WorldWideScience

Sample records for age distribution genetics

  1. Red blood cell distribution width: Genetic evidence for aging pathways in 116,666 volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Pilling

    Full Text Available Variability in red blood cell volumes (distribution width, RDW increases with age and is strongly predictive of mortality, incident coronary heart disease and cancer. We investigated inherited genetic variation associated with RDW in 116,666 UK Biobank human volunteers.A large proportion RDW is explained by genetic variants (29%, especially in the older group (60+ year olds, 33.8%, <50 year olds, 28.4%. RDW was associated with 194 independent genetic signals; 71 are known for conditions including autoimmune disease, certain cancers, BMI, Alzheimer's disease, longevity, age at menopause, bone density, myositis, Parkinson's disease, and age-related macular degeneration. Exclusion of anemic participants did not affect the overall findings. Pathways analysis showed enrichment for telomere maintenance, ribosomal RNA, and apoptosis. The majority of RDW-associated signals were intronic (119 of 194, including SNP rs6602909 located in an intron of oncogene GAS6, an eQTL in whole blood.Although increased RDW is predictive of cardiovascular outcomes, this was not explained by known CVD or related lipid genetic risks, and a RDW genetic score was not predictive of incident disease. The predictive value of RDW for a range of negative health outcomes may in part be due to variants influencing fundamental pathways of aging.

  2. Distributed genetic process mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratosin, C.C.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining aims at discovering process models from data logs in order to offer insight into the real use of information systems. Most of the existing process mining algorithms fail to discover complex constructs or have problems dealing with noise and infrequent behavior. The genetic process

  3. Age-Related Shifts in the Density and Distribution of Genetic Marker Water Quality Indicators in Cow and Calf Feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that different adult bovine animal feeding practices dramatically influence fecal indicator bacteria shedding, however very little is known about juvenile milk-fed calves. Calves (≤ 6 months of age) make up about 16% of the current bovine population in ...

  4. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  5. Age-Related Shifts in the Density and Distribution of Genetic Marker Water Quality Indicators in Cow and Calf Feces (Journal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calves (≤ 226 kg body mass) make up about 16% of the current bovine population in the United States and can excrete high levels of human pathogens. We describe the density and distribution of genetic markers from 11 PCR- and real-time quantitative PCR-based assays including CF...

  6. Age differences in genetic effect of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohanjanian, E.E.; Sahakian, D.G.; Khachatrian, G.A.; Mkrtichian, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    The age differences in the radiosensitivity of the genetic apparatus of spleen cells, lymphatic ganglion and the epithelium of the mucous uterus have been revealed. In mice not having reached puberty the chromosomes of the cells of the above-mentioned organs are more sensitive to a single radiation dose of 100 R than in mice having reached puberty. (author)

  7. Genetics of healthy aging and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Wilson, Angela R

    2013-12-01

    Longevity and healthy aging are among the most complex phenotypes studied to date. The heritability of age at death in adulthood is approximately 25 %. Studies of exceptionally long-lived individuals show that heritability is greatest at the oldest ages. Linkage studies of exceptionally long-lived families now support a longevity locus on chromosome 3; other putative longevity loci differ between studies. Candidate gene studies have identified variants at APOE and FOXO3A associated with longevity; other genes show inconsistent results. Genome-wide association scans (GWAS) of centenarians vs. younger controls reveal only APOE as achieving genome-wide significance (GWS); however, analyses of combinations of SNPs or genes represented among associations that do not reach GWS have identified pathways and signatures that converge upon genes and biological processes related to aging. The impact of these SNPs, which may exert joint effects, may be obscured by gene-environment interactions or inter-ethnic differences. GWAS and whole genome sequencing data both show that the risk alleles defined by GWAS of common complex diseases are, perhaps surprisingly, found in long-lived individuals, who may tolerate them by means of protective genetic factors. Such protective factors may 'buffer' the effects of specific risk alleles. Rare alleles are also likely to contribute to healthy aging and longevity. Epigenetics is quickly emerging as a critical aspect of aging and longevity. Centenarians delay age-related methylation changes, and they can pass this methylation preservation ability on to their offspring. Non-genetic factors, particularly lifestyle, clearly affect the development of age-related diseases and affect health and lifespan in the general population. To fully understand the desirable phenotypes of healthy aging and longevity, it will be necessary to examine whole genome data from large numbers of healthy long-lived individuals to look simultaneously at both common and

  8. Genetics of healthy aging in Europe: the EU-integrated project GEHA (GEnetics of Healthy Aging)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschi, Claudio; Bezrukov, Vladyslav; Blanché, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the 5-year European Union (EU)-Integrated Project GEnetics of Healthy Aging (GEHA), constituted by 25 partners (24 from Europe plus the Beijing Genomics Institute from China), is to identify genes involved in healthy aging and longevity, which allow individuals to survive to advanced old......DNA). The genetic analysis will be performed by 9 high-throughput platforms, within the framework of centralized databases for phenotypic, genetic, and mtDNA data. Additional advanced approaches (bioinformatics, advanced statistics, mathematical modeling, functional genomics and proteomics, molecular biology...... age in good cognitive and physical function and in the absence of major age-related diseases. To achieve this aim a coherent, tightly integrated program of research that unites demographers, geriatricians, geneticists, genetic epidemiologists, molecular biologists, bioinfomaticians, and statisticians...

  9. The exponential age distribution and the Pareto firm size distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Coad, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Recent work drawing on data for large and small firms has shown a Pareto distribution of firm size. We mix a Gibrat-type growth process among incumbents with an exponential distribution of firm’s age, to obtain the empirical Pareto distribution.

  10. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; Morales, Manuel R González; Straus, Lawrence G; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-06-09

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3-6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory.

  11. Evolutionary model with genetics, aging, and knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos, Armando Ticona; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo

    2004-02-01

    We represent a process of learning by using bit strings, where 1 bits represent the knowledge acquired by individuals. Two ways of learning are considered: individual learning by trial and error, and social learning by copying knowledge from other individuals or from parents in the case of species with parental care. The age-structured bit string allows us to study how knowledge is accumulated during life and its influence over the genetic pool of a population after many generations. We use the Penna model to represent the genetic inheritance of each individual. In order to study how the accumulated knowledge influences the survival process, we include it to help individuals to avoid the various death situations. Modifications in the Verhulst factor do not show any special feature due to its random nature. However, by adding years to life as a function of the accumulated knowledge, we observe an improvement of the survival rates while the genetic fitness of the population becomes worse. In this latter case, knowledge becomes more important in the last years of life where individuals are threatened by diseases. Effects of offspring overprotection and differences between individual and social learning can also be observed. Sexual selection as a function of knowledge shows some effects when fidelity is imposed.

  12. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P.; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; González Morales, Manuel R.; Straus, Lawrence G.; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A.; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J.; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P.; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. We analyze genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas the earliest modern humans in Europe did not contribute substantially to present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. A ~35,000 year old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe during the Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a new genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners appears in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European pre-history. PMID:27135931

  13. Agrochemicals and genetic aging of crop varieties (Juxtaposition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.Y.; Ali, N.; Khan, A.R.; Qayyum, A.; Manzoor, W.

    2002-01-01

    Agrochemicals are indispensable in agriculture, but their frequent and indiscriminate use incurs caryological irregularities and mutagenic effects on cell-cytongenetic apparatus. These kinds of abnormalities at chromosome level disturb the normal process of their packaging and distribution at the time of cell-division, create phenotypic alterations in the plant and inflict genetic aging upon the crop-varieties. Thus, laboratory-testing of the agrochemicals for their cytotoxicity must be a regular feature in the country and the least cytotoxic formulation should only be recommended for commercial use. (author)

  14. Linking age, survival, and transit time distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Salvatore; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-10-01

    Although the concepts of age, survival, and transit time have been widely used in many fields, including population dynamics, chemical engineering, and hydrology, a comprehensive mathematical framework is still missing. Here we discuss several relationships among these quantities by starting from the evolution equation for the joint distribution of age and survival, from which the equations for age and survival time readily follow. It also becomes apparent how the statistical dependence between age and survival is directly related to either the age dependence of the loss function or the survival-time dependence of the input function. The solution of the joint distribution equation also allows us to obtain the relationships between the age at exit (or death) and the survival time at input (or birth), as well as to stress the symmetries of the various distributions under time reversal. The transit time is then obtained as a sum of the age and survival time, and its properties are discussed along with the general relationships between their mean values. The special case of steady state case is analyzed in detail. Some examples, inspired by hydrologic applications, are presented to illustrate the theory with the specific results. This article was corrected on 11 Nov 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  15. Age trends in Douglas-fir genetic parameters and implications for optimum selection age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Johnson; R.A. Sniezko; N.L. Mandel

    1997-01-01

    rends in genetic variation were examined over 51 progeny test sites throughout western Oregon. Narrow sense heritabilities for height and diameter showed an increasing trend to age 25, the oldest age examined. Before age 10, height heritabilities were relatively unstable. Type B site-site genetic correlations increased slowly with age for height and remained relatively...

  16. A roadmap for the genetic analysis of renal aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordmans, Gerda A.; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Korstanje, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Several studies show evidence for the genetic basis of renal disease, which renders some individuals more prone than others to accelerated renal aging. Studying the genetics of renal aging can help us to identify genes involved in this process and to unravel the underlying pathways. First, this

  17. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND ECO-GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Department of Microbial, Cellular & Molecular Biology, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia ... floccifolia were analysed for genetic variation and inter-relationships using 20 microsatellite ... categorised as one of the most problematic weeds.

  18. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000–7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–...... ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory....

  19. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fu, Q.; Posth, C.; Hajdinjak, M.; Petr, M.; Mallick, S.; Fernandes, D.; Furtwängler, A.; Haak, W.; Meyer, M.; Mittnik, A.; Nickel, B.; Peltzer, A.; Rohland, N.; Slon, V.; Talamo, S.; Lazaridis, I.; Lipson, M.; Mathieson, I.; Schiffels, S.; Skoglund, P.; Derevianko, A. P.; Drozdov, N.; Slavinsky, V.; Tsybankov, A.; Cremonesi, R. G.; Mallegni, F.; Gély, B.; Vacca, E.; Morales, M. R. G.; Straus, L. G.; Neugebauer-Maresch, Ch.; Teschler-Nicola, M.; Constantin, S.; Moldovan, O. T.; Benazzi, S.; Peresani, M.; Coppola, D.; Lari, M.; Ricci, S.; Ronchitelli, A.; Valentin, F.; Thevenet, C.; Wehrberger, K.; Grigorescu, D.; Rougier, H.; Crevecoeur, I.; Flas, D.; Semal, P.; Mannino, M. A.; Cupillard, Ch.; Bocherens, H.; Conard, N. J.; Harvati, K.; Moiseyev, V.; Drucker, D. G.; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, M. P.; Caramelli, D.; Pinhasi, R.; Kelso, J.; Patterson, N.; Krause, J.; Pääbo, S.; Reich, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 534, č. 7606 (2016), s. 200-205 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : genetics * Pleistocene * Europe * modern humans * Neanderthal Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016

  20. A roadmap for the genetic analysis of renal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordmans, Gerda A; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; van Goor, Harry; Korstanje, Ron

    2015-10-01

    Several studies show evidence for the genetic basis of renal disease, which renders some individuals more prone than others to accelerated renal aging. Studying the genetics of renal aging can help us to identify genes involved in this process and to unravel the underlying pathways. First, this opinion article will give an overview of the phenotypes that can be observed in age-related kidney disease. Accurate phenotyping is essential in performing genetic analysis. For kidney aging, this could include both functional and structural changes. Subsequently, this article reviews the studies that report on candidate genes associated with renal aging in humans and mice. Several loci or candidate genes have been found associated with kidney disease, but identification of the specific genetic variants involved has proven to be difficult. CUBN, UMOD, and SHROOM3 were identified by human GWAS as being associated with albuminuria, kidney function, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). These are promising examples of genes that could be involved in renal aging, and were further mechanistically evaluated in animal models. Eventually, we will provide approaches for performing genetic analysis. We should leverage the power of mouse models, as testing in humans is limited. Mouse and other animal models can be used to explain the underlying biological mechanisms of genes and loci identified by human GWAS. Furthermore, mouse models can be used to identify genetic variants associated with age-associated histological changes, of which Far2, Wisp2, and Esrrg are examples. A new outbred mouse population with high genetic diversity will facilitate the identification of genes associated with renal aging by enabling high-resolution genetic mapping while also allowing the control of environmental factors, and by enabling access to renal tissues at specific time points for histology, proteomics, and gene expression. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John

  1. A roadmap for the genetic analysis of renal aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordmans, Gerda A; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; van Goor, Harry; Korstanje, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Several studies show evidence for the genetic basis of renal disease, which renders some individuals more prone than others to accelerated renal aging. Studying the genetics of renal aging can help us to identify genes involved in this process and to unravel the underlying pathways. First, this opinion article will give an overview of the phenotypes that can be observed in age-related kidney disease. Accurate phenotyping is essential in performing genetic analysis. For kidney aging, this could include both functional and structural changes. Subsequently, this article reviews the studies that report on candidate genes associated with renal aging in humans and mice. Several loci or candidate genes have been found associated with kidney disease, but identification of the specific genetic variants involved has proven to be difficult. CUBN, UMOD, and SHROOM3 were identified by human GWAS as being associated with albuminuria, kidney function, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). These are promising examples of genes that could be involved in renal aging, and were further mechanistically evaluated in animal models. Eventually, we will provide approaches for performing genetic analysis. We should leverage the power of mouse models, as testing in humans is limited. Mouse and other animal models can be used to explain the underlying biological mechanisms of genes and loci identified by human GWAS. Furthermore, mouse models can be used to identify genetic variants associated with age-associated histological changes, of which Far2, Wisp2, and Esrrg are examples. A new outbred mouse population with high genetic diversity will facilitate the identification of genes associated with renal aging by enabling high-resolution genetic mapping while also allowing the control of environmental factors, and by enabling access to renal tissues at specific time points for histology, proteomics, and gene expression. PMID:26219736

  2. On the age distribution of galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    I consider the general solution for the distribution of ages for primary cosmic rays for a class of steady-state, bounded models of cosmic-ray diffusion in the galaxy. Both one dimensional and three-dimensional models are considered, with point sources and distributed sources. In all models, the age distribution is approximately exponential for ages longer than the average age, although for shorter ages the distribution depends on the details of the model. (orig.) [de

  3. Genetic and environmental effects of mortality before age 70 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Andersen, Per Kragh; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: There is a familial influence on risk of many diseases and on mortality in general, which, according to studies of twins, is due to a combination of genetic and environmental effects. Adoption studies, which rest on different assumptions, may also be used to estimate separately...... the genetic and environmental effects on rate of dying. METHODS:: The genetic influence on the rate of dying before age 70 years was investigated by estimation of the associations in total and cause-specific mortality of Danish adoptees and their biologic full and half siblings. Familial environmental...

  4. Exploring Genetic Factors Involved in Huntington Disease Age of Onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valcárcel-Ocete, Leire; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Iriondo, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    age (motor AO or mAO). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed between genetic variation within 20 candidate genes and eAO or mAO, using DNA and clinical information of 253 HD patients from REGISTRY project. Gene expression analyses were carried out by RT-qPCR with an independent sample......Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp) in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim...... of this study is to explore the contribution of candidate genetic factors to HD AO in order to gain insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this disorder. For that purpose, two AO definitions were used: the earliest age with unequivocal signs of HD (earliest AO or eAO), and the first motor symptoms...

  5. Distribution of age at menopause in two Danish samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, J L; Jeune, B

    1990-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of reported age at natural menopause in two random samples of Danish women (n = 176 and n = 150) to determine the shape of the distribution and to disclose any possible trends in the distribution parameters. It was necessary to correct the frequencies of the reported...... ages for the effect of differing ages at reporting. The corrected distribution of age at menopause differs from the normal distribution in the same way in both samples. Both distributions could be described by a mixture of two normal distributions. It appears that most of the parameters of the normal...... distribution mixtures remain unchanged over a 50-year time lag. The position of the distribution, that is, the mean age at menopause, however, increases slightly but significantly....

  6. Facial averageness and genetic quality: Testing heritability, genetic correlation with attractiveness, and the paternal age effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2016-01-01

    Popular theory suggests that facial averageness is preferred in a partner for genetic benefits to offspring. However, whether facial averageness is associated with genetic quality is yet to be established. Here, we computed an objective measure of facial averageness for a large sample ( N = 1,823) of identical and nonidentical twins and their siblings to test two predictions from the theory that facial averageness reflects genetic quality. First, we use biometrical modelling to estimate the heritability of facial averageness, which is necessary if it reflects genetic quality. We also test for a genetic association between facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Second, we assess whether paternal age at conception (a proxy of mutation load) is associated with facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Our findings are mixed with respect to our hypotheses. While we found that facial averageness does have a genetic component, and a significant phenotypic correlation exists between facial averageness and attractiveness, we did not find a genetic correlation between facial averageness and attractiveness (therefore, we cannot say that the genes that affect facial averageness also affect facial attractiveness) and paternal age at conception was not negatively associated with facial averageness. These findings support some of the previously untested assumptions of the 'genetic benefits' account of facial averageness, but cast doubt on others.

  7. Genetic Resources in the “Calabaza Pipiana” Squash (Cucurbita argyrosperma) in Mexico: Genetic Diversity, Genetic Differentiation and Distribution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-de la Vega, Guillermo; Castellanos-Morales, Gabriela; Gámez, Niza; Hernández-Rosales, Helena S.; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Aguirre-Planter, Erika; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan P.; Montes-Hernández, Salvador; Lira-Saade, Rafael; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    2018-01-01

    Analyses of genetic variation allow understanding the origin, diversification and genetic resources of cultivated plants. Domesticated taxa and their wild relatives are ideal systems for studying genetic processes of plant domestication and their joint is important to evaluate the distribution of their genetic resources. Such is the case of the domesticated subspecies C. argyrosperma ssp. argyrosperma, known in Mexico as calabaza pipiana, and its wild relative C. argyrosperma ssp. sororia. The main aim of this study was to use molecular data (microsatellites) to assess the levels of genetic variation and genetic differentiation within and among populations of domesticated argyrosperma across its distribution in Mexico in comparison to its wild relative, sororia, and to identify environmental suitability in previously proposed centers of domestication. We analyzed nine unlinked nuclear microsatellite loci to assess levels of diversity and distribution of genetic variation within and among populations in 440 individuals from 19 populations of cultivated landraces of argyrosperma and from six wild populations of sororia, in order to conduct a first systematic analysis of their genetic resources. We also used species distribution models (SDMs) for sororia to identify changes in this wild subspecies’ distribution from the Holocene (∼6,000 years ago) to the present, and to assess the presence of suitable environmental conditions in previously proposed domestication sites. Genetic variation was similar among subspecies (HE = 0.428 in sororia, and HE = 0.410 in argyrosperma). Nine argyrosperma populations showed significant levels of inbreeding. Both subspecies are well differentiated, and genetic differentiation (FST) among populations within each subspecies ranged from 0.152 to 0.652. Within argyrosperma we found three genetic groups (Northern Mexico, Yucatan Peninsula, including Michoacan and Veracruz, and Pacific coast plus Durango). We detected low levels of gene

  8. Genetic Resources in the “Calabaza Pipiana” Squash (Cucurbita argyrosperma in Mexico: Genetic Diversity, Genetic Differentiation and Distribution Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sánchez-de la Vega

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of genetic variation allow understanding the origin, diversification and genetic resources of cultivated plants. Domesticated taxa and their wild relatives are ideal systems for studying genetic processes of plant domestication and their joint is important to evaluate the distribution of their genetic resources. Such is the case of the domesticated subspecies C. argyrosperma ssp. argyrosperma, known in Mexico as calabaza pipiana, and its wild relative C. argyrosperma ssp. sororia. The main aim of this study was to use molecular data (microsatellites to assess the levels of genetic variation and genetic differentiation within and among populations of domesticated argyrosperma across its distribution in Mexico in comparison to its wild relative, sororia, and to identify environmental suitability in previously proposed centers of domestication. We analyzed nine unlinked nuclear microsatellite loci to assess levels of diversity and distribution of genetic variation within and among populations in 440 individuals from 19 populations of cultivated landraces of argyrosperma and from six wild populations of sororia, in order to conduct a first systematic analysis of their genetic resources. We also used species distribution models (SDMs for sororia to identify changes in this wild subspecies’ distribution from the Holocene (∼6,000 years ago to the present, and to assess the presence of suitable environmental conditions in previously proposed domestication sites. Genetic variation was similar among subspecies (HE = 0.428 in sororia, and HE = 0.410 in argyrosperma. Nine argyrosperma populations showed significant levels of inbreeding. Both subspecies are well differentiated, and genetic differentiation (FST among populations within each subspecies ranged from 0.152 to 0.652. Within argyrosperma we found three genetic groups (Northern Mexico, Yucatan Peninsula, including Michoacan and Veracruz, and Pacific coast plus Durango. We detected low

  9. Genetic mouse models of brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras

    2014-05-01

    Progression of brain ageing is influenced by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Analysis of genetically modified animals with uniform genetic backgrounds in a standardised, controlled environment enables the dissection of critical determinants of brain ageing on a molecular level. Human and animal studies suggest that increased load of damaged macromolecules, efficacy of DNA maintenance, mitochondrial activity, and cellular stress defences are critical determinants of brain ageing. Surprisingly, mouse lines with genetic impairment of anti-oxidative capacity generally did not show enhanced cognitive ageing but rather an increased sensitivity to oxidative challenge. Mouse lines with impaired mitochondrial activity had critically short life spans or severe and rapidly progressing neurodegeneration. Strains with impaired clearance in damaged macromolecules or defects in the regulation of cellular stress defences showed alterations in the onset and progression of cognitive decline. Importantly, reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling generally increased life span but impaired cognitive functions revealing a complex interaction between ageing of the brain and of the body. Brain ageing is accompanied by an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Transgenic mouse models expressing high levels of mutant human amyloid precursor protein showed a number of symptoms and pathophysiological processes typical for early phase of Alzheimer's disease. Generally, therapeutic strategies effective against Alzheimer's disease in humans were also active in the Tg2576, APP23, APP/PS1 and 5xFAD lines, but a large number of false positive findings were also reported. The 3xtg AD model likely has the highest face and construct validity but further studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling the genetic risk in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grassmann

    Full Text Available Late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a common sight-threatening disease of the central retina affecting approximately 1 in 30 Caucasians. Besides age and smoking, genetic variants from several gene loci have reproducibly been associated with this condition and likely explain a large proportion of disease. Here, we developed a genetic risk score (GRS for AMD based on 13 risk variants from eight gene loci. The model exhibited good discriminative accuracy, area-under-curve (AUC of the receiver-operating characteristic of 0.820, which was confirmed in a cross-validation approach. Noteworthy, younger AMD patients aged below 75 had a significantly higher mean GRS (1.87, 95% CI: 1.69-2.05 than patients aged 75 and above (1.45, 95% CI: 1.36-1.54. Based on five equally sized GRS intervals, we present a risk classification with a relative AMD risk of 64.0 (95% CI: 14.11-1131.96 for individuals in the highest category (GRS 3.44-5.18, 0.5% of the general population compared to subjects with the most common genetic background (GRS -0.05-1.70, 40.2% of general population. The highest GRS category identifies AMD patients with a sensitivity of 7.9% and a specificity of 99.9% when compared to the four lower categories. Modeling a general population around 85 years of age, 87.4% of individuals in the highest GRS category would be expected to develop AMD by that age. In contrast, only 2.2% of individuals in the two lowest GRS categories which represent almost 50% of the general population are expected to manifest AMD. Our findings underscore the large proportion of AMD cases explained by genetics particularly for younger AMD patients. The five-category risk classification could be useful for therapeutic stratification or for diagnostic testing purposes once preventive treatment is available.

  11. Genetic disorders affecting white matter in the pediatric age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Maja; Biancheri, Roberta; Rossi, Andrea; Filocamo, Mirella; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2004-08-15

    Pediatric white matter disorders can be distinguished into well-defined leukoencephalopathies, and undefined leukoencephalopathies. The first category may be subdivided into: (a) hypomyelinating disorders; (b) dysmyelinating disorders; (c) leukodystrophies; (d) disorders related to cystic degeneration of myelin; and (e) disorders secondary to axonal damage. The second category, representing up to 50% of leukoencephalopathies in childhood, requires a multidisciplinar approach in order to define novel homogeneous subgroups of patients, possibly representing "new genetic disorders" (such as megalencephalic leukoencepahlopathy with subcortical cysts and vanishing white matter disease that have recently been identified). In the majority of cases, pediatric white matter disorders are inherited diseases. An integrated description of the clinical, neuroimaging and pathophysiological features is crucial for categorizing myelin disorders and better understanding their genetic basis. A review of the genetic disorders affecting white matter in the pediatric age, including some novel entities, is provided. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Genetic variants and cognitive aging: destiny or a nudge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Naftali; Lustig, Cindy

    2014-06-01

    One would be hard-pressed to find a human trait that is not heritable at least to some extent, and genetics have played an important role in behavioral science for more than half a century. With the advent of high-throughput molecular methods and the increasing availability of genomic analyses, genetics have acquired a firm foothold in public discourse. However, although the proliferation of genetic association studies and ever-expanding library of single-nucleotide polymorphisms have generated some fascinating results, they have thus far fallen short of delivering the anticipated dramatic breakthroughs. In this collection of eight articles, we present a spectrum of efforts aimed at finding more nuanced and meaningful ways of integrating genomic findings into the study of cognitive aging. The articles present examples of Mendelian randomization in the service of investigating difficult-to-manipulate biochemical properties of human participants. Furthermore, in an important step forward, they acknowledge the interactive effects of genes and physiological risk factors on age-related difference and change in cognitive performance, as well as the possibility of modifying the negative effect of genetic variants by lifestyle changes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Genetic variation in glia-neuron signalling modulates ageing rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiang-An; Gao, Ge; Liu, Xi-Juan; Hao, Zi-Qian; Li, Kai; Kang, Xin-Lei; Li, Hong; Shan, Yuan-Hong; Hu, Wen-Li; Li, Hai-Peng; Cai, Shi-Qing

    2017-11-08

    The rate of behavioural decline in the ageing population is remarkably variable among individuals. Despite the considerable interest in studying natural variation in ageing rate to identify factors that control healthy ageing, no such factor has yet been found. Here we report a genetic basis for variation in ageing rates in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that C. elegans isolates show diverse lifespan and age-related declines in virility, pharyngeal pumping, and locomotion. DNA polymorphisms in a novel peptide-coding gene, named regulatory-gene-for-behavioural-ageing-1 (rgba-1), and the neuropeptide receptor gene npr-28 influence the rate of age-related decline of worm mating behaviour; these two genes might have been subjected to recent selective sweeps. Glia-derived RGBA-1 activates NPR-28 signalling, which acts in serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons to accelerate behavioural deterioration. This signalling involves the SIR-2.1-dependent activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, a pathway that modulates ageing. Thus, natural variation in neuropeptide-mediated glia-neuron signalling modulates the rate of ageing in C. elegans.

  14. Applying Multivariate Discrete Distributions to Genetically Informative Count Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Neale, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel method of conducting biometric analysis of twin data when the phenotypes are integer-valued counts, which often show an L-shaped distribution. Monte Carlo simulation is used to compare five likelihood-based approaches to modeling: our multivariate discrete method, when its distributional assumptions are correct, when they are incorrect, and three other methods in common use. With data simulated from a skewed discrete distribution, recovery of twin correlations and proportions of additive genetic and common environment variance was generally poor for the Normal, Lognormal and Ordinal models, but good for the two discrete models. Sex-separate applications to substance-use data from twins in the Minnesota Twin Family Study showed superior performance of two discrete models. The new methods are implemented using R and OpenMx and are freely available.

  15. From evolution theory to parallel and distributed genetic

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Lecture #1: From Evolution Theory to Evolutionary Computation. Evolutionary computation is a subfield of artificial intelligence (more particularly computational intelligence) involving combinatorial optimization problems, which are based to some degree on the evolution of biological life in the natural world. In this tutorial we will review the source of inspiration for this metaheuristic and its capability for solving problems. We will show the main flavours within the field, and different problems that have been successfully solved employing this kind of techniques. Lecture #2: Parallel and Distributed Genetic Programming. The successful application of Genetic Programming (GP, one of the available Evolutionary Algorithms) to optimization problems has encouraged an increasing number of researchers to apply these techniques to a large set of problems. Given the difficulty of some problems, much effort has been applied to improving the efficiency of GP during the last few years. Among the available proposals,...

  16. Ecological and genetic determinants of plasmid distribution in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medaney, Frances; Ellis, Richard J; Raymond, Ben

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial plasmids are important carriers of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Nevertheless, little is known of the determinants of plasmid distribution in bacterial populations. Here the factors affecting the diversity and distribution of the large plasmids of Escherichia coli were explored in cattle grazing on semi-natural grassland, a set of populations with low frequencies of antibiotic resistance genes. Critically, the population genetic structure of bacterial hosts was chararacterized. This revealed structured E. coli populations with high diversity between sites and individuals but low diversity within cattle hosts. Plasmid profiles, however, varied considerably within the same E. coli genotype. Both ecological and genetic factors affected plasmid distribution: plasmid profiles were affected by site, E. coli diversity, E. coli genotype and the presence of other large plasmids. Notably 3/26 E. coli serotypes accounted for half the observed plasmid-free isolates indicating that within species variation can substantially affect carriage of the major conjugative plasmids. The observed population structure suggest that most of the opportunities for within species plasmid transfer occur between different individuals of the same genotype and support recent experimental work indicating that plasmid-host coevolution, and epistatic interactions on fitness costs are likely to be important in determining occupancy. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The genetics of aging in optimal and stressful environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The genetic basis of aging in Drosophila varies according to environment, as shown by variations in temperatures and levels of 60 Co-γ irradiation. Under conditions of extreme stress large additive differences occur not found under less acute stresses. In addition, longevities of strains are not necessarily correlated across levels of 60 C0-γ irradiation or temperatures, so that studies of the genetics of aging are not only relevant to the environment selected. Given these results on experimental animals, it appears impossible to separate clearly genetic and environmental factors determining longevity in man - a conclusion that in any case appears likely from human studies. In experimental organisms such as Drosophila, differences between genotypes for longevity are magnified under stress compared with optimal environments. Hybrid and heterozygote superiority frequently occur for density-independent physical stresses of the environment as well as density-dependent behavioral stresses due to crowding levels. It is argued that these conclusions apply to man, so that for maximum longevity genotypes are likely to be highly heterozygous. (author)

  18. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: does age of onset matter (anymore)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Timothy

    2009-06-01

    The identification and avoidance of disease susceptibility in embryos is the most common goal of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Most jurisdictions that accept but regulate the availability of PGD restrict it to what are characterized as 'serious' conditions. Line-drawing around seriousness is not determined solely by the identification of a genetic mutation. Other factors seen to be relevant include: impact on health or severity of symptoms; degree of penetrance (probability of genotype being expressed as a genetic disorder); potential for therapy; rate of progression; heritability; and age of onset. In the original applications of PGD, most, if not all of these factors were seen as necessary but none was seen as sufficient for determining whether a genetic condition was labelled 'serious'. This, however, is changing as impact on health or severity of symptoms is coming to eclipse the other considerations. This paper investigates how age of onset (primarily in the context of the United Kingdom (UK)) has become considerably less significant as a criterion for determining ethically acceptable applications of PGD. Having moved off the threshold of permitting PGD testing for only fatal (or seriously debilitating), early-onset diseases, I will investigate reasons for why age of onset will not do any work to discriminate between which adult-onset diseases should be considered serious or not. First I will explain the rationale underpinning age of onset as a factor to be weighed in making determinations of seriousness. Next I will challenge the view that later-onset conditions are less serious for being later than earlier-onset conditions. The final section of the paper will discuss some of the broader disability concerns at stake in limiting access to PGD based upon determinations of the 'seriousness' of genetic conditions. Instead of advocating a return to limiting PGD to only early-onset conditions, I conclude that the whole enterprise of trying to draw lines

  19. Partial Results Regarding the Genetic Analysis of Thoroughbred Horse from Cislău Studfarm: Reproductive Isolation and Age Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Maftei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is a part of an ample research concerning the genetic analysis (history of Thoroughbred horses from Cislău studfarm. The genetic analysis studies are a part of Animal Genetic Resources Management because just start of them we elaborate the strategies for inbreeding management. This study has as purpose to present two important aspects of genetic analysis: reproductive isolation level and age structure.This parameters has a capital importance in animal breeding because there has a directly influence in animal population evolution. The reproductive isolation situation was quantified using the relation elaborated by S. Wright in 1921. The age structure situation is based on the age distribution histogram. The analysis showed that the Nonius horse from Izvin stud is a reproductively isolated population and have its own evolutionary path. Age structure is not balanced with negative repercurssions on generation interval.

  20. Buffering mechanisms in aging: a systems approach toward uncovering the genetic component of aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Bergman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An unrealized potential to understand the genetic basis of aging in humans, is to consider the immense survival advantage of the rare individuals who live 100 years or more. The Longevity Gene Study was initiated in 1998 at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine to investigate longevity genes in a selected population: the "oldest old" Ashkenazi Jews, 95 years of age and older, and their children. The study proved the principle that some of these subjects are endowed with longevity-promoting genotypes. Here we reason that some of the favorable genotypes act as mechanisms that buffer the deleterious effect of age-related disease genes. As a result, the frequency of deleterious genotypes may increase among individuals with extreme lifespan because their protective genotype allows disease-related genes to accumulate. Thus, studies of genotypic frequencies among different age groups can elucidate the genetic determinants and pathways responsible for longevity. Borrowing from evolutionary theory, we present arguments regarding the differential survival via buffering mechanisms and their target age-related disease genes in searching for aging and longevity genes. Using more than 1,200 subjects between the sixth and eleventh decades of life (at least 140 subjects in each group, we corroborate our hypotheses experimentally. We study 66 common allelic site polymorphism in 36 candidate genes on the basis of their phenotype. Among them we have identified a candidate-buffering mechanism and its candidate age-related disease gene target. Previously, the beneficial effect of an advantageous cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP-VV genotype on lipoprotein particle size in association with decreased metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, as well as with better cognitive function, have been demonstrated. We report an additional advantageous effect of the CETP-VV (favorable genotype in neutralizing the deleterious effects of the lipoprotein(a (LPA gene

  1. Age distribution dynamics with stochastic jumps in mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Salvatore; Porporato, Amilcare; Laio, Francesco; D'Odorico, Paolo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-11-01

    While deterministic age distribution models have been extensively studied and applied in various disciplines, little work has been devoted to understanding the role of stochasticity in birth and mortality terms. In this paper, we analyse a stochastic M'Kendrick-von Foerster equation in which jumps in mortality represent intense losses of population due to external events. We present explicit solutions for the probability density functions of the age distribution and the total population and for the temporal dynamics of their moments. We also derive the dynamics of the mean age of the population and its harmonic mean. The framework is then used to calculate the age distribution of salt in the soil root zone, where the accumulation of salt by atmospheric deposition is counteracted by plant uptake and by jump losses due to percolation events.

  2. Genetic influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms from age 2 to 3: A quantitative and molecular genetic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudino Kimberly J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A twin study design was used to assess the degree to which additive genetic variance influences ADHD symptom scores across two ages during infancy. A further objective in the study was to observe whether genetic association with a number of candidate markers reflects results from the quantitative genetic analysis. Method We have studied 312 twin pairs at two time-points, age 2 and age 3. A composite measure of ADHD symptoms from two parent-rating scales: The Child Behavior Checklist/1.5 - 5 years (CBCL hyperactivity scale and the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (RRPSPC was used for both quantitative and molecular genetic analyses. Results At ages 2 and 3 ADHD symptoms are highly heritable (h2 = 0.79 and 0.78, respectively with a high level of genetic stability across these ages. However, we also observe a significant level of genetic change from age 2 to age 3. There are modest influences of non-shared environment at each age independently (e2 = 0.22 and 0.21, respectively, with these influences being largely age-specific. In addition, we find modest association signals in DAT1 and NET1 at both ages, along with suggestive specific effects of 5-HTT and DRD4 at age 3. Conclusions ADHD symptoms are heritable at ages 2 and 3. Additive genetic variance is largely shared across these ages, although there are significant new effects emerging at age 3. Results from our genetic association analysis reflect these levels of stability and change and, more generally, suggest a requirement for consideration of age-specific genotypic effects in future molecular studies.

  3. Optimization Route of Food Logistics Distribution Based on Genetic and Graph Cluster Scheme Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study takes the concept of food logistics distribution as the breakthrough point, by means of the aim of optimization of food logistics distribution routes and analysis of the optimization model of food logistics route, as well as the interpretation of the genetic algorithm, it discusses the optimization of food logistics distribution route based on genetic and cluster scheme algorithm.

  4. Analyzing age-specific genetic effects on human extreme age survival in cohort-based longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Jacobsen, Rune; Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of age-specific genetic effects on human survival over extreme ages is confronted with a deceleration pattern in mortality that deviates from traditional survival models and sparse genetic data available. As human late life is a distinct phase of life history, exploring the genetic...... effects on extreme age survival can be of special interest to evolutionary biology and health science. We introduce a non-parametric survival analysis approach that combines population survival information with individual genotype data in assessing the genetic effects in cohort-based longitudinal studies...

  5. The changing age distribution of prostate cancer in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutel, C Ineke; Gao, Ru-Nie; Blood, Paul A; Gaudette, Leslie A

    2007-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence rates are still increasing steadily; mortality rates are levelling, possibly decreasing; and hospitalization rates for many diagnoses are decreasing. Our objective is to examine changes in age distributions of prostate cancer during these times of change. Prostate cancer cases were derived from the Canadian Cancer Registry, prostate cancer deaths from Vital Statistics, hospitalizations from the Hospital Morbidity File. Age-standardized rates were calculated based on the 1991 Canadian population. A prevalence correction for incidence rates was calculated. Age-specific incidence rates increased until 1995 for all ages, but a superimposed peak (1991-94) was greatest between ages 60-79. After 1995, increases in incidence continued for the under-70 age groups. Prevalence correction indicated the greatest underestimation of incidence rates for the oldest ages, but was less in Canada than in the United States. Mortality rates increased until 1994, then levelled and slowly decreased; age-specific mortality rates showed the greatest increase for the oldest ages but the earliest downturn for younger age groups. While hospitalizations dropped drastically after 1991, this drop was confined to elderly men (70+). Dramatic changes in age distributions of prostate cancer incidence, mortality and hospitalizations altered age profiles of men with prostate cancer. This illustrated the changing nature of prostate cancer as a public health issue and has important implications for health care provision, e.g., the increased numbers of younger new patients have different needs from the increasing numbers of elderly long-term patients who now spend less time in hospital.

  6. The National Institute on Aging Genetics of Alzheimer’s Disease Data Storage Site (NIAGADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Institute on Aging Genetics of Alzheimer's Disease Data Storage Site (NIAGADS) is a national genetics data repository facilitating access to genotypic...

  7. The prevalence and age distribution of peripheral pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This autopsy-based study defined the prevalence and age distribution of peripheral pulmonary hamartomas in 47635 southern African miners examined between 1975 and 1988. The prevalence rate for white miners was 7,5/1000 and for black miners 1,1/1 000. When directly standardised to the white men in the general ...

  8. Can anchovy age structure be estimated from length distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis provides a new time-series of proportions-at-age 1, together with associated standard errors, for input into assessments of the resource. The results also caution against the danger of scientists reading more information into data than is really there. Keywords: anchovy, effective sample size, length distribution, ...

  9. Genetic analysis of intracapillary glomerular lipoprotein deposits in aging mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda A Noordmans

    Full Text Available Renal aging is characterized by functional and structural changes like decreased glomerular filtration rate, and glomerular, tubular and interstitial damage. To gain insight in pathways involved in renal aging, we studied aged mouse strains and used genetic analysis to identify genes associated with aging phenotypes.Upon morphological screening in kidneys from 20-month-old mice from 26 inbred strains we noted intracapillary PAS-positive deposits. The severity of these deposits was quantified by scoring of a total of 50 glomeruli per section (grade 0-4. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemical staining for apoE, apoB, apoA-IV and perilipin-2 was performed to further characterize the lesions. To identify loci associated with these PAS-positive intracapillary glomerular deposits, we performed haplotype association mapping.Six out of 26 mouse strains showed glomerular PAS-positive deposits. The severity of these deposits varied: NOD(0.97, NZW(0.41, NON(0.30, B10(0.21, C3 H(0.9 and C57BR(0.7. The intracapillary deposits were strongly positive for apoE and weakly positive for apoB and apoA-IV. Haplotype association mapping showed a strong association with a 30-Kb haplotype block on Chr 1 within the Esrrg gene. We investigated 1 Mb on each site of this region, which includes the genes Spata17, Gpatch2, Esrrg, Ush2a and Kctd3.By analyzing 26 aged mouse strains we found that some strains developed an intracapillary PAS and apoE-positive lesion and identified a small haplotype block on Chr 1 within the Esrrg gene to be associated with these lipoprotein deposits. The region spanning this haplotype block contains the genes Spata17, Gpatch2, Esrrg, Ush2a and Kctd3, which are all highly expressed in the kidney. Esrrg might be involved in the evolvement of these glomerular deposits by influencing lipid metabolism and possibly immune reponses.

  10. Barley seed ageing: genetics behind the dry elevated pressure of oxygen ageing and moist controlled deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eNagel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental seed ageing approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the elevated partial pressure of oxygen (EPPO approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed ageing under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of ageing with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom (OWB-D, carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to ageing in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec (OWB-R, carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses using 2,832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions.

  11. Human Ageing Genomic Resources: Integrated databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacutu, Robi; Craig, Thomas; Budovsky, Arie; Wuttke, Daniel; Lehmann, Gilad; Taranukha, Dmitri; Costa, Joana; Fraifeld, Vadim E.; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR, http://genomics.senescence.info) is a freely available online collection of research databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing. HAGR features now several databases with high-quality manually curated data: (i) GenAge, a database of genes associated with ageing in humans and model organisms; (ii) AnAge, an extensive collection of longevity records and complementary traits for >4000 vertebrate species; and (iii) GenDR, a newly incorporated database, containing both gene mutations that interfere with dietary restriction-mediated lifespan extension and consistent gene expression changes induced by dietary restriction. Since its creation about 10 years ago, major efforts have been undertaken to maintain the quality of data in HAGR, while further continuing to develop, improve and extend it. This article briefly describes the content of HAGR and details the major updates since its previous publications, in terms of both structure and content. The completely redesigned interface, more intuitive and more integrative of HAGR resources, is also presented. Altogether, we hope that through its improvements, the current version of HAGR will continue to provide users with the most comprehensive and accessible resources available today in the field of biogerontology. PMID:23193293

  12. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  13. Genetic and environmental effects on mortality before age 70 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Andersen, Per Kragh; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a familial influence on risk of many diseases and on mortality in general, which, according to studies of twins, is due to a combination of genetic and environmental effects. Adoption studies, which rest on different assumptions, may also be used to estimate separately the genetic...

  14. Age related distributive justice and claims on resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, S

    1996-03-01

    The ageing population structure, and claims on resources by non-working groups, are seen by many to be contributing to a growing welfare crisis. In their arguments, relations between age groups and generations will become increasingly fraught, and welfare arrangements will be undermined, as 'unacceptable' levels of taxation blight the experience of a contracting workforce, required to resource a growing welfare population. However, more seems to be known about researchers' views on distributive justice than is known about the perceptions of their subject populations. It has not been demonstrated that members of age groups share interests which are consonant with their cohort experience, or perceive their interests to be in conflict with those members of other age groups or generations. This paper analyses empirical evidence on people's perceptions of who should get, and do, what, in developing an argument that standard processes do not place age groups or generations in antagonistic relationship. Understanding the relations between age groups and generations is essential to explaining change in patterns of inequality, but the interdependence of these relations suggest that they are part of a coherent social structure, and not likely to give rise to crisis in the ways predicted.

  15. Genetic diversity and distribution of Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton under climate change scenarios in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque-Lazo, Joaquín; Durka, Walter; Hauenschild, Frank; Schnitzler, Jan; Michalak, Ingo; Ogundipe, Oluwatoyin Temitayo; Muellner-Riehl, Alexandra Nora

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to impact species’ genetic diversity and distribution. We used Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, an economically important species distributed in the Sudano-Sahelian savannah belt of West Africa, to investigate the impact of climate change on intraspecific genetic diversity and distribution. We used ten nuclear and two plastid microsatellite markers to assess genetic variation, population structure and differentiation across thirteen sites in West Africa. We projected suitable range, and potential impact of climate change on genetic diversity using a maximum entropy approach, under four different climate change scenarios. We found higher genetic and haplotype diversity at both nuclear and plastid markers than previously reported. Genetic differentiation was strong for chloroplast and moderate for the nuclear genome. Both genomes indicated three spatially structured genetic groups. The distribution of Senegalia senegal is strongly correlated with extractable nitrogen, coarse fragments, soil organic carbon stock, precipitation of warmest and coldest quarter and mean temperature of driest quarter. We predicted 40.96 to 6.34 per cent of the current distribution to favourably support the species’ ecological requirements under future climate scenarios. Our results suggest that climate change is going to affect the population genetic structure of Senegalia senegal, and that patterns of genetic diversity are going to influence the species’ adaptive response to climate change. Our study contributes to the growing evidence predicting the loss of economically relevant plants in West Africa in the next decades due to climate change. PMID:29659603

  16. Aging based maintenance and reinvestment scheduling of electric distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpijarvi, J.

    2012-07-01

    The maintenance of electric distribution network is a topical question for distribution system operators because of increasing significance of failure costs. In this dissertation the maintenance practices of the distribution system operators are analyzed and a theory for scheduling maintenance activities and reinvestment of distribution components is created. The scheduling is based on the deterioration of components and the increasing failure rates due to aging. The dynamic programming algorithm is used as a solving method to maintenance problem which is caused by the increasing failure rates of the network. The other impacts of network maintenance like environmental and regulation reasons are not included to the scope of this thesis. Further the tree trimming of the corridors and the major disturbance of the network are not included to the problem optimized in this thesis. For optimizing, four dynamic programming models are presented and the models are tested. Programming is made in VBA-language to the computer. For testing two different kinds of test networks are used. Because electric distribution system operators want to operate with bigger component groups, optimal timing for component groups is also analyzed. A maintenance software package is created to apply the presented theories in practice. An overview of the program is presented (orig.)

  17. Genetic Variance in Processing Speed Drives Variation in Aging of Spatial and Memory Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; McArdle, John J.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the correlation between declines with age in processing speed and higher cognitive abilities. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories…

  18. The molecular genetic basis of age-related macular degeneration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-12-10

    Dec 10, 2009 ... this review, we have provided an overview on the underlying molecular genetic mechanisms in AMD worldwide and highlight ..... eases like diabetes (Scott et al. ...... 2006 Systematic review and meta-analysis of.

  19. The gender difference in the brain FDG distribution with aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Jinguji, Megumi; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Nakajo, Masayuki; Nakajo, M.; Tateno, T.; Jinnouchi, S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the change in brain fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution with aging. Subjects were 85 men and 116 women who had no mental abnormality and no evidence of cancer in the whole body FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) study for cancer checkup. The brain data were extracted from whole body data, and stratified according to the age: 30-39 (M: 10, F: 18), 40-49 (M: 11, F: 14), 50-59 (M: 10, F: 27), 60-64 (M: 11, F: 13), 65-69 (M: 11, F: 11), 70-74 (M: 11, F: 10), 75-79 (M: 13, F: 11), over 80 (M: 8, F: 12) years. Forties or more male and female stratified age groups were compared with each gender 30's age data using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM)2. In the man, the FDG activity of the bilateral temporal and frontal lobes decreased and the decreased domains were expanded with aging. But in the females, the decreased domains were complicated in 40-69 years old. Dynamic changes of sex hormones in the individual female menopause may affect the complicated results in the females. Further studies are needed to confirm it. (author)

  20. Genetic Complexity of Episodic Memory: A Twin Approach to Studies of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremen, William S.; Spoon, Kelly M.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Franz, Carol E.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Xian, Hong; Rana, Brinda K.; Toomey, Rosemary; McKenzie, Ruth; Lyons, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory change is a central issue in cognitive aging, and understanding that process will require elucidation of its genetic underpinnings. A key limiting factor in genetically informed research on memory has been lack of attention to genetic and phenotypic complexity, as if “memory is memory” and all well-validated assessments are essentially equivalent. Here we applied multivariate twin models to data from late-middle-aged participants in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging to examine the genetic architecture of 6 measures from 3 standard neuropsychological tests: the California Verbal Learning Test-2, and Wechsler Memory Scale-III Logical Memory (LM) and Visual Reproductions (VR). An advantage of the twin method is that it can estimate the extent to which latent genetic influences are shared or independent across different measures before knowing which specific genes are involved. The best-fitting model was a higher order common pathways model with a heritable higher order general episodic memory factor and three test-specific subfactors. More importantly, substantial genetic variance was accounted for by genetic influences that were specific to the latent LM and VR subfactors (28% and 30%, respectively) and independent of the general factor. Such unique genetic influences could partially account for replication failures. Moreover, if different genes influence different memory phenotypes, they could well have different age-related trajectories. This approach represents an important step toward providing critical information for all types of genetically informative studies of aging and memory. PMID:24956007

  1. Distribution and population genetics of walleye and sauger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haponski, Amanda E.; Sloss, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving genetic diversity and local adaptations are management priorities for wild populations of exploited species, which increasingly are subject to climate change, habitat loss, and pollution. These constitute growing concerns for the walleye Sander vitreus, an ecologically and economically valuable North American temperate fish with large Laurentian Great Lakes' fisheries. This study compares genetic diversity and divergence patterns across its widespread native range using mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences and nine nuclear DNA microsatellite (μsat) loci, examining historic and contemporary influences. We analyze the genetic and morphological characters of a putative endemic variant– “blue pike” S. v. “glaucus” –described from Lakes Erie and Ontario, which became extinct. Walleye with turquoise-colored mucus also are evaluated, since some have questioned whether these are related to the “blue pike”.

  2. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  3. Cardiovascular genetic assessment and treatment in middle age to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors as a preventable cause of cognitive decline, morbidity and mortality is an important clinical goal. The apolipoprotein E (Apo E) gene provides a genetic link between CVD and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The E4 allele increases the risk ...

  4. Genetic diversity and distribution patterns of host insects of Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Qing-Mei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Wang, Xi; Li, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Yun-Guo; Wang, Mu; Cheng, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world, and it requires host insects in family Hepialidae (Lepidoptera) to complete its life cycle. However, the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structures of the host insects remain to be explored. We analyzed the genetic diversity and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of genetic variation of the host insects throughout the O. sinensis distribution. Abundant haplotype and nucleotide diversity mainly existed in the areas of Nyingchi, ShangriLa, and around the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where are considered as the diversity center or micro-refuges of the host insects of O. sinensis. However, there was little genetic variation among host insects from 72.1% of all populations, indicating that the host species composition might be relatively simple in large-scale O. sinensis populations. All host insects are monophyletic except for those from four O. sinensis populations around Qinghai Lake. Significant phylogeographic structure (NST>GST, Pinsects, and the three major phylogenetic groups corresponded with specific geographical areas. The divergence of most host insects was estimated to have occurred at ca. 3.7 Ma, shortly before the rapid uplift of the QTP. The geographical distribution and star-like network of the haplotypes implied that most host insects were derived from the relicts of a once-widespread host that subsequently became fragmented. Neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and expansion time estimation confirmed that most host insects presented recent demographic expansions that began ca. 0.118 Ma in the late Pleistocene. Therefore, the genetic diversity and distribution of the present-day insects should be attributed to effects of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift and glacial advance/retreat cycles during the Quaternary ice age. These results provide valuable information to guide the protection and sustainable use of these host

  5. Genetic diversity and distribution patterns of host insects of Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Mei Quan

    Full Text Available The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world, and it requires host insects in family Hepialidae (Lepidoptera to complete its life cycle. However, the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structures of the host insects remain to be explored. We analyzed the genetic diversity and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of genetic variation of the host insects throughout the O. sinensis distribution. Abundant haplotype and nucleotide diversity mainly existed in the areas of Nyingchi, ShangriLa, and around the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where are considered as the diversity center or micro-refuges of the host insects of O. sinensis. However, there was little genetic variation among host insects from 72.1% of all populations, indicating that the host species composition might be relatively simple in large-scale O. sinensis populations. All host insects are monophyletic except for those from four O. sinensis populations around Qinghai Lake. Significant phylogeographic structure (NST>GST, P<0.05 was revealed for the monophyletic host insects, and the three major phylogenetic groups corresponded with specific geographical areas. The divergence of most host insects was estimated to have occurred at ca. 3.7 Ma, shortly before the rapid uplift of the QTP. The geographical distribution and star-like network of the haplotypes implied that most host insects were derived from the relicts of a once-widespread host that subsequently became fragmented. Neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and expansion time estimation confirmed that most host insects presented recent demographic expansions that began ca. 0.118 Ma in the late Pleistocene. Therefore, the genetic diversity and distribution of the present-day insects should be attributed to effects of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift and glacial advance/retreat cycles during the Quaternary ice age. These results provide valuable

  6. Could refuge theory and rivers acting as barriers explain the genetic variability distribution in the Atlantic Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazé, Ana Luiza R; Mäder, Geraldo; Nunes, Teonildes S; Queiroz, Luciano P; de Oliveira, Guilherme; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2016-08-01

    The Atlantic Forest is one of the most species-rich ecoregions in the world. The historical origins of this richness and the evolutionary processes that produced diversification and promoted speciation in this ecosystem remain poorly understood. In this context, focusing on Passiflora contracta, an endemic species from the Atlantic Forest distributed exclusively at sea level along forest edges, this study aimed to characterize the patterns of genetic variability and explore two hypotheses that attempt to explain the possible causes of the genetic diversity in this region: the refuge and riverine barrier theories. We employed Bayesian methods combined with niche modeling to identify genetically homogeneous groups, to determine the diversification age, and identify long-term climate stability areas to species survival. The analyses were performed using molecular markers from nuclear and plastid genomes, with samples collected throughout the entire geographic distribution of the species, and comparisons with congeners species. The results indicated that populations were genetically structured and provided evidence of demographic stability. The molecular markers indicated the existence of a clear structure and the presence of five homogeneous groups. Interestingly, the separation of the groups coincides with the geographical locations of local rivers, corroborating the hypothesis of rivers acting as barriers to gene flow in this species. The highest levels of genetic diversity and the areas identified as having long-term climate stability were found in the same region reported for other species as a possible refuge area during the climatic changes of the Quaternary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Virus evolutionary genetic algorithm for task collaboration of logistics distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Fanghua; Chen, Zichen; Xiong, Li

    2005-12-01

    In order to achieve JIT (Just-In-Time) level and clients' maximum satisfaction in logistics collaboration, a Virus Evolutionary Genetic Algorithm (VEGA) was put forward under double constraints of logistics resource and operation sequence. Based on mathematic description of a multiple objective function, the algorithm was designed to schedule logistics tasks with different due dates and allocate them to network members. By introducing a penalty item, make span and customers' satisfaction were expressed in fitness function. And a dynamic adaptive probability of infection was used to improve performance of local search. Compared to standard Genetic Algorithm (GA), experimental result illustrates the performance superiority of VEGA. So the VEGA can provide a powerful decision-making technique for optimizing resource configuration in logistics network.

  8. Design, recruitment, logistics, and data management of the GEHA (Genetics of Healthy Ageing) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytthe, A; Valensin, S; Jeune, B

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the integrated European project GEHA (Genetics of Healthy Ageing) was initiated with the aim of identifying genes involved in healthy ageing and longevity. The first step in the project was the recruitment of more than 2500 pairs of siblings aged 90years or more together with one younger...

  9. Genetics of Unilateral and Bilateral Age-Related Macular Degeneration Severity Stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schick, T.; Altay, L.; Viehweger, E.; Hoyng, C.B.; Hollander, A.I. den; Felsch, M.; Fauser, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common disease causing visual impairment and blindness. Various gene variants are strongly associated with late stage AMD, but little is known about the genetics of early forms of the disease. This study evaluated associations of genetic

  10. Effect of sex, age, and breed on genetic recombination features in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...

  11. Genetics of ovarian ageing : genetic association studies on natural menopause and primary ovarian insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorhuis, M.

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is the endpoint of a process referred to as ovarian ageing. The mean age at menopause is approximately 51 years, but varies widely between 40 to 60 years of age. Approximately 1% of all women experience menopause before the age of 40, which is a condition known as primary ovarian

  12. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Shungin (Dmitry); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); D.C. Croteau-Chonka (Damien); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A. Locke (Adam); R. Mägi (Reedik); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); T.H. Pers (Tune); K. Fischer (Krista); A.E. Justice (Anne); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); J.M.W. Wu (Joseph M. W.); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); T.S. Roman (Tamara S.); A. Drong (Alexander); C. Song (Ci); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); F.R. Day (Felix); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); Z. Kutalik (Zolta'n); J. Luan; J.C. Randall (Joshua); A. Scherag (Andre); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); A.R. Wood (Andrew); J. Chen (Jin); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); J. Karjalainen (Juha); B. Kahali (Bratati); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); M. Beekman (Marian); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); S. Buyske (Steven); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); G.B. Ehret (Georg); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A. Goel (Anuj); A.U. Jackson (Anne); T. Johnson (Toby); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); K. Kristiansson (Kati); M. Mangino (Massimo); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); C. Palmer (Cameron); D. Pasko (Dorota); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); I. Prokopenko (Inga); A. Stanca'kova' (Alena); Y.J. Sung (Yun Ju); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); L. Yengo (Loic); W. Zhang (Weihua); E. Albrecht (Eva); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); G.M. Arscott (Gillian M.); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A. Barrett (Angela); C. Bellis (Claire); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); C. Berne (Christian); M. Blüher (Matthias); S. Böhringer (Stefan); F. Bonnet (Fabrice); Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); M. Bruinenberg (M.); D.B. Carba (Delia B.); I.H. Caspersen (Ida H.); R. Clarke (Robert); E.W. Daw (E. Warwick); J. Deelen (Joris); E. Deelman (Ewa); G. Delgado; A.S.F. Doney (Alex); N. Eklund (Niina); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); E. Eury (Elodie); N. Friedrich (Nele); M. Garcia (Melissa); V. Giedraitis (Vilmantas); B. Gigante (Bruna); A. Go (Attie); A. Golay (Alain); H. Grallert (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); J. Gräsler (Jürgen); J. Grewal (Jagvir); C.J. Groves (Christopher); T. Haller (Toomas); G. Hallmans (Göran); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); M. Hassinen (Maija); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Heikkilä (Kauko); K.H. Herzig; Q. Helmer (Quinta); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); S.C. Hunt (Steven); A. Isaacs (Aaron); T. Ittermann (Till); A.L. James (Alan); I. Johansson (Inger); T. Juliusdottir (Thorhildur); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); L. Kinnunen (Leena); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I.K. Kooner (Ishminder K.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); C. Lamina (Claudia); K. Leander (Karin); N.R. Lee (Nanette R.); P. Lichtner (Peter); L. Lind (Lars); J. Lindström (Jaana); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); F. MacH (François); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); A. Mahajan (Anubha); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R. Mills (Rebecca); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); K.L. Monda (Keri); S.P. Mooijaart (Simon); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M.A. Nalls (Michael); N. Narisu (Narisu); N. Glorioso (Nicola); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); M. Olden (Matthias); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); J.S. Ried (Janina); N.R. Robertson (Neil R.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); S. Scholtens (Salome); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); C.M. Sitlani (Colleen); G.D. Smith; K. Stirrups (Kathy); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Sundstrom (Johan); M. Swertz (Morris); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvanen; B. Tayo (Bamidele); B. Thorand (Barbara); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); C. Troffa (Chiara); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); N. Verweij (Niek); J.M. Vonk (Judith); L. Waite (Lindsay); R. Wennauer (Roman); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Wong (Andrew); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); E.P. Brennan (Eoin P.); M. Choi (Murim); P. Eriksson (Per); L. Folkersen (Lasse); A. Franco-Cereceda (Anders); A.G. Gharavi (Ali G.); A.K. Hedman (Asa); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J. Huang (Jinyan); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); F. Karpe (Fredrik); S. Keildson (Sarah); K. Kiryluk (Krzysztof); L. Liang (Liming); R.P. Lifton (Richard); B. Ma (Baoshan); A.J. McKnight (Amy J.); R. McPherson (Ruth); A. Metspalu (Andres); J.L. Min (Josine L.); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J. Murabito (Joanne); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); C. Olsson (Christian); J.R.B. Perry (John); E. Reinmaa (Eva); R.M. Salem (Rany); N. Sandholm (Niina); E.E. Schadt (Eric); R.A. Scott (Robert); L. Stolk (Lisette); E.E. Vallejo (Edgar E.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); P. Amouyel (Philippe); D. Arveiler (Dominique); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); J.P. Beilby (John); R.N. Bergman (Richard); J. Blangero (John); M.J. Brown (Morris); M. Burnier (Michel); H. Campbell (Harry); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); F.S. Collins (Francis); D.C. Crawford (Dana); J. Danesh (John); U. de Faire (Ulf); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); M. Dörr (Marcus); R. Erbel (Raimund); K. Hagen (Knut); M. Farrall (Martin); E. Ferrannini (Ele); J. Ferrieres (Jean); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); T. Forrester (Terrence); O.H. Franco (Oscar); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); M. Heliovaara (Markku); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); S.E. Humphries (Steve); E. Hypponen (Elina); T. Illig (Thomas); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); B. Johansen (Berit); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); F. Kee (F.); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); C. Kooperberg (Charles); P. Kovacs (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); M. Kumari (Meena); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Le Marchand (Loic); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); A. Marette (Andre'); T.C. Matise (Tara C.); C.A. McKenzie (Colin A.); B. McKnight (Barbara); A.W. Musk (Arthur); S. Möhlenkamp (Stefan); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M. Nelis (Mari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); K.K. Ong (Ken K.); C. Palmer (Cameron); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); A. Peters (Annette); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); O. Raitakari (Olli); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.D. Ritchie (Marylyn D.); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter E. H.); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J.A. Staessen (Jan); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Tönjes (Anke); A. Tremblay (Angelo); E. Tremoli (Elena); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); U. Völker (Uwe); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James F); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L.S. Adair (Linda); M. Bochud (Murielle); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan R.); C. Bouchard (Claude); S. Cauchi (Ste'phane); M. Caulfield (Mark); J.C. Chambers (John C.); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); R.S. Cooper (Richard S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); P. Froguel (Philippe); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); A. Hamsten (Anders); J. Hui (Jennie); K. Hveem (Kristian); K.-H. Jöckel (Karl-Heinz); M. Kivimaki (Mika); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laakso (Markku); Y. Liu (YongMei); W. März (Winfried); P. Munroe (Patricia); I. Njølstad (Inger); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); U. Peters (Ulrike); C. Power (Christopher); T. Quertermous (Thomas); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); T. Saaristo (Timo); D. Saleheen; J. Sinisalo (Juha); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); H. Snieder (Harold); T.D. Spector (Timothy); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); P. van der Harst (Pim); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); M. Walker (Mark); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Franke (Lude); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); J.R. O´Connell; L. Qi (Lu); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); C.J. Willer (Cristen); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); K.E. North (Kari); C.S. Fox (Caroline S.); I.E. Barroso (Inês); P.W. Franks (Paul); D. Anderson (Denise); E. Ingelsson (Erik); I.M. Heid (Iris); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); A.P. Morris (Andrew); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); K.L. Mohlke (Karen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBody fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct

  13. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E.; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Pers, Tune H.; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M. W.; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Roman, Tamara S.; Drong, Alexander W.; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C.; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B.; Caspersen, Ida H.; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R.; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E.; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J.; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L.; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C.; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A.; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M.; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S.; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G.; Hedman, Åsa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J.; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R. B.; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E.; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T.; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J.; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E.; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W.; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Adair, Linda S.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Richard S.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Willer, Cristen J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Zillikens, M. Carola; McCarthy, Mark I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W.; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Dastani, Zari; Timpson, Nicholas; Yuan, Xin; Henneman, Peter; Kizer, Jorge R.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Fuchsberger, Christian; Small, Kerrin; Coassin, Stefan; Lohman, Kurt; Pankow, James S.; Uh, Hae-Won; Wu, Ying; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Greenwood, Celia M. T.; Ladouceur, Martin; Grimsby, Jonna; Manning, Alisa K.; Kooner, Jaspal; Mooser, Vincent E.; Kapur, Karen A.; Chambers, John; Frants, Rune; Willemsvan-vanDijk, Ko; Willems, Sara M.; Winkler, Thomas; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Brody, Jennifer; Chen, Ida; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Sattar, Naveed; Wood, Andy; Carlson, Olga D.; Egan, Josephine M.; van Heemst, Diana; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Loo, Britt-Marie; Harris, Tamara; Garcia, Melissa; Kanaya, Alka; Haun, Margot; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H. Erich; Katsareli, Efi; Couper, David J.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Borja, Judith B.; Wilson, James G.; Musani, Solomon; Guo, Xiuqing; Semple, Robert; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Redline, Susan; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Dedoussis, George V.; Hu, Frank B.; Paulweber, Bernhard; Spector, Timothy D.; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli; Florez, Jose C.; Smith, George Davey; Siscovick, David S.; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Meigs, James B.; Dupuis, Josee; Richards, John Brent; Willenborg, Christina; Thompson, John R.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; König, Inke R.; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Johansson, Åsa; Hall, Alistair S.; Lee, Jong-Young; Esko, Tõnu; Grundberg, Elin; Havulinna, Aki S.; Ho, Weang K.; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Eriksson, Niclas; Lundmark, Per; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Rafelt, Suzanne; Tikkanen, Emmi; van Zuydam, Natalie; Voight, Benjamin F.; Ziegler, Andreas; Altshuler, David; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Braund, Peter S.; Burgdorf, Christof; Cox, David; Dimitriou, Maria; Do, Ron; El Mokhtari, NourEddine; Fontanillas, Pierre; Groop, Leif; Hager, Jörg; Hallmans, Göran; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hunt, Sarah E.; Kang, Hyun M.; Kessler, Thorsten; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kolovou, Genovefa; Langford, Cordelia; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lundmark, Anders; Meisinger, Christa; Melander, Olle; Maouche, Seraya; Nikus, Kjell; Peden, John F.; Rayner, N. William; Rasheed, Asif; Rosinger, Silke; Rubin, Diana; Rumpf, Moritz P.; Schäfer, Arne; Sivananthan, Mohan; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Wagner, Peter J.; Wells, George A.; Wild, Philipp S.; Yang, Tsun-Po; Basart, Hanneke; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brambilla, Paolo; Cambien, Francois; Cupples, Adrienne L.; Dehghan, Abbas; Diemert, Patrick; Epstein, Stephen E.; Evans, Alun; Ferrario, Marco M.; Gauguier, Dominique; Goodall, Alison H.; Gudnason, Villi; Hazen, Stanley L.; Holm, Hilma; Iribarren, Carlos; Jang, Yangsoo; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Laaksonen, Reijo; Lee, Ji-Young; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Parish, Sarah; Park, Jeong E.; Rader, Daniel J.; Schadt, Eric; Shah, Svati H.; Stark, Klaus; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas; Zimmermann, Martina E.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Pastinen, Tomi; Hovingh, G. Kees; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Schreiber, Stefan; Ripatti, Samuli; Blankenberg, Stefan S.; O'Donnell, Christopher; Reilly, Muredach P.; Collins, Rory; Kathiresan, Sekar; Roberts, Robert; Schunkert, Heribert; Pattaro, Cristian; Köttgen, Anna; Garnaas, Maija; Böger, Carsten A.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tin, Adrienne; Taliun, Daniel; Li, Man; Gao, Xiaoyi; Gorski, Mathias; Yang, Qiong; Hundertmark, Claudia; Foster, Meredith C.; O'Seaghdha, Conall M.; Glazer, Nicole; Smith, Albert V.; Struchalin, Maksim; Li, Guo; Johnson, Andrew D.; Gierman, Hinco J.; Feitosa, Mary; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Chouraki, Vincent; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Sorice, Rossella; Kutalik, Zoltan; Deshmukh, Harshal; Ulivi, Sheila; Chu, Audrey Y.; Murgia, Federico; Trompet, Stella; Imboden, Medea; Kollerits, Barbara; Pistis, Giorgio; Launer, Lenore J.; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Schmidt, Helena; Cavalieri, Margherita; Rao, Madhumathi; de Andrade, Mariza; Turner, Stephen T.; Ding, Jingzhong; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Freedman, Barry I.; Döring, Angela; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Kolcic, Ivana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Minelli, Cosetta; Wheeler, Heather E.; Igl, Wilmar; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wild, Sarah H.; Wright, Alan F.; Ellinghaus, David; Nöthlings, Ute; Jacobs, Gunnar; Biffar, Reiner; Endlich, Karlhans; Ernst, Florian; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Völzke, Henry; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Polasek, Ozren; Hastie, Nick; Vitart, Veronique; Helmer, Catherine; Wang, Jie Jin; Ruggiero, Daniela; Bergmann, Sven; Nikopensius, Tiit; Province, Michael; Ketkar, Shamika; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alex; Robino, Antonietta; Giulianini, Franco; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Portas, Laura; Ford, Ian; Buckley, Brendan M.; Adam, Martin; Thun, Gian-Andri; Sala, Cinzia; Metzger, Marie; Mitchell, Paul; Ciullo, Marina; Kim, Stuart K.; Palmer, Colin; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Mario; Jukema, J. Wouter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Toniolo, Daniela; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Borecki, Ingrid; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Curhan, Gary C.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Franke, Andre; Rettig, Rainer; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Ridker, Paul; Parsa, Afshin; Goessling, Wolfram; Kao, W. H. Linda; de Boer, Ian H.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Akylbekova, Ermeg; Kramer, Holly; Arking, Dan E.; Franceschini, Nora; Egan, Josephine; Hernandez, Dena; Reilly, Muredach; Townsend, Raymond R.; Lumley, Thomas; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Haritunians, Talin; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Waterworth, Dawn; Lu, Xiaoning; Leak, Tennille S.; Aasarød, Knut; Skorpen, Frank; Baumert, Jens; Devuyst, Olivier; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Curhan, Gary; Hallan, Stein; Navis, Gerjan; Shlipak, Michael G.; Bull, Shelley B.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Kao, W. H. L.; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Evangelou, Evangelos; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Duncan, Emma L.; Ntzani, Evangelia E.; Oei, Ling; Albagha, Omar M. E.; Kemp, John P.; Koller, Daniel L.; Minster, Ryan L.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Willner, Dana; Xiao, Su-Mei; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Alonso, Nerea; Eriksson, Joel; Kammerer, Candace M.; Kaptoge, Stephen K.; Leo, Paul J.; Wilson, Scott G.; Aalto, Ville; Alen, Markku; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Center, Jacqueline R.; Dailiana, Zoe; Duggan, David J.; Garcia-Giralt, Natàlia; Giroux, Sylvie; Hocking, Lynne J.; Husted, Lise Bjerre; Jameson, Karen A.; Khusainova, Rita; Kim, Ghi Su; Koromila, Theodora; Kruk, Marcin; Laaksonen, Marika; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Lee, Seung Hun; Leung, Ping C.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Masi, Laura; Mencej-Bedrac, Simona; Nguyen, Tuan V.; Nogues, Xavier; Patel, Millan S.; Prezelj, Janez; Scollen, Serena; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Svensson, Olle; Trummer, Olivia; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Woo, Jean; Zhu, Kun; Balcells, Susana; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Cheng, Sulin; Christiansen, Claus; Cooper, Cyrus; Frost, Morten; Goltzman, David; González-Macías, Jesús; Karlsson, Magnus; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Koh, Jung-Min; Kollia, Panagoula; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Leslie, William D.; Lips, Paul; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorenc, Roman S.; Marc, Janja; Mellström, Dan; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Olmos, José M.; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Reid, David M.; Riancho, José A.; Rousseau, François; Tang, Nelson L. S.; Urreizti, Roser; van Hul, Wim; Zarrabeitia, María T.; Castano-Betancourt, Martha; Herrera, Lizbeth; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kwan, Tony; Li, Rui; Luben, Robert; Medina-Gómez, Carolina; Palsson, Stefan Th; Reppe, Sjur; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Verlaan, Dominique; Williams, Frances M. K.; Zhou, Yanhua; Gautvik, Kaare M.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Cauley, Jane A.; Clark, Graeme R.; Cummings, Steven R.; Danoy, Patrick; Dennison, Elaine M.; Eastell, Richard; Eisman, John A.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Jones, Graeme; Khaw, Kay-Tee; McCloskey, Eugene; Nandakumar, Kannabiran; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Peacock, Munro; Pols, Huibert A. P.; Prince, Richard L.; Reid, Ian R.; Robbins, John; Sambrook, Philip N.; Sham, Pak Chung; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Wareham, Nick J.; Econs, Michael J.; Kung, Annie Wai Chee; Reeve, Jonathan; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Karasik, David; Richards, J. Brent; Brown, Matthew A.; Ralston, Stuart H.; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Kiel, Douglas P.; McKnight, Amy Jayne; Forsblom, Carol; Isakova, Tamara; McKay, Gareth J.; Williams, Winfred W.; Sadlier, Denise M.; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri; Swan, Elizabeth J.; Palmer, Cameron; Boright, Andrew P.; Ahlqvist, Emma; Deshmukh, Harshal A.; Keller, Benjamin J.; Huang, Huateng; Ahola, Aila; Fagerholm, Emma; Gordin, Daniel; Harjutsalo, Valma; He, Bing; Heikkilä, Outi; Hietala, Kustaa; Kytö, Janne; Lahermo, Päivi; Lehto, Markku; Österholm, Anne-May; Parkkonen, Maija; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Rosengård-Bärlund, Milla; Saraheimo, Markku; Sarti, Cinzia; Söderlund, Jenny; Soro-Paavonen, Aino; Syreeni, Anna; Thorn, Lena M.; Tikkanen, Heikki; Tolonen, Nina; Tryggvason, Karl; Wadén, Johan; Gill, Geoffrey V.; Prior, Sarah; Guiducci, Candace; Mirel, Daniel B.; Taylor, Andrew; Hosseini, Mohsen; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Rossing, Peter; Tarnow, Lise; Ladenvall, Claes; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Lefebvre, Pierre; Rigalleau, Vincent; Roussel, Ronan; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Maestroni, Anna; Maestroni, Silvia; Falhammar, Henrik; Gu, Tianwei; Möllsten, Anna; Cimponeriu, Dan; Mihai, Ioana; Mota, Maria; Mota, Eugen; Serafinceanu, Cristian; Stavarachi, Monica; Hanson, Robert L.; Nelson, Robert G.; Kretzler, Matthias; Colhoun, Helen M.; Panduru, Nicolae Mircea; Gu, Harvest F.; Brismar, Kerstin; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Hadjadj, Samy; Marre, Michel; Lajer, Maria; Waggott, Daryl; Savage, David A.; Bain, Stephen C.; Martin, Finian; Godson, Catherine; Groop, Per-Henrik; Maxwell, Alexander P.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Peloso, Gina M.; Ganna, Andrea; Mora, Samia; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Li, Xiaohui; Montasser, May E.; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Sidore, Carlo; Surakka, Ida; van den Herik, Evita G.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Asiki, Gershim; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Elliott, Paul; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Gravito, Martha L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hung, Yi-Jen; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kim, Eric; Komulainen, Pirjo; Lin, Shih-Yi; Müller, Gabrielle; Nieminen, Tuomo V. M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Tiret, Laurence; van Pelt, L. Joost; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Willemsen, Gonneke; Young, Elizabeth H.; Bennett, Franklyn; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bovet, Pascal; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Feranil, Alan B.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kesäniemi, Antero; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meneton, Pierre; Moilanen, Leena; Price, Jackie F.; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Rich, Stephen S.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Caulfield, Mark; Chasman, Dan; Ehret, Georg; Johnson, Andrew; Johnson, Louise; Larson, Martin; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Reilly, Paul; Palmas, Walter; Psaty, Bruce; Rice, Kenneth; Smith, Albert; Snider, Harold; Tobin, Martin; Verwoert, Germaine; Rice, Kenneth M.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Pihur, Vasyl; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Launer, Lenore; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Fox, Ervin R.; Go, Min Jin; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Shi, Gang; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Matullo, Giuseppe; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Najjar, Samer; Hadley, David; Connell, John M.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Ongen, Halit; Li, Yali; Young, J. H.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Chaturvedi, Nish; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Howard, Philip; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Weder, Alan B.; Sun, Yan V.; Scott, Laura J.; Peltonen, Leena; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Hilton, Gina; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Stanèáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; O'Donnell, Chris; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Laitinen, Jaana; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. J. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Laan, Maris; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Vineis, Paolo; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Uda, Manuela; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Larson, Martin G.; Anderson, Carl A.; Gordon, Scott D.; Guo, Qun; Henders, Anjali K.; Lambert, Ann; Lee, Sang Hong; Kraft, Peter; Kennedy, Stephen H.; Macgregor, Stuart; Missmer, Stacey A.; Painter, Jodie N.; Roseman, Fenella; Treloar, Susan A.; Wallace, Leanne; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Boezen, H. Marike; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Ormel, Johan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Slaets, Joris P.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Rehnberg, Emil; Lecoeur, Cecile; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Salo, Perttu; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhao, Wei; Horikoshi, Momoko; Navarro, Pau; Esko, Tönu; Chen, Han; Robertson, Neil; Rybin, Denis; Kang, Hyun Min; Song, Kijoung; An, Ping; Marullo, Letizia; Jansen, Hanneke; Edkins, Sarah; Varga, Tibor V.; Oksa, Heikki; Antonella, Mulas; Kong, Augustine; Herder, Christian; Antti, Jula; Miljkovic, Iva; Atalay, Mustafa; Kiess, Wieland; Smit, Johannes H.; Campbell, Susan; Fowkes, Gerard R.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Maerz, Winfried; Province, Michael A.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Toenjes, Anke; Peyser, Patricia A.; Körner, Antje; Dupuis, Josée; Cucca, Francesco; Balkau, Beverley; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Ainali, Chrysanthi; Bataille, Veronique; Bell, Jordana T.; Buil, Alfonso; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Durbin, Richard; Glass, Daniel; Hassanali, Neelam; Ingle, Catherine; Knowles, David; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lowe, Christopher E.; Meduri, Eshwar; di Meglio, Paola; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Nestle, Frank O.; Nica, Alexandra C.; Nisbet, James; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Parts, Leopold; Potter, Simon; Sekowska, Magdalena; Shin, So-Youn; Small, Kerrin S.; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Travers, Mary E.; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Tsoka, Sophia; Wilk, Alicja; Matise, Tara; Buyske, Steve; Higashio, Julia; Williams, Rasheeda; Nato, Andrew; Ambite, Jose Luis; Manolio, Teri; Hindorff, Lucia; Heiss, Gerardo; Taylor, Kira; Avery, Christy; Graff, Misa; Lin, Danyu; Quibrera, Miguel; Cochran, Barbara; Kao, Linda; Umans, Jason; Cole, Shelley; MacCluer, Jean; Person, Sharina; Pankow, James; Gross, Myron; Fornage, Myriam; Durda, Peter; Jenny, Nancy; Patsy, Bruce; Arnold, Alice; Buzkova, Petra; Crawford, Dana; Haines, Jonathan; Murdock, Deborah; Glenn, Kim; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Dumitrescu, Logan; Jeff, Janina; Bush, William S.; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Goodloe, Robert; Wilson, Sarah; Boston, Jonathan; Malinowski, Jennifer; Restrepo, Nicole; Oetjens, Matthew; Fowke, Jay; Zheng, Wei; Spencer, Kylee; Ritchie, Marylyn; Pendergrass, Sarah; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne; Park, Lani; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Kolonel, Laurence; Lim, Unhee; Cheng, Iona; Wang, Hansong; Shohet, Ralph; Haiman, Christopher; Stram, Daniel; Henderson, Brian; Monroe, Kristine; Schumacher, Fredrick; Anderson, Garnet; Carlson, Chris; Prentice, Ross; LaCroix, Andrea; Wu, Chunyuan; Carty, Cara; Gong, Jian; Rosse, Stephanie; Young, Alicia; Haessler, Jeff; Kocarnik, Jonathan; Lin, Yi; Jackson, Rebecca; Duggan, David; Kuller, Lew; He, Chunyan; Sulem, Patrick; Barbalic, Maja; Broer, Linda; Byrne, Enda M.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; McArdle, Patick F.; Porcu, Eleonora; van Wingerden, Sophie; Zhuang, Wei V.; Lauc, Lovorka Barac; Broekmans, Frank J.; Burri, Andrea; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Constance; Corre, Tanguy; Coviello, Andrea D.; D'Adamo, Pio; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V. Z.; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Ebrahim, Shah; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Ferreli, Liana; Folsom, Aaron R.; Hall, Per; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hass, Merli; Heath, Andrew C.; Janssens, A. Cecile J. W.; Keyzer, Jules; Lahti, Jari; Lai, Sandra; Laisk, Triin; Laven, Joop S. E.; Liu, Jianjun; Lopez, Lorna M.; Louwers, Yvonne V.; Marongiu, Mara; Klaric, Irena Martinovic; Masciullo, Corrado; Medland, Sarah E.; Melzer, David; Newman, Anne B.; Paré, Guillaume; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Plump, Andrew S.; Pop, Victor J. M.; Räikkönen, Katri; Salumets, Andres; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stacey, Simon N.; Starr, John M.; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Tenesa, Albert; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tsui, Kim; van Dam, Rob M.; van Gils, Carla H.; van Nierop, Peter; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Voorhuis, Marlies; Waeber, Gérard; Wallaschofski, Henri; Widen, Elisabeth; Wijnands-van Gent, Colette J. M.; Zgaga, Lina; Zygmunt, Marek; Arnold, Alice M.; Buring, Julie E.; Crisponi, Laura; Demerath, Ellen W.; Murray, Anna; Visser, Jenny A.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Lin, Peng; McArdle, Patrick F.; van Wingerden, Sophie W.; Smith, Erin N.; Ulivi, Shelia; Warrington, Nicole M.; Alavere, Helen; Barroso, Ines; Berenson, Gerald S.; Blackburn, Hannah; Busonero, Fabio; Chen, Wei; Couper, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Eriksson, Johan; Foroud, Tatiana; Geller, Frank; Hernandez, Dena G.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Li, Shengxu; Melbye, Mads; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Murray, Sarah S.; Ness, Andrew R.; Northstone, Kate; Pennell, Craig E.; Pharoah, Paul; Rafnar, Thorunn; Rice, John P.; Ring, Susan M.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Sovio, Ulla; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Tammesoo, Mar-Liis; Tyrer, Jonathon; van Meurs, Joyve B. J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Young, Lauren; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Bierut, Laura J.; Boyd, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide

  14. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome...

  15. Genetic enhancement, social justice, and welfare-oriented patterns of distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etieyibo, Edwin

    2012-07-01

    The debate over the host of moral issues that genetic enhancement technology (GET) raises has been significant. One argument that has been advanced to impugn its moral legitimacy is the 'unfair advantage argument' (UAA), which states: allowing access to GET to be determined by socio-economic status would lead to unjust outcomes, namely, create a genetic caste system, and with it the exacerbation and perpetuation of existing socio-economic inequalities. Fritz Allhoff has recently objected to the argument, the kernel of which is that it conflates the use of the technology with its distribution. GET, he argues, would generate unjust outcomes only if it is distributed according to principles of an unjust pattern of distribution; for if we can determine what constitutes a 'just' distributive scheme, then the technology can be allocated according to the principles of that scheme. In this paper I argue the following cluster of related claims: (1) both UAA and Allhoff's proposed distributive schemes ignore the importance of non-genetic factors in the development of an individual's characteristics and capacities; (2) if we accept the view that it is good to prevent unjust outcomes that arise because some have exclusive access to GET, then we have to accept wide-ranging distributive schemes; (3) by tracking genetic and non-genetic factors wide-ranging schemes do violate in some sense the widely shared value of neutrality in liberal democracies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. GlobAl Distribution of GEnetic Traits (GADGET) web server: polygenic trait scores worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chande, Aroon T; Wang, Lu; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Conley, Andrew B; Norris, Emily T; Valderrama-Aguirre, Augusto; Jordan, I King

    2018-05-18

    Human populations from around the world show striking phenotypic variation across a wide variety of traits. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are used to uncover genetic variants that influence the expression of heritable human traits; accordingly, population-specific distributions of GWAS-implicated variants may shed light on the genetic basis of human phenotypic diversity. With this in mind, we developed the GlobAl Distribution of GEnetic Traits web server (GADGET http://gadget.biosci.gatech.edu). The GADGET web server provides users with a dynamic visual platform for exploring the relationship between worldwide genetic diversity and the genetic architecture underlying numerous human phenotypes. GADGET integrates trait-implicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from GWAS, with population genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project, to calculate genome-wide polygenic trait scores (PTS) for 818 phenotypes in 2504 individual genomes. Population-specific distributions of PTS are shown for 26 human populations across 5 continental population groups, with traits ordered based on the extent of variation observed among populations. Users of GADGET can also upload custom trait SNP sets to visualize global PTS distributions for their own traits of interest.

  17. Genetic and Environmental Architecture of Changes in Episodic Memory from Middle to Late Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzon, Matthew S.; Neale, Michael C.; Docherty, Anna R.; Franz, Carol E.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Toomey, Rosemary; Xian, Hong; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rana, Brinda K.; McKenzie, Ruth M.; Lyons, Michael J.; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory is a complex construct at both the phenotypic and genetic level. Ample evidence supports age-related cognitive stability and change being accounted for by general and domain-specific factors. We hypothesized that general and specific factors would underlie change even within this single cognitive domain. We examined six measures from three episodic memory tests in a narrow age cohort at middle and late middle age. The factor structure was invariant across occasions. At both timepoints two of three test-specific factors (story recall, design recall) had significant genetic influences independent of the general memory factor. Phenotypic stability was moderate to high, and primarily accounted for by genetic influences, except for one test-specific factor (list learning). Mean change over time was nonsignificant for one test-level factor; one declined; one improved. The results highlight the phenotypic and genetic complexity of memory and memory change, and shed light on an understudied period of life. PMID:25938244

  18. Genetics Home Reference: age-related hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality of life. Because affected individuals have trouble understanding speech, the condition affects their ability to communicate. It can contribute to social isolation, depression, and loss of self-esteem. Age-related hearing loss also causes safety issues if individuals become ...

  19. Environmental and genetic risk factors for aging macula disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Boekhoorn (Sharmila)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWhat’s in a name? Since the first description of age-related macular degeneration in 1874 as “Symmetrical central choroido-retinal disease occurring in senile persons”, 1 over 20 different names have been given to this disorder, often reflecting the pathophysiological thinking at a

  20. Age-related maculopathy: A genetic and epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. Willemse-Assink (Jacqueline)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn the 19th century, age-related maculopathy (ARM) was described for the first time as an agerelated abnormality of the macula lutea. ARM consists of a variety of clinical signs, from the early stages with soft distinct drusen, indistinct drusen and pigment alterations up to the late

  1. Optimization of Nuclear Reactor power Distribution using Genetic Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyu Chan

    1996-02-01

    The main purpose of study is to develop a computer code named as 'MGA-SCOUPE' which can determine an optimal fuel-loading pattern for the nuclear reactor. The developed code, MGA-SCOUPE, automatically lots of searches for the globally optimum solutions based upon the modified Genetic Algorithm(MGA). The optimization goal of the MGA-SCOUPE is (1) the minimization of the deviations in the power peaking factors both at BOC and EOC, and (2) the maximization of the average burnup ration at EOC of the total fuel assemblies. For the reactor core calculation module in the MGA-SCOUPE, the SCOUPE code was partially modified and used. It had been developed originally in MIT and has been used currently in Kyung Hee University. The application of the MGA-SCOUPE to KORI 4-4 Cycle Model show several satisfactory results. Among them, two dominant improvements compared with the SCOUPE code can be summarized as follow: - The MGA-SCOUPE removes the user-dependency problem of the SCOUPE in the optimal loading pattern searches. Therefore, the searching process in the MGA-SCOUPE can be easily automated. - The final fuel loading pattern obtained by the MGA-SCOUPE shows 25.8%, 18.7% reduced standard deviations of the power peaking factors both at BOC and EOC, and 45% increased avg. burnup ratio at EOC compare with those of the SCOUPE

  2. Martian channels and valleys - Their characteristics, distribution, and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. H.; Clow, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and ages of Martian channels and valleys, which are generally believed to have been cut by running water, are examined with particular emphasis on the small branching networks referred to as runoff channels or valley networks. Valleys at latitudes from 65 deg S to 65 deg N were surveyed on Viking images at resolutions between 125 and 300 m. Almost all of the valleys are found in the old cratered terrain, in areas characterized by high elevations, low albedos and low violet/red ratios. The networks are deduced to have formed early in the history of the planet, with a formation rate declining rapidly shortly after the decline of the cratering rate 3.9 billion years ago. Two types of outflow channels are distinguished: unconfined, in which broad swaths of terrain are scoured, and confined, in which flow is restricted to discrete channels. Both types start at local sources, and have formed episodically throughout Martian history. Fretted channels, found mainly in two latitude belts characterized by relatively rapid erosion along escarpments, are explained by the lateral enlargement of other channels by mass wasting.

  3. The age-dependency of genetic and environmental influences on serum cytokine levels : A twin study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, Arthur A.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Zheng, Dongling; Wu, Ting; Korf, Jakob; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have evaluated the use of immunological markers as possible tools for measuring ageing and predicting age-related pathology. The importance of both genetic and environmental influences in regulation of these markers has been emphasized. In order to further evaluate

  4. Population genetics of the westernmost distribution of the glaciations-surviving black truffle Tuber melanosporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cunchillos, Iván; Sánchez, Sergio; Barriuso, Juan José; Pérez-Collazos, Ernesto

    2014-04-01

    The black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.) is an important natural resource due to its relevance as a delicacy in gastronomy. Different aspects of this hypogeous fungus species have been studied, including population genetics of French and Italian distribution ranges. Although those studies include some Spanish populations, this is the first time that the genetic diversity and genetic structure of the wide geographical range of the natural Spanish populations have been analysed. To achieve this goal, 23 natural populations were sampled across the Spanish geographical distribution. ISSR technique demonstrated its reliability and capability to detect high levels of polymorphism in the species. Studied populations showed high levels of genetic diversity (h N  = 0.393, h S  = 0.678, Hs = 0.418), indicating a non threatened genetic conservation status. These high levels may be a consequence of the wide distribution range of the species, of its spore dispersion by animals, and by its evolutionary history. AMOVA analysis showed a high degree of genetic structure among populations (47.89%) and other partitions as geographical ranges. Bayesian genetic structure analyses differentiated two main Spanish groups separated by the Iberian Mountain System, and showed the genetic uniqueness of some populations. Our results suggest the survival of some of these populations during the last glaciation, the Spanish southern distribution range perhaps surviving as had occurred in France and Italy, but it is also likely that specific northern areas may have acted as a refugia for the later dispersion to other calcareous areas in the Iberian Peninsula and probably France.

  5. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulman Lindenberger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  6. How old are you? Genet age estimates in a clonal animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin-Durante, M K; Miller, M W; Precht, W F; Baums, I B

    2016-11-01

    Foundation species such as redwoods, seagrasses and corals are often long-lived and clonal. Genets may consist of hundreds of members (ramets) and originated hundreds to thousands of years ago. As climate change and other stressors exert selection pressure on species, the demography of populations changes. Yet, because size does not indicate age in clonal organisms, demographic models are missing data necessary to predict the resilience of many foundation species. Here, we correlate somatic mutations with genet age of corals and provide the first, preliminary estimates of genet age in a colonial animal. We observed somatic mutations at five microsatellite loci in rangewide samples of the endangered coral, Acropora palmata (n = 3352). Colonies harboured 342 unique mutations in 147 genets. Genet age ranged from 30 to 838 years assuming a mutation rate of 1.195 -04 per locus per year based on colony growth rates and 236 to 6500 years assuming a mutation rate of 1.542 -05 per locus per year based on sea level changes to habitat availability. Long-lived A. palmata genets imply a large capacity to tolerate past environmental change, and yet recent mass mortality events in A. palmata suggest that capacity is now being frequently exceeded. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Measuring aging rates of mice subjected to caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; van Heemst, Diana; van Bodegom, David; Bonkowski, Michael S; Sun, Liou Y; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling have been shown to counteract aging in mice. The effects of these interventions on aging are examined through age-dependent survival or through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale fitted to the Gompertz model. However, these methods have limitations that impede a fully comprehensive disclosure of these effects. Here we examine the effects of these interventions on murine aging through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale without fitting them to a model like the Gompertz model. Whereas these interventions negligibly and non-consistently affected the aging rates when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale, they caused the aging rates to increase at higher ages and to higher levels when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale. These results add to the debate whether these interventions postpone or slow aging and to the understanding of the mechanisms by which they affect aging. Since different methods yield different results, it is worthwhile to compare their results in future research to obtain further insights into the effects of dietary, genetic, and other interventions on the aging of mice and other species.

  8. Aging and a genetic KIBRA polymorphism interactively affect feedback- and observation-based probabilistic classification learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Nicolas W; Petok, Jessica R; Meeter, Martijn; Schjeide, Brit-Maren M; Schröder, Julia; Bertram, Lars; Gluck, Mark A; Li, Shu-Chen

    2018-01-01

    Probabilistic category learning involves complex interactions between the hippocampus and striatum that may depend on whether acquisition occurs via feedback or observation. Little is known about how healthy aging affects these processes. We tested whether age-related behavioral differences in probabilistic category learning from feedback or observation depend on a genetic factor known to influence individual differences in hippocampal function, the KIBRA gene (single nucleotide polymorphism rs17070145). Results showed comparable age-related performance impairments in observational as well as feedback-based learning. Moreover, genetic analyses indicated an age-related interactive effect of KIBRA on learning: among older adults, the beneficial T-allele was positively associated with learning from feedback, but negatively with learning from observation. In younger adults, no effects of KIBRA were found. Our results add behavioral genetic evidence to emerging data showing age-related differences in how neural resources relate to memory functions, namely that hippocampal and striatal contributions to probabilistic category learning may vary with age. Our findings highlight the effects genetic factors can have on differential age-related decline of different memory functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic and environmental sources of individual differences in views on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornadt, Anna E; Kandler, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Views on aging are central psychosocial variables in the aging process, but knowledge about their determinants is still fragmental. Thus, the authors investigated the degree to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in various domains of views on aging (wisdom, work, fitness, and family), and whether these variance components vary across ages. They analyzed data from 350 monozygotic and 322 dizygotic twin pairs from the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) study, aged 25-74. Individual differences in views on aging were mainly due to individual-specific environmental and genetic effects. However, depending on the domain, genetic and environmental contributions to the variance differed. Furthermore, for some domains, variability was larger for older participants; this was attributable to increases in environmental components. This study extends research on genetic and environmental sources of psychosocial variables and stimulates future studies investigating the etiology of views on aging across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Genetic and clinical characteristics of primary and secondary glioblastoma is associated with differential molecular subtype distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rui; Li, Hailin; Yan, Wei; Yang, Pei; Bao, Zhaoshi; Zhang, Chuanbao; Jiang, Tao; You, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is classified into primary (pGBM) or secondary (sGBM) based on clinical progression. However, there are some limits to this classification for insight into genetically and clinically distinction between pGBM and sGBM. The aim of this study is to characterize pGBM and sGBM associating with differential molecular subtype distribution. Whole transcriptome sequencing data was used to assess the distribution of molecular subtypes and genetic alterations in 88 pGBM and...

  11. Paleodemographic age-at-death distributions of two Mexican skeletal collections: a comparison of transition analysis and traditional aging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Meggan; Márquez, Lourdes; Hernández, Patricia; Ruíz, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Traditional methods of aging adult skeletons suffer from the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection, as described by Bocquet-Appel and Masset (1982). Transition analysis (Boldsen et al., 2002) is a method of aging adult skeletons that addresses the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection by allowing users to select an appropriate prior probability. In order to evaluate whether transition analysis results in significantly different age estimates for adults, the method was applied to skeletal collections from Postclassic Cholula and Contact-Period Xochimilco. The resulting age-at-death distributions were then compared with age-at-death distributions for the two populations constructed using traditional aging methods. Although the traditional aging methods result in age-at-death distributions with high young adult mortality and few individuals living past the age of 50, the age-at-death distributions constructed using transition analysis indicate that most individuals who lived into adulthood lived past the age of 50. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Diallel crossing in Pinus cembra: IV. age trends in genetic parameters and genetic gain for growth and branching traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a complete 10 x 10 diallel carried out in a natural population of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. from the southern Carpathian Mountains. At age six, after nursery testing, the material was field planted on one site, using a completely randomized block design with 100 families, four replicates and 15 tree row-plots per replication, spaced 2.5 x 2.5m. Total and annual height growth, root collar diameter, number of branches per whorl and survival were assessed at successive ages between ages eight and 14 after seed. In addition, several traits that were assessed during the nursery test were used in correlation and some other analyses. Plot means of the measured traits were analyzed using the general least-squares method by means of the computer DIALL programme prepared by Schaffer and Usanis (1969. Across the field testing periods, significant (p<0.05 and highly significant (p<0.01; p<0.001 differences occurred in total height growth and root collar diameter for general and specific combining ability as well for maternalinteraction effects. These results suggest that the traits are controlled by nuclear (additive and non-additive and by nuclear x extra-nuclear gene interactions. In an ascendant trend, the additive variance, as a percent of the total genetic variance, ranged from 35% at age eight to 66% at age 14 for total height growth, while that for root collar diameter trend varied less between 16% and 34%. In a descendant trend, the dominance ratios s2SCA/ s2GCA for total height growth ranged from 0.9 at age eight to 0.3 at age 14, suggesting that the additive variance should be used in the breeding programme. Parents with significant general combining effects for all but one trait were found. For total height growth, the narrow-sense family mean heritability estimates varied in an ascendant trend between 0.45 and 0.65 while the narrow- sense individual tree heritability varied irregularly from year to year

  13. Gaze distribution analysis and saliency prediction across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Onkar; Helo, Andrea; Rämä, Pia; Aizawa, Kiyoharu

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of the human visual system helps to develop better computational models of visual attention. State-of-the-art models have been developed to mimic the visual attention system of young adults that, however, largely ignore the variations that occur with age. In this paper, we investigated how visual scene processing changes with age and we propose an age-adapted framework that helps to develop a computational model that can predict saliency across different age groups. Our analysis uncovers how the explorativeness of an observer varies with age, how well saliency maps of an age group agree with fixation points of observers from the same or different age groups, and how age influences the center bias tendency. We analyzed the eye movement behavior of 82 observers belonging to four age groups while they explored visual scenes. Explorative- ness was quantified in terms of the entropy of a saliency map, and area under the curve (AUC) metrics was used to quantify the agreement analysis and the center bias tendency. Analysis results were used to develop age adapted saliency models. Our results suggest that the proposed age-adapted saliency model outperforms existing saliency models in predicting the regions of interest across age groups.

  14. Age and sex distribution of blindness in Ahoada East Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Differences exist in the impact of blindness by age and sex; the overall risk of death being higher for blind males than females. Aim: To describe the age and sex differences among the blind in Ahoada-East Local Government Area (LGA) of Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods: Age and sex data were analyzed for 24 ...

  15. Genetic mechanisms and age-related macular degeneration: common variants, rare variants, copy number variations, epigenetics, and mitochondrial genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Melissa M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex and multifaceted disease involving contributions from both genetic and environmental influences. Previous work exploring the genetic contributions of AMD has implicated numerous genomic regions and a variety of candidate genes as modulators of AMD susceptibility. Nevertheless, much of this work has revolved around single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and it is apparent that a significant portion of the heritability of AMD cannot be explained through these mechanisms. In this review, we consider the role of common variants, rare variants, copy number variations, epigenetics, microRNAs, and mitochondrial genetics in AMD. Copy number variations in regulators of complement activation genes (CFHR1 and CFHR3 and glutathione S transferase genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1 have been associated with AMD, and several additional loci have been identified as regions of potential interest but require further evaluation. MicroRNA dysregulation has been linked to the retinal pigment epithelium degeneration in geographic atrophy, ocular neovascularization, and oxidative stress, all of which are hallmarks in the pathogenesis of AMD. Certain mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and SNPs in mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase genes have also been associated with AMD. The role of these additional mechanisms remains only partly understood, but the importance of their further investigation is clear to elucidate more completely the genetic basis of AMD.

  16. Research and application of genetic algorithm in path planning of logistics distribution vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhou, Heng; Wang, Ying

    2017-08-01

    The core of the logistics distribution system is the vehicle routing planning, research path planning problem, provide a better solution has become an important issue. In order to provide the decision support for logistics and distribution operations, this paper studies the problem of vehicle routing with capacity constraints (CVRP). By establishing a mathematical model, the genetic algorithm is used to plan the path of the logistics vehicle to meet the minimum logistics and transportation costs.

  17. The changing age distribution in Indonesia and some consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, C B; Dasvarma, G L; Rahardjo, S P

    1991-08-01

    "Beginning with a discussion of the sources and quality of Indonesian age data by sex, this paper examines the changes in the functional age groups of the population of Indonesia from 1971 to the year 2005, and the implications of these changes for education, labour force participation, dependency ratios and fertility. Data for the period 1971 to 1985 are based on actual enumerations, while those for the period 1990 to 2005 are based on projections. Although the provisional totals of the 1990 Census had been released before the publication of this paper, their breakdown by age was still not available. The functional age categories discussed in the paper include the pre-school years, the primary and intermediate school ages, the teenage years, the reproductive ages of women, the principal working ages and the post-work years. It concludes with a discussion of various policy and planning implications of these changes." excerpt

  18. Estimating the formation age distribution of continental crust by unmixing zircon ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Continental crust provides first-order control on Earth's surface environment, enabling the presence of stable dry landmasses surrounded by deep oceans. The evolution of continental crust is important for atmospheric evolution, because continental crust is an essential component of deep carbon cycle and is likely to have played a critical role in the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Geochemical information stored in the mineral zircon, known for its resilience to diagenesis and metamorphism, has been central to ongoing debates on the genesis and evolution of continental crust. However, correction for crustal reworking, which is the most critical step when estimating original formation ages, has been incorrectly formulated, undermining the significance of previous estimates. Here I suggest a simple yet promising approach for reworking correction using the global compilation of zircon data. The present-day distribution of crustal formation age estimated by the new "unmixing" method serves as the lower bound to the true crustal growth, and large deviations from growth models based on mantle depletion imply the important role of crustal recycling through the Earth history.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study of the Genetic Determinants of Emphysema Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boueiz, Adel; Lutz, Sharon M; Cho, Michael H; Hersh, Craig P; Bowler, Russell P; Washko, George R; Halper-Stromberg, Eitan; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Laird, Nan M; Beaty, Terri H; Coxson, Harvey O; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K; Castaldi, Peter J; DeMeo, Dawn L

    2017-03-15

    Emphysema has considerable variability in the severity and distribution of parenchymal destruction throughout the lungs. Upper lobe-predominant emphysema has emerged as an important predictor of response to lung volume reduction surgery. Yet, aside from alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, the genetic determinants of emphysema distribution remain largely unknown. To identify the genetic influences of emphysema distribution in non-alpha-1 antitrypsin-deficient smokers. A total of 11,532 subjects with complete genotype and computed tomography densitometry data in the COPDGene (Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease [COPD]; non-Hispanic white and African American), ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints), and GenKOLS (Genetics of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) studies were analyzed. Two computed tomography scan emphysema distribution measures (difference between upper-third and lower-third emphysema; ratio of upper-third to lower-third emphysema) were tested for genetic associations in all study subjects. Separate analyses in each study population were followed by a fixed effect metaanalysis. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-, gene-, and pathway-based approaches were used. In silico functional evaluation was also performed. We identified five loci associated with emphysema distribution at genome-wide significance. These loci included two previously reported associations with COPD susceptibility (4q31 near HHIP and 15q25 near CHRNA5) and three new associations near SOWAHB, TRAPPC9, and KIAA1462. Gene set analysis and in silico functional evaluation revealed pathways and cell types that may potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of emphysema distribution. This multicohort genome-wide association study identified new genomic loci associated with differential emphysematous destruction throughout the lungs. These findings may point to new biologic pathways on which to expand diagnostic and therapeutic

  20. Evidence for Genetic Overlap Between Schizophrenia and Age at First Birth in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehta, Divya; Tropf, Felix C; Gratten, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: A recently published study of national data by McGrath et al in 2014 showed increased risk of schizophrenia (SCZ) in offspring associated with both early and delayed parental age, consistent with a U-shaped relationship. However, it remains unclear if the risk to the child is due......), reflecting the published relationship between maternal age and SCZ risk in offspring by McGrath et al in 2014. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study provides evidence for a significant overlap between genetic factors associated with risk of SCZ and genetic factors associated with AFB. It has been reported...

  1. Academic training: From Evolution Theory to Parallel and Distributed Genetic Programming

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 15, 16 March From 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 From Evolution Theory to Parallel and Distributed Genetic Programming F. FERNANDEZ DE VEGA / Univ. of Extremadura, SP Lecture No. 1: From Evolution Theory to Evolutionary Computation Evolutionary computation is a subfield of artificial intelligence (more particularly computational intelligence) involving combinatorial optimization problems, which are based to some degree on the evolution of biological life in the natural world. In this tutorial we will review the source of inspiration for this metaheuristic and its capability for solving problems. We will show the main flavours within the field, and different problems that have been successfully solved employing this kind of techniques. Lecture No. 2: Parallel and Distributed Genetic Programming The successful application of Genetic Programming (GP, one of the available Evolutionary Algorithms) to optimization problems has encouraged an ...

  2. Development, applications and distribution of DNA markers for genetic information for sorghum and maize improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.

    2001-01-01

    This final report summarizes the progress made towards the enhancement and distribution of genetic resources (e.g. genetic stocks, seed and DNA clones) used for basic and applied aspects of the genetic improvement of maize and sorghum. The genetic maps of maize and sorghum were improved through comparative mapping of RFLP loci detected by 124 maize cDNA clones and through the development of a new mapping population of maize. Comparative mapping between maize and sorghum and maize and rice, using the set of 124 maize cDNA clones (and other clones) in each study, substantiated previous observations of extensive conservation of locus order but it also provided strong evidence of numerous large-scale chromosomal rearrangements. The new mapping population for maize (intermated B73xMo17, 'IBM') was created by random intermating during the first segregating generation. Intermating for four generations prior to the derivation of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) increased the frequency of recombinants at many regions of the maize genome and provided better genetic resolution of locus order. Expansion of the maize genetic map was not uniform along the length of a linkage group and was less than the theoretical expectation. The 350 IBM RILs were genotyped at 512 loci detected by DNA clones, including 76 of the 124 supported by this contract. The production of the sorghum mapping population of RILs from the cross CK60xPI229828 has been delayed by weather conditions that were not conducive to plant growth and seed development. Seed of the IBM RILs have been distributed (approximately 5000 RILs in total) to 16 research organizations in the public and private sector. The DNA clones have been distributed (1,206 in total) to nine research labs. Further distribution of the seed and clones will be managed by curators at stock centers in the public domain. (author)

  3. Age distributions of Greenlandic dwarf shrubs support concept of negligible actuarial senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan; Rizzi, Silvia; Schweingruber, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    shrub species from 863 taproot samples collected in coastal east Greenland. Penalized composite link models (pclm) were used to fill gaps in the observed age ranges, caused by low species-specific sample sizes in relation to life span. Resulting distributions indicate that mortality patterns...... are independent of age. Actuarial senescence is thus negligible in these dwarf shrub populations. We suggest that smoothing techniques such as pclm enable consideration of noisy age data for determining age distributions. These distributions may, in turn, reveal age effects on demographic rates. Moreover, age...

  4. Physical distance, genetic relationship, age, and leprosy classification are independent risk factors for leprosy in contacts of patients with leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moet, F Johannes; Pahan, David; Schuring, Ron P; Oskam, Linda; Richardus, Jan H

    2006-02-01

    Close contacts of patients with leprosy have a higher risk of developing leprosy. Several risk factors have been identified, including genetic relationship and physical distance. Their independent contributions to the risk of developing leprosy, however, have never been sufficiently quantified. Logistic-regression analysis was performed on intake data from a prospective cohort study of 1037 patients newly diagnosed as having leprosy and their 21,870 contacts. Higher age showed an increased risk, with a bimodal distribution. Contacts of patients with paucibacillary (PB) leprosy with 2-5 lesions (PB2-5) and those with multibacillary (MB) leprosy had a higher risk than did contacts of patients with single-lesion PB leprosy. The core household group had a higher risk than other contacts living under the same roof and next-door neighbors, who again had a higher risk than neighbors of neighbors. A close genetic relationship indicated an increased risk when blood-related children, parents, and siblings were pooled together. Age of the contact, the disease classification of the index patient, and physical and genetic distance were independently associated with the risk of a contact acquiring leprosy. Contact surveys in leprosy should be not only focused on household contacts but also extended to neighbors and consanguineous relatives, especially when the patient has PB2-5 or MB leprosy.

  5. Parallel Distributed Processing theory in the age of deep networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) models in psychology are the precursors of deep networks used in computer science. However, only PDP models are associated with two core psychological claims, namely, that all knowledge is coded in a distributed format, and cognition is mediated by non-symbolic computations. These claims have long been debated within cognitive science, and recent work with deep networks speaks to this debate. Specifically, single-unit recordings show that deep networks le...

  6. An Extended Genetic Algorithm for Distributed Integration of Fuzzy Process Planning and Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributed integration of process planning and scheduling (DIPPS aims to simultaneously arrange the two most important manufacturing stages, process planning and scheduling, in a distributed manufacturing environment. Meanwhile, considering its advantage corresponding to actual situation, the triangle fuzzy number (TFN is adopted in DIPPS to represent the machine processing and transportation time. In order to solve this problem and obtain the optimal or near-optimal solution, an extended genetic algorithm (EGA with innovative three-class encoding method, improved crossover, and mutation strategies is proposed. Furthermore, a local enhancement strategy featuring machine replacement and order exchange is also added to strengthen the local search capability on the basic process of genetic algorithm. Through the verification of experiment, EGA achieves satisfactory results all in a very short period of time and demonstrates its powerful performance in dealing with the distributed integration of fuzzy process planning and scheduling (DIFPPS.

  7. Mean age distribution of inorganic soil-nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Dong K.; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-07-01

    Excess reactive nitrogen in soils of intensively managed landscapes causes adverse environmental impact, and continues to remain a global concern. Many novel strategies have been developed to provide better management practices and, yet, the problem remains unresolved. The objective of this study is to develop a model to characterize the "age" of inorganic soil-nitrogen (nitrate, and ammonia/ammonium). We use the general theory of age, which provides an assessment of the time elapsed since inorganic nitrogen has been introduced into the soil system. We analyze a corn-corn-soybean rotation, common in the Midwest United States, as an example application. We observe two counter-intuitive results: (1) the mean nitrogen age in the topsoil layer is relatively high; and (2) mean nitrogen age is lower under soybean cultivation compared to corn although no fertilizer is applied for soybean cultivation. The first result can be explained by cation-exchange of ammonium that retards the leaching of nitrogen, resulting in an increase in the mean nitrogen age near the soil surface. The second result arises because the soybean utilizes the nitrogen fertilizer left from the previous year, thereby removing the older nitrogen and reducing mean nitrogen age. Estimating the mean nitrogen age can thus serve as an important tool to disentangle complex nitrogen dynamics by providing a nuanced characterization of the time scales of soil-nitrogen transformation and transport processes.

  8. <Symposium I>Genetic dissection of age-related memory impairment in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Yamazaki, Daisuke; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Saitoe, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Age-related memory impairment (AMI) is an important phenotype of brain aging. Understandingthe molecular mechanisms underlying AMI is important not only from a scientific viewpoint but also for thedevelopment of therapeutics that may eventually lead to developing drugs to combat memory loss. AMI has beengenerally considered to be an overall or nonspecifi c decay of memory processes that results from dysfunction ofneural networks. However, extensive behavioral genetic characterization of AMI w...

  9. The influence of age-group structure on genetic gain and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    51 to 69 between different herds and cowage-group struc- tures. All three herds required at ... Keywords: Age-group structure, genetic gain, productivity, beef cattle ... 2160 to 210 898 during the same period (Hofmeyr, 1978 and. Bosman, 1982). .... Using the information in Figure 1to determine the reproduc- tion rate of herds ...

  10. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  11. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood.Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age...

  12. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age...

  13. Changes in cytogenetics and molecular genetics in acute myeloid leukemia from childhood to adult age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzig, Ursula; Zimmermann, Martin; Reinhardt, Dirk; Rasche, Mareike; von Neuhoff, Christine; Alpermann, Tamara; Dworzak, Michael; Perglerová, Karolína; Zemanova, Zuzana; Tchinda, Joelle; Bradtke, Jutta; Thiede, Christian; Haferlach, Claudia

    2016-12-15

    To obtain better insight into the biology of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in various age groups, this study focused on the genetic changes occurring during a lifetime. This study analyzed the relation between age and genetics from birth to 100 years in 5564 patients with de novo AML diagnosed from 1998 to 2012 (1192 patients from nationwide pediatric studies [AML Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster studies 98 and 2004] and 4372 adults registered with the Munich Leukemia Laboratory). The frequencies of cytogenetic subgroups were age-dependent. Favorable subtypes (t(8;21), inv(16)/t(16;16), and t(15;17)) decreased in general from the pediatric age group (2 to groups ( 70 years; P age-specific incidence with age. Interestingly, the frequency of 11q23 abnormalities decreased from infants to older patients. The proportion of clinically relevant molecular aberrations of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, nucleophosmin (NPM1), and NPM1/fms-related tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication increased with age. Altogether, with the exclusion of infants, a significant decrease in the proportion of favorable cytogenetic subtypes and an increase in unfavorable cytogenetics were observed with increasing age. These findings indicate different mechanisms for the pathogenesis of AML; these different mechanisms also suggest directions for etiological research and contribute to the more unfavorable prognosis with increasing age. Cancer 2016;122:3821-3830. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  14. Age-related distribution of vertebral bone-marrow diffusivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Jochen, E-mail: j.herrmann@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Pediatric Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Krstin, Nina, E-mail: ninakrstin@web.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Schoennagel, Bjoern P., E-mail: b.schoennagel@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Sornsakrin, Marjike, E-mail: m.sornsakrin@uke.de [Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten, E-mail: t.derlin@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Busch, Jasmin D., E-mail: jd.busch@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Petersen, Kay Uwe, E-mail: Kay.Petersen@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Psychiatry, University Clinic Tübingen, Calwerstraße 14 Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Graessner, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.graessner@siemens.com [Siemens AG Healthcare, Lindenplatz 2, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard, E-mail: g.adam@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Habermann, Christian R., E-mail: c.habermann@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine age-related diffusivity changes of the lumbar bone marrow by measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Materials and methods: The local ethics committee approved this study and written informed consent was obtained. The study group comprised 88 individuals including 75 healthy volunteers and 13 patients (48 female, 40 male; mean age 36 years, range 0–84 years). The pediatric cases were recruited from patients. Echo-planar diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with b-values of 50, 400 and 800 s/mm{sup 2}. ADC-values were calculated and measured in the 1st and 2nd vertebral body of the lumbar spine. Correlation between age and ADC-values was analyzed with Spearman's rho test. Results: The ADC values of the vertebral bone marrow of the lumbar spine showed a significant negative correlation with age (rho = −0.398, p = 0.001). The mean ADC values (×10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) in the age groups 0–29 years (mean age 18.0 years, n = 42) and 30–88 years (mean age 51.6 years, n = 46) were 0.54 ± 0.07 and 0.47 ± 0.08, respectively (p < 0.001, T-test). No significant differences were found between children and young adults. Conclusion: Bone marrow ADC values of the lumbar spine show a linear decrease with growing age and thereby reflect the gradual changes of cell composition occurring during marrow conversion.

  15. [Gene geography of Chile: regional distribution of American, European and African genetic contributions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Macarena; Pulgar, Iván; Gallo, Carla; Bortolini, María-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Bedoya, Gabriel; González-José, Rolando; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    The geographical distribution of genes plays a key role in genetic epidemiology. The Chilean population has three major stem groups (Native American, European and African). To estimate the regional rate of American, European and African admixture of the Chilean population. Forty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) which exhibit substantially different frequencies between Amerindian populations (ancestry-informative markers or AIM´s), were genotyped in a sample of 923 Chilean participants to estimate individual genetic ancestry. The American, European and African individual average admixture estimates for the 15 Chilean Regions were relatively homogeneous and not statistically different. However, higher American components were found in northern and southern Chile and higher European components were found in central Chile. A negative correlation between African admixture and latitude was observed. On the average, American and European genetic contributions were similar and significantly higher than the African contribution. Weighted mean American, European and African genetic contributions of 44.34% ± 3 9%, 51.85% ± 5.44% and 3.81% ± 0.45%, were estimated. Fifty two percent of subjects harbor African genes. Individuals with Aymara and Mapuche surnames have an American admixture of 58.64% and 68.33%, respectively. Half of the Chilean population harbors African genes. Participants with Aymara and Mapuche surnames had a higher American genetic contribution than the general Chilean population. These results confirm the usefulness of surnames as a first approximation to determine genetic ancestry.

  16. Genetic correlations between body weight change and reproduction traits in Merino ewes depend on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, G; Mulder, H A; van der Werf, J H J; Thompson, A N; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-08-01

    Merino sheep in Australia experience periods of variable feed supply. Merino sheep can be bred to be more resilient to this variation by losing less BW when grazing poor quality pasture and gaining more BW when grazing good quality pasture. Therefore, selection on BW change might be economically attractive but correlations with other traits in the breeding objective need to be known. The genetic correlations (rg) between BW, BW change, and reproduction were estimated using records from approximately 7,350 fully pedigreed Merino ewes managed at Katanning in Western Australia. Number of lambs and total weight of lambs born and weaned were measured on approximately 5,300 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 4,900 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 3,600 4-yr-old ewes. On a proportion of these ewes BW change was measured: approximately 1,950 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 1,500 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 1,100 4-yr-old ewes. The BW measurements were for 3 periods. The first period was during mating period over 42 d on poor pasture. The second period was during pregnancy over 90 d for ewes that got pregnant on poor and medium quality pasture. The third period was during lactation over 130 d for ewes that weaned a lamb on good quality pasture. Genetic correlations between weight change and reproduction were estimated within age classes. Genetic correlations were tested to be significantly greater magnitude than 0 using likelihood ratio tests. Nearly all BW had significant positive genetic correlations with all reproduction traits. In 2-yr-old ewes, BW change during the mating period had a positive genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = 0.58); BW change during pregnancy had a positive genetic correlation with total weight of lambs born (rg = 0.33) and a negative genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = -0.49). All other genetic correlations were not significantly greater magnitude than 0 but estimates of genetic correlations for 3-yr-old ewes were

  17. prevalence and age distribution of peripheral hamartomas in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-24

    Jul 24, 1990 ... distribution of peripheral pulmonary hamartomas in 47635 southern African miners ... The prevalence rate for white miners was 7,5/1000 and for ..... in childhood and are never seen at birth.14 The peak prevalence is reported ...

  18. Improved Cost-Base Design of Water Distribution Networks using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh Azar, Foad; Abghari, Hirad; Taghi Alami, Mohammad; Weijs, Steven

    2010-05-01

    Population growth and progressive extension of urbanization in different places of Iran cause an increasing demand for primary needs. The water, this vital liquid is the most important natural need for human life. Providing this natural need is requires the design and construction of water distribution networks, that incur enormous costs on the country's budget. Any reduction in these costs enable more people from society to access extreme profit least cost. Therefore, investment of Municipal councils need to maximize benefits or minimize expenditures. To achieve this purpose, the engineering design depends on the cost optimization techniques. This paper, presents optimization models based on genetic algorithm(GA) to find out the minimum design cost Mahabad City's (North West, Iran) water distribution network. By designing two models and comparing the resulting costs, the abilities of GA were determined. the GA based model could find optimum pipe diameters to reduce the design costs of network. Results show that the water distribution network design using Genetic Algorithm could lead to reduction of at least 7% in project costs in comparison to the classic model. Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Optimum Design of Water Distribution Network, Mahabad City, Iran.

  19. Network reconfiguration for loss reduction in electrical distribution system using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adail, A.S.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution system is a critical links between the utility and the nuclear installation. During feeding electricity to that installation there are power losses. The quality of the network depends on the reduction of these losses. Distribution system which feeds the nuclear installation must have a higher quality power. For example, in Inshas site, electrical power is supplied to it from two incoming feeders (one from new abu-zabal substation and the other from old abu-zabal substation). Each feeder is designed to carry the full load, while the operator preferred to connect with a new abu-zabal substation, which has a good power quality. Bad power quality affects directly the nuclear reactor and has a negative impact on the installed sensitive equipment's of the operation. The thesis is Studying the electrical losses in a distribution system (causes and effected factors), feeder reconfiguration methods, and applying of genetic algorithm in an electric distribution power system. In the end, this study proposes an optimization technique based on genetic algorithms for distribution network reconfiguration to reduce the network losses to minimum. The proposed method is applied to IEEE test network; that contain 3 feeders and 16 nodes. The technique is applied through two groups, distribution have general loads, and nuclear loads. In the groups the technique applied to seven cases at normal operation state, system fault condition as well as different loads conditions. Simulated results are drawn to show the accuracy of the technique.

  20. Molecular genetics of aging in the fly: is this the end of the beginning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, Stephen L; Rogina, Blanka

    2003-02-01

    How we age and what we can do about it have been uppermost in human thought since antiquity. The many false starts have frustrated experimentalists and theoretical arguments pronouncing the inevitability of the process have created a nihilistic climate among scientists and the public. The identification of single gene alterations that substantially extend life span in nematodes and flies however, have begun to reinvigorate the field. Drosophila's long history of contributions to aging research, rich storehouse of genetic information, and powerful molecular techniques make it an excellent system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of aging. In recent years, Drosophila has been used to test current theories on aging and explore new directions of potential importance to the biology of aging. One such example is the surprising finding that, as opposed to the commonly held assumption that adult life is a period of random passive decline in which all things are thought to fall apart, the molecular life of the adult fly appears to be a state of dynamic well-regulated change. In the fly, the level of expression of many different genes changes in an invariant, often age-dependent, manner. These as well as other molecular genetic studies and demographic analyses using the fly have begun to challenge widely held ideas about aging providing evidence that aging may be a much more dynamic and malleable process than anticipated. With the enormous success that Drosophila molecular genetics has demonstrated in helping understand complex biological phenomena such as development there is much optimism that similar approaches can be adapted to assist in understanding the process of aging. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Genetic diversity and geographic distribution of genetically distinct rabies viruses in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies continues to be a major public health problem in the Philippines, where 200-300 human cases were reported annually between 2001 and 2011. Understanding the phylogeography of rabies viruses is important for establishing a more effective and feasible control strategy. METHODS: We performed a molecular analysis of rabies viruses in the Philippines using rabied animal brain samples. The samples were collected from 11 of 17 regions, which covered three island groups (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Partial nucleoprotein (N gene sequencing was performed on 57 samples and complete glycoprotein (G gene sequencing was performed on 235 samples collected between 2004 and 2010. RESULTS: The Philippine strains of rabies viruses were included in a distinct phylogenetic cluster, previously named Asian 2b, which appeared to have diverged from the Chinese strain named Asian 2a. The Philippine strains were further divided into three major clades, which were found exclusively in different island groups: clades L, V, and M in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, respectively. Clade L was subdivided into nine subclades (L1-L9 and clade V was subdivided into two subclades (V1 and V2. With a few exceptions, most strains in each subclade were distributed in specific geographic areas. There were also four strains that were divided into two genogroups but were not classified into any of the three major clades, and all four strains were found in the island group of Luzon. CONCLUSION: We detected three major clades and two distinct genogroups of rabies viruses in the Philippines. Our data suggest that viruses of each clade and subclade evolved independently in each area without frequent introduction into other areas. An important implication of these data is that geographically targeted dog vaccination using the island group approach may effectively control rabies in the Philippines.

  2. Next generation sequencing for preimplantation genetic testing of blastocysts aneuploidies in women of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lukaszuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current preimplantation genetic screening of aneuploidies tests are based on the low quality and low density comparative genomic hybridization arrays. The results are based on fewer than 2,700 probes. Our main outcome was the association of aneuploidy rates and the women’s age. Between August–December 2013, 198 blastocysts from women (mean age 36.3+-4.6 undergoing in vitro fertilization underwent routine trophectoderm biopsy. NGS was performed on Ion Torrent PGM (Life Technologies. The results were analyzed in five age groups ( 40. 85 blastocysts were normal according to NGS results. The results in the investigated groups were (% of normal blastocyst in each group: 40 (38.5%. Our study suggests that NGS PGD is applicable for routine preimplantation genetic testing. It allows also for easy customization of the procedure for each individual patient making personalized diagnostics a reality.

  3. Is an Early Age at Illness Onset in Schizophrenia Associated With Increased Genetic Susceptibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilker, Rikke; Helenius, Dorte; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    with schizophrenia spectrum) and a subsample of N = 448 (affected with schizophrenia). Survival analysis was applied to investigate the effect of age at illness onset. Findings We found that early age at illness onset compared to later onset in the first diagnosed twin can be considered a major risk factor......Background Early age at illness onset has been viewed as an important liability marker for schizophrenia, which may be associated with an increased genetic vulnerability. A twin approach can be valuable, because it allows for the investigation of specific illness markers in individuals...... with a shared genetic background. Methods We linked nationwide registers to identify a cohort of twin pairs born in Denmark from 1951 to 2000 (N = 31,524 pairs), where one or both twins had a diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum. We defined two groups consisting of; N = 788 twin pairs (affected...

  4. Spatial distribution of the human enamel fracture toughness with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qinghua; Xu, Haiping; Song, Fan; Zhang, Lan; Zhou, Xuedong; Shao, Yingfeng; Huang, Dingming

    2013-10-01

    A better understanding of the fracture toughness (KIC) of human enamel and the changes induced by aging is important for the clinical treatment of teeth cracks and fractures. We conducted microindentation tests and chemical content measurements on molar teeth from "young" (18 ≤ age ≤ 25) and "old" (55 ≤ age) patients. The KIC and the mineral contents (calcium and phosphorus) in the outer, the middle, and the inner enamel layers within the cuspal and the intercuspal regions of the crown were measured through the Vickers toughness test and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The elastic modulus used for the KIC calculation was measured through atomic force microscope (AFM)-based nanoindentation tests. In the outer enamel layer, two direction-specific values of the KIC were calculated separately (direction I, crack running parallel to the occlusal surface; direction II, perpendicular to direction I). The mean KIC of the outer enamel layer was lower than that of the internal layers (penamel layer, old enamel has a lower KIC, II and higher mineral contents than young enamel (penamel surface becomes more prone to cracks with aging partly due to the reduction in the interprismatic organic matrix observed with the maturation of enamel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parallel Distributed Processing Theory in the Age of Deep Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S

    2017-12-01

    Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models in psychology are the precursors of deep networks used in computer science. However, only PDP models are associated with two core psychological claims, namely that all knowledge is coded in a distributed format and cognition is mediated by non-symbolic computations. These claims have long been debated in cognitive science, and recent work with deep networks speaks to this debate. Specifically, single-unit recordings show that deep networks learn units that respond selectively to meaningful categories, and researchers are finding that deep networks need to be supplemented with symbolic systems to perform some tasks. Given the close links between PDP and deep networks, it is surprising that research with deep networks is challenging PDP theory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Density, distribution, and genetic structure of grizzly bears in the Cabinet-Yaak Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Amy C.; Boyd, Kristina L.; Boulanger, John; Royle, J. Andrew; Kasworm, Wayne F.; Paetkau, David; Proctor, Michael F.; Annis, Kim; Graves, Tabitha A.

    2016-01-01

    The conservation status of the 2 threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations in the Cabinet-Yaak Ecosystem (CYE) of northern Montana and Idaho had remained unchanged since designation in 1975; however, the current demographic status of these populations was uncertain. No rigorous data on population density and distribution or analysis of recent population genetic structure were available to measure the effectiveness of conservation efforts. We used genetic detection data from hair corral, bear rub, and opportunistic sampling in traditional and spatial capture–recapture models to generate estimates of abundance and density of grizzly bears in the CYE. We calculated mean bear residency on our sampling grid from telemetry data using Huggins and Pledger models to estimate the average number of bears present and to correct our superpopulation estimates for lack of geographic closure. Estimated grizzly bear abundance (all sex and age classes) in the CYE in 2012 was 48–50 bears, approximately half the population recovery goal. Grizzly bear density in the CYE (4.3–4.5 grizzly bears/1,000 km2) was among the lowest of interior North American populations. The sizes of the Cabinet (n = 22–24) and Yaak (n = 18–22) populations were similar. Spatial models produced similar estimates of abundance and density with comparable precision without requiring radio-telemetry data to address assumptions of geographic closure. The 2 populations in the CYE were demographically and reproductively isolated from each other and the Cabinet population was highly inbred. With parentage analysis, we documented natural migrants to the Cabinet and Yaak populations by bears born to parents in the Selkirk and Northern Continental Divide populations. These events supported data from other sources suggesting that the expansion of neighboring populations may eventually help sustain the CYE populations. However, the small size, isolation, and inbreeding documented by this study

  7. The influence of age and genetics on natural resistance to experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Gandolfi, Barbara; Lyons, Leslie A

    2014-11-15

    Naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is usually fatal, giving the impression that immunity to the FIP virus (FIPV) is extremely poor. This impression may be incorrect, because not all cats experimentally exposed to FIPV develop FIP. There is also a belief that the incidence of FIP may be affected by a number of host, virus, and environmental cofactors. However, the contribution of these cofactors to immunity and disease incidence has not been determined. The present study followed 111 random-bred specific pathogen free (SPF) cats that were obtained from a single research breeding colony and experimentally infected with FIPV. The cats were from several studies conducted over the past 5 years, and as a result, some of them had prior exposure to feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) or avirulent FIPVs. The cats were housed under optimized conditions of nutrition, husbandry, and quarantine to eliminate most of the cofactors implicated in FIPV infection outcome and were uniformly challenge exposed to the same field strain of serotype 1 FIPV. Forty of the 111 (36%) cats survived their initial challenge exposure to a Type I cat-passaged field strains of FIPV. Six of these 40 survivors succumbed to FIP to a second or third challenge exposure, suggesting that immunity was not always sustained. Exposure to non-FIP-inducing feline coronaviruses prior to challenge with virulent FIPV did not significantly affect FIP incidence but did accelerate the disease course in some cats. There were no significant differences in FIP incidence between males and females, but resistance increased significantly between 6 months and 1 or more years of age. Genetic testing was done on 107 of the 111 infected cats. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) segregated the 107 cats into three distinct families based primarily on a common sire(s), and resistant and susceptible cats were equally distributed within each family. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 73 cats that died of FIP

  8. Determination of optimum allocation and pricing of distributed generation using genetic algorithm methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakabuta, Ndaga Stanslaus

    Electric power distribution systems play a significant role in providing continuous and "quality" electrical energy to different classes of customers. In the context of the present restrictions on transmission system expansions and the new paradigm of "open and shared" infrastructure, new approaches to distribution system analyses, economic and operational decision-making need investigation. This dissertation includes three layers of distribution system investigations. In the basic level, improved linear models are shown to offer significant advantages over previous models for advanced analysis. In the intermediate level, the improved model is applied to solve the traditional problem of operating cost minimization using capacitors and voltage regulators. In the advanced level, an artificial intelligence technique is applied to minimize cost under Distributed Generation injection from private vendors. Soft computing techniques are finding increasing applications in solving optimization problems in large and complex practical systems. The dissertation focuses on Genetic Algorithm for investigating the economic aspects of distributed generation penetration without compromising the operational security of the distribution system. The work presents a methodology for determining the optimal pricing of distributed generation that would help utilities make a decision on how to operate their system economically. This would enable modular and flexible investments that have real benefits to the electric distribution system. Improved reliability for both customers and the distribution system in general, reduced environmental impacts, increased efficiency of energy use, and reduced costs of energy services are some advantages.

  9. Moderation of genetic and environmental influences on diurnal preference by age in adult twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Nicola L; Watson, Nathaniel F; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-03-01

    Diurnal preference changes across the lifespan. However, the mechanisms underlying this age-related shift are poorly understood. The aim of this twin study was to determine the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on diurnal preference are moderated by age. Seven hundred and sixty-eight monozygotic and 674 dizygotic adult twin pairs participating in the University of Washington Twin Registry completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire as a measure of diurnal preference. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 93 years (mean = 36.23, SD = 15.54) and were categorized on the basis of age into three groups: younger adulthood (19-35 years, n = 1715 individuals), middle adulthood (36-64 years, n = 1003 individuals) and older adulthood (65+ years, n = 168 individuals). Increasing age was associated with an increasing tendency towards morningness (r = 0.42, p influences for the total sample as well as for each age group separately. Additive genetic influences accounted for 52%[46-57%], and non-shared environmental influences 48%[43-54%], of the total variance in diurnal preference. In comparing univariate genetic models between age groups, the best-fitting model was one in which the parameter estimates for younger adults and older adults were equated, in comparison with middle adulthood. For younger and older adulthood, additive genetic influences accounted for 44%[31-49%] and non-shared environmental influences 56%[49-64%] of variance in diurnal preference, whereas for middle adulthood these estimates were 34%[21-45%] and 66%[55-79%], respectively. Therefore, genetic influences on diurnal preference are attenuated in middle adulthood. Attenuation is likely driven by the increased importance of work and family responsibilities during this life stage, in comparison with younger and older adulthood when these factors may be less influential in determining sleep-wake timing. These findings have implications for studies

  10. Stochastic resonances in a distributed genetic broadcasting system: the NFκB/IκB paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Potoyan, Davit A; Wolynes, Peter G

    2018-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks must relay information from extracellular signals to downstream genes in an efficient, timely and coherent manner. Many complex functional tasks such as the immune response require system-wide broadcasting of information not to one but to many genes carrying out distinct functions whose dynamical binding and unbinding characteristics are widely distributed. In such broadcasting networks, the intended target sites are also often dwarfed in number by the even more numerous non-functional binding sites. Taking the genetic regulatory network of NF κ B as an exemplary system we explore the impact of having numerous distributed sites on the stochastic dynamics of oscillatory broadcasting genetic networks pointing out how resonances in binding cycles control the network's specificity and performance. We also show that active kinetic regulation of binding and unbinding through molecular stripping of DNA bound transcription factors can lead to a higher coherence of gene-co-expression and synchronous clearance. © 2018 The Author(s).

  11. A distributed parallel genetic algorithm of placement strategy for virtual machines deployment on cloud platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu-Shuang; Xu, Gao-Chao; Fu, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The cloud platform provides various services to users. More and more cloud centers provide infrastructure as the main way of operating. To improve the utilization rate of the cloud center and to decrease the operating cost, the cloud center provides services according to requirements of users by sharding the resources with virtualization. Considering both QoS for users and cost saving for cloud computing providers, we try to maximize performance and minimize energy cost as well. In this paper, we propose a distributed parallel genetic algorithm (DPGA) of placement strategy for virtual machines deployment on cloud platform. It executes the genetic algorithm parallelly and distributedly on several selected physical hosts in the first stage. Then it continues to execute the genetic algorithm of the second stage with solutions obtained from the first stage as the initial population. The solution calculated by the genetic algorithm of the second stage is the optimal one of the proposed approach. The experimental results show that the proposed placement strategy of VM deployment can ensure QoS for users and it is more effective and more energy efficient than other placement strategies on the cloud platform.

  12. A Distributed Parallel Genetic Algorithm of Placement Strategy for Virtual Machines Deployment on Cloud Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shuang Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloud platform provides various services to users. More and more cloud centers provide infrastructure as the main way of operating. To improve the utilization rate of the cloud center and to decrease the operating cost, the cloud center provides services according to requirements of users by sharding the resources with virtualization. Considering both QoS for users and cost saving for cloud computing providers, we try to maximize performance and minimize energy cost as well. In this paper, we propose a distributed parallel genetic algorithm (DPGA of placement strategy for virtual machines deployment on cloud platform. It executes the genetic algorithm parallelly and distributedly on several selected physical hosts in the first stage. Then it continues to execute the genetic algorithm of the second stage with solutions obtained from the first stage as the initial population. The solution calculated by the genetic algorithm of the second stage is the optimal one of the proposed approach. The experimental results show that the proposed placement strategy of VM deployment can ensure QoS for users and it is more effective and more energy efficient than other placement strategies on the cloud platform.

  13. Genetic effects on information processing speed are moderated by age--converging results from three samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ising, M; Mather, K A; Zimmermann, P; Brückl, T; Höhne, N; Heck, A; Schenk, L A; Rujescu, D; Armstrong, N J; Sachdev, P S; Reppermund, S

    2014-06-01

    Information processing is a cognitive trait forming the basis of complex abilities like executive function. The Trail Making Test (TMT) is a well-established test of information processing with moderate to high heritability. Age of the individual also plays an important role. A number of genetic association studies with the TMT have been performed, which, however, did not consider age as a moderating factor. We report the results of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on age-independent and age-dependent TMT performance in two population-representative community samples (Munich Antidepressant Response Signature, MARS: N1 = 540; Ludwig Maximilians University, LMU: N2 = 350). Age-dependent genome-wide findings were then evaluated in a third sample of healthy elderly subjects (Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, Sydney MAS: N3 = 448). While a meta-analysis on the GWAS findings did not reveal age-independent TMT associations withstanding correction for multiple testing, we found a genome-wide significant age-moderated effect between variants in the DSG1 gene region and TMT-A performance predominantly reflecting visual processing speed (rs2199301, P(meta-analysis) = 1.3 × 10(-7)). The direction of the interaction suggests for the minor allele a beneficial effect in younger adults turning into a detrimental effect in older adults. The detrimental effect of the missense single nucleotide polymorphism rs1426310 within the same DSG1 gene region could be replicated in Sydney MAS participants aged 70-79, but not in those aged 80 years and older, presumably a result of survivor bias. Our findings demonstrate opposing effects of DSG1 variants on information processing speed depending on age, which might be related to the complex processes that DSG1 is involved with, including cell adhesion and apoptosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  14. Age distribution of abnormal pap smear in a secondary hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age distribution of abnormal pap smear in a secondary hospital in south-west Nigeria. ... Objective: To determine the age distribution pattern of abnormal Paps smear in women in our environment in order to have a basis for the points of entry and exit for cervical cancer screening protocol. Materials and Method: In this ...

  15. Electrical power transmission and distribution aging and life extension techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Chudnovsky, Bella H

    2012-01-01

    ""The focus of this unique reference book is four critical areas in the manufacturing of power distribution components. These areas are plating, lubrication, insulator failure, and maintenance. ... The many SEM images, x-ray studies, photos, and tabular data make for a very convenient reference source for diagnosing plating problems. ... Examples often help to drive home a point, and many case studies illustrating the various failure modes described throughout the book are included. These could prove to be an invaluable source of information when trying to diagnose unknown field failures. ...

  16. Global Distribution of Human-Associated Fecal Genetic Markers in Reference Samples from Six Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, René E; Reischer, Georg H; Ixenmaier, Simone K; Derx, Julia; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Ebdon, James E; Linke, Rita; Egle, Lukas; Ahmed, Warish; Blanch, Anicet R; Byamukama, Denis; Savill, Marion; Mushi, Douglas; Cristóbal, Héctor A; Edge, Thomas A; Schade, Margit A; Aslan, Asli; Brooks, Yolanda M; Sommer, Regina; Masago, Yoshifumi; Sato, Maria I; Taylor, Huw D; Rose, Joan B; Wuertz, Stefan; Shanks, Orin C; Piringer, Harald; Mach, Robert L; Savio, Domenico; Zessner, Matthias; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2018-05-01

    Numerous bacterial genetic markers are available for the molecular detection of human sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, widespread application is hindered by a lack of knowledge regarding geographical stability, limiting implementation to a small number of well-characterized regions. This study investigates the geographic distribution of five human-associated genetic markers (HF183/BFDrev, HF183/BacR287, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and Lachno2) in municipal wastewaters (raw and treated) from 29 urban and rural wastewater treatment plants (750-4 400 000 population equivalents) from 13 countries spanning six continents. In addition, genetic markers were tested against 280 human and nonhuman fecal samples from domesticated, agricultural and wild animal sources. Findings revealed that all genetic markers are present in consistently high concentrations in raw (median log 10 7.2-8.0 marker equivalents (ME) 100 mL -1 ) and biologically treated wastewater samples (median log 10 4.6-6.0 ME 100 mL -1 ) regardless of location and population. The false positive rates of the various markers in nonhuman fecal samples ranged from 5% to 47%. Results suggest that several genetic markers have considerable potential for measuring human-associated contamination in polluted environmental waters. This will be helpful in water quality monitoring, pollution modeling and health risk assessment (as demonstrated by QMRAcatch) to guide target-oriented water safety management across the globe.

  17. Strategic Decision-Making Learning from Label Distributions: An Approach for Facial Age Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Han

    2016-06-28

    Nowadays, label distribution learning is among the state-of-the-art methodologies in facial age estimation. It takes the age of each facial image instance as a label distribution with a series of age labels rather than the single chronological age label that is commonly used. However, this methodology is deficient in its simple decision-making criterion: the final predicted age is only selected at the one with maximum description degree. In many cases, different age labels may have very similar description degrees. Consequently, blindly deciding the estimated age by virtue of the highest description degree would miss or neglect other valuable age labels that may contribute a lot to the final predicted age. In this paper, we propose a strategic decision-making label distribution learning algorithm (SDM-LDL) with a series of strategies specialized for different types of age label distribution. Experimental results from the most popular aging face database, FG-NET, show the superiority and validity of all the proposed strategic decision-making learning algorithms over the existing label distribution learning and other single-label learning algorithms for facial age estimation. The inner properties of SDM-LDL are further explored with more advantages.

  18. Assessment of genetic risk of exposure resulted from X-ray examination of women of the reproductive age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nikova, N.K.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of the available data an evaluation of genetic radiation risk during roentgenologic examination of women of the reproductive age is presented. It is demonstrated that the degree of genetic risk depends on woman's age at the moment of the roentgenologic examination and the amount of the gonadal dose. Identification of the high-risk exposed populations has been substantiated

  19. Elucidating the genetic architecture of reproductive ageing in the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Day, Felix R; Akiyama, Masato; Hirata, Makoto; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Matsuda, Koichi; Ishigaki, Kazuyoshi; Kanai, Masahiro; Wright, Hollis; Toro, Carlos A; Ojeda, Sergio R; Lomniczi, Alejandro; Kubo, Michiaki; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2018-05-17

    Population studies elucidating the genetic architecture of reproductive ageing have been largely limited to European ancestries, restricting the generalizability of the findings and overlooking possible key genes poorly captured by common European genetic variation. Here, we report 26 loci (all P Japanese ancestry). Highlighted genes for menopause include GNRH1, which supports a primary, rather than passive, role for hypothalamic-pituitary GnRH signalling in the timing of menopause. For puberty timing, we demonstrate an aetiological role for receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases by combining evidence across population genetics and pre- and peri-pubertal changes in hypothalamic gene expression in rodent and primate models. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate widespread differences in allele frequencies and effect estimates between Japanese and European associated variants, highlighting the benefits and challenges of large-scale trans-ethnic approaches.

  20. Complex interactions between dietary and genetic factors impact lycopene metabolism and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nancy E.; Erdman, John W.; Clinton, Steven K.

    2013-01-01

    Intake of lycopene, a red, tetraterpene carotenoid found in tomatoes is epidemiologically associated with a decreased risk of chronic disease processes, and lycopene has demonstrated bioactivity in numerous in vitro and animal models. However, our understanding of absorption, tissue distribution, and biological impact in humans remains very limited. Lycopene absorption is strongly impacted by dietary composition, especially the amount of fat. Concentrations of circulating lycopene in lipoproteins may be further influenced by a number of variations in genes related to lipid absorption and metabolism. Lycopene is not uniformly distributed among tissues, with adipose, liver, and blood being the major body pools, while the testes, adrenals, and liver have the greatest concentrations compared to other organs. Tissue concentrations of lycopene are likely dictated by expression of and genetic variation in lipoprotein receptors, cholesterol transporters, and carotenoid metabolizing enzymes, thus impacting lycopene accumulation at target sites of action. The novel application of genetic evaluation in concert with lycopene tracers will allow determination of which genes and polymorphisms define individual lycopene metabolic phenotypes, response to dietary variables, and ultimately determine biological and clinical outcomes. A better understanding of the relationship between diet, genetics, and lycopene distribution will provide necessary information to interpret epidemiological findings more accurately and to design effective, personalized clinical nutritional interventions addressing hypotheses regarding health outcomes. PMID:23845854

  1. Genetics and pharmacology of longevity: the road to therapeutics for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Quan, Jorge Iván; Kinghorn, Kerri J; Bjedov, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Aging can be defined as the progressive decline in tissue and organismal function and the ability to respond to stress that occurs in association with homeostatic failure and the accumulation of molecular damage. Aging is the biggest risk factor for human disease and results in a wide range of aging pathologies. Although we do not completely understand the underlying molecular basis that drives the aging process, we have gained exceptional insights into the plasticity of life span and healthspan from the use of model organisms such as the worm Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Single-gene mutations in key cellular pathways that regulate environmental sensing, and the response to stress, have been identified that prolong life span across evolution from yeast to mammals. These genetic manipulations also correlate with a delay in the onset of tissue and organismal dysfunction. While the molecular genetics of aging will remain a prosperous and attractive area of research in biogerontology, we are moving towards an era defined by the search for therapeutic drugs that promote healthy aging. Translational biogerontology will require incorporation of both therapeutic and pharmacological concepts. The use of model organisms will remain central to the quest for drug discovery, but as we uncover molecular processes regulated by repurposed drugs and polypharmacy, studies of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, drug-drug interactions, drug toxicity, and therapeutic index will slowly become more prevalent in aging research. As we move from genetics to pharmacology and therapeutics, studies will not only require demonstration of life span extension and an underlying molecular mechanism, but also the translational relevance for human health and disease prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular and Chemical Genetic Approaches to Developmental Origins of Aging and Disease in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Kishi, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of diseases increases rapidly with age, accompanied by progressive deteriorations of physiological functions in organisms. Aging-associated diseases are sporadic but mostly inevitable complications arising from senescence. Senescence is often considered the antithesis of early development, but yet there may be factors and mechanisms in common between these two phenomena over the dynamic process of aging. The association between early development and late-onset disease with advancing age is thought to come from a consequence of developmental plasticity, the phenomenon by which one genotype can give rise to a range of physiologically and/or morphologically adaptive states in response to different environmental or genetic perturbations. On the one hand, we hypothesized that the future aging process can be predictive based on adaptivity during the early developmental period. Modulating the thresholds of adaptive plasticity by chemical genetic approaches, we have been investigating whether any relationship exists between the regulatory mechanisms that function in early development and in senescence using the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish and a useful model animal for genetic studies. We have successfully conducted experiments to isolate zebrafish mutants expressing apparently altered senescence phenotypes during embryogenesis (“embryonic senescence”), subsequently showing shortened lifespan in adulthoods. We anticipate that previously uncharacterized developmental genes may mediate the aging process and play a pivotal role in senescence. On the other hand, unexpected senescence-related genes might also be involved in the early developmental process and regulation. The ease of manipulation using the zebrafish system allows us to conduct an exhaustive exploration of novel genes and small molecular compounds that can be linked to the senescence phenotype, and thereby facilitates searching for the evolutionary and developmental origins

  3. Genetic risk score predicting risk of rheumatoid arthritis phenotypes and age of symptom onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori B Chibnik

    Full Text Available Cumulative genetic profiles can help identify individuals at high-risk for developing RA. We examined the impact of 39 validated genetic risk alleles on the risk of RA phenotypes characterized by serologic and erosive status.We evaluated single nucleotide polymorphisms at 31 validated RA risk loci and 8 Human Leukocyte Antigen alleles among 542 Caucasian RA cases and 551 Caucasian controls from Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II. We created a weighted genetic risk score (GRS and evaluated it as 7 ordinal groups using logistic regression (adjusting for age and smoking to assess the relationship between GRS group and odds of developing seronegative (RF- and CCP-, seropositive (RF+ or CCP+, erosive, and seropositive, erosive RA phenotypes. In separate case only analyses, we assessed the relationships between GRS and age of symptom onset. In 542 RA cases, 317 (58% were seropositive, 163 (30% had erosions and 105 (19% were seropositive with erosions. Comparing the highest GRS risk group to the median group, we found an OR of 1.2 (95% CI = 0.8-2.1 for seronegative RA, 3.0 (95% CI = 1.9-4.7 for seropositive RA, 3.2 (95% CI = 1.8-5.6 for erosive RA, and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.6-16.3 for seropositive, erosive RA. No significant relationship was seen between GRS and age of onset.Results suggest that seronegative and seropositive/erosive RA have different genetic architecture and support the importance of considering RA phenotypes in RA genetic studies.

  4. Operation and management of aging gas distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNorgan, J.D. (Southern California Gas Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Southern California Gas Company, transports billions of cubic feet of natural gas through large-diameter, high-pressure transmission lines, across hundreds of miles of varying terrain, to satisfy the needs of over four and a half million customers. Operating an aging gas system can be truly expensive. Repair costs are very high. Recent figures experienced by our company show that it cost over $800 to repair a main leak, $400 to replace a service, and over $40 a foot to replace even small sized mains. A hidden cost is the effect of the physical limitations imposed by an aging system. It could be under-sized, or limited to a low pressure, thus restricting the volume of gas that can be delivered. Additionally there is the potential loss of valuable gas through leaks or blow downs when making repairs or replacements, and the damage it could do to the environment. For some years Southern California Gas Company has had on-going special and routine pipe replacement programs. The special pipe replacement program is driven primarily to increase the safety of the system, while at the same time improving reliability of service to the customers and reducing their total costs.

  5. Progress and Prospects in Human Genetic Research into Age-Related Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasue Uchida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI is a complex, multifactorial disorder that is attributable to confounding intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The degree of impairment shows substantial variation between individuals, as is also observed in the senescence of other functions. This individual variation would seem to refute the stereotypical view that hearing deterioration with age is inevitable and may indicate that there is ample scope for preventive intervention. Genetic predisposition could account for a sizable proportion of interindividual variation. Over the past decade or so, tremendous progress has been made through research into the genetics of various forms of hearing impairment, including ARHI and our knowledge of the complex mechanisms of auditory function has increased substantially. Here, we give an overview of recent investigations aimed at identifying the genetic risk factors involved in ARHI and of what we currently know about its pathophysiology. This review is divided into the following sections: (i genes causing monogenic hearing impairment with phenotypic similarities to ARHI; (ii genes involved in oxidative stress, biologic stress responses, and mitochondrial dysfunction; and (iii candidate genes for senescence, other geriatric diseases, and neurodegeneration. Progress and prospects in genetic research are discussed.

  6. Update on the role of genetics in the onset of age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter James; Klein, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), akin to other common age-related diseases, has a complex pathogenesis and arises from the interplay of genes, environmental factors, and personal characteristics. The past decade has seen very significant strides towards identification of those precise genetic variants associated with disease. That genes encoding proteins of the (alternative) complement pathway (CFH, C2, CFB, C3, CFI) are major players in etiology came as a surprise to many but has already lead to the development of therapies entering human clinical trials. Other genes replicated in many populations ARMS2, APOE, variants near TIMP3, and genes involved in lipid metabolism have also been implicated in disease pathogenesis. The genes discovered to date can be estimated to account for approximately 50% of the genetic variance of AMD and have been discovered by candidate gene approaches, pathway analysis, and latterly genome-wide association studies. Next generation sequencing modalities and meta-analysis techniques are being employed with the aim of identifying the remaining rarer but, perhaps, individually more significant sequence variations, linked to disease status. Complementary studies have also begun to utilize this genetic information to develop clinically useful algorithms to predict AMD risk and evaluate pharmacogenetics. In this article, contemporary commentary is provided on rapidly progressing efforts to elucidate the genetic pathogenesis of AMD as the field stands at the end of the first decade of the 21st century. PMID:21887094

  7. Integration of genetic and demographic data to assess population risk in a continuously distributed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; Row, Jeffery R.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.

    2017-01-01

    The identification and demographic assessment of biologically meaningful populations is fundamental to species’ ecology and management. Although genetic tools are used frequently to identify populations, studies often do not incorporate demographic data to understand their respective population trends. We used genetic data to define subpopulations in a continuously distributed species. We assessed demographic independence and variation in population trends across the distribution. Additionally, we identified potential barriers to gene flow among subpopulations. We sampled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) leks from across their range (≈175,000 Km2) in Wyoming and amplified DNA at 14 microsatellite loci for 1761 samples. Subsequently, we assessed population structure in unrelated individuals (n = 872) by integrating results from multiple Bayesian clustering approaches and used the boundaries to inform our assessment of long-term population trends and lek activity over the period of 1995–2013. We identified four genetic clusters of which two northern ones showed demographic independence from the others. Trends in population size for the northwest subpopulation were statistically different from the other three genetic clusters and the northeast and southwest subpopulations demonstrated a general trend of increasing proportion of inactive leks over time. Population change from 1996 to 2012 suggested population growth in the southern subpopulations and decline, or neutral, change in the northern subpopulations. We suggest that sage-grouse subpopulations in northern Wyoming are at greater risk of extirpation than the southern subpopulations due to smaller census and effective population sizes and higher variability within subpopulations. Our research is an example of incorporating genetic and demographic data and provides guidance on the identification of subpopulations of conservation concern.

  8. Supplementary data: The m olecular genetic basis of age-related ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data, J. Genet. 88, 425–449. Ta b le. 1. (contd. ) S tudy. Age g roup. All. E arly. Intermediate. Advanced. Associated. P opulatio n. S ub groups. L o catio n. (T ime frame). P articip ants. (N. ) (Y r). A. MD. A. M. D. A. MD. A. M. D risk factor. P valu e. O. R. (95%CI). R eference. Icelandic. Iceland. R eykjav ik ey e.

  9. Optimization of spatial light distribution through genetic algorithms for vision systems applied to quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellini, P; Cecchini, S; Stroppa, L; Paone, N

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an adaptive illumination system for image quality enhancement in vision-based quality control systems. In particular, a spatial modulation of illumination intensity is proposed in order to improve image quality, thus compensating for different target scattering properties, local reflections and fluctuations of ambient light. The desired spatial modulation of illumination is obtained by a digital light projector, used to illuminate the scene with an arbitrary spatial distribution of light intensity, designed to improve feature extraction in the region of interest. The spatial distribution of illumination is optimized by running a genetic algorithm. An image quality estimator is used to close the feedback loop and to stop iterations once the desired image quality is reached. The technique proves particularly valuable for optimizing the spatial illumination distribution in the region of interest, with the remarkable capability of the genetic algorithm to adapt the light distribution to very different target reflectivity and ambient conditions. The final objective of the proposed technique is the improvement of the matching score in the recognition of parts through matching algorithms, hence of the diagnosis of machine vision-based quality inspections. The procedure has been validated both by a numerical model and by an experimental test, referring to a significant problem of quality control for the washing machine manufacturing industry: the recognition of a metallic clamp. Its applicability to other domains is also presented, specifically for the visual inspection of shoes with retro-reflective tape and T-shirts with paillettes. (paper)

  10. Genetic stratigraphy and palaeoenvironmental controls on coal distribution in the Witbank Basin Coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, G

    1981-01-01

    Subsurface data from over 1200 boreholes in the Witbank basin coalfield provided information for determining the coalfield stratigraphy and the palaeoenvironmental controls on coal distribution. The inadequacies of existing coalfield lithostratigraphy are obviated by the erection of a genetic coalfield stratigraphy. A total of ten areally extensive defined marker surfaces resolve the sedimentary succession into nine defined fundamental genetically realted stratal increments, termed Genetic increments of strata(GIS's); these are grouped into four defined Genetic Sequences of Strata (GSS's), termed from the base upwards, the Witbank, Coalville, Middleburg and Van Dyks Drift GSS's which are respectively grouped to comprise a single genetic Generation of strata, termed the Ogies Generation. Coalfield genetic stratigraphy is summarized in graphic mode in a composite stratigraphic column. It is concluded from this study that with the northward retreat of the late-Palaeozoic Gondwana ice sheet a series of glacial valleys, partially filled with diamicite, dominated the landscape along the northern edge of the Karoo basin. Consequent outwash sediments constitute the Witbank GSS and accumulated as paraglacial, glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine deltaic deposits, in the primeval Dwyka-Ecca Sea. Upon abandonment, shallow-rooted Tundra vegetation proliferated, and multi-channel outwash streams were stabilised, confined and enveloped by areally extensive accumulation of peat, that reached up to 24 m in thickness, and which constituted precursors to the 1 and 2 Seam coals which attain a combined thickness of up to 12,5 m. Variations i coal petrographic character and ash content are attributed to: overbank splaying within the proximity of recognisable syndepositional (in-seam) vegetation-stabilised channels; and to the progressively increased introduction of suspended sediment as a consequence of transgressive inundation prior to burial.

  11. Genetic and environmental links between cognitive and physical functions in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    of twins from the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Cognitive function was measured using forward and backward digit span, immediate and delayed memory, and fluency tasks. Physical function was measured using self-report of ability to carry out physical activities including walking, running......In old age, cognitive and physical functions are correlated. Knowing the correlations between genetic and environmental influences underlying this correlation can help to clarify the reasons for the observable (phenotypic) correlation. We estimated these correlations in a sample of 1,053 pairs...

  12. Spontaneous genetic damage in the tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae): the effect of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumburg, Laura G; Poletta, Gisela L; Siroski, Pablo A; Mudry, Marta D

    2014-05-15

    Several studies indicate that certain factors such as age, sex or nutritional status among others, may affect the level of DNA damage, both induced and spontaneous, so it is very important to consider them for a more accurate interpretation of the findings. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of age, sex, and nest of origin on spontaneous genetic damage of Tupinambis merianae determined by the comet assay (CA) and the micronucleus (MN) test, in order to improve reference data for future in vivo studies of xenobiotics exposure in this species. Sixty-five tegu lizards of three different ages: newborns (NB), juveniles (JUV) and adults (AD), both sexes and from different nests of origin were used. Blood samples were collected from the caudal vein of all animals and the MN test and CA were applied on peripheral blood erythrocytes to determine basal frequency of MN (BFMN) and basal damage index (BDI). The comparison between age groups showed statistically significant differences in the BFMN and BDI (p0.05). A weak negative relationship was found only between BFMN and weight of NB tegu lizard (p=0.014; R(2)=0.245). Basal values of genetic damage obtained with both biomarkers in the tegu lizard evidenced that age is an intrinsic factor that should be taken into account to avoid misunderstanding of the results in future biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Human X-chromosome inactivation pattern distributions fit a model of genetically influenced choice better than models of completely random choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Nisa K E; Pritchett, Sonja M; Howell, Robin E; Greer, Wenda L; Sapienza, Carmen; Ørstavik, Karen Helene; Hamilton, David C

    2013-01-01

    In eutherian mammals, one X-chromosome in every XX somatic cell is transcriptionally silenced through the process of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). Females are thus functional mosaics, where some cells express genes from the paternal X, and the others from the maternal X. The relative abundance of the two cell populations (X-inactivation pattern, XIP) can have significant medical implications for some females. In mice, the ‘choice' of which X to inactivate, maternal or paternal, in each cell of the early embryo is genetically influenced. In humans, the timing of XCI choice and whether choice occurs completely randomly or under a genetic influence is debated. Here, we explore these questions by analysing the distribution of XIPs in large populations of normal females. Models were generated to predict XIP distributions resulting from completely random or genetically influenced choice. Each model describes the discrete primary distribution at the onset of XCI, and the continuous secondary distribution accounting for changes to the XIP as a result of development and ageing. Statistical methods are used to compare models with empirical data from Danish and Utah populations. A rigorous data treatment strategy maximises information content and allows for unbiased use of unphased XIP data. The Anderson–Darling goodness-of-fit statistics and likelihood ratio tests indicate that a model of genetically influenced XCI choice better fits the empirical data than models of completely random choice. PMID:23652377

  14. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially...... (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR... effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape....

  15. Genetic diversity and divergence at the Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) westernmost distribution limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maria Margarida; Piotti, Andrea; Ricardo, Alexandra; Gaspar, Daniel; Costa, Rita; Parducci, Laura; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Mediterranean forests are fragile ecosystems vulnerable to recent global warming and reduction of precipitation, and a long-term negative effect is expected on vegetation with increasing drought and in areas burnt by fires. We investigated the spatial distribution of genetic variation of Arbutus unedo in the western Iberia Peninsula, using plastid markers with conservation and provenance regions design purposes. This species is currently undergoing an intense domestication process in the region, and, like other species, is increasingly under the threat from climate change, habitat fragmentation and wildfires. We sampled 451 trees from 15 natural populations from different ecological conditions spanning the whole species' distribution range in the region. We applied Bayesian analysis and identified four clusters (north, centre, south, and a single-population cluster). Hierarchical AMOVA showed higher differentiation among clusters than among populations within clusters. The relatively low within-clusters differentiation can be explained by a common postglacial history of nearby populations. The genetic structure found, supported by the few available palaeobotanical records, cannot exclude the hypothesis of two independent A. unedo refugia in western Iberia Peninsula during the Last Glacial Maximum. Based on the results we recommend a conservation strategy by selecting populations for conservation based on their allelic richness and diversity and careful seed transfer consistent with current species' genetic structure.

  16. Genetic diversity and divergence at the Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae westernmost distribution limit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margarida Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Mediterranean forests are fragile ecosystems vulnerable to recent global warming and reduction of precipitation, and a long-term negative effect is expected on vegetation with increasing drought and in areas burnt by fires. We investigated the spatial distribution of genetic variation of Arbutus unedo in the western Iberia Peninsula, using plastid markers with conservation and provenance regions design purposes. This species is currently undergoing an intense domestication process in the region, and, like other species, is increasingly under the threat from climate change, habitat fragmentation and wildfires. We sampled 451 trees from 15 natural populations from different ecological conditions spanning the whole species' distribution range in the region. We applied Bayesian analysis and identified four clusters (north, centre, south, and a single-population cluster. Hierarchical AMOVA showed higher differentiation among clusters than among populations within clusters. The relatively low within-clusters differentiation can be explained by a common postglacial history of nearby populations. The genetic structure found, supported by the few available palaeobotanical records, cannot exclude the hypothesis of two independent A. unedo refugia in western Iberia Peninsula during the Last Glacial Maximum. Based on the results we recommend a conservation strategy by selecting populations for conservation based on their allelic richness and diversity and careful seed transfer consistent with current species' genetic structure.

  17. Contrasting genetic structure in two co-distributed species of old world fruit bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The fulvous fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaulti and the greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx are two abundant and widely co-distributed Old World fruit bats in Southeast and East Asia. The former species forms large colonies in caves while the latter roots in small groups in trees. To test whether these differences in social organization and roosting ecology are associated with contrasting patterns of gene flow, we used mtDNA and nuclear loci to characterize population genetic subdivision and phylogeographic histories in both species sampled from China, Vietnam and India. Our analyses from R. leschenaulti using both types of marker revealed little evidence of genetic structure across the study region. On the other hand, C. sphinx showed significant genetic mtDNA differentiation between the samples from India compared with China and Vietnam, as well as greater structuring of microsatellite genotypes within China. Demographic analyses indicated signatures of past rapid population expansion in both taxa, with more recent demographic growth in C. sphinx. Therefore, the relative genetic homogeneity in R. leschenaulti is unlikely to reflect past events. Instead we suggest that the absence of substructure in R. leschenaulti is a consequence of higher levels of gene flow among colonies, and that greater vagility in this species is an adaptation associated with cave roosting.

  18. Genetic and environmental predictors of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations among middle-aged and elderly Chinese in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robien, Kim; Butler, Lesley M; Wang, Renwei; Beckman, Kenneth B; Walek, Dinesha; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-02-14

    Vitamin D is known for maintaining Ca homeostasis and bone structure, and may also decrease susceptibility to chronic and infectious diseases. However, data on vitamin D status and its predictors among Southeast Asian populations are limited. We evaluated the distribution and determinants (genetic and environmental) of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among 504 middle-aged and elderly participants (aged 45-74 years) in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Data on dietary and other lifestyle factors were collected by trained interviewers. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations and genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D metabolism pathway enzymes (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2R1, 3A4, 27B1, 24A1; vitamin D binding protein (also known as group-specific component, GC); and vitamin D receptor) were measured using stored biospecimens. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 68·8 nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were positively associated with dietary vitamin D intake, and inversely associated with hours spent sitting at work. BMI was not associated with 25(OH)D concentrations. CYP2R1 rs10741657, rs12794714, rs1993116; CYP3A4 rs2242480; and GC rs4588, rs7041, rs16847015, rs2298849 were statistically significantly associated with 25(OH)D concentrations. Individuals with the Gc2-2 haplotype (rs4588AA/rs7041TT) had statistically significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations compared to all other Gc haplotypes (P-trend hours spent indoors at work and genetic variation in CYP2R1, CYP3A4 and GC are significant predictors of 25(OH)D concentrations among Singapore Chinese.

  19. The Zebrafish Models to Explore Genetic and Epigenetic Impacts on Evolutionary Developmental Origins of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Can we reset, reprogram, rejuvenate or reverse the organismal aging process? Certain genetic manipulations could at least reset and reprogram epigenetic dynamics beyond phenotypic plasticity and elasticity in cells, which can be further manipulated into organisms. However, in a whole complex aging organism, how can we rejuvenate intrinsic resources and infrastructures in an intact/noninvasive manner? The incidence of diseases increases exponentially with age, accompanied by progressive deteriorations of physiological functions in organisms. Aging-associated diseases are sporadic but essentially inevitable complications arising from senescence. Senescence is often considered the antithesis of early development, but yet there may be factors and mechanisms in common between these two phenomena to rejuvenate over the dynamic process of aging. The association between early development and late-onset disease with advancing age is thought to come from a consequence of developmental plasticity, the phenomenon by which one genotype can give rise to a range of physiologically and/or morphologically adaptive states based on diverse epigenotypes, in response to intrinsic or extrinsic environmental cues and genetic perturbations. We hypothesized that the future aging process can be predictive based on adaptivity during the early developmental period. Modulating the thresholds and windows of plasticity and its robustness by molecular genetic and chemical epigenetic approaches, we have successfully conducted experiments to isolate zebrafish mutants expressing apparently altered senescence phenotypes during their embryonic and/or larval stages (“embryonic/larval senescence”). Subsequently, at least some of these mutant animals were found to show shortened lifespan, while some others would be expected to live longer in adulthoods. We anticipate that previously uncharacterized developmental genes may mediate the aging process and play a pivotal role in senescence. On the other

  20. Brucella Genetic Variability in Wildlife Marine Mammals Populations Relates to Host Preference and Ocean Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Esquivel, Marcela; Baker, Kate S; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Castillo-Zeledón, Amanda; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Cloeckaert, Axel; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Thomson, Nicholas R; Moreno, Edgardo; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2017-07-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens probably arose when their ancestor adapted from a free-living environment to an intracellular one, leading to clonal bacteria with smaller genomes and less sources of genetic plasticity. Still, this plasticity is needed to respond to the challenges posed by the host. Members of the Brucella genus are facultative-extracellular intracellular bacteria responsible for causing brucellosis in a variety of mammals. The various species keep different host preferences, virulence, and zoonotic potential despite having 97-99% similarity at genome level. Here, we describe elements of genetic variation in Brucella ceti isolated from wildlife dolphins inhabiting the Pacific Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Comparison with isolates obtained from marine mammals from the Atlantic Ocean and the broader Brucella genus showed distinctive traits according to oceanic distribution and preferred host. Marine mammal isolates display genetic variability, represented by an important number of IS711 elements as well as specific IS711 and SNPs genomic distribution clustering patterns. Extensive pseudogenization was found among isolates from marine mammals as compared with terrestrial ones, causing degradation in pathways related to energy, transport of metabolites, and regulation/transcription. Brucella ceti isolates infecting particularly dolphin hosts, showed further degradation of metabolite transport pathways as well as pathways related to cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis and motility. Thus, gene loss through pseudogenization is a source of genetic variation in Brucella, which in turn, relates to adaptation to different hosts. This is relevant to understand the natural history of bacterial diseases, their zoonotic potential, and the impact of human interventions such as domestication. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Genetic and environmental multidimensionality of well- and ill-being in middle aged twin men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Carol E; Panizzon, Matthew S; Eaves, Lindon J; Thompson, Wesley; Lyons, Michael J; Jacobson, Kristen C; Tsuang, Ming; Glatt, Stephen J; Kremen, William S

    2012-07-01

    The goals of the study were to determine the extent to which the underlying structure of different types of well-being was multidimensional and whether well- and ill-being were influenced by similar or different genetic and environmental factors. Participants were 1226 male twins ages 51-60, from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Measures included: psychological well-being, Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Well-Being scale (MPQWB), life satisfaction, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. A two-orthogonal-factor common pathway model fit the data well. Psychological well-being and self-esteem loaded most strongly on Factor 1, which was highly heritable (h(2) = .79). Life satisfaction loaded most strongly on Factor 2, which was only moderately heritable (h(2) = .32). Only MPQWB had measure-specific genetic influences. Depressive symptoms loaded on both factors, and only depressive symptoms had measure-specific common environmental influences. All measures had specific unique environmental influences. Results indicate that well-being is genetically and environmentally multidimensional and that ill-being has partial overlap with both latent factors.

  3. Small effect of genetic factors on neck pain in old age: a study of 2,108 Danish twins 70 years of age and older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Petersen, Hans Christian; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Classic twin study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the heritability of neck pain in persons 70 years of age and older. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies have shown a moderate effect of genetic factors on back pain in the elderly. Genetic influence on neck pain in old age...... calculated and compared for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Further, heritability estimates were calculated using bivariate probit estimation. RESULTS: A total of 2,108 twin individuals, including 1,054 complete twin pairs, answered the question related to neck pain at intake into the Longitudinal Study...... environmental risk factors (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, disc prolapse, and coronary heart disease) showed no significant additive genetic, dominant genetic, or common environmental effects. CONCLUSION: Genetic factors do not play an important role in the liability to neck pain in persons 70 years...

  4. Quantitative analysis of cone photoreceptor distribution and its relationship with axial length, age, and early age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Obata

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: It has not been clarified whether early age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with cone photoreceptor distribution. We used adaptive optics fundus camera to examine cone photoreceptors in the macular area of aged patients and quantitatively analyzed its relationship between the presence of early AMD and cone distribution. METHODS: Sixty cases aged 50 or older were studied. The eyes were examined with funduscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to exclude the eyes with any abnormalities at two sites of measurement, 2° superior and 5° temporal to the fovea. High-resolution retinal images with cone photoreceptor mosaic were obtained with adaptive optics fundus camera (rtx1, Imagine Eyes, France. After adjusting for axial length, cone packing density was calculated and the relationship with age, axial length, or severity of early AMD based on the age-related eye disease study (AREDS classification was analyzed. RESULTS: Patient's age ranged from 50 to 77, and axial length from 21.7 to 27.5 mm. Mean density in metric units and that in angular units were 24,900 cells/mm2, 2,170 cells/deg2 at 2° superior, and 18,500 cells/mm2, 1,570 cels/deg2 at 5° temporal, respectively. Axial length was significantly correlated with the density calculated in metric units, but not with that in angular units. Age was significantly correlated with the density both in metric and angular units at 2° superior. There was no significant difference in the density in metric and angular units between the eyes with AREDS category one and those with categories two or three. CONCLUSION: Axial length and age were significantly correlated with parafoveal cone photoreceptor distribution. The results do not support that early AMD might influence cone photoreceptor density in the area without drusen or pigment abnormalities.

  5. Aging transition in systems of oscillators with global distributed-delay coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, B; Blyuss, K B; Kyrychko, Y N

    2017-09-01

    We consider a globally coupled network of active (oscillatory) and inactive (nonoscillatory) oscillators with distributed-delay coupling. Conditions for aging transition, associated with suppression of oscillations, are derived for uniform and gamma delay distributions in terms of coupling parameters and the proportion of inactive oscillators. The results suggest that for the uniform distribution increasing the width of distribution for the same mean delay allows aging transition to happen for a smaller coupling strength and a smaller proportion of inactive elements. For gamma distribution with sufficiently large mean time delay, it may be possible to achieve aging transition for an arbitrary proportion of inactive oscillators, as long as the coupling strength lies in a certain range.

  6. Genetics of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Current Concepts, Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Margaret M.; Silveira, Alexandra C.; Carr, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Ivana K.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive degenerative disease which leads to blindness, affecting the quality of life of millions of Americans. More than 1.75 million individuals in the United States are affected by the advanced form of AMD. The etiological pathway of AMD is not yet fully understood, but there is a clear genetic influence on disease risk. To date, the 1q32 (CFH) and 10q26 (PLEKHA1/ARMS2/HTRA1) loci are the most strongly associated with disease; however, the variation in these genomic regions alone is unable to predict disease development with high accuracy. Therefore, current genetic studies are aimed at identifying new genes associated with AMD and their modifiers, with the goal of discovering diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Moreover, these studies provide the foundation for further investigation into the pathophysiology of AMD by utilizing a systems-biology-based approach to elucidate underlying mechanistic pathways. PMID:21609220

  7. Paleoclimate Signals and Age Distributions from 41 Public Water Works in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broers, H. P.; Weert, J. D.; Sültenfuß, J.; Aeschbach, W.; Vonhof, H.; Casteleijns, J.

    2015-12-01

    Knowing the age distribution of water abstracted from public water supply wells is of prime importance to ensure customer trust and to underpin predictions of water quality evolution in time. Especially, age distributions enable the assessment of the vulnerability of well fields, both in relation to surface sources of contamination as in relation to subsurface sources, such as possibly related to shale gas extraction. We sampled the raw water of 41 large public supply well fields which represents a mixture of groundwaters and used the a discrete travel time distribution model (DTTDM, Visser et al. 2013, WRR) in order to quantify the age distribution of the mixture. Measurements included major ion chemistry, 3H, 3He, 4He, 18O, 2H, 14C, 13CDIC and 13CCH4 and the full range of noble gases. The heavier noble gases enable the calculation of the Noble Gas Temperature (NGT) which characterizes the temperature of past recharge conditions. The 14C apparent age of each mixture was derived correcting for dead carbon sources. The DTTDM used the 3H and 4He concentrations, the 14C apparent age and the NGT as the four distinctive tracers to estimate the age distributions. Especially 4He and NGT provide extra information on the older part of the age distributions and showed that the 14C apparent ages are often the result of mixing of waters ranging between 2.000 and 35.000 years old, instead of being discrete ages with a limited .variance as sometimes assumed.The results show a large range of age distributions, comprising vulnerable well fields with >60% young water (85% very old groundwater (> 25 kyrs) and all forms of TTD's in between. The age distributions are well in correspondence with the hydrogeological setting of the well fields; all well fields with an age distribution skewed towards older ages are in the Roer Valley Graben structure, where fluvial and marine aquitards provide protection from recent recharge. Especially waters from this graben structure exhibit clear

  8. PATTERNS OF ROOT GROWTH, TURNOVER, AND DISTRIBUTION IN DIFFERENT AGED PONDEROSA PINE STANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study are to examine the spatial distribution of roots in relation to canopy size and tree distribution, and to determine if rates of fine root production and turnover are similar in the different aged stands. During the fall of 1998, 54 clear plexiglass t...

  9. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  10. Optimization of distribution piping network in district cooling system using genetic algorithm with local search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Apple L.S.; Hanby, Vic I.; Chow, T.T.

    2007-01-01

    A district cooling system is a sustainable means of distribution of cooling energy through mass production. A cooling medium like chilled water is generated at a central refrigeration plant and supplied to serve a group of consumer buildings through a piping network. Because of the substantial capital investment involved, an optimal design of the distribution piping configuration is one of the crucial factors for successful implementation of the district cooling scheme. In the present study, genetic algorithm (GA) incorporated with local search techniques was developed to find the optimal/near optimal configuration of the piping network in a hypothetical site. The effect of local search, mutation rate and frequency of local search on the performance of the GA in terms of both solution quality and computation time were investigated and presented in this paper

  11. Reduced genetic influence on childhood obesity in small for gestational age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dug Yeo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA are at increased risk of developing obesity and metabolic diseases later in life, a risk which is magnified if followed by accelerated postnatal growth. We investigated whether common gene variants associated with adult obesity were associated with increased postnatal growth, as measured by BMI z-score, in children born SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative. Methods A total of 37 candidate SNPs were genotyped on 547 European children (228 SGA and 319 AGA. Repeated measures of BMI (z-score were used for assessing obesity status, and results were corrected for multiple testing using the false discovery rate. Results SGA children had a lower BMI z-score than non-SGA children at assessment age 3.5, 7 and 11 years. We confirmed 27 variants within 14 obesity risk genes to be individually associated with increasing early childhood BMI, predominantly in those born AGA. Conclusions Genetic risk variants are less important in influencing early childhood BMI in those born SGA than in those born AGA, suggesting that non-genetic or environmental factors may be more important in influencing childhood BMI in those born SGA.

  12. A fuzzy genetic approach for network reconfiguration to enhance voltage stability in radial distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, N.C. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Prasad, K. [Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2006-11-15

    This paper presents a fuzzy genetic approach for reconfiguration of radial distribution systems (RDS) so as to maximize the voltage stability of the network for a specific set of loads. The network reconfiguration involves a mechanism for selection of the best set of branches to be opened, one from each loop, such that the reconfigured RDS possesses desired performance characteristics. This discrete solution space is better handled by the proposed scheme, which maximizes a suitable optimizing function (computed using two different approaches). In the first approach, this function is chosen as the average of a voltage stability index of all the buses in the RDS, while in the second approach, the complete RDS is reduced to a two bus equivalent system and the optimizing function is the voltage stability index of this reduced two bus system. The fuzzy genetic algorithm uses a suitable coding and decoding scheme for maintaining the radial nature of the network at every stage of genetic evolution, and it also uses a fuzzy rule based mutation controller for efficient search of the solution space. This method, tested on 69 bus and 33 bus RDSs, shows promising results for the both approaches. It is also observed that the network losses are reduced when the voltage stability is enhanced by the network reconfiguration. (author)

  13. A fuzzy genetic approach for network reconfiguration to enhance voltage stability in radial distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, N.C.; Prasad, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy genetic approach for reconfiguration of radial distribution systems (RDS) so as to maximize the voltage stability of the network for a specific set of loads. The network reconfiguration involves a mechanism for selection of the best set of branches to be opened, one from each loop, such that the reconfigured RDS possesses desired performance characteristics. This discrete solution space is better handled by the proposed scheme, which maximizes a suitable optimizing function (computed using two different approaches). In the first approach, this function is chosen as the average of a voltage stability index of all the buses in the RDS, while in the second approach, the complete RDS is reduced to a two bus equivalent system and the optimizing function is the voltage stability index of this reduced two bus system. The fuzzy genetic algorithm uses a suitable coding and decoding scheme for maintaining the radial nature of the network at every stage of genetic evolution, and it also uses a fuzzy rule based mutation controller for efficient search of the solution space. This method, tested on 69 bus and 33 bus RDSs, shows promising results for the both approaches. It is also observed that the network losses are reduced when the voltage stability is enhanced by the network reconfiguration

  14. Relationship between HTRA1 polymorphism and genetic susceptibility of wet age-related macular degeneration in Han population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between high temperature essential factor A-1(HTRA1polymorphism and genetic susceptibility of wet age-related macular degeneration(AMDin Han population. METHODS: Totally 201 patients of wet AMD in Han population were selected from May 2014 to January 2017 in our hospital as disease group, and 201 healthy persons of Han were selected as health group. Blood samples of peripheral vein were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. HTRA1 polymorphism loci were detected, and the rs11200638 and rs2248799 loci of HTRA1 gene were detected by Sequenom mass spectrometry platform. Then the relationship between HTRA1 polymorphism and genetic susceptibility of wet AMD were analyzed. RESULTS: The grade distributions of the genotype of the rs11200638 and rs2248799 loci in the two groups subjects had significant differences(PPPOR values of rs11200638 genotype AA and AG were respectively 5.36 and 3.45, which were the risk factors of wet AMD(POR values of rs2248799 genotype TT and TC were respectively 2.36 and 1.98, which were the risk factors of wet AMD(PCONCLUSION: The rs11200638 and rs2248799 polymorphisms of HTRA1 gene are associated with the incidence of wet AMD, and the genotype AA and TT are closely related to the risk of wet AMD in Han population, of which the higher frequencies can increase the risk of wet AMD.

  15. Comparative Genetic Variability in HIV-1 Subtype C vpu Gene in Early Age Groups of Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Uma; Gupta, Poonam; Gupta, Sunil; Venkatesh, S; Husain, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Identifying the genetic variability in vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy is important to understand the disease progression. Being important in HIV-1 disease pathogenesis, vpu gene, isolated from young infants was investigated to understand the viral characteristics. Blood samples were obtained from 80 HIV-1 positive infants, categorized in two age groups; acute (6-18 months). A total of 77 PCR positive samples, amplified for vpu gene, were sequenced and analyzed. 73 isolates belonged to subtype C. Analysis of heterogeneity of amino acid sequences in infant groups showed that in the sequences of acute age group both insertions and deletions were present while in the early age group only deletions were present. In the acute age group, a deletion of 3 residues (RAE) in the first alfa helix in one sequence and insertions of 1-2 residues (DM, GH, G and H) in the second alfa helix in 4 sequences were observed. In the early age group, deletion of 2 residues (VN) in the cytoplasmic tail region in 2 sequences was observed. Length of the amino terminal was observed to be gradually increasing with the increasing age of the infants. Protein Variation Effect Analyzer software showed that deleterious mutations were more in the acute than the early age group. Entropy analysis revealed that heterogeneity of the residues was comparatively higher in the sequences of acute than the early age group. Mutations observed in the helixes may affect the conformation and lose the ability to degrade CD4 receptors. Heterogeneity was decreasing with the increasing ages of the infants, indicating positive selection for robust virion survival. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Global survey of star clusters in the Milky Way. VI. Age distribution and cluster formation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, A. E.; Just, A.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Berczik, P.; Scholz, R.-D.; Reffert, S.; Yen, S. X.

    2018-06-01

    Context. The all-sky Milky Way Star Clusters (MWSC) survey provides uniform and precise ages, along with other relevant parameters, for a wide variety of clusters in the extended solar neighbourhood. Aims: In this study we aim to construct the cluster age distribution, investigate its spatial variations, and discuss constraints on cluster formation scenarios of the Galactic disk during the last 5 Gyrs. Methods: Due to the spatial extent of the MWSC, we have considered spatial variations of the age distribution along galactocentric radius RG, and along Z-axis. For the analysis of the age distribution we used 2242 clusters, which all lie within roughly 2.5 kpc of the Sun. To connect the observed age distribution to the cluster formation history we built an analytical model based on simple assumptions on the cluster initial mass function and on the cluster mass-lifetime relation, fit it to the observations, and determined the parameters of the cluster formation law. Results: Comparison with the literature shows that earlier results strongly underestimated the number of evolved clusters with ages t ≳ 100 Myr. Recent studies based on all-sky catalogues agree better with our data, but still lack the oldest clusters with ages t ≳ 1 Gyr. We do not observe a strong variation in the age distribution along RG, though we find an enhanced fraction of older clusters (t > 1 Gyr) in the inner disk. In contrast, the distribution strongly varies along Z. The high altitude distribution practically does not contain clusters with t < 1 Gyr. With simple assumptions on the cluster formation history, the cluster initial mass function and the cluster lifetime we can reproduce the observations. The cluster formation rate and the cluster lifetime are strongly degenerate, which does not allow us to disentangle different formation scenarios. In all cases the cluster formation rate is strongly declining with time, and the cluster initial mass function is very shallow at the high mass end.

  17. Estimating the Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Age Using Synoptic Surveys of Environmental Tracers in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, W. P.

    2017-12-01

    A model which simulates tracer concentration in surface water as a function the age distribution of groundwater discharge is used to characterize groundwater flow systems at a variety of spatial scales. We develop the theory behind the model and demonstrate its application in several groundwater systems of local to regional scale. A 1-D stream transport model, which includes: advection, dispersion, gas exchange, first-order decay and groundwater inflow is coupled a lumped parameter model that calculates the concentration of environmental tracers in discharging groundwater as a function of the groundwater residence time distribution. The lumped parameters, which describe the residence time distribution, are allowed to vary spatially, and multiple environmental tracers can be simulated. This model allows us to calculate the longitudinal profile of tracer concentration in streams as a function of the spatially variable groundwater age distribution. By fitting model results to observations of stream chemistry and discharge, we can then estimate the spatial distribution of groundwater age. The volume of groundwater discharge to streams can be estimated using a subset of environmental tracers, applied tracers, synoptic stream gauging or other methods, and the age of groundwater then estimated using the previously calculated groundwater discharge and observed environmental tracer concentrations. Synoptic surveys of SF6, CFC's, 3H and 222Rn, along with measured stream discharge are used to estimate the groundwater inflow distribution and mean age for regional scale surveys of the Berland River in west-central Alberta. We find that groundwater entering the Berland has observable age, and that the age estimated using our stream survey is of similar order to limited samples from groundwater wells in the region. Our results show that the stream can be used as an easily accessible location to constrain the regional scale spatial distribution of groundwater age.

  18. Effects of edge contrast on redback salamander distribution in even-aged northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko. Yamasaki

    2002-01-01

    Terrestrial salamanders are sensitive to forest disturbance associated with even-aged management. We studied the distribution of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) for 4 yr at edges between even-aged northern hardwood stands along three replicate transects in each of three edge contrast types: regeneration/mature, sapling/mature, and...

  19. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pulmonary Function and Muscle Strength: The Chinese Twin Study of Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Xiaocao; Xu, Chunsheng; Wu, Yili

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on predictors of decline in daily functioning, including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), handgrip, and five-times-sit-to-stand test (FTSST), have not been addressed in the aging Chinese population. We performed classical twin...... was moderate for FEV1, handgrip, and FTSST (55-60%) but insignificant for FVC. Only FVC showed moderate control, with shared environmental factors accounting for about 50% of the total variance. In contrast, all measures of pulmonary function and muscle strength showed modest influences from the unique...

  20. Radiological Diagnosis of a Rare Premature Aging Genetic Disorder: Progeria (Hutchinson-Gilford Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Mohammed Nazir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS is a rare disease with a combination of short stature, bone abnormalities, premature ageing, and skin changes. Though the physical appearance of these patients is characteristic, there is little emphasis on the characteristic radiological features. In this paper, we report a 16-year-old boy with clinical and radiological features of this rare genetic disorder. He had a characteristic facial appearance with a large head, large eyes, thin nose with beaked tip, small chin, protruding ears, prominent scalp veins, and absence of hair.

  1. Age of Onset in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Complex Interactions between Genetic and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Laura; Toscano, Elena; Porcelli, Stefano; Fabbri, Chiara; Serretti, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    In this study we evaluated the role of a candidate gene for major psychosis, Sialyltransferase (ST8SIA2), in the risk to develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorders, taking into account exposure to stressful life events (SLEs). Eight polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in 94 Schizophreniainpatients and 176 healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients were also evaluated for SLEs in different life periods. None of the SNPs showed association with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, when crossing genetic variants with childhood SLEs, we could observe trends of interaction with age of onset. Though several limitations, our results support a protective role of ST8SIA2 in individuals exposed to moderate childhood stress.

  2. Wide Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Babesia microti in Small Mammals from Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zi-Hou; Huang, Tao-Hua; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Jia, Na; Liu, Zheng-Xiang; Shao, Zong-Ti; Jiang, Rui-Ruo; Liu, Hong-Bo; Wei, Ran; Li, Yu-Qiong; Yao, Hong-Wu; von Fricken, Michael E; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Du, Chun-Hong; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2017-10-01

    Babesia, usually found in wild and domestic mammals worldwide, have recently been responsible for emerging malaria-like zoonosis in infected patients. Human B. microti infection has been identified in China, primarily in the Southwest along the Myanmar border but little direct surveillance of B. microti infection in rodents has been carried out here (Yunnan province). In this region, a diverse topographic range combined with tropical moisture sustains a high biodiversity of small mammals, which might play important role on Babesia transmission. Small mammals were captured in 141 sample locations from 18 counties located Yunnan Province, and screened for B. microti-like parasites infection by a nested PCR to target 18S rRNA gene of Babesia, plus directly sequencing for positive samples. Univariate and multivariate forward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to access the association between infections and some related risk factors. Infection with Babesia microti was confirmed in 2.4% (53/ 2204) of small mammals. Significant differences in prevalence rates of B. microti were observed based on variations in forest, agricultural, and residential landscapes. Furthermore, adult small mammals had higher prevalence rates than younger, pubertal mammals. The near full-length 18S rRNA gene revealed that there were two types of B. microti, Kobe and Otsu, which demonstrate the genetic diversity and regional distribution. There exists a wide distribution and genetic diversity of endemic B. microti in Southwestern China, warranting further investigations and monitoring of clinical disease in individuals presenting with Babesia like symptoms in these areas.

  3. Fungi in roots of nursery grown Pinus sylvestris: ectomycorrhizal colonisation, genetic diversity and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkis, Audrius; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate patterns of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonisation and community structure on nursery grown seedlings of Pinus sylvestris, spatial distribution of ECMs in the nursery plot and genetic diversity of commonly isolated ECM basidiomycete Hebeloma cavipes. One hundred seedlings were sampled in 225 m(2) area using a systematic grid design. For each seedling, 20 individual root tips were randomly collected, morphotyped, and surface sterilised for fungal isolation in pure culture. Results showed that ECM community was comprised of nine distinct morphotypes among which Thelephora terrestris (39.7%), Hebeloma sp. (17.8%) and Suillus luteus (6.1%) were the most abundant. Spatial distribution of ECMs in the nursery plot was determined by their relative abundance: even in common ECMs and random in rare ones. Fungal isolation yielded 606 pure cultures, representing 71 distinct taxa. The most commonly isolated fungi were the ascomycetes Neonectria macrodidyma (20.3%), Phialocephala fortinii (13.5%), Neonectria radicicola (6.3%) and the ECM basidiomycete H. cavipes (4.5%). Intraspecific genetic diversity within 27 H. cavipes isolates was studied using two methods: restriction digestion of the amplified intergenic spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA and genealogical concordance of five genetic markers. Five and eight genotypes were revealed by each respective method, but both of those were largely consistent, in particular, in determining the largest genotype (A) composed of 18 isolates. Mapping positions for each H. cavipes isolate and genotype in the field showed that isolates of the A genotype covered a large part of the nursery plot. This suggests that H. cavipes is largely disseminated by vegetative means of local genotypes and that nursery cultivation practices are likely to contribute to the dissemination of this species in the forest nursery soils.

  4. Age distributions of Greenlandic dwarf shrubs support concept of negligible actuarial senescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dahlgren, J. P.; Rizzi, S.; Schweingruber, F. H.; Hellmann, L.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 10 (2016), č. článku e01521. ISSN 2150-8925 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : actuarial senescence * age distribution * age structure * Arctic dwarf shrubs * dendroecology * individual survival * mortality * penalized composite link model * plant aging * shrub demography Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.490, year: 2016

  5. Biomass and nutrient distribution in an age series of eucalyptus hybrid plantation in Tamil Nadu. I. Distribution of organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, J D.S.; Sharma, S C

    1985-12-01

    The distribution of organic matter in an age series of Eucalyptus hybrid plantation in Tamil Nadu has been discussed. It was observed that (i) the rotation age for E. hybrid can be fixed at 7 years where the Mean Annual Production (MAP) is at the maximum, (ii) Pollachi seems to be comparatively better site for E. hybrid planting, presumably due to higher leaf efficiency (III) to increase the productivity in a coppiced crop thinning is essential as the lower stand density give a better chance for high leaf production and consequently higher biomass. 7 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  6. The genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--Novel targets for designing treatment options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Felix; Fauser, Sascha; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2015-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive disease of the central retina and the main cause of legal blindness in industrialized countries. Risk to develop the disease is conferred by both individual as well as genetic factors with the latter being increasingly deciphered over the last decade. Therapeutically, striking advances have been made for the treatment of the neovascular form of late stage AMD while for the late stage atrophic form of the disease, which accounts for almost half of the visually impaired, there is currently no effective therapy on the market. This review highlights our current knowledge on the genetic architecture of early and late stage AMD and explores its potential for the discovery of novel, target-guided treatment options. We reflect on current clinical and experimental therapies for all forms of AMD and specifically note a persisting lack of efficacy for treatment in atrophic AMD. We further explore the current insight in AMD-associated genes and pathways and critically question whether this knowledge is suited to design novel treatment options. Specifically, we point out that known genetic factors associated with AMD govern the risk to develop disease and thus may not play a role in its severity or progression. Treatments based on such knowledge appear appropriate rather for prevention than treatment of manifest disease. As a consequence, future research in AMD needs to be greatly focused on approaches relevant to the patients and their medical needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic diversity in Capsicum baccatum is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The exotic pepper species Capsicum baccatum, also known as the aji or Peruvian hot pepper, is comprised of wild and domesticated botanical forms. The species is a valuable source of new genes useful for improving fruit quality and disease resistance in C. annuum sweet bell and hot chile pepper. However, relatively little research has been conducted to characterize the species, thus limiting its utilization. The structure of genetic diversity in a plant germplasm collection is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution. Together with DNA fingerprints derived from AFLP markers, we evaluated variation in fruit and plant morphology of plants collected across the species native range in South America and evaluated these characters in combination with the unique geography, climate and ecology at different sites where plants originated. Results The present study mapped the ecogeographic distribution, analyzed the spatial genetic structure, and assessed the relationship between the spatial genetic pattern and the variation of morphological traits in a diverse C. baccatum germplasm collection spanning the species distribution. A combined diversity analysis was carried out on the USDA-ARS C. baccatum germplasm collection using data from GIS, morphological traits and AFLP markers. The results demonstrate that the C. baccatum collection covers wide geographic areas and is adapted to divergent ecological conditions in South America ranging from cool Andean highland to Amazonia rainforest. A high level of morphological diversity was evident in the collection, with fruit weight the leading variable. The fruit weight distribution pattern was compatible to AFLP-based clustering analysis for the collection. A significant spatial structure was observed in the C. baccatum gene pool. Division of the domesticated germplasm into two major regional groups (Western and Eastern) was further supported by the pattern of spatial population structure. Conclusions

  8. Differential Impact of Genetic Loci on Age at Thelarche and Menarche in Healthy Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Assens, Maria

    2018-01-01

    ) were followed through puberty and genotyped for FSHB c.-211G>T (rs10835638), FSHR c.-29G>A (rs1394205), FSHR c.2039A>G (rs6116), LIN28B (rs7759938), INHA (rs4141153), MKRN3 (rs12148769), TMEM38B (rs10453225), and ZNF483 (rs10980921). Main Outcome Measures: Clinical pubertal staging and anthropometric...... data. Results: We observed an association of LIN28B (rs7759938) with age at thelarche (P year, 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.42) and age at menarche (P = 0.005, 0.17 year, 0.05 to 0.29). FSHB c.-211G>T (rs10835638) and FSHR c.-29G>A (rs1394205) minor allele count...... was associated with age at thelarche (P = 0.004, 0.19 year, 0.06 to 0.31) but not with age at menarche (P = 0.97; all adjusted for body mass index z scores). Conclusion: Our results indicate a differential impact of specific genetic loci on age at thelarche and menarche in healthy girls....

  9. Genetic insights into age-related macular degeneration: Controversies addressing Risk, Causality, and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common condition among the elderly population that leads to the progressive central vision loss and serious compromise of quality of life for its sufferers. It is also one of the few disorders for whom the investigation of its genetics has yielded rich insights into its diversity and causality and holds the promise of enabling clinicians to provide better risk assessments for individuals as well as to develop and selectively deploy new therapeutics to either prevent or slow the development of disease and lessen the threat of vision loss. The genetics of AMD began initially with the appreciation of familial aggregation and increase risk and expanded with the initial association of APOE variants with the disease. The first major breakthroughs came with family-based linkage studies of affected (and discordant) sibs, which identified a number of genetic loci and led to the targeted search of the 1q31 and 10q26 loci for associated variants. Three of the initial four reports for the CFH variant, Y402H, were based on regional candidate searches, as were the two initial reports of the ARMS2/HTRA1 locus variants. Case-control association studies initially also played a role in discovering the major genetic variants for AMD, and the success of those early studies have been used to fuel enthusiasm for the methodology for a number of diseases. Until 2010, all of the subsequent genetic variants associated with AMD came from candidate gene testing based on the complement factor pathway. In 2010, several large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified genes that had not been previously identified. Much of this historical information is available in a number of recent reviews.(Chen et al., 2010b; Deangelis et al., 2011; Fafowora and Gorin, 2012b; Francis and Klein, 2011; Kokotas et al., 2011) Large meta analysis of AMD GWAS has added new loci and variants to this collection.(Chen et al., 2010a; Kopplin et al., 2010; Yu et

  10. Distributional learning aids linguistic category formation in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jessica; Owen VAN Horne, Amanda; Farmer, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if typically developing children could form grammatical categories from distributional information alone. Twenty-seven children aged six to nine listened to an artificial grammar which contained strategic gaps in its distribution. At test, we compared how children rated novel sentences that fit the grammar to sentences that were ungrammatical. Sentences could be distinguished only through the formation of categories of words with shared distributional properties. Children's ratings revealed that they could discriminate grammatical and ungrammatical sentences. These data lend support to the hypothesis that distributional learning is a potential mechanism for learning grammatical categories in a first language.

  11. Genetics of Unilateral and Bilateral Age-Related Macular Degeneration Severity Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Tina; Altay, Lebriz; Viehweger, Eva; Hoyng, Carel B; den Hollander, Anneke I; Felsch, Moritz; Fauser, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common disease causing visual impairment and blindness. Various gene variants are strongly associated with late stage AMD, but little is known about the genetics of early forms of the disease. This study evaluated associations of genetic factors and different AMD stages depending on unilateral and bilateral disease severity. In this case-control study, participants were assigned to nine AMD severity stages based on the characteristics of each eye. 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and attempted to correlate with AMD severity stages by uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses and trend analyses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. Of 3444 individuals 1673 were controls, 379 had early AMD, 333 had intermediate AMD and 989 showed late AMD stages. With increasing severity of disease and bilateralism more SNPs with significant associations were found. Odds ratios, especially for the main risk polymorphisms in ARMS2 (rs10490924) and CFH (rs1061170), gained with increasing disease severity and bilateralism (exemplarily: rs1061170: unilateral early AMD: OR = 1.18; bilateral early AMD: OR = 1.20; unilateral intermediate AMD: OR = 1.28; bilateral intermediate AMD: OR = 1.39, unilateral geographic atrophy (GA): OR = 1.50; bilateral GA: OR = 1.71). Trend analyses showed pstages was lowest for unilateral early AMD (AUC = 0.629) and showed higher values in more severely and bilaterally affected individuals being highest for late AMD with GA in one eye and neovascular AMD in the other eye (AUC = 0.957). The association of known genetic risk factors with AMD became stronger with increasing disease severity, which also led to an increasing discriminative ability of AMD cases and controls. Genetic predisposition was also associated with the disease severity of the fellow-eye, highlighting the importance of both eyes in AMD patients.

  12. Genetics, Synergists, and Age Affect Insecticide Sensitivity of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, Frank D.; Margotta, Joseph W.; Pittman, Jean M.; Danka, Robert G.; Tarver, Matthew R.; Ottea, James A.; Healy, Kristen B.

    2015-01-01

    The number of honey bee colonies in the United States has declined to half of its peak level in the 1940s, and colonies lost over the winter have reached levels that are becoming economically unstable. While the causes of these losses are numerous and the interaction between them is very complex, the role of insecticides has garnered much attention. As a result, there is a need to better understand the risk of insecticides to bees, leading to more studies on both toxicity and exposure. While much research has been conducted on insecticides and bees, there have been very limited studies to elucidate the role that bee genotype and age has on the toxicity of these insecticides. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in insecticide sensitivity between honey bees of different genetic backgrounds (Carniolan, Italian, and Russian stocks) and assess if insecticide sensitivity varies with age. We found that Italian bees were the most sensitive of these stocks to insecticides, but variation was largely dependent on the class of insecticide tested. There were almost no differences in organophosphate bioassays between honey bee stocks (bees aged, the sensitivity to phenothrin significantly decreased, but the sensitivity to naled significantly increased. These results demonstrate the variation arising from the genetic background and physiological transitions in honey bees as they age. This information can be used to determine risk assessment, as well as establishing baseline data for future comparisons to explain the variation in toxicity differences for honey bees reported in the literature. PMID:26431171

  13. Application of the distributed genetic algorithm for loading pattern optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akio

    2000-01-01

    The distributed genetic algorithm (DGA) is applied for loading pattern optimization problems of the pressurized water reactors (PWR). Due to stiff nature of the loading pattern optimizations (e.g. multi-modality and non-linearity), stochastic methods like the simulated annealing or the genetic algorithm (GA) are widely applied for these problems. A basic concept of DGA is based on that of GA. However, DGA equally distributes candidates of solutions (i.e. loading patterns) to several independent 'islands' and evolves them in each island. Migrations of some candidates are performed among islands with a certain period. Since candidates of solutions independently evolve in each island with accepting different genes of migrants from other islands, premature convergence in the traditional GA can be prevented. Because many candidate loading patterns should be evaluated in one generation of GA or DGA, the parallelization in these calculations works efficiently. Parallel efficiency was measured using our optimization code and good load balance was attained even in a heterogeneous cluster environment due to dynamic distribution of the calculation load. The optimization code is based on the client/server architecture with the TCP/IP native socket and a client (optimization module) and calculation server modules communicate the objects of loading patterns each other. Throughout the sensitivity study on optimization parameters of DGA, a suitable set of the parameters for a test problem was identified. Finally, optimization capability of DGA and the traditional GA was compared in the test problem and DGA provided better optimization results than the traditional GA. (author)

  14. Genes, Demography, and Life Span: The Contribution of Demographic Data in Genetic Studies on Aging and Longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yashin, AI; De Benedictis, G; Vaupel, JW

    1999-01-01

    In population studies on aging, the data on genetic markers are often collected for individuals from different age groups. The purpose of such studies is to identify, by comparison of the frequencies of selected genotypes, “longevity” or “frailty” genes in the oldest and in younger groups...... of individuals. To address questions about more-complicated aspects of genetic influence on longevity, additional information must be used. In this article, we show that the use of demographic information, together with data on genetic markers, allows us to calculate hazard rates, relative risks, and survival...... functions for respective genes or genotypes. New methods of combining genetic and demographic information are discussed. These methods are tested on simulated data and then are applied to the analysis of data on genetic markers for two haplogroups of human mtDNA. The approaches suggested in this article...

  15. Study designs to enhance identification of genetic factors in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolio, Teri A

    2007-12-01

    The sequencing of the human genome and the growing understanding of its function are providing powerful new research tools for identifying genetic variants that are associated with complex diseases and traits. Somewhat less emphasis has been given to genes related to healthy aging, although the approaches for studying health-related traits are analogous to those used for disease-related studies. A critical step prior to the design of such studies is to define a healthy aging phenotype, which should be standardized to permit comparisons across studies and should involve more than simple longevity. Phenotypes of particular value for genetic research are those with high heritability and close relationships to gene products or pathways, preferably with minimal or at least measurable environmental influences. Appropriate study designs to identify genotype-phenotype associations include family-based linkage studies, candidate gene association analyses, and genome-wide association studies. Advances in genotyping and sequencing technologies, and the generation of the human haplotype map database, now permit the cost-effective investigation of the very large sample sizes needed for genome-wide association studies in unrelated individuals. Challenges in interpretation and translation of such studies include assessing the potential for bias and confounding, as well as determining the clinical validity and utility of findings proposed for wider application. Many such studies are currently supported or being planned across the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and lend themselves to the kind of coordinated clinical research envisioned in programs such as the NIH Roadmap.

  16. Age-Based Differences in the Genetic Determinants of Glycemic Control: A Case of FOXO3 Variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Sun

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is a trait of healthy ageing and is crucial to the elderly, but less consideration has been given to the age composition in most studies involving genetics and hyperglycemia.Seven variants in FOXO3 were genotyped in three cohorts (n = 2037; LLI, MI_S and MI_N; mean age: 92.5 ± 3.6, 45.9 ± 8.2 and 46.8 ± 10.3, respectively to compare the contribution of FOXO3 to fasting hyperglycemia (FH between long-lived individuals (LLI, aged over 90 years and middle-aged subjects (aged from 35-65 years.A different genetic predisposition of FOXO3 alleles to FH was observed between LLI and both of two middle-aged cohorts. In the LLI cohort, the longevity beneficial alleles of three variants with the haplotype "AGGC" in block 1 were significantly protective to FH, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1C and HOMA-IR. Notably, combining multifactor dimensionality reduction and logistic regression, we identified a significant 3-factor interaction model (rs2802288, rs2802292 and moderate physical activity associated with lower FH risk. However, not all of the findings were replicated in the two middle-aged cohorts.Our data provides a novel insight into the inconsistent genetic determinants between middle-aged and LLI subjects. FOXO3 might act as a shared genetic predisposition to hyperglycemia and lifespan.

  17. Age-Based Differences in the Genetic Determinants of Glycemic Control: A Case of FOXO3 Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Hu, Caiyou; Qian, Yu; Zheng, Chenguang; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Zeping; Huang, Zezhi; Qi, Keyan; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Ze

    2015-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is a trait of healthy ageing and is crucial to the elderly, but less consideration has been given to the age composition in most studies involving genetics and hyperglycemia. Seven variants in FOXO3 were genotyped in three cohorts (n = 2037; LLI, MI_S and MI_N; mean age: 92.5 ± 3.6, 45.9 ± 8.2 and 46.8 ± 10.3, respectively) to compare the contribution of FOXO3 to fasting hyperglycemia (FH) between long-lived individuals (LLI, aged over 90 years) and middle-aged subjects (aged from 35-65 years). A different genetic predisposition of FOXO3 alleles to FH was observed between LLI and both of two middle-aged cohorts. In the LLI cohort, the longevity beneficial alleles of three variants with the haplotype "AGGC" in block 1 were significantly protective to FH, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1C and HOMA-IR. Notably, combining multifactor dimensionality reduction and logistic regression, we identified a significant 3-factor interaction model (rs2802288, rs2802292 and moderate physical activity) associated with lower FH risk. However, not all of the findings were replicated in the two middle-aged cohorts. Our data provides a novel insight into the inconsistent genetic determinants between middle-aged and LLI subjects. FOXO3 might act as a shared genetic predisposition to hyperglycemia and lifespan.

  18. Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Zaldívar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi, howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata, capuchins (Cebus capucinus, and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii. Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecology and life history traits were obtained through a literature review. Genetic diversity was characterized using isozyme electrophoresis. Risk of extinction was assessed from the literature. We found that species differed in all these traits. Using these data, we conducted a Pearson correlation between risk of extinction and ecological and life history traits, and genetic variation, for widely distributed species. We found a negative association between risk of extinction and population birth and growth rates; indicating that slower reproducing species had a greater risk of extinction. We found a positive association between genetic variation and risk of extinction; i.e., species showing higher genetic variation had a greater risk of extinction. The relevance of these traits for conservation efforts is discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 679-693. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Se estudió la asociación entre la distribución geográfica, algunos rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida, la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción, en primates no humanos de Costa Rica. Se incluyen todas las especies de primates no humanos del país: los monos araña (Ateles geoffroyi, congo (Alouatta palliata, cara blanca (Cebus capucinus, y tití (Saimiri oerstedii. La distribución geográfica se caracterizó utilizando principalmente bases de datos existentes. Se obtuvo información acerca de sus características ecológicas y de historias de vida mediante una revisión bibliogr

  19. Age and microenvironment outweigh genetic influence on the Zucker rat microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lees

    Full Text Available Animal models are invaluable tools which allow us to investigate the microbiome-host dialogue. However, experimental design introduces biases in the data that we collect, also potentially leading to biased conclusions. With obesity at pandemic levels animal models of this disease have been developed; we investigated the role of experimental design on one such rodent model. We used 454 pyrosequencing to profile the faecal bacteria of obese (n = 6 and lean (homozygous n = 6; heterozygous n = 6 Zucker rats over a 10 week period, maintained in mixed-genotype cages, to further understand the relationships between the composition of the intestinal bacteria and age, obesity progression, genetic background and cage environment. Phylogenetic and taxon-based univariate and multivariate analyses (non-metric multidimensional scaling, principal component analysis showed that age was the most significant source of variation in the composition of the faecal microbiota. Second to this, cage environment was found to clearly impact the composition of the faecal microbiota, with samples from animals from within the same cage showing high community structure concordance, but large differences seen between cages. Importantly, the genetically induced obese phenotype was not found to impact the faecal bacterial profiles. These findings demonstrate that the age and local environmental cage variables were driving the composition of the faecal bacteria and were more deterministically important than the host genotype. These findings have major implications for understanding the significance of functional metagenomic data in experimental studies and beg the question; what is being measured in animal experiments in which different strains are housed separately, nature or nurture?

  20. An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jurczak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods: The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05. There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1 The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2 A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone and depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3 AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve.

  1. The geographical vector in distribution of genetic diversity for Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodovnik, Daria A; Tatonova, Yulia V; Burkovskaya, Polina V

    2018-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis, the causative agent of clonorchiasis, is one of the most important parasites that inhabit countries of East and Southeast Asia. In this study, we validated the existence of a geographical vector for C. sinensis using the partial cox1 mtDNA gene, which includes a conserved region. The samples of parasite were divided into groups corresponding to three river basins, and the size of the conserved region had a strong tendency to increase from the northernmost to the southernmost samples. This indicates the availability of the geographical vector in distribution of genetic diversity. A vector is a quantity that is characterized by magnitude and direction. Geographical vector obtained in cox1 gene of C. sinensis has both these features. The reasons for the occurrence of this feature, including the influence of intermediate and definitive hosts on vector formation, and the possibility of its use for clonorchiasis monitoring are discussed. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  2. Academic Training: Evolutionary Heuristic Optimization: Genetic Algorithms and Estimation of Distribution Algorithms - Lecture series

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE REGULAR PROGRAMME 1, 2, 3 and 4 June From 11:00 hrs to 12:00 hrs - Main Auditorium bldg. 500 Evolutionary Heuristic Optimization: Genetic Algorithms and Estimation of Distribution Algorithms V. Robles Forcada and M. Perez Hernandez / Univ. de Madrid, Spain In the real world, there exist a huge number of problems that require getting an optimum or near-to-optimum solution. Optimization can be used to solve a lot of different problems such as network design, sets and partitions, storage and retrieval or scheduling. On the other hand, in nature, there exist many processes that seek a stable state. These processes can be seen as natural optimization processes. Over the last 30 years several attempts have been made to develop optimization algorithms, which simulate these natural optimization processes. These attempts have resulted in methods such as Simulated Annealing, based on natural annealing processes or Evolutionary Computation, based on biological evolution processes. Geneti...

  3. Academic Training: Evolutionary Heuristic Optimization: Genetic Algorithms and Estimation of Distribution Algorithms - Lecture serie

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE REGULAR PROGRAMME 1, 2, 3 and 4 June From 11:00 hrs to 12:00 hrs - Main Auditorium bldg. 500 Evolutionary Heuristic Optimization: Genetic Algorithms and Estimation of Distribution Algorithms V. Robles Forcada and M. Perez Hernandez / Univ. de Madrid, Spain In the real world, there exist a huge number of problems that require getting an optimum or near-to-optimum solution. Optimization can be used to solve a lot of different problems such as network design, sets and partitions, storage and retrieval or scheduling. On the other hand, in nature, there exist many processes that seek a stable state. These processes can be seen as natural optimization processes. Over the last 30 years several attempts have been made to develop optimization algorithms, which simulate these natural optimization processes. These attempts have resulted in methods such as Simulated Annealing, based on nat...

  4. Distribution of α-aminoisobutyric acid in tissues of lean and genetically obese mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tews, J.K.; Harper, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    Distribution of tracer amounts of the nonmetabolizable neutral amino acid α-[1- 14 C]aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) between blood and several tissues was measured in lean and ob/ob mice over an 8-hr period. As AIB was injected on the basis of body weight and as ob/ob mice have a relatively low blood volume, absolute concentrations of AIB in blood and tissues were almost always higher in the obese than the lean mice. However, the ratio of AIB concentration in the tissues to that in the blood was clearly higher in skeletal muscle, diaphragm, and brain, and possibly higher in liver of the lean than of the obese animals. Ratios in heart were similar. The results suggest that lean and genetically obese mice differ in their capacity to transport amino acids between blood and various tissues

  5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: distribution of genetic markers in Kazakh population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikhayeva, Nurgul; Talzhanov, Yerkebulan; Iskakova, Aisha; Dzharmukhanov, Jarkyn; Nugmanova, Raushan; Zholdybaeva, Elena; Ramanculov, Erlan

    2018-01-01

    Ethnic differences exist in the frequencies of genetic variations that contribute to the risk of common disease. This study aimed to analyse the distribution of several genes, previously associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and obesity-related phenotypes, in a Kazakh population. A total of 966 individuals belonging to the Kazakh ethnicity were recruited from an outpatient clinic. We genotyped 41 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with type 2 diabetes in other ethnic groups and 31 of these were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The obtained allele frequencies were further compared to publicly available data from other ethnic populations. Allele frequencies for other (compared) populations were pooled from the haplotype map (HapMap) database. Principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling (MDS) were used for the analysis of genetic relationship between the populations. Comparative analysis of allele frequencies of the studied SNPs showed significant differentiation among the studied populations. The Kazakh population was grouped with Asian populations according to the cluster analysis and with the Caucasian populations according to PCA. According to MDS, results of the current study show that the Kazakh population holds an intermediate position between Caucasian and Asian populations. A high percentage of population differentiation was observed between Kazakh and world populations. The Kazakh population was clustered with Caucasian populations, and this result may indicate a significant Caucasian component in the Kazakh gene pool.

  6. STUDY OF SENSITIVITY OF THE PARAMETERS OF A GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Iglesias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Genetic Algorithms (GAs are a technique of optimization used for water distribution networks design. This work has been made with a modified pseudo genetic algorithm (PGA, whose main variation with a classical GA is a change in the codification of the chromosomes, which is made of numerical form instead of the binary codification. This variation entails a series of special characteristics in the codification and in the definition of the operations of mutation and crossover. Initially, the work displays the results of the PGA on a water network studied in the literature. The results show the kindness of the method. Also is made a statistical analysis of the obtained solutions. This analysis allows verifying the values of mutation and crossing probability more suitable for the proposed method. Finally, in the study of the analyzed water supply networks the concept of reliability in introduced. This concept is essential to understand the validity of the obtained results. The second part, starting with values optimized for the probability of crossing and mutation, the influence of the population size is analyzed in the final solutions on the network of Hanoi, widely studied in the bibliography. The aim is to find the most suitable configuration of the problem, so that good solutions are obtained in the less time.

  7. STUDY OF SENSITIVITY OF THE PARAMETERS OF A GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Iglesias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Genetic Algorithms (GAs are a technique of optimization used for water distribution networks design. This work has been made with a modified pseudo genetic algorithm (PGA, whose main variation with a classical GA is a change in the codification of the chromosomes, which is made of numerical form instead of the binary codification. This variation entails a series of special characteristics in the codification and in the definition of the operations of mutation and crossover. Initially, the work displays the results of the PGA on a water network studied in the literature. The results show the kindness of the method. Also is made a statistical analysis of the obtained solutions. This analysis allows verifying the values of mutation and crossing probability more suitable for the proposed method. Finally, in the study of the analyzed water supply networks the concept of reliability in introduced. This concept is essential to understand the validity of the obtained results. The second part, starting with values optimized for the probability of crossing and mutation, the influence of the population size is analyzed in the final solutions on the network of Hanoi, widely studied in the bibliography. The aim is to find the most suitable configuration of the problem, so that good solutions are obtained in the less time.

  8. A hybrid genetic algorithm for the distributed permutation flowshop scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gao

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Permutation Flowshop Scheduling Problem (DPFSP is a newly proposed scheduling problem, which is a generalization of classical permutation flow shop scheduling problem. The DPFSP is NP-hard in general. It is in the early stages of studies on algorithms for solving this problem. In this paper, we propose a GA-based algorithm, denoted by GA_LS, for solving this problem with objective to minimize the maximum completion time. In the proposed GA_LS, crossover and mutation operators are designed to make it suitable for the representation of DPFSP solutions, where the set of partial job sequences is employed. Furthermore, GA_LS utilizes an efficient local search method to explore neighboring solutions. The local search method uses three proposed rules that move jobs within a factory or between two factories. Intensive experiments on the benchmark instances, extended from Taillard instances, are carried out. The results indicate that the proposed hybrid genetic algorithm can obtain better solutions than all the existing algorithms for the DPFSP, since it obtains better relative percentage deviation and differences of the results are also statistically significant. It is also seen that best-known solutions for most instances are updated by our algorithm. Moreover, we also show the efficiency of the GA_LS by comparing with similar genetic algorithms with the existing local search methods.

  9. Apparent Transition in the Human Height Distribution Caused by Age-Dependent Variation during Puberty Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takaki; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Kuninaka, Hiroto

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we examine the validity of the transition of the human height distribution from the log-normal distribution to the normal distribution during puberty, as suggested in an earlier study [Kuninaka et al.: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 78 (2009) 125001]. Our data analysis reveals that, in late puberty, the variation in height decreases as children grow. Thus, the classification of a height dataset by age at this stage leads us to analyze a mixture of distributions with larger means and smaller variations. This mixture distribution has a negative skewness and is consequently closer to the normal distribution than to the log-normal distribution. The opposite case occurs in early puberty and the mixture distribution is positively skewed, which resembles the log-normal distribution rather than the normal distribution. Thus, this scenario mimics the transition during puberty. Additionally, our scenario is realized through a numerical simulation based on a statistical model. The present study does not support the transition suggested by the earlier study.

  10. Genetic evaluation of weaning weight and probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic control of 120-day weaning weight and the probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee ewe lambs. Records of 5,967 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2012 and first exposed to rams for breeding at approximately 7 months of age were analyzed. Reco...

  11. Associations between genetic polymorphisms of insulin-like growth factor axis genes and risk for age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Our objective was to investigate if insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis genes affect the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: 864 Caucasian non-diabetic participants from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) Genetic Repository were used in this case control st...

  12. The genetic basis for cognitive ability, memory, and depression symptomatology in middle-aged and elderly chinese twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chunsheng; Sun, Jianping; Ji, Fuling

    2015-01-01

    The genetic influences on aging-related phenotypes, including cognition and depression, have been well confirmed in the Western populations. We performed the first twin-based analysis on cognitive performance, memory and depression status in middle-aged and elderly Chinese twins, representing...... the world's largest and most rapidly aging population. The sample consisted of 384 twin pairs with a median age of 50 years. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale; memory was assessed using the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale; depression...... with heritability 0.44 for cognition and 0.56 for memory. Multivariate analysis by the reduced Cholesky model estimated significant genetic (rG = 0.69) and unique environmental (rE = 0.25) correlation between cognitive ability and memory. The model also estimated weak but significant inverse genetic correlation...

  13. Genetic genealogy comes of age: perspectives on the use of deep-rooted pedigrees in human population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuseau, M H D; Van Geystelen, A; van Oven, M; Decorte, R

    2013-04-01

    In this article, we promote the implementation of extensive genealogical data in population genetic studies. Genealogical records can provide valuable information on the origin of DNA donors in a population genetic study, going beyond the commonly collected data such as residence, birthplace, language, and self-reported ethnicity. Recent studies demonstrated that extended genealogical data added to surname analysis can be crucial to detect signals of (past) population stratification and to interpret the population structure in a more objective manner. Moreover, when in-depth pedigree data are combined with haploid markers, it is even possible to disentangle signals of temporal differentiation within a population genetic structure during the last centuries. Obtaining genealogical data for all DNA donors in a population genetic study is a labor-intensive task but the vastly growing (genetic) genealogical databases, due to the broad interest of the public, are making this job more time-efficient if there is a guarantee for sufficient data quality. At the end, we discuss the advantages and pitfalls of using genealogy within sampling campaigns and we provide guidelines for future population genetic studies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A method for evaluating basement exhumation histories from closure age distributions of detrital minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovera, Oscar M.; Grove, Marty; Kimbrough, David L.; Abbott, Patrick L.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional, thermokinetic model that predicts the closure age distributions of detrital minerals from pervasively intruded and differentially exhumed basement. Using this model, we outline a method to determine the denudation history of orogenic regions on the basis of closure age distributions in synorogenic to postorogenic forearc strata. At relatively high mean denudation rates of 0.5 km m.y.-1 sustained over millions of years, magmatic heating events have minimal influence upon the age distributions of detrital minerals such as K-feldspar that are moderately retentive of radiogenic Ar. At lower rates, however, the effects of batholith emplacement may be substantial. We have applied the approach to detrital K-feldspars from forearc strata derived from the deeply denuded Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB). Agreement of the denudation history deduced from the detrital K-feldspar data with thermochronologic constraints from exposed PRB basement lead us to conclude that exhumation histories of magmatic arcs should be decipherable solely from closure age distributions of detrital minerals whose depositional age is known. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union

  15. Genetics and aging; the Werner syndrome as a segmental progeroid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G M

    1985-01-01

    The maximum lifespan potential is a constitutional feature of speciation and must be subject to polygenic controls acting both in the domain of development and in the domain of the maintenance of macromolecular integrity. The enormous genetic heterogeneity that characterizes our own species, the complexities of numerous nature-nurture interactions, and the quantitative and qualitative variations of the senescent phenotype that are observed suggest that precise patterns of aging in each of us may be unique. Patterns of aging may also differ sharply among species (for example, semelparous vs. multiparous mammals). Some potential common denominators, however, allow one to identify progeroid syndromes in man that could lead to the elucidation of important pathways of gene action. (The suffix "-oid" means "like"; it does not mean identity.) Unimodal progeroid syndromes (eg., familial dementia of the Alzheimer type, an autosomal dominant) can help us understand the pathogenesis of a particular aspect of the senescent phenotype of man. Segmental progeroid syndromes (eg. the Werner syndrome, an autosomal recessive) may be relevant to multiple aspects of the senescent phenotype. Some results of research on the Werner syndrome may be interpreted as support for "peripheral" as opposed to "central" theories of aging; they are consistent with the view that gene action in the domain of development (adolescence, in this instance) can set the stage for patterns of aging in the adult; they point to the importance of mesenchymal cell populations in the pathogenesis of age-related disorders; finally, they underscore the role of chromosomal instability, especially in the pathogenesis of neoplasia.

  16. Individual radiation sensitivity (gender, age, genetic disposition). Consequences for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ionising radiation on human health is influenced by a number of physiological and molecular biological factors. This is also valid for the causation of stochastic radiation effects especially the causation of cancer. Several epidemiological studies have resulted with respect to the total rate of solid cancers that women are more sensitive than men by a factor of 1.6 to 2.0. For leukaemia this is not the case. The largest studies come from the investigations on the survivors of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. But also studies on the population of the Techa River (Southeast Urals) yield such data. The analyses of single cancer localizations come to different results with respect to the dependence on the sex. Secondary cancers after radiotherapy for cancer treatment show also higher rates in women than in men. A similar situation is observed with respect to the dependence of cancer rate on age. The total rate of solid cancers is highest with children and decreases with increasing age. The effects are very different again with single cancer localizations. An especially strong age dependence was observed for thyroid cancer. Increasingly individuals have been found who are especially radiosensitive on the basis of their genetic disposition also with respect to the causation of cancer. Mechanisms and possibilities to trace these individuals are discussed. It is also discussed whether and to which extent these data should have consequences for the practical radiological protection. (orig.)

  17. Diet, ageing and genetic factors in the pathogenesis of diverticular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commane, Daniel Martin; Arasaradnam, Ramesh Pulendran; Mills, Sarah; Mathers, John Cummings; Bradburn, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Diverticular disease (DD) is an age-related disorder of the large bowel which may affect half of the population over the age of 65 in the UK. This high prevalence ranks it as one of the most common bowel disorders in western nations. The majority of patients remain asymptomatic but there are associated life-threatening co-morbidities, which, given the large numbers of people with DD, translates into a considerable number of deaths per annum. Despite this public health burden, relatively little seems to be known about either the mechanisms of development or causality. In the 1970s, a model of DD formulated the concept that diverticula occur as a consequence of pressure-induced damage to the colon wall amongst those with a low intake of dietary fiber. In this review, we have examined the evidence regarding the influence of ageing, diet, inflammation and genetics on DD development. We argue that the evidence supporting the barotrauma hypothesis is largely anecdotal. We have also identified several gaps in the knowledge base which need to be filled before we can complete a model for the etiology of diverticular disease. PMID:19468998

  18. A behavioral paradigm to evaluate hippocampal performance in aged rodents for pharmacological and genetic target validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Gerstein

    Full Text Available Aged-related cognitive ability is highly variable, ranging from unimpaired to severe impairments. The Morris water maze (a reliable tool for assessing memory has been used to distinguish aged rodents that are superior learners from those that are learning impaired. This task, however, is not practical for pre- and post-pharmacological treatment, as the memory of the task is long lasting. In contrast, the object location memory task, also a spatial learning paradigm, results in a less robust memory that decays quickly. We demonstrate for the first time how these two paradigms can be used together to assess hippocampal cognitive impairments before and after pharmacological or genetic manipulations in rodents. Rats were first segregated into superior learning and learning impaired groups using the object location memory task, and their performance was correlated with future outcome on this task and on the Morris water maze. This method provides a tool to evaluate the effect of treatments on cognitive impairment associated with aging and neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Genetic Variability in DNA Repair Proteins in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Blasiak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD is complex and involves interactions between environmental and genetic factors, with oxidative stress playing an important role inducing damage in biomolecules, including DNA. Therefore, genetic variability in the components of DNA repair systems may influence the ability of the cell to cope with oxidative stress and in this way contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD. However, few reports have been published on this subject so far. We demonstrated that the c.977C>G polymorphism (rs1052133 in the hOGG1 gene and the c.972G>C polymorphism (rs3219489 in the MUTYH gene, the products of which play important roles in the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA, might be associated with the risk of AMD. Oxidative stress may promote misincorporation of uracil into DNA, where it is targeted by several DNA glycosylases. We observed that the g.4235T>C (rs2337395 and c.−32A>G (rs3087404 polymorphisms in two genes encoding such glycosylases, UNG and SMUG1, respectively, could be associated with the occurrence of AMD. Polymorphisms in some other DNA repair genes, including XPD (ERCC2, XRCC1 and ERCC6 (CSB have also been reported to be associated with AMD. These data confirm the importance of the cellular reaction to DNA damage, and this may be influenced by variability in DNA repair genes, in AMD pathogenesis.

  20. Effects of age condition on the distribution and integrity of inorganic fillers in dental resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Svizero, Nádia da Rocha; Bim Júnior, Odair; Valduga, Claudete Justina; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Sauro, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the distribution of the filler size along with the zeta potential, and the integrity of silane-bonded filler surface in different types of restorative dental composites as a function of the material age condition. Filtek P60 (hybrid composite), Filtek Z250 (small-particle filled composite), Filtek Z350XT (nanofilled composite), and Filtek Silorane (silorane composite) (3M ESPE) were tested at different stage condition (i.e., fresh/new, aged, and expired). Composites were submitted to an accelerated aging protocol (Arrhenius model). Specimens were obtained by first diluting each composite specimen in ethanol and then dispersed in potassium chloride solution (0.001 mol%). Composite fillers were characterized for their zeta potential, mean particle size, size distribution, via poly-dispersion dynamic light scattering. The integrity of the silane-bonded surface of the fillers was characterized by FTIR. The material age influenced significantly the outcomes; Zeta potential, filler characteristics, and silane integrity varied both after aging and expiration. Silorane presented the broadest filler distribution and lowest zeta potential. Nanofilled and silorane composites exhibited decreased peak intensities in the FTIR analysis, indicating a deficiency of the silane integrity after aging or expiry time. Regardless to the material condition, the hybrid and the small-particle-filled composites were more stable overtime as no significant alteration in filler size distribution, diameter, and zeta potential occurred. A deficiency in the silane integrity in the nanofilled and silorane composites seems to be affected by the material stage condition. The materials conditions tested in this study influenced the filler size distribution, the zeta potential, and integrity of the silane adsorbed on fillers in the nanofilled and silorane composites. Thus, this may result in a decrease of the clinical performance of aforementioned composites, in

  1. Genetic algorithms for the optimization of pipeline systems for liquid distribution (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez, Paulo Cesar; Galeano, Haiver

    2004-01-01

    This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003), presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977) network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA

  2. THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF SILVER (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX) AND BIGHEAD (ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS) CARPS FROM FISH FARM LIMANSKE

    OpenAIRE

    Т. Nagorniuk; I. Hrytsyniak; N. Borysenko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Studying the peculiarities of the genetic structure of different age groups of silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Methodology. The methods of vertical polyacrylamide and horizontal starch electrophoresis with our own modifications have been used for the study. Sampling of the biological material and histochemical staining of gel plates were carried out using the generally accepted methods. Statistical analysis of the obta...

  3. Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. PMID:25179226

  4. Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Nolan, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Description of age, sex and site distribution of large bowel cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims/Objective: To determine the distribution of bowel cancer with special emphasis on age, sex and site. Methods: One hundred and sixty cases of histologically confirmed large bowel cancers at Jos University Teaching Hospital between January 1991 – December 2000 were reviewed. The records were collected from the ...

  6. Age and distribution of an evergreen clonal shrub in the Coweeta basin: Rhododendron maximum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose

    2012-01-01

    Rhododendron maximum L. is an evergreen, clonal shrub that forms a dominant sub-canopy layer and is a key species in southern Appalachian forests. We investigated the age and distribution of R. maximum across the Coweeta Basin, a 1626 ha watershed in western North Carolina. We selected 16 perennial, second-order streams and used a Global Positioning System to establish...

  7. Total and regional fat distribution is strongly influenced by genetic factors in young and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malis, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Eva L; Poulsen, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    was to estimate the heritability (h(2)) of total and regional fat distribution in young and elderly Danish twins. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Monozygotic (108) and dizygotic (88) twins in two age groups (25 to 32 and 58 to 66 years) underwent anthropometric measurements and DXA scans. Intraclass correlations...... and etiologic components of variance were estimated for total and regional fat percentages using biometric modeling. RESULTS: The intraclass correlations demonstrated higher correlations for all fat percentages among monozygotic twins as compared with dizygotic twins. The biometric modeling revealed a major...

  8. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Power and distribution transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.

    1994-05-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in power and distribution transformers important to license renewal in commercial nuclear power plants. The intent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  9. The age distribution of self-reported personality disorder traits in a household population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy

    2009-04-01

    Stability over time is an essential criterion for the diagnosis of a personality disorder (PD) according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. However, both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated considerable changes of personality disorder traits during life-span, an observation which challenges this assumption. We measured self-reported DSM-IV personality disorder traits in a nationally representative community sample using a cross-sectional design. We investigated the association of dimensional PD scores with age. Our analyses confirmed a decreasing prevalence of personality disorder mean scores across age groups in the population, particularly Cluster B, with an increase in self-reported schizoid and obsessive-compulsive scores. Furthermore, specific interactions of demographic characteristics and age were identified. Analyses of transition points in the distribution of personality disorders across different age groups did not demonstrate increasing stability after age 30 as previously observed for normal personality traits. Significant changes occurred primarily after the third decade.

  10. Age at natural menopause genetic risk score in relation to age at natural menopause and primary open-angle glaucoma in a US-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Louis R; Aschard, Hugues; Kang, Jae H; Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Lindström, Sara; Chasman, Daniel I; Christen, William G; Allingham, R Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Lee, Richard K; Moroi, Sayoko E; Brilliant, Murray H; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S; Fingert, John; Budenz, Donald L; Realini, Tony; Gaasterland, Terry; Gaasterland, Douglas; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Igo, Robert P; Song, Yeunjoo E; Hark, Lisa; Ritch, Robert; Rhee, Douglas J; Gulati, Vikas; Havens, Shane; Vollrath, Douglas; Zack, Donald J; Medeiros, Felipe; Weinreb, Robert N; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Liu, Yutao; Kraft, Peter; Richards, Julia E; Rosner, Bernard A; Hauser, Michael A; Haines, Jonathan L; Wiggs, Janey L

    2017-02-01

    Several attributes of female reproductive history, including age at natural menopause (ANM), have been related to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We assembled 18 previously reported common genetic variants that predict ANM to determine their association with ANM or POAG. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study (7,143 women), we validated the ANM weighted genetic risk score in relation to self-reported ANM. Subsequently, to assess the relation with POAG, we used data from 2,160 female POAG cases and 29,110 controls in the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database (NEIGHBORHOOD), which consists of 8 datasets with imputed genotypes to 5.6+ million markers. Associations with POAG were assessed in each dataset, and site-specific results were meta-analyzed using the inverse weighted variance method. The genetic risk score was associated with self-reported ANM (P = 2.2 × 10) and predicted 4.8% of the variance in ANM. The ANM genetic risk score was not associated with POAG (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.002; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.998, 1.007; P = 0.28). No single genetic variant in the panel achieved nominal association with POAG (P ≥0.20). Compared to the middle 80 percent, there was also no association with the lowest 10 percentile or highest 90 percentile of genetic risk score with POAG (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.21; P = 0.23 and OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.69; P = 0.65, respectively). A genetic risk score predicting 4.8% of ANM variation was not related to POAG; thus, genetic determinants of ANM are unlikely to explain the previously reported association between the two phenotypes.

  11. State-age-dependent maintenance policies for deteriorating systems with Erlang sojourn time distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates state-age-dependent maintenance policies for multistate deteriorating systems with Erlang sojourn time distributions. Since Erlang distributions are serial combinations of exponential phases, the deteriorating process can be modeled by a multi-phase Markovian model and hence easily analyzed. Based on the Markovian model, the optimal phase-dependent inspection and replacement policy can be obtained by using a policy improvement algorithm. However, since phases are fictitious and can not be identified by inspections, two procedures are developed to construct state-age-dependent policies based on the optimal phase-dependent policy. The properties of the constructed state-age-dependent policies are further investigated and the performance of the policy is evaluated through a numerical example

  12. Distribution of genetic diversity in wild European populations of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola): implications for plant genetic resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Sretenovic Rajicic, T.; Treuren, van R.; Dehmer, K.J.; Linden, van der C.G.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variation in Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was studied across Europe from the Czech Republic to the United Kingdom, using three molecular marker systems, simple sequence repeat (SSR, microsatellites), AFLP and nucleotide-binding site (NBS) profiling. The

  13. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: distribution of genetic markers in Kazakh population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikhayeva N

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nurgul Sikhayeva,1,2 Yerkebulan Talzhanov,1 Aisha Iskakova,1 Jarkyn Dzharmukhanov,1 Raushan Nugmanova,1 Elena Zholdybaeva,1 Erlan Ramanculov1–3 1National Scientific Laboratory of Biotechnology, National Center for Biotechnology, Astana, Kazakhstan; 2Faculty of Natural Sciences, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan; 3School of Science and Technology, Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan Background: Ethnic differences exist in the frequencies of genetic variations that contribute to the risk of common disease. This study aimed to analyse the distribution of several genes, previously associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and obesity-related phenotypes, in a Kazakh population.Methods: A total of 966 individuals belonging to the Kazakh ethnicity were recruited from an outpatient clinic. We genotyped 41 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs previously associated with type 2 diabetes in other ethnic groups and 31 of these were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. The obtained allele frequencies were further compared to publicly available data from other ethnic populations. Allele frequencies for other (compared populations were pooled from the haplotype map (HapMap database. Principal component analysis (PCA, cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling (MDS were used for the analysis of genetic relationship between the populations.Results: Comparative analysis of allele frequencies of the studied SNPs showed significant differentiation among the studied populations. The Kazakh population was grouped with Asian populations according to the cluster analysis and with the Caucasian populations according to PCA. According to MDS, results of the current study show that the Kazakh population holds an intermediate position between Caucasian and Asian populations.Conclusion: A high percentage of population differentiation was observed between Kazakh and world populations. The Kazakh population was clustered

  14. A statistical approach to quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMO) using frequency distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Lars; Busch, Ulrich; Pecoraro, Sven

    2014-12-14

    According to Regulation (EU) No 619/2011, trace amounts of non-authorised genetically modified organisms (GMO) in feed are tolerated within the EU if certain prerequisites are met. Tolerable traces must not exceed the so-called 'minimum required performance limit' (MRPL), which was defined according to the mentioned regulation to correspond to 0.1% mass fraction per ingredient. Therefore, not yet authorised GMO (and some GMO whose approvals have expired) have to be quantified at very low level following the qualitative detection in genomic DNA extracted from feed samples. As the results of quantitative analysis can imply severe legal and financial consequences for producers or distributors of feed, the quantification results need to be utterly reliable. We developed a statistical approach to investigate the experimental measurement variability within one 96-well PCR plate. This approach visualises the frequency distribution as zygosity-corrected relative content of genetically modified material resulting from different combinations of transgene and reference gene Cq values. One application of it is the simulation of the consequences of varying parameters on measurement results. Parameters could be for example replicate numbers or baseline and threshold settings, measurement results could be for example median (class) and relative standard deviation (RSD). All calculations can be done using the built-in functions of Excel without any need for programming. The developed Excel spreadsheets are available (see section 'Availability of supporting data' for details). In most cases, the combination of four PCR replicates for each of the two DNA isolations already resulted in a relative standard deviation of 15% or less. The aims of the study are scientifically based suggestions for minimisation of uncertainty of measurement especially in -but not limited to- the field of GMO quantification at low concentration levels. Four PCR replicates for each of the two DNA isolations

  15. The genetic basis for cognitive ability, memory, and depression symptomatology in middle-aged and elderly chinese twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunsheng; Sun, Jianping; Ji, Fuling; Tian, Xiaocao; Duan, Haiping; Zhai, Yaoming; Wang, Shaojie; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Zhao, Zhongtang; Li, Shuxia; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Christensen, Kaare; Tan, Qihua

    2015-02-01

    The genetic influences on aging-related phenotypes, including cognition and depression, have been well confirmed in the Western populations. We performed the first twin-based analysis on cognitive performance, memory and depression status in middle-aged and elderly Chinese twins, representing the world's largest and most rapidly aging population. The sample consisted of 384 twin pairs with a median age of 50 years. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale; memory was assessed using the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale; depression symptomatology was evaluated by the self-reported 30-item Geriatric Depression (GDS-30)scale. Both univariate and multivariate twin models were fitted to the three phenotypes with full and nested models and compared to select the best fitting models. Univariate analysis showed moderate-to-high genetic influences with heritability 0.44 for cognition and 0.56 for memory. Multivariate analysis by the reduced Cholesky model estimated significant genetic (rG = 0.69) and unique environmental (rE = 0.25) correlation between cognitive ability and memory. The model also estimated weak but significant inverse genetic correlation for depression with cognition (-0.31) and memory (-0.28). No significant unique environmental correlation was found for depression with other two phenotypes. In conclusion, there can be a common genetic architecture for cognitive ability and memory that weakly correlates with depression symptomatology, but in the opposite direction.

  16. Nature Versus Nurture: Does Proteostasis Imbalance Underlie the Genetic, Environmental, and Age-Related Risk Factors for Alzheimer's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikis, Elise A

    2017-08-22

    Aging is a risk factor for a number of "age-related diseases", including Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD affects more than a third of all people over the age of 85, and is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. Symptoms include forgetfulness, memory loss, and cognitive decline, ultimately resulting in the need for full-time care. While there is no cure for AD, pharmacological approaches to alleviate symptoms and target underlying causes of the disease have been developed, albeit with limited success. This review presents the age-related, genetic, and environmental risk factors for AD and proposes a hypothesis for the mechanistic link between genetics and the environment. In short, much is known about the genetics of early-onset familial AD (EO-FAD) and the central role played by the Aβ peptide and protein misfolding, but late-onset AD (LOAD) is not thought to have direct genetic causes. Nonetheless, genetic risk factors such as isoforms of the protein ApoE have been identified. Additional findings suggest that air pollution caused by the combustion of fossil fuels may be an important environmental risk factor for AD. A hypothesis suggesting that poor air quality might act by disrupting protein folding homeostasis (proteostasis) is presented.

  17. Simple Algorithms to Calculate Asymptotic Null Distributions of Robust Tests in Case-Control Genetic Association Studies in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Kam Fung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The case-control study is an important design for testing association between genetic markers and a disease. The Cochran-Armitage trend test (CATT is one of the most commonly used statistics for the analysis of case-control genetic association studies. The asymptotically optimal CATT can be used when the underlying genetic model (mode of inheritance is known. However, for most complex diseases, the underlying genetic models are unknown. Thus, tests robust to genetic model misspecification are preferable to the model-dependant CATT. Two robust tests, MAX3 and the genetic model selection (GMS, were recently proposed. Their asymptotic null distributions are often obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, because they either have not been fully studied or involve multiple integrations. In this article, we study how components of each robust statistic are correlated, and find a linear dependence among the components. Using this new finding, we propose simple algorithms to calculate asymptotic null distributions for MAX3 and GMS, which greatly reduce the computing intensity. Furthermore, we have developed the R package Rassoc implementing the proposed algorithms to calculate the empirical and asymptotic p values for MAX3 and GMS as well as other commonly used tests in case-control association studies. For illustration, Rassoc is applied to the analysis of case-control data of 17 most significant SNPs reported in four genome-wide association studies.

  18. ISSR Analysis on Genetic Diversity of the 34 Populations of Oryza meyeriana Distributing in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-tao WAN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of the 34 populations of wild rice Oryza meyeriana Baill. distributed in Yunnan Province, China was analyzed using 13 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. A total of 168 bands were amplified, of which 135 polymorphic bands were discovered and the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB was 80.36%. A genetic diversity was revealed as Nei's gene diversity (H = 0.2666 and Shannon information index (I = 0.4028 at population level. The 34 populations were divided into different groups based on administrative regions, latitude and longitudes, river areas, altitudes of their origins, and their indexes such as Na (number of alleles, Ne (effective number of alleles, H, I and PPB were calculated. Richer genetic diversity was found in the wild rice populations distributed in Simao Prefecture than that in Lingcang Prefecture or Xishuangbanna Prefecture whereas the least genetic diversity was in Baoshan Prefecture or Dehong Prefecture. Rich genetic diversity was also discovered in the wild rice populations originated from higher than 710 m altitude around the middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River belonging to the Pacific Ocean drainage system. The 34 populations could be classified into two groups, one group covered the wild rice distributing in Simao Prefecture only while the other group covered ones in Lingcang, Xishuangbanna and Dehong Prefectures. The issue on how to effectively conserve the wild rice germplasm was discussed.

  19. A Bayesian modeling approach for estimation of a shape-free groundwater age distribution using multiple tracers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoudieh, A.; Visser, A.; Sharifi, S.; Broers, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the mixing of groundwaters with different ages in aquifers, groundwater age is more appropriately represented by a distribution rather than a scalar number. To infer a groundwater age distribution from environmental tracers, a mathematical form is often assumed for the shape of the

  20. Normal cranial bone marrow MR imaging pattern with age-related ADC value distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Pan Shinong; Yin Yuming; Li Wei; Chen Zhian; Liu Yunhui; Wu Zhenhua; Guo Qiyong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine MRI appearances of normal age-related cranial bone marrow and the relationship between MRI patterns and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Methods: Five hundred subjects were divided into seven groups based on ages. Cranial bone marrow MRI patterns were performed based on different thickness of the diploe and signal intensity distribution characteristics. ADC values of the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal bones on DWI were measured and calculated. Correlations between ages and ADC values, between patterns and ADC values, as well as the distribution of ADC values were analyzed. Results: Normal cranial bone marrow was divided into four types and six subtypes, Type I, II, III and IV, which had positive correlation with age increasing (χ 2 = 266.36, P 0.05). In addition, there was significant negative correlation between the ADC values and MRI patterns in the normal parietal and occipital bones (r = -0.691 and -0.750, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The combination of MRI features and ADC values changes in different cranial bones showed significant correlation with age increasing. Familiar with the MRI appearance of the normal bone marrow conversion pattern in different age group and their ADC value will aid the diagnosis and differential of the cranial bone pathology.

  1. GSD Update: Ushering in a new age of genetics to restore lands and conserve species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2013-01-01

    Plant genetic information provides critical knowledge necessary to mitigate the impacts of climate change through ecological restoration. The first step in restoration is recognizing and delineating genetic boundaries at different taxonomic and spatial hierarchies (e.g., species, subspecies and populations). The second step is an assessment of the genetic diversity...

  2. Exploring the Role of Genetic Variability and Lifestyle in Oxidative Stress Response for Healthy Aging and Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Passarino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is both the cause and consequence of impaired functional homeostasis characterizing human aging. The worsening efficiency of stress response with age represents a health risk and leads to the onset and accrual of major age-related diseases. In contrast, centenarians seem to have evolved conservative stress response mechanisms, probably derived from a combination of a diet rich in natural antioxidants, an active lifestyle and a favorable genetic background, particularly rich in genetic variants able to counteract the stress overload at the level of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. The integration of these factors could allow centenarians to maintain moderate levels of free radicals that exert beneficial signaling and modulator effects on cellular metabolism. Considering the hot debate on the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in promoting healthy aging, in this review we gathered the existing information regarding genetic variability and lifestyle factors which potentially modulate the stress response at old age. Evidence reported here suggests that the integration of lifestyle factors (moderate physical activity and healthy nutrition and genetic background could shift the balance in favor of the antioxidant cellular machinery by activating appropriate defense mechanisms in response to exceeding external and internal stress levels, and thus possibly achieving the prospect of living a longer life.

  3. Age-related changes in abdominal fat distribution in Japanese adults in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Masako; Oka, Rie; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Moriuchi, Tadashi; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Yagi, Kunimasa; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    Early studies have indicated that body fat shifts from peripheral stores to central stores with aging. The objective of this study was to investigate age-related changes in abdominal fat distribution of Japanese men and women of the general population over a wide range of body mass indices (BMI). A total of 2,220 non-diabetic, apparently healthy Japanese adults (1,240 men and 980 women; age range 40-69 years) were included in the study sample. All subjects underwent a CT scan at the level of the umbilicus, and the areas of visceral adipose tissue (AT) and subcutaneous AT were quantified. When the subjects were stratified by BMI into 18.5-23.0 kg/m(2), 23.0-27.5 kg/m(2), and 27.5 kg/m(2) or higher, visceral AT was positively correlated with age in all of the BMI strata in both genders (pabdominal fat distribution, women retained the subcutaneous-dominant type of fat distribution up to 70 years.

  4. Coronary artery calcium distributions in older persons in the AGES-Reykjavik study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Elias Freyr; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Launer, Lenore J.; Harris, Tamara B.; Aspelund, Thor

    2013-01-01

    Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) is a sign of advanced atherosclerosis and an independent risk factor for cardiac events. Here, we describe CAC-distributions in an unselected aged population and compare modelling methods to characterize CAC-distribution. CAC is difficult to model because it has a skewed and zero inflated distribution with over-dispersion. Data are from the AGES-Reykjavik sample, a large population based study [2002-2006] in Iceland of 5,764 persons aged 66-96 years. Linear regressions using logarithmic- and Box-Cox transformations on CAC+1, quantile regression and a Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial model (ZINB) were applied. Methods were compared visually and with the PRESS-statistic, R2 and number of detected associations with concurrently measured variables. There were pronounced differences in CAC according to sex, age, history of coronary events and presence of plaque in the carotid artery. Associations with conventional coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors varied between the sexes. The ZINB model provided the best results with respect to the PRESS-statistic, R2, and predicted proportion of zero scores. The ZINB model detected similar numbers of associations as the linear regression on ln(CAC+1) and usually with the same risk factors. PMID:22990371

  5. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Individual Differences in Frequency of Play with Pets among Middle-Aged Men: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Kristen C; Hoffman, Christy L; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Kremen, William S; Panizzon, Matthew S; Grant, Michael D; Lyons, Michael J; Xian, Hong; Franz, Carol E

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence that pet ownership and human-animal interaction (HAI) have benefits for human physical and psychological well-being. However, there may be pre-existing characteristics related to patterns of pet ownership and interactions with pets that could potentially bias results of research on HAI. The present study uses a behavioral genetic design to estimate the degree to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in frequency of play with pets among adult men. Participants were from the ongoing longitudinal Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA), a population-based sample of 1,237 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 51-60 years. Results demonstrate that MZ twins have higher correlations than DZ twins on frequency of pet play, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in individual differences in interactions with pets. Structural equation modeling revealed that, according to the best model, genetic factors accounted for as much as 37% of the variance in pet play, although the majority of variance (63-71%) was due to environmental factors that are unique to each twin. Shared environmental factors, which would include childhood exposure to pets, overall accounted for influenced characteristics.

  6. Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; López-González, Mercedes; Hernández, Mariano; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Feliu, Carlos

    2011-09-26

    In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda) of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus) was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation. Three species of hymenolepidids were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis microstoma and Rodentolepis fraterna. Hymenolepis diminuta (in rats) and R. microstoma (in mice) showed a widespread distribution in the Archipelago, and R. fraterna was the least spread species, appearing only on five of the islands. The hymenolepidids found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La Graciosa were restricted to one area. The COI network of H. diminuta showed that the haplotypes from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the most distant with respect to the other islands, but clearly related among them. Founder effects and biotic and abiotic factors could have played important role in the presence/absence of the hymenolepidid species in determined locations. The haplotypes from the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) seem to have shared an ancestral haplotype very distant from the most frequent one that was found in the rest of the islands. Two colonization events or a single event with subsequent isolation and reduced gene flow between western-central and eastern islands, have taken place in the Archipelago. The three tapeworms detected are zoonotic species, and their presence among rodents from this Archipelago suggests a potential health risk to human via environmental contamination in high risk areas. However, the relatively low prevalence of infestations detected and the focal distribution of some of these species on certain islands reduce the general transmission risk to human.

  7. Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliu Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation. Results Three species of hymenolepidids were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis microstoma and Rodentolepis fraterna. Hymenolepis diminuta (in rats and R. microstoma (in mice showed a widespread distribution in the Archipelago, and R. fraterna was the least spread species, appearing only on five of the islands. The hymenolepidids found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La Graciosa were restricted to one area. The COI network of H. diminuta showed that the haplotypes from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the most distant with respect to the other islands, but clearly related among them. Conclusions Founder effects and biotic and abiotic factors could have played important role in the presence/absence of the hymenolepidid species in determined locations. The haplotypes from the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote seem to have shared an ancestral haplotype very distant from the most frequent one that was found in the rest of the islands. Two colonization events or a single event with subsequent isolation and reduced gene flow between western-central and eastern islands, have taken place in the Archipelago. The three tapeworms detected are zoonotic species, and their presence among rodents from this Archipelago suggests a potential health risk to human via environmental contamination in high risk areas. However, the relatively low prevalence of infestations detected and the focal distribution of some of these species on certain islands reduce

  8. Segmenting Bone Parts for Bone Age Assessment using Point Distribution Model and Contour Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Singh Mann, Kulwinder, Dr.

    2018-01-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) is a task performed on radiographs by the pediatricians in hospitals to predict the final adult height, to diagnose growth disorders by monitoring skeletal development. For building an automatic bone age assessment system the step in routine is to do image pre-processing of the bone X-rays so that features row can be constructed. In this research paper, an enhanced point distribution algorithm using contours has been implemented for segmenting bone parts as per well-established procedure of bone age assessment that would be helpful in building feature row and later on; it would be helpful in construction of automatic bone age assessment system. Implementation of the segmentation algorithm shows high degree of accuracy in terms of recall and precision in segmenting bone parts from left hand X-Rays.

  9. Systematic underestimation of the age of samples with saturating exponential behaviour and inhomogeneous dose distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    In luminescence and ESR studies, a systematic underestimate of the (average) equivalent dose, and thus also the age, of a sample can occur when there is significant variation of the natural dose within the sample and some regions approach saturation. This is demonstrated explicitly for a material that exhibits a single-saturating-exponential growth of signal with dose. The result is valid for any geometry (e.g. a plain layer, spherical grain, etc.) and some illustrative cases are modelled, with the age bias exceeding 10% in extreme cases. If the dose distribution within the sample can be modelled accurately, it is possible to correct for the bias in the estimates of equivalent dose estimate and age. While quantifying the effect would be more difficult, similar systematic biases in dose and age estimates are likely in other situations more complex than the one modelled

  10. Distribution, genetic and cardiovascular determinants of FVIII:c - Data from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, M Iris; Grossmann, Vera; Spronk, Henri M H; Schulz, Andreas; Jünger, Claus; Laubert-Reh, Dagmar; Mazur, Johanna; Gori, Tommaso; Zeller, Tanja; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Beutel, Manfred; Blankenberg, Stefan; Münzel, Thomas; Lackner, Karl J; Ten Cate-Hoek, Arina J; Ten Cate, Hugo; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of c are associated with risk for both venous and arterial thromboembolism. However, no population-based study on the sex-specific distribution and reference ranges of plasma c and its cardiovascular determinants is available. c was analyzed in a randomly selected sample of 2533 males and 2440 females from the Gutenberg Health Study in Germany. Multivariable regression analyses for c were performed under adjustment for genetic determinants, cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Females (126.6% (95% CI: 125.2/128)) showed higher c levels than males (121.2% (119.8/122.7)). c levels increased with age in both sexes (ß per decade: 5.67% (4.22/7.13) male, 6.15% (4.72/7.57) female; p<0.001). Sex-specific reference limits and categories indicating the grade of deviation from the reference were calculated, and nomograms for c were created. c was approximately 25% higher in individuals with non-O blood type. Adjusted for sex and age, ABO-blood group accounted for 18.3% of c variation. In multivariable analysis, c was notably positively associated with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia and negatively with current smoking. In a fully adjusted multivariable model, the strongest associations observed were of elevated c with diabetes and peripheral artery disease in both sexes and with obesity in males. Effects of SNPs in the vWF, STAB2 and SCARA5 gene were stronger in females than in males. The use of nomograms for valuation of c might be useful to identify high-risk cohorts for thromboembolism. Additionally, the prospective evaluation of c as a risk predictor becomes feasible. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Gestational age at birth and risk of intellectual disability without a common genetic cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelman, Hein; Abel, Kathryn; Wicks, Susanne; Gardner, Renee; Johnstone, Edward; Lee, Brian; Magnusson, Cecilia; Dalman, Christina; Rai, Dheeraj

    2017-12-06

    Preterm birth is linked to intellectual disability and there is evidence to suggest post-term birth may also incur risk. However, these associations have not yet been investigated in the absence of common genetic causes of intellectual disability, where risk associated with late delivery may be preventable. We therefore aimed to examine risk of intellectual disability without a common genetic cause across the entire range of gestation, using a matched-sibling design to account for unmeasured confounding by shared familial factors. We conducted a population-based retrospective study using data from the Stockholm Youth Cohort (n = 499,621) and examined associations in a nested cohort of matched outcome-discordant siblings (n = 8034). Risk of intellectual disability was greatest among those born extremely early (adjusted OR 24 weeks  = 14.54 [95% CI 11.46-18.44]), lessening with advancing gestational age toward term (aOR 32 weeks  = 3.59 [3.22-4.01]; aOR 37 weeks  = 1.50 [1.38-1.63]); aOR 38 weeks  = 1.26 [1.16-1.37]; aOR 39 weeks = 1.10 [1.04-1.17]) and increasing with advancing gestational age post-term (aOR 42 weeks  = 1.16 [1.08-1.25]; aOR 43 weeks  = 1.41 [1.21-1.64]; aOR 44 weeks  = 1.71 [1.34-2.18]; aOR 45 weeks  = 2.07 [1.47-2.92]). Associations persisted in a cohort of matched siblings suggesting they were robust against confounding by shared familial traits. Risk of intellectual disability was greatest among children showing evidence of fetal growth restriction, especially when birth occurred before or after term. Birth at non-optimal gestational duration may be linked causally with greater risk of intellectual disability. The mechanisms underlying these associations need to be elucidated as they are relevant to clinical practice concerning elective delivery around term and mitigation of risk in post-term children.

  12. Reconfiguration of distribution networks to minimize loss and disruption costs using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, Juan Carlos; Kagan, Nelson [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Escola Politecnica, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, travessa 3 n 380 - CEP - 05508-970 - Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    In this paper a computational implementation of an evolutionary algorithm (EA) is shown in order to tackle the problem of reconfiguring radial distribution systems. The developed module considers power quality indices such as long duration interruptions and customer process disruptions due to voltage sags, by using the Monte Carlo simulation method. Power quality costs are modeled into the mathematical problem formulation, which are added to the cost of network losses. As for the EA codification proposed, a decimal representation is used. The EA operators, namely selection, recombination and mutation, which are considered for the reconfiguration algorithm, are herein analyzed. A number of selection procedures are analyzed, namely tournament, elitism and a mixed technique using both elitism and tournament. The recombination operator was developed by considering a chromosome structure representation that maps the network branches and system radiality, and another structure that takes into account the network topology and feasibility of network operation to exchange genetic material. The topologies regarding the initial population are randomly produced so as radial configurations are produced through the Prim and Kruskal algorithms that rapidly build minimum spanning trees. (author)

  13. Multiobjecitve Sampling Design for Calibration of Water Distribution Network Model Using Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Behzadian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel multiobjective optimization model is presented for selecting optimal locations in the water distribution network (WDN with the aim of installing pressure loggers. The pressure data collected at optimal locations will be used later on in the calibration of the proposed WDN model. Objective functions consist of maximization of calibrated model prediction accuracy and minimization of the total cost for sampling design. In order to decrease the model run time, an optimization model has been developed using multiobjective genetic algorithm and adaptive neural network (MOGA-ANN. Neural networks (NNs are initially trained after a number of initial GA generations and periodically retrained and updated after generation of a specified number of full model-analyzed solutions. Trained NNs are replaced with the fitness evaluation of some chromosomes within the GA progress. Using cache prevents objective function evaluation of repetitive chromosomes within GA. Optimal solutions are obtained through pareto-optimal front with respect to the two objective functions. Results show that jointing NNs in MOGA for approximating portions of chromosomes’ fitness in each generation leads to considerable savings in model run time and can be promising for reducing run-time in optimization models with significant computational effort.

  14. Optimal sensor placement for leak location in water distribution networks using genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Myrna V; Puig, Vicenç; Garza-Castañón, Luis E; Rosich, Albert

    2013-11-04

    This paper proposes a new sensor placement approach for leak location in water distribution networks (WDNs). The sensor placement problem is formulated as an integer optimization problem. The optimization criterion consists in minimizing the number of non-isolable leaks according to the isolability criteria introduced. Because of the large size and non-linear integer nature of the resulting optimization problem, genetic algorithms (GAs) are used as the solution approach. The obtained results are compared with a semi-exhaustive search method with higher computational effort, proving that GA allows one to find near-optimal solutions with less computational load. Moreover, three ways of increasing the robustness of the GA-based sensor placement method have been proposed using a time horizon analysis, a distance-based scoring and considering different leaks sizes. A great advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not depend on the isolation method chosen by the user, as long as it is based on leak sensitivity analysis. Experiments in two networks allow us to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach.

  15. Optimal Sensor Placement for Leak Location in Water Distribution Networks Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Garza-Castañón

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new sensor placement approach for leak location in water distribution networks (WDNs. The sensor placement problem is formulated as an integer optimization problem. The optimization criterion consists in minimizing the number of non-isolable leaks according to the isolability criteria introduced. Because of the large size and non-linear integer nature of the resulting optimization problem, genetic algorithms (GAs are used as the solution approach. The obtained results are compared with a semi-exhaustive search method with higher computational effort, proving that GA allows one to find near-optimal solutions with less computational load. Moreover, three ways of increasing the robustness of the GA-based sensor placement method have been proposed using a time horizon analysis, a distance-based scoring and considering different leaks sizes. A great advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not depend on the isolation method chosen by the user, as long as it is based on leak sensitivity analysis. Experiments in two networks allow us to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach.

  16. Subspecies distribution and macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance genetics of Mycobacterium abscessus in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Sung, H; Park, J-S; Choi, S-H; Shim, T-S; Kim, M-N

    2016-01-01

    Treating Mycobacterium abscessus infections with antimicrobials remains difficult, possibly due to drug resistance. To investigate the subspecies distribution of M. abscessus and its correlation with antibiotic susceptibility and the genetics of antibiotic resistance, focusing on macrolides and fluoroquinolones, in the Republic of Korea. A total of 53 M. abscessus isolates were identified to the subspecies level by sequencing of hsp65 and erm(41). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clarithromycin (CLM) and ciprofloxacin (CFX) were determined using Sensititre™ RAPMYCO plates. The rrl, gyrA and gyrB genes were sequenced to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance. Isolates included 22 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 31 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. erm(41) sequences showing subspecies-specific deletions and sequence variations in the 28th nucleotide were concordant with inducible CLM resistance; however, mutations in rrl were not detected. Low- and high-level CFX resistance was observed in respectively 19 (35.8%) and 10 (18.9%) of the 53 clinical isolates, regardless of subspecies. However, no non-synonymous mutations were detected in gyrA or gyrB. Sequencing of the erm gene and subspeciation of M. abscessus may be used to predict inducible macrolide susceptibility. Further studies of the relationship between specific mutations in gyrA or gyrB to MIC change are required.

  17. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaoporn Prachantasena

    Full Text Available Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  18. Optimal Sensor Placement for Leak Location in Water Distribution Networks Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Myrna V.; Puig, Vicenç; Garza-Castañón, Luis E.; Rosich, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new sensor placement approach for leak location in water distribution networks (WDNs). The sensor placement problem is formulated as an integer optimization problem. The optimization criterion consists in minimizing the number of non-isolable leaks according to the isolability criteria introduced. Because of the large size and non-linear integer nature of the resulting optimization problem, genetic algorithms (GAs) are used as the solution approach. The obtained results are compared with a semi-exhaustive search method with higher computational effort, proving that GA allows one to find near-optimal solutions with less computational load. Moreover, three ways of increasing the robustness of the GA-based sensor placement method have been proposed using a time horizon analysis, a distance-based scoring and considering different leaks sizes. A great advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not depend on the isolation method chosen by the user, as long as it is based on leak sensitivity analysis. Experiments in two networks allow us to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. PMID:24193099

  19. Optimization of BWR fuel lattice enrichment and gadolinia distribution using genetic algorithms and knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-del-Campo, Cecilia; Francois, Juan Luis; Carmona, Roberto; Oropeza, Ivonne P.

    2007-01-01

    An optimization methodology based on the Genetic Algorithms (GA) method was developed for the design of radial enrichment and gadolinia distributions for boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel lattices. The optimization algorithm was linked to the HELIOS code to evaluate the neutronic parameters included in the objective function. The goal is to search for a fuel lattice with the lowest average enrichment, which satisfy a reactivity target, a local power peaking factor (PPF), lower than a limit value, and an average gadolinia concentration target. The methodology was applied to the design of a 10 x 10 fuel lattice, which can be used in fuel assemblies currently used in the two BWRs operating at Mexico. The optimization process showed an excellent performance because it found forty lattice designs in which the worst one has a better neutronic performance than the reference lattice design. The main contribution of this study is the development of an efficient procedure for BWR fuel lattice design, using GA with an objective function (OF) which saves computing time because it does not require lattice burnup calculations

  20. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  1. A mosaic genetic structure of the human population living in the South Baltic region during the Iron Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarek, Ireneusz; Juras, Anna; Handschuh, Luiza; Marcinkowska-Swojak, Malgorzata; Philips, Anna; Zenczak, Michal; Dębski, Artur; Kóčka-Krenz, Hanna; Piontek, Janusz; Kozlowski, Piotr; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2018-02-06

    Despite the increase in our knowledge about the factors that shaped the genetic structure of the human population in Europe, the demographic processes that occurred during and after the Early Bronze Age (EBA) in Central-East Europe remain unclear. To fill the gap, we isolated and sequenced DNAs of 60 individuals from Kowalewko, a bi-ritual cemetery of the Iron Age (IA) Wielbark culture, located between the Oder and Vistula rivers (Kow-OVIA population). The collected data revealed high genetic diversity of Kow-OVIA, suggesting that it was not a small isolated population. Analyses of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and genetic distances performed for Kow-OVIA and other ancient European populations showed that Kow-OVIA was most closely linked to the Jutland Iron Age (JIA) population. However, the relationship of both populations to the preceding Late Neolithic (LN) and EBA populations were different. We found that this phenomenon is most likely the consequence of the distinct genetic history observed for Kow-OVIA women and men. Females were related to the Early-Middle Neolithic farmers, whereas males were related to JIA and LN Bell Beakers. In general, our findings disclose the mechanisms that could underlie the formation of the local genetic substructures in the South Baltic region during the IA.

  2. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  3. Faà di Bruno's formula and the distributions of random partitions in population genetics and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Fred M

    2008-06-01

    We show that the formula of Faà di Bruno for the derivative of a composite function gives, in special cases, the sampling distributions in population genetics that are due to Ewens and to Pitman. The composite function is the same in each case. Other sampling distributions also arise in this way, such as those arising from Dirichlet, multivariate hypergeometric, and multinomial models, special cases of which correspond to Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions in physics. Connections are made to compound sampling models.

  4. Age-dependent effective doses for radionuclides uniformly distributed in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Tran Van

    2014-01-01

    Age-dependent effective doses for external exposure to photons emitted by radionuclides uniformly distributed in air are reported. The calculations were performed for 160 radionuclides, which are important for safety assessment of nuclear facilities. The energies and intensities of photons emitted from radionuclides were taken from the decay data DECDC used for dose calculations. The results are tabulated in the form of effective dose per unit concentration and time (Sv per Bq s m -3 ) for 6 age groups: newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years-old and adult. The effective doses for the adult are also compared to values given in the literature.

  5. Aging, Genetic Variations, and Ethnopharmacology: Building Cultural Competence Through Awareness of Drug Responses in Ethnic Minority Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Diana Lynn; Mentes, Janet C; Cadogan, Mary; Phillips, Linda R

    2017-01-01

    Unique drug responses that may result in adverse events are among the ethnocultural differences described by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. These differences, often attributed to a lack of adherence on the part of the older adult, may be linked to genetic variations that influence drug responses in different ethnic groups. The paucity of research coupled with a lack of knowledge among health care providers compound the problem, contributing to further disparities, especially in this era of personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics. This article examines how age-related changes and genetic differences influence variations in drug responses among older adults in unique ethnocultural groups. The article starts with an overview of age-related changes and ethnopharmacology, moves to describing genetic differences that affect drug responses, with a focus on medications commonly prescribed for older adults, and ends with application of these issues to culturally congruent health care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Spatial distribution and optimal harvesting of an age-structured population in a fluctuating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, Steinar; Lee, Aline Magdalena; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2018-02-01

    We analyze a spatial age-structured model with density regulation, age specific dispersal, stochasticity in vital rates and proportional harvesting. We include two age classes, juveniles and adults, where juveniles are subject to logistic density dependence. There are environmental stochastic effects with arbitrary spatial scales on all birth and death rates, and individuals of both age classes are subject to density independent dispersal with given rates and specified distributions of dispersal distances. We show how to simulate the joint density fields of the age classes and derive results for the spatial scales of all spatial autocovariance functions for densities. A general result is that the squared scale has an additive term equal to the squared scale of the environmental noise, corresponding to the Moran effect, as well as additive terms proportional to the dispersal rate and variance of dispersal distance for the age classes and approximately inversely proportional to the strength of density regulation. We show that the optimal harvesting strategy in the deterministic case is to harvest only juveniles when their relative value (e.g. financial) is large, and otherwise only adults. With increasing environmental stochasticity there is an interval of increasing length of values of juveniles relative to adults where both age classes should be harvested. Harvesting generally tends to increase all spatial scales of the autocovariances of densities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Absorption and distribution of 3H in horned cattle of different age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirotkin, A.N.; Rusakov, N.V.

    1979-01-01

    Studied are the regularity of absorption of the tritium oxide in the gastrointestinal tract, the character of the distribution among the organs and of the radionuclide accumulation in horned cattle of different are. To determine the tritium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract the method of single oral and intravenous injection of radionuclide were used. The tritium concentration values in organs and tissues of horned cattle are presented. The results obtained show that tritium distribution in the organism occurs uniformly and does not depend on the way of intake. With the age the tritium concentration in dry residue increases and in the water phase decreases. The tritium absorption value calculated in the digestive tract of the horned cattle practically does not depend on the animals' age and constitutes 96.2% in average

  8. How old is this bird? The age distribution under some phase sampling schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautphenne, Sophie; Massaro, Melanie; Taylor, Peter

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we use a finite-state continuous-time Markov chain with one absorbing state to model an individual's lifetime. Under this model, the time of death follows a phase-type distribution, and the transient states of the Markov chain are known as phases. We then attempt to provide an answer to the simple question "What is the conditional age distribution of the individual, given its current phase"? We show that the answer depends on how we interpret the question, and in particular, on the phase observation scheme under consideration. We then apply our results to the computation of the age pyramid for the endangered Chatham Island black robin Petroica traversi during the monitoring period 2007-2014.

  9. Genetic risk scores link body fat distribution with specific cardiometabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Sandholt, Camilla H; Andersson Galijatovic, Ehm Astrid

    2016-01-01

    , including fasting serum triglyceride (β = 0.98% mmol/L, P = 3.33 × 10(-) (8) ) and Matsuda index (β = -0.74%, P = 1.29 × 10(-) (4) ). No similar associations for Clusters 2 and 3 were found. The three clusters showed different patterns of association with waist circumference, hip circumference, and height......OBJECTIVE: Forty-nine known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associating with body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist-hip-ratio (WHR) (WHRadjBMI) were recently suggested to cluster into three groups with different associations to cardiometabolic traits. Genetic risk scores of the clusters...... risk scores and anthropometry and blood samples at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test were tested. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and BMI. RESULTS: Cluster 1 associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR = 1.05, P = 2.74 × 10(-) (4) ) and with a poor metabolic profile...

  10. Age and Geographical Distribution in Families with BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutations in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciernikova Sona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular diagnostics of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer is mainly based on detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in suspected families. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency, age and geographical distribution in 130 Slovak hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC families diagnosed within the years 2000-2004. Mutation screening was performed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP, heteroduplex analysis (HDA and sequencing of PCR products showing an abnormal migration pattern. Twenty of 130 (15.6% HBOC suspected families were found to carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. The glossary data from the National Cancer Registry of Slovakia (NCRS were compared with the results from HBOC suspected kindreds. Age distribution of breast cancer onset in our study group showed the highest proportion of onset in HBC families within the 5th decade of life, while NCRS reports at least a ten year later onset. These findings confirmed that cases of breast cancer under 50 years of age can be used as one of the principal criteria to assign a family as a hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer kindred. In contrast with unselected ovarian cancer cases, about 75% of all HOC index cases were diagnosed between 40 and 49 years of age. To study the geographical distribution of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer, Slovakia was divided into three parts. The distribution of HBOC suspected families approximately follows this division, with an increasing number in the western area of the country.

  11. The complement system in age-related macular degeneration: A review of rare genetic variants and implications for personalized treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, M.J.; Jong, E.K.; Hollander, A.I. den

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive retinal disease and the major cause of irreversible vision loss in the elderly. Numerous studies have found both common and rare genetic variants in the complement pathway to play a role in the pathogenesis of AMD. In this review we provide an

  12. Gamma-radiation Mutagenesis in Genetically Unstable Barley Mutants. Pt. 3. Effects of Aging in Various Genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balchiuniene, L.

    1995-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation effect was tested on the grain material of normal-initial barley c. 'Auksiniai II' and allelic mutants tw 1 and tw 2 . Dependence of the aging effects on genotype was obvious, especially in survival test. Differences were observed even on allelic mutants. These observations are important for the preservation strategy of plant genetical resources. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  13. APOE moderates the association between lifestyle activities and cognitive performance: evidence of genetic plasticity in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Shannon K; Small, Brent J; McFall, G Peggy; Dixon, Roger A

    2014-05-01

    The current study examined independent and interactive effects between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and two types of cognitively-stimulating lifestyle activities (CSLA)-integrated information processing (CSLA-II) and novel information processing (CSLA-NI)-on concurrent and longitudinal changes in cognition. Three-wave data across 6 years of follow-up from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (n=278; ages 55-94) and linear mixed model analyses were used to characterize the effects of APOE genotype and participation in CSLA-II and CSLA-NI in four cognitive domains. Significant CSLA effects on cognition were observed. More frequent participation in challenging activities (i.e., CSLA-NI) was associated with higher baseline scores on word recall, fact recall, vocabulary and verbal fluency. Conversely, higher participation in less cognitively-challenging activities (i.e., CSLA-II) was associated with lower scores on fact recall and verbal fluency. No longitudinal CSLA-cognition effects were found. Two significant genetic effects were observed. First, APOE moderated CSLA-II and CSLA-NI associations with baseline verbal fluency and fact recall scores. Second, APOE non-ɛ4 carriers' baseline performance were more likely to be moderated by CSLA participation, compared to APOE-ɛ4 carriers. Our findings suggest APOE may be a "plasticity" gene that makes individuals more or less amenable to the influence of protective factors such as CSLA.

  14. Age of Jupiter inferred from the distinct genetics and formation times of meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijer, Thomas S; Burkhardt, Christoph; Budde, Gerrit; Kleine, Thorsten

    2017-06-27

    The age of Jupiter, the largest planet in our Solar System, is still unknown. Gas-giant planet formation likely involved the growth of large solid cores, followed by the accumulation of gas onto these cores. Thus, the gas-giant cores must have formed before dissipation of the solar nebula, which likely occurred within less than 10 My after Solar System formation. Although such rapid accretion of the gas-giant cores has successfully been modeled, until now it has not been possible to date their formation. Here, using molybdenum and tungsten isotope measurements on iron meteorites, we demonstrate that meteorites derive from two genetically distinct nebular reservoirs that coexisted and remained spatially separated between ∼1 My and ∼3-4 My after Solar System formation. The most plausible mechanism for this efficient separation is the formation of Jupiter, opening a gap in the disk and preventing the exchange of material between the two reservoirs. As such, our results indicate that Jupiter's core grew to ∼20 Earth masses within Jupiter is the oldest planet of the Solar System, and its solid core formed well before the solar nebula gas dissipated, consistent with the core accretion model for giant planet formation.

  15. Radiological and genetic analysis of a Late Iron Age mummy from the Tuli Block, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Rühli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mummified human remains are valuable sources of information on past populations. Here we report on the radiological and molecular findings of a partially mummified individual found in northern Botswana. This desiccated mummy from the Tuli region is the first to have been reported from this region. The remains were those of an older male adult of African origin. He was interred in a tightly flexed position and wrapped in an animal skin. Computerised tomography (CT scanning revealed that none of the internal organs was preserved. Multiple post-mortem alterations are seen, but apart from some degenerative changes of the lower vertebral column, the axial skeleton has remained intact. The advanced osteophytosis suggests an older age than what was previously estimated. The aDNA analysis confirms Sotho-Tswana and possibly Khoesan genetic relatedness, as could be expected from individuals from that region. These results represent one of the first CT scans of a mummified individual from southern Africa, and also the first successful aDNA extraction from such remains.

  16. Behavioral responses to and brain distribution of morphine in mature adult and aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, C.K.; Ho, I.K.; Hoskins, B.

    1986-01-01

    Mature adult (3-6 mo old) and aged (2 yr old) male ICR mice were injected with 10 to 100 mg/kg morphine, s.c. The ED50 values for running behavior (as measured using Stoelting activity monitors and having each mouse serve as its own control) representing 5 times control activity was approximately 7.5 mg/kg for aged mice and approximately 17.5 mg/kg for the mature adults. The ED50 values for analgesia 1 hr after morphine administration using the tail-flick method (max. response time = 8 sec) were approx. 70 mg/kg for the aged mice and 15 mg/kg for the mature adults. One hour after injecting 3 H-morphine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg, 0.13 and 0.14% of the doses appeared in brains of aged and mature adult mice, respectively. Regional distribution of the morphine was the same for both age groups. Expressed as percent of total brain morphine, it was as follows: cortex, 30%; midbrain, 18%; cerebellum, 17%; medulla, 12%; pons, 9%; striatum, 8% and periaqueductal gray, 6%. Expressed as g morphine/g tissue for the 2 doses, the distribution was; periaqueductal gray, 30 and 80; striatum, 9 and 34; medulla, 6 and 20 pons; 5 and 19; cerebellum, 4 and 13; midbrain 2.5 and 8.5 and cortex, 2 and 8. These results suggest that the differences in response to morphine by the two age groups were due to age-related differences in opioid receptor populations and/or affinities

  17. Behavioral responses to and brain distribution of morphine in mature adult and aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, C.K.; Ho, I.K.; Hoskins, B.

    1986-03-01

    Mature adult (3-6 mo old) and aged (2 yr old) male ICR mice were injected with 10 to 100 mg/kg morphine, s.c. The ED50 values for running behavior (as measured using Stoelting activity monitors and having each mouse serve as its own control) representing 5 times control activity was approximately 7.5 mg/kg for aged mice and approximately 17.5 mg/kg for the mature adults. The ED50 values for analgesia 1 hr after morphine administration using the tail-flick method (max. response time = 8 sec) were approx. 70 mg/kg for the aged mice and 15 mg/kg for the mature adults. One hour after injecting /sup 3/H-morphine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg, 0.13 and 0.14% of the doses appeared in brains of aged and mature adult mice, respectively. Regional distribution of the morphine was the same for both age groups. Expressed as percent of total brain morphine, it was as follows: cortex, 30%; midbrain, 18%; cerebellum, 17%; medulla, 12%; pons, 9%; striatum, 8% and periaqueductal gray, 6%. Expressed as g morphine/g tissue for the 2 doses, the distribution was; periaqueductal gray, 30 and 80; striatum, 9 and 34; medulla, 6 and 20 pons; 5 and 19; cerebellum, 4 and 13; midbrain 2.5 and 8.5 and cortex, 2 and 8. These results suggest that the differences in response to morphine by the two age groups were due to age-related differences in opioid receptor populations and/or affinities.

  18. Bayesian analysis of general failure data from an ageing distribution: advances in numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procaccia, H.; Villain, B.; Clarotti, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    EDF and ENEA carried out a joint research program for developing the numerical methods and computer codes needed for Bayesian analysis of component-lives in the case of ageing. Early results of this study were presented at ESREL'94. Since then the following further steps have been gone: input data have been generalized to the case that observed lives are censored both on the right and on the left; allowable life distributions are Weibull and gamma - their parameters are both unknown and can be statistically dependent; allowable priors are histograms relative to different parametrizations of the life distribution of concern; first-and-second-order-moments of the posterior distributions can be computed. In particular the covariance will give some important information about the degree of the statistical dependence between the parameters of interest. An application of the code to the appearance of a stress corrosion cracking in a tube of the PWR Steam Generator system is presented. (authors)

  19. Genetic differentiation in Elaeocarpus photiniifolia (Elaeocarpaceae) associated with geographic distribution and habitat variation in the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Kyoko; Setsuko, Suzuki; Nagamitsu, Teruyoshi; Murakami, Noriaki; Kato, Hidetoshi; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Gene flow between populations in different environmental conditions can be limited due to divergent natural selection, thus promoting genetic differentiation. Elaeocarpus photiniifolia, an endemic tree species in the Bonin Islands, is distributed in two types of habitats, dry scrubs and mesic forests. We aim to elucidate the genetic differentiation in E. photiniifolia within and between islands and between the habitat types. We investigated genotypes of 639 individuals from 19 populations of E. photiniifolia and its closely-related E. sylvestris at 24 microsatellite loci derived from expressed sequence tags. The data revealed genetic differentiation (1) between E. photiniifolia and E. sylvestris (0.307 ≤ F ST ≤ 0.470), (2) between the E. photiniifolia populations of the Chichijima and Hahajima Island Groups in the Bonin Islands (0.033 ≤ F ST ≤ 0.121) and (3) between E. photiniifolia populations associated with dry scrubs and mesic forests in the Chichijima Island Group (0.005 ≤ F ST ≤ 0.071). Principal coordinate analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis also showed that genetically distinct groups were associated with the habitat types, and isolation by distance was not responsible for the genetic differentiation. These findings suggest that E. photiniifolia is divided into genetically differentiated groups associated with different environmental conditions in the Bonin Islands.

  20. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal, Theodore J; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan; Greenberg, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  1. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann

    Full Text Available Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  2. Influence of pedestrian age and gender on spatial and temporal distribution of pedestrian crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2018-01-02

    Every year, about 1.24 million people are killed in traffic crashes worldwide and more than 22% of these deaths are pedestrians. Therefore, pedestrian safety has become a significant traffic safety issue worldwide. In order to develop effective and targeted safety programs, the location- and time-specific influences on vehicle-pedestrian crashes must be assessed. The main purpose of this research is to explore the influence of pedestrian age and gender on the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes to identify the hotspots and hot times. Data for all vehicle-pedestrian crashes on public roadways in the Melbourne metropolitan area from 2004 to 2013 are used in this research. Spatial autocorrelation is applied in examining the vehicle-pedestrian crashes in geographic information systems (GIS) to identify any dependency between time and location of these crashes. Spider plots and kernel density estimation (KDE) are then used to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle-pedestrian crashes for different age groups and genders. Temporal analysis shows that pedestrian age has a significant influence on the temporal distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Furthermore, men and women have different crash patterns. In addition, results of the spatial analysis shows that areas with high risk of vehicle-pedestrian crashes can vary during different times of the day for different age groups and genders. For example, for those between ages 18 and 65, most vehicle-pedestrian crashes occur in the central business district (CBD) during the day, but between 7:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., crashes among this age group occur mostly around hotels, clubs, and bars. This research reveals that temporal and spatial distributions of vehicle-pedestrian crashes vary for different pedestrian age groups and genders. Therefore, specific safety measures should be in place during high crash times at different locations for different age groups and genders to

  3. Global distribution of mean age of stratospheric air from MIPAS SF6 measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Global distributions of profiles of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6 have been retrieved from limb emission spectra recorded by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat covering the period September 2002 to March 2004. Individual SF6 profiles have a precision of 0.5 pptv below 25 km altitude and a vertical resolution of 4–6 km up to 35 km altitude. These data have been validated versus in situ observations obtained during balloon flights of a cryogenic whole-air sampler. For the tropical troposphere a trend of 0.230±0.008 pptv/yr has been derived from the MIPAS data, which is in excellent agreement with the trend from ground-based flask and in situ measurements from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division. For the data set currently available, based on at least three days of data per month, monthly 5° latitude mean values have a 1σ standard error of 1%. From the global SF6 distributions, global daily and monthly distributions of the apparent mean age of air are inferred by application of the tropical tropospheric trend derived from MIPAS data. The inferred mean ages are provided for the full globe up to 90° N/S, and have a 1σ standard error of 0.25 yr. They range between 0 (near the tropical tropopause and 7 years (except for situations of mesospheric intrusions and agree well with earlier observations. The seasonal variation of the mean age of stratospheric air indicates episodes of severe intrusion of mesospheric air during each Northern and Southern polar winter observed, long-lasting remnants of old, subsided polar winter air over the spring and summer poles, and a rather short period of mixing with midlatitude air and/or upward transport during fall in October/November (NH and April/May (SH, respectively, with small latitudinal gradients, immediately before the new polar vortex starts to form. The mean age distributions further

  4. Active bone marrow distribution as a function of age in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.

    1981-01-01

    In response to the need for better quantitative estimates of the regional distribution of the active bone marrow organ in infants and children, a method using various anatomical data has been developed. The method, a refinement of that of Atkinson (1962), predicts that in the newborn 27.8% of the active marrow in the body resides in the skull and 20.7% resides in the lower limbs. Atkinson's method predicts 7.0% in the skull and 38.9% in the lower limbs. According to the experimental data of Hudson (1965) involving 16 late-term foetuses and newborns, there is 29.5% (+- 4.2%) in the skull and 23.7% (+-2.2%) in the lower limbs. The values from the new method are much closer to experimental values in both bone groups. The values for the newborn and age one year predicted by the new method were adjusted after comparison with the experimental data for the newborn. Newer information on marrow cellularity was also incorporated into the method presented here, so that the distribution calculated here for the adult differs somewhat from those calculated by others. Overall, this adult distribution agrees more closely with published distributions based on 59 Fe studies than do the earlier distributions. (author)

  5. Genetic distribution of noncapsular meningococcal group B vaccine antigens in Neisseria lactamica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidarme, Jay; Gilchrist, Stefanie; Newbold, Lynne S; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Richardson, Lynne; Bennett, Julia S; Maiden, Martin C J; Findlow, Jamie; Borrow, Ray

    2013-09-01

    The poor immunogenicity of the meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) capsule has led to the development of vaccines targeting subcapsular antigens, in particular the immunodominant and diverse outer membrane porin, PorA. These vaccines are largely strain specific; however, they offer limited protection against the diverse MenB-associated diseases observed in many industrialized nations. To broaden the scope of its protection, the multicomponent vaccine (4CMenB) incorporates a PorA-containing outer membrane vesicle (OMV) alongside relatively conserved recombinant protein components, including factor H-binding protein (fHbp), Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), and neisserial heparin-binding antigen (NHBA). The expression of PorA is unique to meningococci (Neisseria meningitidis); however, many subcapsular antigens are shared with nonpathogenic members of the genus Neisseria that also inhabit the nasopharynx. These organisms may elicit cross-protective immunity against meningococci and/or occupy a niche that might otherwise accommodate pathogens. The potential for 4CMenB responses to impact such species (and vice versa) was investigated by determining the genetic distribution of the primary 4CMenB antigens among diverse members of the common childhood commensal, Neisseria lactamica. All the isolates possessed nhba but were devoid of fhbp and nadA. The nhba alleles were mainly distinct from but closely related to those observed among a representative panel of invasive MenB isolates from the same broad geographic region. We made similar findings for the immunogenic typing antigen, FetA, which constitutes a major part of the 4CMenB OMV. Thus, 4CMenB vaccine responses may impact or be impacted by nasopharyngeal carriage of commensal neisseriae. This highlights an area for further research and surveillance should the vaccine be routinely implemented.

  6. Landscape-scale distribution and persistence of genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knispel, Alexis L; McLachlan, Stéphane M

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) was approved for commercial cultivation in Canada in 1995 and currently represents over 95% of the OSR grown in western Canada. After a decade of widespread cultivation, GMHT volunteers represent an increasing management problem in cultivated fields and are ubiquitous in adjacent ruderal habitats, where they contribute to the spread of transgenes. However, few studies have considered escaped GMHT OSR populations in North America, and even fewer have been conducted at large spatial scales (i.e. landscape scales). In particular, the contribution of landscape structure and large-scale anthropogenic dispersal processes to the persistence and spread of escaped GMHT OSR remains poorly understood. We conducted a multi-year survey of the landscape-scale distribution of escaped OSR plants adjacent to roads and cultivated fields. Our objective was to examine the long-term dynamics of escaped OSR at large spatial scales and to assess the relative importance of landscape and localised factors to the persistence and spread of these plants outside of cultivation. From 2005 to 2007, we surveyed escaped OSR plants along roadsides and field edges at 12 locations in three agricultural landscapes in southern Manitoba where GMHT OSR is widely grown. Data were analysed to examine temporal changes at large spatial scales and to determine factors affecting the distribution of escaped OSR plants in roadside and field edge habitats within agricultural landscapes. Additionally, we assessed the potential for seed dispersal between escaped populations by comparing the relative spatial distribution of roadside and field edge OSR. Densities of escaped OSR fluctuated over space and time in both roadside and field edge habitats, though the proportion of GMHT plants was high (93-100%). Escaped OSR was positively affected by agricultural landscape (indicative of cropping intensity) and by the presence of an

  7. The genetic diversity of commensal Escherichia coli strains isolated from nonantimicrobial treated pigs varies according to age group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Shahana; Olsen, John E.; Herrero-Fresno, Ana

    2017-01-01

    This is the first report on the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli from pigs reared in an antibiotic free production system and belonging to different age groups. The study investigated the genetic diversity and relationship of 900 randomly collected commensal E. coli strains from non......-antimicrobial treated pigs assigned to five different age groups in a Danish farm. Fifty-two unique REP profiles were detected suggesting a high degree of diversity. The number of strains per pig ranged from two to 13. The highest and the lowest degree of diversity were found in the early weaners group (Shannon...... diversity index, H' of 2.22) and piglets (H' of 1.46) respectively. The REP profiles, R1, R7 and R28, were the most frequently observed in all age groups. E. coli strains representing each REP profile and additional strains associated with the dominant profiles were subjected to PFGE and were assigned to 67...

  8. Genetic parameters for milk yield, age at first calving and interval between first and second calving in milk buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Aspilcueta Borquis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters for the relation between the traits of milk yield (MY, age at first calving (AFC and interval between first and second calving (IBFSC were estimated in milk buffaloes of the Murrah breed. In the study, data of 1578 buffaloes at first lactation, with calvings from 1974 to 2006 were analyzed. The MTDFREML system was used in the analyses with models for the MY, IBFSC traits which included the fixed effects of herd-year-season of calving, linear and quadratic terms of calving age as covariate and the random animal effects and error. The model for AFC consisted of the herd-year-season fixed effects of calving and the random effects of animal and error. Heritability estimates MY, AFC and IBFSC traits were 0.20, 0.07 and 0.14, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between the traits were: MY and AFC = -0.12 and -0.15, MY and IBFSC = 0.07 and 0.30, AFC and IBFSC = 0.35 and 0.37, respectively. Genetic correlation between MY and AFC traits showed desirable negative association, suggesting that the daughters of the bulls with high breeding value for MY could be physiological maturity to a precocious age. Genetic correlation between MY and IBFSC showed that the selection of the animals that increased milk yield is also those that tend to intervals of bigger calving.

  9. Premature hippocampus-dependent memory decline in middle-aged females of a genetic rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Patrick H; Wert, Stephanie L; Tunc-Ozcan, Elif; Marr, Robert; Ferreira, Adriana; Redei, Eva E

    2018-02-25

    Aging and major depressive disorder are risk factors for dementia, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but the mechanism(s) linking depression and dementia are not known. Both AD and depression show greater prevalence in women. We began to investigate this connection using females of the genetic model of depression, the inbred Wistar Kyoto More Immobile (WMI) rat. These rats consistently display depression-like behavior compared to the genetically close control, the Wistar Kyoto Less Immobile (WLI) strain. Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory did not differ between young WLI and WMI females, but, by middle-age, female WMIs showed memory deficits compared to same age WLIs. This deficit, measured as duration of freezing in the fear provoking-context was not related to activity differences between the strains prior to fear conditioning. Hippocampal expression of AD-related genes, such as amyloid precursor protein, amyloid beta 42, beta secretase, synucleins, total and dephosphorylated tau, and synaptophysin, did not differ between WLIs and WMIs in either age group. However, hippocampal transcript levels of catalase (Cat) and hippocampal and frontal cortex expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) and Igf2 receptor (Igf2r) paralleled fear memory differences between middle-aged WLIs and WMIs. This data suggests that chronic depression-like behavior that is present in this genetic model is a risk factor for early spatial memory decline in females. The molecular mechanisms of this early memory decline likely involve the interaction of aging processes with the genetic components responsible for the depression-like behavior in this model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weight at different ages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... and yearling weight (YW, n = 1450) of Mehraban sheep, collected during 1995 - 2007 at Mehraban sheep. Breeding Station in Hamedan ... Key words: Mehraban sheep, heritability, genetic correlation, body weight traits. ..... parameters and genetic change for reproduction, weight, and wool characteristic of ...

  11. Genetic History of Xinjiang's Uyghurs Suggests Bronze Age Multiple-Way Contacts in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qidi; Lu, Yan; Ni, Xumin; Yuan, Kai; Yang, Yajun; Yang, Xiong; Liu, Chang; Lou, Haiyi; Ning, Zhilin; Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Ying; Shi, Meng; Tian, Lei; Wang, Xiaoji; Zhang, Xi; Li, Jing; Khan, Asifullah; Guan, Yaqun; Tang, Kun; Wang, Sijia; Xu, Shuhua

    2017-10-01

    The Uyghur people residing in Xinjiang, a territory located in the far west of China and crossed by the Silk Road, are a key ethnic group for understanding the history of human dispersion in Eurasia. Here we assessed the genetic structure and ancestry of 951 Xinjiang's Uyghurs (XJU) representing 14 geographical subpopulations. We observed a southwest and northeast differentiation within XJU, which was likely shaped jointly by the Tianshan Mountains, which traverses from east to west as a natural barrier, and gene flow from both east and west directions. In XJU, we identified four major ancestral components that were potentially derived from two earlier admixed groups: one from the West, harboring European (25-37%) and South Asian ancestries (12-20%), and the other from the East, with Siberian (15-17%) and East Asian (29-47%) ancestries. By using a newly developed method, MultiWaver, the complex admixture history of XJU was modeled as a two-wave admixture. An ancient wave was dated back to ∼3,750 years ago (ya), which is much earlier than that estimated by previous studies, but fits within the range of dating of mummies that exhibited European features that were discovered in the Tarim basin, which is situated in southern Xinjiang (4,000-2,000 ya); a more recent wave occurred around 750 ya, which is in agreement with the estimate from a recent study using other methods. We unveiled a more complex scenario of ancestral origins and admixture history in XJU than previously reported, which further suggests Bronze Age massive migrations in Eurasia and East-West contacts across the Silk Road. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

  13. Intracellular water distribution and aging as examined by X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Zglinicki, T.

    1988-01-01

    The results reviewed here demonstrate that 1. the distribution of dry mass as observed in frozen-dried cryosections might be used as an unbiased measure of intracellular dry mass resp. water distributions in the tissue in vivo and 2. the well-known loss of water from cells during aging is solely due to a water loss from mitochondria without changes in the water content of all other components of the cell in the case of rat liver and heart muscle. The reason for the water loss might be increased counter ion binding by membrane-bound enzymes due to decreased fluidity of the inner mitochondrial membrane with aging rather than changes of the permeability of the membrane or chemical modifications of mitochondrial proteins or DNA. It is assumed that the observed changes lead to decreased intramitochondrial diffusion of substrates and to conformational changes of enzymes. This would decrease both the velocity and the binding constants of certain energy-supplying reactions and could therefore play an important role in the aging process

  14. Do predators influence the distribution of age-0 kokanee in a Colorado Reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, J.M.; Johnson, B.M.; Martinez, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal changes in reservoir conditions such as productivity, light, and temperature create spatiotemporal variation in habitat that may segregate or aggregate predators and prey, producing implications for the distribution, growth, and survival of fishes. We used hydroacoustics to document the diel vertical distribution of age-0 kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka relative to environmental gradients at Blue Mesa Reservoir, Colorado, during May-August of 2002. Temperature, light, and zooplankton density profiles were examined relative to foraging conditions for kokanee and their primary predator, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Age-0 kokanee displayed large diel vertical migrations in May despite the lack of an energetic advantage before reservoir stratification. Age-0 kokanee minimized near-surface foraging at this time, perhaps to avoid predation by visual predators, such as lake trout, in the well-lit surface waters. Strong reservoir stratification in midsummer appeared to provide a thermal refuge from lake trout that the kokanee exploited. By August vertical migrations were shallow and most kokanee remained in the epilimnion throughout the day. Although the energetic implications of the late-summer strategy are unclear, it appears that kokanee were responding to changes in their predator environment. A robust model for kokanee diel vertical migration across a range of systems should include a predator avoidance component.

  15. Asteroid age distributions determined by space weathering and collisional evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willman, Mark; Jedicke, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We provide evidence of consistency between the dynamical evolution of main belt asteroids and their color evolution due to space weathering. The dynamical age of an asteroid's surface (Bottke, W.F., Durda, D.D., Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Vokrouhlický, D., Levison, H. [2005]. Icarus 175 (1), 111-140; Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž. [2005]. Icarus 173, 132-152) is the time since its last catastrophic disruption event which is a function of the object's diameter. The age of an S-complex asteroid's surface may also be determined from its color using a space weathering model (e.g. Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Moskovitz, N., Nesvorný, D., Vokrouhlický, D., Mothé-Diniz, T. [2010]. Icarus 208, 758-772; Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž., Jurić, M. [2004]. Nature 429, 275-277; Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Nesvorny, D., Moskovitz, N., Ivezić, Ž., Fevig, R. [2008]. Icarus 195, 663-673. We used a sample of 95 S-complex asteroids from SMASS and obtained their absolute magnitudes and u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes from SDSS. The absolute magnitudes yield a size-derived age distribution. The u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes lead to the principal component color which yields a color-derived age distribution by inverting our color-age relationship, an enhanced version of the 'dual τ' space weathering model of Willman et al. (2010). We fit the size-age distribution to the enhanced dual τ model and found characteristic weathering and gardening times of τw = 2050 ± 80 Myr and τg=4400-500+700Myr respectively. The fit also suggests an initial principal component color of -0.05 ± 0.01 for fresh asteroid surface with a maximum possible change of the probable color due to weathering of Δ PC = 1.34 ± 0.04. Our predicted color of fresh asteroid surface matches the color of fresh ordinary chondritic surface of PC1 = 0.17 ± 0.39.

  16. Simple Kinematic Pathway Approach (KPA) to Catchment-scale Travel Time and Water Age Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, S. S.; Cvetkovic, V.; Destouni, G.

    2017-12-01

    The distribution of catchment-scale water travel times is strongly influenced by morphological dispersion and is partitioned between hillslope and larger, regional scales. We explore whether hillslope travel times are predictable using a simple semi-analytical "kinematic pathway approach" (KPA) that accounts for dispersion on two levels of morphological and macro-dispersion. The study gives new insights to shallow (hillslope) and deep (regional) groundwater travel times by comparing numerical simulations of travel time distributions, referred to as "dynamic model", with corresponding KPA computations for three different real catchment case studies in Sweden. KPA uses basic structural and hydrological data to compute transient water travel time (forward mode) and age (backward mode) distributions at the catchment outlet. Longitudinal and morphological dispersion components are reflected in KPA computations by assuming an effective Peclet number and topographically driven pathway length distributions, respectively. Numerical simulations of advective travel times are obtained by means of particle tracking using the fully-integrated flow model MIKE SHE. The comparison of computed cumulative distribution functions of travel times shows significant influence of morphological dispersion and groundwater recharge rate on the compatibility of the "kinematic pathway" and "dynamic" models. Zones of high recharge rate in "dynamic" models are associated with topographically driven groundwater flow paths to adjacent discharge zones, e.g. rivers and lakes, through relatively shallow pathway compartments. These zones exhibit more compatible behavior between "dynamic" and "kinematic pathway" models than the zones of low recharge rate. Interestingly, the travel time distributions of hillslope compartments remain almost unchanged with increasing recharge rates in the "dynamic" models. This robust "dynamic" model behavior suggests that flow path lengths and travel times in shallow

  17. Telomerase RNA Component (TERC) genetic variants interact with the mediterranean diet modifying the inflammatory status and its relationship with aging: CORDIOPREV study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) attrition has been associated with age-related diseases. Telomerase RNA Component (TERC) genetic variants have been associated with LTL; whereas fatty acids (FAs) can interact with genetic factors and influence in aging. We explore whether variability at t...

  18. Influence of Host Genetics and Environment on Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Danish Middle-Aged and Elderly Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Paal Skytt; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Fode, Peder

    2012-01-01

    Background. Nasal carriage is a major risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Approximately, one-quarter of adults carry S. aureus. However, the role of host genetics on S. aureus nasal carriage is unknown. Methods. Nasal swabs were obtained from a national cohort of middle-aged and elde......Background. Nasal carriage is a major risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Approximately, one-quarter of adults carry S. aureus. However, the role of host genetics on S. aureus nasal carriage is unknown. Methods. Nasal swabs were obtained from a national cohort of middle.......4%-34.5%), and opposite sex (21.4%; 95% CI, 12.0%-33.4%) dizygotic twins. Despite shared childhoods, only 1 of 617 pairs was concordant with respect to lineage. Although heritability increased for S. aureus and lineage persistency, no significant heritability was detected. Conclusion. In this study, host genetic factors...

  19. Genetic variability of the length of postpartum anoestrus in Charolais cows and its relationship with age at puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ménissier François

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fertility records (n = 1 802 were collected from 615 Charolais primiparous and multiparous cows managed in an experimental herd over an 11-year period. The objectives of the study were to describe the genetic variability of the re-establishment of postpartum reproductive activity and the relationship with body weight (BW and body condition score (BCS at calving and age at puberty. The length of postpartum anoestrus was estimated based on weekly blood progesterone assays and on twice daily detection of oestrus behaviour. The first oestrus behaviour was observed 69 days (± 25 days s.d. post-calving and the first positive progesterone measurement (≥ 1 ng mL-1 was observed at 66 days (± 22 days s.d. for the group of easy-calving multiparous suckling cows. Estimates of heritability and repeatability were h2 = 0.12 and r = 0.38 respectively, for the interval from calving to first oestrus (ICO. Corresponding values were h2 = 0.35 and r = 0.60 for the interval from calving to the first positive progesterone test (ICP. The genetic correlation between both criteria was high (rg = 0.98. The genetic relationships between postpartum intervals and BW and BCS of the female at calving were negative: the genetic aptitude to be heavier at calving and to have high body reserves was related to shorter postpartum intervals. A favourable genetic correlation between age at puberty and postpartum intervals was found (rg between 0.45 and 0.70. The heifers which were genetically younger at puberty also had shorter postpartum intervals.

  20. Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J; Campbell, James; Guerra-Arias, Maria; de Bernis, Luc; Moran, Allisyn; Matthews, Zoë

    2014-01-04

    The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets produced are part of national midwifery

  1. Inferring Population Genetic Structure in Widely and Continuously Distributed Carnivores: The Stone Marten (Martes foina) as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, María; Basto, Mafalda P; Madeira, María José; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos; Ruiz-González, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    The stone marten is a widely distributed mustelid in the Palaearctic region that exhibits variable habitat preferences in different parts of its range. The species is a Holocene immigrant from southwest Asia which, according to fossil remains, followed the expansion of the Neolithic farming cultures into Europe and possibly colonized the Iberian Peninsula during the Early Neolithic (ca. 7,000 years BP). However, the population genetic structure and historical biogeography of this generalist carnivore remains essentially unknown. In this study we have combined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing (621 bp) and microsatellite genotyping (23 polymorphic markers) to infer the population genetic structure of the stone marten within the Iberian Peninsula. The mtDNA data revealed low haplotype and nucleotide diversities and a lack of phylogeographic structure, most likely due to a recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula by a few mtDNA lineages during the Early Neolithic. The microsatellite data set was analysed with a) spatial and non-spatial Bayesian individual-based clustering (IBC) approaches (STRUCTURE, TESS, BAPS and GENELAND), and b) multivariate methods [discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial principal component analysis (sPCA)]. Additionally, because isolation by distance (IBD) is a common spatial genetic pattern in mobile and continuously distributed species and it may represent a challenge to the performance of the above methods, the microsatellite data set was tested for its presence. Overall, the genetic structure of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula was characterized by a NE-SW spatial pattern of IBD, and this may explain the observed disagreement between clustering solutions obtained by the different IBC methods. However, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring, albeit weak, into at least three different subpopulations. The detected subdivision could be attributed to the influence of the

  2. Inferring Population Genetic Structure in Widely and Continuously Distributed Carnivores: The Stone Marten (Martes foina as a Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vergara

    Full Text Available The stone marten is a widely distributed mustelid in the Palaearctic region that exhibits variable habitat preferences in different parts of its range. The species is a Holocene immigrant from southwest Asia which, according to fossil remains, followed the expansion of the Neolithic farming cultures into Europe and possibly colonized the Iberian Peninsula during the Early Neolithic (ca. 7,000 years BP. However, the population genetic structure and historical biogeography of this generalist carnivore remains essentially unknown. In this study we have combined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequencing (621 bp and microsatellite genotyping (23 polymorphic markers to infer the population genetic structure of the stone marten within the Iberian Peninsula. The mtDNA data revealed low haplotype and nucleotide diversities and a lack of phylogeographic structure, most likely due to a recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula by a few mtDNA lineages during the Early Neolithic. The microsatellite data set was analysed with a spatial and non-spatial Bayesian individual-based clustering (IBC approaches (STRUCTURE, TESS, BAPS and GENELAND, and b multivariate methods [discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC and spatial principal component analysis (sPCA]. Additionally, because isolation by distance (IBD is a common spatial genetic pattern in mobile and continuously distributed species and it may represent a challenge to the performance of the above methods, the microsatellite data set was tested for its presence. Overall, the genetic structure of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula was characterized by a NE-SW spatial pattern of IBD, and this may explain the observed disagreement between clustering solutions obtained by the different IBC methods. However, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring, albeit weak, into at least three different subpopulations. The detected subdivision could be attributed to the influence

  3. Internal combustion engine control for series hybrid electric vehicles by parallel and distributed genetic programming/multiobjective genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, D.; Stewart, P.; Stewart, J.

    2011-02-01

    This article addresses the problem of maintaining a stable rectified DC output from the three-phase AC generator in a series-hybrid vehicle powertrain. The series-hybrid prime power source generally comprises an internal combustion (IC) engine driving a three-phase permanent magnet generator whose output is rectified to DC. A recent development has been to control the engine/generator combination by an electronically actuated throttle. This system can be represented as a nonlinear system with significant time delay. Previously, voltage control of the generator output has been achieved by model predictive methods such as the Smith Predictor. These methods rely on the incorporation of an accurate system model and time delay into the control algorithm, with a consequent increase in computational complexity in the real-time controller, and as a necessity relies to some extent on the accuracy of the models. Two complementary performance objectives exist for the control system. Firstly, to maintain the IC engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly, to supply a stable DC supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the IC engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. In order to achieve these objectives, and reduce the complexity of implementation, in this article a controller is designed by the use of Genetic Programming methods in the Simulink modelling environment, with the aim of obtaining a relatively simple controller for the time-delay system which does not rely on the implementation of real time system models or time delay approximations in the controller. A methodology is presented to utilise the miriad of existing control blocks in the Simulink libraries to automatically evolve optimal control

  4. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum and distribution of drug resistance haplotypes in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Hashami, Zainab; Al-Farsi, Hissa; Al-mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Idris, Mohamed A; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Babiker, Hamza A

    2013-07-15

    Despite evident success of malaria control in many sites in the Arabian Peninsula, malaria remains endemic in a few spots, in Yemen and south-west of Saudi Arabia. In addition to local transmission, imported malaria sustains an extra source of parasites that can challenge the strengths of local control strategies. This study examined the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in Yemen and mutations of drug resistant genes, to elucidate parasite structure and distribution of drug resistance genotypes in the region. Five polymorphic loci (MSP-2, Pfg377 and three microsatellites on chromosome 8) not involved in anti-malarial drug resistance, and four drug resistant genes (pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr and dhps) were genotyped in 108 P. falciparum isolates collected in three sites in Yemen: Dhamar, Hodeidah and Taiz. High diversity was seen in non-drug genes, pfg377 (He = 0.66), msp-2 (He = 0.80) and three microsatellites on chr 8, 7.7 kb (He = 0.88), 4.3 kb (He = 0.77) and 0.8 kb (He = 0.71). There was a high level of mixed-genotype infections (57%), with an average 1.8 genotypes per patient. No linkage disequilibrium was seen between drug resistant genes and the non-drug markers (p Yemen is indicative of a large parasite reservoir, which represents a challenge to control efforts. The presence of two distinct pfcrt genotype, CVIET and SVMNT, suggests that chloroquine resistance can possibly be related to a migratory path from Africa and Asia. The absence of the triple mutant dhfr genotype (IRN) and dhps mutations supports the use of artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as first-line therapy. However, the prevalent pfmdr1 genotype NFSND [21%] has previously been associated with tolerance/resistance response to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). Regular surveys are, therefore, important to monitor spread of pfmdr1 and dhfr mutations and response to ACT.

  5. Geographic distribution of genetic diversity in populations of Rio Grande Chub Gila pandora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Rene; Wilson, Wade; Caldwell, Colleen A.

    2016-01-01

    In the southwestern United States (US), the Rio Grande chub (Gila pandora) is state-listed as a fish species of greatest conservation need and federally listed as sensitive due to habitat alterations and competition with non-native fishes. Characterizing genetic diversity, genetic population structure, and effective number of breeders will assist with conservation efforts by providing a baseline of genetic metrics. Genetic relatedness within and among G. pandora populations throughout New Mexico was characterized using 11 microsatellite loci among 15 populations in three drainage basins (Rio Grande, Pecos, Canadian). Observed heterozygosity (HO) ranged from 0.71–0.87 and was similar to expected heterozygosity (0.75–0.87). Rio Ojo Caliente (Rio Grande) had the highest allelic richness (AR = 15.09), while Upper Rio Bonito (Pecos) had the lowest allelic richness (AR = 6.75). Genetic differentiation existed among all populations with the lowest genetic variation occurring within the Pecos drainage. STRUCTURE analysis revealed seven genetic clusters. Populations of G. pandora within the upper Rio Grande drainage (Rio Ojo Caliente, Rio Vallecitos, Rio Pueblo de Taos) had high levels of admixture with Q-values ranging from 0.30–0.50. In contrast, populations within the Pecos drainage (Pecos River and Upper Rio Bonito) had low levels of admixture (Q = 0.94 and 0.87, respectively). Estimates of effective number of breeders (N b ) varied from 6.1 (Pecos: Upper Rio Bonito) to 109.7 (Rio Grande: Rio Peñasco) indicating that populations in the Pecos drainage are at risk of extirpation. In the event that management actions are deemed necessary to preserve or increase genetic diversity of G. pandora, consideration must be given as to which populations are selected for translocation.

  6. Age-related variation in genetic control of height growth in Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, G; Usanis, R A; Silen, R R

    1972-01-01

    The development of genetic variances in height growth of Douglas-fir over a 53-year period is analyzed and found to fall into three periods. In the juvenile period, variances in environmental error increase logarithmically, genetic variance within populations exists at moderate levels, and variance among populations is low but increasing. In the early reproductive period, the response to environmental sources of error variance is restricted, genetic variance within populations disappears, and populational differences strongly emerge but do not increase as expected. In the later period, environmental error again increases rapidly, but genetic variance within populations does not reappear and population differences are maintained at about the same level as established in the early reproductive period. The change between the juvenile and early reproductive periods is perhaps associated with the onset of ecological dominance and significant allocations of energy to reproduction.

  7. Effect of artificial aging on polymeric surge arresters and polymer insulators for electricity distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate new and laboratory-aged samples of surge arresters and anchorage polymeric insulators, for 12 and 24 kV networks, which are used by the Rio Grande Energia (RGE. Power Utility Polymeric compounds were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG, Dynamic-Mechanic Analysis (DMA, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM to verify changes in the insulator properties due to degradation occurred during the experiments. The analyses were carried out before and after 6 months of aging in laboratory devices (weatherometer, 120 °C, salt spray, immersion in water. After the aging experiments, high-voltage electrical tests were also conducted: a radio interference voltage test and, simultaneously, the total and the internal leakage currents were measured to verify the surface degradation of the polymeric material used in the housing. The impulse current test was applied with current values close to 5, 10 and 30 kA, in order to force an internal degradation. Results showed that only surface degradation is detected at the polymer. The main properties of the parts were not affected by the aging. It confirms that polymer insulator and surge arrestor are appropriate for use in electricity distribution networks.

  8. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000 and men (p = 0.000, and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000 and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021 than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.

  9. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-09-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.

  10. Effect of artificial aging on polymeric surge arresters and polymer insulators for electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Carlos A.; Coser, E. [Laboratorio de Materiais Polimericos, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], e-mail: ferreira.carlos@ufrgs.br; Angelini, Joceli M.G. [Departamento de Materiais Eletricos, CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rossi, Jose A.D. [Materiais Alta Tensao, CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Martinez, Manuel L.B. [Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica, UNIFEI, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate new and laboratory-aged samples of surge arresters and anchorage polymeric insulators, for 12 and 24 kV networks, which are used by the Rio Grande Energia (RGE). Power utility polymeric compounds were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG), Dynamic-Mechanic Analysis (DMA), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) to verify changes in the insulator properties due to degradation occurred during the experiments. The analyses were carried out before and after 6 months of aging in laboratory devices (weather meter, 120 deg C, salt spray, immersion in water). After the aging experiments, high-voltage electrical tests were also conducted: a radio interference voltage test and, simultaneously, the total and the internal leakage currents were measured to verify the surface degradation of the polymeric material used in the housing. The impulse current test was applied with current values close to 5, 10 and 30 k A, in order to force an internal degradation. Results showed that only surface degradation is detected at the polymer. The main properties of the parts were not affected by the aging. It confirms that polymer insulator and surge arrester are appropriate for use in electricity distribution networks. (author)

  11. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Real-time Ultrasound Measurements for Hanwoo Cows at Different Ages and Pregnancy Status

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    J. H. Lee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of ultrasound measurements for longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA, backfat thickness (BFT, and marbling score (MS in Hanwoo cows (N = 3,062 at the ages between 18 and 42 months. Data were collected from 100 Hanwoo breeding farms in Gyeongbuk province, Korea, in 2007 and 2008. The cows were classified into four different age groups, i.e. 18 to 22 months (the first pregnancy period, 23 to 27 (the first parturition, 28 to 32 (the second pregnancy, and 33 to 42 (the second parturition, respectively. For each age group, a multi-trait animal model was used to estimate variance components and heritabilities of the three traits. The averages of LMA, BFT, and MS measurements across the cows of all age groups were 50.1 cm2, 4.62 mm, and 3.04, respectively and heritability estimates were 0.09, 0.10, and 0.08 for the respective traits. However, when the data were analyzed in different age groups, heritability estimates of LMA and BFT were 0.24 and 0.47, respectively, for the cows of 18 to 22 months of age, and 0.21 for MS in the 28 to 32 months old cows. When the cows of all age groups were used, the estimates of genetic (phenotypic correlations were 0.43 (0.35, −0.06 (0.34 and 0.21 (0.32 between LMA and BFT, LMA and MS, and BFT and MS, respectively. However, in the cow age group between 28 and 32 (18 and 22 months, the estimates of genetic (phenotypic correlations were 0.05 (0.29, −0.15 (0.24 and 0.38 (0.24, for the respective pairs of traits. These results suggest that genetic, environmental, and phenotypic variations differ depending on cow age, such that care must be taken when ultrasound measurements are applied to selection of cows for meat quality.

  12. The Developing, Aging Neocortex: How genetics and epigenetics influence early developmental patterning and age-related change.

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    Kelly J. Huffman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of mammalian development is the generation of functional subdivisions within the nervous system. In humans, this regionalization creates a complex system that regulates behavior, cognition, memory and emotion. During development, specification of neocortical tissue that leads to functional sensory and motor regions results from an interplay between cortically intrinsic, molecular processes, such as gene expression, and extrinsic processes regulated by sensory input. Cortical specification in mice occurs pre- and perinatally, when gene expression is robust and various anatomical distinctions are observed alongside an emergence of physiological function. After patterning, gene expression continues to shift and axonal connections mature into an adult form. The function of adult cortical gene expression may be to maintain neocortical subdivisions that were established during early patterning. As some changes in neocortical gene expression have been observed past early development into late adulthood, gene expression may also play a role in the altered neocortical function observed in age-related cognitive decline and brain dysfunction. This review provides a discussion of how neocortical gene expression and specific patterns of neocortical sensori-motor axonal connections develop and change throughout the lifespan of the animal. We posit that a role of neocortical gene expression in neocortex is to regulate plasticity mechanisms that impact critical periods for sensory and motor plasticity in aging. We describe results from several studies in aging brain that detail changes in gene expression that may relate to microstructural changes observed in brain anatomy. We discuss the role of altered glucocorticoid signaling in age-related cognitive and functional decline, as well as how aging in the brain may result from immune system activation. We describe how caloric restriction or reduction of oxidative stress may ameliorate effects of aging

  13. Could age modify the effect of genetic variants in IL6 and TNF-α genes in multiple myeloma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Alessandro; Buda, Gabriele; Maggini, Valentina; Lapi, Francesco; Lupia, Antonella; Di Bello, Domenica; Orciuolo, Enrico; Galimberti, Sara; Barale, Roberto; Petrini, Mario; Rossi, Anna Maria

    2012-05-01

    Cytokines play a central role in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis thus genetic variations within cytokines coding genes could influence MM susceptibility and therapy outcome. We investigated the impact of 8 SNPs in these genes in 202 MM cases and 235 controls also evaluating their impact on therapy outcome in a subset of 91 patients. Despite the overall negative findings, we found a significant age-modified effect of IL6 and TNF-α SNPs, on MM risk and therapy outcome, respectively. Therefore, this observation suggests that genetic variation in inflammation-related genes could be an important mediator of the complex interplay between ageing and cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic diversity and distribution of the ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae in coastal areas of Japan.

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    Tomohiro Nishimura

    Full Text Available The marine epiphytic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP: one of the most significant seafood-borne illnesses associated with fish consumption worldwide. So far, occurrences of CFP incidents in Japan have been mainly reported in subtropical areas. A previous phylogeographic study of Japanese Gambierdiscus revealed the existence of two distinct phylotypes: Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 from subtropical and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 from temperate areas. However, details of the genetic diversity and distribution for Japanese Gambierdiscus are still unclear, because a comprehensive investigation has not been conducted yet.A total of 248 strains were examined from samples mainly collected from western and southern coastal areas of Japan during 2006-2011. The SSU rDNA, the LSU rDNA D8-D10 and the ITS region were selected as genetic markers and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. The genetic diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus was high since five species/phylotypes were detected: including two reported phylotypes (Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2, two species of Gambierdiscus (G. australes and G. cf. yasumotoi and a hitherto unreported phylotype Gambierdiscus sp. type 3. The distributions of type 3 and G. cf. yasumotoi were restricted to the temperate and the subtropical area, respectively. On the other hand, type 1, type 2 and G. australes occurred from the subtropical to the temperate area, with a tendency that type 1 and G. australes were dominant in the subtropical area, whereas type 2 was dominant in the temperate area. By using mouse bioassay, type 1, type 3 and G. australes exhibited mouse toxicities.This study revealed a surprising diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus and the distribution of five species/phylotypes displayed clear geographical patterns in Japanese coastal areas. The SSU rDNA and the LSU rDNA D8-D10 as genetic markers are recommended for further use.

  15. Alterations in age distribution of breast cancer patients over the last 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterok, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1983, 2,355 breast cancer patients were treated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Erlangen, Bavaria, West-Germany. In 1966, 1967 and 1968 we treated a total of 166 women with beast cancer. The age distribution graph shows a height in the 55 till 59 year old and in the 65 till 69 year old patient populations respectively. Although in a different magnitude, we show for the completeness the age distribution of the West German female population as well as the 1,405 women screened clinically and mammographically over this period of time. Ten years later, so between 1976 and 1978 a peak in the number of breast cancer patients is found in the 40 till 44 year old group, we see a plateau in the 50 till 60 year old and a peak in the 65 till 69 year old respectively. The total number of women investigated over this period of time was 11,197. A total number of 517 neoplasms of the breast were diagnosed

  16. Pleiotropic Meta-Analyses of Longitudinal Studies Discover Novel Genetic Variants Associated with Age-Related Diseases

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    Liang He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related diseases may result from shared biological mechanisms in intrinsic processes of aging. Genetic effects on age-related diseases are often modulated by environmental factors due to their little contribution to fitness or are mediated through certain endophenotypes. Identification of genetic variants with pleiotropic effects on both common complex diseases and endophenotypes may reveal potential conflicting evolutionary pressures and deliver new insights into shared genetic contribution to healthspan and lifespan. Here, we performed pleiotropic meta-analyses of genetic variants using five NIH-funded datasets by integrating univariate summary statistics for age-related diseases and endophenotypes. We investigated three groups of traits: (1 endophenotypes such as blood glucose, blood pressure, lipids, hematocrit, and body mass index, (2 time-to-event outcomes such as the age-at-onset of diabetes mellitus (DM, cancer, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and neurodegenerative diseases (NDs, and (3 both combined. In addition to replicating previous findings, we identify seven novel genome-wide significant loci (< 5e-08, out of which five are low-frequency variants. Specifically, from Group 2, we find rs7632505 on 3q21.1 in SEMA5B, rs460976 on 21q22.3 (1 kb from TMPRSS2 and rs12420422 on 11q24.1 predominantly associated with a variety of CVDs, rs4905014 in ITPK1 associated with stroke and heart failure, rs7081476 on 10p12.1 in ANKRD26 associated with multiple diseases including DM, CVDs, and NDs. From Group 3, we find rs8082812 on 18p11.22 and rs1869717 on 4q31.3 associated with both endophenotypes and CVDs. Our follow-up analyses show that rs7632505, rs4905014, and rs8082812 have age-dependent effects on coronary heart disease or stroke. Functional annotation suggests that most of these SNPs are within regulatory regions or DNase clusters and in linkage disequilibrium with expression quantitative trait loci, implying their potential regulatory

  17. The extent of population genetic subdivision differs among four co-distributed shark species in the Indo-Australian archipelago

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    Giles Jenny

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The territorial fishing zones of Australia and Indonesia are contiguous to the north of Australia in the Timor and Arafura Seas and in the Indian Ocean to the north of Christmas Island. The area surrounding the shared boundary consists of a variety of bio-diverse marine habitats including shallow continental shelf waters, oceanic trenches and numerous offshore islands. Both countries exploit a variety of fisheries species, including whaler (Carcharhinus spp. and hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna spp.. Despite their differences in social and financial arrangements, the two countries are motivated to develop complementary co-management practices to achieve resource sustainability. An essential starting point is knowledge of the degree of population subdivision, and hence fisheries stock status, in exploited species. Results Populations of four commercially harvested shark species (Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Prionace glauca, Sphyrna lewini were sampled from northern Australia and central Indonesia. Neutral genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA control region sequence and allelic variation at co-dominant microsatellite loci revealed genetic subdivision between Australian and Indonesian populations of C. sorrah. Further research is needed to address the possibility of genetic subdivision among C. obscurus populations. There was no evidence of genetic subdivision for P. glauca and S. lewini populations, but the sampling represented a relatively small part of their distributional range. For these species, more detailed analyses of population genetic structure is recommended in the future. Conclusion Cooperative management between Australia and Indonesia is the best option at present for P. glauca and S. lewini, while C. sorrah and C. obscurus should be managed independently. On-going research on these and other exploited shark and ray species is strongly recommended. Biological and ecological similarity between species may

  18. A partial exponential lumped parameter model to evaluate groundwater age distributions and nitrate trends in long-screened wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant; Böhlke, John Karl; Kauffman, Leon J.; Belitz, Kenneth; Esser, Bradley K.

    2016-01-01

    A partial exponential lumped parameter model (PEM) was derived to determine age distributions and nitrate trends in long-screened production wells. The PEM can simulate age distributions for wells screened over any finite interval of an aquifer that has an exponential distribution of age with depth. The PEM has 3 parameters – the ratio of saturated thickness to the top and bottom of the screen and mean age, but these can be reduced to 1 parameter (mean age) by using well construction information and estimates of the saturated thickness. The PEM was tested with data from 30 production wells in a heterogeneous alluvial fan aquifer in California, USA. Well construction data were used to guide parameterization of a PEM for each well and mean age was calibrated to measured environmental tracer data (3H, 3He, CFC-113, and 14C). Results were compared to age distributions generated for individual wells using advective particle tracking models (PTMs). Age distributions from PTMs were more complex than PEM distributions, but PEMs provided better fits to tracer data, partly because the PTMs did not simulate 14C accurately in wells that captured varying amounts of old groundwater recharged at lower rates prior to groundwater development and irrigation. Nitrate trends were simulated independently of the calibration process and the PEM provided good fits for at least 11 of 24 wells. This work shows that the PEM, and lumped parameter models (LPMs) in general, can often identify critical features of the age distributions in wells that are needed to explain observed tracer data and nonpoint source contaminant trends, even in systems where aquifer heterogeneity and water-use complicate distributions of age. While accurate PTMs are preferable for understanding and predicting aquifer-scale responses to water use and contaminant transport, LPMs can be sensitive to local conditions near individual wells that may be inaccurately represented or missing in an aquifer-scale flow model.

  19. Extracting information on the spatial variability in erosion rate stored in detrital cooling age distributions in river sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean; Gemignani, Lorenzo; van der Beek, Peter

    2018-03-01

    One of the main purposes of detrital thermochronology is to provide constraints on the regional-scale exhumation rate and its spatial variability in actively eroding mountain ranges. Procedures that use cooling age distributions coupled with hypsometry and thermal models have been developed in order to extract quantitative estimates of erosion rate and its spatial distribution, assuming steady state between tectonic uplift and erosion. This hypothesis precludes the use of these procedures to assess the likely transient response of mountain belts to changes in tectonic or climatic forcing. Other methods are based on an a priori knowledge of the in situ distribution of ages to interpret the detrital age distributions. In this paper, we describe a simple method that, using the observed detrital mineral age distributions collected along a river, allows us to extract information about the relative distribution of erosion rates in an eroding catchment without relying on a steady-state assumption, the value of thermal parameters or an a priori knowledge of in situ age distributions. The model is based on a relatively low number of parameters describing lithological variability among the various sub-catchments and their sizes and only uses the raw ages. The method we propose is tested against synthetic age distributions to demonstrate its accuracy and the optimum conditions for it use. In order to illustrate the method, we invert age distributions collected along the main trunk of the Tsangpo-Siang-Brahmaputra river system in the eastern Himalaya. From the inversion of the cooling age distributions we predict present-day erosion rates of the catchments along the Tsangpo-Siang-Brahmaputra river system, as well as some of its tributaries. We show that detrital age distributions contain dual information about present-day erosion rate, i.e., from the predicted distribution of surface ages within each catchment and from the relative contribution of any given catchment to the

  20. Extracting information on the spatial variability in erosion rate stored in detrital cooling age distributions in river sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Braun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes of detrital thermochronology is to provide constraints on the regional-scale exhumation rate and its spatial variability in actively eroding mountain ranges. Procedures that use cooling age distributions coupled with hypsometry and thermal models have been developed in order to extract quantitative estimates of erosion rate and its spatial distribution, assuming steady state between tectonic uplift and erosion. This hypothesis precludes the use of these procedures to assess the likely transient response of mountain belts to changes in tectonic or climatic forcing. Other methods are based on an a priori knowledge of the in situ distribution of ages to interpret the detrital age distributions. In this paper, we describe a simple method that, using the observed detrital mineral age distributions collected along a river, allows us to extract information about the relative distribution of erosion rates in an eroding catchment without relying on a steady-state assumption, the value of thermal parameters or an a priori knowledge of in situ age distributions. The model is based on a relatively low number of parameters describing lithological variability among the various sub-catchments and their sizes and only uses the raw ages. The method we propose is tested against synthetic age distributions to demonstrate its accuracy and the optimum conditions for it use. In order to illustrate the method, we invert age distributions collected along the main trunk of the Tsangpo–Siang–Brahmaputra river system in the eastern Himalaya. From the inversion of the cooling age distributions we predict present-day erosion rates of the catchments along the Tsangpo–Siang–Brahmaputra river system, as well as some of its tributaries. We show that detrital age distributions contain dual information about present-day erosion rate, i.e., from the predicted distribution of surface ages within each catchment and from the relative contribution of

  1. Indicator 1.07. Number and geographic distribution of forest-associated species at risk of losing genetic variation and locally adapted genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. H. Flather; M. S Knowles; C. H. Sieg

    2011-01-01

    This indicator provides information on the number and distribution of forest-associated species at risk of losing genetic variation across their geographic range. Comparing a species' current geographic distribution with its historic distribution is the basis for identifying those species whose range has contracted significantly. Human activities are accelerating...

  2. The prevalence, age distribution and comorbidity of personality disorders in Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shae E; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Chanen, Andrew M; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Burke, Lisa M; Jackson, Henry J; Hulbert, Carol; A Olsson, Craig; Moran, Paul; Stuart, Amanda L; Williams, Lana J

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe the prevalence and age distribution of personality disorders and their comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders in an age-stratified sample of Australian women aged ⩾25 years. Individual personality disorders (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive), lifetime mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders were diagnosed utilising validated semi-structured clinical interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders). The prevalence of personality disorders and Clusters were determined from the study population ( n = 768), and standardised to the Australian population using the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. Prevalence by age and the association with mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders was also examined. The overall prevalence of personality disorders in women was 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.7, 24.9). Cluster C personality disorders (17.5%, 95% CI: 16.0, 18.9) were more common than Cluster A (5.3%, 95% CI: 3.5, 7.0) and Cluster B personality disorders (3.2%, 95% CI: 1.8, 4.6). Of the individual personality disorders, obsessive-compulsive (10.3%, 95% CI: 8.0, 12.6), avoidant (9.3%, 95% CI: 7.1, 11.5), paranoid (3.9%, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.7) and borderline (2.7%, 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) were among the most prevalent. The prevalence of other personality disorders was low (⩽1.7%). Being younger (25-34 years) was predictive of having any personality disorder (odds ratio: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.74), as was being middle-aged (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.72). Among the strongest predictors of having any personality disorder was having a lifetime history of psychiatric disorders (odds ratio: 4.29, 95% CI: 2.90, 6.33). Mood and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid

  3. Calculation of age-dependent dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides uniformly distributed in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Tran Van; Satoh, Daiki; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Tsuda, Shuichi; Endo, Akira; Saito, Kimiaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    2005-02-01

    Age-dependent dose conversion coefficients for external exposure to photons emitted by radionuclides uniformly distributed in air were calculated. The size of the source region in the calculation was assumed to be effectively semi-infinite in extent. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using MCNP code, a Monte Carlo transport code. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources of twelve energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. The calculated effective doses were used to interpolate the conversion coefficients of the effective doses for 160 radionuclides, which are important for dose assessment of nuclear facilities. In the calculation, energies and intensities of emitted photons from radionuclides were taken from DECDC, a recent compilation of decay data for radiation dosimetry developed at JAERI. The results are tabulated in the form of effective dose per unit concentration and time (Sv per Bq s m -3 ). (author)

  4. Propagated but Topologically Distributed Forebrain Neurons Expressing Alpha-Synuclein in Aged Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuo Kimura

    Full Text Available In neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD, alpha-synuclein (α-syn accumulates to induce cell death and/or form a cytoplasmic inclusion called Lewy body (LB. This α-syn-related pathology is termed synucleinopathy. It remains unclear how α-syn accumulation expands during the progress of synucleinopathy in the human brain. In our study, we investigated the patterns of distribution and propagation of forebrain neurons expressing α-syn in aged macaques. It was found that the occurrence of α-syn-positive neurons proceeded topologically based on the midbrain dopamine pathways arising from the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area where they were primarily observed. In the nigrostriatal or mesolimbic dopamine pathway, the age-dependent increase in α-syn-positive neurons was evident in the striatum or the nucleus accumbens, respectively. Concerning the nigrostriatal pathway, a mediolateral or rostrocaudal gradient was seen in the substantia nigra or the striatum, respectively, and a compensatory increase in dopamine transporter occurred in the striatum regardless of the decreased dopamine level. In the mesocortical dopamine pathway, α-syn-positive neurons appeared in the prefrontal and then motor areas of the frontal lobe. Given that neither LB formation nor clinical phenotype manifestation was detected in any of the monkeys examined in the present study, aged macaques may be useful as a potential presymptomatic model for PD and LB-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  5. [The role of genetic polymorphisms of interleukins in chronic lymphocytic leukemia in patients of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotina, S S; Tikunova, T S; Proshchaev, K I; Efremova, O A; Batlutskaia, I V; Iakunchenko, T I; Sobianin, F I; Churnosov, M I; Alekseev, S M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a multifactorial disease, in which development the important role played the cytokine genes, in particular interleukins. This type of leukemia is more common in the elderly. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms of interleukin with the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among residents of the Central Chernozem region of Russia. Genotyping of the -889C/T IL-1A, -590C/T IL-4 and VNTR IL-1 Ra was conducted in 206 patients with CLL and 307 individuals of the control group. The study found that the genetic risk factor for the development of CLL is allele -590T IL-4 (OR=-1,45). The development of thrombocytopenia in patients with CLL is associated with genetic variants -889T IL-1A (OR=1,95), -889TT IL-1A (OR=6,2) and IL-1Ra*1 (OR=-2,32).

  6. Genetic and Environmental Basis in Phenotype Correlation Between Physical Function and Cognition in Aging Chinese Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Dongfeng; Tian, Xiaocao

    2017-01-01

    for cognition with handgrip strength, FTSST, near visual acuity, and number of teeth lost. Cognitive function was genetically related to pulmonary function. The FTSST and cognition shared almost the same common environmental factors but only part of the unique environmental factors, both with negative......Although the correlation between cognition and physical function has been well studied in the general population, the genetic and environmental nature of the correlation has been rarely investigated. We conducted a classical twin analysis on cognitive and physical function, including forced...... and cognitive function. Bivariate analysis showed mildly positively genetic correlations between cognition and FEV1, r G = 0.23 [95% CI: 0.03, 0.62], as well as FVC, r G = 0.35 [95% CI: 0.06, 1.00]. We found that FTSST and cognition presented very high common environmental correlation, r C = -1.00 [95% CI: -1...

  7. Genetic design of pigs as experimental models in the combat between chronic diseases and healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolund, Lars

    2012-01-01

    with and without intervention. The genome of different pig breeds have been sequenced, revealing that the pig is genetically more similar to man than conventional laboratory animals - in agreement with the similarities in organ development, physiology and metabolism. Genetically designed minipigs (Göttingen...... pigs. We can also produce clones of pigs, some disease prone and some fluorescing, to perform experiments in regenerative medicine where the fate of healthy fluorescent cells can be followed in the, basically identical, disease prone animals. It is also our hope that our pig models can contribute...

  8. Genetic factors associated with small for gestational age birth and the use of human growth hormone in treating the disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saenger Paul

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term small for gestational age (SGA refers to infants whose birth weights and/or lengths are at least two standard deviation (SD units less than the mean for gestational age. This condition affects approximately 3%–10% of newborns. Causes for SGA birth include environmental factors, placental factors such as abnormal uteroplacental blood flow, and inherited genetic mutations. In the past two decades, an enhanced understanding of genetics has identified several potential causes for SGA. These include mutations that affect the growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 axis, including mutations in the IGF-1 gene and acid-labile subunit (ALS deficiency. In addition, select polymorphisms observed in patients with SGA include those involved in genes associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and deletion of exon 3 growth hormone receptor (d3-GHR polymorphism. Uniparental disomy (UPD and imprinting effects may also underlie some of the phenotypes observed in SGA individuals. The variety of genetic mutations associated with SGA births helps explain the diversity of phenotype characteristics, such as impaired motor or mental development, present in individuals with this disorder. Predicting the effectiveness of recombinant human GH (hGH therapy for each type of mutation remains challenging. Factors affecting response to hGH therapy include the dose and method of hGH administration as well as the age of initiation of hGH therapy. This article reviews the results of these studies and summarizes the success of hGH therapy in treating this difficult and genetically heterogenous disorder.

  9. Norovirus Genetic Diversity – from within patient viral evolution to global distribution : Genetische diversiteit van norovirus – van virale evolutie binnen patiënten tot wereldwijde verspreiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Beek (Janko)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractNoroviruses belong to the family of Caliciviridae and cause acute gastroenteritis. The genetic diversity within the genus Norovirus is extremely large and novel genotypes, recombinants within and between genotypes, and antigenic drift variants are regularly discovered. The distribution

  10. Genetic contributions to age-related decline in executive function: a 10-year longitudinal study of COMT and BDNF polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk I Erickson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability in the dopaminergic and neurotrophic systems could contribute to age-related impairments in executive control and memory function. In this study we examined whether genetic polymorphisms for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were related to the trajectory of cognitive decline occurring over a 10-year period in older adults. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the COMT (Val158/108Met gene affects the concentration of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, a Val/Met substitution in the pro-domain for BDNF (Val66Met affects the regulated secretion and trafficking of BDNF with Met carriers showing reduced secretion and poorer cognitive function. We found that impairments over the 10-year span on a task-switching paradigm did not vary as a function of the COMT polymorphism. However, for the BDNF polymorphism the Met carriers performed worse than Val homozygotes at the first testing session but only the Val homozygotes demonstrated a significant reduction in performance over the 10-year span. Our results argue that the COMT polymorphism does not affect the trajectory of age-related executive control decline, whereas the Val/Val polymorphism for BDNF may promote faster rates of cognitive decay in old age. These results are discussed in relation to the role of BDNF in senescence and the transforming impact of the Met allele on cognitive function in old age.

  11. Genetic variants of age at menopause are not related to timing of ovarian failure in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Michael V; Charo, Lindsey M; Natarajan, Loki; Haunschild, Carolyn; Chung, Karine; Mao, Jun J; DeMichele, Angela M; Su, H Irene

    2017-06-01

    To determine if interindividual genetic variation in single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to age at natural menopause is associated with risk of ovarian failure in breast cancer survivors. A prospective cohort of 169 premenopausal breast cancer survivors recruited at diagnosis with stages 0 to III disease were followed longitudinally for menstrual pattern via self-reported daily menstrual diaries. Participants were genotyped for 13 SNPs previously found to be associated with age at natural menopause: EXO1, TLK1, HELQ, UIMC1, PRIM1, POLG, TMEM224, BRSK1, and MCM8. A risk variable summed the total number of risk alleles in each participant. The association between individual genotypes, and also the risk variable, and time to ovarian failure (>12 months of amenorrhea) was tested using time-to-event methods. Median age at enrollment was 40.5 years (range 20.6-46.1). The majority of participants were white (69%) and underwent chemotherapy (76%). Thirty-eight participants (22%) experienced ovarian failure. None of the candidate SNPs or the summary risk variable was significantly associated with time to ovarian failure. Sensitivity analysis restricted to whites or only to participants receiving chemotherapy yielded similar findings. Older age, chemotherapy exposure, and lower body mass index were related to shorter time to ovarian failure. Thirteen previously identified genetic variants associated with time to natural menopause were not related to timing of ovarian failure in breast cancer survivors.

  12. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weight at different ages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study is to estimate genetic parameters of birth weight (BW, n = 3005), weaning weight (WW, n = 2800), 6 months weight (6 MW, n = 2600), 9 months weight (9 MW, n = 1990) and yearling weight (YW, n = 1450) of Mehraban sheep, collected during 1995 - 2007 at Mehraban sheep Breeding ...

  13. Application of the distributed genetic algorithm for in-core fuel optimization problems under parallel computational environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    The distributed genetic algorithm (DGA) is applied for loading pattern optimization problems of the pressurized water reactors. A basic concept of DGA follows that of the conventional genetic algorithm (GA). However, DGA equally distributes candidates of solutions (i.e. loading patterns) to several independent ''islands'' and evolves them in each island. Communications between islands, i.e. migrations of some candidates between islands are performed with a certain period. Since candidates of solutions independently evolve in each island while accepting different genes of migrants, premature convergence in the conventional GA can be prevented. Because many candidate loading patterns should be evaluated in GA or DGA, the parallelization is efficient to reduce turn around time. Parallel efficiency of DGA was measured using our optimization code and good efficiency was attained even in a heterogeneous cluster environment due to dynamic distribution of the calculation load. The optimization code is based on the client/server architecture with the TCP/IP native socket and a client (optimization) module and calculation server modules communicate the objects of loading patterns each other. Throughout the sensitivity study on optimization parameters of DGA, a suitable set of the parameters for a test problem was identified. Finally, optimization capability of DGA and the conventional GA was compared in the test problem and DGA provided better optimization results than the conventional GA. (author)

  14. Distribution pattern and genetic structure of Aedes zammitii (Diptera: Culicidae) along the Mediterranean and Aegean coasts of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavasoglu, Sare Ilknur; Simsek, Fatih Mehmet; Ulger, Celal

    2016-06-01

    The Mariae species complex, consisting of Aedes mariae, Aedes phoeniciae, and Aedes zammitii, has a limited distribution worldwide. All three species are found in rocky habitats on the coastal areas of Mediterranean countries. Aedes phoeniciae and Ae. zammitii are two members of the Mariae complex that exist in Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution pattern and genetic structure of Ae. zammitii along the Mediterranean and Aegean regions. For this purpose, larval and adult samples of Ae. zammitii were collected from 19 different rocky habitats along the coastal regions of Antalya, Muğla, Aydın, İzmir, Balıkesir, and Çanakkale provinces. DNA isolation was performed primarily from collected samples, and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 4 (ND4) gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Based on ND4 sequence analyses, 21 haplotypes were detected along the distribution range of the species. Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) and spatial analyses of molecular variance (SAMOVA) indicated six groups, and most of the variation was among groups, demonstrating the population structuring at group level. Isolation by distance analyses (IBD) showed a correlation between geographic and genetic distances. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  15. An integration of historical records and genetic data to the assessment of global distribution and population structure in Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eDe Luca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 is one of the most widely distributed species belonging to the genus Octopus as well as an important commercially harvested species and a model organism for behavioral biology of invertebrates. It has been described for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea but it is considered a cosmopolitan species inhabiting the temperate and tropical sea of the northern and southern hemispheres. In the last few years, several species previously considered as O. vulgaris have been recognized as new species, limiting the distributional range of vulgaris and reinforcing the thesis of a species complex. Where it is an important fishery resource, numerous studies have been conducted in order to define its genetic structure with the purpose of managing different stocks. However, many locations are still poorly investigated from this point of view and others are under taxonomic revision to exclude or confirm its occurrence. Here we provide a summary of the current status of knowledge on distribution and genetic structure in this species in the different oceanic regions.

  16. The relationships between chemical and genetic differentiation and environmental factors across the distribution of Erigeron breviscapus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Peng, Li-yan; Zhang, Shu-dong; Zhao, Qin-shi; Yi, Ting-shuang

    2013-01-01

    Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. is an important, widely used Chinese herb with scutellarin, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and erigoster B being its major active compounds. We aimed to resolve the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the concentrations of these compounds and to determine appropriate cultivation methods to improve the yields of the four compounds in this herb. In order to detect the major genetic and natural environmental factors affecting the yields of these four compounds, we applied AFLP markers to investigate the population genetic differentiation and HPLC to measure the concentrations of four major active compounds among 23 wild populations which were located across almost the entire distribution of this species in China. The meteorological data including annual average temperature, annual average precipitation and annual average hours of sunshine were collected. The relationships among the concentrations of four compounds and environmental factors and genetic differentiation were studied. Low intraspecific genetic differentiation is detected, and there is no obvious correlation between the genetic differentiation and the contents of the chemical compounds. We investigated the correlation between the concentrationsof four compounds (scutellarin, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and erigoster B) and environmental factors. Concentrations of two compounds (1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) were correlated with environmental factors. The concentration of 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid is positively correlated with latitude, and is negatively correlated with the annual average temperature. The concentration of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid is positively correlated with annual average precipitation. Therefore, changing cultivation conditions may significantly improve the yields of these two compounds. We found the concentration of scutellarin positively correlated with that of

  17. The relationships between chemical and genetic differentiation and environmental factors across the distribution of Erigeron breviscapus (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available AIMS: Erigeron breviscapus (Vant. Hand.-Mazz. is an important, widely used Chinese herb with scutellarin, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and erigoster B being its major active compounds. We aimed to resolve the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the concentrations of these compounds and to determine appropriate cultivation methods to improve the yields of the four compounds in this herb. METHODS: In order to detect the major genetic and natural environmental factors affecting the yields of these four compounds, we applied AFLP markers to investigate the population genetic differentiation and HPLC to measure the concentrations of four major active compounds among 23 wild populations which were located across almost the entire distribution of this species in China. The meteorological data including annual average temperature, annual average precipitation and annual average hours of sunshine were collected. The relationships among the concentrations of four compounds and environmental factors and genetic differentiation were studied. IMPORTANT FINDINGS: Low intraspecific genetic differentiation is detected, and there is no obvious correlation between the genetic differentiation and the contents of the chemical compounds. We investigated the correlation between the concentrationsof four compounds (scutellarin, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and erigoster B and environmental factors. Concentrations of two compounds (1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were correlated with environmental factors. The concentration of 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid is positively correlated with latitude, and is negatively correlated with the annual average temperature. The concentration of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid is positively correlated with annual average precipitation. Therefore, changing cultivation conditions may significantly improve the yields of these two compounds. We found the concentration

  18. Multi-objective optimization design of air distribution of grate cooler by entropy generation minimization and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Wei; Cui, Zheng; Cheng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-objective optimization model of air distribution of grate cooler by genetic algorithm is proposed. • Pareto Front is obtained and validated by comparing with operating data. • Optimal schemes are compared and selected by engineering background. • Total power consumption after optimization decreases 61.10%. • Thickness of clinker on three grate plates is thinner. - Abstract: The cooling air distributions of grate cooler exercise a great influence on the clinker cooling efficiency and power consumption of cooling fans. A multi-objective optimization model of air distributions of grate cooler with cross-flow heat exchanger analogy is proposed in this paper. Firstly, thermodynamic and flow models of clinker cooling process is carried out. Then based on entropy generation minimization analysis, modified entropy generation numbers caused by heat transfer and pressure drop are chosen as objective functions respectively which optimized by genetic algorithm. The design variables are superficial velocities of air chambers and thicknesses of clinker layers on different grate plates. A set of Pareto optimal solutions which two objectives are optimized simultaneously is achieved. Scattered distributions of design variables resulting in the conflict between two objectives are brought out. The final optimal air distribution and thicknesses of clinker layers are selected from the Pareto optimal solutions based on power consumption of cooling fans minimization and validated by measurements. Compared with actual operating scheme, the total air volumes of optimized schemes decrease 2.4%, total power consumption of cooling fans decreases 61.1% and the outlet temperature of clinker decreases 122.9 °C which shows a remarkable energy-saving effect on energy consumption.

  19. Spatial distribution of human neocortical neurons and glial cells according to sex and age measured by the saucer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, Anette Kirstine; Petersen, A O; Gardi, Jonathan Eyal

    2007-01-01

    primary neurons in the human neocortex (divided into frontal-, temporal-, parietal- and occipital cortex) of young and old subjects free of neurological or psychological disease to test if age and gender has any influence on the cell distribution in human neocortex. Plots of the spatial distribution...

  20. Glacial lakes in Austria - Distribution and formation since the Little Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckel, J.; Otto, J. C.; Prasicek, G.; Keuschnig, M.

    2018-05-01

    Glacial lakes constitute a substantial part of the legacy of vanishing mountain glaciation and act as water storage, sediment traps and sources of both natural hazards and leisure activities. For these reasons, they receive growing attention by scientists and society. However, while the evolution of glacial lakes has been studied intensively over timescales tied to remote sensing-based approaches, the longer-term perspective has been omitted due a lack of suitable data sources. We mapped and analyzed the spatial distribution of glacial lakes in the Austrian Alps. We trace the development of number and area of glacial lakes in the Austrian Alps since the Little Ice Age (LIA) based on a unique combination of a lake inventory and an extensive record of glacier retreat. We find that bedrock-dammed lakes are the dominant lake type in the inventory. Bedrock- and moraine-dammed lakes populate the highest landscape domains located in cirques and hanging valleys. We observe lakes embedded in glacial deposits at lower locations on average below 2000 m a.s.l. In general, the distribution of glacial lakes over elevation reflects glacier erosional and depositional dynamics rather than the distribution of total area. The rate of formation of new glacial lakes (number, area) has continuously accelerated over time with present rates showing an eight-fold increase since LIA. At the same time the total glacier area decreased by two-thirds. This development coincides with a long-term trend of rising temperatures and a significant stepping up of this trend within the last 20 years in the Austrian Alps.

  1. Medication errors in residential aged care facilities: a distributed cognition analysis of the information exchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Amina; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    Medication safety is a pressing concern for residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Retrospective studies in RACF settings identify inadequate communication between RACFs, doctors, hospitals and community pharmacies as the major cause of medication errors. Existing literature offers limited insight about the gaps in the existing information exchange process that may lead to medication errors. The aim of this research was to explicate the cognitive distribution that underlies RACF medication ordering and delivery to identify gaps in medication-related information exchange which lead to medication errors in RACFs. The study was undertaken in three RACFs in Sydney, Australia. Data were generated through ethnographic field work over a period of five months (May-September 2011). Triangulated analysis of data primarily focused on examining the transformation and exchange of information between different media across the process. The findings of this study highlight the extensive scope and intense nature of information exchange in RACF medication ordering and delivery. Rather than attributing error to individual care providers, the explication of distributed cognition processes enabled the identification of gaps in three information exchange dimensions which potentially contribute to the occurrence of medication errors namely: (1) design of medication charts which complicates order processing and record keeping (2) lack of coordination mechanisms between participants which results in misalignment of local practices (3) reliance on restricted communication bandwidth channels mainly telephone and fax which complicates the information processing requirements. The study demonstrates how the identification of these gaps enhances understanding of medication errors in RACFs. Application of the theoretical lens of distributed cognition can assist in enhancing our understanding of medication errors in RACFs through identification of gaps in information exchange. Understanding

  2. Distribution network design under demand uncertainty using genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach: a case study in pharmaceutical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Arman; Kimiagari, Ali Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Distribution network design as a strategic decision has long-term effect on tactical and operational supply chain management. In this research, the location-allocation problem is studied under demand uncertainty. The purposes of this study were to specify the optimal number and location of distribution centers and to determine the allocation of customer demands to distribution centers. The main feature of this research is solving the model with unknown demand function which is suitable with the real-world problems. To consider the uncertainty, a set of possible scenarios for customer demands is created based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The coefficient of variation of costs is mentioned as a measure of risk and the most stable structure for firm's distribution network is defined based on the concept of robust optimization. The best structure is identified using genetic algorithms and 14 % reduction in total supply chain costs is the outcome. Moreover, it imposes the least cost variation created by fluctuation in customer demands (such as epidemic diseases outbreak in some areas of the country) to the logistical system. It is noteworthy that this research is done in one of the largest pharmaceutical distribution firms in Iran.

  3. Urine cytokine and chemokine levels predict urinary tract infection severity independent of uropathogen, urine bacterial burden, host genetics, and host age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Smith, Sara N; Mody, Lona; Mobley, Harry L T

    2018-06-11

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections worldwide. Diagnosing UTIs in older adults poses a significant challenge as asymptomatic colonization is common. Identification of a non-invasive profile that predicts likelihood of progressing from urine colonization to severe disease would provide a significant advantage in clinical practice. We monitored colonization susceptibility, disease severity, and immune response to two uropathogens in two mouse strains across three age groups to identify predictors of infection outcome. Proteus mirabilis caused more severe disease than Escherichia coli, regardless of mouse strain or age, and was associated with differences in IL-1β, IFN-β, CXCL5 (LIX), CCL5 (RANTES), and CCL2 (MCP-1). In comparing the response to infection across age groups, mature adult mice were better able to control colonization and prevent progression to kidney colonization and bacteremia than young or aged mice, regardless of mouse strain or bacterial species, and this was associated with differences in IL-23, CXCL1, and CCL5. A bimodal distribution was noted for urine colonization, which was strongly associated with bladder CFUs and the magnitude of the immune response but independent of age or disease severity. To determine the value of urine cytokine and chemokine levels for predicting severe disease, all infection datasets were combined and subjected to a series of logistic regressions. A multivariate model incorporating IL-1β, CXCL1, and CCL2 had strong predictive value for identifying mice that did not develop kidney colonization or bacteremia, regardless of mouse genetic background, age, infecting bacterial species, or urine bacterial burden. In conclusion, urine cytokine profiles could potentially serve as a non-invasive decision-support tool in clinical practice and contribute to antimicrobial stewardship. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Cost-effective age structure and geographical distribution of boreal forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Johanna; Ohman, Karin; Perhans, Karin; Rönnqvist, Mikael; Gustafsson, Lena; Bugman, Harald

    2011-02-01

    1. Forest reserves are established to preserve biodiversity, and to maintain natural functions and processes. Today there is heightened focus on old-growth stages, with less attention given to early successional stages. The biodiversity potential of younger forests has been overlooked, and the cost-effectiveness of incorporating different age classes in reserve networks has not yet been studied.2. We performed a reserve selection analysis in boreal Sweden using the Swedish National Forest Inventory plots. Seventeen structural variables were used as biodiversity indicators, and the cost of protecting each plot as a reserve was assessed using the Heureka system. A goal programming approach was applied, which allowed inclusion of several objectives and avoided a situation in which common indicators affected the result more than rare ones. The model was limited either by budget or area.3. All biodiversity indicators were found in all age classes, with more than half having the highest values in ages ≥ 100 years. Several large-tree indicators and all deadwood indicators had higher values in forests 0-14 years than in forests 15-69 years.4. It was most cost-effective to protect a large proportion of young forests since they generally have a lower net present value compared to older forests, but still contain structures of importance for biodiversity. However, it was more area-effective to protect a large proportion of old forests since they have a higher biodiversity potential per area.5. The geographical distribution of reserves selected with the budget-constrained model was strongly biassed towards the north-western section of boreal Sweden, with a large proportion of young forest, whereas the area-constrained model focussed on the south-eastern section, with dominance by the oldest age class.6.Synthesis and applications. We show that young forests with large amounts of structures important to biodiversity such as dead wood and remnant trees are cheap and cost

  5. Red squirrels from south–east Iberia: low genetic diversity at the southernmost species distribution limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available South–east Iberia is the southernmost limit of this species in Europe. Squirrels in the region mainly inhabit coniferous forests of Pinus. In this study, we analyzed the pattern of mitochondrial genetic variation of southern Iberian red squirrels. Fragments of two mitochondrial genes, a 350–base pair of the displacement loop (D–loop and a 359–bp of the cytochrome b (Cytb, were sequenced using samples collected from 88 road–kill squirrels. The genetic variation was low, possibly explained by a recent bottleneck due to historical over–exploitation of forest resources. Habitat loss and fragmentation caused by deforestation and geographic isolation may explain the strong genetic subdivision between the study regions. Six new haplotypes for the D–loop and two new haplotypes for the Cytb fragments are described. A Cytb haplotype of south–east Iberia was found to be present in Albania and Japan, suggesting local extinction of this haplotype in intermediate areas. No significant clustering was found for the south–east of Spain or for the other European populations (except Calabria in the phylogenetic analysis.

  6. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Up-to-Date on Genetic Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Parmeggiani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over 50 years of age, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of legal blindness in Western countries. Although the aging represents the main determinant of AMD, it must be considered a multifaceted disease caused by interactions among environmental risk factors and genetic backgrounds. Mounting evidence and/or arguments document the crucial role of inflammation and immune-mediated processes in the pathogenesis of AMD. Proinflammatory effects secondary to chronic inflammation (e.g., alternative complement activation and heterogeneous types of oxidative stress (e.g., impaired cholesterol homeostasis can result in degenerative damages at the level of crucial macular structures, that is photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch’s membrane. In the most recent years, the association of AMD with genes, directly or indirectly, involved in immunoinflammatory pathways is increasingly becoming an essential core for AMD knowledge. Starting from the key basic-research notions detectable at the root of AMD pathogenesis, the present up-to-date paper reviews the best-known and/or the most attractive genetic findings linked to the mechanisms of inflammation of this complex disease.

  7. Vehicle Routing Problem Using Genetic Algorithm with Multi Compartment on Vegetable Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnia, Hari; Gustri Wahyuni, Elyza; Cergas Pembrani, Elang; Gardini, Syifa Tri; Kurnia Aditya, Silfa

    2018-03-01

    The problem that is often gained by the industries of managing and distributing vegetables is how to distribute vegetables so that the quality of the vegetables can be maintained properly. The problems encountered include optimal route selection and little travel time or so-called TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem). These problems can be modeled using the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) algorithm with rating ranking, a cross order based crossing, and also order based mutation mutations on selected chromosomes. This study uses limitations using only 20 market points, 2 point warehouse (multi compartment) and 5 vehicles. It is determined that for one distribution, one vehicle can only distribute to 4 market points only from 1 particular warehouse, and also one such vehicle can only accommodate 100 kg capacity.

  8. Effect of distributed generation installation on power loss using genetic algorithm method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, A.; Masri, S.; Othman, W. A. F. W. B.

    2018-02-01

    Injection of the generator distributed in the distribution network can affect the power system significantly. The effect that occurs depends on the allocation of DG on each part of the distribution network. Implementation of this approach has been made to the IEEE 30 bus standard and shows the optimum location and size of the DG which shows a decrease in power losses in the system. This paper aims to show the impact of distributed generation on the distribution system losses. The main purpose of installing DG on a distribution system is to reduce power losses on the power system.Some problems in power systems that can be solved with the installation of DG, one of which will be explored in the use of DG in this study is to reduce the power loss in the transmission line. Simulation results from case studies on the IEEE 30 bus standard system show that the system power loss decreased from 5.7781 MW to 1,5757 MW or just 27,27%. The simulated DG is injected to the bus with the lowest voltage drop on the bus number 8.

  9. The longitudinal distribution of elements in developing and aging scots pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viksna, A.; Helmisaari, H.S.; Standzenieks, P.; Lindgren, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Needle or leaf nutrient concentrations are commonly used for analysing tree nutritional status for e.g. estimating possible nutrient deficiencies or unbalances. The practise used e.g. in northern Europe is to sample needles during the dormant period from either the current or in some cases several needle age classes from a fixed position of a number of trees in a stand. The sampled needles are then dried and ground for nutrient analysis. The sampling aims to minimise the spatial and temporal variation in needle nutrient concentrations for estimating the availability of nutrients in soil through needle analysis. It is well known that the concentrations of different nutrients vary in needles with the phase of the annual physiological cycle (Fife and Nambiar 1982, 1984), needle age (Florence and Chuoung 1974, Madgwick et al. 1983) and sampling position (Helmisaari 1992). The samples analysed are usually bulk samples of a large number of needles, and the results are mean concentrations representing an age class in a stand. There is little information on how different needles vary in nutrient concentrations, and even less on how nutrient concentrations vary within individual needles. The import and export of elements to and from needles varies according to the developmental phase of needles, and is likely to affect the element concentrations in different parts of the needles. Accordingly, the elemental concentrations measured in different parts of the needles may give an insight into the transport pattern of an element and its potential mobility. Up to now, very few studies report needle element concentrations in different parts of the needles, e.g. tip, base and middle (Giertych et al. 1997), or in different parts of the leaf phloem (Eschrich et al. 1988). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of different elements along the length of single Scots pine needles of different age and during different stages of needle physiological cycle. The scanning

  10. Age difference in deposition of plutonium in organs of rats and the estimation of distribution in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Differences in plutonium distribution in various organs, particularly the bones, of rats injected at different ages were examined in order to aid in estimating plutonium distribution in humans. Comparisons were made between rats and humans based on the bone histomorphometric and mineral density data. Male and female rats of three ages (3, 12, and 24 months old), respectively, received an injection of plutonium nitrate by two dose modalities; a fixed amount of plutonium without regard to age, sex, or body weight; per g of body weight. The rats were killed 2 weeks after the injection of plutonium. The amounts of plutonium deposited in the organs varied without regard to the body or organ weight; those in the skeleton increased from 3 to 12 months, reaching a peak at 12 months, but then decreased, along with the age-related changes in the bone surface, volume, and mineral density. Those in the liver, spleen and kidney decreased despite the body weight gain with age in both sexes. Age-related differences in the deposition of plutonium in humans were estimated based on the bone data characteristics obtained from the histomorphometry and bone mineral density for corresponding of ages between rats and humans. The results indicate that age is the most important factor in estimating the distribution of plutonium deposition in the early period after plutonium exposure, and that body or organ weight is not always a useful indicator, particularly in the aged. (author)

  11. Colony size distributions according to in vitro aging in human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Sang; Kim, Jae Sung; Cho, Moon June; Park, Jeong Kyu; Paik, Tae Hyun

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the percentage of colonies with 16 or more cells distribution of human skin fibroblast according to in vitro aging, and to evaluate the relationship between percentage of colonies with 16 or more cells and in vivo donor age in human skin fibroblast culture. C1, C2, C3a, and C3b human skin fibroblast samples from three breast cancer patients were used as subjects. The C1, C2, and C3a donor were 44, 54, and 55 years old, respectively. C3a and C3b cells were isolated from the same person. Single cell suspension of skin fibroblasts was prepared with primary explant technique. One hundred cells are plated into 100ml tissue culture flask and cultured for two weeks. The colony size was defined as colonies with 16 or more cells. The cultured cell was stained with crystal violet, and number of cells in each colony was determined with stereo microscope at x 10 magnification. Passage number of C1, C2, C3a and C3b skin fibroblast were 12th, 17th, and 14th, respectively. Percentage of colonies with 16 or more cells of skin fibroblast samples decreased with increasing in vitro passage number. In contrast, cumulative population doublings of skin fibroblast sample increased with increasing in vitro passage number. Percentage of colonies with 16 or more cells also decreased with increasing population doublings in human skin fibroblast culture. There was strong correlation with percentage of colonised with 16 or more cells and population doublings in C3a skin fibroblast sample. At the same point of population doublings, the percentage of colonies with 16 or more cells of the young C1 donor was higher level than the old C3a donor. The population doublings increased with increasing in vitro passage number but percentage of colonies with 16 or more cells decreased. The results of this study imply that percentage of colonies with 16 or more cells is useful as a indicator of in vitro human skin fibroblast aging and may estimate the in vivo donor age

  12. Extinction probabilities and stationary distributions of mobile genetic elements in prokaryotes: The birth-death-diversification model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, Nicole E; Wahl, Lindi M

    2015-12-01

    Theoretical approaches are essential to our understanding of the complex dynamics of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) within genomes. Recently, the birth-death-diversification model was developed to describe the dynamics of mobile promoters (MPs), a particular class of MGEs in prokaryotes. A unique feature of this model is that genetic diversification of elements was included. To explore the implications of diversification on the longterm fate of MGE lineages, in this contribution we analyze the extinction probabilities, extinction times and equilibrium solutions of the birth-death-diversification model. We find that diversification increases both the survival and growth rate of MGE families, but the strength of this effect depends on the rate of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We also find that the distribution of MGE families per genome is not necessarily monotonically decreasing, as observed for MPs, but may have a peak in the distribution that is related to the HGT rate. For MPs specifically, we find that new families have a high extinction probability, and predict that the number of MPs is increasing, albeit at a very slow rate. Additionally, we develop an extension of the birth-death-diversification model which allows MGEs in different regions of the genome, for example coding and non-coding, to be described by different rates. This extension may offer a potential explanation as to why the majority of MPs are located in non-promoter regions of the genome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic assessment of age-associated Alzheimer disease risk: Development and validation of a polygenic hazard score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul S Desikan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying individuals at risk for developing Alzheimer disease (AD is of utmost importance. Although genetic studies have identified AD-associated SNPs in APOE and other genes, genetic information has not been integrated into an epidemiological framework for risk prediction.Using genotype data from 17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP Stage 1, we identified AD-associated SNPs (at p < 10-5. We then integrated these AD-associated SNPs into a Cox proportional hazard model using genotype data from a subset of 6,409 AD patients and 9,386 older controls from Phase 1 of the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC, providing a polygenic hazard score (PHS for each participant. By combining population-based incidence rates and the genotype-derived PHS for each individual, we derived estimates of instantaneous risk for developing AD, based on genotype and age, and tested replication in multiple independent cohorts (ADGC Phase 2, National Institute on Aging Alzheimer's Disease Center [NIA ADC], and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative [ADNI], total n = 20,680. Within the ADGC Phase 1 cohort, individuals in the highest PHS quartile developed AD at a considerably lower age and had the highest yearly AD incidence rate. Among APOE ε3/3 individuals, the PHS modified expected age of AD onset by more than 10 y between the lowest and highest deciles (hazard ratio 3.34, 95% CI 2.62-4.24, p = 1.0 × 10-22. In independent cohorts, the PHS strongly predicted empirical age of AD onset (ADGC Phase 2, r = 0.90, p = 1.1 × 10-26 and longitudinal progression from normal aging to AD (NIA ADC, Cochran-Armitage trend test, p = 1.5 × 10-10, and was associated with neuropathology (NIA ADC, Braak stage of neurofibrillary tangles, p = 3.9 × 10-6, and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease score for neuritic plaques, p = 6.8 × 10-6 and in vivo markers of AD neurodegeneration (ADNI

  14. Population Genetics of Franciscana Dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei: Introducing a New Population from the Southern Edge of Their Distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Constanza Gariboldi

    Full Text Available Due to anthropogenic factors, the franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, is the most threatened small cetacean on the Atlantic coast of South America. Four Franciscana Management Areas have been proposed: Espiritu Santo to Rio de Janeiro (FMA I, São Paulo to Santa Catarina (FMA II, Rio Grande do Sul to Uruguay (FMA III, and Argentina (FMA IV. Further genetic studies distinguished additional populations within these FMAs. We analyzed the population structure, phylogeography, and demographic history in the southernmost portion of the species range. From the analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences, 5 novel haplotypes were found, totalizing 60 haplotypes for the entire distribution range. The haplotype network did not show an apparent phylogeographical signal for the southern FMAs. Two populations were identified: Monte Hermoso (MH and Necochea (NC+Claromecó (CL+Río Negro (RN. The low levels of genetic variability, the relative constant size over time, and the low levels of gene flow may indicate that MH has been colonized by a few maternal lineages and became isolated from geographically close populations. The apparent increase in NC+CL+RN size would be consistent with the higher genetic variability found, since genetic diversity is generally higher in older and expanding populations. Additionally, RN may have experienced a recent split from CL and NC; current high levels of gene flow may be occurring between the latter ones. FMA IV would comprise four franciscana dolphin populations: Samborombón West+Samborombón South, Cabo San Antonio+Buenos Aires East, NC+CL+Buenos Aires Southwest+RN and MH. Results achieved in this study need to be taken into account in order to ensure the long-term survival of the species.

  15. Distribution of peak expiratory flow variability by age, gender and smoking habits in a random population sample aged 20-70 yrs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, H M; Schouten, J. P.; Postma, D S; Rijcken, B

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability can be considered as an index of bronchial lability. Population studies on PEF variability are few. The purpose of the current paper is to describe the distribution of PEF variability in a random population sample of adults with a wide age range (20-70 yrs),

  16. Intercoalescence time distribution of incomplete gene genealogies in temporally varying populations, and applications in population genetic inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua

    2013-03-01

    Tracing back to a specific time T in the past, the genealogy of a sample of haplotypes may not have reached their common ancestor and may leave m lineages extant. For such an incomplete genealogy truncated at a specific time T in the past, the distribution and expectation of the intercoalescence times conditional on T are derived in an exact form in this paper for populations of deterministically time-varying sizes, specifically, for populations growing exponentially. The derived intercoalescence time distribution can be integrated to the coalescent-based joint allele frequency spectrum (JAFS) theory, and is useful for population genetic inference from large-scale genomic data, without relying on computationally intensive approaches, such as importance sampling and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The inference of several important parameters relying on this derived conditional distribution is demonstrated: quantifying population growth rate and onset time, and estimating the number of ancestral lineages at a specific ancient time. Simulation studies confirm validity of the derivation and statistical efficiency of the methods using the derived intercoalescence time distribution. Two examples of real data are given to show the inference of the population growth rate of a European sample from the NIEHS Environmental Genome Project, and the number of ancient lineages of 31 mitochondrial genomes from Tibetan populations. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

  17. Lifetime prevalence, age of risk, and genetic relationships of comorbid psychiatric disorders in Tourette syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirschtritt, M.E.; Lee, P.C.; Pauls, D.L.; Dion, Y.; Grados, M.A.; Illmann, C.; King, R.A.; Sandor, P.; McMahon, W.M.; Lyon, G.J.; Cath, D.C.; Kurlan, R.; Robertson, M.M.; Osiecki, L.; Scharf, J.M.; Mathews, C.A.; Posthuma, D.; Singer, H.S.; Yu, D.; Cox, N.J.; Freimer, N.B.; Budman, C.L.; Chouinard, S.; Rouleau, G.; Barr, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Importance: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, fewstudies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively fewparticipants (< 200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each

  18. Lifetime Prevalence, Age of Risk, and Genetic Relationships of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Tourette Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Lee, Paul C; Pauls, David L; Dion, Yves; Grados, Marco A; Illmann, Cornelia; King, Robert A; Sandor, Paul; McMahon, William M; Lyon, Gholson J; Cath, Danielle C; Kurlan, Roger; Robertson, Mary M; Osiecki, Lisa; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A

    IMPORTANCE: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (<200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each

  19. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immonen, Elina; Collet, Marie; Goenaga, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex...... to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity...... beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due...

  20. Genetic and vascular modifiers of age-sensitive cognitive skills: effects of COMT, BDNF, ApoE, and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Naftali; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Land, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been linked to neural and cognitive variation in healthy adults. We examined contribution of three polymorphisms frequently associated with individual differences in cognition (Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase Val158Met, Brain-Derived-Neurotrophic-Factor Val66Met, and Apolipoprotein E epsilon4) and a vascular risk factor (hypertension) in a sample of 189 volunteers (age 18-82). Genotypes were determined from buccal culture samples, and cognitive performance was assessed in 4 age-sensitive domains?fluid intelligence, executive function (inhibition), associative memory, and processing speed. We found that younger age and COMT Met/Met genotype, associated with low COMT activity and higher prefrontal dopamine content, were independently linked to better performance in most of the tested domains. Homozygotes for Val allele of BDNF polymorphism exhibited better associative memory and faster speed of processing than the Met allele carriers, with greater effect for women and persons with hypertension. Carriers of ApoE epsilon4 allele evidenced steeper age-related increase in costs of Stroop color interference, but showed no negative effects on memory. The findings indicate that age-related cognitive performance is differentially affected by distinct genetic factors and their interactions with vascular health status. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. A Hierarchical and Distributed Approach for Mapping Large Applications to Heterogeneous Grids using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Soumya; Jain, Amit; Das, Sajal K.; Biswas, Rupak

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed approach for mapping a single large application to a heterogeneous grid environment. To minimize the execution time of the parallel application, we distribute the mapping overhead to the available nodes of the grid. This approach not only provides a fast mapping of tasks to resources but is also scalable. We adopt a hierarchical grid model and accomplish the job of mapping tasks to this topology using a scheduler tree. Results show that our three-phase algorithm provides high quality mappings, and is fast and scalable.

  2. Iron concentrations and distributions in the parkinsonian substantia nigra of aged and young primate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.Q.; Xie, J.P.; Wang, X.S.; Ong, W.Y.; Leong, S.K.; Watt, F.

    2001-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neuronal degenerative brain disease of the elderly, and is caused by the selective degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain, resulting in a reduced production of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Iron has been linked to dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson's disease because of its potential to promote free radicals, leading to oxidative stress. The present study is aimed at using the techniques of nuclear microscopy to elucidate the iron concentrations and distributions in the SN of both young and old monkeys following unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioning. A group of three old monkeys (older than 7 years) and a group of three young monkeys (younger than 7 years) were unilaterally MPTP-lesioned (right side) to induce parkinsonism and sacrificed after 35 days. The left side SN was used as a control. This time interval was chosen to correspond to an average 50% loss of dopamine producing cells in the lesioned right side SN. We have observed a significant difference in iron concentrations between the SNs of the young and old monkeys (increasing from an average of 233 to 1092 parts per million dry weight). When comparing the lesioned and non-lesioned SNs of the same animal, we found no significant difference in iron levels for each young monkey. However we have found a slight increase in iron (approximately 10%) between the lesioned SN and control SN for old monkeys. We have also observed that in the SN of younger primates, there is a weak anti-correlation in the SN iron levels with the neuron distribution. In the older monkeys, however, we have observed a proliferation of iron-rich granules, which appear to be more strongly anti-correlated with the distribution of neurons. The iron-cell anti-correlation occurs both in the control as well as the lesioned SN. Our results suggest that iron, particularly in the form of iron-rich deposits, accumulates in specific sites

  3. Cancer genetics meets biomolecular mechanism-bridging an age-old gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Raimondi, Francesco; Russell, Robert B

    2018-02-01

    Increasingly available genomic sequencing data are exploited to identify genes and variants contributing to diseases, particularly cancer. Traditionally, methods to find such variants have relied heavily on allele frequency and/or familial history, often neglecting to consider any mechanistic understanding of their functional consequences. Thus, while the set of known cancer-related genes has increased, for many, their mechanistic role in the disease is not completely understood. This issue highlights a wide gap between the disciplines of genetics, which largely aims to correlate genetic events with phenotype, and molecular biology, which ultimately aims at a mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Fortunately, new methods and several systematic studies have proved illuminating for many disease genes and variants by integrating sequencing with mechanistic data, including biomolecular structures and interactions. These have provided new interpretations for known mutations and suggested new disease-relevant variants and genes. Here, we review these approaches and discuss particular examples where these have had a profound impact on the understanding of human cancers. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. Present, past and future of the European rock fern Asplenium fontanum: combining distribution modelling and population genetics to study the effect of climate change on geographic range and genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystriakova, Nadia; Ansell, Stephen W; Russell, Stephen J; Grundmann, Michael; Vogel, Johannes C; Schneider, Harald

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the geographic range of many plant species dramatically. Predicting this response will be critical to managing the conservation of plant resources and the effects of invasive species. The aim of this study was to predict the response of temperate homosporous ferns to climate change. Genetic diversity and changes in distribution range were inferred for the diploid rock fern Asplenium fontanum along a South-North transect, extending from its putative last glacial maximum (LGM) refugia in southern France towards southern Germany and eastern-central France. This study reconciles observations from distribution models and phylogeographic analyses derived from plastid and nuclear diversity. Genetic diversity distribution and niche modelling propose that genetic diversity accumulates in the LGM climate refugium in southern France with the formation of a diversity gradient reflecting a slow, post-LGM range expansion towards the current distribution range. Evidence supports the fern's preference for outcrossing, contradicting the expectation that homosporous ferns would populate new sites by single-spore colonization. Prediction of climate and distribution range change suggests that a dramatic loss of range and genetic diversity in this fern is possible. The observed migration is best described by the phalanx expansion model. The results suggest that homosporous ferns reproducing preferentially by outcrossing accumulate genetic diversity primarily in LGM climate refugia and may be threatened if these areas disappear due to global climate change.

  5. Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeling, Christian; Gonzales, Omar; Schultz, Ted R; Bacci, Maurício; Garcia, Marcos V B; Verhaagh, Manfred; Ishak, Heather D; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-07-26

    Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexual populations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexual populations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5-1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex.

  6. Numeral series hidden in the distribution of atomic mass of amino acids to codon domains in the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlin, Åsa

    2015-03-21

    The distribution of codons in the nearly universal genetic code is a long discussed issue. At the atomic level, the numeral series 2x(2) (x=5-0) lies behind electron shells and orbitals. Numeral series appear in formulas for spectral lines of hydrogen. The question here was if some similar scheme could be found in the genetic code. A table of 24 codons was constructed (synonyms counted as one) for 20 amino acids, four of which have two different codons. An atomic mass analysis was performed, built on common isotopes. It was found that a numeral series 5 to 0 with exponent 2/3 times 10(2) revealed detailed congruency with codon-grouped amino acid side-chains, simultaneously with the division on atom kinds, further with main 3rd base groups, backbone chains and with codon-grouped amino acids in relation to their origin from glycolysis or the citrate cycle. Hence, it is proposed that this series in a dynamic way may have guided the selection of amino acids into codon domains. Series with simpler exponents also showed noteworthy correlations with the atomic mass distribution on main codon domains; especially the 2x(2)-series times a factor 16 appeared as a conceivable underlying level, both for the atomic mass and charge distribution. Furthermore, it was found that atomic mass transformations between numeral systems, possibly interpretable as dimension degree steps, connected the atomic mass of codon bases with codon-grouped amino acids and with the exponent 2/3-series in several astonishing ways. Thus, it is suggested that they may be part of a deeper reference system. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Age-related environmental gradients influence invertebrate distribution in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Paul; White, Duanne; Clarke, Laurence; McKay, Alan; Cooper, Alan; Stevens, Mark I

    2016-12-01

    The potential impact of environmental change on terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems can be explored by inspecting biodiversity patterns across large-scale gradients. Unfortunately, morphology-based surveys of Antarctic invertebrates are time-consuming and limited by the cryptic nature of many taxa. We used biodiversity information derived from high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and invertebrate biodiversity in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica. Across 136 analysed soil samples collected from Mount Menzies, Mawson Escarpment and Lake Terrasovoje, we found invertebrate distribution in the Prince Charles Mountains significantly influenced by soil salinity and/or sulfur content. Phyla Tardigrada and Arachnida occurred predominantly in low-salinity substrates with abundant nutrients, whereas Bdelloidea (Rotifera) and Chromadorea (Nematoda) were more common in highly saline substrates. A significant correlation between invertebrate occurrence, soil salinity and time since deglaciation indicates that terrain age indirectly influences Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity, with more recently deglaciated areas supporting greater diversity. Our study demonstrates the value of HTS metabarcoding to investigate environmental constraints on inconspicuous soil biodiversity across large spatial scales.

  8. ACUTE POISONING WITH BENZODIAZEPINES AND OTHER HYPNOTICS: ETIOLOGIC CAUSE, SEX/AGE DISTRIBUTION AND CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Poisoning with drugs occupies a leading position among the causes of acute intoxications. Etiological distribution of medicated poisoning in different countries, even if they are adjacent, is different. In the most studies it was reported that the highest incidence of poisoning is with benzodiazepines or other psychoactive drugs. A retrospective analysis of acute poisoning with benzodiazepines and other hypnotic drugs in the Varna region for 25 years period – from 1991 to 2015 was carried out. Material and Methods: The number of patients who received hospital treatment after poisoning with benzodiazepines is 1741, and those with other hypnotics is 293, representing respectively 26.37% and 4.44% of all drug intoxications. Results: The share of poisoning with benzodiazepines and hypnotics compared to all acute intoxications is 11.66%. They are more common in women – 1566 (77%. Men are 468 (23%, the ratio of men to women was 3.34:1. The largest number of intoxications is in the age group up to 24 years - 1123 (55.2%, and only 4.1% of patients over 60 years. Intentional suicide attempts are 1896 (93.2%. Death is registered in 8 (0.4% patients.

  9. LENMODEL: A forward model for calculating length distributions and fission-track ages in apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Kevin D.

    1993-05-01

    The program LENMODEL is a forward model for annealing of fission tracks in apatite. It provides estimates of the track-length distribution, fission-track age, and areal track density for any user-supplied thermal history. The program approximates the thermal history, in which temperature is represented as a continuous function of time, by a series of isothermal steps of various durations. Equations describing the production of tracks as a function of time and annealing of tracks as a function of time and temperature are solved for each step. The step calculations are summed to obtain estimates for the entire thermal history. Computational efficiency is maximized by performing the step calculations backwards in model time. The program incorporates an intuitive and easy-to-use graphical interface. Thermal history is input to the program using a mouse. Model options are specified by selecting context-sensitive commands from a bar menu. The program allows for considerable selection of equations and parameters used in the calculations. The program was written for PC-compatible computers running DOS TM 3.0 and above (and Windows TM 3.0 or above) with VGA or SVGA graphics and a Microsoft TM-compatible mouse. Single copies of a runtime version of the program are available from the author by written request as explained in the last section of this paper.

  10. Effect of dietary fiber, genetic strain and age on the digestive metabolism of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RV Krás

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 360 male broilers, out of which 240 of a fast-growing strain (Cobb500, and 120 of a slow-growing strain (Label Rouge, were used to evaluate the effect of dietary fiber on digesta transit time and digestive metabolism during the period of 1 to 42 days of age. A completely randomized experimental design with a 3x2 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of three groups of birds (slow-growing - SG; fast-growing fed ad libitum - FGAL; and fast-growing pair-fed with SG broilers - FGPF and two iso-protein diets (a 3100 kcal ME/kg low-fiber diet - LFD- and a 2800 kcal ME/kg high-fiber diet - HFD- with 14% wheat bran and 4% oat hulls. HFD-fed birds presented lower ME retention (p < 0.001 and lower dry matter metabolizability (DMM (p < 0.001, which is possibly related to the shorter digesta transit time observed in these birds (p < 0.001. DMM was reduced with age, whereas metabolizable energy remained almost constant (p < 0.001 independently of strain. This may be related to the increase in feed intake as birds age. The slow-growing strain did not present better utilization of the high-fiber diet as compared to the fast-growing strain in none of the analyzed ages, even though showing a significant better use of fiber and dietary energy from 31 days of age.

  11. Genetic risk scores for body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women during dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, M; Allin, K H; Sørensen, T I A

    2018-01-01

    to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI). METHOD: We included 707 participants (533 women and 174 men) from the NUGENOB multi......-center 10 week diet intervention study with weekly weight measurements. We created 3 GRSs, one including all reported WHRadjBMI SNPs (GRStotal), one including only SNPs with genome wide significance in women or with significantly greater effect in women (GRSwomen), and one excluding SNPs in the GRSwomen...... (GRSmen). The data was analyzed in a mixed linear model framework. RESULTS: The GRStotal and GRSwomen attenuated weight loss in women. The effect was strongest for the GRSwomen with an effect of 2.21 g/risk allele/day [95% CI (0.90;3.52), P=0.0009]. Adjustment for WHR, basal metabolic rate or diet...

  12. Uranium deposits of the Commonwealth of Independent States: Principal economic-genetic types and their distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverov, N.P.; Velichkin, V.I.; Shumilin, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    For the first time, an uncensored overview of the main economic-genetic types of uranium deposits in the countries of the former Soviet Union can be presented. The uranium regions are briefly characterized and the characteristic features and conditions of formation of the most important deposits are discussed. Eight types of deposits are described, of which those of the endogenic series (deep metasomatic and hydrothermal) contain about 60% of the total reserves of 1.2 million tons and those of the exogenic series (mostly sandstone deposits related to stratal oxidation) contain about 40%. These appear to have been five main examples of uranium mineralization, with primarily endogenic deposits formed in the early Proterozoic through Mesozoic epochs and primarily exogenic deposits in the Cenozoic epoch. 27 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Oxidative Stress in Cancer-Prone Genetic Diseases in Pediatric Age: The Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafina Perrone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a distinctive sign in several genetic disorders characterized by cancer predisposition, such as Ataxia-Telangiectasia, Fanconi Anemia, Down syndrome, progeroid syndromes, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, and Costello syndrome. Recent literature unveiled new molecular mechanisms linking oxidative stress to the pathogenesis of these conditions, with particular regard to mitochondrial dysfunction. Since mitochondria are one of the major sites of ROS production as well as one of the major targets of their action, this dysfunction is thought to be the cause of the prooxidant status. Deeper insight of the pathogenesis of the syndromes raises the possibility to identify new possible therapeutic targets. In particular, the use of mitochondrial-targeted agents seems to be an appropriate clinical strategy in order to improve the quality of life and the life span of the patients.

  14. Genetic moderation of effects of maternal sensitivity on girl's age of menarche: Replication of the Manuck et al. study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sarah; Widaman, Keith F; Belsky, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Manuck, Craig, Flory, Halder, and Ferrell (2011) reported that a theoretically anticipated effect of family rearing on girls' menarcheal age was genetically moderated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the estrogen receptor-α gene. We sought to replicate and extend these findings, studying 210 White females followed from birth. The replication was general because a different measure of the rearing environment was used in this inquiry (i.e., maternal sensitivity) than in the prior one (i.e., family cohesion). Extensions of the work included prospective rather than retrospective measurements of the rearing environment, reports of first menstruation within a year of its occurrence rather than decades later, accounting for some heritability of menarcheal age by controlling for maternal age of menarche, and using a new model-fitting approach to competitively compare diathesis-stress versus differential-susceptibility models of Gene × Environment interaction. The replication/extension effort proved successful in the case of both estrogen receptor-α SNPs, with the Gene × Environment interactions principally reflecting diathesis-stress: lower levels of maternal sensitivity predicted earlier age of menarche for girls homozygous for the minor alleles of either SNP but not for girls carrying other genotypes. Results are discussed in light of the new analytic methods adopted.

  15. Genetic association of apolipoprotein E with age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kliffen (Mike); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M. Cruts (Marc); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); C. van Broeckhoven (Christine); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common geriatric eye disorder leading to blindness and is characterized by degeneration of the neuroepithelium in the macular area of the eye. Apolipoprotein E (apoE), the major apolipoprotein of the CNS and an

  16. Evidence for Genetic Overlap Between Schizophrenia and Age at First Birth in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, Divya; Tropf, Felix C.; Gratten, Jacob; Bakshi, Andrew; Zhu, Zhihong; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Hemani, Gibran; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Barban, Nicola; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Snieder, Harold; Mowry, Bryan J.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Yang, Jian; Visscher, Peter M.; McGrath, John J.; Mills, Melinda C.; Wray, Naomi R.; Lee, S. Hong; Andreassen, Ole A.; Bramon, Elvira; Bruggeman, Richard; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cairns, Murray J.; Cantor, Rita M.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Darvasi, Ariel; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Escott-Price, Valentina; Freimer, Nelson B.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; de Haan, Lieuwe; Henskens, Frans A.; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Khrunin, Andrey; Lerer, Bernard; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Macek, Milan; Marsal, Sara; McCarley, Robert W.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McQuillin, Andrew; Melegh, Bela; Michie, Patricia T.; Morris, Derek W.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Olincy, Ann; van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Posthuma, Danielle; Quested, Digby; Schall, Ulrich; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Waddington, John; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Weiser, Mark; Wu, Jing Qin

    2016-01-01

    A recently published study of national data by McGrath et al in 2014 showed increased risk of schizophrenia (SCZ) in offspring associated with both early and delayed parental age, consistent with a U-shaped relationship. However, it remains unclear if the risk to the child is due to psychosocial

  17. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Nichola; Dudbridge, Frank; Orr, Nick

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age <=50 years. METHO...

  18. Distribution Characterization of Leaf and Hull Pubescences and Genetic Analysis of Their Numbers in japonica Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-biao ZHU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Distributions of pubescences on leaf blade and hull in japonica rice were observed under an optical microscope. Numbers of leaf and hull pubescences in P1, P2, F1, B1, B2 and F2 generations were investigated in three combinations of japonica rice (Sidao 10A/Wuyujing 3R, Wuyujing 3A/Sidao 10R and Liuyan 189A/HR-122, and genetic analysis for these two traits were conducted by using the joint analysis method of P1, P2, F1, B1, B2 and F2 generations with the mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance models. Leaf pubescences characterized by swollen base and fine tip distributed regularly on the boundary between dark green stripe and light green stripe of leaf blade. Hull pubescences with various lengths distributed irregularly on the whole hull. Numbers of leaf pubescences in the reciprocal combinations of Sidao 10A/Wuyujing 3R and Wuyujing 3A/Sidao 10R and numbers of hull pubescences in all the three combinations were controlled by one pair of additive major genes plus additive-dominant polygenes. In the combination of Liuyan 189A/HR-122, number of leaf pubescences was controlled by one pair of additive-dominant major genes plus additive-dominant polygenes. Both numbers of leaf and hull pubescences were mainly governed by major genes.

  19. Decentralized diagnostics based on a distributed micro-genetic algorithm for transducer networks monitoring large experimental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaia, P; Cimmino, P; Girone, M; La Commara, G; Maisto, D; Manna, C; Pezzetti, M

    2014-09-01

    Evolutionary approach to centralized multiple-faults diagnostics is extended to distributed transducer networks monitoring large experimental systems. Given a set of anomalies detected by the transducers, each instance of the multiple-fault problem is formulated as several parallel communicating sub-tasks running on different transducers, and thus solved one-by-one on spatially separated parallel processes. A micro-genetic algorithm merges evaluation time efficiency, arising from a small-size population distributed on parallel-synchronized processors, with the effectiveness of centralized evolutionary techniques due to optimal mix of exploitation and exploration. In this way, holistic view and effectiveness advantages of evolutionary global diagnostics are combined with reliability and efficiency benefits of distributed parallel architectures. The proposed approach was validated both (i) by simulation at CERN, on a case study of a cold box for enhancing the cryogeny diagnostics of the Large Hadron Collider, and (ii) by experiments, under the framework of the industrial research project MONDIEVOB (Building Remote Monitoring and Evolutionary Diagnostics), co-funded by EU and the company Del Bo srl, Napoli, Italy.

  20. TracerLPM (Version 1): An Excel® workbook for interpreting groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; Böhlke, J.K.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    TracerLPM is an interactive Excel® (2007 or later) workbook program for evaluating groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data by using lumped parameter models (LPMs). Lumped parameter models are mathematical models of transport based on simplified aquifer geometry and flow configurations that account for effects of hydrodynamic dispersion or mixing within the aquifer, well bore, or discharge area. Five primary LPMs are included in the workbook: piston-flow model (PFM), exponential mixing model (EMM), exponential piston-flow model (EPM), partial exponential model (PEM), and dispersion model (DM). Binary mixing models (BMM) can be created by combining primary LPMs in various combinations. Travel time through the unsaturated zone can be included as an additional parameter. TracerLPM also allows users to enter age distributions determined from other methods, such as particle tracking results from numerical groundwater-flow models or from other LPMs not included in this program. Tracers of both young groundwater (anthropogenic atmospheric gases and isotopic substances indicating post-1940s recharge) and much older groundwater (carbon-14 and helium-4) can be interpreted simultaneously so that estimates of the groundwater age distribution for samples with a wide range of ages can be constrained. TracerLPM is organized to permit a comprehensive interpretive approach consisting of hydrogeologic conceptualization, visual examination of data and models, and best-fit parameter estimation. Groundwater age distributions can be evaluated by comparing measured and modeled tracer concentrations in two ways: (1) multiple tracers analyzed simultaneously can be evaluated against each other for concordance with modeled concentrations (tracer-tracer application) or (2) tracer time-series data can be evaluated for concordance with modeled trends (tracer-time application). Groundwater-age estimates can also be obtained for samples with a single tracer measurement at one

  1. A microarray-based genetic screen for yeast chronological aging factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Matecic

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Model organisms have played an important role in the elucidation of multiple genes and cellular processes that regulate aging. In this study we utilized the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in a large-scale screen for genes that function in the regulation of chronological lifespan, which is defined by the number of days that non-dividing cells remain viable. A pooled collection of viable haploid gene deletion mutants, each tagged with unique identifying DNA "bar-code" sequences was chronologically aged in liquid culture. Viable mutants in the aging population were selected at several time points and then detected using a microarray DNA hybridization technique that quantifies abundance of the barcode tags. Multiple short- and long-lived mutants were identified using this approach. Among the confirmed short-lived mutants were those defective for autophagy, indicating a key requirement for the recycling of cellular organelles in longevity. Defects in autophagy also prevented lifespan extension induced by limitation of amino acids in the growth media. Among the confirmed long-lived mutants were those defective in the highly conserved de novo purine biosynthesis pathway (the ADE genes, which ultimately produces IMP and AMP. Blocking this pathway extended lifespan to the same degree as calorie (glucose restriction. A recently discovered cell-extrinsic mechanism of chronological aging involving acetic acid secretion and toxicity was suppressed in a long-lived ade4Delta mutant and exacerbated by a short-lived atg16Delta autophagy mutant. The identification of multiple novel effectors of yeast chronological lifespan will greatly aid in the elucidation of mechanisms that cells and organisms utilize in slowing down the aging process.

  2. Age frequency distribution and revised stable isotope curves for New Zealand speleothems: palaeoclimatic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Paul W.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of speleothems in New Zealand with reversed magnetism indicates that secondary calcite deposition in caves has occurred for more than 780 thousand years (ka. 394 uranium-series dates on 148 speleothems show that such deposition has taken place somewhere in the country with little interruption for more than 500 ka. A relative probability distribution of speleothem ages indicates that most growth occurred in mild, moist interglacial and interstadial intervals, a conclusion reinforced by comparing peaks and troughs in the distribution with time series curves of speleothem δ18O and δ13C values. The stable isotope time series were constructed using data from 15 speleothems from two different regions of the country. The greater the number of overlapping speleothem series (i.e. the greater the sample depth for any one region, the more confidence is justified in considering the stacked record to be representative of the region. Revising and extending earlier work, composite records are produced for central-west North Island (CWNI and north-west South Island (NWSI. Both demonstrate that over the last 15 ka the regions responded similarly to global climatic events, but that the North Island site was also influenced by the waxing and waning of regional subtropical marine influences that penetrated from the north but did not reach the higher latitudes of the South Island. Cooling marking the commencement of the last glacial maximum (LGM was evident from about 28 ka. There was a mid-LGM interstadial at 23-21.7 ka and Termination 1 occurred around 18.1 ka. The glacial-interglacial transition was marked by a series of negative excursions in δ18O that coincide with dated recessional moraines in South Island glaciers. A late glacial cooling event, the NZ Late Glacial Reversal, occurred from 13.4-11.2 ka and this was followed by an early Holocene optimum at 10.8 ka. Comparison of δ18O records from NWSI and EPICA DML ice-core shows climatic

  3. How Genes Modulate Patterns of Aging-Related Changes on the Way to 100: Biodemographic Models and Methods in Genetic Analyses of Longitudinal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, Anatoliy I.; Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Wu, Deqing; Arbeeva, Liubov; Kulminski, Alexander; Kulminskaya, Irina; Akushevich, Igor; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective To clarify mechanisms of genetic regulation of human aging and longevity traits, a number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of these traits have been performed. However, the results of these analyses did not meet expectations of the researchers. Most detected genetic associations have not reached a genome-wide level of statistical significance, and suffered from the lack of replication in the studies of independent populations. The reasons for slow progress in this research area include low efficiency of statistical methods used in data analyses, genetic heterogeneity of aging and longevity related traits, possibility of pleiotropic (e.g., age dependent) effects of genetic variants on such traits, underestimation of the effects of (i) mortality selection in genetically heterogeneous cohorts, (ii) external factors and differences in genetic backgrounds of individuals in the populations under study, the weakness of conceptual biological framework that does not fully account for above mentioned factors. One more limitation of conducted studies is that they did not fully realize the potential of longitudinal data that allow for evaluating how genetic influences on life span are mediated by physiological variables and other biomarkers during the life course. The objective of this paper is to address these issues. Data and Methods We performed GWAS of human life span using different subsets of data from the original Framingham Heart Study cohort corresponding to different quality control (QC) procedures and used one subset of selected genetic variants for further analyses. We used simulation study to show that approach to combining data improves the quality of GWAS. We used FHS longitudinal data to compare average age trajectories of physiological variables in carriers and non-carriers of selected genetic variants. We used stochastic process model of human mortality and aging to investigate genetic influence on hidden biomarkers of aging

  4. The effects of age at time of exposure on the distribution and toxicity of radium 226 in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Egger, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of age at time of injection of radium 226 on its skeletal deposition, retention and distribution, the pattern of bone tumour formation and the post-injection survival has been studied in beagles. Dogs received a single intravenous injection of radium 226 at an age of 3 months (juveniles), 17-19 months (young adults) or 60 months (mature), respectively. In spite of large differences in distribution and retention of the nuclide, the influence of age on bone tumour induction was moderate and the post-injection survivals were not significantly different, although a larger skeletal dose combined with a longer survival indicated a trend to a lower overall toxicity in the juvenile age group. (author)

  5. Genetic distribution of 15 autosomal STR markers in the Punjabi population of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Muhammad Adnan; Hussain, Manzoor; Shafique, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad; Perveen, Rukhsana; Idrees, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Genetic diversity of 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci was evaluated in 713 unrelated individual samples of a Punjabi population of Pakistan. These loci were scrutinized to establish allelic frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic and paternity interests. A total of 165 alleles were observed with the corresponding allele frequencies ranging from 0.001 to 0.446. D2S1338 was found as the most informative locus while TPOX (0.611) was the least discriminating locus. The combined power of discrimination (CPD), the combined probability of exclusion (CPE), and cumulative probability of matching (CPM) were found equaled to 0.999999999999999998606227424808, 0.999995777557989, and 1.37543 × 10-18, respectively. All the loci followed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after the Bonferroni correction (p < 0.0033) except one locus D3S1358. The study revealed that these STR loci are highly polymorphic, suitable for forensic and parentage analyses. In comparison to different populations (Asians and non-Asians), significant differences were recorded for these loci.

  6. Contribution of genetic polymorphisms on functional status at very old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dato, S.; Sørensen, Mette; Lagani, V.

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of functional ability is a well-recognized marker of longevity. At a molecular level, a major determinant of the physiological decline occurring with aging is the imbalance between production and accumulation of oxidative damage to macromolecules, together with a decreased efficiency...... observations reported in the same cohort. Overall, our work supports the evidence that genes belonging to the pro-anti-oxidant pathway are able to modulate physical and cognitive performance after the ninth decade of life, finally influencing extreme survival.......Preservation of functional ability is a well-recognized marker of longevity. At a molecular level, a major determinant of the physiological decline occurring with aging is the imbalance between production and accumulation of oxidative damage to macromolecules, together with a decreased efficiency...

  7. Damped least square based genetic algorithm with Gaussian distribution of damping factor for singularity-robust inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuoc, Le Minh; Lee, Suk Han; Kim, Hun Mo; Martinet, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Robot inverse kinematics based on Jacobian inversion encounters critical issues of kinematic singularities. In this paper, several techniques based on damped least squares are proposed to lead robot pass through kinematic singularities without excessive joint velocities. Unlike other work in which the same damping factor is used for all singular vectors, this paper proposes a different damping coefficient for each singular vector based on corresponding singular value of the Jacobian. Moreover, a continuous distribution of damping factor following Gaussian function guarantees the continuous in joint velocities. A genetic algorithm is utilized to search for the best maximum damping factor and singular region, which used to require ad hoc searching in other works. As a result, end effector tracking error, which is inherited from damped least squares by introducing damping factors, is minimized. The effectiveness of our approach is compared with other methods in both non-redundant robot and redundant robot

  8. Damped least square based genetic algorithm with Gaussian distribution of damping factor for singularity-robust inverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phuoc, Le Minh; Lee, Suk Han; Kim, Hun Mo [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Martinet, Philippe [Blaise Pascal University, Clermont-Ferrand Cedex (France)

    2008-07-15

    Robot inverse kinematics based on Jacobian inversion encounters critical issues of kinematic singularities. In this paper, several techniques based on damped least squares are proposed to lead robot pass through kinematic singularities without excessive joint velocities. Unlike other work in which the same damping factor is used for all singular vectors, this paper proposes a different damping coefficient for each singular vector based on corresponding singular value of the Jacobian. Moreover, a continuous distribution of damping factor following Gaussian function guarantees the continuous in joint velocities. A genetic algorithm is utilized to search for the best maximum damping factor and singular region, which used to require ad hoc searching in other works. As a result, end effector tracking error, which is inherited from damped least squares by introducing damping factors, is minimized. The effectiveness of our approach is compared with other methods in both non-redundant robot and redundant robot

  9. Regionally and climatically restricted patterns of distribution of genetic diversity in a migratory bat species, Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çoraman Emrah

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various mechanisms such as geographic barriers and glacial episodes have been proposed as determinants of intra-specific and inter-specific differentiation of populations, and the distribution of their genetic diversity. More recently, habitat and climate differences, and corresponding adaptations have been shown to be forces influencing the phylogeographic evolution of some vertebrates. In this study, we examined the contribution of these various factors on the genetic differentiation of the bent-winged bat, Miniopterus schreibersii, in southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Results and conclusion Our results showed differentiation in mitochondrial DNA coupled with weaker nuclear differentiation. We found evidence for restriction of lineages to geographical areas for hundreds of generations. The results showed that the most likely ancestral haplotype was restricted to the same geographic area (the Balkans for at least 6,000 years. We were able to delineate the migration routes during the population expansion process, which followed the coasts and the inland for different nested mitochondrial clades. Hence, we were able to describe a scenario showing how multiple biotic and abiotic events including glacial periods, climate and historical dispersal patterns complemented each other in causing regional and local differentiation within a species.

  10. APOE Moderates the Association between Lifestyle Activities and Cognitive Performance: Evidence of Genetic Plasticity in Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Runge, Shannon K.; Small, Brent J.; McFall, G. Peggy; Dixon, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined independent and interactive effects between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and two types of cognitively-stimulating lifestyle activities (CSLA)—integrated information processing (CSLA-II) and novel information processing (CSLA-NI)—on concurrent and longitudinal changes in cognition. Three-wave data across six years of follow-up from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (n = 278; ages 55–94) and linear mixed model analyses were used to characterize the effects of APOE g...

  11. C. elegans model identifies genetic modifiers of alpha-synuclein inclusion formation during aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjakko J van Ham

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Inclusions in the brain containing alpha-synuclein are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease, but how these inclusions are formed and how this links to disease is poorly understood. We have developed a C. elegans model that makes it possible to monitor, in living animals, the formation of alpha-synuclein inclusions. In worms of old age, inclusions contain aggregated alpha- synuclein, resembling a critical pathological feature. We used genome-wide RNA interference to identify processes involved in inclusion formation, and identified 80 genes that, when knocked down, resulted in a premature increase in the number of inclusions. Quality control and vesicle-trafficking genes expressed in the ER/Golgi complex and vesicular compartments were overrepresented, indicating a specific role for these processes in alpha-synuclein inclusion formation. Suppressors include aging-associated genes, such as sir-2.1/SIRT1 and lagr-1/LASS2. Altogether, our data suggest a link between alpha-synuclein inclusion formation and cellular aging, likely through an endomembrane-related mechanism. The processes and genes identified here present a framework for further study of the disease mechanism and provide candidate susceptibility genes and drug targets for Parkinson's disease and other alpha-synuclein related disorders.

  12. Eight common genetic variants associated with serum DHEAS levels suggest a key role in ageing mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangju Zhai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS is the most abundant circulating steroid secreted by adrenal glands--yet its function is unknown. Its serum concentration declines significantly with increasing age, which has led to speculation that a relative DHEAS deficiency may contribute to the development of common age-related diseases or diminished longevity. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data with 14,846 individuals and identified eight independent common SNPs associated with serum DHEAS concentrations. Genes at or near the identified loci include ZKSCAN5 (rs11761528; p = 3.15 × 10(-36, SULT2A1 (rs2637125; p =  2.61 × 10(-19, ARPC1A (rs740160; p =  1.56 × 10(-16, TRIM4 (rs17277546; p =  4.50 × 10(-11, BMF (rs7181230; p = 5.44 × 10(-11, HHEX (rs2497306; p =  4.64 × 10(-9, BCL2L11 (rs6738028; p = 1.72 × 10(-8, and CYP2C9 (rs2185570; p = 2.29 × 10(-8. These genes are associated with type 2 diabetes, lymphoma, actin filament assembly, drug and xenobiotic metabolism, and zinc finger proteins. Several SNPs were associated with changes in gene expression levels, and the related genes are connected to biological pathways linking DHEAS with ageing. This study provides much needed insight into the function of DHEAS.

  13. Myxomatosis. The effect of age upon survival of wild and domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with a degree of genetic resistance and unselected domestic rabbits infected with myxoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, W R; Conolly, D; Haycockp; Edmonds, J W

    1970-03-01

    The response of wild and domestic rabbits with a degree of genetic resistance to myxomatosis has been shown to be markedly affected by the age at which they were infected with a virulent strain of the virus. The response, in terms of mean survival time and percentage survival, fell with increasing age from 10 to 30 weeks with little change thereafter.

  14. Distribution of the Most Common Genetic Variants Associated with a Variable Drug Response in the Population of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestorovska Kapedanovska A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in the regulation, expression and activity of genes coding for Phase I, Phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs and drug targets, can be defining factors for the variability in both the effectiveness and occurrence of drug therapy side effects. Information regarding the geographic structure and multi-ethnic distribution of clinically relevant genetic variations is becoming increasingly useful for improving drug therapy and explaining inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences in drug response.

  15. Ethnic and genetic factors of iron status in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeuk, Victor R; Brannon, Patsy M

    2017-12-01

    Background: African Americans are at increased risk of iron deficiency (ID) but also have higher serum ferritin (SF) concentrations than those of the general population. The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study was a multicenter study of ethnically diverse participants that tested for the hemochromatosis ( HFE ) C282Y genotype and iron status. Objective: We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of ID (SF concentration ≤15 μg/L) and elevated iron stores (SF concentration >300 μg/L) in HEIRS women of reproductive age (25-44 y). Design: The HEIRS Study was a cross-sectional study of iron status and HFE mutations in primary care patients at 5 centers in the United States and Canada. We analyzed data for women of reproductive age according to whether or not they were pregnant or breastfeeding at the time of the study. Results: ID was present in 12.5% of 20,080 nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women compared with 19.2% of 1962 pregnant or breastfeeding women ( P iron stores were shown in 1.7% of nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women compared with 0.7% of pregnant or breastfeeding women ( P = 0.001). HFE C282Y homozygosity had the most marked independent association with elevated iron stores in nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women and in pregnant or breastfeeding women (OR >49.0; P iron stores in both groups of women (OR >2.0; P iron stores in nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women. Conclusions: Both ID and elevated iron stores are present in women of reproductive age and are influenced by ethnicity and HFE C282Y. Efforts to optimize iron status should keep these findings in view. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03276247. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Invariability of Central Metabolic Flux Distribution in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Under Environmental or Genetic Perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie; Martin, Hector Garcia; Deutschbauer, Adam; Feng, Xueyang; Huang, Rick; Llora, Xavier; Arkin, Adam; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-04-21

    An environmentally important bacterium with versatile respiration, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, displayed significantly different growth rates under three culture conditions: minimal medium (doubling time {approx} 3 hrs), salt stressed minimal medium (doubling time {approx} 6 hrs), and minimal medium with amino acid supplementation (doubling time {approx}1.5 hrs). {sup 13}C-based metabolic flux analysis indicated that fluxes of central metabolic reactions remained relatively constant under the three growth conditions, which is in stark contrast to the reported significant changes in the transcript and metabolite profiles under various growth conditions. Furthermore, ten transposon mutants of S. oneidensis MR-1 were randomly chosen from a transposon library and their flux distributions through central metabolic pathways were revealed to be identical, even though such mutational processes altered the secondary metabolism, for example, glycine and C1 (5,10-Me-THF) metabolism.

  17. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderung, Cecilia; Bouwman, Abigail; Persson, Per; Carretero, José Miguel; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Elburg, Rengert; Smith, Colin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ellegren, Hans; Götherström, Anders

    2005-06-14

    The geographic situation of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural link between Europe and North Africa. However, it is a matter of debate to what extent African influences via the Straits Gibraltar have affected Iberia's prehistoric development. Because early African pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric African-Iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the Iberian Peninsula. Some contemporary Iberian cattle breeds show a mtDNA haplotype, T1, that is characteristic to African breeds, generally explained as being the result of the Muslim expansion of the 8th century A.D., and of modern imports. To test a possible earlier African influence, we analyzed mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain. Although the majority of samples showed the haplotype T3 that dominates among European breeds of today, the T1 haplotype was found in one specimen radiocarbon dated 1800 calibrated years B.C. Accepting T1 as being of African origin, this result indicates prehistoric African-Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures. We also found a wild ox haplotype in the Iberian Bronze Age sample, reflecting local hybridization or backcrossing or that aurochs were hunted by these farming cultures.

  18. The reminiscence bump for public events: A review of its prevalence and taxonomy of alternative age distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark

    2013-01-01

    a legitimate effect, and (ii) the alternative age distributions that are otherwise seen in recall for public events. I conclude that, though the bump is frequently found, the legitimacy of the effect is contingent upon the strictness of the standard one employs. I also find significant exceptions to the bump...

  19. Rotated sigmoid structures in managed uneven-aged northern hardwood stands: a look at the Burr Type III distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove; Mark J. Ducey; William B. Leak; Lianjun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Stand structures from a combined density manipulation and even- to uneven-aged conversion experiment on the Bartlett Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA) were examined 25 years after initial treatment for rotated sigmoidal diameter distributions. A comparison was made on these stands between two probability density functions for fitting these residual structures:...

  20. The age distributions of clusters and field stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud — implications for star formation histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, J.M.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325799911; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072834870

    2008-01-01

    Differences between the inferred star formation histories (SFHs) of star clusters and field stars seem to suggest distinct star formation processes for the two. The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is an example of a galaxy where such a discrepancy is observed. We model the observed age distributions of

  1. Parental Smoking During Pregnancy and Total and Abdominal Fat Distribution in School-age Children: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Taal, H.R.; Manniesing, R.; Raat, H.; Hofman, A.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children.Methods:We performed a population-based prospective cohort study

  2. Parental smoking during pregnancy and total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Durmus (Busra); D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); H.R. Taal (Rob); R. Manniesing (Rashindra); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R. Gaillard (Romy); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children. Methods: We performed a population-based prospective

  3. Genetic diversity and distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguga-Phasha, N T C; Munyai, N S; Mashinya, F; Makgatho, M E; Mbajiorgu, E F

    2017-12-12

    Tuberculosis remains a major health problem and knowledge of the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in specific geographical regions can contribute to the control of the disease. This study describes the genetic profile of M. tuberculosis in five districts of Limpopo Province. A total 487 isolates were collected from the National Health Laboratory Services from all regions/districts of Limpopo Province. Only 215 isolates were confirmed to be M. tuberculosis by Bactec Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube 960® and Rhodamine-Auramine staining. Isolates were subcultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium agar slants to validate purity. They were spoligotyped and data analysed using the international spoligotyping database 4 (SpolDB4). Of the 215 isolates, 134 (62.3%) were genotyped into 21 genotype families while 81 (37.7%) were orphans. The 81 orphans were further subjected to resolution employing SpolDB3/RIM. Overall, the study revealed a high diversity of strains of 32 predominantly the non-Beijing lineages: the LAM- LAM3 (9.8%), LAM9 (4.7%) and LAM11- ZWE (3.3%), the T-T1(15.0%), T2 (0.9%), T2-T3 (1.4%), the CAS-CAS1-Delhi 5 (1.9%) and CAS1-KILI (1.4%) the MANU2 (1.4%), U (0.5%), X-X1(1.4%), X3 (1.9%), S (9.8%), CAS (1.4%), LAM7(0.9%), T3(0.5%), LAM8(4.7%), T4(1.4%), X2(0.4%), AI5(1.9%), LAM1(0.5%), FAMILY33 (1.9%), EAI4(1.4%), M. microti (1.9%). The Beijing and Beijing-like families were (14.9%) and (0.9%), respectively. A total of 28(13%) clusters and 77(36%) unique cases were identified. Beijing strain (SIT 1) formed the biggest cluster constituting 14%, followed by LAM3 (SIT 33), T1 (SIT 53) and LAM4 (SIT 811) with 7%, 5.1% and 2.8%, respectively. The Beijing family was the only genotype found in all the five districts and was predominant in Mopani (18.8%), Sekhukhune (23.7%) and Vhembe (23.3%). Dominant genotypes in Capricorn and Waterberg were LAM3 (11.9%) and T1 (13.3%), respectively. A wide diversity of lineages was demonstrated at district level. A

  4. The changes of stage distribution of seminiferous epithelium cycle and its correlations with Leydig cell stereological parameters in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Zhu, Wei-Jie; Li, Jing; Gu, Yi-Qun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the changes of stage distribution of seminiferous epithelium cycle and its correlations with Leydig cell stereological parameters in aging men. Point counting method was used to analyze the stereological parameters of Leydig cells. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle was calculated in the same testicular tissue samples which were used for Leydig cell stereological analysis. The aging group had shown more severe pathological changes as well as higher pathologic scores than the young group. Compared with the control group, the volume density (VV) and surface density (NA) of Leydig cells in the aging group were increased significantly. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle in the aging group was decreased coincidently compared to the young group. Leydig cell Vv in the young group has a positive relationship with stages I, II, III, V and VI of seminiferous epithelium cycle, and Leydig cell NA and numerical density (NV) were positively related to stage IV. However, only the correlation between NV and stage II was found in the aging group. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle was decreased in aging testes. Changes in the stage distribution in aging testes were related to the Leydig cell stereological parameters which presented as a sign of morphological changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Homeostatic migration and distribution of innate immune cells in primary and secondary lymphoid organs with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolich-Žugich, J; Davies, J S

    2017-03-01

    Ageing of the innate and adaptive immune system, collectively termed immune senescence, is a complex process. One method to understand the components of ageing involves dissociating the effects of ageing on the cells of the immune system, on the microenvironment in lymphoid organs and tissues where immune cells reside and on the circulating factors that interact with both immune cells and their microenvironment. Heterochronic parabiosis, a surgical union of two organisms of disparate ages, is ideal for this type of study, as it has the power to dissociate the age of the cell and the age of the microenvironment into which the cell resides or is migrating. So far, however, it has been used sparingly to study immune ageing. Here we review the limited literature on homeostatic innate immune cell trafficking in ageing in the absence of chronic inflammation. We also review our own recent data on trafficking of innate immune subsets between primary and secondary lymphoid organs in heterochronic parabiosis. We found no systemic bias in retention or acceptance of neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells or natural killer cells with ageing in primary and secondary lymphoid organs. We conclude that these four innate immune cell types migrate to and populate lymphoid organs (peripheral lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow), regardless of their own age and of the age of lymphoid organs. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  6. Genetic and functional dissection of HTRA1 and LOC387715 in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglin Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A common haplotype on 10q26 influences the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD and encompasses two genes, LOC387715 and HTRA1. Recent data have suggested that loss of LOC387715, mediated by an insertion/deletion (in/del that destabilizes its message, is causally related with the disorder. Here we show that loss of LOC387715 is insufficient to explain AMD susceptibility, since a nonsense mutation (R38X in this gene that leads to loss of its message resides in a protective haplotype. At the same time, the common disease haplotype tagged by the in/del and rs11200638 has an effect on the transcriptional upregulation of the adjacent gene, HTRA1. These data implicate increased HTRA1 expression in the pathogenesis of AMD and highlight the importance of exploring multiple functional consequences of alleles in haplotypes that confer susceptibility to complex traits.

  7. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Pathogenesis, Genetic Background, and the Role of Nutritional Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilita M. Moschos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is the leading cause of severe vision loss and blindness worldwide, mainly affecting people over 65 years old. Dry and wet ARDM are the main types of the disease, which seem to have a multifactorial background. The aim of this review is to summarize the mechanisms of ARMD pathogenesis and exhibit the role of diet and nutritional supplements in the onset and progression of the disease. Environmental factors, such as smoking, alcohol, and, diet appear to interact with mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, contributing to the pathogenesis of ARMD. Inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress, induced by the daily exposure of retina to high pressure of oxygen and light radiation, have been also associated with ARMD lesions. Other than medical and surgical therapies, nutritional supplements hold a significant role in the prevention and treatment of ARMD, eliminating the progression of macular degeneration.

  8. Age-dependent trigeminal and female-specific lumbosacral increase in herpes zoster distribution in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Kimiyasu; Toyama, Nozomu; Shiraki, Atsuko; Yajima, Misako

    2018-05-01

    Varicella-zoster virus causes herpes zoster (HZ) along specific dermatomes, but the effects of age and sex on HZ distribution are unclear. We investigated the age- and sex-dependent distribution characteristics of HZ. Patients with HZ were monitored by members of the Miyazaki Dermatologist Society. Questionnaires containing information on age, sex, and dermatome distribution and lesion specimens from 2730 patients were collected, and 2508 PCR-diagnosed cases were analyzed. The ratio of lesions in the thoracic area to lesions in the whole body decreased with age, whereas those of other areas increased. HZ incidence increased with age to about four times that of the basic incidence in the dermatome areas at age 0-29 years; the incidence in the trigeminal area in both sexes increased 11-fold, and the incidence in the thoracic and lumbosacral areas increased in females more than in males. Furthermore, the fact that the highest incidence was found along the first branch of the trigeminal nerve suggests an association with long-term ultraviolet ray exposure. Segmental dermatomes comprising thoracic 10-lumbar 1/sacral 2-4 and thoracic 5-6 were significantly more frequently affected in female patients at age 50-59 years and are consistent with areas of obstetric anesthesia for childbirth and of breastfeeding, respectively. HZ incidence increased with age; moreover, exposure to ultraviolet rays, childbirth, and breastfeeding might increase the incidence at specific dermatomes in older individuals. This study provides important information on the etiology of HZ. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A demographic study of the exponential distribution applied to uneven-aged forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove

    2016-01-01

    A demographic approach based on a size-structured version of the McKendrick-Von Foerster equation is used to demonstrate a theoretical link between the population size distribution and the underlying vital rates (recruitment, mortality and diameter growth) for the population of individuals whose diameter distribution is negative exponential. This model supports the...

  10. Prediction model for prevalence and incidence of advanced age-related macular degeneration based on genetic, demographic, and environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Johanna M; Reynolds, Robyn; Maller, Julian; Fagerness, Jesen A; Daly, Mark J; Rosner, Bernard

    2009-05-01

    The joint effects of genetic, ocular, and environmental variables were evaluated and predictive models for prevalence and incidence of AMD were assessed. Participants in the multicenter Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were included in a prospective evaluation of 1446 individuals, of which 279 progressed to advanced AMD (geographic atrophy or neovascular disease) and 1167 did not progress during 6.3 years of follow-up. For prevalent AMD, 509 advanced cases were compared with 222 controls. Covariates for the incidence analysis included age, sex, education, smoking, body mass index (BMI), baseline AMD grade, and the AREDS vitamin-mineral treatment assignment. DNA specimens were evaluated for six variants in five genes related to AMD. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed for prevalent and incident advanced AMD. An algorithm was developed and receiver operating characteristic curves and C statistics were calculated to assess the predictive ability of risk scores to discriminate progressors from nonprogressors. All genetic polymorphisms were independently related to prevalence of advanced AMD, controlling for genetic factors, smoking, BMI, and AREDS treatment. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-7.1) for CFH Y402H; 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6-8.4) for CFH rs1410996; 25.4 (95% CI, 8.6-75.1) for LOC387715 A69S (ARMS2); 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.7) for C2 E318D; 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.5) for CFB; and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.4-9.4) for C3 R102G, comparing the homozygous risk/protective genotypes to the referent genotypes. For incident AMD, all these variants except CFB were significantly related to progression to advanced AMD, after controlling for baseline AMD grade and other factors, with ORs from 1.8 to 4.0 for presence of two risk alleles and 0.4 for the protective allele. An interaction was seen between CFH402H and treatment, after controlling for all genotypes. Smoking was independently related to AMD, with a multiplicative joint

  11. Genetic and environmental contributions to body mass index: comparative analysis of monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins and same-age unrelated siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, N L; Feng, R; McGuire, S A; Allison, D B; Miller, S

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies have established that a substantial percentage of variance in obesity-related phenotypes is explained by genetic components. However, only one study has used both virtual twins (VTs) and biological twins and was able to simultaneously estimate additive genetic, non-additive genetic, shared environmental and unshared environmental components in body mass index (BMI). Our current goal was to re-estimate four components of variance in BMI, applying a more rigorous model to biological and virtual multiples with additional data. Virtual multiples share the same family environment, offering unique opportunities to estimate common environmental influence on phenotypes that cannot be separated from the non-additive genetic component using only biological multiples. Data included 929 individuals from 164 monozygotic twin pairs, 156 dizygotic twin pairs, five triplet sets, one quadruplet set, 128 VT pairs, two virtual triplet sets and two virtual quadruplet sets. Virtual multiples consist of one biological child (or twins or triplets) plus one same-aged adoptee who are all raised together since infancy. We estimated the additive genetic, non-additive genetic, shared environmental and unshared random components in BMI using a linear mixed model. The analysis was adjusted for age, age(2), age(3), height, height(2), height(3), gender and race. Both non-additive genetic and common environmental contributions were significant in our model (P-valuesrole in BMI and that common environmental factors such as diet or exercise also affect BMI. This conclusion is consistent with our earlier study using a smaller sample and shows the utility of virtual multiples for separating non-additive genetic variance from common environmental variance.

  12. Changes in Angiotensin Receptor Distribution and in Aortic Morphology Are Associated with Blood Pressure Control in Aged Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guarner-Lans

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS in blood pressure regulation in MS during aging is unknown. It participates in metabolic syndrome (MS and aging regulating vascular tone and remodeling. RAS might participate in a compensatory mechanism decreasing blood pressure and allowing MS rats to reach 18 months of age and it might form part of therapeutical procedures to ameliorate MS. We studied histological changes and distribution of RAS receptors in aortas of MS aged rats. Electron microscopy images showed premature aging in MS since the increased fibrosis, enlarged endothelium, and invasion of this layer by muscle cells that was present in control 18-month-old aortas were also found in 6-month-old aortas from MS rats. AT1, AT2, and Mas receptors mediate the effects of Ang II and Ang 1-7, respectively. Fluorescence from AT2 decreased with age in control and MS aortas, while fluorescence of AT1 increased in aortas from MS rats at 6 months and diminished during aging. Mas expression increased in MS rats and remained unchanged in control rats. In conclusion, there is premature aging in the aortas from MS rats and the elevated expression of Mas receptor might contribute to decrease blood pressure during aging in MS.

  13. HIV-1 genetic diversity and its distribution characteristics among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinli; Zhao, Cuiying; Wang, Wei; Nie, Chenxi; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru; Chen, Suliang; Cui, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Since the first HIV-1 case in 1989, Hebei province has presented a clearly rising trend of HIV-1 prevalence, and HIV-1 genetic diversity has become the vital barrier to HIV prevention and control in this area. To obtain detailed information of HIV-1 spread in different populations and in different areas of Hebei, a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological investigation was performed across the province. Blood samples of 154 newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals were collected from ten prefectures in Hebei using stratified sampling. Partial gag and env genes were amplified and sequenced. HIV-1 genotypes were identified by phylogenetic tree analyses. Among the 139 subjects genotyped, six HIV-1 subtypes were identified successfully, including subtype B (41.0 %), CRF01_AE (40.3 %), CRF07_BC (11.5 %), CRF08_BC (4.3 %), unique recombinant forms (URFs) (1.4 %) and subtype C (1.4 %). Subtype B was identified as the most frequent subtype. Two URF recombination patterns were the same as CRF01_AE/B. HIV-1 genotype distribution showed a significant statistical difference in different demographic characteristics, such as source (P  0.05). The differences in HIV-1 genotype distribution were closely associated with transmission routes. Particularly, all six subtype strains were found in heterosexuals, showing that HIV-1 has spread from the high-risk populations to the general populations in Hebei, China. In addition, CRF01_AE instead of subtype B has become the major strain of HIV-1 infection among homosexuals. Our study revealed HIV-1 evolution and genotype distribution by investigating newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, China. This study provides important information to enhance the strategic plan for HIV prevention and control in China.

  14. Optimal reactive power planning for distribution systems considering intermittent wind power using Markov model and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng

    Wind farms, photovoltaic arrays, fuel cells, and micro-turbines are all considered to be Distributed Generation (DG). DG is defined as the generation of power which is dispersed throughout a utility's service territory and either connected to the utility's distribution system or isolated in a small grid. This thesis addresses modeling and economic issues pertaining to the optimal reactive power planning for distribution system with wind power generation (WPG) units. Wind farms are inclined to cause reverse power flows and voltage variations due to the random-like outputs of wind turbines. To deal with this kind of problem caused by wide spread usage of wind power generation, this thesis investigates voltage and reactive power controls in such a distribution system. Consequently static capacitors (SC) and transformer taps are introduced into the system and treated as controllers. For the purpose of getting optimum voltage and realizing reactive power control, the research proposes a proper coordination among the controllers like on-load tap changer (OLTC), feeder-switched capacitors. What's more, in order to simulate its uncertainty, the wind power generation is modeled by the Markov model. In that way, calculating the probabilities for all the scenarios is possible. Some outputs with consecutive and discrete values have been used for transition between successive time states and within state wind speeds. The thesis will describe the method to generate the wind speed time series from the transition probability matrix. After that, utilizing genetic algorithm, the optimal locations of SCs, the sizes of SCs and transformer taps are determined so as to minimize the cost or minimize the power loss, and more importantly improve voltage profiles. The applicability of the proposed method is verified through simulation on a 9-bus system and a 30-bus system respectively. At last, the simulation results indicate that as long as the available capacitors are able to sufficiently

  15. Age-specific differences in influenza virus type and subtype distribution in the 2012/2013 season in 12 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauté, J; Zucs, P; Korsun, N

    2015-01-01

    that the overall distribution of circulating (sub)types may mask substantial differences between age groups. Thus, in cases aged 5-14 years, 75% tested positive for influenza B virus whereas all other age groups had an even distribution of influenza A and B viruses. This means that the intepretation of syndromic...

  16. Genetic diversity, phylogroup distribution and virulence gene profile of pks positive Escherichia coli colonizing human intestinal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarshar, Meysam; Scribano, Daniela; Marazzato, Massimiliano; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Aprea, Maria Rita; Aleandri, Marta; Pronio, Annamaria; Longhi, Catia; Nicoletti, Mauro; Zagaglia, Carlo; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Conte, Maria Pia

    2017-11-01

    Some Escherichia coli strains of phylogroup B2 harbor a (pks) pathogenicity island that encodes a polyketide-peptide genotoxin called colibactin. It causes DNA double-strand breaks and megalocytosis in eukaryotic cells and it may contribute to cancer development. Study of bacterial community that colonizes the adenomatous polyp lesion, defined as precancerous lesions, could be helpful to assess if such pathogenic bacteria possess a role in the polyp progression to cancer. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1500 E. coli isolates were obtained from biopsies of patients presenting adenomatous colon polyps, the normal tissues adjacent to the polyp lesion and patients presenting normal mucosa. pks island frequency, phylogenetic grouping, fingerprint genotyping, and virulence gene features of pks positive (pks + ) E. coli isolates were performed. We found pks + E. coli strongly colonize two patients presenting polypoid lesions and none were identified in patients presenting normal mucosa. Predominant phylogroups among pks + E. coli isolates were B2, followed by D. Clustering based on fragment profiles of composite analysis, typed the pks + isolates into 5 major clusters (I-V) and 17 sub-clusters, demonstrating a high level of genetic diversity among them. The most prevalent virulence genes were fimH and fyuA (100%), followed by vat (92%), hra and papA (69%), ibeA (28%), and hlyA (25%). Our results revealed that pks + E. coli can colonize the precancerous lesions, with a high distribution in both the polyp lesions and in normal tissues adjacent to the lesion. The high differences in fingerprinting patterns obtained indicate that pks + E. coli strains were genetically diverse, possibly allowing them to more easily adapt to environmental variations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution and Genetic Characteristics of SXT/R391 Integrative Conjugative Elements in Shewanella spp. From China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Fang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Shewanella consists of facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, which are regarded as potential agents of food contamination and opportunistic human pathogens. Information about the distribution and genetic characteristics of SXT/R391 integrative conjugative elements (ICEs in Shewanella species is limited. Here, 91 Shewanella strains collected from diverse samples in China were studied for the presence of SXT/R391 ICEs. Three positive strains, classified as Shewanella upenei, were obtained from patients and water from a local mill. In light of their close clonal relationships and high sequence similarity, a representative ICE was selected and designated ICESupCHN110003. The BLASTn searches against GenBank showed that ICEVchBan5 was most closely related to ICESupCHN110003, with the coverage of 76% and identity of 99%. The phylogenetic tree of concatenated core genes demonstrated that ICESupCHN110003 formed a distinct branch outside the cluster comprising ICEValA056-1, ICEPmiCHN2410, and ICEPmiChn1. Comparison of the genetic structures revealed that ICESupCHN110003 encoded uncommon genes in hotspots, such as specific type III restriction-modification system, conferring adaptive functions to the host. Based on the low coverage in the sequence analysis, independent clade in the phylogenetic tree, and unique inserted fragments in hotspots, ICESupCHN110003 represented a novel SXT/R391 element, which widened the list of ICEs. Furthermore, the antibiotic resistance genes floR, strA, strB, and sul2 in ICESupCHN110003 and resistance to multiple drugs of the positive isolates were detected. A cross-species transfer capability of the SXT/R391 ICEs was also discovered. In summary, it is necessary to reinforce continuous surveillance of SXT/R391 ICEs in the genus Shewanella.

  18. Psychological impact of genetic counseling for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: the role of cancer history, gender, age, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbring, Monika I; Kreddig, Nina; Deges, Gabriele; Epplen, Joerg T; Kunstmann, Erdmute; Stemmler, Susanne; Schulmann, Karsten; Willert, Joerg; Schmiegel, Wolf

    2011-04-01

    We prospectively examined the impact of an initial interdisciplinary genetic counseling (human geneticist, oncologist, and psycho-oncologist) on feelings of anxiety with a special focus on subgroups related to personal cancer history, gender, age, and education. At baseline, cancer-affected men revealed a significantly higher level of anxiety than unaffected men (pDepression Scale-A cases can be predicted by general distress (Brief Symptom Inventory) as well as by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer-related cognitions of intrusion and avoidance (impact of event scale) with a correct classification of 86%. Although initial hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer counseling leads to an overall reduction of anxiety, differential effects of cancer history, gender, and age focus on subgroups of cancer-affected men, who may display unexpectedly high anxiety scores at baseline. Especially younger men do not seem to reduce this high anxiety level. Baseline anxiety was mainly determined by maladaptive situation-specific cognitions. Therefore, consulters should be more aware of anxiety-related cognitions in cancer-affected younger men.

  19. Adolescent Age Moderates Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Adolescent Positivity and Negativity: Implications for Genotype-Environment Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and non-passive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. Findings indicated that non-passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father- adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than families with younger adolescents, and that passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed. PMID:25924807

  20. Individual genetic variations related to satiety and appetite control increase risk of obesity in preschool-age children in the STRONG kids program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Wang, Anthony; Donovan, Sharon M; Teran-Garcia, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    The burden of the childhood obesity epidemic is well recognized; nevertheless, the genetic markers and gene-environment interactions associated with the development of common obesity are still unknown. In this study, candidate genes associated to satiety and appetite control pathways with obesity-related traits were tested in Caucasian preschoolers from the STRONG Kids project. Eight genetic variants in genes related to obesity (BDNF, LEPR, FTO, PCSK1, POMC, TUB, LEP, and MC4R) were genotyped in 128 children from the STRONG Kids project (mean age 39.7 months). Data were analyzed for individual associations and to test for genetic predisposition scores (GPSs) with body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric traits (Z-scores, e.g. height-for-age Z-score, HAZ). Covariates included age, sex, and breastfeeding (BF) duration. Obesity and overweight prevalence was 6.3 and 19.5%, respectively, according to age- and sex-specific BMI percentiles. Individual genetic associations of MC4R and LEPR markers with HAZ were strengthened when BF duration was included as a covariate. Our GPSs show that, as the number of risk alleles increased, the risk of higher BMI and HAZ also increased. Overall, the GPSs assembled were able to explain 2-3% of the variability in BMI and HAZ phenotypes. Genetic associations with common obesity-related phenotypes were found in the STRONG Kids project. GPSs assembled for specific candidate genes were associated with BMI and HAZ phenotypes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Asymmetrical distribution of atherosclerosis in the carotid artery: identical patterns across age, race, and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajik, Parvin; Meijer, Rudy; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Peters, Sanne A. E.; Kastelein, John J.; Visseren, Frank J.; Crouse, John R.; Palmer, Mike K.; Raichlen, Joel S.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Bots, Michiel L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Small autopsy studies and clinical practice indicated that carotid atherosclerosis develops in an asymmetrical helical pattern coinciding with regions of low shear stress. We investigated the distribution of carotid atherosclerosis as determined by maximum carotid intima-media thickness

  2. Deep-sea scleractinian coral age and depth distributions in the northwest Atlantic for the last 225,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L.F.; Adkins, J.F.; Scheirer, D.S.; Fernandez, D.P.; Gagnon, A.; Waller, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Deep-sea corals have grown for over 200,000 yrs on the New England Seamounts in the northwest Atlantic, and this paper describes their distribution both with respect to depth and time. Many thousands of fossil scleractinian corals were collected on a series of cruises from 2003-2005; by contrast, live ones were scarce. On these seamounts, the depth distribution of fossil Desmophyllum dianthus (Esper, 1794) is markedly different to that of the colonial scleractinian corals, extending 750 m deeper in the water column to a distinct cut-off at 2500 m. This cut-off is likely to be controlled by the maximum depth of a notch-shaped feature in the seamount morphology. The ages of D. dianthus corals as determined by U-series measurements range from modern to older than 200,000 yrs. The age distribution is not constant over time, and most corals have ages from the last glacial period. Within the glacial period, increases in coral population density at Muir and Manning Seamounts coincided with times at which large-scale ocean circulation changes have been documented in the deep North Atlantic. Ocean circulation changes have an effect on coral distributions, but the cause of the link is not known. ?? 2007 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

  3. Plague Circulation and Population Genetics of the Reservoir Rattus rattus: The Influence of Topographic Relief on the Distribution of the Disease within the Madagascan Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouat, Carine; Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Loiseau, Anne; Rahalison, Lila; Rajerison, Minoariso; Laffly, Dominique; Handschumacher, Pascal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Landscape may affect the distribution of infectious diseases by influencing the population density and dispersal of hosts and vectors. Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent, re-emerging disease, the ecology of which has been scarcely studied in Africa. Human seroprevalence data for the major plague focus of Madagascar suggest that plague spreads heterogeneously across the landscape as a function of the relief. Plague is primarily a disease of rodents. We therefore investigated the relationship between disease distribution and the population genetic structure of the black rat, Rattus rattus, the main reservoir of plague in Madagascar. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a comparative study of plague seroprevalence and genetic structure (15 microsatellite markers) in rat populations from four geographic areas differing in topology, each covering about 150–200 km2 within the Madagascan plague focus. The seroprevalence levels in the rat populations mimicked those previously reported for humans. As expected, rat populations clearly displayed a more marked genetic structure with increasing relief. However, the relationship between seroprevalence data and genetic structure differs between areas, suggesting that plague distribution is not related everywhere to the effective dispersal of rats. Conclusions/Significance Genetic diversity estimates suggested that plague epizootics had only a weak impact on rat population sizes. In the highlands of Madagascar, plague dissemination cannot be accounted for solely by the effective dispersal of the reservoir. Human social activities may also be involved in spreading the disease in rat and human populations. PMID:23755317

  4. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  5. Evaluating visibility of age spot and freckle based on simulated spectral reflectance distribution and facial color image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Misa; Toyota, Saori; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2018-02-01

    In this research, we evaluate the visibility of age spot and freckle with changing the blood volume based on simulated spectral reflectance distribution and the actual facial color images, and compare these results. First, we generate three types of spatial distribution of age spot and freckle in patch-like images based on the simulated spectral reflectance. The spectral reflectance is simulated using Monte Carlo simulation of light transport in multi-layered tissue. Next, we reconstruct the facial color image with changing the blood volume. We acquire the concentration distribution of melanin, hemoglobin and shading components by applying the independent component analysis on a facial color image. We reproduce images using the obtained melanin and shading concentration and the changed hemoglobin concentration. Finally, we evaluate the visibility of pigmentations using simulated spectral reflectance distribution and facial color images. In the result of simulated spectral reflectance distribution, we found that the visibility became lower as the blood volume increases. However, we can see that a specific blood volume reduces the visibility of the actual pigmentations from the result of the facial color images.

  6. Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Blanco-Rojo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142. Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC. Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene; rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene; and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively. Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26; women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59 and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57. Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001. In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.

  7. Influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status: a cross-sectional study in Spanish women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; López-Parra, Ana M; Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2014-03-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.

  8. Influenza mortality in the United States, 2009 pandemic: burden, timing and age distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In April 2009, the most recent pandemic of influenza A began. We present the first estimates of pandemic mortality based on the newly-released final data on deaths in 2009 and 2010 in the United States. METHODS: We obtained data on influenza and pneumonia deaths from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS. Age- and sex-specific death rates, and age-standardized death rates, were calculated. Using negative binomial Serfling-type methods, excess mortality was calculated separately by sex and age groups. RESULTS: In many age groups, observed pneumonia and influenza cause-specific mortality rates in October and November 2009 broke month-specific records since 1959 when the current series of detailed US mortality data began. Compared to the typical pattern of seasonal flu deaths, the 2009 pandemic age-specific mortality, as well as influenza-attributable (excess mortality, skewed much younger. We estimate 2,634 excess pneumonia and influenza deaths in 2009-10; the excess death rate in 2009 was 0.79 per 100,000. CONCLUSIONS: Pandemic influenza mortality skews younger than seasonal influenza. This can be explained by a protective effect due to antigenic cycling. When older cohorts have been previously exposed to a similar antigen, immune memory results in lower death rates at older ages. Age-targeted vaccination of younger people should be considered in future pandemics.

  9. Impact of Tile Drainage on the Distribution of Concentration and Age of Inorganic Soil Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, D.; Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Extensive network of tile drainage network across the Midwestern United States, northern Europe and other regions of the world have enhanced agricultural productivity. Because of its impact on sub-surface flow patterns and moisture and temperature dynamics, it controls the nitrogen cycle in agricultural systems, and its influence on nitrogen dynamics plays a key role in determining the short- and long-term evolution of soil inorganic nitrogen concentration and age. The spatial mapping of nitrogen concentration and age under tile-drained fields has, therefore, the potential to open up novel solution to the vexing challenge of reducing environmental impacts while at the same time maintaining agricultural productivity. The objective of this study is to explore the impacts of tile drains on the age dynamics of nitrate, immobile ammonium, mobile ammonia/um, and non-reactive tracer (such as chloride) by implementing two mobile interacting pore domains to capture matrix and preferential flow paths in a coupled ecohydrology and biogeochemistry model, Dhara. We applied this model to an agricultural farm supporting a corn-soybean rotation in the Midwestern United States. It should be expected that the installation of tile drains decrease the age of soil nutrient due to nutrient losses through tile drainage. However, an increase in the age of mobile ammonia/um is observed in contrast to the cases for nitrate, immobile ammonium, and non-reactive tracer. These results arise because the depletion of mobile ammonia/um due to tile drainage causes a high mobility flux from immobile ammonium to mobile ammonia/um, which also carries a considerable amount of relatively old age of immobile ammonium to mobile ammonia/um. In addition, the ages of nitrate and mobile ammonia/um in tile drainage range from 1 to 3 years, and less than a year, respectively, implying that not considering age transformations between nitrogen species would result in substantial underestimation of nitrogen ages

  10. The multivariate Dirichlet-multinomial distribution and its application in forensic genetics to adjust for subpopulation effects using the θ-correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the construction of a multivariate generalisation of the Dirichlet-multinomial distribution. An example from forensic genetics in the statistical analysis of DNA mixtures motivates the study of this multivariate extension. In forensic genetics, adjustment of the match...... probabilities due to remote ancestry in the population is often done using the so-called θ-correction. This correction increases the probability of observing multiple copies of rare alleles in a subpopulation and thereby reduces the weight of the evidence for rare genotypes. A recent publication by Cowell et al....... (2015) showed elegantly how to use Bayesian networks for efficient computations of likelihood ratios in a forensic genetic context. However, their underlying population genetic model assumed independence of alleles, which is not realistic in real populations. We demonstrate how the so-called θ...

  11. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Heid (Iris); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J.C. Randall (Joshua); T.W. Winkler (Thomas); L. Qi (Lu); V. Ssteinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); G. Tthorleifsson (Ggudmar); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); E.K. Sspeliotes (Eelizabeth); R. Mägi (Reedik); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); C.C. White (Charles); N. Bouatia-Naji (Nabila); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); E. Ingelsson (Erik); C.J. Willer (Cristen); J. Luan; S. Vedantam (Sailaja); T. Eesko (Tõnu); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); S. Li (Shengxu); K.L. Monda (Keri); A.L. Dixon (Anna); C. Holmes (Christopher); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); L. Liang (Liming); J. Min (Josine); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); C. Molony (Cliona); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); E.E. Sschadt (Eeric); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); T. Ferreira (Teresa); H.L. Allen; R.J. Weyant (Robert); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); A.R. Wood (Andrew); K. Eestrada (Karol); M.E. Goddard (Michael); G. Lettre (Guillaume); M. Mangino (Massimo); D.R. Nyholt (Dale); S. Purcell (Shaun); A.V. Ssmith; P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); S.A. McCcarroll (Ssteven); J. Nemesh (James); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); T. Aspelund (Thor); L. Coin (Lachlan); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); C. Hayward (Caroline); N. Heard-Ccosta (Nancy); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); A. Johansson (Åsa); T. Johnson (Toby); M. Kaakinen (Marika); K. Kapur (Karen); S. Ketkar (Shamika); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); P. Kraft (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); C. Lamina (Claudia); M.F. Leitzmann (Michael); B. McKknight (Barbara); A.D. Morris (Andrew); K. Oong (Ken); J.R.B. Perry (John); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); O. Polasek (Ozren); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); S. Ripatti (Samuli); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); N.R. Robertson (Neil); S. Sanna (Serena); U. Sovio (Ulla); I. Surakka (Ida); A. Teumer (Alexander); S. van Wingerden (Sophie); V. Vitart (Veronique); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); C. Cavalcanti-Proença (Christine); P.S. Chines (Peter); E. Fisher (Eeva); J.R. Kulzer (Jennifer); C. Lecoeur (Cécile); N. Narisu (Narisu); C. Sandholt (Camilla); L.J. Scott (Laura); K. Silander (Kaisa); K. Stark (Klaus); M.L. Tammesoo; T.M. Teslovich (Tanya); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); R.P. Welch (Ryan); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.N. Cooper (Matthew); J.O. Jansson; J. Kettunen (Johannes); R. Wlawrence (Robert); N. Pellikka (Niina); M. Perola (Markus); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); H. Alavere (Helene); P. Almgren (Peter); L.D. Atwood (Larry); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R. Biffar (Reiner); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); T.A. Buchanan (Thomas); H. Campbell (Harry); I.N.M. Day (Ian); M. Dei (Mariano); M. Dörr (Marcus); P. Eelliott (Paul); M.R. Eerdos (Micheal); J.G. Eeriksson (Johan); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); M. Fu (Mao); S. Gaget (Stefan); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); A.P. Gjesing (Anette); H. Grallert (Harald); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); C.J. Groves (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); A.L. Hartikainen; N. Hassanali (Neelam); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); K.H. Herzig; A.A. Hicks (Andrew); J. Hui (Jennie); W. Igl (Wilmar); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); E. Kajantie (Eero); L. Kinnunen (Leena); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S. Koskinen (Seppo); P. Kovacs (Peter); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); V. Krzelj (Vjekoslav); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); K. Kvaløy (Kirsti); J. Laitinen (Jaana); O. Lantieri (Olivier); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); M.L. Lokki; R.N. Luben (Robert); B. Ludwig (Barbara); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); A. McCcarthy (Anne); M.A. Morken (Mario); M. Nelis (Mari); M.J. Neville (Matthew); G. Paré (Guillaume); A.N. Parker (Alex); J. Peden (John); I. Pichler (Irene); K.H. Pietilainen (Kirsi Hannele); C.P. Platou (Carl); A. Pouta (Anneli); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); J. Sinisalo (Juha); J.H. Smit (Jan); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); H.M. Stringham (Heather); A.J. Swift (Amy); M. Teder-Llaving (Maris); B. Thomson (Brian); G. Usala; J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); G.J. van Ommen (Gert); V. Vatin (Vincent); C.B. Volpato; H. Wallaschofski (Henri); G.B. Walters (Bragi); E. Widen (Elisabeth); S.H. Wild (Sarah); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); D.R. Witte (Deniel); L. Zgaga (Lina); P. Zitting (Paavo); J.P. Beilby (John); A. James (Alan); M. Kähönen (Mika); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); M.S. Nieminen (Markku); C. Ohlsson (Claes); C. Palmer (Cameron); O. Raitakari (Olli); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A. Tönjes (Anke); J. Viikari (Jorma); B. Balkau (Beverley); Y. Ben-Shlomo; R.N. Bergman (Richard); H. Boeing (Heiner); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); S. Eebrahim (Shah); P. Froguel (Philippe); T. Hansen (Torben); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); K. Hveem (Kristian); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Jørgensen (Torben); F. Karpe (Fredrik); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); M. Laakso (Markku); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); M. Marre (Michel); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Metspalu (Andres); K. Midthjell (Kristian); O. Pedersen (Oluf); V. Salomaa (Veikko); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); T.T. Valle (Timo); N.J. Wareham (Nick); A.M. Arnold (Alice); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Caulfield (Mark); F.S. Collins (Francis); G. Eeiriksdottir (Gudny); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A. Hamsten (Anders); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); A. Hofman (Albert); F.B. Hu (Frank); T. Illig (Thomas); C. Iribarren (Carlos); M.R. Järvelin; W.H.L. Kao (Wen); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); L.J. Launer (Lenore); P. Munroe (Patricia); B.A. Oostra (Ben); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); T. Quertermous (Thomas); A. Rissanen (Aila); I. Rudan (Igor); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A.C. Syvanen; M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A.F. Wright (Alan); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); T. Haritunians (Talin); D.J. Hunter (David); K.E. North (Kari); J.R. O'Cconnell (Jeffrey); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger; D.P. Strachan (David); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); K. Stefansson (Kari); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); I.E. Barroso (Inês); C.S. Fox (Caroline); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); M.N. Weedon (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWaist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association

  12. Holocene re-colonisation, central-marginal distribution and habitat specialisation shape population genetic patterns within an Atlantic European grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, D E V; Jentsch, A; Durka, W

    2015-05-01

    Corynephorus canescens (L.) P.Beauv. is an outbreeding, short-lived and wind-dispersed grass species, highly specialised on scattered and disturbance-dependent habitats of open sandy sites. Its distribution ranges from the Iberian Peninsula over Atlantic regions of Western and Central Europe, but excludes the two other classical European glacial refuge regions on the Apennine and Balkan Peninsulas. To investigate genetic patterns of this uncommon combination of ecological and biogeographic species characteristics, we analysed AFLP variation among 49 populations throughout the European distribution range, expecting (i) patterns of SW European glacial refugia and post-glacial expansion to the NE; (ii) decreasing genetic diversity from central to marginal populations; and (iii) interacting effects of high gene flow and disturbance-driven genetic drift. Decreasing genetic diversity from SW to NE and distinct gene pool clustering imply refugia on the Iberian Peninsula and in western France, from where range expansion originated towards the NE. High genetic diversity within and moderate genetic differentiation among populations, and a significant pattern of isolation-by-distance indicate a gene flow drift equilibrium within C. canescens, probably due to its restriction to scattered and dynamic habitats and limited dispersal distances. These features, as well as the re-colonisation history, were found to affect genetic diversity gradients from central to marginal populations. Our study emphasises the need for including the specific ecology into analyses of species (re-)colonisation histories and range centre-margin analyses. To account for discontinuous distributions, new indices of marginality were tested for their suitability in studies of centre-periphery gradients. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Genetic and experimental evidence for a mixed-age, mixed-origin bank of kelp microscopic stages in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Laura T; Bohonak, Andrew J; Edwards, Matthew S; Alberto, Filipe

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that the microscopic stages of kelps can rapidly resume development from a delayed state. Like terrestrial seeds or aquatic resting eggs, banks of delayed kelp stages may supplement population recovery after periods of stress, playing an important role for kelp populations that experience adult sporophyte absences due to seasonal or interannual disturbances. We found that removing the microscopic stages from natural rock substratum could prevent the appearance of juvenile kelp sporophytes for three months and the establishment of a diverse kelp assemblage for over four months within a southern California kelp forest. Juveniles were observed within one month in plots where microscopic stages were left intact, which may confer an advantage for the resulting sporophytes as they attain larger sizes before later recruiting neighbors. Microsatellite diversity was high (expected heterozygosity HE approximately 0.9) for juveniles and adults within our sites. Using a microsatellite-based parentage analysis for the dominant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, we estimated that a portion of the new M. pyrifera sporophyte recruits had originated from their parents at least seven months after their parents had disappeared. Similar delay durations have been demonstrated in recent laboratory studies. Additionally, our results suggest that zoospore dispersal distances > 50 m may be supported by including additional microsatellite loci in the analysis. We propose a mixed-age and, potentially, a mixed-origin bank of M. pyrifera gametophytes promotes maximal genetic diversity in recovering populations and reduces population genetic subdivision and self-fertilization rates for intact populations by promoting the survival of zoospores dispersed > 10 m and during inhospitable environmental conditions.

  14. In vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidies in advanced maternal age: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carmen; Bellver, José; Rodrigo, Lorena; Castillón, Gema; Guillén, Alfredo; Vidal, Carmina; Giles, Juan; Ferrando, Marcos; Cabanillas, Sergio; Remohí, José; Pellicer, Antonio; Simón, Carlos

    2017-05-01

    To determine the clinical value of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy screening (PGD-A) in women of advanced maternal age (AMA; between 38 and 41 years). This was a multicenter, randomized trial with two arms: a PGD-A group with blastocyst transfer, and a control group with blastocyst transfer without PGD-A. Private reproductive centers. A total of 326 recruited patients fit the inclusion criteria, and 205 completed the study (100 in the PGD-A group and 105 in the control group). Day-3 embryo biopsy, array comparative genomic hybridization, blastocyst transfer, and vitrification. Primary outcomes were delivery and live birth rates in the first transfer and cumulative outcome rates. The PGD-A group exhibited significantly fewer ETs (68.0% vs. 90.5% for control) and lower miscarriage rates (2.7% vs. 39.0% for control). Delivery rate after the first transfer attempt was significantly higher in the PGD-A group per transfer (52.9% vs 24.2%) and per patient (36.0% vs. 21.9%). No significant differences were observed in the cumulative delivery rates per patient 6 months after closing the study. However, the mean number of ETs needed per live birth was lower in the PGD-A group compared with the control group (1.8 vs. 3.7), as was the time to pregnancy (7.7 vs. 14.9 weeks). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy screening is superior compared with controls not only in clinical outcome at the first ET but also in dramatically decreasing miscarriage rates and shortening the time to pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lipid-laden cells differentially distributed in the aging brain are functionally active and correspond to distinct phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Marilia Kimie; Langhi, Larissa Gutman Paranhos; Cordeiro, Ingrid; Brito, José M; Batista, Claudia Maria de Castro; Mattson, Mark P; Mello Coelho, Valeria de

    2016-03-31

    We characterized cerebral Oil Red O-positive lipid-laden cells (LLC) of aging mice evaluating their distribution, morphology, density, functional activities and inflammatory phenotype. We identified LLC in meningeal, cortical and neurogenic brain regions. The density of cerebral LLC increased with age. LLC presenting small lipid droplets were visualized adjacent to blood vessels or deeper in the brain cortical and striatal parenchyma of aging mice. LLC with larger droplets were asymmetrically distributed in the cerebral ventricle walls, mainly located in the lateral wall. We also found that LLC in the subventricular region co-expressed beclin-1 or LC3, markers for autophagosome or autophagolysosome formation, and perilipin (PLIN), a lipid droplet-associated protein, suggesting lipophagic activity. Some cerebral LLC exhibited β galactosidase activity indicating a senescence phenotype. Moreover, we detected production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in cortical PLIN(+) LLC. Some cortical NeuN(+) neurons, GFAP(+) glia limitans astrocytes, Iba-1(+) microglia and S100β(+) ependymal cells expressed PLIN in the aging brain. Our findings suggest that cerebral LLC exhibit distinct cellular phenotypes and may participate in the age-associated neuroinflammatory processes.

  16. Lipid-laden cells differentially distributed in the aging brain are functionally active and correspond to distinct phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Marilia Kimie; Langhi, Larissa Gutman Paranhos; Cordeiro, Ingrid; Brito, José M.; Batista, Claudia Maria de Castro; Mattson, Mark P.; de Mello Coelho, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    We characterized cerebral Oil Red O-positive lipid-laden cells (LLC) of aging mice evaluating their distribution, morphology, density, functional activities and inflammatory phenotype. We identified LLC in meningeal, cortical and neurogenic brain regions. The density of cerebral LLC increased with age. LLC presenting small lipid droplets were visualized adjacent to blood vessels or deeper in the brain cortical and striatal parenchyma of aging mice. LLC with larger droplets were asymmetrically distributed in the cerebral ventricle walls, mainly located in the lateral wall. We also found that LLC in the subventricular region co-expressed beclin-1 or LC3, markers for autophagosome or autophagolysosome formation, and perilipin (PLIN), a lipid droplet-associated protein, suggesting lipophagic activity. Some cerebral LLC exhibited β galactosidase activity indicating a senescence phenotype. Moreover, we detected production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in cortical PLIN+ LLC. Some cortical NeuN+ neurons, GFAP+ glia limitans astrocytes, Iba-1+ microglia and S100β+ ependymal cells expressed PLIN in the aging brain. Our findings suggest that cerebral LLC exhibit distinct cellular phenotypes and may participate in the age-associated neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:27029648

  17. Age-associated distribution of normal B-cell and plasma cell subsets in peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, E. (Elena); M. Perez-Andres; Arriba-Méndez, S. (Sonia); Contreras-Sanfeliciano, T. (Teresa); I. Criado (Ignacio); Pelak, O. (Ondrej); Serra-Caetano, A. (Ana); A. Romero (Alfonso); N. Puig (Noemí); Remesal, A. (Ana); Torres Canizales, J. (Juan); E. Lopez-Granados (Eduardo); T. Kalina (Tomas); Sousa, A.E. (Ana E.); M.C. van Zelm (Menno); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); Orfao, A. (Alberto)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Humoral immunocompetence develops stepwise throughout life and contributes to individual susceptibility to infection, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and neoplasia. Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) isotype serum levels can partly explain such age-related differences, but

  18. The age distribution of mortality due to influenza: pandemic and peri-pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza is said to 'shift mortality' to younger age groups; but also to spare a subpopulation of the elderly population. Does one of these effects dominate? Might this have important ramifications? Methods We estimated age-specific excess mortality rates for all-years for which data were available in the 20th century for Australia, Canada, France, Japan, the UK, and the USA for people older than 44 years of age. We modeled variation with age, and standardized estimates to allow direct comparison across age groups and countries. Attack rate data for four pandemics were assembled. Results For nearly all seasons, an exponential model characterized mortality data extremely well. For seasons of emergence and a variable number of seasons following, however, a subpopulation above a threshold age invariably enjoyed reduced mortality. 'Immune escape', a stepwise increase in mortality among the oldest elderly, was observed a number of seasons after both the A(H2N2) and A(H3N2) pandemics. The number of seasons from emergence to escape varied by country. For the latter pandemic, mortality rates in four countries increased for younger age groups but only in the season following that of emergence. Adaptation to both emergent viruses was apparent as a progressive decrease in mortality rates, which, with two exceptions, was seen only in younger age groups. Pandemic attack rate variation with age was estimated to be similar across four pandemics with very different mortality impact. Conclusions In all influenza pandemics of the 20th century, emergent viruses resembled those that had circulated previously within the lifespan of then-living people. Such individuals were relatively immune to the emergent strain, but this immunity waned with mutation of the emergent virus. An immune subpopulation complicates and may invalidate vaccine trials. Pandemic influenza does not 'shift' mortality to younger age groups; rather, the mortality level is reset by the virulence

  19. Low Birth Weight, Very Low Birth Weight Rates and Gestational Age-Specific Birth Weight Distribution of Korean Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Son-Moon; Chang, Young-Pyo; Lee, Eun-Sil; Lee, Young-Ah; Son, Dong-Woo; Kim, Min-Hee; Choi, Young-Ryoon

    2005-01-01

    To obtain the low birth weight (LBW) rate, the very low birth weight (VLBW) rate, and gestational age (GA)-specific birth weight distribution based on a large population in Korea, we collected and analyzed the birth data of 108,486 live births with GA greater than 23 weeks for 1 yr from 1 January to 31 December 2001, from 75 hospitals and clinics located in Korea. These data included birth weight, GA, gender of the infants, delivery type, maternal age, and the presence of multiple pregnancy. ...

  20. Age-related changes of MAO-A and -B distribution in human and mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, N; Andrés, N; Andrade, C; Saura, J

    2000-01-01

    Age-related changes of MAO-A and -B were studied in human and BL/C57 mouse brain areas (substantia nigra, putamen and cerebellum). [3H]Ro41-1049 and [3H]lazabemide were used as selective radioligands to image and quantify MAO-A and MAO-B respectively by enzyme autoradiography. MAO-A binding was higher in mouse, whereas MAO-B binding was higher in human. With aging, mouse MAO-A was significantly reduced between 4 and 8 weeks and remained unchanged until 19 months followed by a slight increase between 19 and 25 months. In contrast, no clear variation was observed in humans between the age of 17-93 years. In most of the structures studied a clear age-related increase in MAO-B was observed beginning in mouse brain at 4 weeks, whereas in human tissue this increase started at the age of 50-60 years. These results show marked differences in the levels and variations of mouse and human MAO-A and -B associated with aging and should be taken into account when extrapolating experimental data from mouse to human.

  1. Characteristic of intraocular pressure distribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Qin Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze of characteristic of intraocular pressure(IOPdistribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more and its correlative factors such as ages, gender and anterior chamber depth in Tibetan plateau area. METHODS: A total of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older from the towns and villages of Qushui County were divided into four age groups: ≥40~RESULTS: The mean IOP of 1115(2145 eyesTibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older was 12.9±2.7mmHg, 13.2±2.8mmHg in men and 12.7±2.5mmHg in women. The results showed that the participants with anterior chamber depth of 1/2 corneal thickness had 68.8% in 1115(2128 eyesTibetan permanent residents and anterior chamber depth decreases significantly with age(PPCONCLUSION: The mean IOP of plateau subjects was significantly lower from that of plain subjects by approximately 3 mmHg. There are lower pressure, deeper anterior chamber depth in this population of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents. The more attention should be paid to screening for glaucoma in high plateau.

  2. Genetic analyses place most Spanish isolates of Beauveria bassiana in a molecular group with word-wide distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic anamorphic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent (BCA) of insects. Fifty-seven Beauveria bassiana isolates -53 from Spain- were characterized, integrating group I intron insertion patterns at the 3'-end of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal gene (LSU rDNA) and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α) phylogenetic information, in order to assess the genetic structure and diversity of this Spanish collection of B. bassiana. Results Group I intron genotype analysis was based on the four highly conserved insertion sites of the LSU (Ec2653, Ec2449, Ec2066, Ec1921). Of the 16 possible combinations/genotypes, only four were detected, two of which were predominant, containing 44 and 9 members out of 57 isolates, respectively. Interestingly, the members of the latter two genotypes showed unique differences in their growth temperatures. In follow, EF1-α phylogeny served to classify most of the strains in the B. bassiana s.s. (sensu stricto) group and separate them into 5 molecular subgroups, all of which contained a group I intron belonging to the IC1 subtype at the Ec1921 position. A number of parameters such as thermal growth or origin (host, geographic location and climatic conditions) were also examined but in general no association could be found. Conclusion Most Spanish B. bassiana isolates (77.2%) are grouped into a major phylogenetic subgroup with word-wide distribution. However, high phylogenetic diversity was also detected among Spanish isolates from close geographic zones with low climatic variation. In general, no correlation was observed between the molecular distribution and geographic origin or climatic characteristics where the Spanish B. bassiana isolates were sampled. PMID:21521527

  3. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  4. Ice age distriutions of European small mammals: insights from species distribution modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløjgaard, Camilla; Normand, Signe; Skov, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    limits corresponding to the limits of temperate or boreal forest or arctic tundra were used in the analysis. We developed predictive distribution models based on the species present-day European distributions and validated these against their present-day Siberian ranges. The models with the best...... lemmus and Microtus oeconomus), suitable climate was predicted from the Atlantic coast eastward across central Europe and into Russia. Main conclusions. Our results support the idea of more northerly refuge areas in Europe, indicating that boreal species would have found suitable living conditions over...

  5. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  6. Optimal Placement and Sizing of Fault Current Limiters in Distributed Generation Systems Using a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bayati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Generation (DG connection in a power system tends to increase the short circuit level in the entire system which, in turn, could eliminate the protection coordination between the existing relays. Fault Current Limiters (FCLs are often used to reduce the short-circuit level of the network to a desirable level, provided that they are dully placed and appropriately sized. In this paper, a method is proposed for optimal placement of FCLs and optimal determination of their impedance values by which the relay operation time, the number and size of the FCL are minimized while maintaining the relay coordination before and after DG connection. The proposed method adopts the removal of low-impact FCLs and uses a hybrid Genetic Algorithm (GA optimization scheme to determine the optimal placement of FCLs and the values of their impedances. The suitability of the proposed method is demonstrated by examining the results of relay coordination in a typical DG network before and after DG connection.

  7. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  8. Stress distributions due to hydrogen concentrations in electrochemically charged and aged austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenak, P.; Loew, A.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of hydrogen concentration gradients in type austenitic stainless steels, formed during electrochemical charging and followed by hydrogen loss during aging, at room temperature, surface stresses were developed. These stresses were measured by X-ray technique and the crack formation thus induced could be studied using equilibrium stress equations. After various electrochemical charging and aging times, X-ray diffraction patterns obtained from samples indicated that the reflected and broadened diffraction peaks are the result of the formation of a non-uniform but continuous solid solution in the austenitic matrix. Since both hydrogen penetrations during charging and hydrogen release during aging are diffusion controlled processes and huge hydrogen concentration gradients in the thin surface layer, at depths comparable with the depth of X-ray penetration, are observed. The non-uniform hydrogen concentration in the austenitic matrix, results to the non-uniform expansion of the atomic microstructure and latter inevitably leads to the development of internal stresses. The internal stresses development formulae's are very similar to those relating to non-uniform heating of the materials, where thermal stresses appear due to non-uniform expansion or contraction. The relevant well developed theory is applicable in our case of non-uniform hydrogen concentrations in a solid solution of electrochemically charged and aged austenitic matrix. A few cracks were present on the surface after some minutes of electrochemical charging and the severity of cracking increased as hydrogen was lost during subsequent aging. This is consistent with the expectation of high compressive stresses in the bulk of the specimen during charging and high tensile surface stresses (at the level of 1 x 10 11 Pa) during the aging process. These stresses can induce the formation of surface cracks during the aging process after electrochemical charging in the AISI 316 stainless steel

  9. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Behavioral Stability and Change in Children 6-36 months of Age Using Louisville Twin Study Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Finkel, Deborah; Turkheimer, Eric; Dickens, William

    2015-11-01

    The Infant Behavior Record (IBR) from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development has been used to study behavioral development since the 1960s. Matheny (1983) examined behavioral development at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months from the Louisville Twin Study (LTS). The extracted temperament scales included Task Orientation, Affect-Extraversion, and Activity. He concluded that monozygotic twins were more similar than same-sex dizygotic twins on these dimensions. Since this seminal work was published, a larger LTS sample and more advanced analytical methods are available. In the current analyses, Choleksy decomposition was applied to behavioral data (n = 1231) from twins 6-36 months. Different patterns of genetic continuity vs genetic innovations were identified for each IBR scale. Single common genetic and shared environmental factors explained cross-age twin similarity in the Activity scale. Multiple shared environmental factors and a single genetic factor coming on line at age 18 months contributed to Affect-Extraversion. A single shared environmental factor and multiple genetic factors explained cross-age twin similarity in Task Orientation.

  10. Stability of diameter distributions in a managed uneven-aged oak forest in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiming Wang; Paul S. Johnson; H. E. Garrett; Stephen R. Shifley

    1997-01-01

    We studied a privately owned 156,000-acre oak-dominated forest in the Ozark Highlands of southern Missouri. The forest has been managed by the single-tree selection method since 1952. Using 40 years of continuous forest inventory records, we analyzed the stability of the shape of tree diameter distributions at the forest-wide scale. Results show that for trees ...

  11. Assessing variation in skeletal production from surface death assemblages on the basis of age-frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasovych, Adam; Kidwell, Susan M.; Foygel Barber, Rina

    2015-04-01

    Age-frequency distributions of dead skeletal material that capture information on the elapsed time since death of individuals on the landscape or seabed provide decadal- to millennial-scale windows into the history of production and on the processes that lead to skeletal disintegration and burial. However, models quantifying the dynamics of skeletal loss assumed that skeletal production has been constant during accumulation of death assemblages. Here, we assess the joint effects of temporally-variable production and skeletal loss on the shape of postmortem age-frequency distributions. We show that the modes of such distributions will tend to be shifted to younger age cohorts relative to the true timing of past production pulses. This shift in the timing of a past production will be higher where loss rates are high and/or the rate of decline in production is slow. We apply the models combining the dynamic of loss and production to death assemblages with the deposit-feeding bivalve Nuculana taphria from the Southern California continental shelf, finding that (1) an onshore-offshore gradient in time averaging is dominated by a gradient in the timing of production, corresponding to the tracking of shallow-water habitats under a sea-level rise, and (2) model estimates of the timing of past production are in good agreement with an independent sea-level curve.

  12. Infection rate of toxoplasma gondii and age distribution in female patients with sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuhong; Dai Pei; Cui Liming; Zong Shan; Zuo Wenjing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the relationship between the infection of Toxoplasma gondii and female sterility. Methods: Toxoplasma gondii serum antibody were determined in 882 women with sterility (experimental group) and 107 normal bearing women (control group) by using ELISA. At the same time the differences of the infection with Toxoplasma gondii between the ages of the sterility women were analyzed. Results: The positive rate in experimental group was 15.87% (140/882), the positive rate in control group was 5.61% (6/107), remarkable difference was found between two groups (P<0.01). The infection rate in the different age groups (20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39 and ≥40) is 5.63%, 15.24%, 17.91%, 19.44% and 15.38%. Conclusion: Toxoplasma gondii infection may be one of the factors which can cause sterility, and the infection rates at different ages have no instinct differences. (authors)

  13. Growth rate and age distribution of deep-sea black corals in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.G.; Roark, E.B.; Buster, N.A.; Ross, Steve W.

    2011-01-01

    Black corals (order Antipatharia) are important long-lived, habitat-forming, sessile, benthic suspension feeders that are found in all oceans and are usually found in water depths greater than 30 m. Deep-water black corals are some of the slowest-growing, longest-lived deep-sea corals known. Previous age dating of a limited number of black coral samples in the Gulf of Mexico focused on extrapolated ages and growth rates based on skeletal 210Pb dating. Our results greatly expand the age and growth rate data of black corals from the Gulf of Mexico. Radiocarbon analysis of the oldest Leiopathes sp. specimen from the upper De Soto Slope at 300 m water depth indicates that these animals have been growing continuously for at least the last 2 millennia, with growth rates ranging from 8 to 22 µm yr–1. Visual growth ring counts based on scanning electron microscopy images were in good agreement with the 14C-derived ages, suggestive of annual ring formation. The presence of bomb-derived 14C in the outermost samples confirms sinking particulate organic matter as the dominant carbon source and suggests a link between the deep-sea and surface ocean. There was a high degree of reproducibility found between multiple discs cut from the base of each specimen, as well as within duplicate subsamples. Robust 14C-derived chronologies and known surface ocean 14C reservoir age constraints in the Gulf of Mexico provided reliable calendar ages with future application to the development of proxy records.

  14. Genetic counselling, BRCA1/2 status and clinico-pathologic characteristics of patients with ovarian cancer before 50 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvelbar Mirjam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia like in other countries, till recently, personal history of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC has not been included among indications for genetic counselling. Recent studies reported up to 17% rate of germinal BRCA1/2 mutation (gBRCA1/2m within the age group under 50 years at diagnosis. The original aim of this study was to invite to the genetic counselling still living patients with EOC under 45 years, to offer gBRCA1/2m testing and to perform analysis of gBRCA1/2m rate and of clinico-pathologic characteristics. Later, we added also the data of previously genetically tested patients with EOC aged 45 to 49 years.

  15. Genetics, mental illness, and complex disease: development and distribution of an interactive CD-ROM for genetic counselors. Final report for period 15 August 2000 - 31 December 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    2003-03-31

    "Genetics and Major Psychiatric Disorders: A Program for Genetic Counselors" provides an introduction to psychiatric genetics, with a focus on the genetics of common complex disease, for genetics professionals. The program is available as a CD-ROM and an online educational resource. The on-line version requires a direct internet connection. Each educational module begins with an interactive case study that raises significant issues addressed in each module. In addition, case studies provided throughout the educational materials support teaching of major concepts. Incorporated throughout the content are expert video clips, video clips from individuals affected by psychiatric illness, and optional "learn more" materials that offer greater depth about a particular topic. The structure of the CD-ROM permits self-navigation, but we have suggested a sequence that allows materials to build upon each other. At any point in the materials, users may pause and look up terms in the glossary or review the DSM-IV criteria for selected psychiatric disorders. A detailed site map is available for those who choose to self navigate through the content.

  16. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF YOUNG AND FIELD AGE OBJECTS WITH MASSES SPANNING THE STELLAR TO PLANETARY REGIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, 2800 Victory Blvd, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline; Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Van Gordon, Mollie M. [Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Looper, Dagny L. [Tisch School of the Arts, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    We combine optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared spectra and photometry to construct expanded spectral energy distributions for 145 field age (>500 Myr) and 53 young (lower age estimate <500 Myr) ultracool dwarfs (M6-T9). This range of spectral types includes very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass objects, providing fundamental parameters across both the hydrogen and deuterium burning minimum masses for the largest sample assembled to date. A subsample of 29 objects have well constrained ages as probable members of a nearby young moving group. We use 182 parallaxes and 16 kinematic distances to determine precise bolometric luminosities (L{sub bol}) and radius estimates from evolutionary models give semi-empirical effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) for the full range of young and field age late-M, L, and T dwarfs. We construct age-sensitive relationships of luminosity, temperature, and absolute magnitude as functions of spectral type and absolute magnitude to disentangle the effects of degenerate physical parameters such as T{sub eff}, surface gravity, and clouds on spectral morphology. We report bolometric corrections in J for both field age and young objects and find differences of up to a magnitude for late-L dwarfs. Our correction in Ks shows a larger dispersion but not necessarily a different relationship for young and field age sequences. We also characterize the NIR–MIR reddening of low gravity L dwarfs and identify a systematically cooler T{sub eff} of up to 300 K from field age objects of the same spectral type and 400 K cooler from field age objects of the same M{sub H} magnitude.

  17. Late biological effects of ionizing radiation as influenced by dose, dose rate, age at exposure and genetic sensitivity to neoplastic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Prine, J.R.; Tietjen, G.L.