stress. However, previous research mainly focused on the effect of endurance exercise, with only a few studies looking at the effect of resistance exercise. The current study tested whether individuals who regularly participate in either endurance or resistance training differ from untrained individuals in adrenal and cardiovascular reactivity to psychosocial stress. Twelve endurance-trained men, 10 resistance-trained men, and 12 healthy but untrained men were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. Measurements of heart rate, free salivary cortisol levels, and mood were obtained throughout the test and compared among the three groups. Overall, both endurance- and resistance-trained men had lower heart rate levels than untrained men, indicating higher cardiac performance of the trained groups. Trained men also exhibited lower heart rate responses to psychosocial stress compared with untrained men. There were no significant group differences in either cortisol responses or mood responses to the stressor. The heart rate results are consistent with previous studies indicating reduced cardiovascular reactivity to psychosocial stress in trained individuals. These findings suggest that long-term endurance and resistance trainings may be related to the same cardiovascular benefits, without exhibiting strong effects on the cortisol reactivity to stress.

  10. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  11. [Gait characteristics of women with fibromyalgia: a premature aging pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, Suelen M; Leite, Neiva; de Souza, Ricardo M; Homann, Diogo; Osiecki, Ana C V; Stefanello, Joice M F; Rodacki, André L F

    2014-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a condition which involves chronic pain. Middle-aged individuals with fibromyalgia seem to exhibit changes in gait pattern, which may prematurely expose them to a gait pattern which resembles that found in the elderly population. To determine the 3D spatial (linear and angular) gait parameters of middle-aged women with fibromyalgia and compare to elderly women without this condition. 25 women (10 in the fibromyalgia group and 15 in the elderly group) volunteered to participate in the study. Kinematics was performed using an optoelectronic system, and linear and angular kinematic variables were determined. There was no difference in walking speed, stride length, cadence, hip, knee and ankle joints range of motion between groups, except the pelvic rotation, in which the fibromyalgia group showed greater rotation (P<0.05) compared to the elderly group. Also, there was a negative correlation with pelvic rotation and gluteus pain (r = -0.69; P<0.05), and between pelvic obliquity and greater trochanter pain (r = -0.69; P<0.05) in the fibromyalgia group. Middle-aged women with fibromyalgia showed gait pattern resemblances to elderly, women, which is characterized by reduced lower limb ROM, stride length and walking speed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Science Museum Exhibits' Summative Evaluation with Knowledge Hierarchy Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Erkan; Gurel, Cem

    2016-01-01

    It is aimed in this research to measure via knowledge hierarchy the things regarding exhibit themes learned by the visitors of the exhibits and compare them with the purpose that the exhibits are designed for, thereby realizing a summative evaluation of the exhibits by knowledge hierarchy method. The research has been conducted in a children's…

  13. Age and sex-specific mortality of wild and captive populations of a monogamous pair-bonded primate (Aotus azarae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Sam; Colchero, Fernando; Jones, Owen

    2016-01-01

    In polygynous primates, a greater reproductive variance in males has been linked to their reduced life expectancy relative to females. The mortality patterns of monogamous pair-bonded primates, however, are less clear. We analyzed the sex differences in mortality within wild (NMales = 70, NFemales...... = 73) and captive (NMales = 25, NFemales = 29) populations of Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae), a socially and genetically monogamous primate exhibiting bi-parental care. We used Bayesian Survival Trajectory Analysis (BaSTA) to test age-dependent models of mortality. The wild and captive populations...

  14. Displaying lives: the narrative of objects in biographical exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Albano

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Biographical exhibitions are a museum practice that asks for critical consideration. Grounding the argument in critical theory, social studies and museum theory, the article explores the narrative function of objects in biographical exhibitions by addressing the social significance of objects in relation to biography and their relevance when presented into an exhibition display. Central is the concept of objects as ‘biographical relics’ that are culturally fetishized in biographical narratives. This raises questions about biographical reliability and the cultural role that such objects plays in exhibition narratives as bearers of reality and as metonymical icons of the biographical subject. The article considers examples of biographical exhibitions of diverse figures such as Gregor Mendel, Madame de Pompadour and Roland Barthes, and the role that personal items, but also portraits and photographs, play in them.

  15. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate reduces myonuclear apoptosis during recovery from hind limb suspension-induced muscle fiber atrophy in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanlei; Jackson, Janna R.; Wang, Yan; Edens, Neile; Pereira, Suzette L.

    2011-01-01

    β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite shown to reduce protein catabolism in disease states and promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to loading exercise. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of HMB to reduce muscle wasting and promote muscle recovery following disuse in aged animals. Fisher 344×Brown Norway rats, 34 mo of age, were randomly assigned to receive either Ca-HMB (340 mg/kg body wt) or the water vehicle by gavage (n = 32/group). The animals received either 14 days of hindlimb suspension (HS, n = 8/diet group) or 14 days of unloading followed by 14 days of reloading (R; n = 8/diet group). Nonsuspended control animals were compared with suspended animals after 14 days of HS (n = 8) or after R (n = 8). HMB treatment prevented the decline in maximal in vivo isometric force output after 2 wk of recovery from hindlimb unloading. The HMB-treated animals had significantly greater plantaris and soleus fiber cross-sectional area compared with the vehicle-treated animals. HMB decreased the amount of TUNEL-positive nuclei in reloaded plantaris muscles (5.1% vs. 1.6%, P HMB did not significantly alter Bcl-2 protein abundance compared with vehicle treatment, HMB decreased Bax protein abundance following R, by 40% and 14% (P HMB-treated reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, compared with vehicle-treated animals. HMB reduced cleaved caspase-9 by 14% and 30% (P HMB was unable to prevent unloading-induced atrophy, it attenuated the decrease in fiber area in fast and slow muscles after HS and R. HMB's ability to protect against muscle loss may be due in part to putative inhibition of myonuclear apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial-associated caspase signaling. PMID:21697520

  16. Modifying memory for a museum tour in older adults: Reactivation-related updating that enhances and distorts memory is reduced in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Jacques, Peggy L; Montgomery, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    Memory reactivation, the activation of a latent memory trace when we are reminded of a past experience, strengthens memory but can also contribute to distortions if new information present during reactivation is integrated with existing memory. In a previous study in young adults we found that the quality of memory reactivation, manipulated using the principle of encoding specificity and indexed by recollection ratings, modulated subsequent true and false memories for events experienced during a museum tour. Here in this study, we examined age-related changes in the quality of memory reactivation on subsequent memory. Memories of museum stops in young and older adults were reactivated and then immediately followed by the presentation of a novel lure photo from an alternate tour version (i.e., reactivation plus new information). There was an increase in subsequent true memories for reactivated targets and for subsequent false memories for lures that followed reactivated targets, when compared to baseline target and lure photos. However, the influence of reactivation on subsequent memories was reduced in older adults. These data reveal that ageing alters reactivation-related updating processes that allow memories to be strengthened and updated with new information, consequently reducing memory distortions in older adults compared to young adults.

  17. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  18. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  19. The Signatures of the Invisible exhibition in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The artist Paola Pivi with her work at the Signatures of the Invisible exhibition in Geneva during February 2002. This piece with needles suspended on nylon thread 'detects' people as they approach. The exhibition was for art inspired by research carried out at CERN.

  20. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Bin Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011 was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97. Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92. Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  1. Impact of nutrition on the ageing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, John C

    2015-01-01

    Human life expectancy has been increasing steadily for almost two centuries and is now approximately double what it was at the beginning of the Victorian era. This remarkable demographic change has been accompanied by a shift in disease prevalence so that age is now the major determinant of most common diseases. The challenge is to enhance healthy ageing and to reduce the financial and social burdens associated with chronic ill health in later life. Studies in model organisms have demonstrated that the ageing phenotype arises because of the accumulation of macromolecular damage within the cell and that the ageing process is plastic. Nutritional interventions that reduce such damage, or which enhance the organism's capacity to repair damage, lead to greater longevity and to reduced risk of age-related diseases. Dietary (energy) restriction increases lifespan in several model organisms, but it is uncertain whether it is effective in primates, including humans. However, excess energy storage leading to increased adiposity is a risk factor for premature mortality and for age-related diseases so that obesity prevention is likely to be a major public health route to healthy ageing. In addition, adherence to healthy eating patterns, such as the Mediterranean dietary pattern, is associated with longevity and reduced risk of age-related diseases.

  2. Learning from Exhibitions: Chuck Close.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the artwork of Chuck Close, who is well known for his over-sized portraits of fellow artists and anonymous sitters, and the exhibition of his work that premiered at New York's Museum of Modern Art before traveling to other cities in the United States. (CMK)

  3. Patterns of Age-Associated Degeneration Differ in Shoulder Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Yotam; Henseler, Jan F.; Kolk, Arjen; Riaz, Muhammad; van der Zwaal, Peer; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; Raz, Vered

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder complaints are common in the elderly and hamper daily functioning. These complaints are often caused by tears in the muscle-tendon units of the rotator cuff (RC). The four RC muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. While some RC muscles are frequently torn in shoulder complaints others remain intact. The pathological changes in RC muscles are poorly understood. We investigated changes in RC muscle pathology combining radiological and histological procedures. We measured cross sectional area (CSA) and fatty infiltration from Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Arthrography (MRA) in subjects without (N = 294) and with (N = 109) RC-tears. Normalized muscle CSA of the four RC muscles and the deltoid shoulder muscle were compared and age-associated patterns of muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration were constructed. We identified two distinct age-associated patterns: in the supraspinatus and subscapularis RC muscles CSAs continuously declined throughout adulthood, whereas in the infraspinatus and deltoid reduced CSA was prominent from midlife onwards. In the teres minor, CSA was unchanged with age. Most importantly, age-associated patterns were highly similar between subjects without RC tear and those with RC-tears. This suggests that extensive RC muscle atrophy during aging could contribute to RC pathology. We compared muscle pathology between torn infraspinatus and non-torn teres minor and the deltoid in two patients with a massive RC-tear. In the torn infraspinatus we found pronounced fatty droplets, an increase in extracellular collagen-1, a loss of myosin heavy chain-1 expression in myofibers and an increase in Pax7-positive cells. However, the adjacent intact teres minor and deltoid exhibited healthy muscle features. This suggests that satellite cells and the extracellular matrix may contribute to extensive muscle fibrosis in torn RC. We suggest that torn RC muscles display hallmarks of muscle aging whereas the teres minor could represent an aging

  4. Patterns of age-associated degeneration differ in shoulder muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam eRaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder complaints are common in the elderly and hamper daily functioning. These complaints are often caused by tears in the muscle-tendon units of the rotator cuff (RC. The four RC muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. While some RC muscles are frequently torn in shoulder complaints others remain intact. The pathological changes in RC muscles are poorly understood. We investigated changes in RC muscle pathology combining radiological and histological procedures. We measured cross sectional area (CSA and fatty infiltration from Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Arthrography in subjects without (N=294 and with (N=109 RC-tears. Normalized muscle CSA of the four RC muscles and the deltoid shoulder muscle were compared and age-associated patterns of muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration were constructed. We identified two distinct age-associated patterns: in the supraspinatus and subscapularis RC muscles CSAs continuously declined throughout adulthood, whereas in the infraspinatus and deltoid reduced CSA was prominent from midlife onwards. In the teres minor, CSA was unchanged with age. Most importantly, age-associated patterns were highly similar between subjects without RC tear and those with RC-tears. This suggests that extensive RC muscle atrophy during aging could contribute to RC pathology. We compared muscle pathology between torn infraspinatus and non-torn teres minor and the deltoid in two patients with a massive RC-tear. In the torn infraspinatus we found pronounced fatty droplets, an increase in extracellular collagen-1, a loss of myosin heavy chain-1 expression in myofibers and an increase in Pax7-positive cells. However, the adjacent intact teres minor and deltoid exhibited healthy muscle features. This suggests that satellite cells and the extracellular matrix may contribute to extensive muscle fibrosis in torn RC. We suggest that torn RC muscles display hallmarks of muscle aging whereas the teres minor could represent an aging

  5. Hyaluronan- and heparin-reduced silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Melissa M; Kumar, Ashavani; Clement, Dylan; Ajayan, Pulickel; Mousa, Shaker

    2009-01-01

    Aims Silver nanoparticles exhibit unique antibacterial properties that make these ideal candidates for biological and medical applications. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare silver nanoparticles that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Materials & methods These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate with diaminopyridinylated heparin (DAPHP) and hyaluronan (HA) polysaccharides and tested for their efficacy in inhibiting microbial growth. Results & discussion The resulting silver nanoparticles exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and modest activity against Escherichia coli. Silver–HA showed greater antimicrobial activity than silver–DAPHP, while silver–glucose nanoparticles exhibited very weak antimicrobial activity. Neither HA nor DAPHP showed activity against S. aureus or E. coli. Conclusion These results suggest that DAPHP and HA silver nanoparticles have potential in antimicrobial therapeutic applications. PMID:19505245

  6. Exhibition at CERN's Globe of Science and Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Here we see pictures of displays at one of the exhibitions held at the Globe of Science and Innovation taken in September 2006. Located opposite the main CERN site, the Globe houses many public exhibitions throughout the year covering many topics from astronomy to particle physics.

  7. The AAAI 2006 Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Rybski, Paul E.; Forbes, Jeffrey; Burhans, Debra; Dodds, Zach; Oh, Paul; Scheutz, Matthias; Avanzato, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The Fifteenth Annual AAAI Robot Competition and Exhibition was held at the Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2006. This article describes the events that were held at the conference, including the Scavenger Hunt, Human Robot Interaction, and Robot Exhibition.

  8. Voluntary Exercise Promotes Glymphatic Clearance of Amyloid Beta and Reduces the Activation of Astrocytes and Microglia in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Qun; Liang, Feng-Ying; Dai, Guang-Yan; Zeng, Jin-Sheng; Pei, Zhong; Xu, Guang-Qing; Lan, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the interstitial fluid (ISF). A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear. In this study, glymphatic clearance and BBB permeability were evaluated in aged mice using in vivo two-photon imaging. The mice performed voluntary wheel running exercise and their water-maze cognition was assessed; the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), astrocyte and microglial activation, and the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) were evaluated with immunofluorescence or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); synaptic function was investigated with Thy1 -green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining. Voluntary wheel running significantly improved water-maze cognition in the aged mice, accelerated the efficiency of glymphatic clearance, but which did not affect BBB permeability. The numbers of activated astrocytes and microglia decreased, AQP4 expression increased, and the distribution of astrocytic AQP4 was rearranged. Aβ accumulation decreased, whereas dendrites, dendritic spines and postsynaptic density protein (PSD95) increased. Our study suggests that voluntary wheel running accelerated glymphatic clearance but not BBB permeation, improved astrocytic AQP4 expression and polarization, attenuated the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neuroinflammation, and ultimately protected mice against synaptic dysfunction and a decline in spatial cognition. These data suggest

  9. Voluntary Exercise Promotes Glymphatic Clearance of Amyloid Beta and Reduces the Activation of Astrocytes and Microglia in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fei He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and the interstitial fluid (ISF. A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear. In this study, glymphatic clearance and BBB permeability were evaluated in aged mice using in vivo two-photon imaging. The mice performed voluntary wheel running exercise and their water-maze cognition was assessed; the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4, astrocyte and microglial activation, and the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ were evaluated with immunofluorescence or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; synaptic function was investigated with Thy1–green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining. Voluntary wheel running significantly improved water-maze cognition in the aged mice, accelerated the efficiency of glymphatic clearance, but which did not affect BBB permeability. The numbers of activated astrocytes and microglia decreased, AQP4 expression increased, and the distribution of astrocytic AQP4 was rearranged. Aβ accumulation decreased, whereas dendrites, dendritic spines and postsynaptic density protein (PSD95 increased. Our study suggests that voluntary wheel running accelerated glymphatic clearance but not BBB permeation, improved astrocytic AQP4 expression and polarization, attenuated the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neuroinflammation, and ultimately protected mice against synaptic dysfunction and a decline in spatial cognition

  10. Childhood and adolescent obesity and long-term cognitive consequences during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Freire, Daniel; Knable, Lindsay; Zhao, Wei; Gong, Bing; Mazzola, Paolo; Ho, Lap; Levine, Samara; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance has reached an epidemic level. Obesity's immediate clinical impacts have been extensively studied; however, current clinical evidence underscores the long-term implications. The current study explored the impacts of brief childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance on cognitive function in later life. To mimic childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance, we exposed 9-week-old C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat diet for 15 weeks, after which the mice exhibited diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. We then put these mice back on a normal low-fat diet, after which the mice exhibited normal body weight and glucose tolerance. However, a spatial memory test in the forms of the Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual fear conditioning at 85 weeks of age showed that these mice had severe deficits in learning and long-term memory consolidation. Mechanistic investigations identified increased expression of histone deacetylases 5, accompanied by reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in the brains 61 weeks after the mice had been off the high-fat diet. Electrophysiology studies showed that hippocampal slices isolated from these mice are more susceptible to synaptic impairments compared with slices isolated from the control mice. We demonstrated that a 15-week occurrence of obesity and insulin resistance during childhood/adolescence induces irreversible epigenetic modifications in the brain that persist following restoration of normal metabolic homeostasis, leading to brain synaptic dysfunction during aging. Our study provides experimental evidence that limited early-life exposure to obesity and insulin resistance may have long-term deleterious consequences in the brain, contributing to the onset/progression of cognitive dysfunction during aging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of NAD metabolome in aged mice tissue using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaku, Keisuke; Okabe, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a major co-factor that mediates multiple biological processes including redox reaction and gene expression. Recently, NAD metabolism has received considerable attention because administration of NAD precursors exhibited beneficial effects against aging-related metabolic disorders in animals. Although numerous studies have reported that NAD levels decline with aging in multiple animal tissues, the pathway and kinetics of NAD metabolism in aged organs are not completely understood. To determine the NAD metabolism upon aging, we developed targeted metabolomics based on an LC/MS/MS system. Our method is simple and applicable to crude biological samples, including culture cells and animal tissues. Unlike a conventional enzymatic cycling assay, our approach can determine NAD and NADH (reduced form of NAD) by performing a single sample preparation. Further, we validated our method using biological samples and investigated the alteration of the NAD metabolome during aging. Consistent with previous reports, the NAD levels in the liver and skeletal muscle decreased with aging. Further, we detected a significant increase in nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside in the kidney upon aging. The LC/MS/MS-based NAD metabolomics that we have developed is extensively applicable to biomedical studies, and the results will present innovative ideas for the aging studies, especially for that of NAD metabolism. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The exhibition Lumiere d'Atomes (Atoms light)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, Jacques

    1995-01-01

    Full text: This exhibition has been conceived in order to show for everybody, whatever his scientific level, the peaceful uses of transformations (natural or made by Man) and energetic possibilities of the atomic nucleus. The key-ideas of this exhibition were-: - nuclear applications a world of high technology; - nuclear industry men as the others; - nuclear energy an energetic independence. 6 themes were proposed: 1- Atoms and radioactivity; 2- The nuclear power stations; 3- The nuclear fuel cycle; 4- Surety and environment; 5- The other uses of radioactivity; 6- The French choice: The world nuclear data. This exhibition that comprises information posters, paintings, demonstration models, films and video games, was shown for the first time in Paris in april 1991. From this time, it was shown in many regional cities, with the help of SFEN members. 'Lumiere d'Atomes' received in 1991 the SFEN prize for its information on nuclear energy. (author)

  13. Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by Promoting Skin Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Musashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid crystal gel was also applied topically to human facial skin, and analysis was conducted using before-and-after photographs of age spots, measurements of L* values that reflect degree of skin pigmentation, single-layer samples of the stratum corneum obtained via tape-stripping, and measurements of trans-epidermal water loss that reflect the status of the skin’s barrier function. The results suggested that cost-effective creams containing as low as 5% liquid crystal gel might be effective and safely sold as skin care products targeting age spots and other problems relating to uneven skin pigmentation.

  14. Optimum alloy compositions in reduced-activation martensitic 9Cr steels for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Noda, T.; Okada, M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain potential reduced-activation ferritic steels suitable for fusion reactor structures, the effect of alloying elements W and V on the microstructural evolution, toughness, high-temperature creep and irradiation hardening behavior was investigated for simple 9Cr-W and 9Cr-V steels. The creep strength of the 9Cr-W steels increased but their toughness decreased with increasing W concentration. The 9Cr-V steels exhibited poor creep rupture strength, far below that of a conventional 9Cr-1MoVNb steel and poor toughness after aging at 873 K. It was also found that the Δ-ferrite should be avoided, because it degraded both the roughness and high-temperature creep strength. Based on the results on the simple steels, optimized martensitic 9Cr steels were alloy-designed from a standpoint of enough thoughness and high-temperature creep strength. Two kinds of optimized 9Cr steels with low and high levels of W were obtained; 9Cr-1WVTa and 9Cr-3WVTa. These steels indeed exhibited excellent toughness and creep strength, respectively. The 9Cr-1WVTa steel exhibiting an excellent roughness was shown to be the most promising for relatively low-temperature application below 500deg C, where irradiation embrittlement is significant. The 9Cr-3WVTa steel was the most promising for high temperature application above 500deg C from the standpoint of enough high-temperature strength. (orig.)

  15. Designing Art Exhibitions in an Educational Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, June; Crooks, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrating the multiple features of the Cerulean Gallery in Second Life, this research report showcases several exemplar exhibits created by students, artists, and museums. Located in The Educational Media Center, a Second Life teaching and social space, the Cerulean Gallery exhibits functioned as case studies that tested its effectiveness as…

  16. Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

    2009-10-01

    Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention.

  17. The presentation of energy topics at exhibitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moergeli, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author examines the problems confronting an electricity supply company when trying to communicate its energy policy to the general public at exhibitions and fairs. The company has to convey a message of reliable power supplies, increasing demand, the advantages of nuclear energy, the safe storage of radioactive waste and the need for new generating plants. The author describes some of the displays being used to attract the public to the Bern Power Stations stand at the Bern Exhibition 1984. (R.S.)

  18. Aging-related impairments of hippocampal mossy fibers synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Castillo, Cindy; Tecuatl, Carolina; Herrera-López, Gabriel; Galván, Emilio J

    2017-01-01

    The network interaction between the dentate gyrus and area CA3 of the hippocampus is responsible for pattern separation, a process that underlies the formation of new memories, and which is naturally diminished in the aged brain. At the cellular level, aging is accompanied by a progression of biochemical modifications that ultimately affects its ability to generate and consolidate long-term potentiation. Although the synapse between dentate gyrus via the mossy fibers (MFs) onto CA3 neurons has been subject of extensive studies, the question of how aging affects the MF-CA3 synapse is still unsolved. Extracellular and whole-cell recordings from acute hippocampal slices of aged Wistar rats (34 ± 2 months old) show that aging is accompanied by a reduction in the interneuron-mediated inhibitory mechanisms of area CA3. Several MF-mediated forms of short-term plasticity, MF long-term potentiation and at least one of the critical signaling cascades necessary for potentiation are also compromised in the aged brain. An analysis of the spontaneous glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated currents on CA3 cells reveal a dramatic alteration in amplitude and frequency of the nonevoked events. CA3 cells also exhibited increased intrinsic excitability. Together, these results demonstrate that aging is accompanied by a decrease in the GABAergic inhibition, reduced expression of short- and long-term forms of synaptic plasticity, and increased intrinsic excitability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. “It felt a little like being let into a secret–“ A community-influenced museum exhibition on Technical Art History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen; Knap, Frederik; Haack Christensen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    the Gallery’s education services as well as invited external professionals such as an alternative theatre scenographer and a Russian film animator. This made the scenography of the Copenhagen venue highly unique. We wanted the exhibition to appeal to visitors from all ages and backgrounds...

  20. Reducing age of autism diagnosis: developmental social neuroscience meets public health challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Klin, Ami; Klaiman, Cheryl; Jones, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (autism) is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous family of neurodevelopmental disorders of genetic origins with potentially devastating implications for child, family, health and educational systems. Despite advances in paper-and-pencil screening and in standardization of diagnostic procedures, diagnosis of autism in the US still hovers around the ages of four or five years, later still in disadvantaged communities, and several years after the age of two to three year...

  1. Blood pressure regulation and 45Ca flux in aging Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemel, M.B.; Shehin, S.E.; Chiou, S.Y.; Sowers, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that Zucker obese rats exhibit significant hypertension associated with an impairment in vascular smooth muscle Ca 2+ efflux compared to their lean controls. To further investigate this phenomenon, the authors measured direct intra-arterial blood pressure in previously cannulated, unrestrained, conscious Zucker lean and obese rats at 10 weeks of age and 60 weeks of age. The animals were sacrificed and replicate aortic strips from each were loaded with 45 Ca and 45 Ca efflux was evaluated. Results show that both young and old obese rats exhibit systolic and diastolic hypertension and impaired Ca 2+ efflux, and these defects were exaggerated in the old animals. Further, the old lean animals exhibited diastolic hypertension and impaired Ca 2+ efflux comparable to that found in the young obese animals. This suggests that old Zucker lean rats exhibit the same defects in Ca 2+ efflux comparable to that found in the young obese animals. This suggests that old Zucker lean rats exhibit the same defects in Ca 2+ metabolism previously observed in young Zucker obese rats, possibly due to latent gene expression of the Fa gene in heterozygous lean rats

  2. Socioeconomic status moderates age-related differences in the brain's functional network organization and anatomy across the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Micaela Y; Na, Jinkyung; Agres, Phillip F; Savalia, Neil K; Park, Denise C; Wig, Gagan S

    2018-05-14

    An individual's environmental surroundings interact with the development and maturation of their brain. An important aspect of an individual's environment is his or her socioeconomic status (SES), which estimates access to material resources and social prestige. Previous characterizations of the relation between SES and the brain have primarily focused on earlier or later epochs of the lifespan (i.e., childhood, older age). We broaden this work to examine the relationship between SES and the brain across a wide range of human adulthood (20-89 years), including individuals from the less studied middle-age range. SES, defined by education attainment and occupational socioeconomic characteristics, moderates previously reported age-related differences in the brain's functional network organization and whole-brain cortical structure. Across middle age (35-64 years), lower SES is associated with reduced resting-state system segregation (a measure of effective functional network organization). A similar but less robust relationship exists between SES and age with respect to brain anatomy: Lower SES is associated with reduced cortical gray matter thickness in middle age. Conversely, younger and older adulthood do not exhibit consistent SES-related difference in the brain measures. The SES-brain relationships persist after controlling for measures of physical and mental health, cognitive ability, and participant demographics. Critically, an individual's childhood SES cannot account for the relationship between their current SES and functional network organization. These findings provide evidence that SES relates to the brain's functional network organization and anatomy across adult middle age, and that higher SES may be a protective factor against age-related brain decline. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  3. Exhibition: Fibre optics, the future is at hand

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Until 20 June, the Pont de la Machine in Geneva will host an exhibition on fibre optics, sponsored by SIG. CERN, a major user of this technology, was invited to take part with a presentation of some of its scintillating fibre detectors.   The CERN module, designed for the SIG's fibre optics exhibition. Visitors can discover a cosmic ray detector (on the right) and its oscilloscope (on the left), as well as one of the ALFA detector modules (at the back). The Services industriels genevois (SIG), who are in the process of deploying an optical fibre network in Geneva, have decided to showcase this technology with an exhibition entitled “Fibre optique – Le futur à portée de main.” The exhibition, which will be open to the public from 26 April to 20 June, is being held at the Espace ExpoSIG, at the Pont de la Machine in the centre of Geneva. “CERN’s Physics Department was approached by SIG at the start of this year to ...

  4. An Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) analysis of a policy designed to reduce the household consumption of wood in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufournaud, C.M.; Quinn, J.T.; Harrington, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Sudan, along with all Sahelian countries, faces urgent environmental problems caused, in part, by the clear-cutting of scrub for firewood. Analyzes the economic consequences of a policy often proposed to reduce the consumption of firewood. Specifically, the authors simulate the policy of introducing more efficient wood burning stoves into households by using an Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model. The results indicate that the anticipated reduction in the economy-wide demand for wood, based on the increase in the technical efficiency of the stoves, is not fully realized. 23 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  5. 75 FR 3862 - Photography in Public Exhibit Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ...NARA has revised its regulations on the use of film, photographic and videotape equipment inside the National Archives Building in Washington, DC. Filming, photographing, and videotaping for personal use will be prohibited in exhibits of the National Archives Experience (NAE) in Washington, DC, including the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights (known as the Charters of Freedom) in the Rotunda of the National Archives Building. In 2003 NARA installed exhibit cases for displaying the Charters and other NAE documents to provide better clarity for viewing the exhibits. NARA seeks to ensure the necessary protection for the documents from the cumulative effects of photographic flash and to enhance the overall visitor experience.

  6. Age-related Deterioration of Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Min Hwan; Kim, Seung Ah; Chang, Jae Suk

    2008-11-01

    Aging is the process of system deterioration over time in the whole body. Stem cells are self-renewing and therefore have been considered exempt from the aging process. Earlier studies by Hayflick showed that there is an intrinsic limit to the number of divisions that mammalian somatic cells can undergo, and cycling kinetics and ontogeny-related studies strongly suggest that even the most primitive stem cell functions exhibit a certain degree of aging. Despite these findings, studies on the effects of aging on stem cell functions are inconclusive. Here we review the age-related properties of hematopoietic stem cells in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic alterations, proliferative potential, signaling molecules, telomere and telomerase, senescence and cancer issues, regenerative potential and other indications of stem cell aging are discussed in detail.

  7. Mitochondrial Metabolism in Aging Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Chen, Qun; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Altered mitochondrial metabolism is the underlying basis for the increased sensitivity in the aged heart to stress. The aged heart exhibits impaired metabolic flexibility, with a decreased capacity to oxidize fatty acids and enhanced dependence on glucose metabolism. Aging impairs mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, with a greater role played by the mitochondria located between the myofibrils, the interfibrillar mitochondria. With aging, there is a decrease in activity of complexes III and IV, which account for the decrease in respiration. Furthermore, aging decreases mitochondrial content among the myofibrils. The end result is that in the interfibrillar area there is an approximate 50% decrease in mitochondrial function, affecting all substrates. The defective mitochondria persist in the aged heart, leading to enhanced oxidant production and oxidative injury and the activation of oxidant signaling for cell death. Aging defects in mitochondria represent new therapeutic targets, whether by manipulation of the mitochondrial proteome, modulation of electron transport, activation of biogenesis or mitophagy, or the regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion. These mechanisms provide new ways to attenuate cardiac disease in elders by preemptive treatment of age-related defects, in contrast to the treatment of disease-induced dysfunction. PMID:27174952

  8. Reduced orienting to audiovisual synchrony in infancy predicts autism diagnosis at 3 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck-Ytter, Terje; Nyström, Pär; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Gliga, Teodora; Bölte, Sven

    2018-01-23

    Effective multisensory processing develops in infancy and is thought to be important for the perception of unified and multimodal objects and events. Previous research suggests impaired multisensory processing in autism, but its role in the early development of the disorder is yet uncertain. Here, using a prospective longitudinal design, we tested whether reduced visual attention to audiovisual synchrony is an infant marker of later-emerging autism diagnosis. We studied 10-month-old siblings of children with autism using an eye tracking task previously used in studies of preschoolers. The task assessed the effect of manipulations of audiovisual synchrony on viewing patterns while the infants were observing point light displays of biological motion. We analyzed the gaze data recorded in infancy according to diagnostic status at 3 years of age (DSM-5). Ten-month-old infants who later received an autism diagnosis did not orient to audiovisual synchrony expressed within biological motion. In contrast, both infants at low-risk and high-risk siblings without autism at follow-up had a strong preference for this type of information. No group differences were observed in terms of orienting to upright biological motion. This study suggests that reduced orienting to audiovisual synchrony within biological motion is an early sign of autism. The findings support the view that poor multisensory processing could be an important antecedent marker of this neurodevelopmental condition. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Lunar Bouguer gravity anomalies - Imbrian age craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, J.; Phillips, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Bouguer gravity of mass anomalies associated with four Imbrian age craters, analyzed in the present paper, are found to differ considerably from the values of the mass anomalies associated with some young lunar craters. Of the Imbrian age craters, only Piccolomini exhibits a negative gravity anomaly (i.e., a low density region) which is characteristic of the young craters studied. The Bouguer gravity anomalies are zero for each of the remaining Imbrian age craters. Since, Piccolomini is younger, or at least less modified, than the other Imbrian age craters, it is suggested that the processes responsible for the post-impact modification of the Imbrian age craters may also be responsible for removing the negative mass anomalies initially associated with these features.

  10. Adaptive training diminishes distractibility in aging across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jyoti; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Merzenich, Michael; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-12-03

    Aging is associated with deficits in the ability to ignore distractions, which has not yet been remediated by any neurotherapeutic approach. Here, in parallel auditory experiments with older rats and humans, we evaluated a targeted cognitive training approach that adaptively manipulated distractor challenge. Training resulted in enhanced discrimination abilities in the setting of irrelevant information in both species that was driven by selectively diminished distraction-related errors. Neural responses to distractors in auditory cortex were selectively reduced in both species, mimicking the behavioral effects. Sensory receptive fields in trained rats exhibited improved spectral and spatial selectivity. Frontal theta measures of top-down engagement with distractors were selectively restrained in trained humans. Finally, training gains generalized to group and individual level benefits in aspects of working memory and sustained attention. Thus, we demonstrate converging cross-species evidence for training-induced selective plasticity of distractor processing at multiple neural scales, benefitting distractor suppression and cognitive control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of microstructural evolution by isothermal aging on the mechanical properties of 9Cr-1WVTa reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min-Gu [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hoon, E-mail: lee1626@kims.re.kr [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Joonoh; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae-Ho [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Namhyun [Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Chan Kim, Hyoung [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The influence of microstructural changes caused by aging condition on tensile and Charpy impact properties was investigated for reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) 9Cr-1WVTa steels having single martensite and a mixed microstructure of martensite and ferrite. For the mixed microstructure of martensite and ferrite, the Charpy impact properties deteriorated in both as-normalized and tempered conditions due to the ferrite and the accompanying M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides at the ferrite grain boundaries which act as path and initiation sites for cleavage cracks, respectively. However, aging at 550 °C for 20–100 h recovered gradually the Charpy impact toughness without any distinct drop in strength, as a result of the spheroidization of the coarse M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides at the ferrite grain boundaries, which makes crack initiation more difficult.

  12. CREB Overexpression Ameliorates Age-related Behavioral and Biophysical Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wen

    Age-related cognitive deficits are observed in both humans and animals. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 sub-region of hippocampus is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments, but the molecular mechanism(s) that modulate both these factors has yet to be identified. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents has been shown to facilitate cognition, and increase intrinsic excitability of their neurons. However, how CREB changes with age, and how that impacts cognition in aged animals, is not clear. Therefore, we first systematically characterized age- and training-related changes in CREB levels in dorsal hippocampus. At a remote time point after undergoing behavioral training, levels of total CREB and activated CREB (phosphorylated at S133, pCREB) were measured in both young and aged rats. We found that pCREB, but not total CREB was significantly reduced in dorsal CA1 of aged rats. Importantly, levels of pCREB were found to be positively correlated with short-term spatial memory in both young and aged rats i.e. higher pCREB in dorsal CA1 was associated with better spatial memory. These findings indicate that an age-related deficit in CREB activity may contribute to the development of age-related cognitive deficits. However, it was still unclear if increasing CREB activity would be sufficient to ameliorate age-related cognitive, and biophysical deficits. To address this question, we virally overexpressed CREB in CA1, where we found the age-related deficit. Young and aged rats received control or CREB virus, and underwent water maze training. While control aged animals exhibited deficits in long-term spatial memory, aged animals with CREB overexpression performed at levels comparable to young animals. Concurrently, aged neurons

  13. Ghrelin receptor null mice have reduced visceral fat and improved insulin sensitivity during aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is associated with a higher incidence of Type 2 diabetes; one in five Americans over age 65 has diabetes. Loss of lean mass and accumulation of fat, particularly visceral fat, during aging result in increased insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a major pathogenic factor for Type 2 diabet...

  14. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  15. Maintaining students’ Speaking Fluency through Exhibition Examination in Sociolinguistic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusnul Qhotimah Yuliatuty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Using exhibition for the final project in Sociolinguistic study is really interesting for Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional students, especially for 2011 English Department students. Exhibition becomes interesting because this is the new thing to conduct the final project for English Department students’ cohort 2011 at Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional. The lecturer divides the students into pairs and each pairs should master one content or topic in Sociolinguistic study.  The students will do the exhibition about the topic that they get in a pairs. The lecturer also gives the students rubric sheet to fill by the visitors. The exhibition will make the students prepare themselves well because they will face many questions about the content which will be delivered by them. Beside, this exhibition also maintains students’ fluency in speaking English because they will explain and answer the questions from visitors with English. This paper tries to focus on how exhibition examination can maintain students’ fluency in speaking English.

  16. Rate and State Friction Relation for Nanoscale Contacts: Thermally Activated Prandtl-Tomlinson Model with Chemical Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kaiwen; Goldsby, David L.; Carpick, Robert W.

    2018-05-01

    Rate and state friction (RSF) laws are widely used empirical relationships that describe macroscale to microscale frictional behavior. They entail a linear combination of the direct effect (the increase of friction with sliding velocity due to the reduced influence of thermal excitations) and the evolution effect (the change in friction with changes in contact "state," such as the real contact area or the degree of interfacial chemical bonds). Recent atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments and simulations found that nanoscale single-asperity amorphous silica-silica contacts exhibit logarithmic aging (increasing friction with time) over several decades of contact time, due to the formation of interfacial chemical bonds. Here we establish a physically based RSF relation for such contacts by combining the thermally activated Prandtl-Tomlinson (PTT) model with an evolution effect based on the physics of chemical aging. This thermally activated Prandtl-Tomlinson model with chemical aging (PTTCA), like the PTT model, uses the loading point velocity for describing the direct effect, not the tip velocity (as in conventional RSF laws). Also, in the PTTCA model, the combination of the evolution and direct effects may be nonlinear. We present AFM data consistent with the PTTCA model whereby in aging tests, for a given hold time, static friction increases with the logarithm of the loading point velocity. Kinetic friction also increases with the logarithm of the loading point velocity at sufficiently high velocities, but at a different increasing rate. The discrepancy between the rates of increase of static and kinetic friction with velocity arises from the fact that appreciable aging during static contact changes the energy landscape. Our approach extends the PTT model, originally used for crystalline substrates, to amorphous materials. It also establishes how conventional RSF laws can be modified for nanoscale single-asperity contacts to provide a physically based friction

  17. Compensatory Effect between Aortic Stiffening and Remodelling during Ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guala

    Full Text Available The arterial tree exhibits a complex spatio-temporal wave pattern, whose healthy behaviour depends on a subtle balance between mechanical and geometrical properties. Several clinical studies demonstrated that such a balance progressively breaks down during ageing, when the aorta stiffens and remodels by increasing its diameter. These two degenerative processes however, have different impacts on the arterial wave pattern. They both tend to compensate for each other, thus reducing the detrimental effect they would have had if they had arisen individually. This remarkable compensatory mechanism is investigated by a validated multi-scale model, with the aim to elucidate how aortic stiffening and remodelling quantitatively impact the complex interplay between forward and reflected backward waves in the arterial network. We focus on the aorta and on the pressure at the ventricular-aortic interface, which epidemiological studies demonstrate to play a key role in cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Compensatory Effect between Aortic Stiffening and Remodelling during Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guala, Andrea; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The arterial tree exhibits a complex spatio-temporal wave pattern, whose healthy behaviour depends on a subtle balance between mechanical and geometrical properties. Several clinical studies demonstrated that such a balance progressively breaks down during ageing, when the aorta stiffens and remodels by increasing its diameter. These two degenerative processes however, have different impacts on the arterial wave pattern. They both tend to compensate for each other, thus reducing the detrimental effect they would have had if they had arisen individually. This remarkable compensatory mechanism is investigated by a validated multi-scale model, with the aim to elucidate how aortic stiffening and remodelling quantitatively impact the complex interplay between forward and reflected backward waves in the arterial network. We focus on the aorta and on the pressure at the ventricular-aortic interface, which epidemiological studies demonstrate to play a key role in cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Intermittent fasting combined with supplementation with Ayurvedic herbs reduces anxiety in middle aged female rats by anti-inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal; Kaur, Taranjeet; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2017-08-01

    Intermittent fasting-dietary restriction (IF-DR) is an increasingly popular intervention to promote healthy aging and delay age associated decline in brain functions. Also, the use of herbal interventions is gaining attention due to their non-pharmacological approach to treat several abnormalities and promote general health with least side effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of IF-DR regimen with herbal supplementation on anxiety-like behavior and neuroinflammation in middle aged female rats. We used dried leaf powder of Withania somnifera and dried stem powder of Tinospora cordifolia for our study. The rats were divided into three groups: (1) Control group fed ad libitum (AL); (2) rats deprived of food for full day and fed ad libitum on every alternate day (IF-DR); and (3) IF-DR and herbal extract (DRH) group in which rats were fed ad libitum with herbal extract supplemented diet, every alternate day. Post regimen, the rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior and further used for study of key inflammatory molecules (NFκB, Iba1, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6) and glial marker (GFAP) in hippocampus and piriform cortex regions of brain. The study was further extended to explore the effect of DRH regimen on stress response protein (HSP70) and calcium dependent regulators of synaptic plasticity (CaMKIIα, Calcineurin). Our data demonstrated that DRH regimen reduced anxiety-like behavior in middle age female rats and associated neuroinflammation by ameliorating key inflammatory cytokines and modulated stress response. The present data may provide scientific validation for anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory potential of herbal intervention combined with short term IF-DR regimen.

  20. White matter tract network disruption explains reduced conscientiousness in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Tom A; Dwyer, Michael G; Kuceyeski, Amy; Choudhery, Sanjeevani; Carolus, Keith; Li, Xian; Mallory, Matthew; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Jakimovski, Dejan; Ramasamy, Deepa; Zivadinov, Robert; Benedict, Ralph H B

    2018-05-08

    Quantifying white matter (WM) tract disruption in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) provides a novel means for investigating the relationship between defective network connectivity and clinical markers. PwMS exhibit perturbations in personality, where decreased Conscientiousness is particularly prominent. This trait deficit influences disease trajectory and functional outcomes such as work capacity. We aimed to identify patterns of WM tract disruption related to decreased Conscientiousness in PwMS. Personality assessment and brain MRI were obtained in 133 PwMS and 49 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Lesion maps were applied to determine the severity of WM tract disruption between pairs of gray matter regions. Next, the Network-Based-Statistics tool was applied to identify structural networks whose disruption negatively correlates with Conscientiousness. Finally, to determine whether these networks explain unique variance above conventional MRI measures and cognition, regression models were applied controlling for age, sex, brain volume, T2-lesion volume, and cognition. Relative to HCs, PwMS exhibited lower Conscientiousness and slowed cognitive processing speed (p = .025, p = .006). Lower Conscientiousness in PwMS was significantly associated with WM tract disruption between frontal, frontal-parietal, and frontal-cingulate pathways in the left (p = .02) and right (p = .01) hemisphere. The mean disruption of these pathways explained unique additive variance in Conscientiousness, after accounting for conventional MRI markers of pathology and cognition (ΔR 2  = .049, p = .029). Damage to WM tracts between frontal, frontal-parietal, and frontal-cingulate cortical regions is significantly correlated with reduced Conscientiousness in PwMS. Tract disruption within these networks explains decreased Conscientiousness observed in PwMS as compared with HCs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Comparative Study on Wear Properties of As Cast, Cast Aged and Forge Aged A356 Alloy with Addition of Grain Refiner and/or Modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Mallapur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative wear behavior study of three categories of materials viz, as cast, cast aged (casting followed by T6 and forge aged (forging followed by T6 has been investigated. Neither melt treatment nor solid state processing (like aging and forging seems to be altering the wear behavior of the materials drastically. Cast aged A356 materials exhibit higher wear resistance compared to as cast and forge aged A356 materials. Further, it was observed that cast aged samples register lower coefficient of friction compared to other samples. It is also noted that the difference in wear behavior is revealed only at conditions of higher load, higher speed and longer sliding distance of testing. At lower regimes the difference is marginal. Among cast aged samples, ones treated with combined addition exhibit better wear resistance compared to other materials. Samples treated with combined addition register lowest coefficient of friction followed by samples treated with Sr, those with B, those with Ti and untreated ones. Abrasive wear mechanism is found to be operative in the regime of higher loading and higher velocity of sliding. Adhesive wear mechanism seems to be dominating the wear process at the lower regime of load and velocity of sliding.

  2. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder using the early start denver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children's maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children's overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD.

  3. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eFulton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children’s maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children’s overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children.

  4. Physiological and psychosocial age-related changes associated with reduced food intake in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Antina; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    Dietary intake changes during the course of aging. Normally an increase in food intake is observed around 55 years of age, which is followed by a reduction in food intake in individuals over 65 years of age. This reduction in dietary intake results in lowered levels of body fat and body weight, a

  5. Age and Gender Differences in Premarital Sexual Attitudes of Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined age and gender differences in the premarital sexual attitudes exhibited by adolescents and young adults. A cross-sectional design was employed. A total of 1044 participants in four age categories were drawn from 4 secondary schools and 4 universities all located within three states of South-West ...

  6. Lacunar-canalicular network in femoral cortical bone is reduced in aged women and is predominantly due to a loss of canalicular porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Ashique

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lacunar-canalicular network (LCN of bone contains osteocytes and their dendritic extensions, which allow for intercellular communication, and are believed to serve as the mechanosensors that coordinate the processes of bone modeling and remodeling. Imbalances in remodeling, for example, are linked to bone disease, including fragility associated with aging. We have reported that there is a reduction in scale for one component of the LCN, osteocyte lacunar volume, across the human lifespan in females. In the present study, we explore the hypothesis that canalicular porosity also declines with age. To visualize the LCN and to determine how its components are altered with aging, we examined samples from young (age: 20–23 y; n = 5 and aged (age: 70–86 y; n = 6 healthy women donors utilizing a fluorescent labelling technique in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. A large cross-sectional area of cortical bone spanning the endosteal to periosteal surfaces from the anterior proximal femoral shaft was examined in order to account for potential trans-cortical variation in the LCN. Overall, we found that LCN areal fraction was reduced by 40.6% in the samples from aged women. This reduction was due, in part, to a reduction in lacunar density (21.4% decline in lacunae number per given area of bone, but much more so due to a 44.6% decline in canalicular areal fraction. While the areal fraction of larger vascular canals was higher in endosteal vs. periosteal regions for both age groups, no regional differences were observed in the areal fractions of the LCN and its components for either age group. Our data indicate that the LCN is diminished in aged women, and is largely due to a decline in the canalicular areal fraction, and that, unlike vascular canal porosity, this diminished LCN is uniform across the cortex.

  7. Preschool Gender-Typed Play Behavior at Age 3.5 Years Predicts Physical Aggression at Age 13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Karson T F; Li, Gu; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa

    2018-05-01

    Gender differences in play behavior and physical aggression have been consistently reported. Theoretical perspectives concerning evolutionary, social, and social-cognitive mechanisms suggest that male-typical play behavior during childhood increases subsequent physical aggression. The evidence supporting these connections is limited, however. The present study investigated the association between gender-typed play behavior in early childhood and physical aggression in early adolescence using a sample drawn from a longitudinal, population study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Based on gender-typed play behavior as measured by the Pre-School Activities Inventory at age 3.5 years, samples of masculine (64 boys, 60 girls), feminine (80 boys, 66 girls), and randomly selected control children (55 boys, 67 girls) were recruited at age 13 years and administered the Reinisch Aggression Inventory. After controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, maternal characteristics, and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity and conduct problems at age 3.5, significant group differences in physical aggression at age 13 were found among children classified as masculine, control, and feminine at age 3.5. Masculine children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than control children or feminine children, and control children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than feminine children. The association between gender-typed play behavior and physical aggression was not moderated by sex. These results suggest that the degree of childhood gender-typed play behavior independently predicts the degree of physical aggression at adolescence in boys and in girls.

  8. Fast But Fleeting: Adaptive Motor Learning Processes Associated with Aging and Cognitive Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Kevin M.; Garcia, Angeles; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Motor learning has been shown to depend on multiple interacting learning processes. For example, learning to adapt when moving grasped objects with novel dynamics involves a fast process that adapts and decays quickly—and that has been linked to explicit memory—and a slower process that adapts and decays more gradually. Each process is characterized by a learning rate that controls how strongly motor memory is updated based on experienced errors and a retention factor determining the movement-to-movement decay in motor memory. Here we examined whether fast and slow motor learning processes involved in learning novel dynamics differ between younger and older adults. In addition, we investigated how age-related decline in explicit memory performance influences learning and retention parameters. Although the groups adapted equally well, they did so with markedly different underlying processes. Whereas the groups had similar fast processes, they had different slow processes. Specifically, the older adults exhibited decreased retention in their slow process compared with younger adults. Within the older group, who exhibited considerable variation in explicit memory performance, we found that poor explicit memory was associated with reduced retention in the fast process, as well as the slow process. These findings suggest that explicit memory resources are a determining factor in impairments in the both the fast and slow processes for motor learning but that aging effects on the slow process are independent of explicit memory declines. PMID:25274819

  9. Fast but fleeting: adaptive motor learning processes associated with aging and cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Kevin M; Garcia, Angeles; Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2014-10-01

    Motor learning has been shown to depend on multiple interacting learning processes. For example, learning to adapt when moving grasped objects with novel dynamics involves a fast process that adapts and decays quickly-and that has been linked to explicit memory-and a slower process that adapts and decays more gradually. Each process is characterized by a learning rate that controls how strongly motor memory is updated based on experienced errors and a retention factor determining the movement-to-movement decay in motor memory. Here we examined whether fast and slow motor learning processes involved in learning novel dynamics differ between younger and older adults. In addition, we investigated how age-related decline in explicit memory performance influences learning and retention parameters. Although the groups adapted equally well, they did so with markedly different underlying processes. Whereas the groups had similar fast processes, they had different slow processes. Specifically, the older adults exhibited decreased retention in their slow process compared with younger adults. Within the older group, who exhibited considerable variation in explicit memory performance, we found that poor explicit memory was associated with reduced retention in the fast process, as well as the slow process. These findings suggest that explicit memory resources are a determining factor in impairments in the both the fast and slow processes for motor learning but that aging effects on the slow process are independent of explicit memory declines. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413411-11$15.00/0.

  10. Increasing age and tear size reduce rotator cuff repair healing rate at 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mustafa S; Cooper, Cushla; Cook, Jonathan; Cooper, David; Dakin, Stephanie G; Snelling, Sarah; Carr, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose - There is a need to understand the reasons why a high proportion of rotator cuff repairs fail to heal. Using data from a large randomized clinical trial, we evaluated age and tear size as risk factors for failure of rotator cuff repair. Patients and methods - Between 2007 and 2014, 65 surgeons from 47 hospitals in the National Health Service (NHS) recruited 447 patients with atraumatic rotator cuff tendon tears to the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Trial (UKUFF) and 256 underwent rotator cuff repair. Cuff integrity was assessed by imaging in 217 patients, at 12 months post-operation. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age and intra-operative tear size on healing. Hand dominance, sex, and previous steroid injections were controlled for. Results - The overall healing rate was 122/217 (56%) at 12 months. Healing rate decreased with increasing tear size (small tears 66%, medium tears 68%, large tears 47%, and massive tears 27% healed). The mean age of patients with a healed repair was 61 years compared with 64 years for those with a non-healed repair. Mean age increased with larger tear sizes (small tears 59 years, medium tears 62 years, large tears 64 years, and massive tears 66 years). Increasing age was an independent factor that negatively influenced healing, even after controlling for tear size. Only massive tears were an independent predictor of non-healing, after controlling for age. Interpretation - Although increasing age and larger tear size are both risks for failure of rotator cuff repair healing, age is the dominant risk factor.

  11. Chrononutrition against Oxidative Stress in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garrido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals and oxidative stress have been recognized as important factors in the biology of aging and in many age-associated degenerative diseases. Antioxidant systems deteriorate during aging. It is, thus, considered that one way to reduce the rate of aging and the risk of chronic disease is to avoid the formation of free radicals and reduce oxidative stress by strengthening antioxidant defences. Phytochemicals present in fruits, vegetables, grains, and other foodstuffs have been linked to reducing the risk of major oxidative stress-induced diseases. Some dietary components of foods possess biological activities which influence circadian rhythms in humans. Chrononutrition studies have shown that not only the content of food, but also the time of ingestion contributes to the natural functioning of the circadian system. Dietary interventions with antioxidant-enriched foods taking into account the principles of chrononutrition are of particular interest for the elderly since they may help amplify the already powerful benefits of phytochemicals as natural instruments with which to prevent or delay the onset of common age-related diseases.

  12. Angelica Sinensis Polysaccharide Prevents Hematopoietic Stem Cells Senescence in D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Mu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related regression in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/HPCs limits replenishment of the blood and immune system and hence contributes to hematopoietic diseases and declined immunity. In this study, we employed D-gal-induced aging mouse model and observed the antiaging effects of Angelica Sinensis Polysaccharide (ASP, a major active ingredient in dong quai (Chinese Angelica Sinensis, on the Sca-1+ HSC/HPCs in vivo. ASP treatment prevents HSC/HPCs senescence with decreased AGEs levels in the serum, reduced SA-β-Gal positive cells, and promoted CFU-Mix formation in the D-gal administrated mouse. We further found that multiple mechanisms were involved: (1 ASP treatment prevented oxidative damage as total antioxidant capacity was increased and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, 8-OHdG, and 4-HNE were declined, (2 ASP reduced the expression of γ-H2A.X which is a DNA double strand breaks (DSBs marker and decreased the subsequent ectopic expressions of effectors in p16Ink4a-RB and p19Arf-p21Cip1/Waf senescent pathways, and (3 ASP inhibited the excessive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in aged HSC/HPCs, as the expressions of β-catenin, phospho-GSK-3β, and TCF-4 were decreased, and the cyto-nuclear translocation of β-catenin was inhibited. Moreover, compared with the positive control of Vitamin E, ASP exhibited a better antiaging effect and a weaker antioxidation ability, suggesting a novel protective role of ASP in the hematopoietic system.

  13. Entecavir Exhibits Inhibitory Activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus under Conditions of Reduced Viral Challenge▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Fang; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Terry, Brian; Zhang, Sharon; Wang, Chunfu; Fan, Li; Dicker, Ira; Gali, Volodymyr; Higley, Helen; Parkin, Neil; Tenney, Daniel; Krystal, Mark; Colonno, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Entecavir (ETV) was developed for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and is globally approved for that indication. Initial preclinical studies indicated that ETV had no significant activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in cultured cell lines at physiologically relevant ETV concentrations, using traditional anti-HIV assays. In response to recent clinical observations of anti-HIV activity of ETV in HIV/HBV-coinfected patients not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), additional investigative studies were conducted to expand upon earlier results. An extended panel of HIV-1 laboratory and clinical strains and cell types was tested against ETV, along with a comparison of assay methodologies and resistance profiling. These latest studies confirmed that ETV has only weak activity against HIV, using established assay systems. However, a >100-fold enhancement of antiviral activity (equivalent to the antiviral activity of lamivudine) could be obtained when assay conditions were modified to reduce the initial viral challenge. Also, the selection of a M184I virus variant during the passage of HIV-1 at high concentrations of ETV confirmed that ETV can exert inhibitory pressure on the virus. These findings may have a significant impact on how future assays are performed with compounds to be used in patients infected with HIV. These results support the recommendation that ETV therapy should be administered in concert with HAART for HIV/HBV-coinfected patients. PMID:18316521

  14. Ageing sintered silver: Relationship between tensile behavior, mechanical properties and the nanoporous structure evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadaud, Pascal; Caccuri, Vincenzo; Bertheau, Denis [Institut Pprime, Dept. Phys. Mech. Mat., UPR CNRS 3346, ENSMA, Université de Poitiers, 1 av. Clément Ader, Téléport 2, 86961 Futuroscope – Chasseneuil (France); Carr, James [HMXIF, Materials Science Centre, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Milhet, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.milhet@ensma.fr [Institut Pprime, Dept. Phys. Mech. Mat., UPR CNRS 3346, ENSMA, Université de Poitiers, 1 av. Clément Ader, Téléport 2, 86961 Futuroscope – Chasseneuil (France)

    2016-07-04

    Silver pastes sintering is a potential candidate for die bonding in power electronic modules. The joints, obtained by sintering, exhibit a significant pore fraction thus reducing the density of the material compared to bulk silver. This was shown to alter drastically the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, yield strength and ultimate tensile stress) at room temperature. While careful analysis of the microstructure has been reported for the as-sintered material, little is known about its quantitative evolution (pores and grains) during thermal ageing. To address this issue, sintered bulk specimens and sintered joints were aged either under isothermal conditions (125 °C up to 1500 h) or under thermal cycling (between −40 °C/+125 °C with 30 min dwell time at each temperature for 2400 cycles). Under these conditions, it is shown that the density of the material does not change but the sub-micron porosity evolves towards a broader size distribution, consistent with Oswald ripening. It is also shown that only the step at 125 °C during the non-isothermal ageing is responsible for the microstructure evolution: isothermal ageing at high temperature can be regarded as a useful tool to perform accelerated ageing tests. Tensile properties are investigated as both a function of ageing time and a function of density. It is shown that the elastic properties do not evolve with the ageing time unlike the plastic properties. This is discussed as a function of the material microstructure evolution.

  15. The 1997 AAAI Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Arkin, Ronald C.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1997, the Sixth Annual Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition was held. The competition consisted of four new events: (1) Find Life on Mars; (2) Find the Remote; (3) Home Vacuum; and (4) Hors d'Oeuvres, Anyone? The robot exhibition was the largest in AAAI history. This article presents the history, motivation, and contributions for the event.

  16. Reducing the age range of tsunami deposits by 14C dating of rip-up clasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Takashi; Goto, Kazuhisa; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyairi, Yosuke; Sawada, Chikako; Takada, Keita

    2018-02-01

    Erosion by tsunami waves represents an important issue when determining the age of a tsunami deposit, because the age is usually estimated using dating of sediments above and below the deposit. Dating of material within the tsunami deposit, if suitable material is obtainable, can be used to further constrain its age. Eroded sediments are sometimes incorporated within the tsunami deposits as rip-up clasts, which might therefore be used as minimum age dating material. However, the single calibrated 14C age often shows a wide age range because of fluctuations in the calibration curve. Therefore, it remains uncertain whether rip-up clast measurements are useful to constrain the depositional age of tsunami deposits, or not. In this study, we carried out high-resolution 14C dating of tsunami deposits, including rip-up clasts of peat, in Rikuzentakata, northeastern Japan, where numerous rip-up clasts were observed within a tsunami deposit. Sediments above and below the tsunami deposit and a 5 cm large rip-up clast were dated sequentially. Comparison of these dating results with the calibration curve revealed that the clast was inverted. Its age was better constrained based on the stratigraphic order, and we infer that the clast corresponds to approximately 100 years of sedimentation. The oldest age of the clast was consistent with the age of the peat immediately below the tsunami deposit, suggesting that surface sediments probably formed the rip-up clast at the time of the tsunami. Thus, the dating of the rip-up clast was useful to further constrain the depositional age of the tsunami deposit, as we narrowed the tsunami deposit age range by approximately 100 years. Results show that ignoring tsunami-related erosion might lead to overestimation of the tsunami deposit age. For this reason, an appropriate dating site, which is less affected by minor tsunami-related erosion with regards to the paleo-topography, should be explored. We therefore propose a more effective

  17. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.

  18. A dwarf mouse model with decreased GH/IGF-1 activity that does not experience life-span extension: potential impact of increased adiposity, leptin, and insulin with advancing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; Lubbers, Ellen R; Magon, Vishakha; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J

    2014-02-01

    Reduced growth hormone (GH) action is associated with extended longevity in many vertebrate species. GH receptor (GHR) null (GHR(-)(/-)) mice, which have a disruption in the GHR gene, are a well-studied example of mice that are insulin sensitive and long lived yet obese. However, unlike other mouse lines with reduced GH action, GH receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice have reduced GH action yet exhibit a normal, not extended, life span. Understanding why GHA mice do not have extended life span though they share many physiological attributes with GHR(-)(/-) mice will help provide clues about how GH influences aging. For this study, we examined age- and sex-related changes in body composition, glucose homeostasis, circulating adipokines, and tissue weights in GHA mice and littermate controls. Compared with previous studies with GHR(-)(/-) mice, GHA mice had more significant increases in fat mass with advancing age. The increased obesity resulted in significant adipokine changes. Euglycemia was maintained in GHA mice; however, hyperinsulinemia developed in older male GHA mice. Overall, GHA mice experience a more substantial, generalized obesity accompanied by altered adipokine levels and glucose homeostasis than GHR(-)(/-) mice, which becomes more exaggerated with advancing age and which likely contributes to the lack of life-span extension in these mice.

  19. Reduced Baroreflex Sensitivity in Cluster Headache Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads C J; Mehlsen, Jesper; Brinth, Louise

    2015-01-01

    by baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in CH patients. METHODS: Twenty-six active CH patients and an equal number of age-, sex-, and BMI-matched controls underwent head-up tilt table test and BRS was determined by the sequence method. RESULTS: Compared with controls, patients exhibited a blunted reactivity of RR...... patients who had not (n = 13, 16.0 ms/mmHg, P = .1523). In the tilted position, the drop in SBP at the carotid sinuses was higher in patients who had recently suffered an attack. Despite this, they exhibited a less marked shortening of RR intervals when compared with patients who had been attack free...... of the autonomic nervous system or in the central relay of impulses from the baroreceptors....

  20. Gender- and age-dependent gamma-secretase activity in mouse brain and its implication in sporadic Alzheimer disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Placanica

    Full Text Available Alzheimer disease (AD is an age-related disorder. Aging and female gender are two important risk factors associated with sporadic AD. However, the mechanism by which aging and gender contribute to the pathogenesis of sporadic AD is unclear. It is well known that genetic mutations in gamma-secretase result in rare forms of early onset AD due to the aberrant production of Abeta42 peptides, which are the major constituents of senile plaques. However, the effect of age and gender on gamma-secretase has not been fully investigated. Here, using normal wild-type mice, we show mouse brain gamma-secretase exhibits gender- and age-dependent activity. Both male and female mice exhibit increased Abeta42ratioAbeta40 ratios in aged brain, which mimics the effect of familial mutations of Presenilin-1, Presenlin-2, and the amyloid precursor protein on Abeta production. Additionally, female mice exhibit much higher gamma-secretase activity in aged brain compared to male mice. Furthermore, both male and female mice exhibit a steady decline in Notch1 gamma-secretase activity with aging. Using a small molecule affinity probe we demonstrate that male mice have less active gamma-secretase complexes than female mice, which may account for the gender-associated differences in activity in aged brain. These findings demonstrate that aging can affect gamma-secretase activity and specificity, suggesting a role for gamma-secretase in sporadic AD. Furthermore, the increased APP gamma-secretase activity seen in aged females may contribute to the increased incidence of sporadic AD in women and the aggressive Abeta plaque pathology seen in female mouse models of AD. In addition, deceased Notch gamma-secretase activity may also contribute to neurodegeneration. Therefore, this study implicates altered gamma-secretase activity and specificity as a possible mechanism of sporadic AD during aging.

  1. Age differences in emotional reactions: arousal and age-relevance count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Berit; Kunzmann, Ute

    2011-12-01

    Recent findings suggest positivity effects in older adults' attention and memory, but few studies have examined such effects on the level of emotional reactivity. In this study, 52 young and 52 older adults rated 172 pictures of the International Affective Picture System, differing in arousal and age-relevance, in terms of valence and discrete emotions. Age differences in the ratio of pleasantness reactions to pleasant pictures vs. unpleasantness reactions to unpleasant pictures as well as age differences in absolute levels of unpleasantness and pleasantness reactions suggest that positivity effects in older adults' subjective emotional reactions are reduced under high arousal. There is also evidence that positivity effects may be restricted to stimuli with low relevance in old age.

  2. Does progressive resistance and balance exercise reduce falls in residential aged care? Randomized controlled trial protocol for the SUNBEAM program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewitt J

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Hewitt,1 Kathryn M Refshauge,1 Stephen Goodall,2 Timothy Henwood,3 Lindy Clemson1 1Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, 2Centre for Health Economic Research and Evaluation, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW, 3University of Queensland/Blue Care Research and Practice Development Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Introduction: Falls are common among older adults. It is reported that approximately 60% of residents of aged care facilities fall each year. This is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and a significant burden for health care providers and the health system. Among community dwelling older adults, exercise appears to be an effective countermeasure, but data are limited and inconsistent among studies in residents of aged care communities. This trial has been designed to evaluate whether the SUNBEAM program (Strength and Balance Exercise in Aged Care reduces falls in residents of aged care facilities. Research question: Is the program more effective and cost-effective than usual care for the prevention of falls? Design: Single-blinded, two group, cluster randomized trial. Participants and setting: 300 residents, living in 20 aged care facilities. Intervention: Progressive resistance and balance training under the guidance of a physiotherapist for 6 months, then facility-guided maintenance training for 6 months. Control: Usual care. Measurements: Number of falls, number of fallers, quality of life, mobility, balance, fear of falling, cognitive well-being, resource use, and cost-effectiveness. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis: The number of falls will be analyzed using a Poisson mixed model. A logistic mixed model will be used to analyze the number of residents who fall during the study period. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion: This study addresses a significant shortcoming in aged care research, and has potential to impact

  3. Developing a medical picture book for reducing venipuncture distress in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Ying; Kuo, Hui-Chen; Lee, Hsui-Chuan; Yiin, Shuenn-Jiun

    2017-10-01

    Distress associated with needle-related procedures is a major concern in preschool-aged children nursing. This study developed a medical picture book for supporting preschool-aged children facing a venipuncture and determined the effectiveness of such a book intervention in decreasing behavioural distress. The picture book was designed in 3 stages: developing stories on medical situations, penning the text, and drafting the book. We conducted a quasiexperimental study to examine the effectiveness of the book. The behavioural distress of the control and picture book groups were assessed before, during, and after the intervention by using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised (OSBD-R). We created a 12-page picture book, Sick Rui-Rui Bear, in which cartoon characters were depicted undergoing venipunctures, as a guide for vein injection and for facilitating positive venipuncture outcomes in preschool-aged children. Over time, the OSBD-R scores of the picture book group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P book be routinely read and used during venipunctures to decrease procedural distress in preschool-aged children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Age-Related Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with Reduced Macular Ganglion Cell Complex: A Cross-Sectional High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Uro

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is associated with smaller volume of optic chiasm in older adults, indicating a possible loss of the visual axons and their cellular bodies. Our objective was to determine whether vitamin D deficiency in older adults is associated with reduced thickness of the ganglion cell complex (GCC and of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL, as measured with high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT.Eighty-five French older community-dwellers without open-angle glaucoma and patent age-related macular degeneration (mean, 71.1±4.7 years; 45.9% female from the GAIT study were separated into 2 groups according to serum 25OHD level (i.e., deficient≤25 nmol/L or sufficient>25 nmol/L. Measurements of GCC and RNFL thickness were performed using HD-OCT. Age, gender, body mass index, number of comorbidities, dementia, functional autonomy, intracranial volume, visual acuity, serum calcium concentration and season of testing were considered as potential confounders.Mean serum 25OHD concentration was 58.4±26.8 nmol/L. Mean logMAR visual acuity was 0.03±0.06. Mean visual field mean deviation was -1.25±2.29 dB. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (n=11 had a reduced mean GCC thickness compared to those without vitamin D deficiency (72.1±7.4 μm versus 77.5±7.5 μm, P=0.028. There was no difference of the mean RNFL thickness in these two groups (P=0.133. After adjustment for potential confounders, vitamin D deficiency was associated with reduced GCC thickness (ß=-5.12, P=0.048 but not RNFL thickness (ß=-9.98, P=0.061. Specifically, vitamin D deficiency correlated with the superior medial GCC area (P=0.017 and superior temporal GCC area (P=0.010.Vitamin D deficiency in older patients is associated with reduced mean GCC thickness, which can represent an early stage of optic nerve damage, prior to RNFL loss.

  5. GENDER AND AGE RELATED VARIATION IN CORNEA POWER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... population and how it varies with gender and age. Design: A .... horizontal in orientation. For the purpose of .... race as cornea curvature have been noted to exhibit ... Grosevenor, T. Role of Cornea in Emmetropia and. Myopia.

  6. Motor neurons and glia exhibit specific individualized responses to TDP-43 expression in a Drosophila model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia S. Estes

    2013-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal disease characterized by complex neuronal and glial phenotypes. Recently, RNA-based mechanisms have been linked to ALS via RNA-binding proteins such as TDP-43, which has been studied in vivo using models ranging from yeast to rodents. We have developed a Drosophila model of ALS based on TDP-43 that recapitulates several aspects of pathology, including motor neuron loss, locomotor dysfunction and reduced survival. Here we report the phenotypic consequences of expressing wild-type and four different ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations in neurons and glia. We show that TDP-43-driven neurodegeneration phenotypes are dose- and age-dependent. In motor neurons, TDP-43 appears restricted to nuclei, which are significantly misshapen due to mutant but not wild-type protein expression. In glia and in the developing neuroepithelium, TDP-43 associates with cytoplasmic puncta. TDP-43-containing RNA granules are motile in cultured motor neurons, although wild-type and mutant variants exhibit different kinetic properties. At the neuromuscular junction, the expression of TDP-43 in motor neurons versus glia leads to seemingly opposite synaptic phenotypes that, surprisingly, translate into comparable locomotor defects. Finally, we explore sleep as a behavioral readout of TDP-43 expression and find evidence of sleep fragmentation consistent with hyperexcitability, a suggested mechanism in ALS. These findings support the notion that although motor neurons and glia are both involved in ALS pathology, at the cellular level they can exhibit different responses to TDP-43. In addition, our data suggest that individual TDP-43 alleles utilize distinct molecular mechanisms, which will be important for developing therapeutic strategies.

  7. Motor neurons and glia exhibit specific individualized responses to TDP-43 expression in a Drosophila model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Patricia S; Daniel, Scott G; McCallum, Abigail P; Boehringer, Ashley V; Sukhina, Alona S; Zwick, Rebecca A; Zarnescu, Daniela C

    2013-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease characterized by complex neuronal and glial phenotypes. Recently, RNA-based mechanisms have been linked to ALS via RNA-binding proteins such as TDP-43, which has been studied in vivo using models ranging from yeast to rodents. We have developed a Drosophila model of ALS based on TDP-43 that recapitulates several aspects of pathology, including motor neuron loss, locomotor dysfunction and reduced survival. Here we report the phenotypic consequences of expressing wild-type and four different ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations in neurons and glia. We show that TDP-43-driven neurodegeneration phenotypes are dose- and age-dependent. In motor neurons, TDP-43 appears restricted to nuclei, which are significantly misshapen due to mutant but not wild-type protein expression. In glia and in the developing neuroepithelium, TDP-43 associates with cytoplasmic puncta. TDP-43-containing RNA granules are motile in cultured motor neurons, although wild-type and mutant variants exhibit different kinetic properties. At the neuromuscular junction, the expression of TDP-43 in motor neurons versus glia leads to seemingly opposite synaptic phenotypes that, surprisingly, translate into comparable locomotor defects. Finally, we explore sleep as a behavioral readout of TDP-43 expression and find evidence of sleep fragmentation consistent with hyperexcitability, a suggested mechanism in ALS. These findings support the notion that although motor neurons and glia are both involved in ALS pathology, at the cellular level they can exhibit different responses to TDP-43. In addition, our data suggest that individual TDP-43 alleles utilize distinct molecular mechanisms, which will be important for developing therapeutic strategies.

  8. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers' expertise development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Denise L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the exhibition developer role in the context of United States (U.S.) science centers, and more specifically, to investigate the way science center exhibition developers build their professional expertise. This research investigated how successfully practicing exhibition developers described their current practices, how they learned to be exhibition developers, and what factors were the most important to the developers in building their professional expertise. Qualitative data was gathered from 10 currently practicing exhibition developers from three science centers: the Exploratorium, San Francisco, California; the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois; and the Science Museum of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. In-depth, semistructured interviews were used to collect the data. The study embraced aspects of the phenomenological tradition and sought to derive a holistic understanding of the position and how expertise was built for it. The data were methodically coded and organized into themes prior to analysis. The data analysis found that the position consisted of numerous and varied activities, but the developers' primary roles were advocating for the visitor, storytelling, and mediating information and ideas. They conducted these activities in the context of a team and relied on an established exhibition planning process to guide their work. Developers described a process of learning exhibition development that was experiential in nature. Learning through daily practice was key, though they also consulted with mentors and relied on visitor studies to gauge the effectiveness of their work. They were adept at integrating prior knowledge gained from many aspects of their lives into their practice. The developers described several internal factors that contributed to their expertise development including the desire to help others, a natural curiosity about the world, a commitment to learning, and the ability to accept critique. They

  9. Exhibits Recognition System for Combining Online Services and Offline Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2017-10-01

    In order to achieve a more convenient and accurate digital museum navigation, we have developed a real-time and online-to-offline museum exhibits recognition system using image recognition method based on deep learning. In this paper, the client and server of the system are separated and connected through the HTTP. Firstly, by using the client app in the Android mobile phone, the user can take pictures and upload them to the server. Secondly, the features of the picture are extracted using the deep learning network in the server. With the help of the features, the pictures user uploaded are classified with a well-trained SVM. Finally, the classification results are sent to the client and the detailed exhibition’s introduction corresponding to the classification results are shown in the client app. Experimental results demonstrate that the recognition accuracy is close to 100% and the computing time from the image uploading to the exhibit information show is less than 1S. By means of exhibition image recognition algorithm, our implemented exhibits recognition system can combine online detailed exhibition information to the user in the offline exhibition hall so as to achieve better digital navigation.

  10. Exhibition of Masayuki Miyata's Works of Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the signing of the Sino-Japanese Peace and Friendship Treaty, the CPAFFC held the exhibition of Masayuki Miyata's works of art in the Painting Exhibition Hall of the Palace Museum from October 23 to 27, 2003. Miyata's 124 best works were selected for the exhibition, among which works on the subjects about China and those about Japan were half and half. They drew their materials mainly from Chinese classic literary works such as Records of the Historian, Water Margin, Legend of Heroes in the Tang Dynasty, Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Japanese classic The Story of Genji, etc. Also on display were works of the Japa-nese scenery such as Japan's Four Seasons, Snow, Moon and Flowers, etc. and The Red Fujiyama, a work acknowledged by the United Nations.

  11. Trends in Scottish newborn screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism 1980-2014: strategies for reducing age at notification after initial and repeat sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Chourouk; Ouarezki, Yasmine; Jones, Jeremy; Fitch, Moira; Smith, Sarah; Mason, Avril; Donaldson, Malcolm

    2017-10-01

    To determine ages at first capillary sampling and notification and age at notification after second sampling in Scottish newborns referred with elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Referrals between 1980 and 2014 inclusive were grouped into seven 5-year blocks and analysed according to agreed standards. Of 2 116 132 newborn infants screened, 919 were referred with capillary TSH elevation ≥8 mU/L of whom 624 had definite (606) or probable (18) congenital hypothyroidism. Median age at first sampling fell from 7 to 5 days between 1980 and 2014 (standard 4-7 days), with 22, 8 and 3 infants sampled >7 days during 2000-2004, 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. Median age at notification was consistently ≤14 days, range falling during 2000-2004, 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 from 6 to 78, 7-52 and 7-32 days with 12 (14.6%), 6 (5.6%) and 5 (4.3%) infants notified >14 days. However 18/123 (14.6%) of infants undergoing second sampling from 2000 onwards breached the ≤26-day standard for notification. By 2010-2014, the 91 infants with confirmed congenital hypothyroidism had shown favourable median age at first sample (5 days) with start of treatment (10.5 days) approaching age at notification. Most standards for newborn thyroid screening are being met by the Scottish programme, but there is a need to reduce age range at notification, particularly following second sampling. Strategies to improve screening performance include carrying out initial capillary sampling as close to 96 hours as possible; introducing 6-day laboratory reporting and use of electronic transmission for communicating repeat requests. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Ionizing radiation-induced phosphorylation of RPA p34 is deficient in ataxia telangiectasia and reduced in aged normal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinbo Cheng; Nge Cheong; Ya Wang; Iliakis, George

    1996-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA, also called human single stranded DNA binding protein, hSSB) is a trimeric, multifunctional protein complex involved in DNA replication, DNA repair and recombination. Phosphorylation of RPA p34 subunit is observed after exposure of cells to radiation and other DNA damaging agents, which implicates the protein not only in repair but also in the regulation of replication on damaged DNA template. Here, we show that the phosphorylation observed in RPA p34 after exposure to ionizing radiation, X- or γ-rays, is reduced and occurs later in primary fibroblasts from patients suffering from ataxia telangiectasia (AT), as compared to normal fibroblasts. We also show that in primary normal human fibroblasts, radiation-induced phosphorylation of RPA p34 is 'age'-dependent and decreases significantly as cultures senesce. Radiation-induced phosphorylation of RPA p34 is nearly absent in non-cycling cells, while the expression of p21 cip1/waf1/sdi1 remains inducible. The results demonstrate a growth-stage and culture-age dependency in radiation-induced RPA p34 phosphorylation, and suggest the operation of a signal transduction pathway that is inactivated in senescing or quiescent fibroblasts and defective in AT cells

  13. Effect of Aging Temperature on Corrosion Behavior of Sintered 17-4 PH Stainless Steel in Dilute Sulfuric Acid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk-Nykiel, Aneta; Kazior, Jan

    2017-07-01

    The general corrosion behavior of sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel processed under different processing conditions in dilute sulfuric acid solution at 25 °C was studied by open-circuit potential measurement and potentiodynamic polarization technique. The corrosion resistance was evaluated based on electrochemical parameters, such as polarization resistance, corrosion potential, corrosion current density as well as corrosion rate. The results showed that the precipitation-hardening treatment could significantly improve the corrosion resistance of the sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel in studied environment. As far as the influence of aging temperature on corrosion behavior of the sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel is concerned, polarization resistance and corrosion rate are reduced with increasing aging temperature from 480 up to 500 °C regardless of the temperature of solution treatment. It can be concluded that the highest corrosion resistance in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution exhibits 17-4 PH after solution treatment at 1040 °C followed by aging at 480 °C.

  14. Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in adults aged 65 years and older - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    Since 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine booster dose for all adolescents aged 11 through 18 years (preferred at 11 through 12 years) and for those adults aged 19 through 64 years who have not yet received a dose. In October 2010, despite the lack of an approved Tdap vaccine for adults aged 65 years and older, ACIP recommended that unvaccinated adults aged 65 years and older be vaccinated with Tdap if in close contact with an infant, and that other adults aged 65 years and older may receive Tdap. In July 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved expanding the age indication for Boostrix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) to aged 65 years and older. In February 2012, ACIP recommended Tdap for all adults aged 65 years and older. This recommendation supersedes previous Tdap recommendations regarding adults aged 65 years and older.

  15. Sponsorship and exhibitions at Nordic science centres and museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, Eva; Sørensen, Helene

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology centres (STC) and science museums tend increasingly to rely on external economic support in order to create new exhibitions. But in what ways may the economic situation affect what is presented in their exhibitions? This article aims to explore how staff members consider...

  16. Impaired control of body cooling during heterothermia represents the major energetic constraint in an aging non-human primate exposed to cold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Terrien

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily heterothermia is used by small mammals for energy and water savings, and seems to be preferentially exhibited during winter rather than during summer. This feature induces a trade-off between the energy saved during daily heterothermia and the energy cost of arousal, which can impact energy balance and survival under harsh environmental conditions. Especially, aging may significantly affect such trade off during cold-induced energy stress, but direct evidences are still lacking. We hypothesized that aging could alter the energetics of daily heterothermia, and that the effects could differ according to season. In the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, a non-human primate species which exhibits daily heterothermia, we investigated the effects of exposures to 25 and 12 degrees C on body composition, energy balance, patterns of heterothermia and water turnover in adult (N = 8 and aged animals (N = 7 acclimated to winter-like or summer-like photoperiods. Acclimation to summer prevented animals from deep heterothermia, even during aging. During winter, adult animals at 12 degrees C and aged animals at 25 degrees C exhibited low levels of energy expenditure with minor modulations of heterothermia. The major effects of cold were observed during winter, and were particularly pronounced in aged mouse lemurs which exhibited deep heterothermia phases. Body composition was not significantly affected by age and could not explain the age-related differences in heterothermia patterns. However, aging was associated with increased levels of energy expenditure during cold exposure, in concomitance with impaired energy balance. Interestingly, increased energy expenditure and depth of heterothermia phases were strongly correlated. In conclusion, it appeared that the exhibition of shallow heterothermia allowed energy savings during winter in adult animals only. Aged animals exhibited deep heterothermia and increased levels of energy expenditure, impairing

  17. Long-Lived Termite Queens Exhibit High Cu/Zn-Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Tasaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In most organisms, superoxide dismutases (SODs are among the most effective antioxidant enzymes that regulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by oxidative energy metabolism. ROS are considered main proximate causes of aging. However, it remains unclear if SOD activities are associated with organismal longevity. The queens of eusocial insects, such as termites, ants, and honeybees, exhibit extraordinary longevity in comparison with the nonreproductive castes, such as workers. Therefore, the queens are promising candidates to study the underlying mechanisms of aging. Here, we found that queens have higher Cu/Zn-SOD activity than nonreproductive individuals of the termite Reticulitermes speratus. We identified three Cu/Zn-SOD sequences and one Mn-SOD sequence by RNA sequencing in R. speratus. Although the queens showed higher Cu/Zn-SOD activity than the nonreproductive individuals, there were no differences in their expression levels of the Cu/Zn-SOD genes RsSOD1 and RsSOD3A. Copper (Cu2+ and Cu+ is an essential cofactor for Cu/Zn-SOD enzyme activity, and the queens had higher concentrations of copper than the workers. These results suggest that the high Cu/Zn-SOD activity of termite queens is related to their high levels of the cofactor rather than gene expression. This study highlights that Cu/Zn-SOD activity contributes to extraordinary longevity in termites.

  18. STEM promotion through museum exhibits on cardiac monitoring & cardiac rhythm management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Countryman, Jordan D; Dow, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    Formal education in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) does not successfully engage all of the students who have potential to become skilled in STEM activities and careers. Museum exhibits may be able to reach and engage a broader range of the public. STEM Exhibits that are both understandable and capture the imagination of viewers may contribute toward increased interest in STEM activities. One such topic for such an exhibit could be cardiac pacemakers and cardioverter defibrillators that sustain life. Although museums have existed for centuries, the available types of exhibit designs has dramatically increased in recent decades due to innovations in technology. Science and technology museums have especially taken advantage of the progression of exhibit design to developed new ways to communicate to their viewers. These novel presentation tools allow museums to more effectively convey to and engage viewers. This paper examines the techniques employed by museums in exhibits and considers the practices of several museums with exhibits related to cardiac monitoring (CM) and cardiac rhythm management (CRM).

  19. A New Exhibition in Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Sebastien Pelletier explains states of matter to an enthusiastic group of youngsters during the opening of a new exhibition in Microcosm last week. The Fun with Physics workshop will be offered to all 13-14 year olds in school groups visiting CERN this year. The new Microcosm contents have been developed in collaboration with the local teaching community, and cover particles and the forces that act between them.

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart B of... - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] A Exhibit A to Subpart B of Part 1900 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... REGULATIONS GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals Exhibit A to Subpart B of Part 1900 [Reserved] ...

  1. 75 FR 6079 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the foreign owners or custodians. I also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the Yale Center for... Professional and Cultural Exchanges, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Department of State. [FR Doc...

  2. Informing the Development of Science Exhibitions through Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laherto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    This paper calls for greater use of educational research in the development of science exhibitions. During the past few decades, museums and science centres throughout the world have placed increasing emphasis on their educational function. Although exhibitions are the primary means of promoting visitors' learning, educational research is not…

  3. Insight into the effects of different ageing protocols on Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Baohuai [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China); Ran, Rui, E-mail: ranr@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China); Cao, Yidan; Wu, Xiaodong; Weng, Duan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China); Fan, Jun [The Administrative Center for China' s Agenda 21, 100038 Beijing (China); Wu, Xueyuan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China)

    2014-07-01

    In this work, a catalyst of Rh loaded on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was prepared by impregnating method with rhodium nitrate aqueous solution as the Rh precursor. The catalyst was aged under different protocols (lean, rich, inert and cyclic) to obtain several aged samples. All the Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, CO-chemisorption, H{sub 2}-temperature programmed reduction (H{sub 2}-TPR), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that a specific ageing treatment could strongly affect the catalytic activity. The N{sub 2} aged and the H{sub 2} aged samples had a better catalytic activity for CO + NO reaction than the fresh sample while the air aged and the cyclic aged samples exhibited much worse activity. More surface Rh content and better reducibility were obtained in the N{sub 2} and the H{sub 2} aged samples and the Rh particles existed with an appropriate size, which were all favorable to the catalytic reaction. However, the air and the cyclic ageing protocols induced a strong interaction between Rh species and the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support, which resulted in a severe sintering of particles of Rh species and the loss of active sites. The structure evolution scheme of the catalysts aged in different protocols was also established in this paper.

  4. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... systems, including the special protective systems' automatic switching or load shedding system; and (ii... transfer capability (NITC); system protection; and system stability. (3) A stability analysis including... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications: exhibits...

  5. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Examining aging sexual stigma attitudes among adults by gender, age, and generational status

    OpenAIRE

    Syme, Maggie L.; Cohn, Tracy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual health care for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender.Method: An online survey was administered to a national sample ...

  7. Reduced Frontal Activations at High Working Memory Load in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Michael K; Sze, Sophia L; Woo, Jean; Kwok, Timothy; Shum, David H K; Yu, Ruby; Chan, Agnes S

    2016-01-01

    Some functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported altered activations in the frontal cortex during working memory (WM) performance in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but the findings have been mixed. The objective of the present study was to utilize near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an alternative imaging technique, to examine neural processing during WM performance in individuals with MCI. Twenty-six older adults with MCI (7 males; mean age 69.15 years) were compared with 26 age-, gender-, handedness-, and education-matched older adults with normal cognition (NC; 7 males; mean age 68.87 years). All of the participants undertook an n-back task with a low (i.e., 0-back) and a high (i.e., 2-back) WM load condition while their prefrontal dynamics were recorded by a 16-channel NIRS system. Although behavioral results showed that the two groups had comparable task performance, neuroimaging results showed that the MCI group, unlike the NC group, did not exhibit significantly increased frontal activations bilaterally when WM load increased. Compared to the NC group, the MCI group had similar frontal activations at low load (p > 0.05 on all channels) but reduced activations at high load (p load in individuals with MCI. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Memory's aging echo: age-related decline in neural reactivation of perceptual details during recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Ian M; Cervantes, Sasha N; Gray, Stephen J; Gallo, David A

    2014-09-01

    Episodic memory decline is a hallmark of normal cognitive aging. Here, we report the first event-related fMRI study to directly investigate age differences in the neural reactivation of qualitatively rich perceptual details during recollection. Younger and older adults studied pictures of complex scenes at different presentation durations along with descriptive verbal labels, and these labels subsequently were used during fMRI scanning to cue picture recollections of varying perceptual detail. As expected from prior behavioral work, the two age groups subjectively rated their recollections as containing similar amounts of perceptual detail, despite objectively measured recollection impairment in older adults. In both age groups, comparisons of retrieval trials that varied in recollected detail revealed robust activity in brain regions previously linked to recollection, including hippocampus and both medial and lateral regions of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Critically, this analysis also revealed recollection-related activity in visual processing regions that were active in an independent picture-perception task, and these regions showed age-related reductions in activity during recollection that cannot be attributed to age differences in response criteria. These fMRI findings provide new evidence that aging reduces the absolute quantity of perceptual details that are reactivated from memory, and they help to explain why aging reduces the reliability of subjective memory judgments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Developmental Delays in Executive Function from 3 to 5 Years of Age Predict Kindergarten Academic Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Magnus, Brooke; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Blair, Clancy B

    Substantial evidence has established that individual differences in executive function (EF) in early childhood are uniquely predictive of children's academic readiness at school entry. The current study tested whether growth trajectories of EF across the early childhood period could be used to identify a subset of children who were at pronounced risk for academic impairment in kindergarten. Using data that were collected at the age 3, 4, and 5 home assessments in the Family Life Project ( N = 1,120), growth mixture models were used to identify 9% of children who exhibited impaired EF performance (i.e., persistently low levels of EF that did not show expected improvements across time). Compared to children who exhibited typical trajectories of EF, the delayed group exhibited substantial impairments in multiple indicators of academic readiness in kindergarten (Cohen's ds = 0.9-2.7; odds ratios = 9.8-23.8). Although reduced in magnitude following control for a range of socioeconomic and cognitive (general intelligence screener, receptive vocabulary) covariates, moderate-sized group differences remained (Cohen's ds = 0.2-2.4; odds ratios = 3.9-5.4). Results are discussed with respect to the use of repeated measures of EF as a method of early identification, as well as the resulting translational implications of doing so.

  10. Musculoskeletal system in the old age and the demand for healthy ageing biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Horcajada, Marie Noelle; Moco, Sofia; Franceschi, Claudio; Kussmann, Martin; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Population ageing has emerged as a major demographic trend worldwide due to improved health and longevity. This global ageing phenomenon will have a major impact on health-care systems worldwide due to increased morbidity and greater needs for hospitalization/institutionalization. As the ageing population increases worldwide, there is an increasing awareness not only of increased longevity but also of the importance of "healthy ageing" and "quality of life". Yet, the age related chronic inflammation is believed to be pathogenic with regards to its contribution to frailty and degenerative disorders. In particular, the frailty syndrome is increasingly being considered as a key risk indicator of adverse health outcomes. In addition, elderly may be also prone to be resistant to anabolic stimuli which is likely a key factor in the loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing. Vital to understand these key biological processes is the development of biological markers, through system biology approaches, aiding at strategies for tailored therapeutic and personalized nutritional program. Overall aim is to prevent or attenuate decline of key physiological functions required to live an active, independent life. This review focus on core indicators of health and functions in older adults, where nutrition and tailored personalized programs could exhibit preventive roles, and where the aid of metabolomics technologies are increasingly displaying potential in revealing key molecular mechanisms/targets linked to specific ageing and/or healthy ageing processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Can an active aging index (AAI) provide insight into reducing elder abuse? A case study in Rajshahi District, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareque, Md Ismail; Ahmed, Md Munsur; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul

    2014-01-01

    We use data from respondents aged 60 years and above, collected during April 2009 in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh, to examine whether high activeness, as captured by an AAI or in sub-domains, can help reduce the risk of elder abuse. The findings suggest that more than half of rural elderly and 14 percent of urban elderly were at some point abused. High activeness in health and security dimensions lowers the risk of being abused while those who are low active in community participation have the lowest risk of being abused in both rural and urban areas. Being literate (elderly with primary/secondary education) is revealed to be a significant factor that lowers the risk of abuse in both rural and urban areas. These results imply a need for educational programs that bolster positive and proper community interaction, in turn promoting a secure later life for elders, and reducing burden for families and society. High activeness in health and security dimensions should also be promoted to keep the elderly healthy and protect from abusive behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aging and Barkhausen Noise in the Relaxor Ferroelectric SBN:La and PMN/PT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lambert K.; Colla, Eugene V.; Weissman, M. B.

    2003-03-01

    Relaxor ferroelectrics form a diverse class of materials which exhibit frequency-dependent freezing into a disordered state. The relation to other cooperative glassy freezing, such as in spin glasses, remain uncertain. Previous aging investigations on several relaxors already indicate diverse behavior (E.V. Colla phet al., Phys. Rev. B 63, 134107 (2001)). We present results on aging behavior on PMN/PT (90/10) and SBN:La. SBN:La, believed to fit a random-field Ising model, exhibits complicated aging behavior with a low-temperature regime lacking the memory effects characteristic of spin-glass-like aging seen in the perovskites PMN and PMN/PT. Further information on the glassy freezing is provided via Barkhausen noise experiments using a balanced capacitance bridge technique capable of measuring random noise despite a large systematic background signal [E.V. Colla phet al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 017601 (2002).].

  13. Analysis of the intestinal microbiota of oligo-saccharide fed mice exhibiting reduced resistance to Salmonella infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne; Bergström, Anders; Andersen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    recently demonstrated a reduced resistance to Salmonella infection in mice fed diets containing fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS). In the present study, faecal and caecal samples from the same mice were analysed in order to study microbial changes potentially explaining...... the observed effects on the pathogenesis of Salmonella. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the microbiota in faecal samples from mice fed FOS or XOS were different from faecal samples collected before the feeding trial as well as from faecal profiles generated from control animals...... of short-chain fatty acids was recorded. In conclusion, diets supplemented with FOS or XOS induced a number of microbial changes in the faecal microbiota of mice. The observed effects of XOS were qualitatively similar to those of FOS, but the most prominent bifidogenic effect was seen for XOS. An increased...

  14. Drugs and the Brain: Learning the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain through a virtual brain exhibit in the museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Annetta, Leonard; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn Y.

    2011-01-01

    Drugs and the Brain: A Serious Game, a prototype museum exhibit, was designed to employ virtual models of the brain into a video game format. It was done to create a fun and engaging way of conveying knowledge and concepts about neuroscience, as well as the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate this prototype exhibit that promises to educate participants from various age, ethnicity, and gender backgrounds, and to establish a stronger concept of drug abuse prevention among children. A quantitative methodology using the pre- and post-experimental designs was conducted on 175 museum visitors. A series of two-sample paired t-tests and subsequent ANOVAs were performed to examine the difference between pre- and post-tests and to determine if there was a difference in the results in age, gender, ethnicity, and race. Results showed that both the understanding and attitudes of the participants toward the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain improved significantly (p < 0.01).

  15. New concept of age(ing: Prospective age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While the last century was the century of world population growth, according to demographers, the XXI century will be century of population aging. Statistics undoubtedly show that number of elderly will continue it’s growth in the future. If old age is seen as period of life with reduced physical and mental capabilities and increased disability, and demographic aging as increase of dependent population, trends are quite disturbing, at least in certain societal segments. In developed countries, this population category is no longer treated as passive or as a "burden of society" and efforts are made for better social inclusion of older people. In contrast to growing interest in this phenomenon, the concepts that define the aging of the population remained stagnant. The aim of this paper is to introduce into domestic literature the term "prospective age" as a dynamic category which is more affected with socio-historical conditions, not only with biological as traditional definition of aging suggested. Papers written by Sanderson and Scherbov offer new methodological options for study of population aging, because it takes into account the biometric rather than chronological approach. Calculation of prospective years is a simple operation that requires pair of the same number of remained life expectancy from life tables for two different periods (the year of concern is index, and the one we are comparing with is standard year, so that phrase "40s is the new 30s" or "70s the new 60s" gets scientific foundation. Average remaining years of life represent a realistic indicator suggesting increased capacity, activity and vitality of individuals, which is due to accepted demographic parameters still considered old. „Prospective threshold“ is defined as the age when life expectancy falls below 15 years (it is subjective choice made by Sanderson and Scherbov, which is also used in this paper and during the elaboration of these ideas three demographic

  16. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  17. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Urošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development.

  18. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development. PMID:27114896

  19. The Invisible Universe: A Tactile and Braille Exhibit of Astronomical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, Kimberly; Lestition, K.; Watzke, M.; Steel, S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the "From Earth to the Universe" (FETTU) project, a NASA-funded tactile exhibit for the visually impaired community was launched in July 2009 at the Martin Luther King Library in D.C. The exhibit is part of the global FETTU exhibit, a project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. The science content of the exhibit includes explanations of our Sun, Eta Carinae, Crab Nebula, Whirlpool Galaxy, and the electromagnetic spectrum, and was adapted from the NASA-funded Braille/tactile book Touch the Invisible Sky. Multiple geographic locations and venue types have been targeted for the displays. The FETTU-tactile exhibit opens a wider door to experiencing and understanding astronomy, bridging a gap in learning. This exhibit is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under proposal 08-EPO08-0068 issued through the Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Functional age as an indicator of reservoir senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Krogman, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    It has been conjectured that reservoirs differ in the rate at which they manifest senescence, but no attempt has been made to find an indicator of senescence that performs better than chronological age. We assembled an indicator of functional age by creating a multimetric scale consisting of 10 metrics descriptive of reservoir environments that were expected to change directionally with reservoir senescence. In a sample of 1,022 U.S. reservoirs, chronological age was not correlated with functional age. Functional age was directly related to percentage of cultivated land in the catchment and inversely related to reservoir depth. Moreover, aspects of reservoir fishing quality and fish population characteristics were related to functional age. A multimetric scale to indicate reservoir functional age presents the possibility for management intervention from multiple angles. If a reservoir is functionally aging at an accelerated rate, action may be taken to remedy the conditions contributing most to functional age. Intervention to reduce scores of selected metrics in the scale can potentially reduce the rate of senescence and increase the life expectancy of the reservoir. This leads to the intriguing implication that steps can be taken to reduce functional age and actually make the reservoir grow younger.

  1. Does Formal Employment Reduce Informal Caregiving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daifeng; McHenry, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine the impact of formal employment on informal caregiving. We instrument for individual work hours with state unemployment rates. We find that, among women of prime caregiving ages (40-64 years), working 10% more hours per week reduces the probability of providing informal care by about 2 percentage points. The effects are stronger for more time-intensive caregiving and if care recipients are household members. Our results imply that work-promoting policies have the unintended consequence of reducing informal caregiving in an aging society. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effects of Pre-Strain on the Aging Behavior of Al 7075 Alloy for Hot-Stamping Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Ho Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the significance of pre-strain on the T6 aging behavior of an Al 7075 alloy for evaluating the applicability of hot stamping. In practice, the alloy was pre-strained up to 15% during solution heat treatment at 480 °C prior to quenching, and artificial aging was conducted at 120 °C. The peak aging time and precipitation behavior were compared with the alloy with pre-straining at room temperature after quenching but immediately before the artificial aging. The results showed that increasing amounts of pre-strain tend to reduce the aging time up to 50% for achieving peak hardness, which is consistent with the alloy at the T6 condition. There is a limitation for the maximum attainable amount of pre-strain of 10% for the homogeneous distribution of strain when the alloy is strained at room temperature (RT due to the low formability. The pre-strained alloy as hot stamping exhibited lowering of the peak reaction temperatures for dissolution and formation of Guinier–Preston (GP-Zones and precipitated with increasing amounts of pre-strain towards 15% through the differential scanning calorimetry analysis, thereby confirming the shortening of the peak aging time. The present study confirms the excellent potential of the hot-stamping process to extend the capability of an Al 7075 alloy.

  3. Children's drawings exhibited in the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Elizabeth Roe

    2010-01-01

    "Draw Me A Physicist" has been a success. Members of the public visiting the exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation have praised the scientific and creative balance the children of neighbouring France and the Canton of Geneva have obtained through their visit to CERN.   The Draw Me a Physicist exhibition in the Globe For a six-month period 9 to 11-year olds from the Pays de Gex, Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier have been able to enjoy a balance between science and art, through drawing and defining their interpretations of a physicist. In May, eight pairs of drawings from each participating class were selected by the schools to be displayed on the second floor of the Globe. Since the images have been put up, the viewers have enjoyed the contrast between the "before" pictures of vibrant Albert Einsteins to the "after" pictures of casual people sitting in an office. The large room in the Globe has been transformed from a hollow shell int...

  4. Radiation-related information at science exhibitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannai, Tadaaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of the present report was to promote an efficient utilization of science museums providing with educational information concerning radiations. Investigations were made on radiation-related materials exhibited at 38 museums including PR event sites between April 1996 and July 1998 mainly located on Kanto and Tohoku area in Japan. The investigation concerned as to whether the displays on radiation-related material (cosmic rays, X-rays, etc) existed or not, and as to the background of the display as well. As the result, 14 locations had no relevant displays, 10 of them not having things about atomic energy at all. The locations belonging to electricity company mostly had displays related to radiations and atomic energy power generation. A spark chamber was exhibited at 9 locations and a cloud chamber at 3 locations, but only one location among them displayed both. Displays on the actual use of X-radiation were found at 4 locations. Needs to prepare further improved displays exist at the sites visited. (S. Ohno)

  5. Supercapacitors based on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide and borocarbonitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, K.; Moses, Kota; Govindaraj, A.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (RGO) samples with different nitrogen content, prepared by two different methods, as well as nitrogen-doped few-layer graphene have been investigated as supercapacitor electrodes. Two electrode measurements have been carried out both in aqueous (6M KOH) and in ionic liquid media. Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides exhibit satisfactory specific capacitance, the values reaching 126F/g at a scan rate of 10mV/s in aqueous medium. Besides providing supercapacitor characteristics, the study has shown the nitrogen content and surface area to be important factors. High surface-area borocarbonitrides, BxCyNz, prepared by the urea route appear to be excellent supercapacitor electrode materials. Thus, BC4.5N exhibits a specific capacitance of 169F/g at a scan rate of 10mV/s in aqueous medium. In an ionic liquid medium, nitrogen-doped RGO and BC4.5N exhibit specific capacitance values of 258F/g and 240F/g at a scan rate of 5mV/s. The ionic liquid enables a larger operating voltage range of 0.0-2.5V compared to 0.0-1V in aqueous medium.

  6. Reduced genetic influence on childhood obesity in small for gestational age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dug Yeo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA are at increased risk of developing obesity and metabolic diseases later in life, a risk which is magnified if followed by accelerated postnatal growth. We investigated whether common gene variants associated with adult obesity were associated with increased postnatal growth, as measured by BMI z-score, in children born SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative. Methods A total of 37 candidate SNPs were genotyped on 547 European children (228 SGA and 319 AGA. Repeated measures of BMI (z-score were used for assessing obesity status, and results were corrected for multiple testing using the false discovery rate. Results SGA children had a lower BMI z-score than non-SGA children at assessment age 3.5, 7 and 11 years. We confirmed 27 variants within 14 obesity risk genes to be individually associated with increasing early childhood BMI, predominantly in those born AGA. Conclusions Genetic risk variants are less important in influencing early childhood BMI in those born SGA than in those born AGA, suggesting that non-genetic or environmental factors may be more important in influencing childhood BMI in those born SGA.

  7. Factors Affecting Age at ASD Diagnosis in UK: No Evidence That Diagnosis Age Has Decreased between 2004 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Denise; Warnell, Frances; McConachie, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical initiatives have aimed to reduce the age at ASD diagnosis in the UK. This study investigated whether the median age at diagnosis in childhood has reduced in recent years, and identified the factors associated with earlier diagnosis in the UK. Data on 2,134 children with ASD came from two large family databases. Results showed that the age…

  8. British Museum Exhibition Review: The Jericho Skull, Creating an Ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Hirst

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The temporary exhibit at the British Museum, open 15th December-19th February, and located to the right of the main entrance in the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Gallery (Room 59; is dedicated to a single Neolithic crania from Jericho, known as the Jericho Skull. This exhibit demonstrates the value of relatively recent technologies in archaeological research, highlighting the previously hidden information made possible through CT scanning and the value of these methods in both archaeological research but also in communicating archaeology in a visually stimulating manner which allows an exhibit to take a single item, and create an in depth exhibit featuring both the original material and two cranial 3D prints along with a facial reconstruction.

  9. Protective role of female gender in programmed accelerated renal aging in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijacka, Wioletta; Clifford, Bethan; Tilburgs, Chantal; Joles, Jaap A.; Langley-Evans, Simon; McMullen, Sarah

    The aging kidney exhibits a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate, accompanied by inflammatory and oxidative damage. We hypothesized that accelerated, age-related progression of renal injury is ovarian hormones-dependant. To address this we used an established model of developmentally

  10. Outreach to Science Faculty and Students through Research Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tina; Hebblethwaite, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Penfield Library at the State University of New York at Oswego (SUNY Oswego) has a gallery exhibit space near the front entrance that is used to showcase student-faculty research and art class projects. This article features the library's outreach efforts to science faculty and students through research exhibitions. The library held an exhibition…

  11. Exhibition: Life and Achievements of Maria Sklodowska-Curie

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The exhibition "Life and Achievements of Maria Sklodowska-Curie” will be held at CERN (Pas Perdus Corridor, 1st floor, building 61) from the 8 to 24 March.   It is organised under the auspices of the Ambassador R. Henczel, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the UN Office at Geneva to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry given to Maria Sklodowska-Curie. The exhibition is also one of the events celebrating the 20th anniversary of Poland joining CERN as a Member State. Maria Sklodowska-Curie, Nobel Prize winner both in physics and chemistry, is one of the greatest scientists of Polish origin. The exhibition, consisting of 20 posters, presents her not only as a brilliant scientist, but also an exceptional woman of great heart, character and organizational talents, sensitive to contemporary problems. The authors are Mrs M. Sobieszczak-Marciniak, the director of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Museum in Warsaw and Mrs H. Krajewska, the direct...

  12. An itinerant sensory approach to investigate consumers' perception and acceptability at a food exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Salini, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    In a food exhibition where several producers of the same product category are present at the same time, consumers usually have the opportunity to taste several free samples of the same product type, thus they can experience and compare the sensory characteristics of each and evaluate their liking for each sample tasted. This study assessed the potential of an itinerant sensory data collection in understanding the consumers' perception and acceptance of cheese during a multiple tasting experience at a food exhibition. Subjects tasted seven samples of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese aged for different times (24 and 36months) at seven producer stands and recorded their evaluations using tablets, on which an application specifically developed for this study was installed. This evaluation situation was defined as "pseudo-natural," in opposition to the "natural" and the "naturalistic" settings. The itinerant sensory session comprised a liking test, a rate-all-that-apply (RATA) test using a just about right (JAR) scale, a food pairing test, and a questionnaire. Consumers significantly (panalysis, and decision tree models in investigating the relationships between liking and the RATA data, provided results revealing that the attributes elasticity, sweetness, humidity, fresh fruit, and butter were the main drivers of liking. Whereas, the attributes sourness, bitterness, and hardness were the main drivers of dislike. Therefore, even though no significant differences in terms of liking were observed among the tested cheeses, consumers preferred the attributes more frequently perceived in the least aged products. In conclusion, the presented itinerant sensory approach had provided meaningful information to understand the consumers' cheese perception and acceptability. In the future, it could advantageously be applied for studying food perception in other situations in which subjects naturally choose or consume several products while freely moving from one to another (e.g. self

  13. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carried; and identification of the ten most important industries served. (6) As Exhibit 6, statement as to... application for the financing has been made, evidencing that they have declined the financing unless guaranteed by the Secretary or specifying the terms upon which they will undertake the financing without such...

  14. Localizing age-related individual differences in a hierarchical structure

    OpenAIRE

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Data from 33 separate studies were combined to create an aggregate data set consisting of 16 cognitive variables and 6832 different individuals who ranged between 18 and 95 years of age. Analyses were conducted to determine where in a hierarchical structure of cognitive abilities individual differences associated with age, gender, education, and self-reported health could be localized. The results indicated that each type of individual difference characteristic exhibited a d...

  15. Age-related changes in gait adaptability in response to unpredictable obstacles and stepping targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Schoene, Daniel; Pelicioni, Paulo H S; Sturnieks, Daina L; Menant, Jasmine C

    2016-05-01

    A large proportion of falls in older people occur when walking. Limitations in gait adaptability might contribute to tripping; a frequently reported cause of falls in this group. To evaluate age-related changes in gait adaptability in response to obstacles or stepping targets presented at short notice, i.e.: approximately two steps ahead. Fifty older adults (aged 74±7 years; 34 females) and 21 young adults (aged 26±4 years; 12 females) completed 3 usual gait speed (baseline) trials. They then completed the following randomly presented gait adaptability trials: obstacle avoidance, short stepping target, long stepping target and no target/obstacle (3 trials of each). Compared with the young, the older adults slowed significantly in no target/obstacle trials compared with the baseline trials. They took more steps and spent more time in double support while approaching the obstacle and stepping targets, demonstrated poorer stepping accuracy and made more stepping errors (failed to hit the stepping targets/avoid the obstacle). The older adults also reduced velocity of the two preceding steps and shortened the previous step in the long stepping target condition and in the obstacle avoidance condition. Compared with their younger counterparts, the older adults exhibited a more conservative adaptation strategy characterised by slow, short and multiple steps with longer time in double support. Even so, they demonstrated poorer stepping accuracy and made more stepping errors. This reduced gait adaptability may place older adults at increased risk of falling when negotiating unexpected hazards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Skeletal muscle performance and ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, Michael; Trouwborst, Inez; Clark, Brian C.

    The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical

  17. Modelling the Future: Exhibitions and the Materiality of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Martin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The role of World Exhibitions in the 19th and early 20th centuries was to confirm a relation between the nation state and modernity. As a display about industries, inventions and identities, the Exhibition, in a sense, put entire nations into an elevated, viewable space. It is a significant element in modernity as comparisons can be made, progress…

  18. Aging properties of Kodak type 101 emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohne, B.; Feldman, U.; Neupert, W.

    1984-01-01

    Aging tests for several batches of Kodak type 101 emulsion show that storage conditions significantly influence how well the film will maintain its sensitometric properties, with sensitivity and density increasing to a maximum during this period. Any further aging may result in higher fog levels and sensitivity loss. It is noted that storage in an environment free of photographically active compounds allows film property optimization, and that film batches with different sensitivities age differently. Emulsions with maximum 1700-A sensitivity are 2.5 times faster than those at the low end of the sensitivity scale. These sensitive emulsions exhibit significantly accelerated changes in aging properties. Their use in space applications requires careful consideration of time and temperature profiles, encouraging the use of less sensitive emulsions when the controllability of these factors is limited.

  19. Stereotype threat reduces false recognition when older adults are forewarned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessica T; Gallo, David A

    2016-01-01

    Exposing older adults to ageing stereotypes can reduce their memory for studied information--a phenomenon attributed to stereotype threat--but little is known about stereotype effects on false memory. Here, we assessed ageing stereotype effects on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory illusion. Older adults studied lists of semantically associated words, and then read a passage about age-related memory decline (threat condition) or an age-neutral passage (control condition). They then took a surprise memory test with a warning to avoid false recognition of non-studied associates. Relative to the control condition, activating stereotype threat reduced the recognition of both studied and non-studied words, implicating a conservative criterion shift for associated test words. These results indicate that stereotype threat can reduce false memory, and they help to clarify mixed results from prior ageing research. Consistent with the regulatory focus hypothesis, threat motivates older adults to respond more conservatively when error-prevention is emphasised at retrieval.

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart B of... - Cooperative Agreement (Example)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative Agreement (Example) C Exhibit C to Subpart B of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Exhibit C to Subpart B of Part 1955—Cooperative Agreement (Example) Editorial Note: Exhibit C is not...

  1. Early selection versus late correction: Age-related differences in controlling working memory contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopp, Tina; Mayr, Ulrich; Jost, Kerstin

    2016-08-01

    We examined whether a reduced ability to ignore irrelevant information is responsible for the age-related decline of working memory (WM) functions. By means of event-related brain potentials, we will show that filtering is not out of service in older adults but shifted to a later processing stage. Participants performed a visual short-term memory task (change-detection task) in which targets were presented along with distractors. To allow early selection, a cue was presented in advance of each display, indicating where the targets were to appear. Despite this relatively easy selection criterion, older adults' filtering was delayed as indicated by the amplitude pattern of the contralateral delay activity. Importantly, WM-equated younger adults did not show a delay indicating that the delay is specific to older adults and not a general phenomenon that comes with low WM capacity. Moreover, the analysis of early visual potentials revealed qualitatively different perceptual/attentional processing between the age groups. Young adults exhibited stronger distractor sensitivity that in turn facilitated filtering. Older adults, in contrast, seemed to initially store distractors and to suppress them after the fact. These early selection versus late-correction modes suggest an age-related shift in the strategy to control the contents of WM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. 226Ra/238U disequilibrium in an upland organic soil exhibiting elevated natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.; O'Dea, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study into the anomalous 226 Ra/ 238 U disequilibrium ( 226 Ra/ 238 U of 0.5-9) exhibited by an upland organic soil in Co. Donegal, Ireland. Radiochemical speciation of 226 Ra, 238 U and 228 Ra indicates that in this organic soil the high 226 Ra/ 238 U ratio is due to loss of 238 U relative to 226 Ra via oxidation and mobilisation of 238 U in the upper layers of the soil and subsequent loss in solution. At the lower, more reducing depths of the soil profile, 238 U and 226 Ra are essentially in equilibrium. Loss of 238 U appears to occur primarily from the easily oxidised organic and iron oxide fractions of the soil, samples exhibiting high 226 Ra/ 238 U ratios displaying significantly lower 238 U levels in these fractions than samples whose ratio is below the average value for the soil of the valley. Selective enrichment of 226 Ra by plants or preferential leaching of 226 Ra from the underlying rock is not supported by the results of this study

  3. ]thiophene-Based Nonfullerene Acceptor with High Crystallinity Exhibiting Single Junction Solar Cell Efficiencies Greater than 13% with Low Voltage Losses

    KAUST Repository

    Fei, Zhuping

    2018-01-10

    A new synthetic route, to prepare an alkylated indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene-based nonfullerene acceptor (C8-ITIC), is reported. Compared to the reported ITIC with phenylalkyl side chains, the new acceptor C8-ITIC exhibits a reduction in the optical band gap, higher absorptivity, and an increased propensity to crystallize. Accordingly, blends with the donor polymer PBDB-T exhibit a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 12.4%. Further improvements in efficiency are found upon backbone fluorination of the donor polymer to afford the novel material PFBDB-T. The resulting blend with C8-ITIC shows an impressive PCE up to 13.2% as a result of the higher open-circuit voltage. Electroluminescence studies demonstrate that backbone fluorination reduces the energy loss of the blends, with PFBDB-T/C8-ITIC-based cells exhibiting a small energy loss of 0.6 eV combined with a high JSC of 19.6 mA cm-2 .

  4. ]thiophene-Based Nonfullerene Acceptor with High Crystallinity Exhibiting Single Junction Solar Cell Efficiencies Greater than 13% with Low Voltage Losses

    KAUST Repository

    Fei, Zhuping; Eisner, Flurin D.; Jiao, Xuechen; Azzouzi, Mohammed; Rö hr, Jason A.; Han, Yang; Shahid, Munazza; Chesman, Anthony S. R.; Easton, Christopher D.; McNeill, Christopher R.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Nelson, Jenny; Heeney, Martin

    2018-01-01

    A new synthetic route, to prepare an alkylated indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene-based nonfullerene acceptor (C8-ITIC), is reported. Compared to the reported ITIC with phenylalkyl side chains, the new acceptor C8-ITIC exhibits a reduction in the optical band gap, higher absorptivity, and an increased propensity to crystallize. Accordingly, blends with the donor polymer PBDB-T exhibit a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 12.4%. Further improvements in efficiency are found upon backbone fluorination of the donor polymer to afford the novel material PFBDB-T. The resulting blend with C8-ITIC shows an impressive PCE up to 13.2% as a result of the higher open-circuit voltage. Electroluminescence studies demonstrate that backbone fluorination reduces the energy loss of the blends, with PFBDB-T/C8-ITIC-based cells exhibiting a small energy loss of 0.6 eV combined with a high JSC of 19.6 mA cm-2 .

  5. Vision Problems and Reduced Reading Outcomes in Queensland Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Shelley; Sampson, Geoff P; Hendicott, Peter L; Wood, Joanne M

    2017-03-01

    To assess the relationship between vision and reading outcomes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous schoolchildren to determine whether vision problems are associated with lower reading outcomes in these populations. Vision testing and reading assessments were performed on 508 Indigenous and non-Indigenous schoolchildren in Queensland, Australia divided into two age groups: Grades 1 and 2 (6-7 years of age) and Grades 6 and 7 (12-13 years of age). Vision parameters measured included cycloplegic refraction, near point of convergence, heterophoria, fusional vergence range, rapid automatized naming, and visual motor integration. The following vision conditions were then classified based on the vision findings: uncorrected hyperopia, convergence insufficiency, reduced rapid automatized naming, and delayed visual motor integration. Reading accuracy and reading comprehension were measured with the Neale reading test. The effect of uncorrected hyperopia, convergence insufficiency, reduced rapid automatized naming, and delayed visual motor integration on reading accuracy and reading comprehension were investigated with ANCOVAs. The ANCOVAs explained a significant proportion of variance in both reading accuracy and reading comprehension scores in both age groups, with 40% of the variation in reading accuracy and 33% of the variation in reading comprehension explained in the younger age group, and 27% and 10% of the variation in reading accuracy and reading comprehension, respectively, in the older age group. The vision parameters of visual motor integration and rapid automatized naming were significant predictors in all ANCOVAs (P reading results were explained by reduced visual motor integration and rapid automatized naming results. Both reduced rapid automatized naming and visual motor integration were associated with poorer reading outcomes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. This is an important finding given the recent emphasis placed on Indigenous children

  6. Insulin resistance is associated with lower arterial blood flow and reduced cortical perfusion in cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Berman, Sara E; Rivera-Rivera, Leonardo A; Krause, Rachel A; Oh, Jennifer M; Beeri, Michal S; Rowley, Howard A; Wieben, Oliver; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C; Schrage, William G

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with poor cerebrovascular health and increased risk for dementia. Little is known about the unique effect of IR on both micro- and macrovascular flow particularly in midlife when interventions against dementia may be most effective. We examined the effect of IR as indexed by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) on cerebral blood flow in macro- and microvessels utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. We hypothesized that higher HOMA-IR would be associated with reduced flow in macrovessels and lower cortical perfusion. One hundred and twenty cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults (57 ± 5 yrs) underwent fasting blood draw, phase contrast-vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction (PC VIPR) MRI, and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion. Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower arterial blood flow, particularly within the internal carotid arteries (ICAs), and lower cerebral perfusion in several brain regions including frontal and temporal lobe regions. Higher blood flow in bilateral ICAs predicted greater cortical perfusion in individuals with lower HOMA-IR, a relationship not observed among those with higher HOMA-IR. Findings provide novel evidence for an uncoupling of macrovascular blood flow and microvascular perfusion among individuals with higher IR in midlife. PMID:27488909

  7. Performative exhibition and its different modes of experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    The avant-gardes of the late 60s and 70s challenged many conventions associated with the (classical) modernist art exhibition such as: a static timeless display of autonomous objects, the spectator as a disembodied visual receptor, and the personal experience emphasizing the individual and never...... the social. The avant-gardes have not, however, let to the disappearance of a modernist exhibition format but to a proliferation of formats including some that are more performative in its character, which means: more dynamic, developing over time, with a higher degree of bodily and discursive exchange, and...

  8. Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Strahler, Talia R; Bassett, Candace J; Bispham, Nina Z; Chonchol, Michel B; Seals, Douglas R

    2017-01-03

    We hypothesized that curcumin would improve resistance and conduit artery endothelial function and large elastic artery stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-nine healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of curcumin (2000 mg/day Longvida®; n=20) or placebo (n=19) supplementation. Forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine infusions (FBF ACh ; resistance artery endothelial function) increased 37% following curcumin supplementation (107±13 vs. 84±11 AUC at baseline, P=0.03), but not placebo (P=0.2). Curcumin treatment augmented the acute reduction in FBF ACh induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; P=0.03), and reduced the acute increase in FBF ACh to the antioxidant vitamin C (P=0.02), whereas placebo had no effect (both P>0.6). Similarly, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (conduit artery endothelial function) increased 36% in the curcumin group (5.7±0.4 vs. 4.4±0.4% at baseline, P=0.001), with no change in placebo (P=0.1). Neither curcumin nor placebo influenced large elastic artery stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity or carotid artery compliance) or circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation (all P>0.1). In healthy middle-aged and older adults, 12 weeks of curcumin supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function by increasing vascular nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress, while also improving conduit artery endothelial function.

  9. Magnesium Lithospermate B from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Ameliorates Aging-Induced Renal Inflammation and Senescence via NADPH Oxidase-Mediated Reactive Oxygen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Hum; Shin, Sung Ho; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Min-Jo; Roh, Seong-Soo; Yokozawa, Takako; Chung, Hae Young

    2017-05-01

    The present study was conducted to examine whether magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) extracted from Salviae miltiorrhizae radix was renoprotective in pathways related to age-related oxidative stress in aged rats. Magnesium lithospermate B was orally administered at a dose of 2- or 8-mg/kg body weight for 16 consecutive days, and the effects were compared with those of vehicle in old and young rats. Magnesium lithospermate B administration to old rats ameliorated renal oxidative stress through reduction of reactive oxygen species. The old rats exhibited a dysregulation of the expression of proteins related to oxidative stress and inflammation in the kidneys, and MLB administration significantly reduced the protein expression of major subunits of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox4 and p22 phox ), phospho-p38, nuclear factor-kappa B p65, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, MLB-treated old rats showed lower levels of senescence-related proteins such as p16, ADP-ribosylation factor 6, p53, and p21 through effects on the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Magnesium lithospermate B administration also significantly attenuated the age-related increase in serum urea nitrogen, reflecting renal dysfunction, up-regulated podocyte structural proteins, and reduced renal structural injury. Our results provide important evidence that MLB reduces the renal damage of oxidative stress in old rats. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a