WorldWideScience

Sample records for age discrimination

  1. Age Discrimination in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Rymkevitch; Claudia Villosio

    2007-01-01

    The Framework Directive on Equal Treatment in Employment and Occupation (2000/78/EC) included age as one of its prohibited grounds of discrimination. Member States were required to transpose this Directive by December 2003. In Italy age discrimination was explicitly regulated by means of Legislative Decree no. 216, 9 July 2003. The Decree introduced the new specific prohibition of discrimination, defining its application, exceptions and remedies. The purpose of this paper is to explore, in a ...

  2. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  3. Perceived age discrimination in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rippon, Isla; Kneale, Dylan; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: to examine perceived age discrimination in a large representative sample of older adults in England. Methods: this cross-sectional study of over 7,500 individuals used data from the fifth wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 52 years and older in England. Wave 5 asked respondents about the frequency of five everyday discriminatory situations. Participants who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their...

  4. International Comparison of Age Discrimination Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Joanna N

    2010-11-01

    European age discrimination legislation is discussed in the context of the US Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and related state laws. US law was originally introduced to protect productive older workers from age stereotypes, but more recently preventing age discrimination has become important as a means of keeping costs down on entitlement programs as the population ages. Changes in enforcement, penalties, exemptions, length of time to file, and burden of proof have changed the effects of the laws over time. The ADEA has had both positive effects on currently employed older workers and negative effects on the hiring of older workers. Enforcement and publicity are offered as possible explanations for the strength of these positive and negative effects. Age discrimination legislation in Europe, indicated in the Framework Directive 2000/78, is driven by economic and political considerations. European legislation calls for less enforcement and more exemptions than the corresponding US cases which could lead to smaller effects on employment. However, pensions, disability, unemployment, and social security potentially have a stronger effect on social norms for retirement age than does anti-discrimination legislation.

  5. 40 CFR 7.180 - Mediation of age discrimination complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation of age discrimination... Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 7.180 Mediation of age discrimination complaints. (a) The OCR will refer all accepted complaints alleging age discrimination to the Mediation Agency designated...

  6. Age Discrimination Against Older Workers in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Drury

    1994-01-01

    This paper aims to define the concept of age discrimination, to illustrate examples of age discriminatory practices across the European Union, and to describe some positive public policy measures to combat age discrimination.It draws on the results of the first European-wide study of age discrimination against older workers.1 National experts from 11 Member States of the EU examined various forms of age discrimination in their own country. More detailed information is needed, particularly on ...

  7. Temporal discrimination threshold with healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vesper Fe Marie Llaneza; Esquenazi, Alina; Villegas, Monica Anne Faye; Wu, Tianxia; Hallett, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest interstimulus interval at which a subject can perceive successive stimuli as separate. To investigate the effects of aging on TDT, we studied tactile TDT using the method of limits with 120% of sensory threshold in each hand for each of 100 healthy volunteers, equally divided among men and women, across 10 age groups, from 18 to 79 years. Linear regression analysis showed that age was significantly related to left-hand mean, right-hand mean, and mean of 2 hands with R-square equal to 0.08, 0.164, and 0.132, respectively. Reliability analysis indicated that the 3 measures had fair-to-good reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.4-0.8). We conclude that TDT is affected by age and has fair-to-good reproducibility using our technique. PMID:27255827

  8. Age, Cohort and Perceived Age Discrimination: Using the Life Course to Assess Self-Reported Age Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Pavalko, Eliza K.; Long, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Self-reported discrimination is linked to diminished well-being, but the processes generating these reports remain poorly understood. Employing the life course perspective, this paper examines the correspondence between expected age preferences for workers and perceived age discrimination among a nationally representative sample of 7,225 working…

  9. 29 CFR 35.10 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rules against age discrimination. 35.10 Section 35.10 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 35.10 Rules against age...

  10. The Employment Impact of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Paul W.; Register, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the macro employment effects of the federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act as amended. The results indicate mixed effects on the legislation on older workers and workers of traditional retirement age.

  11. 29 CFR 1614.201 - Age Discrimination in Employment Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age Discrimination in Employment Act. 1614.201 Section 1614.201 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL... Discrimination in Employment Act. (a) As an alternative to filing a complaint under this part, an...

  12. Age Discrimination in Employment Suits: A Practical Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J. Michael

    1979-01-01

    Focuses on those elements of an age discrimination suit that have traditionally presented the most difficulty for attorneys--burden of proof, bona fide occupational qualifications, and procedure matters among them. Available from West Virginia Law Review, W.V.U. Law Center, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506; sc $4.00. (Author/IRT)

  13. A geographical discrimination of Shanxi extra aged vinegars using polyalcohols as the discriminators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meizhong; Zheng, Yanjie; Xiong, Cen; Li, Bifang; Chen, Sujuan; Bai, Wenliang; Zeng, Yongting; Li, Yongle; Zhang, Xieguang

    2013-01-01

    A discrimination method based on polyalcohol determination was developed for authenticity of protected geographical indication (PGI) vinegars-Shanxi extra aged vinegar (SVs) in China. Six polyalcohols in vinegars including erythritol, arabitol, xylitol, inositol, mannitol, and sorbitol were selected as the PGI discriminators. GC/MS was used to analyze the polyalcohols in the SVs, Zhenjiang vinegars (ZVs), Kazuo aged vinegars (KVs), and other non-geographical indication protected vinegars (NVs). SVs can be distinguished from KVs by the chemical markers mannitol and sorbitol, although the production processes for both types of vinegars are similar. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish SVs from ZVs and NVs. The differences among the three kinds of vinegars shown by PCA results may be due to the higher erythritol content in SVs, and the inositol and mannitol in ZVs. This study also found that the amount of polyalcohols in Chinese vinegars increases with the acidity value only, regardless of the aging time. The overall results indicated that the polyalcohols can be practicable discriminators for SV discrimination.

  14. Employment Discrimination--Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967--Bona Fide Occupational Qualification--Hodgson v. Greyhound Lines, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Susan Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Examines the circuit court's decision in favor of Greyhound in a suit alleging that the company's refusal to accept applications for bus driver from persons under 35 violated the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA). Submits that the decision frustrates congressional intent by permitting arbitrary and unreasonable age discrimination. (JT)

  15. Discriminating Projections for Estimating Face Age in Wild Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Ricanek, Karl [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach to estimating the age of a human from a single uncontrolled image. Current face age estimation algorithms work well in highly controlled images, and some are robust to changes in illumination, but it is usually assumed that images are close to frontal. This bias is clearly seen in the datasets that are commonly used to evaluate age estimation, which either entirely or mostly consist of frontal images. Using pose-specific projections, our algorithm maps image features into a pose-insensitive latent space that is discriminative with respect to age. Age estimation is then performed using a multi-class SVM. We show that our approach outperforms other published results on the Images of Groups dataset, which is the only age-related dataset with a non-trivial number of off-axis face images, and that we are competitive with recent age estimation algorithms on the mostly-frontal FG-NET dataset. We also experimentally demonstrate that our feature projections introduce insensitivity to pose.

  16. Age Discrimination, Job Separation, and Employment Status of Older Workers: Evidence from Self-Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Richard W.; David Neumark

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the prevalence and consequences of age discrimination in the workplace by analyzing self-reports of discrimination by respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men. Age discrimination was reported in seven percent of our cases, during the period 1966-1980. Workers with positive reports were much more likely to separate from their employer and less likely to remain employed than workers who report no age discrimination. The estimated effect of reported discri...

  17. 43 CFR 17.301 - What is the purpose of DOI's age discrimination regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... general age discrimination regulations at 45 CFR part 90. The Act and the general regulations prohibit... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the purpose of DOI's age... Age General § 17.301 What is the purpose of DOI's age discrimination regulations? The purpose of...

  18. Not in Australia. Migration, work and age discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Simon; Fredvang, Marthe; Haapala, Irja

    2013-06-01

    Perceptions of older people are changing both nationally and internationally, with policy developments that emphasise the value of older workers and the extension of working life to accommodate a longer life-course. For national economies older workers produce benefits of increasing tax dollars and personal savings and reduce claims on the state through pensions. In terms of migration, older adults bring assets and other benefits generated elsewhere into the host economy, as skilled workers or as active retirees. It has also been argued that older societies may be more productive as a consequence of the contribution of older citizens. Nations that create barriers to older migration, such as is currently the case for Australia, run the risk not only of perpetuating age discrimination, but also of failing to take advantage of population change in a global context. The authors critically examine this area and raise a series of questions for future policy. PMID:23773254

  19. Trends and Patterns in Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) Charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schrader, Sarah; Nazarov, Zafar E

    2016-07-01

    The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) protects individuals aged 40 years and over from discrimination throughout the employment process. Using data on ADEA charges from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission from 1993 to 2010, we present labor force-adjusted charge rates demonstrating that the highest charge rates are among those in the preretirement age range, and only the rate of charges among those aged 65 years and older has not decreased. We examine characteristics of ADEA charges including the prevalence of different alleged discriminatory actions (or issues) and highlight the increasing proportion of age discrimination charges that are jointly filed with other antidiscrimination statutes. Through a regression analysis, we find that the likelihood of citing various issues differs by charging party characteristics, such as age, gender, and minority status, and on charges that cite only age discrimination as compared to those that are jointly filed. Implications of these findings for employers are discussed. PMID:26168798

  20. Discrimination performance in aging is vulnerable to interference and dissociable from spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah A; Sacks, Patricia K; Turner, Sean M; Gaynor, Leslie S; Ormerod, Brandi K; Maurer, Andrew P; Bizon, Jennifer L; Burke, Sara N

    2016-07-01

    Hippocampal-dependent episodic memory and stimulus discrimination abilities are both compromised in the elderly. The reduced capacity to discriminate between similar stimuli likely contributes to multiple aspects of age-related cognitive impairment; however, the association of these behaviors within individuals has never been examined in an animal model. In the present study, young and aged F344×BN F1 hybrid rats were cross-characterized on the Morris water maze test of spatial memory and a dentate gyrus-dependent match-to-position test of spatial discrimination ability. Aged rats showed overall impairments relative to young in spatial learning and memory on the water maze task. Although young and aged learned to apply a match-to-position response strategy in performing easy spatial discriminations within a similar number of trials, a majority of aged rats were impaired relative to young in performing difficult spatial discriminations on subsequent tests. Moreover, all aged rats were susceptible to cumulative interference during spatial discrimination tests, such that error rate increased on later trials of test sessions. These data suggest that when faced with difficult discriminations, the aged rats were less able to distinguish current goal locations from those of previous trials. Increasing acetylcholine levels with donepezil did not improve aged rats' abilities to accurately perform difficult spatial discriminations or reduce their susceptibility to interference. Interestingly, better spatial memory abilities were not significantly associated with higher performance on difficult spatial discriminations. This observation, along with the finding that aged rats made more errors under conditions in which interference was high, suggests that match-to-position spatial discrimination performance may rely on extra-hippocampal structures such as the prefrontal cortex, in addition to the dentate gyrus. PMID:27317194

  1. Face and Object Discrimination in Autism, and Relationship to IQ and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Pamela M.; Cohen, Shereen J.; Dobkins, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested fine discrimination of upright and inverted faces and objects in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as compared to age- and IQ-matched controls. Discrimination sensitivity was tested using morphed faces and morphed objects, and all stimuli were equated in low-level visual characteristics (luminance, contrast,…

  2. 29 CFR 35.13 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: reasonable factors other than age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: reasonable factors other than age. 35.13 Section 35.13 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Standards for Determining...

  3. The Costs of Addressing Age Discrimination in Social Care (PSSRU Discussion Paper 2538)

    OpenAIRE

    Forder, Julien E.

    2008-01-01

    Historically PSS expenditure per head on older people using social care services has been lower than for other adult client groups. Along with a number of investigations, this difference is taken as a possible indicator of age discrimination in the deployment of services. The UK government is proceeding with the introduction of a Single Equality Bill during this Parliament. One of the proposals is to outlaw age discrimination in the provision of public services. This report seeks to gauge the...

  4. An experimental investigation of age discrimination in hiring in the English labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Riach, P.; Rich, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Carefully-matched pairs of written job applications were made to test for age discrimination in hiring. A twenty-one year-old and a thirty-nine year-old woman applied for jobs where a “new graduate” was sought; men aged twenty-seven and forty-seven, inquired about employment as waiters; women aged twenty-seven and forty-seven, inquired about employment in retail sales. The rate of net discrimination against the older graduate, and against the older waiters in their London inquiries, correspon...

  5. Age discrimination among basalt flows using digitally enhanced LANDSAT imagery. [Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    Digitally enhanced LANDSAT MSS data were used to discriminate among basalt flows of historical to Tertiary age, at a test site in Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Spectral signatures compared favorably with a field-defined classification that permits discrimination among five groups of basalt flows on the basis of geomorphic criteria. Characteristics that contributed to age definition include: surface texture, weathering, color, drainage evolution, and khabrah development. The inherent gradation in the evolution of geomorphic parameters, however, makes visual extrapolation between areas subjective. Therefore, incorporation of spectrally-derived volcanic units into the mapping process should produce more quantitatively consistent age groupings.

  6. Aging effects on discrimination learning, logical reasoning and memory in pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Lisa J; Virányi, Zsófia; Müller, Corsin A; Serisier, Samuel; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2016-02-01

    In laboratory dogs, aging leads to a decline in various cognitive domains such as learning, memory and behavioural flexibility. However, much less is known about aging in pet dogs, i.e. dogs that are exposed to different home environments by their caregivers. We used tasks on a touchscreen apparatus to detect differences in various cognitive functions across pet Border Collies aged from 5 months to 13 years. Ninety-five dogs were divided into five age groups and tested in four tasks: (1) underwater photo versus drawing discrimination, (2) clip art picture discrimination, (3) inferential reasoning by exclusion and (4) a memory test with a retention interval of 6 months. The tasks were designed to test three cognitive abilities: visual discrimination learning, logical reasoning and memory. The total number of sessions to reach criterion and the number of correction trials needed in the two discrimination tasks were compared across age groups. The results showed that both measures increased linearly with age, with dogs aged over 13 years displaying slower learning and reduced flexibility in comparison to younger dogs. Inferential reasoning ability increased with age, but less than 10 % of dogs showed patterns of choice consistent with inference by exclusion. No age effect was found in the long-term memory test. In conclusion, the discrimination learning tests used are suitable to detect cognitive aging in pet dogs, which can serve as a basis for comparison to help diagnose cognition-related problems and as a tool to assist with the development of treatments to delay cognitive decline.

  7. How old is old in allegations of age discrimination? The limitations of existing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Richard L; Farnum, Katlyn S

    2016-10-01

    Under Title VII, courts may give a mixed motive instruction allowing jurors to determine that defendants are liable for discrimination if an illegal factor (here: race, color, religion, sex, or national origin) contributed to an adverse decision. Recently, the Supreme Court held that to conclude that an employer discriminated against a worker because of age, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, unlike Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, requires "but for" causality, necessitating jurors to find that age was the determinative factor in an employer's adverse decision regarding that worker. Using a national online sample (N = 392) and 2 study phases, 1 to measure stereotypes, and a second to present experimental manipulations, this study tested whether older worker stereotypes as measured through the lens of the Stereotype Content Model, instruction type (but for vs. mixed motive causality), and plaintiff age influenced mock juror verdicts in an age discrimination case. Decision modeling in Phase 2 with 3 levels of case orientation (i.e., proplaintiff, prodefendant, and neutral) showed that participants relied on multiple factors when making a decision, as opposed to just 1, suggesting that mock jurors favor a mixed model approach to discrimination verdict decisions. In line with previous research, instruction effects showed that mock jurors found in favor of plaintiffs under mixed motive instructions but not under "but for" instructions especially for older plaintiffs (64- and 74-year-old as opposed to 44- and 54-year-old-plaintiffs). Most importantly, in accordance with the Stereotype Content Model theory, competence and warmth stereotypes moderated the instruction effects found for specific judgments. The results of this study show the importance of the type of legal causality required for age discrimination cases. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27227275

  8. How old is old in allegations of age discrimination? The limitations of existing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Richard L; Farnum, Katlyn S

    2016-10-01

    Under Title VII, courts may give a mixed motive instruction allowing jurors to determine that defendants are liable for discrimination if an illegal factor (here: race, color, religion, sex, or national origin) contributed to an adverse decision. Recently, the Supreme Court held that to conclude that an employer discriminated against a worker because of age, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, unlike Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, requires "but for" causality, necessitating jurors to find that age was the determinative factor in an employer's adverse decision regarding that worker. Using a national online sample (N = 392) and 2 study phases, 1 to measure stereotypes, and a second to present experimental manipulations, this study tested whether older worker stereotypes as measured through the lens of the Stereotype Content Model, instruction type (but for vs. mixed motive causality), and plaintiff age influenced mock juror verdicts in an age discrimination case. Decision modeling in Phase 2 with 3 levels of case orientation (i.e., proplaintiff, prodefendant, and neutral) showed that participants relied on multiple factors when making a decision, as opposed to just 1, suggesting that mock jurors favor a mixed model approach to discrimination verdict decisions. In line with previous research, instruction effects showed that mock jurors found in favor of plaintiffs under mixed motive instructions but not under "but for" instructions especially for older plaintiffs (64- and 74-year-old as opposed to 44- and 54-year-old-plaintiffs). Most importantly, in accordance with the Stereotype Content Model theory, competence and warmth stereotypes moderated the instruction effects found for specific judgments. The results of this study show the importance of the type of legal causality required for age discrimination cases. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967; A Report Covering Activities in Connection with the Act During 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This annual report on the Age Discrimination in Employment Act describes activities conducted under the Act in 1969. The Act prohibits discrimination in any of the terms of employment against individuals between 40 and 65 years of age. Coverage is extended to employers of 25 or more persons in occupations for which age is not a bona fide…

  10. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogliotti, C; Serniclaes, W; Messaoud-Galusi, S; Sprenger-Charolles, L

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of chronological age and reading level controls. Children identified and discriminated /do-to/ syllables along a voice onset time (VOT) continuum. Results showed that children with dyslexia discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs less accurately than did chronological age and reading level controls and also showed higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic contrasts. These results suggest that children with dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic units rather than phonemic units. The origin of allophonic perception in the course of perceptual development and its implication for reading acquisition are discussed. PMID:18462745

  11. Defenses under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act: Misinterpretation, Misdirection, and the 1978 Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, Mack A.

    1978-01-01

    Three exceptions or defenses to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 are analyzed--the bona fide occupational qualification, bona fide seniority system, and bona fide benefit plan. Available from Georgia Law Review, University of Georgia School of Law, Athens, Georgia 30602; sc $3.50. (IRT)

  12. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood.

  13. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney M. Weikum

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults’ ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood.

  14. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  15. 12 CFR 268.406 - Civil action: Title VII, Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Rehabilitation Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil action: Title VII, Age Discrimination in... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission § 268.406 Civil action: Title VII, Age Discrimination in... complaint is authorized under title VII, the ADEA and the Rehabilitation Act to file a civil action in...

  16. 29 CFR 1626.2 - Terms defined in the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terms defined in the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, as amended. 1626.2 Section 1626.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT § 1626.2 Terms defined...

  17. 29 CFR 1614.407 - Civil action: Title VII, Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Rehabilitation Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action: Title VII, Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Rehabilitation Act. 1614.407 Section 1614.407 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... Actions § 1614.407 Civil action: Title VII, Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Rehabilitation Act....

  18. Proportionality in Age Discrimination Cases - a Model Suitable for Socially Embedded Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Schiek, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of proportionality in age discrimination cases before the Court of Justice of the European Union. It argues that the Court does not use this concept systematically - indeed it exposes some contradiction that make the case law seem arbitrary - and proposes a more fruitful use of the principle, which is in line with a modern conception of human rights. The chapter argues that the principle of proportionality stems from the time when human rights served the recentl...

  19. Ageism and age discrimination in health care: Fact or fiction? A narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydd, Angela; Fleming, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Ageism and age discrimination are terms used in best practice statements and in the literature to define negative attitudes towards older people and towards people because of their age (whether old or young). However, 'old age' is a nebulous concept with definitions ranging from the over 50s to the over 85s. In seeking to explore ageism and age discrimination within health care, this paper discusses the concept of 'old' and discusses the findings of a narrative review of the literature on these two concepts. Results show that negative attitudes have been perceived by users of health care services, but the reasons are not clear. Such attitudes are usually reported in acute health care settings, where targets and quick turnover are encouraged. Thus people, usually those with complex needs, who require longer periods of recuperation and rehabilitation following an episode of ill health, are troublesome to staff working in a system geared up for early discharges. This type of service user is usually over the age of 85. Recommendations from this paper include the need for acute frailty units, with well trained staff, where frail older people can be comprehensively assessed, receive timely and targeted care, followed by a supported discharge.

  20. Auditory event-related brain potentials for an early discrimination between normal and pathological brain aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juliana Dushanova; Mario Christov

    2013-01-01

    The brain as a system with gradually decreasing resources maximizes its chances by reorganizing neural networks to ensure efficient performance. Auditory event-related potentials were recorded in 28 healthy volunteers comprising 14 young and 14 elderly subjects in auditory discrimination motor task (low frequency tone – right hand movement and high frequency tone – left hand movement). The amplitudes of the sensory event-related potential components (N1, P2) were more pronounced with increasing age for either tone and this effect for P2 amplitude was more pronounced in the frontal region. The latency relationship of N1 between the groups was tone-dependent, while that of P2 was tone-independent with a prominent delay in the elderly group over all brain regions. The amplitudes of the cognitive components (N2, P3) diminished with increasing age and the hemispheric asymmetry of N2 (but not for P3) reduced with increasing age. Prolonged N2 latency with increasing age was widespread for either tone while between-group difference in P3 latency was tone-dependent. High frequency tone stimulation and movement requirements lead to P3 delay in the elderly group. The amplitude difference of the sensory components between the age groups could be due to a general greater alertness, less expressed habituation, or decline in the ability to retreat attentional resources from the stimuli in the elderly group. With aging, a neural circuit reorganization of the brain activity affects the cognitive processes. The approach used in this study is useful for an early discrimination between normal and pathological brain aging for early treatment of cognitive alterations and dementia.

  1. Chronic Exposure to Everyday Discrimination and Sleep in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tené T.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have suggested that poor sleep may play a role in the association between discrimination and health, but studies linking experiences of discrimination to sleep are limited. The authors examined associations between reports of everyday discrimination over four years (chronic everyday discrimination) and subjective and objective indicators of poor sleep. Methods Participants were 368 African-American, Caucasian, and Chinese women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Everyday discrimination was assessed each year from baseline through the third follow-up exam via questionnaire with the Everyday Discrimination Scale (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient over four years=.90). Subjective sleep complaints were measured beginning in year 5 with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Objective indices of sleep continuity, duration, and architecture were assessed via in-home polysomnography (PSG), beginning in year 5. Results In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, race/ethnicity and financial strain, chronic everyday discrimination was associated with more subjective sleep complaints (Estimate =1.52, p<.001) and PSG-assessed wakefulness after sleep onset (Estimate=.19, p<.02), a marker of sleep continuity. Findings did not differ by race/ethnicity and remained significant after adjusting for menopausal status, body mass index, medication use and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Experiences of chronic everyday discrimination are independently associated with both subjective and objective indices of poor sleep. Findings add to the growing literature linking discrimination to key markers of biobehavioral health. PMID:23088174

  2. 29 CFR 35.12 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: normal operation or statutory objective of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: normal operation or statutory objective of any program or activity. 35.12 Section 35.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. Relative Age Effect in Elite Sports: Methodological Bias or Real Discrimination?

    CERN Document Server

    Delorme, Nicolas; Raspaud, Michel; 10.1080/17461390903271584

    2010-01-01

    Sport sciences researchers talk about a relative age effect when they observe a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, with an over-representation of those born at the beginning of the competitive year and an under-representation of those born at the end. Using the whole sample of the French male licensed soccer players (n = 1,831,524), our study suggests that there could be an important bias in the statistical test of this effect. This bias could in turn lead to falsely conclude to a systemic discrimination in the recruitment of professional players. Our findings question the accuracy of past results concerning the existence of this effect at the elite level.

  4. Discriminating lava flows of different age within Nyamuragira's volcanic field using spectral mixture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Canters, Frank; Solana, Carmen; Ma, Weiwei; Chen, Longqian; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2015-08-01

    In this study, linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) is used to characterize the spectral heterogeneity of lava flows from Nyamuragira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo, where vegetation and lava are the two main land covers. In order to estimate fractions of vegetation and lava through satellite remote sensing, we made use of 30 m resolution Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) imagery. 2 m Pleiades data was used for validation. From the results, we conclude that (1) LSMA is capable of characterizing volcanic fields and discriminating between different types of lava surfaces; (2) three lava endmembers can be identified as lava of old, intermediate and young age, corresponding to different stages in lichen growth and chemical weathering; (3) a strong relationship is observed between vegetation fraction and lava age, where vegetation at Nyamuragira starts to significantly colonize lava flows ∼15 years after eruption and occupies over 50% of the lava surfaces ∼40 years after eruption. Our study demonstrates the capability of spectral unmixing to characterize lava surfaces and vegetation colonization over time, which is particularly useful for poorly known volcanoes or those not accessible for physical or political reasons.

  5. Development of sampling efficiency and internal noise in motion detection and discrimination in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Helle K; Simpson, William A; Dutton, Gordon N

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use an equivalent noise paradigm to investigate the development and maturation of motion perception, and how the underlying limitations of sampling efficiency and internal noise effect motion detection and direction discrimination in school-aged children (5-14 years) and adults. Contrast energy thresholds of a 2c/deg sinusoidal grating drifting at 1.0 or 6.0 Hz were measured as a function of added dynamic noise in three tasks: detection of a drifting grating; detection of the sum of two oppositely drifting gratings and direction discrimination of oppositely drifting gratings. Compared to the ideal observer, in both children and adults, the performance for all tasks was limited by reduced sampling efficiency and internal noise. However, the thresholds for discrimination of motion direction and detection of moving gratings show very different developmental profiles. Motion direction discrimination continues to improve after the age of 14 years due to an increase in sampling efficiency that differs with speed. Motion detection and summation were already mature at the age of 5 years, and internal noise was the same for all tasks. These findings were confirmed in a 1-year follow-up study on a group of children from the initial study. The results support suggestions that the detection of a moving pattern and discriminating motion direction are processed by different systems that may develop at different rates. PMID:24732568

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE DISCRIMINATION, EDUCATION, AND DIVERSITY TRAINING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN THE UNITED STATES AND THAILAND

    OpenAIRE

    Bahaudin G. M ujtaba; Frank J. Cavico; Albert A. Williams; Jatuporn Sungkhawan

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript explores age discrimination in employment and the challenges that managers confront in seeking to establish and maintain a legal, ethical, and productive workplace. The data regarding age and older workers comes from 218 respondents in the United States and 379 respondents in Thailand. A factor analysis was done ; and the results demonstrate that race, gender, education, country where you live the most, country where you presently live, and diversity training were statisticall...

  7. 29 CFR 35.1 - What is the purpose of the Department of Labor (DOL) age discrimination regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is the purpose of the Department of Labor (DOL) age discrimination regulations? 35.1 Section 35.1 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR General § 35.1 What is the...

  8. Military Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that while a certain level of fairness is necessary in considering the equity of compulsory military service, the most important issue is that of "winning the war." Also asserts that sex, age, and race discrimination are more important than social class discrimination in military service. (Author/GC)

  9. AN INVESTIGATION OF DISCRIMINATION LEARNING ABILITY IN MONGOLOID AND NORMAL CHILDREN OF COMPARABLE MENTAL AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CANTOR, GORDON N.; GIRARDEAU, FREDERIC L.

    THIS INQUIRY INVESTIGATED DISCRIMINATION LEARNING PROCESSES IN TRAINABLE MONGOLOID CHILDREN AS COMPARED WITH NORMAL PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. ITS PURPOSE WAS TO CONTRIBUTE TO GENERAL BEHAVIOR THEORY AND TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY BY SEEING IF SUCH VARIABLES AS TRANSFER OF TRAINING, ACQUIRED DISTINCTIVENESS OF CUES, AND ACQUIRED EQUIVALENCE OF…

  10. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.

  11. Running rescues a fear-based contextual discrimination deficit in aged mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Melody V; Luna, Victor M.; Hen, René

    2015-01-01

    Normal aging and exercise exert extensive, often opposing, effects on the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus altering volume, synaptic function, and behaviors. The DG is especially important for behaviors requiring pattern separation—a cognitive process that enables animals to differentiate between highly similar contextual experiences. To determine how age and exercise modulate pattern separation in an aversive setting, young, aged, and aged mice provided with a running wheel were assayed...

  12. 77 FR 19080 - Disparate Impact and Reasonable Factors Other Than Age Under the Age Discrimination in Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... United States Supreme Court's decision in Smith v. City of Jackson.\\1\\ 73 FR 16807, Mar. 31, 2008. The... (``ADEA'') \\2\\ but that liability is precluded when the impact is attributable to a reasonable factor... address the meaning ] of ``reasonable factors other than age.'' 75 FR 7212, Feb. 18, 2010. The...

  13. Spatial discrimination deficits as a function of mnemonic interference in aged adults with and without memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagh, Zachariah M; Roberts, Jared M; Ly, Maria; DiProspero, Natalie; Murray, Elizabeth; Yassa, Michael A

    2014-03-01

    It is well established that aging is associated with declines in episodic memory. In recent years, an emphasis has emerged on the development of behavioral tasks and the identification of biomarkers that are predictive of cognitive decline in healthy as well as pathological aging. Here, we describe a memory task designed to assess the accuracy of discrimination ability for the locations of objects. Object locations were initially encoded incidentally, and appeared in a single space against a 5 × 7 grid. During retrieval, subjects viewed repeated object-location pairings, displacements of 1, 2, 3, or 4 grid spaces, and maximal corner-to-opposite-corner displacements. Subjects were tasked with judging objects in this second viewing as having retained their original location, or having moved. Performance on a task such as this is thought to rely on the capacity of the individual to perform hippocampus-mediated pattern separation. We report a performance deficit associated with a physically healthy aged group compared to young adults specific to trials with low mnemonic interference. Additionally, for aged adults, performance on the task was correlated with performance on the delayed recall portion of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), a neuropsychological test sensitive to hippocampal dysfunction. In line with prior work, dividing the aged group into unimpaired and impaired subgroups based on RAVLT Delayed Recall scores yielded clearly distinguishable patterns of performance, with the former subgroup performing comparably to young adults, and the latter subgroup showing generally impaired memory performance even with minimal interference. This study builds on existing tasks used in the field, and contributes a novel paradigm for differentiation of healthy from possible pathological aging, and may thus provide an avenue for early detection of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24167060

  14. Age Discrimination in the Allocation of Research Funds: The Dutch Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Stroebe

    2009-01-01

    The major funding source for fundamental scientific research in the Netherlands (NWO), reserves more than half of their research budget for grants for young researchers. Researchers, who received their doctorate more than 15 years ago, cannot apply. Apparently NWO believes in a negative correlation between age and scientific creativity or productivity. This article reviews research on this relationship and concludes that there is no evidence to support the myth that science is a young person?...

  15. Age Discrimination in Employment--The Bona Fide Occupational Qualification Defense--Balancing the Interest of the Older Worker in Acquiring and Continuing Employment against the Interest in Public Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Janet C.; Obee, John A.

    1978-01-01

    The judicial interpretations of age as a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 are examined. The applications, extension, and results of these interpretations, and alternate approaches to BFOQ analysis in age discrimination cases are discussed. (BH)

  16. Frequency distribution and discrimination probability of twelve protein genetic variants in human blood as functions of race, sex, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunbaum, B W; Selvin, S; Pace, N; Black, D M

    1978-07-01

    Fresh blood samples were obtained from 6004 whites, 1025 blacks, 1596 Chicano/Amerindians, and 3053 Asians of California and Hawaii. The samples were typed for ABO and Rh groups and were analyzed electrophoretically for ten genetically determined protein variant systems. The effects of race, age, and sex on phenotypic frequencies within each of the twelve genetic systems were investigated. Large frequency differences were found between races but not between different age and sex subgroups within races. It was also demonstrated that the twelve genetic systems behaved statistically independently. Discrimination probabilities were computed for each of the four ethnic groups. These serve as a measure of the effectiveness of the twelve genetic systems examined in individualizing blood samples. The method is discussed for computing the probability that a randomly chosen individual of a given ethnic group possesses the same blood phenotypes as found in a predetermined sample of blood. The results presented here should prove useful in the investigation of civil and criminal cases involving blood samples.

  17. Discriminating the effects of phylogenetic hypothesis, tree resolution and clade age estimates on phylogenetic signal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, G D S; Duarte, L D S; Debastiani, V J; Kindel, A; Jarenkow, J A

    2013-09-01

    Understanding how species traits evolved over time is the central question to comprehend assembly rules that govern the phylogenetic structure of communities. The measurement of phylogenetic signal (PS) in ecologically relevant traits is a first step to understand phylogenetically structured community patterns. The different methods available to estimate PS make it difficult to choose which is most appropriate. Furthermore, alternative phylogenetic tree hypotheses, node resolution and clade age estimates might influence PS measurements. In this study, we evaluated to what extent these parameters affect different methods of PS analysis, and discuss advantages and disadvantages when selecting which method to use. We measured fruit/seed traits and flowering/fruiting phenology of endozoochoric species occurring in Southern Brazilian Araucaria forests and evaluated their PS using Mantel regressions, phylogenetic eigenvector regressions (PVR) and K statistic. Mantel regressions always gave less significant results compared to PVR and K statistic in all combinations of phylogenetic trees constructed. Moreover, a better phylogenetic resolution affected PS, independently of the method used to estimate it. Morphological seed traits tended to show higher PS than diaspores traits, while PS in flowering/fruiting phenology depended mostly on the method used to estimate it. This study demonstrates that different PS estimates are obtained depending on the chosen method and the phylogenetic tree resolution. This finding has implications for inferences on phylogenetic niche conservatism or ecological processes determining phylogenetic community structure. PMID:23368095

  18. School age children with HIV/AIDS: possible discrimination and attitudes against

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Kurpas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Survey-based study what purpose was to analyse respondents’ opinions about contacts with HIV/AIDS-affected people. It was performed using a paper-pencil method during visits of respondents at primary care centres and on-line through a link to the questionnaire distributed among patients of primary care physicians. The study involved 302 respondents, 80% of whom were women; the average age was 34.48 years. The majority of respondents did not know anyone with HIV/AIDS (89.6%. About 83.3% claimed that they would not decrease contacts with HIV/AIDS-affected people. According to 64.1% of respondents, children with HIV/AIDS should go to kindergarten/public or non-public school. We selected a group of respondents, who previously were not but now are inclined to limit such contacts. These respondents can be a potential target group for HIV/AIDS educational programmes. Most respondents think that there is insufficient information about the HIV/AIDS in the mass media.

  19. Self-reported Experiences of Discrimination and Visceral Fat in Middle-aged African-American and Caucasian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Tené T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participan...

  20. Effects of leaf age within growth stages of pepper and sorghum plants on leaf thickness, water, chlorophyll, and light reflectance. [in spectral vegetation discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Berumen, A.

    1974-01-01

    Pepper and sorghum plants (characterized by porous and compact leaf mesophylls, respectively) were used to study the influence of leaf age on light reflectance. Measurements were limited to the upper five nodal positions within each growth stage, since upper leaves make up most of the reflectance surfaces remotely sensed. The increase in leaf thickness and water content with increasing leaf age was taken into consideration, since each of these factors affects the reflectance as well as the selection of spectral wavelength intervals for optimum discrimination of vegetation.

  1. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  2. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple model of conflict which is drive...

  3. Socially-tolerable discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  4. Rapid discrimination of cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata in different ages by FT-IR and 2DCOS-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Xu, Chang-hua; Huang, Jian; Li, Guo-yu; Liu, Xin-Hu; Sun, Su-qin; Wang, Jin-hui

    2014-07-01

    Deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata) root, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to treat lung ailments, rheumatism, menstrual disturbance and bruises with a long history in China and some other Asian countries. In this study, four types of Deodeok with different growth years were discriminated and identified by a Tri-step infrared spectroscopy method (Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (conventional FT-IR) coupled with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy(2DCOS-IR) under thermal perturbation. Although only small differences were found in the FT-IR spectra of the samples, the positions and intensities of peaks around 1736, 1634, 1246, 1055, 1033, 818, 779 cm-1 could be considered as the key factors for discriminating them. The differences among them were amplified by their SD-IR spectra. The 2DCOS-IR spectra provided obvious dynamic chemical structure information of Deodeok samples, which present different particular auto peak clusters in the range of 875-1130 cm-1 and 1170-1630 cm-1, respectively. It was demonstrated that the content of triterpene were decreasing when C. lanceolata were growing older, but the relative content of saccharides initially increased and decreased significantly afterwards. It indicated a general trend that the content of polysaccharides accumulated with increasing years. Specifically, the content of polysaccharides accumulated in the root of 2-year-old plant was the lowest, 4-years-old was the highest, and then the content decreased gradually. Furthermore, according to the differences of locations and intensities of auto-peaks in 2D-IR spectra, the integral changes of components were revealed. This study offers a promising method inherent with cost-effective and time-saving to characterize and discriminate the complicated system like Deodeok.

  5. The Feasibility of Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Discrimination of Aged Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinula edodes after Long-Term Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term storage can largely degrade the taste and quality of dried shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes. This paper aimed at developing a rapid method for discrimination of the regular and aged shiitake by near infrared (NIR spectroscopic analysis and chemometrics. Regular (n=197 and aged (n=133 samples of shiitake were collected from six main producing areas in two successive years (2013 and 2014. NIR reflectance spectra (4000–12000 cm−1 were measured with finely ground powders. Different data preprocessing method including smoothing, taking second-order derivatives (D2, and standard normal variate (SNV were investigated to reduce the unwanted spectral variations. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM were used to develop classification models. The results indicate that SNV and D2 can largely enhance the classification accuracy. The best sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of classification were 0.967, 0.953, and 0.961 obtained by SNV-LS-SVM and 0.933, 0.930, and 0.932 obtained by SNV-PLSDA, respectively. Moreover, the low model complexity and the high accuracy in predicting objects produced in different years demonstrate that the classification models had a good generalization performance.

  6. 75 FR 7212 - Definition of “Reasonable Factors Other Than Age” Under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... to reflect the Supreme Court's decision in Smith v. City of Jackson.\\1\\ 73 FR 16807, Mar. 31, 2008... authority). So, too, have lower courts. See Baskerville v. Culligan International Company, 50 F.3d 428, 432... stereotypes may not be distinct from age.\\53\\ The Supreme Court has recognized that the problem...

  7. Discriminant factors for adolescent sexual offending: On the usefulness of considering both victim age and sibling incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyal, Christian C; Carpentier, Julie; Martin, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the pathways and circumstances of juvenile sexual offending is of utmost importance. However, juvenile sexual offenders (JSO) represent an especially diverse group of individuals, and several categorizations have been proposed to obtain more homogeneous subgroups. Victim age-based and family relation-based categorizations are particularly promising because they seem theoretically and clinically relevant. Empirical results however are still inconsistent, and most studies have not considered these two dimensions jointly. The first goal of this study was to further examine the value of subgrouping JSO according to the age of their victim. A second goal was to determine the supplementary value, if any, of considering sibling incest. Based on a sample of 351 male JSO, it was first confirmed that sexual abuse of children was more strongly related to asociality (social skill deficits) than sexual abuse of peers, the latter being more closely associated with antisociality (general delinquency). The relevance of considering mixed-type JSO (with both child and peer victims) separately was also confirmed. More importantly, multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that adding sibling incest to the equation was useful. JSO of intra-familial child were significantly more likely to have been victimized during their own childhood compared to JSO with extra-familial victims. Nevertheless, adolescents who had committed sibling incest obtained middle ground results on most variables (except for crime severity), suggesting that they constitute a distinct but not extreme, subgroup. This study confirmed the utility of using both the age and the family relation with the victim in characterizing juvenile sexual offending.

  8. Discriminant factors for adolescent sexual offending: On the usefulness of considering both victim age and sibling incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyal, Christian C; Carpentier, Julie; Martin, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the pathways and circumstances of juvenile sexual offending is of utmost importance. However, juvenile sexual offenders (JSO) represent an especially diverse group of individuals, and several categorizations have been proposed to obtain more homogeneous subgroups. Victim age-based and family relation-based categorizations are particularly promising because they seem theoretically and clinically relevant. Empirical results however are still inconsistent, and most studies have not considered these two dimensions jointly. The first goal of this study was to further examine the value of subgrouping JSO according to the age of their victim. A second goal was to determine the supplementary value, if any, of considering sibling incest. Based on a sample of 351 male JSO, it was first confirmed that sexual abuse of children was more strongly related to asociality (social skill deficits) than sexual abuse of peers, the latter being more closely associated with antisociality (general delinquency). The relevance of considering mixed-type JSO (with both child and peer victims) separately was also confirmed. More importantly, multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that adding sibling incest to the equation was useful. JSO of intra-familial child were significantly more likely to have been victimized during their own childhood compared to JSO with extra-familial victims. Nevertheless, adolescents who had committed sibling incest obtained middle ground results on most variables (except for crime severity), suggesting that they constitute a distinct but not extreme, subgroup. This study confirmed the utility of using both the age and the family relation with the victim in characterizing juvenile sexual offending. PMID:26901696

  9. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as b

  10. "EEOC v. Board of Governors of State Colleges and Universities": Collective Bargaining Agreements and Age Discrimination in Employment Act Claims: What Counts as Retaliation under ADEA Section 4(D)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Edward C.

    1993-01-01

    Court litigation in which the claim (to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) that a faculty collective bargaining agreement violated the Age Discrimination in Employment Act is examined. Focus is on arbitration of wrongful termination cases. Conflicting judicial rationales applied in two cases are discussed, and a practical solution is…

  11. The left hand second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D does not discriminate world-class female gymnasts from age matched sedentary girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W Peeters

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D, a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. METHODS: In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129, competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129, alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy using AN(COVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. RESULTS: Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020 did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018, either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p0.01, somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01, mesomorphy (p<0.01 and ectomorphy (p<0.05 respectively all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. CONCLUSION: Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples, the present study cannot discriminate sedentary girls from world-class female gymnasts by means of the left hand 2D:4D ratio.

  12. Discrimination. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints series challenge readers to question their own opinions and assumptions. By reading carefully balanced views, readers confront new ideas on the topic of interest. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited job discrimination based on age, race, religion, gender, or national origin, provided the groundwork for…

  13. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  14. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  15. Effects of differential postnatal exposure of the rat cerebellum to x-rays on spatial discrimination learning as a function of age and position preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present research was to analyze the effects of postnatal exposure of the cerebellum to x-irradiation on the use of proprioceptive feedback in spatial learning. A total of 337 naive male Long-Evans hooded rats were assigned at birth to one of four treatments: 12-15x, 4-5x, 4-15x and control. Subjects assigned to the 12-15x treatment were exposed to 200R at 12 and 13 days of age, and to 150R at 15 days of age. The subjects exposed to the 4-5x schedule received 200R on days 4 and 5. The 4-15x subjects are exposed to 200R on days 4 and 5, and to 150R on days 7, 9, 11, 13, 15. Subjects from each treatment started spatial discrimination testing in a T-shaped water maze at 30 to 31, 60 to 63, or 180 to 185 days of age. A preference effect was evident in the control, 12-15x and 4-5x subjects, but not in the 4-15x subjects during acquisition testing. Those control, 12-15x and 4-5x subjects trained against their preference made more errors and required more trials to attain acquisition criterion than did those subjects trained toward their preference. The absence of a position preference in the 4-15x subjects is attributed to the absence of the mossy fiber channel of input to the Purkinje cells in this preparation. Deficits in spatial learning were evident in both the 12-15x and 4-15x subjects, the former differing significantly from control subjects and the latter from the 4-5x subjects in the number of trials needed to complete reversal testing and/or the number of errors made during this phase of the testing. It is the upper portion of the molecular layer, absent in the 12-15x and 4-15x preparations, which receives afferent input from the spinal cord

  16. Diversity, Discrimination, and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan S. Leonard; Levine, David I.

    2006-01-01

    Employee diversity may affect business performance both as a result of customer discrimination and as a result of how members of a group work with each other in teams. We test for both channels with data from more than 800 retail stores employing over 70,000 individuals matched to Census data on the demographics of the community. We find little payoff to matching employee demographics to those of potential customers except when the customers do not speak English. Although age diversity doe...

  17. Measuring Discrimination in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Rema Hanna; Leigh Linden

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate a methodology to measure discrimination in educational contexts. In India, we ran an exam competition through which children compete for a large financial prize. We recruited teachers to grade the exams. We then randomly assigned child "characteristics" (age, gender, and caste) to the cover sheets of the exams to ensure that there is no systematic relationship between the characteristics observed by the teachers and the quality of the exams. We find that teachers ...

  18. Discriminative capacity of bronchodilator response measured with three different lung function techniques in asthmatic and healthy children aged 2 to 5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    as compared with placebo in healthy control subjects. Lung function improved to a significantly greater extent in asthmatic children than in control subjects as reflected by all methods. sRaw provided the best discriminative power of such a bronchodilator response, with a sensitivity of 66% and specificity...

  19. Hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex volumetric MRI measurements in discrimination between Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Elshafey

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Semi-automated MR volumetric measurements can be used to determine atrophy in hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex which aided in discrimination of healthy elderly control subjects from subjects with AD and MCI and predict clinical decline of MCI leading to increase the efficiency of clinical treatments, delay institutionalization and improve cognition and behavioral symptoms.

  20. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina R Sutin

    Full Text Available Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08 and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97 than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  1. Mass discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pertinent and well-known problem of the discriminative effect produced by small orifices used in mass-spectrometric ion sampling from gas discharges is one which is unfortunately not well understood. The problem has been investigated experimentally by Kingsman and Rees and by Milloy and Elford for particular experimental conditions. Parkes has investigated the problem theoretically for high-pressure discharges, where convective flow through the hole dominates. The present communication seeks to provide a simple method for calculating ion transmission coefficients through such orifices for the special case where the gas mean free path is greater than the orifice diameter and the ions have ab imposed additional axial velocity component due either to an electric-field drift velocity or to a flow velocity (flowing afterglows). (orig.)

  2. Fighting discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK.

  3. Discrimination in Grading

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Rema N.; Linden, Leigh L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an experiment that was designed to test for discrimination in grading in India. We recruited teachers to grade exams. We randomly assigned child "characteristics" (age, gender, and caste) to the cover sheets of the exams to ensure that there is no relationship between these observed characteristics and the exam quality. We find that teachers give exams that are assigned to be lower caste scores that are about 0.03 to 0.08 standard deviations lower than those that are ...

  4. DISCRIMINATION BY ASSOCIATION IN EUROPEAN LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana Ivanus

    2013-01-01

    The european law prohibit direct and indirect discrimination and harrasment on grounds of sex, racial or ethnic, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. The question is what is the situation when someone is discriminated on can claim to be the victim of unlawful discrimination because he or she is associated with another person who has the protected characteristic. The the Court of Justice of the European Union’s judgment in Coleman v Attridge Law and Steve Law confirms, fo...

  5. Auditory Discrimination Development through Vestibulo-Cochlear Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Lyelle L.

    1980-01-01

    Three types of vestibular activities (active, adaptive, and passively imposed) to improve auditory discrimination development are described and results of a study using the vestibular stimulation techniques with 20 Ss (average age 9) having abnormal auditory discrimination. (PHR)

  6. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    The most blatant forms of discrimination are morally outrageous and very obviously so; but the nature and boundaries of discrimination are more controversial, and it is not clear whether all forms of discrimination are morally bad; nor is it clear why objectionable cases of discrimination are bad....... In this paper I address these issues. First, I offer a taxonomy of discrimination. I then argue that discrimination is bad, when it is, because it harms people. Finally, I criticize a rival, disrespect-based account according to which discrimination is bad regardless of whether it causes harm....

  7. Is the WMS-IV verbal paired associates as effective as other memory tasks in discriminating amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Kerryn E; Kinsella, Glynda J; Ong, Ben; Mullaly, Elizabeth; Rand, Elizabeth; Storey, Elsdon; Ames, David; Saling, Michael; Clare, Linda; Parsons, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Paired associate learning tasks are reportedly particularly sensitive to preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of the recently updated Wechsler Memory Scale verbal paired associates (VPA) in distinguishing the earliest stages of memory impairment (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI), and the clinical application at the case level, compared with other episodic memory tasks. Participants were 77 people with aMCI and 77 matched healthy older adults (HOA). VPA performance distinguished aMCI from HOA at the group level with large effect sizes, of similar size to the other tasks at immediate recall, but smaller than the CVLT-II list-learning task at delayed recall. Similarly, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated good discrimination, similar to other tasks, but again with CVLT-II more accurate at delayed recall. Although group differences remained for normative data, on a case basis using existing normative data the VPA failed to identify 70% of aMCI as impaired. The findings suggest further examination of the normative data is required before the VPA is useful in clinical practice, and highlight the importance of comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in detecting mild memory changes in older adults.

  8. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    J. Atsu Amegashie

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination of various forms. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race or gender is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple model of conflict which is driven by either racial (gender) discrimination or generational discrimination (i.e., young versus old). I show that there exist parameters of the model where racial (gender) di...

  9. Effects of Presentation Rate and Attention on Auditory Discrimination: A Comparison of Long-Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials in School-Aged Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Naseem A; Parascando, Jessica A; Benasich, April A

    2015-01-01

    Decoding human speech requires both perception and integration of brief, successive auditory stimuli that enter the central nervous system as well as the allocation of attention to language-relevant signals. This study assesses the role of attention on processing rapid transient stimuli in adults and children. Cortical responses (EEG/ERPs), specifically mismatch negativity (MMN) responses, to paired tones (standard 100-100 Hz; deviant 100-300 Hz) separated by a 300, 70 or 10 ms silent gap (ISI) were recorded under Ignore and Attend conditions in 21 adults and 23 children (6-11 years old). In adults, an attention-related enhancement was found for all rate conditions and laterality effects (L>R) were observed. In children, 2 auditory discrimination-related peaks were identified from the difference wave (deviant-standard): an early peak (eMMN) at about 100-300 ms indexing sensory processing, and a later peak (LDN), at about 400-600 ms, thought to reflect reorientation to the deviant stimuli or "second-look" processing. Results revealed differing patterns of activation and attention modulation for the eMMN in children as compared to the MMN in adults: The eMMN had a more frontal topography as compared to adults and attention played a significantly greater role in childrens' rate processing. The pattern of findings for the LDN was consistent with hypothesized mechanisms related to further processing of complex stimuli. The differences between eMMN and LDN observed here support the premise that separate cognitive processes and mechanisms underlie these ERP peaks. These findings are the first to show that the eMMN and LDN differ under different temporal and attentional conditions, and that a more complete understanding of children's responses to rapid successive auditory stimulation requires an examination of both peaks. PMID:26368126

  10. Effects of Presentation Rate and Attention on Auditory Discrimination: A Comparison of Long-Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials in School-Aged Children and Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem A Choudhury

    Full Text Available Decoding human speech requires both perception and integration of brief, successive auditory stimuli that enter the central nervous system as well as the allocation of attention to language-relevant signals. This study assesses the role of attention on processing rapid transient stimuli in adults and children. Cortical responses (EEG/ERPs, specifically mismatch negativity (MMN responses, to paired tones (standard 100-100 Hz; deviant 100-300 Hz separated by a 300, 70 or 10 ms silent gap (ISI were recorded under Ignore and Attend conditions in 21 adults and 23 children (6-11 years old. In adults, an attention-related enhancement was found for all rate conditions and laterality effects (L>R were observed. In children, 2 auditory discrimination-related peaks were identified from the difference wave (deviant-standard: an early peak (eMMN at about 100-300 ms indexing sensory processing, and a later peak (LDN, at about 400-600 ms, thought to reflect reorientation to the deviant stimuli or "second-look" processing. Results revealed differing patterns of activation and attention modulation for the eMMN in children as compared to the MMN in adults: The eMMN had a more frontal topography as compared to adults and attention played a significantly greater role in childrens' rate processing. The pattern of findings for the LDN was consistent with hypothesized mechanisms related to further processing of complex stimuli. The differences between eMMN and LDN observed here support the premise that separate cognitive processes and mechanisms underlie these ERP peaks. These findings are the first to show that the eMMN and LDN differ under different temporal and attentional conditions, and that a more complete understanding of children's responses to rapid successive auditory stimulation requires an examination of both peaks.

  11. 法国禁止就业年龄歧视之对策及权利救济%The Countermeasures and Rights Relief of Age Discrimination in Employment in France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶建国; 高丽燕

    2013-01-01

    在欧盟有关立法影响下,法国于2001年通过立法将就业年龄歧视纳入法律规制范畴,其后,有关法律制度进一步获得完善。立法上对“歧视”进行了概念界定,以利于判断行为内容是否违法。为了保护中老年人身心健康以及确保用人单位的业务经营,立法上还规定了不视为歧视行为的“例外规则”。有权利即应有救济,对此,法国对就业年龄歧视提供了行政机关救济、劳动法院救济、刑事司法救济三种权利救济途径。%In 2001, France after the age discrimination in employment into the scope of legal regulation, since then, the relevant legal system has been further improved. The analysis of the concept of“discrimination”, to judge the behavior is illegal. Normal business operation in order to protect the elderly people’s physical and mental health and the protection of the employer, the French government also provides“exception rules”. To guarantee the rights relief, France has three kinds of methods to remedy discrimination of age, these methods include administrative relief, labor court relief, and judicial relief.

  12. Testing a quick and reliable method to discriminate age classes in roe deer Capreolus capreolus on the basis of tooth wear

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Cicognani; Franca Monti

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The hunting management of roe deer in Emilia-Romagna provides the correct classification of the age classes of dead specimens, usually determined shortly after killing by hunters. The tricuspidal shape of the third lower premolar, together with the absence of the third molar greatly facilitates the classification of fawns (class 0); whereas distinguishing between yearlings (class I) and adults (class II) is very difficult, particularly in females. This p...

  13. Young women do it better: sexual dimorphism in temporal discrimination.

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Jane Williams; Butler, John S.; Anna eMolloy; Okka eKimmich; Eavan eMcGovern; Ines eBeiser; Brendan eQuinlivan; Richard B Reilly; Michael eHutchinson

    2015-01-01

    The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two sensory stimuli presented sequentially are detected as asynchronous by the observer. Temporal discrimination thresholds are known to increase with age. Having previously observed shorter thresholds in young women than in men, in this work we sought to sytematically examine the effect of sex and age on temporal discrimination. The aims of this study were to examine, in a large group of men and women aged 20 to 65 ...

  14. Sparse discriminant analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Hastie, Trevor; Witten, Daniela;

    2011-01-01

    commonplace in biological and medical applications. In this setting, a traditional approach involves performing feature selection before classification. We propose sparse discriminant analysis, a method for performing linear discriminant analysis with a sparseness criterion imposed such that classification...... and feature selection are performed simultaneously. Sparse discriminant analysis is based on the optimal scoring interpretation of linear discriminant analysis, and can be extended to perform sparse discrimination via mixtures of Gaussians if boundaries between classes are nonlinear or if subgroups...... are present within each class. Our proposal also provides low-dimensional views of the discriminative directions. © 2011 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Qualitys....

  15. Gender Discrimination in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖敏慧

    2014-01-01

    Gender discrimination in language is usually defined as discrimination based on sex, especially discrimination against women. With the rise of women’s liberation movement in the 1960s and 1970s, and the improvement of women’s social status in recent years, gender discrimination in English attracts more and more attention. Based on previous studies, this thesis first dis⁃cusses the manifestations of gender discrimination in English vocabulary and address terms, then analyzes the factors of gender dis⁃crimination in English from social and cultural perspectives, finally puts forward some methods that are good for avoiding or elim⁃inating gender discrimination in English.

  16. Workplace Discrimination, A Picture of Hope and Concern. Global Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 2003

    2003-01-01

    An International Labour Organisation report finds that workplace discrimination is a persistent global problem. Although sex discrimination is most prevalent, discrimination in racial, HIV/AIDS, disability, religious, and age categories is rising. Progress is uneven, and inequalities within groups are widening. (SK)

  17. Testing a quick and reliable method to discriminate age classes in roe deer Capreolus capreolus on the basis of tooth wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Cicognani

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hunting management of roe deer in Emilia-Romagna provides the correct classification of the age classes of dead specimens, usually determined shortly after killing by hunters. The tricuspidal shape of the third lower premolar, together with the absence of the third molar greatly facilitates the classification of fawns (class 0; whereas distinguishing between yearlings (class I and adults (class II is very difficult, particularly in females. This paper proposes a reliable method that entails just a quick tooth inspection of the lingual crest of the third lower premolar and molar. In yearlings they were completely covered by a coat of enamel, whereas in adults this coat of enamel was eroded, so that a yellowish line of dentin, that tended to become wider with age, was clearly visible. The first lower molar of specimens previously classified on the basis of tooth wear were decalcified and dissected so that the number of annual growth rings could be counted using a microscope. By doing this, we could test the validity and reliability of our method. Fifty four specimens, 39 belonging to class I and 15 to class II, were examined and in all cases the method allowed a correct classification.

  18. Unsupervised Linear Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm for unsupervised linear discriminant analysis was presented. Optimal unsupervised discriminant vectors are obtained through maximizing covariance of all samples and minimizing covariance of local k-nearest neighbor samples. The experimental results show our algorithm is effective.

  19. Discrimination in Macedonian companies: Case studies research and analysis of current discrimination grounds, forms and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Ananiev, Jovan; Poposka, Zaneta

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination which is evident in in companies in the Republic of Macedonia is mostly done by the owners or management and on the ground of personal status, gender, ethnicity and age and mostly in the form of harassment and direct discrimination.

  20. The manual habituation and discrimination of shapes in preterm human infants from 33 to 34+6 post-conceptional age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur Lejeune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Grasping at birth is well-known as a reflex in response to a stimulation of the palm of the hand. Recent studies revealed that this grasping was not only a pure reflex because human newborns are able to detect and to remember differences in shape features. The manual perception of shapes has not been investigated in preterm human infants. The aim of the present study was to investigate manual perception by preterm infants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a habituation/reaction to novelty procedure in twenty-four human preterm infants from 33 to 34+6 post-conceptional age. After habituation to an object (prism or cylinder in one hand (left or right in a habituation phase, babies were given either the same object or the other (novel object in the same hand in a test phase. We observed that after successive presentations of the same object, a decrease of the holding time is observed for each preterm infant. Moreover, a significant increase of the holding time is obtained with the presentation of the novel object. Finally, the comparison between the current performance of preterm infants and those of full-term newborns showed that preterm babies only had a faster tactile habituation to a shape. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: For the first time, the results reveal that preterm infants from 33 to 34+6 GW can detect the specific features that differentiate prism and cylinder shapes by touch, and remember them. The results suggest that there is no qualitative, but only quantitative, difference between the perceptual abilities of preterm babies and those of full-term babies in perceiving shape manually.

  1. Discriminately Decreasing Discriminability with Learned Image Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehill, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In machine learning and computer vision, input images are often filtered to increase data discriminability. In some situations, however, one may wish to purposely decrease discriminability of one classification task (a "distractor" task), while simultaneously preserving information relevant to another (the task-of-interest): For example, it may be important to mask the identity of persons contained in face images before submitting them to a crowdsourcing site (e.g., Mechanical Turk) when labeling them for certain facial attributes. Another example is inter-dataset generalization: when training on a dataset with a particular covariance structure among multiple attributes, it may be useful to suppress one attribute while preserving another so that a trained classifier does not learn spurious correlations between attributes. In this paper we present an algorithm that finds optimal filters to give high discriminability to one task while simultaneously giving low discriminability to a distractor task. We present r...

  2. Infants' discrimination of happy and sad music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Ross; Gentile, Douglas A; Pick, Anne D

    2008-12-01

    Infants can detect information specifying affect in infant- and adult-directed speech, familiar and unfamiliar facial expressions, and in point-light displays of facial expressions. We examined 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of musical excerpts judged by adults and preschoolers as happy and sad. In Experiment 1, using an infant-controlled habituation procedure, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds heard three musical excerpts that were rated as either happy or sad. Following habituation, infants were presented with two new musical excerpts from the other affect group. Nine-month-olds discriminated the musical excerpts rated as affectively different. Five- and seven-month-olds discriminated the happy and sad excerpts when they were habituated to sad excerpts but not when they were habituated to happy excerpts. Three-month-olds showed no evidence of discriminating the sad and happy excerpts. In Experiment 2, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds were presented with two new musical excerpts from the same affective group as the habituation excerpts. At no age did infants discriminate these novel, yet affectively similar, musical excerpts. In Experiment 3, we examined 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of individual excerpts rated as affectively similar. Only the 9-month-olds discriminated the affectively similar individual excerpts. Results are discussed in terms of infants' ability to discriminate affect across a variety of events and its relevance for later social-communicative development. PMID:18502515

  3. Discrimination among adults with craniofacial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to establish the level of perceived discrimination experienced by adults with congenital craniofacial conditions in Australia and to examine predictors of discrimination. Specifically, this study tested whether social support mediates the relationship between discrimination and health. Adults (n = 93) who had been treated at the Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide for congenital craniofacial conditions (not including cleft lip and/or palate) completed questionnaires examining satisfaction with life, quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, and satisfaction with appearance. A substantial minority of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions reported that they experience discrimination almost every day in a range of areas. Higher reports of discrimination were related to older age, being male, and less education. Other factors related to higher discrimination included lower levels of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, satisfaction with appearance and mental quality of life, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social support partially mediated the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes. The current study shows that discrimination experiences continue into adulthood confirming the importance of ensuring patients are well supported both by psychosocial services as well as within their own social support networks.

  4. Discrimination among adults with craniofacial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to establish the level of perceived discrimination experienced by adults with congenital craniofacial conditions in Australia and to examine predictors of discrimination. Specifically, this study tested whether social support mediates the relationship between discrimination and health. Adults (n = 93) who had been treated at the Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide for congenital craniofacial conditions (not including cleft lip and/or palate) completed questionnaires examining satisfaction with life, quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, and satisfaction with appearance. A substantial minority of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions reported that they experience discrimination almost every day in a range of areas. Higher reports of discrimination were related to older age, being male, and less education. Other factors related to higher discrimination included lower levels of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, satisfaction with appearance and mental quality of life, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social support partially mediated the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes. The current study shows that discrimination experiences continue into adulthood confirming the importance of ensuring patients are well supported both by psychosocial services as well as within their own social support networks. PMID:24240765

  5. A Developmental Study of Factors Influencing Discrimination Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael

    1973-01-01

    Examines the importance of (1) dimensional characteristics of stimuli present in discrimination transfer tasks, (2) having contrasting stimuli presented simultaneously, and (3) subjects age. Subjects were rural Mexican youths, ages 4 to 10. Reversal and nonreversal type discrimination transfer problems were used in the study. (DP)

  6. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education--A Review of the Case Law from 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodensteiner, Jill

    2002-01-01

    Reviews employment discrimination cases in higher education in 2000, which included an overwhelming number of retaliation and denial of promotion to tenure claims; case law also included age discrimination, religious discrimination, and sexual harassment issues, and a handful of wage discrimination cases. Courts also continued to explore the…

  7. Discriminants of multilinear systems

    OpenAIRE

    Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Vidunas, Raimundas

    2016-01-01

    We study well-constrained bilinear algebraic systems in order to formulate their discriminant. We derive a new determinantal formula for the discriminant of a multilinear system that appears in the study of Nash equilibria of multiplayer games with mixed strategies.

  8. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against ch...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....

  9. The problem of non-discrimination in labor relations

    OpenAIRE

    Вишновецька, Світлана Василівна; Пінчук, Ольга Борисівна

    2015-01-01

    The problem of discrimination on the grounds of gender and age in the field of labor relations are investigated in the article. The legal regulation of non-discrimination as a guarantee of the right to work is analyzed, solutions to the problem are proposed. English abstract S. Vyshnovetska,O. Pinchuk The problem of non-discrimination in labor relations The problem of discrimination on the grounds of gender and age in the field of labor relations are investigated in the article. International...

  10. A Community-Based Study on Awareness and Perception On Gender Discrimination and Sex Preference among Married Women (in Reproductive Age-Group in a Rural Population of District Bareilly, Uttar-Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastav Shalini, Kariwal P, Kapilasrami MC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skewed sex ratio is an issue of major concern. The problem is getting worse with the misuse of technology that facilitates pre-natal sex determination. This is happening across the country in spite of a massive influx of legal regulations banning the same. In this light, the study of awareness of same becomes very relevant and needs to be evaluated. At the heart of problem of female feticide is impact of advertisement about the facility of prenatal sex determination, and the unawareness about legal rules and regulations forbidding the same as PNDT Act. Aims: To study the awareness and perceptions of rural women regarding sex determination and gender discrimination Settings and Design: A Community based cross-sectional study. Methods and Material: Multistage sampling was used and 317 rural married women in reproductive age group were interviewed. Statistical analysis used: Result expressed in percentages and chi-square test. Results: 80% of females irrespective of their literacy status were aware about prenatal sex determination. However 67% were unaware of PNDT Act and the unawareness was significantly associated with literacy status of women. Regarding perceptions, 94% felt that females still do not enjoy equal rights as males. Eighty eight percent wished to conceive for male child if there family would have been complete with female children. Conclusions: : It is necessary to gear the efforts against this social malady by intensive IEC campaigns for raising awareness about rules forbidding pre-natal sex determination and strict implementation of PNDT Act. At the heart of problem is impact of advertisement about the facility of prenatal sex determination and the unawareness of legal regulations forbidding feticide as PNDT Act.

  11. Frequency discriminator/phase detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Circuit provides dual function of frequency discriminator/phase detector which reduces frequency acquisition time without adding to circuit complexity. Both frequency discriminators, in evaluated frequency discriminator/phase detector circuits, are effective two decades above and below center frequency.

  12. 76 FR 56506 - Agency Information Collection (Complaint of Employment Discrimination) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Complaint of Employment Discrimination) Activity Under OMB Review.... 2900-0716.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Complaint of Employment Discrimination, VA Form 4939... based on race, color, religion, gender, national origin, age, physical or mental disability...

  13. Multiplicities of dihedral discriminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Daniel C.

    1992-04-01

    Given the discriminant {d_k} of a quadratic field k, the number of cyclic relative extensions N\\vert k of fixed odd prime degree p with dihedral absolute Galois group of order 2p, which share a common conductor f, is called the multiplicity of the dihedral discriminant {d_N} = {f^{2(p - 1)}}d_k^p . In this paper, general formulas for multiplicities of dihedral discriminants are derived by analyzing the p-rank of the ring class group mod f of k. For the special case p = 3,{d_k} = - 3 , an elementary proof is given additionally. The theory is illustrated by a discussion of all known discriminants of multiplicity ≥ 5 of totally real and complex cubic fields.

  14. Angular velocity discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  15. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Larkoski; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2015-01-01

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, $D_2$, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization t...

  16. [Discrimination and depression in ethnic minority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, U.Z.; Snijder, M.B.; Fassaert, T.J.; Schene, A.H.; Kunst, A.E.; Stronks, K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of perceived ethnic discrimination to depression in various ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: We included participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch (n = 1,744), Asian Surinamese (n = 1,126), Creole Surinamese (n = 1,770)

  17. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  18. Discriminators of Loneliness Among the Rural Elderly: Implications for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivett, Vira R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the most important physical and social discriminators of loneliness among 418 rural adults aged 65 to 99 years. A multiple stepwise discriminant analysis which incorporated 18 classifying variables was used to determine the best classifiers of adults into three levels of loneliness. Two significant…

  19. 29 CFR 1625.2 - Discrimination prohibited by the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited by the Act. 1625.2 Section 1625.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AGE... for an employer to discriminate against an individual in any aspect of employment because...

  20. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE HEIGHT DISCRIMINATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Test, L.D.

    1958-11-11

    Pulse-height discriminators are described, specifically a differential pulse-height discriminator which is adapted to respond to pulses of a band of amplitudes, but to reject pulses of amplitudes greater or less than tbe preselected band. In general, the discriminator includes a vacuum tube having a plurality of grids adapted to cut off plate current in the tube upon the application of sufficient negative voltage. One grid is held below cutoff, while a positive pulse proportional to the amplltude of each pulse is applled to this grid. Another grid has a negative pulse proportional to the amplitude of each pulse simultaneously applied to it. With this arrangement the tube will only pass pulses which are of sufficlent amplitude to counter the cutoff bias but not of sufficlent amplitude to cutoff the tube.

  1. Analytic Boosted Boson Discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Larkoski, Andrew J; Neill, Duff

    2015-01-01

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, $D_2$, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted $Z...

  2. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called "androids" have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm-a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android-two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants' looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human. PMID:26441772

  3. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh eMatsuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, extremely humanlike robots called androids have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  4. Drugs, discrimination and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Frances

    2009-12-01

    Whether addiction to prohibited drugs should be classified as a disability for the purposes of disability discrimination is a controversial question in Australia. The leading Australian case of Marsden v Human Rights Equal Opportunity Commission & Coffs Harbour & District Ex-Servicemen & Women's Memorial Club Ltd (HREOC, No H98/51, 30 August 1999); [2000] FCA 1619 concerned a disability discrimination complaint brought by Mr Marsden as a result of his treatment by the club. The case was brought as a public interest test case by the New South Wales Legal Aid Commission. Mr Marsden was on a methadone program at the time. The reasoning of the decision at the Federal Court opened the way for a finding that dependence on illegal drugs constituted a disability under disability discrimination legislation. The media reaction to the court's decision led to State and federal governments proposing legislation limiting legal protection from discrimination for people addicted to illegal drugs on the basis of their drug use. While the proposed federal legislation lapsed after objections from a coalition of medical, legal and other advocacy groups, the New South Wales legislation still provides that, in employment matters, it is not unlawful to discriminate against a person on the ground of disability if the disability relates to the person's addiction to a prohibited drug and the person is actually addicted to a prohibited drug at the time of the discrimination. The article details the sequence of events in the Marsden case, reflects on the role of public interest litigation in achieving social justice outcomes and suggests that Australia's recent ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 17 July 2008 should encourage legislators to review legislation which may have a discriminatory effect on people suffering from addictions. PMID:20169800

  5. Advertising in an ageing society

    OpenAIRE

    Carrigan, Marylyn; Szmigin, Isabelle

    2000-01-01

    Age discrimination is one of the last forms of discrimination yet to be tackled by legislation. Despite the call of the United Nations for older people to be treated fairly, regardless of age, many industries still overtly discriminate against them. The advertising industry is a particular offender, either ignoring older people altogether or presenting them in caricatures or negative stereotypes. The authors suggest that regulation or legislation may be required, to raise awareness of the iss...

  6. Education and Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  7. Sex Discrimination in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessem, Lawrence

    1980-01-01

    Even in situations in which the underpayment of girls' coaches is due to the sex of the students coached rather than to the sex of the coaches, the coaches and the girls coached are victims of unlawful discrimination. Available from Harvard Women's Law Journal, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA 02138. (Author/IRT)

  8. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  9. Digital frequency discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    Frequency discriminator has five integrated circuit chips interconnected to provide a divide function, exclusive OR function, phase shifting, and holding so that a single binary output signal results. The state of the binary signal indicates which one of the two input signals has a lower frequency than the other.

  10. RISE TIME DELAY DISCRIMINATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1959-09-29

    A pulse-height discriminator for generating an output pulse when the accepted input pulse is approximately at its maximum value is described. A gating tube and a negative bias generator responsive to the derivative of the input pulse and means for impressing the output of the bias generator to at least one control electrode of the gating tube are included.

  11. Airborne particulate discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  12. Discrimination Learning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  13. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-01

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D 2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. Our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  14. Discrimination and its Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Clarence

    1983-01-01

    Reviews challenges facing Black professionals committed to further promoting civil rights. Focuses on the Federal government role, particularly regarding racial discrimination in employment. Warns against the acceptance of orthodoxies, and calls for new action and the exercising of intellectual freedom. (KH)

  15. Convergent and discriminant validity of psychiatric symptoms reported in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at age 3 years with independent clinical assessment in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Biele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies often use parent questionnaires to assess children's development and mental health. To date, few studies have investigated the validity of parent questionnaires with standardized clinical assessments as criterion. The current study examines discriminant and convergent validity of parent questionnaires for symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, Oppositional Defiance Disorder (ODD, and Conduct Disorder (CD as well as symptoms of Separation Anxiety employed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study by using structured clinical interviews performed 5 months later in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study as a criterion. The comparison of confirmatory factor analysis models and examination of factor correlations indicate convergent and discriminant validity of MoBa parent questionnaires for preschool children, especially for the assessment of ADHD and ODD/CD. Future research should attempt to further improve parent questionnaires, examine their validity in representative samples, and explicitly test their utility for screening.

  16. Effects of Learning about Historical Gender Discrimination on Early Adolescents' Occupational Judgments and Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Green, Vanessa A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the consequences of learning about gender discrimination, early adolescents (n = 121, aged 10-14) were randomly assigned to receive either (a) standard biographical lessons about historical figures (standard condition) or (b) nearly identical lessons that included information about gender discrimination (discrimination condition).…

  17. Effects of Learning about Gender Discrimination on Adolescent Girls' Attitudes toward and Interest in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgram, Erica S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Gender discrimination has contributed to the gender imbalance in scientific fields. However, research on the effects of informing adolescent girls about gender discrimination in these fields is rare and controversial. To examine the consequences of learning about gender-based occupational discrimination, adolescent girls (n= 158, ages 11 to 14)…

  18. A Classroom Labor Market Game Illustrating the Existence, and Implications of, Statistical Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Many undergraduate students report a lack of concern about facing labor market discrimination throughout their careers. However, there is ample evidence that discrimination based on race, gender, and age still persists within the labor market. The author outlines a classroom experiment demonstrating the existence of discrimination, even when the…

  19. Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Braxton, Shawn Lamont

    2010-01-01

    Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment Shawn L. Braxton Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore how racial and gender discrimination is reproduced in concrete workplace settings even when anti-discrimination policies are present, and to understand the various reactions utilized by those who commonly experience it. I have selected a particular medical center, henceforth referred to by a pseudonym, â The Bliley Medical Centerâ as my case ...

  20. Weight discrimination and unhealthy eating-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Individuals with obesity often experience unfair treatment because of their body weight. Such experiences are associated with binge eating, but less is known about its association with other eating-related behaviors and whether these relations are specific to discrimination based on weight or extend to other attributions for discrimination. The present research uses a large national sample (N = 5129) to examine whether weight discrimination is associated with diet and meal rhythmicity, in addition to overeating, and whether these associations generalize to nine other attributions for discrimination. We found that in addition to overeating, weight discrimination was associated with more frequent consumption of convenience foods and less regular meal timing. These associations were generally similar across sex, age, and race. Discrimination based on ancestry, gender, age, religion, and physical disability were also associated with overeating, which suggests that overeating may be a general coping response to discrimination. Unfair treatment because of body weight is associated with unhealthy eating-related behaviors, which may be one pathway through which weight discrimination increases risk for weight gain and obesity. PMID:26877216

  1. Gender wage discrimination in Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Boquete, Yolanda

    2005-01-01

    The wage discrimination by gender in the Galician region is one of the highest in Spain, although it presents one of the smallest wage gaps between men and women. The aim of this paper is to extend wage discrimination analysis in Galicia through two complementary theories. First, we approximate global discrimination with the Oaxaca decomposition. This method calculates the discrimination using women and men median characteristics, providing a measure based on the wage distribution average. Af...

  2. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents’ Attributions Regarding Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13 to 17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination attributions, depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Approximately half the youth attributed discrimination to race/ethni...

  3. Alabama – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    There is no state law in Alabama prohibiting any form of employment discrimination. Rather, Alabama defers to federal law for providing its citizens with protections against discrimination based upon age, race, religion, sex, national origin, and disabilities. Only a few unsuccessful attempts have been made to enact legislation to prohibit sexual orientation discrimination, and none to prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity or expression. Neither the state nor any locality in...

  4. The relative merits of discriminating and non-discriminating dosemeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshal, T. O.; Christensen, Palle; Julius, H. W.;

    1986-01-01

    The need for discriminating and non-discriminating personal dosemeters in the field of radiological protection is examined. The ability of various types of dosemeter to meet these needs is also discussed. It is concluded that there is a need for discriminating dosemeters but in the majority...... of cases a simple two element non-discriminating dosemeter will suffice. In cases where the use of discriminating dosemeters is justified, thermoluminescence dosemeters can be designed to provided information on radiation type and energy, but if further information is required the photographic film...

  5. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  6. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  7. Immunological self, nonself discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillet, J G; Lai, M Z; Briner, T J;

    1987-01-01

    -Ed-restricted. Comparison of the sequence of the repressor peptide with that of other peptides able to bind to (and be restricted by) I-Ed and a polymorphic region of the I-Ed molecule itself revealed a significant degree of homology. Thus, peptides restricted by a given class II molecule appear to be homologous...... that provides a basis for explaining self, nonself discrimination as well as alloreactivity....

  8. Gaussian Discriminating Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Rigovacca, Luca; Farace, Alessandro; De Pasquale, Antonella; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantifier of non-classical correlations for bipartite, multi-mode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in A. Farace et al., New. J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014). As the latter the new measure exploits the Quantum Chernoff Bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter ...

  9. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Kégl Balázs

    2013-01-01

    ISBN:978-2-7598-1032-1 International audience Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, ...

  10. Optimal time discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun, Filiz; Sayalı, Zeynep Ceyda; Gürbüz, Emine; Balcı, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Optimal Time Discrimination Journal: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Manuscript ID: QJE-STD 14-039.R1 Manuscript Type: Standard Article Date Submitted by the Author: n/a Complete List of Authors: Çoskun, Filiz; Koç University, Psychology Sayalı Ungerer, Zeynep; Koç University, Psychology Gürbüz, Emine; Koç University, Psychology Balcı, Fuat; Koç University, Psychology Keywords: Decision making, Interval Timing, Optimality, Response Times, Temporal ...

  11. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  12. Ethnic discrimination and health: the relationship between experienced ethnic discrimination and multiple health domains in Norway's rural Sami population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketil Lenert Hansen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Self-reported ethnic discrimination has been associated with a range of health outcomes. This study builds on previous efforts to investigate the prevalence of self-reported ethnic discrimination in the indigenous (Sami population, and how such discrimination may be associated with key health indicators. Study design: The study relies on data from the 2003/2004 (n=4,389 population-based study of adults (aged 36–79 years in 24 rural municipalities of Central and North Norway (the SAMINOR study. Self-reported ethnic discrimination was measured using the question: “Have you ever experienced discrimination due to your ethnic background?” Health indicators included questions regarding cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic muscle pain, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported ethnic discrimination and health outcomes. Results: The study finds that for Sami people living in minority areas, self-reported ethnic discrimination is associated with all the negative health indicators included in the study. Conclusion: We conclude that ethnic discrimination affects a wide range of health outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring freedom from discrimination for the Sami people of Norway.

  13. Tactile and proprioceptive temporal discrimination are impaired in functional tremor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tinazzi

    Full Text Available In order to obtain further information on the pathophysiology of functional tremor, we assessed tactile discrimination threshold and proprioceptive temporal discrimination motor threshold values in 11 patients with functional tremor, 11 age- and sex-matched patients with essential tremor and 13 healthy controls.Tactile discrimination threshold in both the right and left side was significantly higher in patients with functional tremor than in the other groups. Proprioceptive temporal discrimination threshold for both right and left side was significantly higher in patients with functional and essential tremor than in healthy controls. No significant correlation between discrimination thresholds and duration or severity of tremor was found.Temporal processing of tactile and proprioceptive stimuli is impaired in patients with functional tremor. The mechanisms underlying this impaired somatosensory processing and possible ways to apply these findings clinically merit further research.

  14. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of shape data to a common mean before its subsequent processing is an ubiquitous step within the area shape analysis. Current approaches to shape analysis or, as more specifically considered in this work, shape classification perform the alignment in a fully unsupervised way......, not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  15. Odour identification and discrimination in Dutch adults over 45 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, S.; Verbaan, D.; Knol, D.L.; Hilten, van J.J.; Berendse, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to establish normative values for the two culture dependent components (odour identification and odour discrimination) of the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery in the Dutch population over 45 years of age, and to assess the influence of age and sex on olfactory func

  16. Cycles of Discrimination: Older Women, Cumulative Disadvantages, and Retirement Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nanette J.

    2005-01-01

    This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…

  17. Diversity Management- A Concept Beyond Equal Opportunities And Discrimination.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrell, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    In this Era of Globalization, where every organisation is working towards having an international competitive advantage, the importance of managing diversity which implies the need to be proactive in managing the needs of a diverse workforce under equal opportunities based on gender, age, race, disability, sexual orientation, religious belief etc  and also beyond equal opportunities and discrimination should be realised. In this study, discrimination at work will be discussed along with the l...

  18. Implementation of Anti-Discrimination Policy: Does Judicial Selection Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Besley, Timothy; Payne, A. Abigail

    2005-01-01

    One of the most striking changes in labour market policy of the past 50 years has come in the form of legislation to limit discrimination in the workplace based on race, gender, disability and age. If such measures are to be effective in ending discrimination, they need to be enforced. The latter is dependent on state and federal agencies such as the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission and ultimately the willingness of courts to find in favour of plaintiffs. Courts also play an importan...

  19. Overview of the extent of discrimination in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Cantillon, Sara; Vasquez del Aguila, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Irish legislation prohibits discrimination in employment and service provision under nine grounds: age, disability, family status, gender, marital status, race/ethnic group/nationality, religious belief, sexual orientation, and membership of the Traveller community. This paper shows that despite the extensive equality legislative framework and “optimistic” perceptions of the general population about tolerance and openness, vulnerable populations continue to experience discrimination in their ...

  20. Mother-Stranger Discrimination in Three-Month-Old Infants and Subsequent Gesell Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Kiki V.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the ability of infants at various age levels between three and nine months to discriminate between their mother and a stranger, and relates such ability to the infants' developmental quotient at age nine months. (Author/MP)

  1. The ageing spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contain 15 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of age on the appearance of magnetic resonance images of the spine; Potential for image analysis in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the aging spine; Potential of x-ray diffraction computed tomography for discriminating between normal and osteoporotic bone; and Spinal fusion in the elderly

  2. Women Status and their Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠKOVÁ, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    My work deal with women status and their discrimination. Chapter one contains women status in different historical periods and development of their status to bigger equal with men. There is also written about present feminist trends. Chapter two is about women discrimination. There is about women´ job discrimination, job segregation according to gender and inequality in payment. There is also written about women status at home and unequal duties at home among family mates. Chapter three is ab...

  3. Discriminant Analysis on Land Grading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yaolin; HOU Yajuan

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the discriminant analysis on land grading after analyzing the common methods and discussing the Fisher's discriminant in detail. Actually this method deduces the dimension from multi to single, thus it makes the feature vectors in n-dimension change to a scalar, and use this scalar to classify samples. This paper illustrates the result by giving an example of the residential land grading by the discriminant analysis.

  4. Unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators

    OpenAIRE

    Chefles, Anthony; Kitagawa, Akira; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Twamley, Jason

    2007-01-01

    We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators. The general theory of unambiguous discrimination among unitary operators is extended with this application in mind. We prove that entanglement with an ancilla cannot assist any discrimination strategy for commuting unitary operators. We also obtain a simple, practical test for the unambiguous distinguishability of an arbitrary set of unitary operators on a given system. Using this result, we prove that the unambiguou...

  5. When Is Price Discrimination Profitable?

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Anderson; James D. Dana

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a model of a quality-constrained monopolist's product line decision that encompasses a variety of important examples of second-degree price discrimination, including intertemporal price discrimination, coupons, advance purchase discounts, versioning of information goods, and damaged goods. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for price discrimination to be profitable that generalize existing results in the literature. Specifically, we show that when a continuum of product ...

  6. Large Number Discrimination by Mosquitofish

    OpenAIRE

    Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated that fish display rudimentary numerical abilities similar to those observed in mammals and birds. The mechanisms underlying the discrimination of small quantities (

  7. Optimal discrimination between quantum operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Lvzhou; Qiu Daowen [Department of Computer Science, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)], E-mail: issqdw@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2008-08-22

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating two given quantum operations. Based on the Bloch representation of a single qubit, we give an implicit expression that can be used to evaluate the exact minimum error probability of discriminating any two single-qubit quantum operations by unentangled input states. In particular, for the Pauli channels discussed in Sacchi (2005 Phys. Rev. A 71 062340), we use a more intuitive and visual method to deal with their discrimination problem. Also, we consider the condition for perfect discrimination of two quantum operations.

  8. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  9. Gaussian discriminating strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  10. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyper-parameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  11. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kégl Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1–9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1 we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2, since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1. Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5. We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems

  12. Trajectories of perceived discrimination from adolescence to emerging adulthood and substance use among Hispanic youth in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Soto, Daniel W; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have documented associations between perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination and adverse health outcomes among Hispanics and other minority groups. However, these studies have not examined change in perceived discrimination over the lifecourse and whether trajectories of perceived discrimination affect outcomes differently. This study of 2722 Hispanic students identified trajectories of perceived discrimination from 9th grade through emerging adulthood (approximately ages 14-23), and compared these trajectory groups on substance use outcomes. Four distinct trajectory groups were identified: (1) low and stable discrimination, (2) increasing discrimination, (3) initially high but decreasing discrimination, and (4) high and stable discrimination. Compared with the low and stable discrimination group, the groups that experienced higher levels of discrimination were at higher risk of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use. Specifically, the group with increasing discrimination (group 2) had a higher risk of alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use; the group with initially high but decreasing discrimination (group 3) had a higher risk of cigarette smoking and alcohol use; and the group with high and stable discrimination (group 4) had a higher risk of alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use. Results indicate that experiencing discrimination during adolescence, emerging adulthood, or both, regardless of whether the discrimination increases or decreases, could place Hispanic youth at risk for substance use. Health education programs are needed to help Hispanic youth learn effective skills to cope with discrimination without resorting to substance use. PMID:26477013

  13. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:23875851

  14. Perceived Discrimination in LGBTIQ Discourse: A Typology of Verbal Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Rojas Lizana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New within the field of Discourse Analysis, Perceived Discrimination (PD is the study of discourse that focuses on the perspective of the victims of discrimination. This article explores the experiences of verbal discrimination as reported by eighteen LGBTIQ participants during semi-structured, co-constructed interviews. Data were classified in order to develop a taxonomy of discrimination based on Mellor’s (2003, 2004. This taxonomy foregrounds two types of discrimination: verbal and behavioural. In this paper, I exemplify the forms of verbal discrimination encountered and offer an analysis of the discourse used in the construction of the experiences and of the effects reported. The results show that verbal discrimination is an overt phenomenon and that participants are stressed by the ever present possibility of facing it. Verbal discrimination is mainly triggered by a perceived transgression to the normalised standards of people’s behaviour, movements and look in a heterosexist society. It presents three subtypes: name calling, abuse and remarks. These subtypes are described through the analysis of keywords, effects and expressions (such as faggot, gay, dyke, queer, the pronoun ‘it’, religious comments and other remarks. The type of discrimination used was associated with the level of acquaintance perpetrators have with the experiencers; that is, name calling was used by people unknown to the victims while abuse and remarks by acquaintances and family members. Participants resorted to several discursive strategies to convey their intentions. They used mitigation strategies when wanting to minimize the experience, hedging and repetition were used for emphasis, and to convey urgency and pervasiveness. Metaphorical expressions related to internal or external injuries were also used to express the powerful effect of verbal discrimination on people.

  15. Invidious Discrimination: Second Generation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert J.; Dee, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Discusses school law issues dealing with various forms of invidious discrimination. Considers discrimination based on forms of involuntary association (ethnicity, economic status, primary language, and maturity) and forms of voluntary association (sexual proclivity, marital status, pregnancy and parenthood, self-expression and appearance, religion…

  16. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Barbara A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviewed academic employment discrimination cases decided in 1998. Concludes that such cases added little to civil rights jurisprudence, but demonstrated the frustration felt by many over the fact that federal employment discrimination statures were not designed with universities in mind. The complexity of academic employment decisions ensures…

  17. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Europe: evidence from the European Social Survey (2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alvarez-Galvez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. METHODS: We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010. This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. RESULTS: The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1 age discrimination; (2 disability discrimination; and (3 sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim

  18. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  19. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  20. Covariate-adjusted measures of discrimination for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Ian R; Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Discrimination statistics describe the ability of a survival model to assign higher risks to individuals who experience earlier events: examples are Harrell's C-index and Royston and Sauerbrei's D, which we call the D-index. Prognostic covariates whose distributions are controlled...... statistics in censored survival data. OBJECTIVE: To develop extensions of the C-index and D-index that describe the prognostic ability of a model adjusted for one or more covariate(s). METHOD: We define a covariate-adjusted C-index and D-index for censored survival data, propose several estimators...... by the study design (e.g. age and sex) influence discrimination and can make it difficult to compare model discrimination between studies. Although covariate adjustment is a standard procedure for quantifying disease-risk factor associations, there are no covariate adjustment methods for discrimination...

  1. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings.

  2. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings. PMID:27008268

  3. Large number discrimination by mosquitofish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Agrillo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that fish display rudimentary numerical abilities similar to those observed in mammals and birds. The mechanisms underlying the discrimination of small quantities (<4 were recently investigated while, to date, no study has examined the discrimination of large numerosities in fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of small geometric figures using social reinforcement. In the first experiment mosquitofish were required to discriminate 4 from 8 objects with or without experimental control of the continuous variables that co-vary with number (area, space, density, total luminance. Results showed that fish can use the sole numerical information to compare quantities but that they preferentially use cumulative surface area as a proxy of the number when this information is available. A second experiment investigated the influence of the total number of elements to discriminate large quantities. Fish proved to be able to discriminate up to 100 vs. 200 objects, without showing any significant decrease in accuracy compared with the 4 vs. 8 discrimination. The third experiment investigated the influence of the ratio between the numerosities. Performance was found to decrease when decreasing the numerical distance. Fish were able to discriminate numbers when ratios were 1:2 or 2:3 but not when the ratio was 3:4. The performance of a sample of undergraduate students, tested non-verbally using the same sets of stimuli, largely overlapped that of fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fish are able to use pure numerical information when discriminating between quantities larger than 4 units. As observed in human and non-human primates, the numerical system of fish appears to have virtually no upper limit while the numerical ratio has a clear effect on performance. These similarities further reinforce the view of a common origin of non-verbal numerical systems in all

  4. Lesbians still face job discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryniker, Margaret R

    2008-01-01

    This article examines continued discrimination against lesbians in the workplace. A number of cases from various jurisdictions in the United States are highlighted. The paper studies two common forms of discrimination: denial of employment benefits to same sex partners, and sexual harassment. On the first front, the case law suggests that health insurance coverage for one's partner is becoming the norm. On the question of sexual harassment in the workplace, the case law did not provide protection for lesbians. Finally, U.S. employment policies related to sexual orientation are contrasted with those in Israel, which provides much greater protection from discrimination. PMID:19042289

  5. Experiences of stigma, discrimination, care and support among people living with HIV: A four country study

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, Melissa; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Cherutich, Peter; Desclaux, Alice; Hardon, Anita; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Namakhoma, Ireen; Wanyenze, Rhoda

    2013-01-01

    While it is widely agreed that HIV-related stigma may impede access to treatment and support, there is little evidence describing who is most likely to experience different forms of stigma and discrimination and how these affect disclosure and access to care. This study examined experiences of interpersonal discrimination, internalized stigma, and discrimination at health care facilities among HIV-positive adults aged 18 years and older utilizing health facilities in four countries in Sub-Sah...

  6. Do Job Applicants also Discriminate Potential Employers? Evidence from the Worldfs Largest Online Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jinnai, Yusuke; 陣内, 悠介

    2016-01-01

    A number of papers have examined labor-market discrimination in traditional labor markets and demonstrated that employers have strong tastes over job applicants. However, so far little is known about potential discrimination in online labor markets, where personal information on gender, race, age, education, etc. is not available. Moreover, few studies have discussed another potential discrimination against employers by job applicants. This paper answers this under-investigated question by us...

  7. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination Among African American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely racial centrality, private regard, and public regard at three time points. The results indicated that perceived racial discrimination at Time 1 was negatively linked to public re...

  8. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 7,500 LGBT workers in Georgia are vulnerable to employment discrimination due to a lack of state legal protections. At least 35 localities and many private corporations based in Georgia have personnel policies that prohibit employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. While Georgia law protects state workers from discrimination based on personal characteristics including race, religion, national origin, sex, disability, and age, it does not include ...

  9. PERCEPTION OF SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION IN RESULTS OF THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Mária HOMIŠINOVÁ

    2014-01-01

    Empirical indices concerning social discrimination were applied repeatedly in the extensive sociological research (within The European Social Survey). They were applied in individual six rounds (in two-year cycles). The aim was to determinate the rate of generally perceived discrimination and to find particular reasons (forms) of discrimination (race, nationality, religion, language, ethnicity, age, gender, sexuality). The aim of the study is to inform technical community on th...

  10. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  11. Labor Mobility and Racial Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Deschamps, Pierre; De Sousa, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the effects of labor mobility constraints on racial discrimination. Our equilibrium search model shows that these effects follow an inverted U-shaped relationship. In particular, when mobility constraints are low, we find that discrimination disappears. We test this prediction with an exogenous mobility shock on the European soccer labor market. The Bosman ruling by the European Court of Justice in 1995 lifted restrictions on soccer player mobility. Using a panel of all cl...

  12. Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring

    OpenAIRE

    Weichselbaumer, Doris

    2000-01-01

    Little research has been done to examine discrimination against gays and lesbians in the labor market. Badgett (1995) conducted the only previous study investigating labor market outcomes of gays and lesbians using a random data set. However, due to the structure of the data, the wage differential between heterosexuals and gays and lesbians that is found can not be directly assigned to employer discrimination. Some gays and lesbians might deploy passing strategies to hide their sexual orienta...

  13. Market Forces and Sex Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Hellerstein, Judith K.; David Neumark; Troske, Kenneth R.

    1998-01-01

    We report new evidence on the existence of sex discrimination in wages and whether competitive market forces act to reduce or eliminate discrimination. Specifically, we use plant- and firm-level data to examine the relationships between profitability, growth and ownership changes, product market power, and the sex composition of a plant's or firm's workforce. Our strongest finding is that among plants with high levels of product market power, those that employ relatively more women are more p...

  14. Unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chefles, Anthony; Kitagawa, Akira; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Twamley, Jason

    2007-08-01

    We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators. The general theory of unambiguous discrimination among unitary operators is extended with this application in mind. We prove that entanglement with an ancilla cannot assist any discrimination strategy for commuting unitary operators. We also obtain a simple, practical test for the unambiguous distinguishability of an arbitrary set of unitary operators on a given system. Using this result, we prove that the unambiguous distinguishability criterion is the same for both standard and minimal oracle operators. We then show that, except in certain trivial cases, unambiguous discrimination among all standard oracle operators corresponding to integer functions with fixed domain and range is impossible. However, we find that it is possible to unambiguously discriminate among the Grover oracle operators corresponding to an arbitrarily large unsorted database. The unambiguous distinguishability of standard oracle operators corresponding to totally indistinguishable functions, which possess a strong form of classical indistinguishability, is analysed. We prove that these operators are not unambiguously distinguishable for any finite set of totally indistinguishable functions on a Boolean domain and with arbitrary fixed range. Sets of such functions on a larger domain can have unambiguously distinguishable standard oracle operators, and we provide a complete analysis of the simplest case, that of four functions. We also examine the possibility of unambiguous oracle operator discrimination with multiple parallel calls and investigate an intriguing unitary superoperator transformation between standard and entanglement-assisted minimal oracle operators.

  15. Discrimination of Modulated Music Tempo by String Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cecilia Chu; Salzberg, Rita S.

    1984-01-01

    Both musical training and age were found to influence the ability of string students to discriminate tempo change. The musical variables of speed, style, and direction also affected tempo perception. However, the music variables explained less than one-third of the total variance. Tempo perception is an extremely complex phenomenon. (Author/RM)

  16. An ART neural network model of discrimination shift learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.J. Raijmakers; E. Coffey; C. Stevenson; J. Winkel; A. Berkeljon

    2009-01-01

    We present an ART-based neural network model (adapted from [2]) of the development of discrimination-shift learning that models the trial-by-trial learning process in great detail. In agreement with the results of human participants (4-20 years of age) in [1] the model revealed two distinct learning

  17. Perceived Discrimination and the Well-Being of Immigrant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesch, Gustavo S.; Turjeman, Hagit; Fishman, Gideon

    2008-01-01

    This study draws on the social-discount and social-rejection hypotheses to examine the effect of perceived discrimination on immigrant youths' depressive moods, self-efficacy, and preferences for in-group socialization experiences. Data from a panel study of immigrant young adolescents (aged 12-18) who came to Israel from countries of the former…

  18. Measuring Discrimination in Education. NBER Working Paper No. 15057

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Rema; Linden. Leigh

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate a methodology to measure discrimination in educational contexts. In India, we ran an exam competition through which children compete for a large financial prize. We recruited teachers to grade the exams. We then randomly assigned child "characteristics" (age, gender, and caste) to the cover sheets of the exams to…

  19. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  20. Perceived Discrimination among African American Adolescents and Allostatic Load: A Longitudinal Analysis with Buffering Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Chae, David H.; Yu, Tianyi; Kogan, Steven M.; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the prospective relations of perceived racial discrimination with allostatic load (AL), along with a possible buffer of the association. A sample of 331 African Americans in the rural South provided assessments of perceived discrimination from ages 16 to 18 years. When youth were 18 years, caregivers reported…

  1. PERCEPTION OF SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION IN RESULTS OF THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária HOMIŠINOVÁ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical indices concerning social discrimination were applied repeatedly in the extensive sociological research (within The European Social Survey. They were applied in individual six rounds (in two-year cycles. The aim was to determinate the rate of generally perceived discrimination and to find particular reasons (forms of discrimination (race, nationality, religion, language, ethnicity, age, gender, sexuality. The aim of the study is to inform technical community on the knowledge in the socioscientific field (perception of social discrimination in Slovakia and in other European countries and to contribute to the enrichment of information base in the research sphere as well as to bring near sciences of different orientation.

  2. User discrimination in automotive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  3. The Analysis of the Ethnical Discrimination on the Manpower’s Market under the Economical Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Hrisanta DOBRE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination means any difference, exclusion, restriction, preference or different treatment that brings forth disadvantages for a person or a group as compared to other ones that are in similar situations. The reasons on which discrimination is based can be various, such as race, nationality, ethnics, religion, gender, sexual orientation, language, age, disabilities etc. and in this case we talk about multiple discrimination. In Romania the main forms of discrimination are linked to ethnics and to sexual appurtenance. Within this column we analysed the discrimination amongst the Romany ethnics people, according to a statistical investigation (Access onto the Labour Market – A Chance for You, the research goal being to identify the answer to the following questions: Is there any discrimination inside the Romany ethnic group? What is the correlation between their level of education and their income? What is the correlation between the level of education of the parents and the respondent’s?

  4. Bodacious Berry, Potency Wood and the Aging Monster: Gender and Age Relations in Anti-Aging Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…

  5. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  6. Measurements design and phenomena discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of measurements suitable for discriminating signal components produced by phenomena of different types is considered. The required measurements should be capable of cancelling out those signal components which are to be ignored when focusing on a phenomenon of interest. Under the hypothesis that the subspaces hosting the signal components produced by each phenomenon are complementary, their discrimination is accomplished by measurements giving rise to the appropriate oblique projector operator. The subspace onto which the operator should project is selected by nonlinear techniques in line with adaptive pursuit strategies

  7. Measurements design and phenomena discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura [Department of Mathematics, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-24

    The construction of measurements suitable for discriminating signal components produced by phenomena of different types is considered. The required measurements should be capable of cancelling out those signal components which are to be ignored when focusing on a phenomenon of interest. Under the hypothesis that the subspaces hosting the signal components produced by each phenomenon are complementary, their discrimination is accomplished by measurements giving rise to the appropriate oblique projector operator. The subspace onto which the operator should project is selected by nonlinear techniques in line with adaptive pursuit strategies.

  8. Measurements design and phenomena discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The construction of measurements suitable for discriminating signal components produced by phenomena of different types is considered. The required measurements should be capable of cancelling out those signal components which are to be ignored when focusing on a phenomenon of interest. Under the hypothesis that the subspaces hosting the signal components produced by each phenomenon are complementary, their discrimination is accomplished by measurements giving rise to the appropriate oblique projector operator. The subspace onto which the operator should project is selected by nonlinear techniques in line with adaptive pursuit strategies.

  9. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  10. Employment Discrimination against LGBT Utahns

    OpenAIRE

    Rosky, Clifford; Mallory, Christy; Smith, Jenni; Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes data from a 2010 survey on the employment experiences of 939 LGBT people living in Utah.  The study found that 44% of LGB people and 66% of transgender people in Utah have experienced employment discrimination.  The data showed that employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity currently occurs in Utah, with close to 30% of LGB respondents and 45% of transgender respondents reporting that they experienced some form of workplace harassment on a w...

  11. Discriminative learning for speech recognition

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiadong

    2008-01-01

    In this book, we introduce the background and mainstream methods of probabilistic modeling and discriminative parameter optimization for speech recognition. The specific models treated in depth include the widely used exponential-family distributions and the hidden Markov model. A detailed study is presented on unifying the common objective functions for discriminative learning in speech recognition, namely maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error, and minimum phone/word error. The unification is presented, with rigorous mathematical analysis, in a common rational-functio

  12. Discrimination and production of English vowels by bilingual speakers of Spanish and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Sandra

    2004-10-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether listeners bilingual in Spanish and English would have difficulty in the discrimination of English vowel contrasts. An additional goal was to estimate the correlation between their discrimination and production of these vowels. Participants (40 bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking and 40 native monolingual English-speaking college students, 23-36 years of age) participated (M age = 25.3 yr., Mdn = 25.0). The discrimination and production of English vowels in real and novel words by adult participants bilingual in Spanish and English were examined and their discrimination was compared with that of 40 native monolingual English-speaking participants. Stimuli were presented within triads in an ABX paradigm. Novel words were chosen to represent new words when learning a new language and to provide a more valid test of discrimination. Bilingual participants' productions of vowels were judged by two independent listeners to estimate the correlation between discrimination and production. Discrimination accuracy was significantly greater for native English-speaking participants than for bilingual participants for vowel contrasts and novel words. Significant errors also appeared in the bilingual participants' productions of certain vowels. Earlier age of acquisition, absence of communication problems, and greater percentage of time devoted to communication contributed to greater accuracy in discrimination and production.

  13. Dogs Discriminate Identical Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  14. The Defining Moment: Children's Conceptualization of Race and Experiences with Racial Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Hannon, Lonnie; Fernandez, Jose R.; Cockerham, William C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether children of marginalized racial/ethnic groups have an awareness of race at earlier ages than youth from non-marginalized groups, documents their experiences with racial discrimination, and utilizes a modified racism-related stress model to explore the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-esteem. Data were collected for non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic children aged 7 – 12 using face-to-face interviews (n = 175). The conc...

  15. Language-experience facilitates discrimination of /d-th/ in monolingual and bilingual acquisition of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Genesee, Fred

    2006-06-01

    To trace how age and language experience shape the discrimination of native and non-native phonetic contrasts, we compared 4-year-olds learning either English or French or both and simultaneous bilingual adults on their ability to discriminate the English /d-th/ contrast. Findings show that the ability to discriminate the native English contrast improved with age. However, in the absence of experience with this contrast, discrimination of French children and adults remained unchanged during development. Furthermore, although simultaneous bilingual and monolingual English adults were comparable, children exposed to both English and French were poorer at discriminating this contrast when compared to monolingual English-learning 4-year-olds. Thus, language experience facilitates perception of the English /d-th/ contrast and this facilitation occurs later in development when English and French are acquired simultaneously. The difference between bilingual and monolingual acquisition has implications for language organization in children with simultaneous exposure.

  16. Discriminant analysis of functional optical topography for schizophrenia diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Pu, Shenghong; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Lee, Chia-Yen; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal prefrontal function plays a central role in the cognition deficits of schizophrenic patients; however, the character of the relationship between discriminant analysis and prefrontal activation remains undetermined. Recently, evidence of low prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation in individuals with schizophrenia has also been found during verbal fluency tests (VFT) and other cognitive tests with several neuroimaging methods. The purpose of this study is to assess the hemodynamic changes of the PFC and discriminant analysis between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during VFT task by utilizing functional optical topography. A total of 99 subjects including 53 schizophrenic patients and 46 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied. The results showed that the healthy group had larger activation in the right and left PFC than in the middle PFC. Besides, the schizophrenic group showed weaker task performance and lower activation in the whole PFC than the healthy group. The result of the discriminant analysis showed a significant difference with P value diagnosis.

  17. Don't demotivate, discriminate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.A. Kamphorst (Jurjen); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper offers a new theory of discrimination in the workplace. We consider a manager who has to assign two tasks to two employees. The manager has superior information about the employees' abilities. We show that besides an equilibrium where the manager does not dis

  18. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...

  19. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning ...

  20. Threats to Feminist Identity and Reactions to Gender Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kofta, Mirek; Rozum, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was to examine conditions that modify feminists' support for women as targets of gender discrimination. In an experimental study we tested a hypothesis that threatened feminist identity will lead to greater differentiation between feminists and conservative women as victims of discrimination and, in turn, a decrease in support for non-feminist victims. The study was conducted among 96 young Polish female professionals and graduate students from Gender Studies programs in Warsaw who self-identified as feminists (M age  = 22.23). Participants were presented with a case of workplace gender discrimination. Threat to feminist identity and worldview of the discrimination victim (feminist vs. conservative) were varied between research conditions. Results indicate that identity threat caused feminists to show conditional reactions to discrimination. Under identity threat, feminists perceived the situation as less discriminatory when the target held conservative views on gender relations than when the target was presented as feminist. This effect was not observed under conditions of no threat. Moreover, feminists showed an increase in compassion for the victim when she was portrayed as a feminist compared to when she was portrayed as conservative. Implications for the feminist movement are discussed. PMID:23606785

  1. Discriminating Yogurt Microstructure Using Diffuse Reflectance Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Møller, Flemming; Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann;

    2015-01-01

    The protein microstructure of many dairy products is of great importance for the consumers’ experience when eating the product. However, studies concerning discrimination between protein microstructures are limited. This paper presents preliminary results for discriminating different yogurt...

  2. Labor market discrimination as an agency cost

    OpenAIRE

    Méon, Pierre-Guillaume; Szafarz, Ariane

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies labor market discriminations as an agency problem. It sets up a principal-agent model of a firm, where the manager is a taste discriminator and has to make unobservable hiring decisions that determine the shareholder’s profits because workers differ in skills. The paper shows that performance-based contracts may moderate the manager’s propensity to discriminate, but that they are unlikely to fully eliminate discrimination. Moreover, the model predicts that sectors with high...

  3. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market. It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure...

  4. Beta-gamma discriminator circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major difficulty encountered in the determination of beta-ray dose in field conditions is generally the presence of a relatively high gamma-ray component. Conventional dosimetry instruments use a shield on the detector to estimate the gamma-ray component in comparison with the beta-ray component. More accurate dosimetry information can be obtained from the measured beta spectrum itself. At Los Alamos, a detector and discriminator circuit suitable for use in a portable spectrometer have been developed. This instrument will discriminate between gammas and betas in a mixed field. The portable package includes a 256-channel MCA which can be programmed to give a variety of outputs, including a spectral display, and may be programmed to read dose directly

  5. Non-discrimination and equality of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostland, Rolanda Carina

    2006-01-01

    Non-discrimination is considered to be a cornerstone of the human rights framework of the United Nations. Already in the UN Charter of 1945 it is stated that human rights should be promoted without discrimination as to, amongst other things, sex. This principle of non-discrimination on the ground of

  6. Wide-range pulse-height discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancro, C. A.; Garrahan, N. M.

    1970-01-01

    Improved pulse amplitude discriminator has discriminator level in millivolt range, permits simple adjustment over wide range, and is stable within one percent at temperatures between minus 20 degrees and plus 60 degrees C. The discriminator responds to narrow pulses /500 nsec/, draws little power /milliwatts/, and requires simple circuitry.

  7. Memory effects in quantum channel discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Chiribella G.; D'Ariano G.M.; Perinotti P.

    2008-01-01

    We consider quantum-memory assisted protocols for discriminating quantum channels. We show that for optimal discrimination of memory channels, memory assisted protocols are needed. This leads to a new notion of distance for channels with memory. For optimal discrimination and estimation of sets of unitary channels memory-assisted protocols are not required.

  8. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market....

  9. Neurodegenerative disease. Genetic discrimination in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulst, Stefan M

    2009-10-01

    A survey conducted in Canada examined the prevalence of perceived genetic discrimination against patients with Huntington disease. The respondents reported discrimination not only by insurance or mortgage companies, but also in family and social contexts. Discrimination was more frequently attributed to family history than to genetic test results. PMID:19794509

  10. Labor Mobility and Racial Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Deschamps, Pierre; De Sousa, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of labor mobility on racial discrimination. We present an equilibrium search model that reveals an inverted U-shaped relationship between labor mobility and race-based wage differentials. We explore this relationship empirically with an exogenous mobility shock on the European soccer labor market. The Bosman ruling by the European Court of Justice in 1995 lifted restrictions on soccer player mobility. Using a panel of all clubs in the English first division from...

  11. Territorial analysis of discriminated groups

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Hrisanta MOSORA

    2013-01-01

    Labour market discrimination may lead to segregation resulting in the separation between the majority and the minority group at the local level, occupational level, educational level in public spaces etc. In this study we analysed the distribution of the Rroma population at local level, because they are regarded as the most vulnerable group in Romania. We also analysed the extent to which spatial localization affects the poverty rate in this community. Data were provided by “A social map of P...

  12. Competition, Takeovers and Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Heyman, Fredrik; Svaleryd, Helena; Vlachos, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    Theories of taste-based discrimination predict that competitive pressures will drive discriminatory behaviour out of the market. Using detailed matched employer-employee data, we analyze how firm takeovers and product market competition are related to the gender composition of the firm’s workforce and the gender wage gap. Using a difference-in-difference framework and dealing with several endogeneity concerns, we find that the share of female employees increases as a result of an ownership ch...

  13. Discrimination in Online Ad Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Latanya

    2013-01-01

    A Google search for a person's name, such as "Trevon Jones", may yield a personalized ad for public records about Trevon that may be neutral, such as "Looking for Trevon Jones?", or may be suggestive of an arrest record, such as "Trevon Jones, Arrested?". This writing investigates the delivery of these kinds of ads by Google AdSense using a sample of racially associated names and finds statistically significant discrimination in ad delivery based on searches of 2184 racially associated person...

  14. Quantity discrimination tests with macaques

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Vanessa Schmitt & Julia Fischer ### Abstract Here we describe the methods used for a two-choice quantity discrimination task, including different control conditions that test for changes in associative strength of the stimuli as well as potential experimenter bias. The experiments revealed that the choices of the monkeys were mainly driven by the fact whether or not they obtained the choice stimuli as food rewards. They did significantly better when tested with inedible i...

  15. Weed discrimination using ultrasonic sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Andújar, Dionisio; Escolà i Agustí, Alexandre; Dorado, José; Fernández-Quintanilla, César

    2011-01-01

    A new approach is described for automatic discrimination between grasses and broad-leaved weeds, based on their heights. An ultrasonic sensor was mounted on the front of a tractor, pointing vertically down in the inter-row area, with a control system georeferencing and registering the echoes reflected by the ground or by the various leaf layers. Static measurements were taken at locations with different densities of grasses (Sorghum halepense) and broad-leaved weeds (Xanthium strumarium and D...

  16. Temporal expectancy modulates inhibition of return in a discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Shai; Henik, Avishai

    2010-02-01

    This research examined the influence of cue temporal predictability on inhibition of return (IOR) in a discrimination task. In exogenous attention experiments, the cue that summons attention is noninformative as to where the target will appear. However, it is predictive as to when it will appear. In previous work, it was demonstrated that temporal predictability does not influence IOR in detection tasks. In this work, it is shown that IOR is influenced by temporal predictability in discrimination tasks. Predictability was manipulated by using three stimulus onset asynchrony distributions: nonaging, aging, and accelerated aging. IOR was found when the cue predicted target appearance and was modulated by temporal information. In the nonaging distribution (in which the cue did not predict target appearance), there was no IOR.

  17. Present and past: Can writing abilities in school children be associated with their auditory discrimination capacities in infancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; Männel, Claudia; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-12-01

    Literacy acquisition is highly associated with auditory processing abilities, such as auditory discrimination. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for cortical auditory discrimination abilities and it has been found to be reduced in individuals with reading and writing impairments and also in infants at risk for these impairments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the relationship between auditory speech discrimination in infancy and writing abilities at school age within subjects, and to determine when auditory speech discrimination differences, relevant for later writing abilities, start to develop. We analyzed the MMR registered in response to natural syllables in German children with and without writing problems at two points during development, that is, at school age and at infancy, namely at age 1 month and 5 months. We observed MMR related auditory discrimination differences between infants with and without later writing problems, starting to develop at age 5 months-an age when infants begin to establish language-specific phoneme representations. At school age, these children with and without writing problems also showed auditory discrimination differences, reflected in the MMR, confirming a relationship between writing and auditory speech processing skills. Thus, writing problems at school age are, at least, partly grounded in auditory discrimination problems developing already during the first months of life.

  18. Gestational age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ...

  19. Influencing Children's Pregambling Game Playing Via Conditional Discrimination Training

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Taylor E; Dixon, Mark R

    2009-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated a transformation of stimulus functions under similar conditions using gambling tasks and adults (e.g., Zlomke & Dixon, 2006), and the present study attempted to extend this research. Experimenters exposed 7 children (ages 7 to 10 years) to a simulated board game with concurrently available dice differing only by color. Following initial exposure to the game, participants were trained to discriminate between two contextual cues representing the relational frames ...

  20. Discrimination in Healthcare Settings is Associated with Disability in Older Adults: Health and Retirement Study, 2008–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Stephanie E.; Thrasher, Angela D.; Miao, Yinghui; Boscardin, W John; Smith, Alexander K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND As our society ages, improving medical care for an older population will be crucial. Discrimination in healthcare may contribute to substandard experiences with the healthcare system, increasing the burden of poor health in older adults. Few studies have focused on the presence of healthcare discrimination and its effects on older adults. OBJECTIVE We aimed to examine the relationship between healthcare discrimination and new or worsened disability. DESIGN This was a longitudinal a...

  1. Age determination of mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, G.L.; Johnson, D.H.; Dane, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for distinguishing adult from yearling wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), from late winter through the nesting season, was developed by applying discriminant analysis procedures to selected wing feather characters of 126 yearlings and 76 adults (2-year-olds) hand-reared from wild eggs during 1974, 1975, and 1977. Average values for feather characters generally increased as the birds advanced from yearlings to adults. Black-white surface area of greater secondary covert 2 was the single most reliable aging character identified during the study. The error rate was lowest in females (3%) when discriminant functions were used with measurements of primary 1 weight and black-white area of greater secondary covert 2 and in males (9%) when the functions were used with black-white area of greater secondary coverts 1, 2, and 3. Methodology precludes aging of birds in the field during capture operations.

  2. The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

  3. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  4. Neural networks in seismic discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowla, F.U.

    1995-01-01

    Neural networks are powerful and elegant computational tools that can be used in the analysis of geophysical signals. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have developed neural networks to solve problems in seismic discrimination, event classification, and seismic and hydrodynamic yield estimation. Other researchers have used neural networks for seismic phase identification. We are currently developing neural networks to estimate depths of seismic events using regional seismograms. In this paper different types of network architecture and representation techniques are discussed. We address the important problem of designing neural networks with good generalization capabilities. Examples of neural networks for treaty verification applications are also described.

  5. Discriminant analysis of functional optical topography for schizophrenia diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Pu, Shenghong; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Lee, Chia-Yen; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal prefrontal function plays a central role in the cognition deficits of schizophrenic patients; however, the character of the relationship between discriminant analysis and prefrontal activation remains undetermined. Recently, evidence of low prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation in individuals with schizophrenia has also been found during verbal fluency tests (VFT) and other cognitive tests with several neuroimaging methods. The purpose of this study is to assess the hemodynamic changes of the PFC and discriminant analysis between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during VFT task by utilizing functional optical topography. A total of 99 subjects including 53 schizophrenic patients and 46 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied. The results showed that the healthy group had larger activation in the right and left PFC than in the middle PFC. Besides, the schizophrenic group showed weaker task performance and lower activation in the whole PFC than the healthy group. The result of the discriminant analysis showed a significant difference with P value <0.001 in six channels (CH 23, 29, 31, 40, 42, 52) between the schizophrenic and healthy groups. Finally, 68.69% and 71.72% of subjects are correctly classified as being schizophrenic or healthy with all 52 channels and six significantly different channels, respectively. Our findings suggest that the left PFC can be a feature region for discriminant analysis of schizophrenic diagnosis.

  6. The discrimination and the production of English vowels by bilingual Spanish/English speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Sandra

    2001-05-01

    The discrimination of English vowels in real and novel words by 40 bilingual Spanish/English participants was examined. Their discrimination was compared with that of 40 native monolingual English participants. Participants were 23-36 years of age (mean 25.3; median 25.0). Stimuli were presented within triads in an ABX paradigm. This categorial discrimination paradigm was selected to avoid labeling, allowing participants to indicate categories to which stimuli belonged. Bilingual participants' productions of vowels in real words used in the discrimination task were judged by two independent listeners. The goal was to determine the degree of correlation between discrimination and production. Vowels were studied as these segments present second language learners with more difficulty than consonants. Discrimination difficulty was significantly greater for bilingual participants than for native English participants for vowel contrasts and novel words. Significant errors also appeared in the bilingual participants' production of certain vowels. English vowels absent from Spanish presented the greatest difficulty, while vowels similar to those in Spanish presented the least difficulty. Earlier age of acquisition, absence of communication problems, and greater percentage of time devoted to communication in English contributed to greater accuracy in discrimination and production. [Work supported by PSC-CUNY.

  7. Health consequences of racist and antigay discrimination for multiple minority adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Brian C; Huebner, David M

    2013-10-01

    Individuals who belong to a marginalized group and who perceive discrimination based on that group membership suffer from a variety of poor health outcomes. Many people belong to more than one marginalized group, and much less is known about the influence of multiple forms of discrimination on health outcomes. Drawing on literature describing the influence of multiple stressors, three models of combined forms of discrimination are discussed: additive, prominence, and exacerbation. The current study examined the influence of multiple forms of discrimination in a sample of African American lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) adolescents ages 14-19. Each of the three models of combined stressors were tested to determine which best describes how racist and antigay discrimination combine to predict depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and substance use. Participants were included in this analysis if they identified their ethnicity as either African American (n = 156) or African American mixed (n = 120). Mean age was 17.45 years (SD = 1.36). Results revealed both forms of mistreatment were associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among African American LGB adolescents. Racism was more strongly associated with substance use. Future intervention efforts should be targeted toward reducing discrimination and improving the social context of multiple minority adolescents, and future research with multiple minority individuals should be attuned to the multiple forms of discrimination experienced by these individuals within their environments. PMID:23731232

  8. RARE DISEASES AND GENETIC DISCRIMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Yaneva – Deliverska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Rare diseases are characterised by their low prevalence (less than 1/2,000 and their heterogeneity. They affect both children and adults anywhere in the world. From the medical perspective, rare diseases are characterised by the large number and broad diversity of disorders and symptoms that vary not only from disease to disease, but also within the same disease.Main characteristics of rare diseases include:· Rare diseases are often chronic, progressive, degenerative, and often life-threatening· Rare diseases are disabling: the quality of life of patients is often compromised by the lack or loss of autonomy· High level of pain and suffering for the patient and his/ her family · No existing effective cure· There are between 6000 and 8000 rare diseases· 75% of rare diseases affect children· 30% of rare disease patients die before the age of 5· 80% of rare diseases have identified genetic origins. Other rare diseases are the result of infections (bacterial or viral, allergies and environmental causes, or are degenerative and proliferative.Beyond the diversity of the diseases, rare disease patients and their families are confronted with the same wide range of difficulties arising directly from the rarity of these pathologies. The period between the emergence of the first symptoms and the appropriate diagnosis involves unacceptable and highly risky delays, as well as wrong diagnosis leading to inaccurate treatments. Living with a rare disease has implications in all areas of life, whether school, choice of future work, leisure time with friends, or affective life. It may lead to stigmatisation, isolation, exclusion from social community, discrimination for insurance subscription (health insurance, travel insurance, mortgage, and often reduced professional opportunities.Innovative treatments are often unevenly available in the EU because of delays in price determination and/or reimbursement decision, lack of experience of the treating

  9. Social identity change in response to discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzo, Cristina; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Auger, Emilie; Caron-Diotte, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the conditions under which discrimination can lead to social identity changes among members of a minority group. Both positive and negative relations between perceptions of discrimination and social identity have previously been reported. To explain the conflicting results and understand the complex reality of members of stigmatized groups, we argue that group-based emotions (e.g., group-based dissatisfaction) and ambiguity of discrimination cues (i.e., overt vs. ambiguous) need to be considered. We hypothesized that perceptions of discrimination would play a moderating role between group-based dissatisfaction and social identity change in a context of ambiguous, but not of overt, discrimination. The sample was comprised of 151 Arab Muslims living in the province of Quebec. Participants read fictitious newspaper articles portraying either overt (n = 76) or ambiguous (n = 75) discrimination towards in-group members. Results revealed that for participants in the overt discrimination condition, only group-based dissatisfaction was positively associated with social identity change. In contrast, for the participants in the ambiguous discrimination condition, those who perceived little discrimination and felt low group-based dissatisfaction reported a decrease in social identity. However, those who perceived low group discrimination and felt high group-based dissatisfaction reported a positive social identity change.

  10. Social identity change in response to discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzo, Cristina; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Auger, Emilie; Caron-Diotte, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the conditions under which discrimination can lead to social identity changes among members of a minority group. Both positive and negative relations between perceptions of discrimination and social identity have previously been reported. To explain the conflicting results and understand the complex reality of members of stigmatized groups, we argue that group-based emotions (e.g., group-based dissatisfaction) and ambiguity of discrimination cues (i.e., overt vs. ambiguous) need to be considered. We hypothesized that perceptions of discrimination would play a moderating role between group-based dissatisfaction and social identity change in a context of ambiguous, but not of overt, discrimination. The sample was comprised of 151 Arab Muslims living in the province of Quebec. Participants read fictitious newspaper articles portraying either overt (n = 76) or ambiguous (n = 75) discrimination towards in-group members. Results revealed that for participants in the overt discrimination condition, only group-based dissatisfaction was positively associated with social identity change. In contrast, for the participants in the ambiguous discrimination condition, those who perceived little discrimination and felt low group-based dissatisfaction reported a decrease in social identity. However, those who perceived low group discrimination and felt high group-based dissatisfaction reported a positive social identity change. PMID:27242071

  11. Russian Law on Discrimination in Employment: Can it be Compatible with International Labor Standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Lyutov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Law concerning discrimination in employment in Russia was expected to undergo a serious transformation after the fall of the Soviet system, when the Iron Curtain was lifted and the country became more open to Western legal concepts and international law. Nevertheless, most existing anti-discrimination norms in Russian law are based on the traditional concept of “uniformity and differentiation in regulation of labor” that is ill-suited to meet the challenges of amarket economy and the emergence of employment by privately owned enterprises which may have greater motivation to discriminate than state-owned-enterprises. The aim of the author is not to present an encyclopedic overview of all aspects of the topic of discrimination, but rather to concentrate on the most significant areas in which Russian law and practices diverge from international labor standards. To do so, this article analyzes current Russian legislation and landmark cases concerning gender, disability, age and some other areas of discrimination in employment with respect to their effectiveness and conformity to international labor standards on the matter. The issues of a clear definition of discrimination in employment, of protection from indirect discrimination, and of alleviation from the burden of proof are also examined. The author concludes this work by offering the reader several suggestions about how to harmonize Russian domestic law on employment discrimination with international labor standards while giving due respect to national legal and societal traditions and the current economic environment.

  12. Cognitive flexibility modulates maturation and music-training-related changes in neural sound discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikivi, Katri; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that musicians show superior neural sound discrimination when compared to non-musicians, and that these changes emerge with accumulation of training. Our aim was to investigate whether individual differences in executive functions predict training-related changes in neural sound discrimination. We measured event-related potentials induced by sound changes coupled with tests for executive functions in musically trained and non-trained children aged 9-11 years and 13-15 years. High performance in a set-shifting task, indexing cognitive flexibility, was linked to enhanced maturation of neural sound discrimination in both musically trained and non-trained children. Specifically, well-performing musically trained children already showed large mismatch negativity (MMN) responses at a young age as well as at an older age, indicating accurate sound discrimination. In contrast, the musically trained low-performing children still showed an increase in MMN amplitude with age, suggesting that they were behind their high-performing peers in the development of sound discrimination. In the non-trained group, in turn, only the high-performing children showed evidence of an age-related increase in MMN amplitude, and the low-performing children showed a small MMN with no age-related change. These latter results suggest an advantage in MMN development also for high-performing non-trained individuals. For the P3a amplitude, there was an age-related increase only in the children who performed well in the set-shifting task, irrespective of music training, indicating enhanced attention-related processes in these children. Thus, the current study provides the first evidence that, in children, cognitive flexibility may influence age-related and training-related plasticity of neural sound discrimination. PMID:26797826

  13. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Responses to the Everyday Discrimination Scale: A Differential Item Functioning Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Tené T.; Yang, Frances M; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Fitchett, George

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of race/ethnicity on responses to the Everyday Discrimination Scale, one of the most widely used discrimination scales in epidemiologic and public health research. Participants were 3,295 middle-aged US women (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, and Japanese) from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) baseline examination (1996–1997). Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on...

  14. Detecting discrimination in the hiring process : Evidence from an Internet-based search channel

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Stefan; Lagerström, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses data from an Internet-based CV database to investigate how factors which may be used as a basis for discrimination, such as the searchers’ ethnicity, gender, age and employment status, affect the number of contacts they receive from firms. Since we have access to essentially the same information as the firms, we can handle the problems associated with unobserved heterogeneity better than most existing studies of discrimination. We find that, even when we control for all other ...

  15. Perceived Discrimination and Health among Immigrants in Europe According to National Integration Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Carme Borrell; Laia Palència; Xavier Bartoll; Umar Ikram; Davide Malmusi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Discrimination harms immigrants’ health. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between perceived discrimination and health outcomes among first and second generation immigrants from low-income countries living in Europe, while accounting for sex and the national policy on immigration. Methods: Cross-sectional study including immigrants from low-income countries aged ≥15 years in 18 European countries (European Social Survey, 2012) (sample of 1271 men and 1335 ...

  16. Numerosity but not texture-density discrimination correlates with math ability in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anobile, Giovanni; Castaldi, Elisa; Turi, Marco; Tinelli, Francesca; Burr, David C

    2016-08-01

    Considerable recent work suggests that mathematical abilities in children correlate with the ability to estimate numerosity. Does math correlate only with numerosity estimation, or also with other similar tasks? We measured discrimination thresholds of school-age (6- to 12.5-years-old) children in 3 tasks: numerosity of patterns of relatively sparse, segregatable items (24 dots); numerosity of very dense textured patterns (250 dots); and discrimination of direction of motion. Thresholds in all tasks improved with age, but at different rates, implying the action of different mechanisms: In particular, in young children, thresholds were lower for sparse than textured patterns (the opposite of adults), suggesting earlier maturation of numerosity mechanisms. Importantly, numerosity thresholds for sparse stimuli correlated strongly with math skills, even after controlling for the influence of age, gender and nonverbal IQ. However, neither motion-direction discrimination nor numerosity discrimination of texture patterns showed a significant correlation with math abilities. These results provide further evidence that numerosity and texture-density are perceived by independent neural mechanisms, which develop at different rates; and importantly, only numerosity mechanisms are related to math. As developmental dyscalculia is characterized by a profound deficit in discriminating numerosity, it is fundamental to understand the mechanism behind the discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27455185

  17. Prosody discrimination by songbirds (Padda oryzivora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Naoi

    Full Text Available In human verbal communication, not only lexical information, but also paralinguistic information plays an important role in transmitting the speakers' mental state. Paralinguistic information is conveyed mainly through acoustic features like pitch, rhythm, tempo and so on. These acoustic features are generally known as prosody. It is known that some species of birds can discriminate certain aspects of human speech. However, there have not been any studies on the discrimination of prosody in human language which convey different paralinguistic meanings by birds. In the present study, we have shown that the Java sparrow (Padda oryzivora can discriminate different prosodic patterns of Japanese sentences. These birds could generalize prosodic discrimination to novel sentences, but could not generalize sentence discrimination to those with novel prosody. Moreover, unlike Japanese speakers, Java sparrows used the first part of the utterance as the discrimination cue.

  18. Prosody discrimination by songbirds (Padda oryzivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoi, Nozomi; Watanabe, Shigeru; Maekawa, Kikuo; Hibiya, Junko

    2012-01-01

    In human verbal communication, not only lexical information, but also paralinguistic information plays an important role in transmitting the speakers' mental state. Paralinguistic information is conveyed mainly through acoustic features like pitch, rhythm, tempo and so on. These acoustic features are generally known as prosody. It is known that some species of birds can discriminate certain aspects of human speech. However, there have not been any studies on the discrimination of prosody in human language which convey different paralinguistic meanings by birds. In the present study, we have shown that the Java sparrow (Padda oryzivora) can discriminate different prosodic patterns of Japanese sentences. These birds could generalize prosodic discrimination to novel sentences, but could not generalize sentence discrimination to those with novel prosody. Moreover, unlike Japanese speakers, Java sparrows used the first part of the utterance as the discrimination cue. PMID:23082167

  19. Statistical Discrimination in a Competitive Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Berk

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of employee job selection in a model of statistical discrimination in a competitive labor market. In an economy in which there are quality differences between groups, a surprisingly strong condition is required to guarantee discrimination against the worse qualified group --- MLRP must hold. In addition, because of the self-selection bias induced by competition, the resulting discrimination is small when compared to the magnitude of the underlying quality differe...

  20. Sex differences in the acceptability of discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    KURAN, Timur; McCaffery, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    A large telephone survey conducted after the attacks of September 11, 2001, suggests that the willingness to tolerate discrimination varies significantly across domains, with a very high tolerance of discrimination against poorly educated immigrants and a strikingly low tolerance of discrimination against the genetically disadvantaged. Regardless of domain, tolerance is greater among men than among women. A survey conducted simultaneously over the World Wide Web, using volunteer panels, repli...

  1. Universal programmable devices for unambiguous discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chi; Ying, Mingsheng

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the problem of designing unambiguous programmable discriminators for any $n$ unknown quantum states in an $m$-dimensional Hilbert space. The discriminator is a fixed measurement which has two kinds of input registers: the program registers and the data register. The program registers consist of the $n$ states, while the data register is prepared among them. The task of the discriminator is to tell us which state stored in the program registers is equivalent to that in the data regi...

  2. Disentangling discrimination on spanish boards of directors

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos de Cabo, Ruth; Gimeno, Ricardo; Escot, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study seeks to find evidence of discrimination behind the scarce presence women on Spanish boards of directors through factors within firms linked with different theories of discrimination. Research findings/Insights: Using data on the boards of directors from the top 1000 Spanish companies in 2005 and 2008, we identify some signals of discrimination. We find that women directors are scarcer in those sectors wh...

  3. Price discrimination and business-cycle risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cornia, Marco; Gerardi, Kristopher S.; Shapiro, Adam Hale

    2011-01-01

    A parsimonious theoretical model of second degree price discrimination suggests that the business cycle will affect the degree to which firms are able to price-discriminate between different consumer types. We analyze price dispersion in the airline industry to assess how price discrimination can expose airlines to aggregate-demand fluctuations. Performing a panel analysis on seventeen years of data covering two business cycles, we find that price dispersion is highly procyclical. Estimates s...

  4. Trophic experiments to estimate isotope discrimination factors

    OpenAIRE

    Caut, Stéphane; Angulo, Elena; Courchamp, Franck; Figuerola, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    : 1. In Caut, Angulo & Courchamp (2008a) rats were fed with experimental diets of distinct isotopic values (_13C and _15N) in order to infer the discrimination factors. We showed negative relationships between discrimination factors and diet isotopic values. In Caut, Angulo & Courchamp (2009), our aim was to generalise these relationships to other taxonomic groups with a view to providing ecologists with a general and flexible method to obtain discrimination factors for diet reconstruction st...

  5. The monolithic double-threshold discriminator

    CERN Document Server

    Baturitsky, M A

    1999-01-01

    A double-threshold discriminator capable of processing input signals of different duration is described. Simplicity of the discriminator circuitry makes it possible to embody the discriminator in multichannel ICs using microwave bipolar-JFET technology. Time walk is calculated to be less than 0.35 ns for the input ramp signals with rise times 25-100 ns and amplitudes 50 mV-1 V.

  6. Gender Discrimination and Women's Development in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, Marimuthu

    2008-01-01

    Gender is a common term where as gender discrimination is meant only for women, because females are the only victims of gender discrimination. Females are nearly 50 percent of the total population but their representation in public life is very low. Recognizing women’s right and believing their ability are essential for women’s empowerment and development. This study deals with gender discrimination in India, its various forms and its causes. Importance of women in development, legislation...

  7. Productivity or Discrimination? Beauty and the Exams

    OpenAIRE

    Giam Pietro Cipriani; Angelo Zago

    2005-01-01

    Do good looks make people more productive? An impact of looks on earnings has been found in the empirical literature: plain people earn less than average-looking people who earn less than the good-looking. However, an important question remains unanswered: is the impact of beauty due to pure discrimination or productivity? We provide evidence against the hypothesis of Becker-type discrimination stemming from tastes and in favor of productivity-related discrimination.

  8. Discrimination method of forked larch trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wen-bin; Sun Ren-shan; Liu Xu-hua; Liu Yong

    2006-01-01

    For the demands of automatíc pruning, an effective discrimination rule of the forked and non-forked larch trees is established. First, information of trunk and branch diameters of a larch plantations was collected from the west mountain of Beijing. The growth characteristics of the forked and non-forked trees were studied. Given the statistical characteristics of the trunk and branch diameters, a discriminant function of the forked branch and non-forked larch trees was established statistically. Excellent discrimination results were obtained by the function and the rule. The study presents an effective discrimination rule to separate forked trees from straight trees for automatic pruning.

  9. Simple multifunction discriminator for multichannel triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple version of a multifunction timing discriminator using only two integrated circuits is presented. It can be configured as a leading edge, a constant fraction, a zero cross or a dual threshold timing discriminator. Since so few parts are used, it is well suited for building multichannel timing discriminators. Two versions of this circuit are described: a quadruple multifunction discriminator and an octal constant fraction trigger. The different compromises made in these units are discussed. Results for walk and jitter obtained with these are presented and possible improvements are disussed

  10. A simple multifunction discriminator for multichannel triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple version of a multifunction timing discriminator using only two integrated circuits is presented. It can be configured as a leading edge, a constant fraction, a zero cross or a dual threshold timing discriminator. Since so few parts are used, it is well suited for building multichannel timing discriminators. Two versions of this circuit are described: a quadruple multifunction discriminator and an octal constant fraction trigger. The different compromises made in these units are discussed. Results for walk and jitter obtained with these are presented and possible improvements are discussed

  11. The Longitudinal Associations Between Discrimination, Depressive Symptoms, and Prosocial Behaviors in U.S. Latino/a Recent Immigrant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexandra N; Carlo, Gustavo; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Oshri, Assaf; Streit, Cara; Martinez, Miriam M; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Lizzi, Karina; Soto, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The links between discrimination and adjustment in U.S. Latino/a immigrant adolescents is an important but understudied phenomenon. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal associations (across 1 year) among discrimination, prosocial behaviors, and depressive symptoms in U.S. Latino immigrant adolescents using two competing models: associations between discrimination and prosocial behaviors via depressive symptoms (mental health strain model), and associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms via prosocial behaviors (prosociality strain model). Participants were 302 Latino/a recent immigrant adolescents (53.3 % boys, M age = 14.51 years at Time 1, SD = .88 years) who completed measures of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and prosocial behaviors at 6-month intervals. The results provided support for both proposed models. The discussion examines the importance of prosocial behaviors in understanding adjustment and effects of discrimination among recently immigrated U.S. Latino adolescents. PMID:26597783

  12. SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL DISCRIMINATION FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a direct link between disability and discrimination? Why adult with disability in employment threshold is treated under the label and not under his availability? Being a person with disabilities is associated with many stereotypes, prejudice, attitudinal barriers raised by the society, all with repercussions on social and professional quality of life of these individuals. Although statistics show the annual growth of our country people with disabilities, the chances offered to them are far from being equal to meet with peers. Endeavor implementing inclusive policies is stronger school age, but after this stage, adults with disabilities living on the verge of hiring numerous negative experiences being treated under label and not under the availabilities they have. This paper tried to highlight the factors responsible for disability discrimination and exclusion from the socio-professional life, coming up with proposals for improvement in this regard.

  13. [Obesity: stigmatization, discrimination, body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition with multifactorial genesis (genetic predisposition, life-style, psychosocial situation), but there is a relatively homogeneous negative stereotype of obese individuals, because overweight and obesity are seen as self-inflicted disorders caused by physical inactivity and disorderd eating behavior. Obese individuals are confronted with far-reaching stigmatization and discrimination. Typical stereotypes are laziness, unattractiveness, work refusal. This negative image by the environment contributes to negative self-awareness and self-stigmatization, accompanied by a poor self-esteem and feelings of poor self-control and reduced self-efficacy, resulting in poor constructive coping strategies for overweight reduction. In addition, a disturbed body image combined with deep dissatisfaction with their own body is often found in many obese individuals. There is not always a close connection between body weight and body dissatisfaction. Young women and individuals with a binge eating disorder often show an increased body dissatisfaction as well. PMID:26883770

  14. Cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe, R; Tournoy, J.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive aging and clinically probable Alzheimer's disease can be discriminated by means of clinical and neuropsychological testing, and structural and functional imaging techniques. Research at the level of cognitive brain systems and at the molecular level provides exciting new insights into the relation between aging and neurodegeneration. The advances at the clinical and at the basic research levels are necessary if we wish to meet the formidable challenge that the increasing prevalence ...

  15. Classification of debtor credit status and determination amount of credit risk by using linier discriminant function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidi, Muhammad Nur; Sari, Resty Indah

    2012-05-01

    A decision of credit that given by bank or another creditur must have a risk and it called credit risk. Credit risk is an investor's risk of loss arising from a borrower who does not make payments as promised. The substantial of credit risk can lead to losses for the banks and the debtor. To minimize this problem need a further study to identify a potential new customer before the decision given. Identification of debtor can using various approaches analysis, one of them is by using discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis in this study are used to classify whether belonging to the debtor's good credit or bad credit. The result of this study are two discriminant functions that can identify new debtor. Before step built the discriminant function, selection of explanatory variables should be done. Purpose of selection independent variable is to choose the variable that can discriminate the group maximally. Selection variables in this study using different test, for categoric variable selection of variable using proportion chi-square test, and stepwise discriminant for numeric variable. The result of this study are two discriminant functions that can identify new debtor. The selected variables that can discriminating two groups of debtor maximally are status of existing checking account, credit history, credit amount, installment rate in percentage of disposable income, sex, age in year, other installment plans, and number of people being liable to provide maintenance. This classification produce a classification accuracy rate is good enough, that is equal to 74,70%. Debtor classification using discriminant analysis has risk level that is small enough, and it ranged beetwen 14,992% and 17,608%. Based on that credit risk rate, using discriminant analysis on the classification of credit status can be used effectively.

  16. DISCRIMINATION OF WOMEN IN THE LABOUR MARKET OF SR AND MODELS OF DISCRIMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Vravec; Radovan Baèík

    2012-01-01

    IThe paper deals with the problem of women’s discrimination in the labour market. Significant differences, among women and men in the labour market, are especially in unemployment rate in reward system, and high horizontal and vertical segregation of women. The aspects of discrimination arise despite of existing legislation, which gender discrimination strictly prohibits. An analysis of arguments, consequences and models of women’s discrimination in the labour market can significantly help to...

  17. The dark side of subtle discrimination: how targets respond to different forms of discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Cihangir, Sezgin

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the role of several individual and social factors (i.e., personal self-esteem, social norms and social influence) that directly affect how people deal with uncertainty, in reaction to blatant versus subtle discrimination. While responses to blatant discrimination were not affected by any of these factors, these factors determined to a significant degree responses to subtle discrimination. The main idea throughout the thesis is that blatant discrimination involves a cl...

  18. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  19. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work.

  20. Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  1. Quantity Discrimination in Domestic Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Laura; Montrose, V. Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Quantity discrimination involves distinguishing which of two quantities is greater. This discrimination between larger and smaller quantities has only been demonstrated in rats post extensive training. We tested whether domestic rats could perform quantity discrimination without explicit training. We found that rats could distinguish the greater amount in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. Rats could not distinguish between 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. We also found that as the ratio between quantities became finer the choice of the larger quantity decreased. We conclude that rats can perform quantity discrimination without extensive training and that their quantity discrimination ability is influenced by the ratio between quantities. Abstract Quantity discrimination is a basic form of numerical competence where an animal distinguishes which of two amounts is greater in size. Whilst quantity discrimination in rats has been investigated via training paradigms, rats’ natural quantity discrimination abilities without explicit training for a desired response have not been explored. This study investigated domestic rats’ ability to perform quantity discrimination. Domestic rats (n = 12) were examined for their ability to distinguish the larger amount under nine quantity comparisons. One-sample t-tests identified a significant preference for the larger quantity in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. No preference between quantities was found for comparisons of 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. Overall, this study drew two key conclusions. Firstly, that domestic rats are capable of performing quantity discrimination without extensive training. Secondly, as subjects adhered to Weber’s law, it was concluded that the approximate number system underpins domestic rats’ ability to perform spontaneous quantity discrimination. PMID:27527223

  2. 29 CFR 1607.3 - Discrimination defined: Relationship between use of selection procedures and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination defined: Relationship between use of selection procedures and discrimination. 1607.3 Section 1607.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...) General Principles § 1607.3 Discrimination defined: Relationship between use of selection procedures...

  3. Rotary pin-in-maze discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1997-01-01

    A discriminator apparatus and method that discriminates between a unique signal and any other (incorrect) signal. The unique signal is a sequence of events; each event can assume one of two possible event states. Given the unique signal, a maze wheel is allowed to rotate fully in one direction. Given an incorrect signal, both the maze wheel and a pin wheel lock in position.

  4. Discriminator Aids Phase-Lock Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, L. M.; Krasin, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    Voltage-controlled oscillator in suppressed-carrier detector acquire carrier frequency and phase quickly with help of frequency-discriminator arrangement. To obtain discriminator function, filter bandwidth in quadrature (Q) leg of detector is widened with respect to bandwidth of filter in inphase (l) leg.

  5. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  6. The Problem of Education-Based Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    While the research, theory and policy literature on race, class and gender discrimination in education is extensive, the problem of education-based discrimination itself has been widely overlooked. Indeed, the dominant ideologies of meritocracy and human capital (into which we are inculcated throughout our lives by schools, media and the state)…

  7. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT... intimidate, threaten, restrain, coerce, blacklist, discharge, or in any manner discriminate against...

  8. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  9. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT... discriminate against any person who has: (1) Filed a complaint under or related to sec. 218 of the INA or...

  10. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND... any manner discriminate against any migrant or seasonal agricultural worker because such worker...

  11. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT THE.... It is unlawful for a covered entity to discriminate on the basis of disability against a...

  12. 29 CFR 32.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.12 Section 32.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices and Employment Related Training Participation § 32.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General....

  13. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NONDISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY REQUIREMENTS OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) General Provisions § 34.3 Discrimination prohibited. No individual in the United...

  14. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a...

  15. Statistical Theories of Discrimination in Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Dennis J.; Cain, Glen G.

    1977-01-01

    Economic discrimination in labor markets, different pay for workers of the same ability, is analyzed in several statistical models using data for black/white and male/female earnings. The conclusion is that statistical theories are unlikely to explain labor market discrimination. (MF)

  16. Guidelines on Discrimination Because of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Washington, DC.

    This brochure presents regulatory guidelines on sex discrimination with sections devoted to: general principles; sex as a bona fide occupational qualification; separate lines of progression and seniority systems; discrimination against married women; advertising job opportunities; employment agencies; pre-employment inquiries as to sex; the…

  17. Price Discrimination and Resale: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuchoudhary, Atin; Metcalf, Christopher; Pommerenke, Kai; Reiley, David; Rojas, Christian; Rostek, Marzena; Stodder, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a classroom experiment designed to illustrate key concepts of third-degree price discrimination. By participating as buyers and sellers, students actively learn (1) how group pricing differs from uniform pricing, (2) how resale between buyers limits a seller's ability to price discriminate, and (3) how preventing price…

  18. Color Invariant SURF in Discriminative Object Tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Chu; A.W.M. Smeulders

    2010-01-01

    Tracking can be seen as an online learning problem, where the focus is on discriminating object from background. From this point of view, features play a key role as the tracking accuracy depends on how well the feature distinguish object and background. Current discriminative trackers use tradition

  19. Monopoly price discrimination with constant elasticity demand

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Pérez, Iñaki; Cowan, Simon George

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents new results on the welfare e¤ects of third-degree price discrimination under constant elasticity demand. We show that when both the share of the strong market under uniform pricing and the elasticity di¤erence between markets are high enough,then price discrimination not only can increase social welfare but also consumer surplus.

  20. Gender Discrimination and Women's Development in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Gender is a common term where as gender discrimination is meant only for women, because females are the only victims of gender discrimination. Females are nearly 50 percent of the total population but their representation in public life is very low. Recognizing women's right and believing their ability are essential for women's empowerment and…

  1. Discriminant and Proximity Analysis in Intercultural Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laveault, Dany

    1982-01-01

    Discriminant analysis is applied to data from previous research dealing with assessing the particularities of cognitive development in young (four to nine years old) Montagnais Indians and French Canadians. The most important future contribution of discriminant analysis to intercultural research will be its ability to conceptualize group…

  2. Chaotic Discrimination and Non-Linear Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Gangopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a particular form of price discrimination, known as chaotic discrimination, which has the following features: sellers quote a common price but, in reality, they engage in secret and apparently unsystematic price discounts. It is widely held that such forms of price discrimination are seriously inconsistent with profit maximization by sellers.. However, there is no theoretical salience to support this kind of price discrimination. By straining the logic of non-linear dynamics this study explains why such secret discounts are chaotic in the sense that sellers fail to adopt profit-maximising price discounts. A model is developed to argue that such forms of discrimination may derive from the regions of instability of a dynamic model of price discounts.

  3. Beyond the patient: the broader impact of genetic discrimination among individuals at risk of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Palin, JoAnne; Friedman, Jan M; Veenstra, Gerry; Creighton, Susan; Bottorff, Joan L; Hayden, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to address gaps in current understanding of the scope and impact of discrimination, by examining a cohort of individuals at-risk for Huntington disease (HD), to describe the prevalence of concern for oneself and one's family in multiple domains; strategies used to mitigate discrimination; and the extent to which concerns relate to experiences. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 293 individuals at-risk for HD (80% response rate); 167 respondents were genetically tested and 66 were not. Fear of discrimination was widespread (86%), particularly in the insurance, family and social settings. Approximately half of concerned individuals experienced discrimination (40-62%, depending on genetic status). Concern was associated with "keeping quiet" about one's risk of HD or "taking action to avoid" discrimination. Importantly, concern was highly distressing for some respondents (21% for oneself; 32% for relatives). Overall, concerned respondents with high education levels, who discovered their family history at a younger age, and those who were mutation-positive were more likely to report experiences of discrimination than others who were concerned. Concerns were rarely attributed to genetic test results alone. Concern about genetic discrimination is frequent among individuals at-risk of HD and spans many settings. It influences behavioral patterns and can result in high levels of self-rated distress, highlighting the need for practice and policy interventions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Exposure to Discrimination and Heart Rate Variability Reactivity to Acute Stress among Women with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Lampert, Rachel; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to racial discrimination has been linked to physiological reactivity. This study investigated self-reported exposure to racial discrimination and parasympathetic [high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV)] and sympathetic (norepinephrine and cortisol) activity at baseline and then again after acute laboratory stress. Lifetime exposure to racial discrimination was measured with the Schedule of Racist Events scale. Thirty-two women (16 Black and 16 White) with type 2 diabetes performed a public speaking stressor. Beat-to-beat intervals were recorded on electrocardiograph recorders, and HF-HRV was calculated using spectral analysis and natural log transformed. Norepinephrine and cortisol were measured in blood. Higher discrimination predicted lower stressor HF-HRV, even after controlling for baseline HF-HRV. When race, age, A1c and baseline systolic blood pressure were also controlled, racial discrimination remained a significant independent predictor of stressor HF-HRV. There was no association between lifetime discrimination and sympathetic markers. In conclusion, preliminary data suggest that among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), exposure to racial discrimination is adversely associated with parasympathetic, but not sympathetic, reactivity. PMID:24194397

  5. The Defining Moment: Children's Conceptualization of Race and Experiences with Racial Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Hannon, Lonnie; Fernandez, Jose R; Cockerham, William C

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines whether children of marginalized racial/ethnic groups have an awareness of race at earlier ages than youth from non-marginalized groups, documents their experiences with racial discrimination, and utilizes a modified racism-related stress model to explore the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-esteem. Data were collected for non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic children aged 7 - 12 using face-to-face interviews (n = 175). The concept of race was measured by assessing whether children could define race, if not a standard definition was provided. Racial discrimination was measured using the Williams Every-day-Discrimination Scale, self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Scale, and ethnic identity was assessed using the Multi-group Ethnic Identity Measure. Non-Hispanic black children were able to define race more accurately, but overall, Hispanic children encountered more racial discrimination, with frequent reports of ethnic slurs. Additionally, after accounting for ethnic identity, perceived racial discrimination remained a salient stressor that contributed to low self-esteem.

  6. Mnemonic discrimination relates to perforant path integrity: An ultra-high resolution diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ilana J; Stark, Craig E L

    2016-03-01

    Pattern separation describes the orthogonalization of similar inputs into unique, non-overlapping representations. This computational process is thought to serve memory by reducing interference and to be mediated by the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Using ultra-high in-plane resolution diffusion tensor imaging (hrDTI) in older adults, we previously demonstrated that integrity of the perforant path, which provides input to the dentate gyrus from entorhinal cortex, was associated with mnemonic discrimination, a behavioral outcome designed to load on pattern separation. The current hrDTI study assessed the specificity of this perforant path integrity-mnemonic discrimination relationship relative to other cognitive constructs (identified using a factor analysis) and white matter tracts (hippocampal cingulum, fornix, corpus callosum) in 112 healthy adults (20-87 years). Results revealed age-related declines in integrity of the perforant path and other medial temporal lobe (MTL) tracts (hippocampal cingulum, fornix). Controlling for global effects of brain aging, perforant path integrity related only to the factor that captured mnemonic discrimination performance. Comparable integrity-mnemonic discrimination relationships were also observed for the hippocampal cingulum and fornix. Thus, whereas perforant path integrity specifically relates to mnemonic discrimination, mnemonic discrimination may be mediated by a broader MTL network.

  7. Effects of second language study of phonemic discrimination and auditory event-related potentials in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, J D; Bush, A M; Geist, C R

    1998-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of acquisition of a second language on auditory even-related brain potentials and discrimination of foreign language phonemes by 36 women (ages 18 to 47 years), and 25 men (ages 18 to 36 years) and of varying linguistic background, in response to synthetic versions of Japanese phonemes. Subjects were subsequently tested on discrimination between spoken Japanese phonemes. Analysis indicated that the men and women differed in phonological processing and in the way acquisition of the second language affected phonological processing.

  8. Hydroacoustic Blockage Calibration for Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harben, P E; Matzel, E; Upton, Z; Pulli, J J

    2003-07-11

    The core focus of this hydroacoustic research is to develop a better understanding of hydroacoustic blockage to better predict those stations that can be used in discrimination analysis for any particular event. The research involves two approaches: (1) model-based assessment of blockage and (2) ground-truth data-based assessment of blockage. The goal is to reliably determine all hydroacoustic stations that can be brought to bear on a discrimination analysis from any event location in the world s oceans. An important aspect of this capability is to include reflected T-phases where they reliably occur since reflected T-phases can allow station utilization when the direct path is otherwise completely blocked. We have conceptually designed an approach to automate assessment procedures that will allow both model-based and data-based methodologies to be utilized and in the future, integrated. We have modified the HydroCAM model-based network assessment code to include variable density bathymetry grids. This will improve the reliability of model-based blockage assessment as dense bathymetry grids are added to the bathymetry database where available and needed. We are also running the HydroCAM code to produce blockage grids in the Indian Ocean for many different blockage criteria. We have been building the database necessary to begin the data driven assessment of blockage. At present, the database is accumulating earthquake events within the Indian Ocean basin as recorded at Diego Garcia and Cape Leeuwin. Over 130 events from 2001 and 2002 have been loaded. Now earthquake event data is automatically loaded into the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory database at 1-hour record lengths to accommodate future reflection phase analysis. Future work will focus on the utilization of reflected T-phases, the automated use of model-based blockage grids, and the enhancement and use of the data-based method for blockage assessment in the Indian Ocean. The analysis methodology will

  9. Model Minority Stereotyping, Perceived Discrimination, and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Asian American Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Thompson, Taylor L

    2016-07-01

    The model minority image is a common and pervasive stereotype that Asian American adolescents must navigate. Using multiwave data from 159 adolescents from Asian American backgrounds (mean age at initial recruitment = 15.03, SD = .92; 60 % female; 74 % US-born), the current study targeted unexplored aspects of the model minority experience in conjunction with more traditionally measured experiences of negative discrimination. When examining normative changes, perceptions of model minority stereotyping increased over the high school years while perceptions of discrimination decreased. Both experiences were not associated with each other, suggesting independent forms of social interactions. Model minority stereotyping generally promoted academic and socioemotional adjustment, whereas discrimination hindered outcomes. Moreover, in terms of academic adjustment, the model minority stereotype appears to protect against the detrimental effect of discrimination. Implications of the complex duality of adolescents' social interactions are discussed.

  10. Discrimination, ethnic identity, and academic outcomes of Mexican immigrant children: the importance of school context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N=204, 19 schools, mean age=9years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes about the value of diversity in predicting immigrant youth's attitudes and experiences. Results indicated that Latino immigrant children in this White community held positive and important ethnic identities and perceived low overall rates of discrimination. As expected, however, school and teacher characteristics were important in predicting children's perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity, and moderated whether perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity were related to attitudes about school and academic performance.

  11. Parent Discrimination Predicts Mexican-American Adolescent Psychological Adjustment 1 Year Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents 1 year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them. PMID:27224903

  12. Relating Age Change and Behavior to Job Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaie, K. Warner

    The Age Discrimination in Employment Act has been amended to outlaw mandatory retirement at any age. However, the act permits employers to impose a specific retirement age if there is a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) which cannot be met by all or most individuals. Imposition of BFOQ mandatory retirement ages by employers has led to…

  13. Semisupervised Sparse Multilinear Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锴; 张丽清

    2014-01-01

    Various problems are encountered when adopting ordinary vector space algorithms for high-order tensor data input. Namely, one must overcome the Small Sample Size (SSS) and overfitting problems. In addition, the structural information of the original tensor signal is lost during the vectorization process. Therefore, comparable methods using a direct tensor input are more appropriate. In the case of electrocardiograms (ECGs), another problem must be overcome;the manual diagnosis of ECG data is expensive and time consuming, rendering it difficult to acquire data with diagnosis labels. However, when effective features for classification in the original data are very sparse, we propose a semisupervised sparse multilinear discriminant analysis (SSSMDA) method. This method uses the distribution of both the labeled and the unlabeled data together with labels discovered through a label propagation algorithm. In practice, we use 12-lead ECGs collected from a remote diagnosis system and apply a short-time-fourier transformation (STFT) to obtain third-order tensors. The experimental results highlight the sparsity of the ECG data and the ability of our method to extract sparse and effective features that can be used for classification.

  14. Neuronal correlates of facial emotion discrimination in early onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiferth, Nina Y; Pauly, Katharina; Kellermann, Thilo; Shah, N Jon; Ott, Gudrun; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Kircher, Tilo; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2009-01-01

    Emotion discrimination deficits represent a well-established finding in schizophrenia. Although imaging studies addressed the cerebral dysfunctions underlying emotion perception in adult patients, the question of trait vs state characteristics is still unresolved. The investigation of juvenile patients offers the advantage of studying schizophrenia at an age where influences of illness course and long-term medication are minimized. This may enable a more detailed characterization of emotion discrimination impairments and their cerebral correlates with respect to their appearance and exact nature. A total of 12 juvenile patients with early onset schizophrenia and matched healthy juveniles participated in this study. fMRI data were acquired during an emotion discrimination task consisting of standardized photographs of faces displaying happy, sad, angry, fearful, or neutral facial expression. Similar to findings in adult patients, juvenile patients exhibited reduced performance specificity whereas sensitivity was unaffected. Independent of the valence, their processing of emotional faces was associated with hypoactivations in both fusiform gyri and in the left inferior occipital gyrus. In addition, hyperactivations in patients were found in the right cuneus common to happy, angry, and fearful faces. Further, most distinct changes were present in juvenile patients when processing sad faces. These results point to a dysfunction in cerebral circuits relevant for emotion processing already prominent in adolescent schizophrenia patients. Regions affected by a decrease in activation are related to visual and face processing, similar to deficits reported in adult patients. These changes are accompanied by hyperactivations in areas related to emotion regulation and attribution, possibly reflecting compensatory mechanisms.

  15. Reaction times and face discrimination with emotional content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARÍA MARTÍNEZ

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-two university subjects students located in two groups, with a stocking of age of 21.6 for thegroup of women and 22 for the group of men with the purpose to carry out a study upon visual timesof reaction TRV with emotional content keeping in mind the position: start, half and end; the emotionalcontent: neutral, friendly and threatening; and the combinations of the stimuli. The group of womenI present TR more prolonged than that of the men in all the experimental conditions. Also it wasobserved, that more are prolonged when the stimulus to discriminate this located in the half so muchin men as women.

  16. Decision theory for discrimination-aware classification

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2012-12-01

    Social discrimination (e.g., against females) arising from data mining techniques is a growing concern worldwide. In recent years, several methods have been proposed for making classifiers learned over discriminatory data discriminationaware. However, these methods suffer from two major shortcomings: (1) They require either modifying the discriminatory data or tweaking a specific classification algorithm and (2) They are not flexible w.r.t. discrimination control and multiple sensitive attribute handling. In this paper, we present two solutions for discrimination-aware classification that neither require data modification nor classifier tweaking. Our first and second solutions exploit, respectively, the reject option of probabilistic classifier(s) and the disagreement region of general classifier ensembles to reduce discrimination. We relate both solutions with decision theory for better understanding of the process. Our experiments using real-world datasets demonstrate that our solutions outperform existing state-ofthe-art methods, especially at low discrimination which is a significant advantage. The superior performance coupled with flexible control over discrimination and easy applicability to multiple sensitive attributes makes our solutions an important step forward in practical discrimination-aware classification. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (<4%), consistent with previous studies, and at high contrasts (≥34%), which has not been previously reported. However, control experiments showed no binocular advantage at high contrasts in the presence of a fixation point or for observers without accommodation. We evaluated two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms. PMID:26982370

  18. Discrimination of static and dynamic spectral patterns by children and young adults in relationship to speech perception in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanin Rayes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Past work has shown relationship between the ability to discriminate spectral patterns and measures of speech intelligibility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of both children and young adults to discriminate static and dynamic spectral patterns, comparing performance between the two groups and evaluating within- group results in terms of relationship to speech-in-noise perception. Data were collected from normal-hearing children (age range: 5.4-12.8 years and young adults (mean age: 22.8 years on two spectral discrimination tasks and speech-in-noise perception. The first discrimination task, involving static spectral profiles, measured the ability to detect a change in the phase of a low-density sinusoidal spectral ripple of wideband noise. Using dynamic spectral patterns, the second task determined the signal-to-noise ratio needed to discriminate the temporal pattern of frequency fluctuation imposed by stochastic lowrate frequency modulation (FM. Children performed significantly poorer than young adults on both discrimination tasks. For children, a significant correlation between speech-in-noise perception and spectral- pattern discrimination was obtained only with the dynamic patterns of the FM condition, with partial correlation suggesting that factors related to the children’s age mediated the relationship.

  19. Discrimination of gender using facial image with expression change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyada, Jun; Fukuda, Takahiro; Terada, Kenji

    2005-12-01

    By carrying out marketing research, the managers of large-sized department stores or small convenience stores obtain the information such as ratio of men and women of visitors and an age group, and improve their management plan. However, these works are carried out in the manual operations, and it becomes a big burden to small stores. In this paper, the authors propose a method of men and women discrimination by extracting difference of the facial expression change from color facial images. Now, there are a lot of methods of the automatic recognition of the individual using a motion facial image or a still facial image in the field of image processing. However, it is very difficult to discriminate gender under the influence of the hairstyle and clothes, etc. Therefore, we propose the method which is not affected by personality such as size and position of facial parts by paying attention to a change of an expression. In this method, it is necessary to obtain two facial images with an expression and an expressionless. First, a region of facial surface and the regions of facial parts such as eyes, nose, and mouth are extracted in the facial image with color information of hue and saturation in HSV color system and emphasized edge information. Next, the features are extracted by calculating the rate of the change of each facial part generated by an expression change. In the last step, the values of those features are compared between the input data and the database, and the gender is discriminated. In this paper, it experimented for the laughing expression and smile expression, and good results were provided for discriminating gender.

  20. Structural Discrimination – Between a Rock and a Hard Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skadegaard Thorsen, Mira

    This article examines challenges that arise when discrimination is expressed in communication across perceived differences (inter-cultural communication). More specifically, it looks at how visible minority Danes navigate in regard to structural discrimination (implicit and underlying forms...... of discrimination) imbricated in seemingly neutral everyday communication. It argues that structural discrimination is discursive and constitutive and is expressed in language as well as communicated in the form of naturalizations and embodiments of discrimination. It suggests that structural discrimination is so...

  1. Quantifying explainable discrimination and removing illegal discrimination in automated decision making

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2012-11-18

    Recently, the following discrimination-aware classification problem was introduced. Historical data used for supervised learning may contain discrimination, for instance, with respect to gender. The question addressed by discrimination-aware techniques is, given sensitive attribute, how to train discrimination-free classifiers on such historical data that are discriminative, with respect to the given sensitive attribute. Existing techniques that deal with this problem aim at removing all discrimination and do not take into account that part of the discrimination may be explainable by other attributes. For example, in a job application, the education level of a job candidate could be such an explainable attribute. If the data contain many highly educated male candidates and only few highly educated women, a difference in acceptance rates between woman and man does not necessarily reflect gender discrimination, as it could be explained by the different levels of education. Even though selecting on education level would result in more males being accepted, a difference with respect to such a criterion would not be considered to be undesirable, nor illegal. Current state-of-the-art techniques, however, do not take such gender-neutral explanations into account and tend to overreact and actually start reverse discriminating, as we will show in this paper. Therefore, we introduce and analyze the refined notion of conditional non-discrimination in classifier design. We show that some of the differences in decisions across the sensitive groups can be explainable and are hence tolerable. Therefore, we develop methodology for quantifying the explainable discrimination and algorithmic techniques for removing the illegal discrimination when one or more attributes are considered as explanatory. Experimental evaluation on synthetic and real-world classification datasets demonstrates that the new techniques are superior to the old ones in this new context, as they succeed in

  2. 28 CFR 42.510 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination Based on Handicap in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities... discrimination in employment applies to the following activities: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and application...) Selection and financial support for training, including apprenticeship, professional meetings,...

  3. Improved discriminative training for generative model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ya-hui; GUO Jun; LIU Gang

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a model combination method to enhance the discriminability of the generative model. Generative and discriminative models have different optimization objectives and have their own advantages and drawbacks. The method proposed in this article intends to strike a balance between the two models mentioned above. It extracts the discriminative parameter from the generative model and generates a new model based on a multi-model combination. The weight for combining is determined by the ratio of the inter-variance to the intra-variance of the classes. The higher the ratio is, the greater the weight is, and the more discriminative the model will be. Experiments on speech recognition demonstrate that the performance of the new model outperforms the model trained with the traditional generative method.

  4. Experienced discrimination in home mortgage lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Seri, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    ) of discriminatory behavior related to home financing. The analysis follows two steps. The first evaluates self-selection (the probability that individuals apply) and the second focuses on the likelihood that applications are accepted by the bank. Findings show that discrimination is likely to appear when......This article proposes a framework for the analysis of experienced discrimination in home mortgages. It addresses the problem of home mortgage lending discrimination in one of the richest areas of northern Italy. Employees of a local hospital were interviewed to study their perception (or experience...... the applicant’s nationality is considered. In addition to its findings, the study (a) provides an original econometric model on a two-step procedure to test perceived discrimination and (b) suggests a method and approach that may constitute a point of reference for those willing to study perceived...

  5. A few problems on monodromy and discriminants

    OpenAIRE

    Vassiliev, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    A problem list in singularity theory. Most of these problems are related with the algorithmic enumeration of possible topological types of non-discriminant Morsifications of real function singularities, and/or with the Picard--Lefschetz theory.

  6. Introduction to the special section on discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Health Psychology is publishing this special section, consisting of five papers. The first paper looks at the role discrimination plays in the sexual risk behavior of young pregnant women. The second evaluates the impact lifetime racism has on blood pressure during pregnancy, and the effects this may have on fetal growth. The third paper provides data on the degree to which systemic racism serves as a moderator of the relationship between provider racial bias and hypertension treatment adherence. The fourth evaluates discrimination as a mediator of health status and health behavior. The final one provides a systematic review of the impact of perceived discrimination on hypertension. One goal of this special section is to encourage investigators who read Health Psychology and who are interested in health disparities of any kind to include issues related to discrimination as part of their research. PMID:24417688

  7. A FORTRAN Program for Discrete Discriminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, James O.; Brewer, James K.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran program is presented for discriminant analysis of discrete variables. The program assumes discrete, nominal data with no distributional, variance-covariance assumptions. The program handles a maximum of fifty predictor variables and twelve outcome groups. (Author/JKS)

  8. Discrimination in a General Algebraic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Fine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminating groups were introduced by G. Baumslag, A. Myasnikov, and V. Remeslennikov as an outgrowth of their theory of algebraic geometry over groups. Algebraic geometry over groups became the main method of attack on the solution of the celebrated Tarski conjectures. In this paper we explore the notion of discrimination in a general universal algebra context. As an application we provide a different proof of a theorem of Malcev on axiomatic classes of Ω-algebras.

  9. Discrimination and sleep: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Lewis, Tené T; Williams, David R

    2016-02-01

    An increasing body of literature indicates that discrimination has a negative impact on health; poor sleep may be an underlying mechanism. The primary objective of this review was to examine existing studies on the relationship between discrimination and sleep to clarify (a) the potential role of discrimination in shaping population patterns of sleep and sleep disparities, and (b) the research needed to develop interventions at individual and institutional levels. We identified articles from English-language publications in PubMed and EBSCO databases from inception through July 2014. We employed a broad definition of discrimination to include any form of unfair treatment and all self-reported and objectively assessed sleep outcomes, including duration, difficulties, and sleep architecture. Seventeen studies were identified: four prospective, 12 cross-sectional, and one that utilized a daily-diary design. Fifteen of the 17 studies evaluated interpersonal discrimination as the exposure and the majority of studies included self-reported sleep as the outcome. Only four studies incorporated objective sleep assessments. All 17 studies identified at least one association between discrimination and a measure of poorer sleep, although studies with more detailed consideration of either discrimination or sleep architecture revealed some inconsistencies. Taken together, existing studies demonstrate consistent evidence that discrimination is associated with poorer sleep outcomes. This evidence base can be strengthened with additional prospective studies that incorporate objectively measured aspects of sleep. We outline important extensions for this field of inquiry that can inform the development of interventions to improve sleep outcomes, and consequently promote well-being and reduce health inequities across the life course. PMID:25770043

  10. Spectrophotometric discrimination of river dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andy

    2002-11-01

    There is a need to be able to differentiate the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction in river waters. Research in the 1970s and 1980s has attempted to utilize both absorbance and fluorescence to distinguish between DOM fractions in river waters, but both were limited by the available technology. Total organic carbon content has, therefore, been widely used as a standard method of measuring DOM concentration, although it has little power to differentiate DOM fractions. Recent advances in fluorescence spectrophotometry enable rapid and optically precise analysis of DOM. Here, we show how a combination of both fluorescence and absorbance can be used to discriminate statistically between spatial variations of DOM in tributaries in a small catchment of the Ouseburn, NE England. The results of the discriminant analysis suggest that about 70% of the samples can be correctly classified to its tributary. Discriminant function 1 explains 60·8% of the variance in the data and the fulvic-like fluorescence intensity has the largest absolute correlation within this function; discriminant function 2 explains a further 21·5% of the variance and the fulvic-like fluorescence emission wavelength has the largest absolute correlation within this function. The discriminant analysis does not correctly classify all tributaries every time, and successfully discriminates between the different tributaries 70% of the time. Occasions when the tributary waters are less well discriminated are due to either episodic pollution events (at two sites) or due to tributaries that have strong seasonal trends in spectrophotometric parameters, which allows the sites to be misclassified. Results suggest that spectrophotometric techniques have considerable potential in the discrimination of DOM in rivers.

  11. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kassam Aliya; Brohan Elaine; Thornicroft Graham; Lewis-Holmes Elanor

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The ...

  12. Fiber-Optic Discriminator Stabilizes Microwave Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Ronald T., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    New fiber-optic delay line discriminator enables stabilization of oscillators directly at microwave output frequency, eliminating need for frequency multiplication. Discriminator is wide-band device, capable of stabilizing outputs of frequency-agile microwave sources over multigigahertz tuning ranges. Use of advanced fiber-optic delay line with wider bandwidth and low noise predicted to yield corresponding improvements in phase-noise performance.

  13. Segregation and Labor Discrimination in Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Gannon, Frédéric; Zenou, Yves

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze segregation and labor discrimination in a monocentric city. We first show that, if some categories are systematically discriminated in the labor market (such as blacks, young people, long-rum unemployed...), they will also be spatially segregated at the vicinity of the CBD. Second, we perform comparative statics to examine how urban configuration is modified in equilibrium by changes in labor market characteristics. Finally, we contemplate two policies that...

  14. Discrimination in a General Algebraic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Benjamin; Gaglione, Anthony; Lipschutz, Seymour; Spellman, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Discriminating groups were introduced by G. Baumslag, A. Myasnikov, and V. Remeslennikov as an outgrowth of their theory of algebraic geometry over groups. Algebraic geometry over groups became the main method of attack on the solution of the celebrated Tarski conjectures. In this paper we explore the notion of discrimination in a general universal algebra context. As an application we provide a different proof of a theorem of Malcev on axiomatic classes of Ω-algebras.

  15. Discrimination in a General Algebraic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Benjamin; Gaglione, Anthony; Lipschutz, Seymour; Spellman, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Discriminating groups were introduced by G. Baumslag, A. Myasnikov, and V. Remeslennikov as an outgrowth of their theory of algebraic geometry over groups. Algebraic geometry over groups became the main method of attack on the solution of the celebrated Tarski conjectures. In this paper we explore the notion of discrimination in a general universal algebra context. As an application we provide a different proof of a theorem of Malcev on axiomatic classes of Ω-algebras. PMID:26171421

  16. Price Discrimination in the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stringer, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In the past 10 to 15 years we have seen the emergence of low cost, "no frills" airlines competing directly with traditional carriers. This increase in competition coupled with the growing use of the internet has significantly increased price transparency within the airline industry. The primary aim of this study is to determine if and how price transparency has altered the way airlines price discriminate. The first part of this paper contains a general review of price discrimination with...

  17. Health Disparities and Discrimination: Three Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; Krieger, Janice R.; Warren, Jennifer R.; Hecht, Michael L.; Okuyemi, Kola

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three perspectives on health discrimination and disparities, organized around different conceptualizations of the way “space” perpetuates health disparities. The first two perspectives are grounded in conceptualizing space in a physical sense by exploring the manifestation of discrimination as a problem both among and within nations. The third perspective juxtaposes geographical space with cyberspace. The internet, with its ability to blur sense of place, social demarcat...

  18. Racism, Other Discriminations and Effects on Health

    OpenAIRE

    Gil González, Diana; Vives Cases, Carmen; Borrell, Carme; Andrés A. Agudelo Suárez; Davó Blanes, María del Carmen; Miralles Bueno, Juan José; Álvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We study the probability of perceived racism/other forms of discrimination on immigrant and Spanish populations within different public spheres and show their effect on the health of immigrants using a cross-sectional design (ENS-06). Variables: perceived racism/other forms of discrimination (exposure), socio-demographic (explicative), health indicators (dependent). Frequencies, prevalences, and bivariate/multivariate analysis were conducted separately for men (M) and women (W). We estimated ...

  19. Disability discrimination in healthcare services and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Christopher

    2015-09-30

    This article discusses the meaning and philosophical basis of disability discrimination in health care. It focuses on aspects of language that influence discourse about disability and affect the experiences of people with disabilities. Reference is made to the experiences of those who have an autism spectrum condition, with a specific focus on three NHS employees with Asperger syndrome, in relation to disability discrimination. The implications for nurses and nursing are discussed. Recommendations are made for awareness raising and training. PMID:26419169

  20. Discrimination learning with variable stimulus 'salience'

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background In nature, sensory stimuli are organized in heterogeneous combinations. Salient items from these combinations 'stand-out' from their surroundings and determine what and how we learn. Yet, the relationship between varying stimulus salience and discrimination learning remains unclear. Presentation of the hypothesis A rigorous formulation of the problem of discrimination learning should account for varying salience effects. We hypothesize that structural variations in the environment ...

  1. α/β discrimination in Borexino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbiati, C. [Princeton University, Physics Department, Princeton, NJ (United States); Misiaszek, M. [Jagiellonian University, M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Rossi, N. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    In this report we describe the unique capabilities of the α/β discrimination of the Borexino experiment. This capability is the direct result of years of development aimed at the design of an experiment that could withstand contamination from α-emitting nuclides. The combination of the excellent α/β discrimination and of the excellent radiopurity of the detector permitted to extract information on the solar neutrino interactions in Borexino without interference from α particles. (orig.)

  2. Age determination of female redhead ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

  3. Labor market discrimination and capital investment: the effects of fan discrimination on stadium investment

    OpenAIRE

    Bodvarsson, Örn B.; Humphreys, Brad R.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that labor market discrimination affects economic outcomes in the complementary capital market. Previous research contains ample theoretical justification, and empirical evidence, that discrimination affects wages and employment in labor markets. However, the effects of discrimination against minority labor on transactions in markets for other inputs used in production are not known. We develop a model of the optimal capital stock put in place in the presence of...

  4. Signal Clarity: An Account of the Variability in Infant Quantity Discrimination Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Lisa; Boyer, Ty W.; Cordes, Sara; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    Infants have shown variable success in quantity comparison tasks, with infants of a given age sometimes successfully discriminating numerical differences at a 2:3 ratio but requiring 1:2 and even 1:4 ratios of change at other times. The current explanations for these variable results include the two-systems proposal--a theoretical framework that…

  5. The Effects of Race and Sex Discrimination on Early-Career Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Andrew I.; Roderick, Roger D.

    The study uses a multiple-equation model of earnings determination to assess and measure the impact of labor market discrimination according to race and sex. Focusing on full-time, nonresident workers 18-25 years of age in 1968-69, the observed intercolor and intersex wage differentials are decomposed according to their sources. While less than…

  6. A Probe Trial Procedure for the Study of Children's Discrimination Learning and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael

    1976-01-01

    A discrimination reversal problem was presented to 192 children varying in age from 3 to 5 years. At the end of both the initial learning and transfer trials, probe trials were introduced to ascertain the response rule describing children's choices. (Author/SB)

  7. Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Academic Outcomes of Mexican Immigrant Children: The Importance of School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N = 204, 19 schools, mean age = 9 years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes…

  8. The Effects of Conditional Discrimination Instruction and Verbal Behavior on the Establishment of Hierarchical Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Clarissa S.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the use of conditional discrimination (CD) instruction and multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) to establish derived relational responding in accordance with hierarchical frames with school aged children. The first experiment used a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of MEI to teach participants to…

  9. Perspectives on HIV/AIDS Stigma and Discrimination: Voices of Some Young People in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro, Georgina Yaa; Otsin, Mercy

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Ghanaian young people's perceptions of the determinants of HIV- and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, and how these perceptions may influence the de-stigmatisation process. Drawing on findings from an in-depth, multi-method qualitative study involving 104 school and street young people aged between 14 and 19 years,…

  10. The Sociology of Discrimination: Racial Discrimination in Employment, Housing, Credit, and Consumer Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pager, Devah; Shepherd, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Persistent racial inequality in employment, housing, and a wide range of other social domains has renewed interest in the possible role of discrimination. And yet, unlike in the pre-civil rights era, when racial prejudice and discrimination were overt and widespread, today discrimination is less readily identifiable, posing problems for social scientific conceptualization and measurement. This article reviews the relevant literature on discrimination, with an emphasis on racial discrimination in employment, housing, credit markets, and consumer interactions. We begin by defining discrimination and discussing relevant methods of measurement. We then provide an overview of major findings from studies of discrimination in each of the four domains; and, finally, we turn to a discussion of the individual, organizational, and structural mechanisms that may underlie contemporary forms of discrimination. This discussion seeks to orient readers to some of the key debates in the study of discrimination and to provide a roadmap for those interested in building upon this long and important line of research. PMID:20689680

  11. Reduced Discrimination in the Tritanopic Confusion Line for Congenital Color Deficiency Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcelo F.; Goulart, Paulo R. K.; Barboni, Mirella T. S.; Ventura, Dora F.

    2016-01-01

    In congenital color blindness the red–green discrimination is impaired resulting in an increased confusion between those colors with yellow. Our post-receptoral physiological mechanisms are organized in two pathways for color perception, a red–green (protanopic and deuteranopic) and a blue–yellow (tritanopic). We argue that the discrimination losses in the yellow area in congenital color vision deficiency subjects could generate a subtle loss of discriminability in the tritanopic channel considering discrepancies with yellow perception. We measured color discrimination thresholds for blue and yellow of tritanopic channel in congenital color deficiency subjects. Chromaticity thresholds were measured around a white background (0.1977 u′, 0.4689 v′ in the CIE 1976) consisting of a blue–white and white–yellow thresholds in a tritanopic color confusion line of 21 congenital colorblindness subjects (mean age = 27.7; SD = 5.6 years; 14 deuteranomalous and 7 protanomalous) and of 82 (mean age = 25.1; SD = 3.7 years) normal color vision subjects. Significant increase in the whole tritanopic axis was found for both deuteranomalous and protanomalous subjects compared to controls for the blue–white (F2,100 = 18.80; p < 0.0001) and white–yellow (F2,100 = 22.10; p < 0.0001) thresholds. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) found a weighting toward to the yellow thresholds induced by deuteranomalous subjects. In conclusion, the discrimination in the tritanopic color confusion axis is significantly reduced in congenital color vision deficiency compared to normal subjects. Since yellow discrimination was impaired the balance of the blue–yellow channels is impaired justifying the increased thresholds found for blue–white discrimination. The weighting toward the yellow region of the color space with the deuteranomalous contributing to that perceptual distortion is discussed in terms of physiological mechanisms. PMID:27065909

  12. Reduced Discrimination in the Tritanopic Confusion Line for Congenital Color Deficiency Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fernandes Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In congenital color blindness the red-green discrimination is impaired resulting in an increased confusion between those colors with yellow. Our post-receptoral physiological mechanisms are organized in two pathways for color perception, a red-green (protanopic and deuteranopic and a blue-yellow (tritanopic. We argue that the discrimination losses in the yellow area in congenital color vision deficiency subjects could generate a subtle loss of discriminability in the tritanopic channel considering discrepancies with yellow perception. We measured color discrimination thresholds for blue and yellow of tritanopic channel in congenital color deficiency subjects. Chromaticity thresholds were measured around a white background (0.1977 u’, 0.4689 v’ in the CIE 1976 consisting of a blue-white and white-yellow thresholds in a tritanopic color confusion line of 21 congenital colorblindness subjects (mean age = 27.7; SD= 5.6 years; 14 deuteranomalous and 7 protanomalous and of 82 (mean age = 25.1; SD= 3.7 years normal color vision subjects. Significant increase in the whole tritanopic axis was found for both deuteranomalous and protanomalous subjects compared to controls for the blue-white (F2,100= 18.80; p< 0.0001 and white-yellow (F2,100= 22.10; p< 0.0001 thresholds. A Principal Component Analysis found a weighting toward to the yellow thresholds induced by deuteranomalous subjects. In conclusion, the discrimination in the tritanopic color confusion axis is significantly reduced in congenital color vision deficiency compared to normal subjects. Since yellow discrimination was impaired the balance of the blue-yellow channels is impaired justifying the increased thresholds found for blue-white discrimination. The weighting toward the yellow region of the color space with the deuteranomalous contributing to that perceptual distortion is discussed in terms of physiological mechanisms.

  13. Sporadic adult onset primary torsion dystonia is a genetic disorder by the temporal discrimination test.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kimmich, Okka

    2012-02-01

    Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance; patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia are much more prevalent than familial. The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous and has been shown to be abnormal in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia. The aim was to determine the frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and their first-degree relatives. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first relatives would be compatible with an autosomal dominant endophenotype. Temporal discrimination thresholds were examined in 61 control subjects (39 subjects <50 years of age; 22 subjects >50 years of age), 32 patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (cervical dystonia n = 30, spasmodic dysphonia n = 1 and Meige\\'s syndrome n = 1) and 73 unaffected first-degree relatives (36 siblings, 36 offspring and one parent) using visual and tactile stimuli. Z-scores were calculated for all subjects; a Z > 2.5 was considered abnormal. Abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds were found in 1\\/61 (2%) control subjects, 27\\/32 (84%) patients with adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and 32\\/73 (44%) unaffected relatives [siblings (20\\/36; 56%), offspring (11\\/36; 31%) and one parent]. When two or more relatives were tested in any one family, 22 of 24 families had at least one first-degree relative with an abnormal temporal discrimination threshold. The frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first-degree relatives of patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is compatible with an autosomal dominant disorder and supports the hypothesis that apparently sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is genetic in origin.

  14. The perception and experience of gender-based discrimination related to professional advancement among Japanese physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Kosuke; Nomura, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies from the US have found that female physicians often experience gender-based discrimination related to professional advancement. In Japan, female physicians are underrepresented in leadership positions but little is known about the prevalence of gender discrimination. We investigated the perception and prevalence of gender-based career obstacles and discrimination among Japanese physicians. The study was based on surveys of alumnae from 13 medical schools and alumni from 3 medical schools. In total, 1,684 female and 808 male physicians completed a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 83% and 58%). More women than men had the perception of gender-based career obstacles for women (77% vs. 55%; p Women with part-time positions were more likely to have the perception of gender-based career obstacles than women working full-time (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.73). More women than men reported experience of gender discrimination related to professional advancement (21% vs. 3%; p gender discrimination included age (p Women older than 40 years were more likely to experience gender discrimination compared with younger women (OR 5.77, 95% CI: 1.83-18.24 for women above 50, and OR 3.2, 95% CI: 1.48-7.28 for women between 40 and 49) and women with PhD were more likely to experience gender discrimination (OR 4.23, 95% CI: 1.81-9.89). Our study demonstrated that a significant proportion of Japanese women experienced gender-based discrimination and perceived gender-based career obstacles compared with male physicians.

  15. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  16. The Impact of African American Parents' Racial Discrimination Experiences and Perceived Neighborhood Cohesion on their Racial Socialization Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Farzana T; English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2016-07-01

    Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents' racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents' racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents' perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents' gender moderate associations between parents' racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents' racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents' gender. PMID:27189721

  17. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and chemometrics to discriminate between the two basic categories and types of tequila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Garcia, O.; Ramos Ortiz, G.; Pichardo Molina, J.; Maldonado, J. L.; Meneses Nava, M. A.; Landgrave, J. E. A.

    2007-03-01

    An alternative method to chromatography is reported to discriminate among white and aging tequilas. In a previous work we had reported a similar method to discriminate between 100% blue agave and mixed tequilas. A data base of 145 tequilas was created where well known tequila brands and tequilas in bulk were included. The bottled tequilas were purchased at various Mexican liquor stores to ensure that different batches of each brand were included in the data base. The method that we propose to discriminate tequilas may also be used for quality control in distilleries and, with the help of the data base, to identify counterfeit tequilas.

  18. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Harassment and Discrimination in the Workplace: Results from a National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Shannon, Candice A.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes past-year prevalence and effects on mental health and drinking outcomes for harassment and discrimination in the workplace (HDW) in a nationally-representative random-digit dial phone survey conducted in 2003–2004 (n=2,151). HDW measures included experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment and generalized workplace harassment, and perceived harassment or discrimination due to race/ethnicity. Prevalence was examined by sex, race, age, occupation, marital status, and e...

  19. 41 CFR 60-3.3 - Discrimination defined: Relationship between use of selection procedures and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination defined: Relationship between use of selection procedures and discrimination. 60-3.3 Section 60-3.3 Public Contracts and... PROGRAMS, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 3-UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE...

  20. Quantum state discrimination and enhancement by noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeau-Blondeau, François, E-mail: chapeau@univ-angers.fr

    2014-06-13

    Discrimination between two quantum states is addressed as a quantum detection process where a measurement with two outcomes is performed and a conclusive binary decision results about the state. The performance is assessed by the overall probability of decision error. Based on the theory of quantum detection, the optimal measurement and its performance are exhibited in general conditions. An application is realized on the qubit, for which generic models of quantum noise can be investigated for their impact on state discrimination from a noisy qubit. The quantum noise acts through random application of Pauli operators on the qubit prior to its measurement. For discrimination from a noisy qubit, various situations are exhibited where reinforcement of the action of the quantum noise can be associated with enhanced performance. Such implications of the quantum noise are analyzed and interpreted in relation to stochastic resonance and enhancement by noise in information processing. - Highlights: • We consider stochastic resonance or enhancement by noise for information processing. • An extension is realized to quantum state discrimination with quantum noise. • The optimal detector minimizing the discrimination error is derived and analyzed. • Forms of enhancement by noise are reported in the optimal detector performance. • This represents the first exploration of stochastic resonance for quantum detection.

  1. Race and gender discrimination in the Marines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C; Harrington, Ellen F

    2013-01-01

    Although women of color have been hypothesized to experience double jeopardy in the form of chronic exposure to both race-based (RBD) and gender-based discrimination (GBD; Beal, 1970), few empirical investigations that examine both RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups have been conducted. In addition to being one of the only simultaneous examinations of RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups, the current study includes both self-report and objective behavioral data to examine the independent and interactive effects of both forms of discrimination. This study is also the first of its kind to examine these constructs in these ways and to explore their impact in a unique sample of ethnically diverse male and female Marine recruits (N = 1,516). As anticipated, both RBD and GBD had a strong and consistent negative impact on mental health symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), independent of the contributions of gender and race. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that people of color are able to maintain resiliency (as measured by physical fitness testing) in the face of low levels of RBD, but are less able to overcome the negative effects of discrimination at high levels. It is interesting to note that the interaction between race, gender, and levels of discrimination was only found with objective physical fitness test scores but not with self-report measures. These findings underscore the importance of including objective measures when assessing the impact of discrimination in order to understand these complex interrelationships. PMID:23148901

  2. Target discrimination strategies in optics detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöqvist, Lars; Allard, Lars; Henriksson, Markus; Jonsson, Per; Pettersson, Magnus

    2013-10-01

    Detection and localisation of optical assemblies used for weapon guidance or sniper rifle scopes has attracted interest for security and military applications. Typically a laser system is used to interrogate a scene of interest and the retro-reflected radiation is detected. Different system approaches for area coverage can be realised ranging from flood illumination to step-and-stare or continuous scanning schemes. Independently of the chosen approach target discrimination is a crucial issue, particularly if a complex scene such as in an urban environment and autonomous operation is considered. In this work target discrimination strategies in optics detection are discussed. Typical parameters affecting the reflected laser radiation from the target are the wavelength, polarisation properties, temporal effects and the range resolution. Knowledge about the target characteristics is important to predict the target discrimination capability. Two different systems were used to investigate polarisation properties and range resolution information from targets including e.g. road signs, optical reflexes, rifle sights and optical references. The experimental results and implications on target discrimination will be discussed. If autonomous operation is required target discrimination becomes critical in order to reduce the number of false alarms.

  3. Aging in the olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Arie S; Rodriguez-Gil, Diego J; Imamura, Fumiaki; Greer, Charles A

    2014-02-01

    With advancing age, the ability of humans to detect and discriminate odors declines. In light of the rapid progress in analyzing molecular and structural correlates of developing and adult olfactory systems, the paucity of information available on the aged olfactory system is startling. A rich literature documents the decline of olfactory acuity in aged humans, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Using animal models, preliminary work is beginning to uncover differences between young and aged rodents that may help address the deficits seen in humans, but many questions remain unanswered. Recent studies of odorant receptor (OR) expression, synaptic organization, adult neurogenesis, and the contribution of cortical representation during aging suggest possible underlying mechanisms and new research directions.

  4. Sexual and Intimacy Issues for Aging Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Mark; Wierzalis, Edward A.; Barret, Bob; Rankins, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The authors focus on the special issues involved in providing counseling to aging gay men regarding sex and intimacy. Although the stresses of aging experienced by gay men are similar to those of heterosexual men, older gay men face issues of a stigmatized sexual orientation, invisibility, negative stereotypes, and discrimination regarding aging.

  5. Ability of heifers to discriminate between familiar herdmates and members of an unfamiliar group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koba, Yuki; Munksgaard, Lene; Tanida, Hajime;

    2009-01-01

    Using a preference test and operant conditioning in a Y-maze, this experiment examined the ability of heifers to discriminate between their own familiar herdmates and member(s) of an unfamiliar group. Sixteen Danish Friesian heifers, eight older animals (360.6 ± 24.2 days of age) and eight younger...... individual in the Y-maze. The test was repeated 12 times, with a different unfamiliar subject for each test. In experiment 2, eight heifers were individually tested in a conditioning experiment to examine whether they could learn to discriminate between a group of their three herdmates and a group of three...

  6. Analisis Diskriminan Dua Grup (Twogroup Discriminant Analysis) Pada Statistik Multivariat

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Erlinda

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to create a discriminant function of independent variables that can discriminate or differentiate groups of the dependent variable (to distinguish an object into the group I or group II), to test whether there are significant differences between groups on the dependent variable, find the variable that makes a difference the discriminant function and to test the accuracy of the discriminant function groupings. discriminant function generated is us...

  7. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization. PMID:25300508

  8. Hyperspectral Image Classification Using Discriminative Dictionary Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hyperspectral image (HSI) processing community has witnessed a surge of papers focusing on the utilization of sparse prior for effective HSI classification. In sparse representation based HSI classification, there are two phases: sparse coding with an over-complete dictionary and classification. In this paper, we first apply a novel fisher discriminative dictionary learning method, which capture the relative difference in different classes. The competitive selection strategy ensures that atoms in the resulting over-complete dictionary are the most discriminative. Secondly, motivated by the assumption that spatially adjacent samples are statistically related and even belong to the same materials (same class), we propose a majority voting scheme incorporating contextual information to predict the category label. Experiment results show that the proposed method can effectively strengthen relative discrimination of the constructed dictionary, and incorporating with the majority voting scheme achieve generally an improved prediction performance

  9. Quantile forecast discrimination ability and value

    CERN Document Server

    Bouallegue, Zied Ben; Friederichs, Petra

    2015-01-01

    While probabilistic forecast verification for categorical forecasts is well established, some of the existing concepts and methods have not found their equivalent for the case of continuous variables. New tools dedicated to the assessment of forecast discrimination ability and forecast value are introduced here, based on quantile forecasts being the base product for the continuous case (hence in a nonparametric framework). The relative user characteristic (RUC) curve and the quantile value plot allow analysing the performance of a forecast for a specific user in a decision-making framework. The RUC curve is designed as a user-based discrimination tool and the quantile value plot translates forecast discrimination ability in terms of economic value. The relationship between the overall value of a quantile forecast and the respective quantile skill score is also discussed. The application of these new verification approaches and tools is illustrated based on synthetic datasets, as well as for the case of global...

  10. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    Performance in pitch discrimination tasks is limited by variability intrinsic to listeners which may arise from peripheral auditory coding limitations or more central noise sources. Perceptual limitations may be characterized by measuring an observer’s change in performance when introducting...... external noise in the physical stimulus (Lu and Dosher, 2008). The present study used this approach to attempt to quantify the “internal noise” involved in pitch coding of harmonic complex tones by estimating the amount of harmonic roving required to impair pitch discrimination performance. It remains...... a matter of debate whether pitch perception of natural complex sounds mostly relies on either spectral excitation-based information or temporal periodicity information. Comparing the way internal noise affects the internal representations of such information to how it affects pitch discrimination...

  11. Discriminative Hash Tracking With Group Sparsity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dandan; Zhang, Lihe; Lu, Huchuan; Mei, Xue; Li, Xiaoli

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel tracking framework based on discriminative supervised hashing algorithm. Different from previous methods, we treat tracking as a problem of object matching in a binary space. Using the hash functions, all target templates and candidates are mapped into compact binary codes, with which the target matching is conducted effectively. To be specific, we make full use of the label information to assign a compact and discriminative binary code for each sample. And to deal with out-of-sample case, multiple hash functions are trained to describe the learned binary codes, and group sparsity is introduced to the hash projection matrix to select the representative and discriminative features dynamically, which is crucial for the tracker to adapt to target appearance variations. The whole training problem is formulated as an optimization function where the hash codes and hash function are learned jointly. Extensive experiments on various challenging image sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed tracker.

  12. Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-08

    I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and ENERGY STAR standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price discriminating. In particular, I show evidence of discontinuous price drops at the time the standards were imposed, driven largely by mid-low efficiency segments of the market. The price discrimination model predicts this result. On the other hand, in a perfectly competition market, prices should increase for these market segments. Additionally, new models proliferated in the highest efficiency market segment following the standard changes. Finally, I show that firms appeared to use different adaptation strategies at the two instances of the standards changing.

  13. Hue discrimination, unique hues and naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Romain; Dias, Jérôme; Alleysson, David; Bonnardel, Valérie

    2012-02-01

    The hue discrimination curve (HDC) that characterizes performances over the entire hue circle was determined by using sinusoidally modulated spectral power distributions of 1.5 c/300 nm with fixed amplitude and twelve reference phases. To investigate relationship between hue discrimination and appearance, observers further performed a free color naming and unique hue tasks. The HDC consistently displayed two minima and two maxima; discrimination is optimal at the yellow/orange and blue/magenta boundaries and pessimal in green and in the extra-spectral magenta colors. A linear model based on Müller zone theory correctly predicts a periodical profile but with a phase-opponency (minima/maxima at 180° apart) which is inconsistent with the empirical HDC's profile.

  14. Arterial Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Sung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiabl...

  15. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate...... representational aims in a way that best captures this rationale. My main claim is that the achievement of such representational aims is reducible to the elimination of the effects of wrongful discrimination on individuals and that this very important concern is, in principle, compatible with the representation......, the time-relative account of representational aims expounded shows that, and how, representational aims should accommodate the changing composition of populations over time....

  16. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Performance in pitch discrimination tasks is limited by variability intrinsic to listeners which may arise from peripheral auditory coding limitations or more central noise sources. The present study aimed at quantifying such “internal noise” by estimating the amount of harmonic roving required...... to impair pitch discrimination performance. Fundamental-frequency difference limens (F0DLs) were obtained in normal-hearing listeners with and without musical training for complex tones filtered between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz with F0s of 300 Hz (resolved harmonics) and 75 Hz (unresolved harmonics). The harmonicity...

  17. Microwave Frequency Discriminator With Sapphire Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, David G.; Dick, G. John

    1994-01-01

    Cooled sapphire resonator provides ultralow phase noise. Apparatus comprises microwave oscillator operating at nominal frequency of about 8.1 GHz, plus frequency-discriminator circuit measuring phase fluctuations of oscillator output. One outstanding feature of frequency discriminator is sapphire resonator serving as phase reference. Sapphire resonator is dielectric ring resonator operating in "whispering-gallery" mode. Functions at room temperature, but for better performance, typically cooled to operating temperature of about 80 K. Similar resonator described in "Sapphire Ring Resonator for Microwave Oscillator" (NPO-18082).

  18. Discriminative Structured Dictionary Learning for Image Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 兰俊花; 臧玉卫; 宋占杰

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a discriminative structured dictionary learning algorithm is presented. To enhance the dictionary’s discriminative power, the reconstruction error, classification error and inhomogeneous representation error are integrated into the objective function. The proposed approach learns a single structured dictionary and a linear classifier jointly. The learned dictionary encourages the samples from the same class to have similar sparse codes, and the samples from different classes to have dissimilar sparse codes. The solution to the objective function is achieved by employing a feature-sign search algorithm and Lagrange dual method. Experimental results on three public databases demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms several recently proposed dictionary learning techniques for classification.

  19. Non-Discriminating Arguments and Their Uses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2009-01-01

    an automatic analysis. Following this, we define a transformation procedure, called discriminator slicing, that removes the non-discriminating arguments, resulting in a program whose computation trees are isomorphic to those of the original program.  Finally, we show how the results of the original...... program can be reconstructed from trace of the transformed program with the original arguments.   Thus the overall result is a two-stage execution of a program, which can be applied usefully in several contexts;  we describe a case study in optimising computations in the probabilistic logic program...

  20. Elimination of Sexual Discrimination in English Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋小文

    2008-01-01

    Gender discrimination is a social attitude that is re- flected in language. The representation of gender discrimination in the English language has a variety of forms, and can be eliminated by vari- ous means. English teachers are supposed to observe these phenomenon, avoiding using sexual prejudical words and helping students to learn to use neuter words so that they can communicate with English native speakers effortlessly without hurting the latter. This thesis is tending to talk about the ways of removing sexism in English study.

  1. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Aliya

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance, attitudes (prejudice and behaviour (discrimination. From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii social marketing at the population level.

  2. Stimulus class formation and concept learning: establishment of within- and between-set generalization and transitive relationships via conditional discrimination procedures.

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, T G; Breen, C G; Laitinen, R E

    1989-01-01

    Three students with moderate mental retardation were taught a complex stimulus class with a two-choice conditional discrimination procedure applied across eight 10-member stimulus sets. Each set was composed of five age-appropriate and five age-inappropriate examples of clothing, accessories, and leisure items (e.g., a Walkman radio). Discrimination training was programmed serially across each set, and generalization probes were conducted concurrently among all sets. Generalization probes con...

  3. 43 CFR 17.314 - Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age distinctions contained in DOI... Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.314 Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations. Any age distinctions contained in a rule or regulation issued by DOI shall be presumed to...

  4. Differential Effect of Race, Education, Gender, and Language Discrimination on Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice Reynolds, D.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Campbell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes, but little research has investigated different types of discrimination to determine if some have a greater impact on outcomes. We examined the differential effect of discrimination based on race, level of education, gender, and language on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods: Six hundred two patients with type 2 diabetes from two adult primary care clinics in the southeastern United States completed validated questionnaires. Questions included perceived discrimination because of race/ethnicity, level of education, sex/gender, or language. A multiple linear regression model assessed the differential effect of each type of perceived discrimination on glycemic control while adjusting for relevant covariates, including race, site, gender, marital status, duration of diabetes, number of years in school, number of hours worked per week, income, and health status. Results: The mean age was 61.5 years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 12.3 years. Of the sample, 61.6% were men, and 64.9% were non-Hispanic black. In adjusted models, education discrimination remained significantly associated with glycemic control (β=0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.03, 0.92). Race, gender and language discrimination were not significantly associated with poor glycemic control in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Conclusions: Discrimination based on education was found to be significantly associated with poor glycemic control. The findings suggest that education discrimination may be an important social determinant to consider when providing care to patients with type 2 diabetes and should be assessed separate from other types of discrimination, such as that based on race. PMID:25549154

  5. A study on convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Mansouri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, there was much discrimination against women in the world in terms of social benefits, job opportunities, etc. In many cases, women received less for similar job than men did and in some cases, many important top management jobs were not even open for women. During the past few decades, there have been tremendous efforts on removing any discrimination laws and regulations against women. In this study, we present a study on convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (CEDAW adopted in 1979 and discuss that it is possible to remove some barriers and regulations in Iran without violating Islamic rules and regulations. In fact, the present study explains that there are many rules and regulations, which are in accordance with CEDAW and in some cases there are better rules for women in Iran such as early age retirement plan, breastfeeding, etc.

  6. Discriminant Profile of Young Internet Dependents: The Role of Family Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Terres-Trindade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractInternational studies have shown effects of family relations on Internet addiction in young people. This research aimed to outline a discriminant profile of young people classified as dependent and not dependent on the Internet regarding to socio-biodemographic variables to parenting practices, parent-child conflict and interparental conflict. The sample consisted of 200 students (152 girls and 48 boys, between 15 and 24 years of age, 85.5% reside in Rio Grande do Sul and 14.5% in other Brazilian states. Participants responded individually to the protocol available online. The results showed that interparental conflict, parent-child conflict and the educational practice of supervision of paternal behavior discriminate dependents on Internet. The educational practice of maternal emotional support was the only discriminating variable for non-dependents. These national findings corroborate the international context studies and reinforce the importance of including the family in promotion and prevention of mental health of young people.

  7. Skill-related differences between athletes and nonathletes in speed discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kaivo; Watt, Anthony; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-12-01

    This study examined differences in decision-making time and accurscy as attributes of speed discrimination between participants skilled and less skilled in ball games. A total of 130 men, ages 18 to 28 years (M=21.2, SD=2.6), participated. The athlete sample (skilled group) comprised Estonian National League volleyball (n=26) and basketball players (n=27). The nonathlete sample (less skilled group) included 77 soldiers of the Estonian Defence Force with no reported top level experience in ball games. Speed-discrimination stimuli were images of red square shapes presented moving along the sagittal axis at four different virtual velocities on a computer (PC) screen which represented the frontal plane. Analysis indicated that only decision-making time was significantly different between the elite athlete and nonathlete groups. This finding suggests a possible effect of ball-game skills for decision-making time in speed discrimination. PMID:19235418

  8. It's self defense: how perceived discrimination promotes employee withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpone, Sabrina D; Avery, Derek R

    2013-10-01

    Integrating theory on stress, stigma, and coping, the present study sheds light on how employees react to perceived discrimination (PD) in the workplace. Using three national samples, we found that PD based on race, sex, age, family obligation, and sexual orientation related to physical withdrawal (i.e., lateness, absenteeism,and intent to quit) indirectly through psychological withdrawal (i.e., burnout and engagement) such that PD corresponded in less engagement and more burnout, which related to increased lateness, absenteeism, and intent to quit [corrected].Further, these indirect relationships were moderated by employees' coping mechanisms with those who were more apt to change the situation or to avoid the stressor exhibiting weaker relationships between PD and psychological withdrawal. Though each of these studies is cross-sectional in nature and therefore cannot provide strong evidence of causal ordering of the variables in our model, the replication and extension of results over three databases and multiple forms of discrimination, coping, psychological, and physical withdrawal demonstrates that understanding the relationships explored in these studies can aid researchers and practitioners in enhancing employee quality of life and productivity. PMID:24099162

  9. Operant conditioning and discrimination of alpha: some methodological limitations inherent in response-discrimination experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cott, A; Pavloski, R P; Black, A H

    1981-09-01

    Studies on the operant conditioning of central nervous system activity have produced results interpreted as demonstrating that responses, certain properties of responses, or response-produced stimuli can function as discriminative stimuli. It is assumed that the feedback stimulus in biofeedback makes the subject aware of the internal response and that by becoming aware of the response, the subject can acquire voluntary control over it. In this context, awareness is operationally defined as the ability to use the response as a discriminative stimulus. Since direct evidence for the assumed relationship between control and discrimination is lacking, an attempt was made to test the hypothesis that discrimination of a response automatically leads to control over that response. The discriminative stimuli were the presence and absence of occipital alpha electroencephalograph (EEG) activity. Data from two experiments are reported. The first study, employing naive subjects, was designed to answer the following questions: (a) Since pilot data indicated that subjects seemed to match their responses to the more probable type of trial, would increases in the probability of a correct response result when the probabilities of alpha and nonalpha trials were held near .50? (b) If correct responding does increase, would performance of these subjects in an alpha feedback task be enhanced relative to that of subjects not previously given discrimination training? and (c) If subjects could not learn the discrimination task, would feedback training enhance their performance in a subsequent discrimination task? Results from this study indicate that holding the probabilities of alpha and nonalpha discrimination trials near .50 results in an absence of learning curves, but leaves open the possibility that sophisticated subjects are capable of discriminating alpha and nonalpha activity. The second study deals with two questions: (a) Can sophisticated subjects learn to discriminate occipital

  10. A Glimpse at Sexual Discrimination in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马菊芳

    2007-01-01

    As the carrier of culture,language mirrors the process of development of human beings.Sexual discrimination in English embodies and reveals the inequality between the sexes,and it meanwhile unvcils the sexual phenomena in English from different cultural points of views,which makes for the improvement of our sensitivity of sexism in English.

  11. Obstacles and foliage discrimination using lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel D.

    2016-05-01

    A central challenge to autonomous off-road navigation is discriminating between obstacles that are safe to drive over and those that pose a hazard to navigation and so must be circumnavigated. Foliage, which can often be safely driven over, presents two important perception problems. First, foliage can appear as a large impenetrable obstacle, and so must be discriminated from other objects. Second, real obstacles are much harder to detect when adjacent to or occluded by foliage and many detection methods fail to detect them due to additional clutter and partial occlusions from foliage. This paper addresses both the discrimination of foliage, and the detection of obstacles in and near foliage using Lidar. Our approach uses neighboring pixels in a depth image to construct features at each pixel that provide local surface properites. A generative model for obstacles is used to accumulate probabilistic evidence for obstacles and foliage in the vicinity of a moving platform. Detection of obstacles is then based on evidence within overlapping cells of a map without the need to segment segment obstacles and foliage. High accuracy obstacle and foliage discrimination is obtained and compared with the use of a point scatter measure.

  12. Transferability between Hospitals of Hypercalcaemia Discriminant Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Anne; McNair, Peter; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    1996-01-01

    , and increased to 83 and 89% at posterior probability levels higher than 60%. Transfer of the discrimination functions between the hospitals was followed by a decrease in diagnostic accuracy of 6-16%. At a posterior probability of 60% the diagnostic accuracies were 79% or more in the receiving hospital, in both...

  13. Pigeons' Discrimination of Michotte's Launching Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael E.; Beckmann, Joshua S.; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2006-01-01

    We trained four pigeons to discriminate a Michotte launching animation from three other animations using a go/no-go task. The pigeons received food for pecking at one of the animations, but not for pecking at the others. The four animations featured two types of interactions among objects: causal (direct launching) and noncausal (delayed, distal,…

  14. Unifying generative and discriminative learning principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strickert Marc

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recognition of functional binding sites in genomic DNA remains one of the fundamental challenges of genome research. During the last decades, a plethora of different and well-adapted models has been developed, but only little attention has been payed to the development of different and similarly well-adapted learning principles. Only recently it was noticed that discriminative learning principles can be superior over generative ones in diverse bioinformatics applications, too. Results Here, we propose a generalization of generative and discriminative learning principles containing the maximum likelihood, maximum a posteriori, maximum conditional likelihood, maximum supervised posterior, generative-discriminative trade-off, and penalized generative-discriminative trade-off learning principles as special cases, and we illustrate its efficacy for the recognition of vertebrate transcription factor binding sites. Conclusions We find that the proposed learning principle helps to improve the recognition of transcription factor binding sites, enabling better computational approaches for extracting as much information as possible from valuable wet-lab data. We make all implementations available in the open-source library Jstacs so that this learning principle can be easily applied to other classification problems in the field of genome and epigenome analysis.

  15. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  16. Enhanced Syllable Discrimination Thresholds in Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heesoo; Lakshminarayanan, Kala; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Tallal, Paula; Gaab, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Speech processing inherently relies on the perception of specific, rapidly changing spectral and temporal acoustic features. Advanced acoustic perception is also integral to musical expertise, and accordingly several studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between musical training and superior processing of various aspects of speech. Speech and music appear to overlap in spectral and temporal features; however, it remains unclear which of these acoustic features, crucial for speech processing, are most closely associated with musical training. The present study examined the perceptual acuity of musicians to the acoustic components of speech necessary for intra-phonemic discrimination of synthetic syllables. We compared musicians and non-musicians on discrimination thresholds of three synthetic speech syllable continua that varied in their spectral and temporal discrimination demands, specifically voice onset time (VOT) and amplitude envelope cues in the temporal domain. Musicians demonstrated superior discrimination only for syllables that required resolution of temporal cues. Furthermore, performance on the temporal syllable continua positively correlated with the length and intensity of musical training. These findings support one potential mechanism by which musical training may selectively enhance speech perception, namely by reinforcing temporal acuity and/or perception of amplitude rise time, and implications for the translation of musical training to long-term linguistic abilities. PMID:24339875

  17. Detecting Discrimination in Audit and Correspondence Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David

    2012-01-01

    Audit studies testing for discrimination have been criticized because applicants from different groups may not appear identical to employers. Correspondence studies address this criticism by using fictitious paper applicants whose qualifications can be made identical across groups. However, Heckman and Siegelman (1993) show that group differences…

  18. Mesopic visual efficiency III: Discrimination threshold measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varady, G.; Freiding, A.; Eloholma, M.; Halonen, L.; Walkey, H.; Goodman, T.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors represent a research consortium which has adopted a task performance based approach for nighttime driving to obtain mesopic spectral sensitivity functions. This study describes investigations based on discrimination threshold techniques and compares the results with those obtained from d

  19. Cross-correlation in face discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, William A.; Loffler, Gunter; Tucha, Lara

    2013-01-01

    An extensive body of literature suggests that face perception depends critically upon specialised face processing mechanisms. Although it seems clear that specialised face processing is required to explain face recognition, face discrimination is a simpler task that could possibly be solved with a g

  20. Collection Selection with Highly Discriminative Keys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bockting, S.; Hiemstra, D.

    2009-01-01

    The centralized web search paradigm introduces several problems, such as large data traffic requirements for crawling, index freshness problems and problems to index everything. In this study, we look at collection selection using highly discriminative keys and query-driven indexing as part of a dis

  1. Workplace Discrimination and the Perception of Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, William R.; Reid, Christine A.; McMahon, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the employment discrimination experienced by Americans "regarded as" disabled (but not medically verified as such), using the Integrated Mission System of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). Claimants who were perceived as disabled, as contrasted with those with documented disabilities, were more likely…

  2. Higher Education Discrimination and the Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWaerdt, Lois

    1981-01-01

    In past cases involving sex or racial discrimination in faculty employment, the courts have imposed less stringent standards on institutions of higher education than on employers in industry or the professions. Recent decisions indicate that stricter judicial requirements are now being extended to colleges and universities. (Author/RW)

  3. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person, shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or... contractual, licensing, or other arrangements, on the basis of handicap: (i) Deny a qualified...

  4. Online Price Discrimination and Data Protection Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Zuiderveen Borgesius

    2015-01-01

    Online shops can offer each website customer a different price - a practice called first degree price discrimination, or personalised pricing. An online shop can recognise a customer, for instance through a cookie, and categorise the customer as a rich or a poor person. The shop could, for instance,

  5. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unions, with organizations providing or administering fringe benefits to employees of the recipient, and... against discrimination in employment applies to the following activities: (1) Recruitment, advertising and... other form of compensation and changes in compensation; pension or other benefit the applicant...

  6. Perception of police on discrimination in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekavica Radomir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyses results deriving from the research on the attitudes of criminal investigation officers in five police departments in Serbia: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Novi Pazar, Subotica and Vranje. The case studies examined the attitudes of members of criminal investigation police and their perception(s of discrimination towards vulnerable groups. The study aimed to determine the level of animosity exhibited in speech, to analyse socio-ethnic distance, to observe reactions towards measures designed to improve the situation of vulnerable groups, to consider the relationship among institutions regarding their responsibility for the occurrence of discrimination and its impact on the reduction of it, to discuss personal experiences of discrimination and to analyse attitudes regarding certain claims of a stereotypical character. Moreover, the paper also presents a comparative analysis of similar surveys on the perception of citizens towards discrimination that have thus far been conducted in Serbia. The results demonstrated that the police in Serbia did not exhibit a particularly discriminatory attitude towards citizens. It is important to note that the most prominent socio-ethnic distances were exhibited in relation to Roma and members of the LGBT community.

  7. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...

  8. Quantum theory of colour discrimination of dichromats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M.A.; Walraven, P.L.

    1962-01-01

    The hypothesis of de Vries and Rose has been applied to colour discrimination of dichromates. The hypothesis states that a brightness difference ΔB is just beyond threshold, when ΔB just exceeds the statistical fluctuations in background brightness B, which are proportional to B 1 2. The colour diff

  9. Subjective performance evaluation and gender discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.S. Maas; R. Torres-Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Gender discrimination continues to be a problem in organizations. It is therefore important that organizations use performance evaluation methods that ensure equal opportunities for men and women. This article reports the results of an experiment to investigate whether and, if so, how the gender of

  10. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... ground of race, color or national origin be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or..., directly or through contractual or other arrangements, on ground of race, color or national origin:...

  11. Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it…

  12. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on Employee Selection Guidelines, 28 CFR 50.14. (c) In matters involving employment discrimination... Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 28 CFR 50.14. (e) A recipient, in determining the type of... summary punishment, or deny any individual the rights guaranteed by the Constitution to all persons;...

  13. Arrhythmia discrimination using a smart phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jo Woon; Esa, Nada; McManus, David D; Chon, Ki H

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesize that our smartphone-based arrhythmia discrimination algorithm with data acquisition approach reliably differentiates between normal sinus rhythm (NSR), atrial fibrillation (AF), premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) and premature atrial contraction (PACs) in a diverse group of patients having these common arrhythmias. We combine root mean square of successive RR differences and Shannon entropy with Poincare plot (or turning point ratio method) and pulse rise and fall times to increase the sensitivity of AF discrimination and add new capabilities of PVC and PAC identification. To investigate the capability of the smartphone-based algorithm for arrhythmia discrimination, 99 subjects, including 88 study participants with AF at baseline and in NSR after electrical cardioversion, as well as seven participants with PACs and four with PVCs were recruited. Using a smartphone, we collected 2-min pulsatile time series from each recruited subject. This clinical application results show that the proposed method detects NSR with specificity of 0.9886, and discriminates PVCs and PACs from AF with sensitivities of 0.9684 and 0.9783, respectively. PMID:25838530

  14. The discriminative capacity of CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales to identify disruptive and internalizing disorders in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Trepat, Esther; Domenech, Josep Maria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the discriminative capacity of CBCL/1½-5 (Manual for the ASEBA Preschool-Age Forms & Profiles, University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families, Burlington, 2000) DSM5 scales attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety and depressive problems for detecting the presence of DSM5 (DSM5 diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, APA, Arlington, 2013) disorders, ADHD, ODD, Anxiety and Mood disorders, assessed through diagnostic interview, in children aged 3-5. Additionally, we compare the clinical utility of the CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales with respect to analogous CBCL/1½-5 syndrome scales. A large community sample of 616 preschool children was longitudinally assessed for the stated age group. Statistical analysis was based on ROC procedures and binary logistic regressions. ADHD and ODD CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales achieved good discriminative ability to identify ADHD and ODD interview's diagnoses, at any age. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 Anxiety scale discriminative capacity was fair for unspecific anxiety disorders in all age groups. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 depressive problems' scale showed the poorest discriminative capacity for mood disorders (including depressive episode with insufficient symptoms), oscillating into the poor-to-fair range. As a whole, DSM5-oriented scales generally did not provide evidence better for discriminative capacity than syndrome scales in identifying DSM5 diagnoses. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales discriminate externalizing disorders better than internalizing disorders for ages 3-5. Scores on the ADHD and ODD CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales can be used to screen for DSM5 ADHD and ODD disorders in general populations of preschool children.

  15. Multiple Discriminations – between a Contravention Per Se and an Aggravating Circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There are some references on multiple discrimination like in the Recital 14 of the Racial Equality Directive, 2000/43/EC: „In implementing the principle of equal treatment irrespective of racial or ethnic origin, the Community should, in accordance with Article 3(2 of the EC Treaty, aim to eliminate inequalities, and to promote equality between men and women, especially since women are often the victims of multiple discrimination”. Even in this case there is no legal definition of multiple discriminations.In 2008, so after 8 years, in the Explanatory Memorandum of the Proposal for a Council Directive on implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation there is a reference regarding multiple discrimination in the sense that „Attention was also drawn to the need to tackle multiple discrimination, for example by defining it as discrimination and by providing effective remedies. These issues go beyond the scope of this Directive but nothing prevents Member States taking action in these areas.”

  16. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Gupta; Y Hayashi; A Jain; S Karthikeyan; S Kawakami; K C Ravindran; S C Tonwar

    2005-08-01

    A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator has been designed with a timing performance comparable to state-of-the-art, commercially available discriminators. A timing error of 16 ps is achieved under ideal operating conditions. Under more realistic operating conditions the discriminator displays a timing error of 90 ps. It has an intrinsic double pulse resolution of 4 ns which is better than most commercial discriminators. A low-cost discriminator is an essential requirement of the GRAPES-3 experiment where a large number of discriminator channels are used.

  17. Explosion-Earthquake Discrimination at Local Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, C. T.; Baker, G. E.; Sheehan, A. F.; Harder, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Event discrimination research has largely focused on regional distances over the last couple of decades. Most regional discriminants have not been thoroughly tested at local distances, and a recent investigation of P/S ratios from the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) found that they were less effective locally. As discrimination thresholds are reduced, local methods will need to be validated and the physical bases for their performance will need to be understood. We are assessing new and existing methods of source discrimination at 10 to 200 km distance. We use data from a temporary array deployed around the Bighorn Mountains in Wyoming and from nearby US Array stations. Small magnitude local earthquakes, coal mine explosions, and controlled borehole shots were recorded at over 200 broadband and short-period seismometers spaced at 5-35 km intervals across the tectonically complex area. We assess the local discrimination performance of the P/S amplitude ratio, the presence of the fundamental Rayleigh wave Rg, and the signature of scattered Rg in the coda. P/S amplitudes are used because earthquakes typically have higher S-wave energy relative to P than shallow explosions, but the separation of populations is not always effective at local distances. Site effects have a significant impact that may need to be accounted for, along with propagation effects. Specifically, relative P and S site amplifications at basin and mountain stations vary in such a way that they limit separation of the event populations. The Rg phase is only excited by near-surface events, so its presence indicates the likelihood of a man-made source since most earthquakes occur at too great a depth to excite Rg. We implement two methods for detecting Rg: one that uses the cross-correlation of the Hilbert transformed vertical and the radial seismograms, and one that scans a time-frequency representation for the signature of scattered Rg in the coda. These methods are effective in low signal

  18. Happy Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秉中

    2009-01-01

    Aging is a normal physiological process in human life.The decline in the ability to repair and regenerate predisposes the aging person to develop disabling problems in the cardiovascular and skeletal systems.Full awareness of aging problems and advocations on the means to prevent their occurrence are mounting.European and US groups rely on scientific,target-oriented means to treat aging manifestations. Oriental medicine aims at prevention,using nutrition and exercise to maintain internal harmony.

  19. Population Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Population aging is primarily the result of past declines in fertility, which produced a decades long period in which the ratio of dependents to working age adults was reduced. Rising old-age dependency in many countries represents the inevitable passing of this %u201Cdemographic dividend.%u201D Societies use three methods to transfer resources to people in dependent age groups: government, family, and personal saving. In developed countries, families are predominant in supporting children, w...

  20. Self-motion direction discrimination in the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Ivan; Grabherr, Luzia; Hartmann, Matthias; Mast, Fred W

    2015-11-01

    Despite the close interrelation between vestibular and visual processing (e.g., vestibulo-ocular reflex), surprisingly little is known about vestibular function in visually impaired people. In this study, we investigated thresholds of passive whole-body motion discrimination (leftward vs. rightward) in nine visually impaired participants and nine age-matched sighted controls. Participants were rotated in yaw, tilted in roll, and translated along the interaural axis at two different frequencies (0.33 and 2 Hz) by means of a motion platform. Superior performance of visually impaired participants was found in the 0.33 Hz roll tilt condition. No differences were observed in the other motion conditions. Roll tilts stimulate the semicircular canals and otoliths simultaneously. The results could thus reflect a specific improvement in canal-otolith integration in the visually impaired and are consistent with the compensatory hypothesis, which implies that the visually impaired are able to compensate the absence of visual input.

  1. Ageing Polulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Lauridsen, Jørgen Trankjær; Bech, Mickael

    2013-01-01

    An ageing society is characterised by an increasing median age of the population. The purpose of this chapter is to document the existing knowledge about the association between population ageing and health care expenditure, and to supplement this overview by a summary of our original research. S...

  2. Creative Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Charlene Lee; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explores some divergent attitudes toward aging, negative as well as positive. Presents a neurophysiological framework to support the belief that aging is an active and creative process. Explores physical, psychological, and sociological aspects, and identifies three factors in the creative aging process. (Author/JAC)

  3. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  4. Reading skills and the discrimination of English vowel contrasts by bilingual Spanish/English-speaking children: Is there a correlation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Sandra

    2005-04-01

    This study examined the discrimination of English vowel contrasts in real and novel word-pairs by 21 children: 11 bilingual Spanish/English- and 10 monolingual English-speaking children, 8-12 years of age (M=10; 6; Mdn=10; 4). The goal was to determine if children with poor reading skills had difficulty with discrimination, an essential factor in reading abilities. A categorial discrimination task was used in an ABX discrimination paradigm: A (the first word in the sequence) and B (the second word in the sequence) were different stimuli, and X (the third word in the sequence) was identical to either A or to B. Stimuli were produced by one of three different speakers. Seventy-two monosyllabic words were presented: 36 real English and 36 novel words. Vowels were those absent from the inventory of Spanish vowels. Discrimination accuracy for the English-speaking children with good reading skills was significantly greater than for the bilingual-speaking children with good or poor reading skills. Early age of acquisition and greater percentage of time devoted to communication in English played the greatest role in bilingual children's discrimination and reading skills. The adjacency of vowels in the F1-F2 acoustic space presented the greatest difficulty.

  5. Discrimination Based on Health Grounds : Case Study: Hepatitis B Virus Discrimination in China Labour Employment

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, due to the high prevalence of hepatitis B in China, millions of carriers are faced with discrimination when they come to work, study, health care or even marriage. The same situation also happens to those physically disadvantageous people especially in the access to employment. Employment discrimination detracts from the principle of equality and directly impairs social justice and human dignity. Series of institutional responses are needed to effectively prevent employment discrimi...

  6. The Role of Information in Deterring Discrimination: A New Experimental Evidence of Statistical Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    David Masclet; Emmanuel Peterle; Sophie Larribeau

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates experimentally gender and race discrimination in hiring decisions through a simple controlled setting where employers can observe workers’ individual characteristics before recruiting them. In this paper, we explore whether discrimination, if any, is statistical or taste-based. For this purpose, we varied across our treatments the level of information available to the employer during the hiring stage regarding workers’ potential ability. When no relevant information on...

  7. RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG LATINA/OS NATIONWIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Verissimo, Angie Denise Otiniano; Gee, Gilbert C.; Ford, Chandra L.; Iguchi, Martin Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between discrimination and substance abuse among Latina/os, and further examines whether this relationship differs by gender and type of discrimination. Analyses focus on the Latina/o respondents (n=1,039 men; n=1,273 women) from the National Latino and Asian American Study carried out from 2002–2003. Outcomes were alcohol abuse and drug abuse measured using DSM-IV definitions and criteria. Additional covariates included immigrant characteristics and d...

  8. Temporal expectancy modulates phasic alerting in both detection and discrimination tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shena; Wang, Wei; Cai, Yongchun

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether phasic alerting might be modulated by temporal expectancy and to determine the processing stages at which this modulation might occur. We manipulated participants' expectancy for the target appearance by systematically varying the cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) distribution in both detection and discrimination tasks. There were three temporal expectancy conditions: the non-aging condition in which temporal expectancy was eliminated, the aging condition in which temporal expectancy increased as SOA increased, and the accelerated-aging condition in which temporal expectancy increased more dramatically as SOA increased than in the aging condition. We obtained the same pattern of results in both detection and discrimination tasks: the onset time of the alerting effect was postponed successively across the three temporal expectancy conditions. The present findings suggest that the time course of the alerting effect may be modulated by temporal expectancy, highlighting the importance of taking account into the influence of temporal expectancy in studies involving the time course of cognitive processes. Furthermore, since mechanisms underlying the detection and discrimination tasks may differ in early processing stages involving perceptual analysis and response selection, the same result pattern observed in both tasks is consistent with the hypothesis that the modulation of temporal expectancy on phasic alerting occurs at late processing stages involving motor preparation.

  9. Parental racial socialization as a moderator of the effects of racial discrimination on educational success among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Huguley, James P

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether parental racial socialization practices moderated the relation between racial discrimination in school and adolescents' educational outcomes. Using data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of 630 African American adolescents (mean age=14.5) from a major East Coast metropolis, the results revealed that cultural socialization attenuated the effect of teacher discrimination on grade point average (GPA) and educational aspirations, as well as the effect of peer discrimination on GPA. Also, preparation for bias and cultural socialization interacted to make unique contributions to African American adolescents' educational outcomes. Finally, there was some evidence that teacher discrimination was more detrimental to the academic engagement of African American males than females. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  10. Trajectories of ethnic-racial discrimination among ethnically diverse early adolescents: associations with psychological and social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25345480

  11. Novel discrimination parameters for neutron-gamma discrimination with liquid scintillation detectors using wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been observed that the discrimination performance of the wavelet transform method strongly depends on definition of discrimination parameters. These parameters are usually obtained from a combination of scaling functions at different scales, which represents the energy density of the wavelet coefficients. In this paper, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) at minimum possible values of scale was investigated. Novel pulse shape discrimination parameters have been proposed for neutron and gamma discrimination in a mixed radiation field and tested with modeled pulses. The performance of these parameters was also validated in terms of quality of discrimination using experimental data of mixed events from an AmBe source collected with BC501 liquid scintillation detector. The quality of discrimination was evaluated by calculating a figure of merit (FOM) with all parameters under same experimental and simulation conditions. The FOM obtained with the proposed novel parameters was also compared with the charge comparison method. The proposed parameters exhibit better FOM as compared to the charge comparison method when high levels of noise are present in the data

  12. Ethical thinking and discrimination in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Mlinšek

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Personal excellence of nursing focusing on self-transcendence and achievements is crucial for achieving excellence in health care. The question is whether there is unequal treatment of patients despite high ethical standards placed in health care.Purpose: Professional nurses code is a guide in assessing their ethical performance. People are different amongst each other, but have the same rights in the health system, which should be provided by health care services. The need to overcome inequalities has become a cornerstone of excellence in health care.Method: A small quantitative survey of nurses was conducted in one of the departments in a Slovenian hospital. To analyse the results, we used frequency statistics, Spearman's rank correlation test and chi-square test. Results: Providers of health care services are aware of the importance of ethics in its formation. Professional Code is relatively well known; 8.4 % of the respondents were not sure if they clearly define the principles of respect for equality. Discrimination, caused by providers of health care, is of a less extent. Ethical awareness among health care providers does not affect identification with the profession. The education level ofnursing personnel and the perception of discrimination based on religious affiliation influenced one another. Education has no influence on the perception of discrimination based on other circumstances.Organization: Health care organizations should integrate hygieneethical thinking among its strategic goals. Quality is not only quantifying the data. Personal excellence of health care providers, which is difficult to measure, is the basic building block of organizational excellence and patient satisfaction.Originality: There are not many research studies on perceptionsof discrimination in health care. The article raises the sensitive issue that we should talk more about.Limitations: The survey was conducted on a small sample size. Further research

  13. Research of Frequency Discriminator on Frequency Lock Loops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Frequency lock loops (FLL) discriminating algorithms for direct-sequence spread-spectrum are discussed. The existing algorithms can't solve the problem of data bit reversal during one pre-detection integral period. And when the initial frequency offset is large, the frequency discriminator can't work normally. To solve these problems, a new FLL discriminating algorithm is introduced. The least-squares discriminator is used in this new algorithm. As the least-squares discriminator has a short process unit period, the corresponding frequency discriminating range is large. And the data bit reversal just influence one process unit period, so the least-squares discriminated result will not be affected. Compared with traditional frequency discriminator, the least-squares algorithm can effectively solve the problem of data bit reversal and can endure larger initial frequency offset.

  14. Four-state discrimination scheme beyond the heterodyne limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, C. R.; Castaneda, Mario A. Usuga; Wittmann, C.;

    2012-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid discrimination scheme for the quadrature phase shift keying protocol, which outperforms heterodyne detection for any signal power. The discrimination is composed of a quadrature measurement, feed forward and photon detection....

  15. Discrimination and nepotism: the efficiency of the anonymity rule.

    OpenAIRE

    Fershtman, C.; Gneezy, U.; Verboven, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The Paper considers two categories of discrimination: ‘discrimination against’ and ‘discrimination in favour’, which Becker coins ‘nepotism’. The Paper develops an experimental test to distinguish between these two types of discrimination. The experiment compares the behaviour towards individuals of different groups with the behaviour towards anonymous individuals (those having no clear group affiliation). We illustrate the two attitudes by considering two segmented societies: Belgian society...

  16. Humans can Discriminate more than one Trillion Olfactory Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Bushdid, C.; Magnasco, M. O.; Vosshall, L. B.; Keller, A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans can discriminate several million different colors and almost half a million different tones, but the number of discriminable olfactory stimuli remains unknown. The lay and scientific literature typically claims that humans can discriminate 10,000 odors, but this number has never been empirically validated. Here, we determined the resolution of the human sense of smell by testing the capacity of humans to discriminate odor mixtures with varying numbers of shared components. Based on the...

  17. Lies, Discrimination, and Internalized Racism: Findings from the lab.

    OpenAIRE

    David, Wozniak; Tim, MacNeill

    2015-01-01

    We simulate a job application/hiring market in the lab to examine racial discrimination. We find little evidence of ability differences based on race but we find taste-based racism between groups and statistical racism within groups. When candidates are given the opportunity to lie about their abilities, all groups discriminate against Blacks, suggesting statistical discrimination. But Whites continue to discriminate against Blacks when actual abilities of the candidate are known, suggesting ...

  18. Discrimination, mental problems and social adaptation in young refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Edith; Foldspang, Anders

    2008-01-01

    of associations and pathways between discrimination, mental problems and social adaptation in young refugees. Methods: Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used for the analysis of cross-sectional data from interviews with 131 young Middle Eastern refugees residing in Denmark. Results: Participants reported...... social adaptation correlated negatively with discrimination and with externalizing and internalizing behaviour. Conclusion: Perceived discrimination among young refugees from the Middle East is associated with mental problems and social adaptation. Discrimination seems to provoke internalizing...

  19. Model discrimination in pseudoscalar-meson photoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Nys, J; Ireland, D G; Glazier, D I

    2016-01-01

    To learn about a physical system of interest, experimental results must be able to discriminate among models. We introduce a geometrical measure to quantify the distance between models for pseudoscalar-meson photoproduction in amplitude space. Experimental observables, with finite accuracy, map to probability distributions in amplitude space, and the characteristic width scale of such distributions needs to be smaller than the distance between models if the observable data are going to be useful. We therefore also introduce a method for evaluating probability distributions in amplitude space that arise as a result of one or more measurements, and show how one can use this to determine what further measurements are going to be necessary to be able to discriminate among models.

  20. Model discrimination in pseudoscalar-meson photoproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, J.; Ryckebusch, J.; Ireland, D. G.; Glazier, D. I.

    2016-08-01

    To learn about a physical system of interest, experimental results must be able to discriminate among models. We introduce a geometrical measure to quantify the distance between models for pseudoscalar-meson photoproduction in amplitude space. Experimental observables, with finite precision, map to probability distributions in amplitude space, and the characteristic width scale of such distributions needs to be smaller than the distance between models if the observable data are going to be useful. We therefore also introduce a method for evaluating probability distributions in amplitude space that arise as a result of one or more measurements, and show how one can use this to determine what further measurements are going to be necessary to be able to discriminate among models.

  1. Chiral discrimination in biomimetic systems: Phenylalanine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Thirumoorthy; K Soni; T Arun; N Nandi

    2007-09-01

    Chiral discrimination and recognition is important in peptide biosynthesis, amino acid synthesis and drug designing. Detailed structural information is available about the peptide synthesis in ribosome. However, no detailed study is available about the discrimination in peptide synthesis. We study the conformational energy variation of neutral methoxy phenyl alanine molecule as a function of its different dihedral angle to locate the minimum energy conformation using quantum chemical theory. We compared the intermolecular energy surfaces of phenyl alanine molecule in its neutral and zwitterionic state using quantum chemical theory as a function of distance and mutual orientation. The energy surfaces are studied with rigid geometry by varying the distance and orientation. The potential energy surfaces of - and - pairs are found to be dissimilar and reflect the underlying chirality of the homochiral pair and racemic nature of the heterochiral pair. The intermolecular energy surface of homochiral pair is more favourable than the corresponding energy surface of heterochiral pair.

  2. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisk Ian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

  3. Mixed Norm Regularized Discrimination for Image Steganalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoming; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Dong

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of image steganalysis is to detect the presence of hidden messages in cover images. Steganalysis can be considered as a pattern recognition process to decide which class a test image belongs to: the innocent photographic image or the stego-image. This paper presents a definition of mixed L_{p,q} matrix norm as an extension of L_{2,1} matrix norm. We incorporate discriminative mixed L_{p,q} matrix norm analysis to select the features which best preserve the data distribution, e.g., manifold structure, of the whole feature sets. Experiments on different data sets verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the selected features are more discriminate.

  4. A Computational Discriminability Analysis on Twin Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Sharing similar genetic traits makes the investigation of twins an important study in forensics and biometrics. Fingerprints are one of the most commonly found types of forensic evidence. The similarity between twins’ prints is critical establish to the reliability of fingerprint identification. We present a quantitative analysis of the discriminability of twin fingerprints on a new data set (227 pairs of identical twins and fraternal twins) recently collected from a twin population using both level 1 and level 2 features. Although the patterns of minutiae among twins are more similar than in the general population, the similarity of fingerprints of twins is significantly different from that between genuine prints of the same finger. Twins fingerprints are discriminable with a 1.5%~1.7% higher EER than non-twins. And identical twins can be distinguished by examine fingerprint with a slightly higher error rate than fraternal twins.

  5. Health Disparities and Discrimination: Three Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; Krieger, Janice R; Warren, Jennifer R; Hecht, Michael L; Okuyemi, Kola

    2008-10-01

    This article presents three perspectives on health discrimination and disparities, organized around different conceptualizations of the way "space" perpetuates health disparities. The first two perspectives are grounded in conceptualizing space in a physical sense by exploring the manifestation of discrimination as a problem both among and within nations. The third perspective juxtaposes geographical space with cyberspace. The internet, with its ability to blur sense of place, social demarcations, and behavior is often considered a panacea that can eliminate the health disparities. The internet, however, may not be fulfilling its promise as an equal source of health information for all and disparities related to international and rural geography remain problematic. Solutions are proposed for reducing health disparities based on The Principle of Cultural Grounding (Hecht & Krieger, 2006; Hecht & Miller-Day, in press). PMID:20694161

  6. Local computation of differents and discriminants

    CERN Document Server

    Nart, Enric

    2012-01-01

    We obtain several results on the computation of different and discriminant ideals of finite extensions of local fields. As an application, we deduce routines to compute the $\\p$-adic valuation of the discriminant $\\dsc(f)$, and the resultant $\\res(f,g)$, for polynomials $f(x),g(x)\\in A[x]$, where $A$ is a Dedekind domain and $\\p$ is a non-zero prime ideal of $A$ with finite residue field. These routines do not require the computation of neither $\\dsc(f)$ nor $\\res(f,g)$; hence, they are useful in cases where this latter computation is inefficient because the polynomials have a large degree or very large coefficients.

  7. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  8. A complete discrimination system for polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨路; 侯晓荣; 曾振柄

    1996-01-01

    Given a polynomial with symbolic/literal coefficients,a complete discrimination system is a set of explicit expressions in terms of the coefficients,which is sufficient for determining the numbers and multiplicities of the real and imaginary roots.Though it is of great significance,such a criterion for root-classification has never been given for polynomials with degrees greater than 4.The lack of efficient tools in this aspect extremely prevents computer implementations for Tarski’s and other methods in automated theorem proving.To remedy this defect,a generic algorithm is proposed to produce a complete discrimination system for a polynomial with any degrees.This result has extensive applications in various fields,and its efficiency was demonstrated by computer implementations.

  9. Discrimination of thermophilic and mesophilic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaisman Iosif I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a considerable literature on the source of the thermostability of proteins from thermophilic organisms. Understanding the mechanisms for this thermostability would provide insights into proteins generally and permit the design of synthetic hyperstable biocatalysts. Results We have systematically tested a large number of sequence and structure derived quantities for their ability to discriminate thermostable proteins from their non-thermostable orthologs using sets of mesophile-thermophile ortholog pairs. Most of the quantities tested correspond to properties previously reported to be associated with thermostability. Many of the structure related properties were derived from the Delaunay tessellation of protein structures. Conclusions Carefully selected sequence based indices discriminate better than purely structure based indices. Combined sequence and structure based indices improve performance somewhat further. Based on our analysis, the strongest contributors to thermostability are an increase in ion pairs on the protein surface and a more strongly hydrophobic interior.

  10. Linear discriminant analysis for welding fault detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a new method for real time welding fault detection in industry based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). A set of parameters was calculated from one second blocks of electrical data recorded during welding and based on control data from reference welds under good conditions, as well as faulty welds. Optimised linear combinations of the parameters were determined with LDA and tested with independent data. Short arc welds in overlap joints were studied with various power sources, shielding gases, wire diameters, and process geometries. Out-of-position faults were investigated. Application of LDA fault detection to a broad range of welding procedures was investigated using a similarity measure based on Principal Component Analysis. The measure determines which reference data are most similar to a given industrial procedure and the appropriate LDA weights are then employed. Overall, results show that Linear Discriminant Analysis gives an effective and consistent performance in real-time welding fault detection.

  11. Reservoir evaluation using discriminant analysis. [China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yangjian, O.; Jianru, L.

    1982-01-01

    The ability to evaluate sandstone reservoirs has been greatly improved since the use of electonic computer in processing well log data. But it is still difficult to analyse reservoirs with high water saturation, or reservoirs with high residual oil saturation and aquifers containing oil etc. Based on the studies of the reservoirs and aquifers in respect to their oil saturation, porosity, lithology factor and other independent parameters relative to water invasion and water distribution etc., an optimum discrimination is proposed for the accurate evalation of reservoirs and aquifers using discriminant analysis as a tool. The final recognition is achieved on the electronic computer. This new technique and processing program has been widely tested and verified in the Shengli oil field and other fields in east China, with precision up to 90 percent or more. Now the technique has been extensively applied to the evaluation of Tertiary reservoirs with success.

  12. Effectively Discriminating Fighting Shots in Action Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Gao Ma; Wei-Qiang Wang

    2011-01-01

    Fighting shots are the highlights of action movies and an effective approach to discriminating fighting shots is very useful for many applications, such as movie trailer construction, movie content filtering, and movie content retrieval. In this paper, we present a novel method for this task. Our approach first extracts the reliable motion information of local invariant features through a robust keypoint tracking computation; then foreground keypoints are distinguished from background keypoints by a sophisticated voting process; further, the parameters of the camera motion model is computed based on the motion information of background keypoints, and this model is then used as a reference to compute the actual motion of foreground keypoints; finally, the corresponding feature vectors are extracted to characterizing the motions of foreground keypoints, and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained based on the extracted feature vectors to discriminate fighting shots. Experimental results on representative action movies show our approach is very effective.

  13. Generative Prior Knowledge for Discriminative Classification

    CERN Document Server

    DeJong, G; 10.1613/jair.1934

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel framework for integrating prior knowledge into discriminative classifiers. Our framework allows discriminative classifiers such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to utilize prior knowledge specified in the generative setting. The dual objective of fitting the data and respecting prior knowledge is formulated as a bilevel program, which is solved (approximately) via iterative application of second-order cone programming. To test our approach, we consider the problem of using WordNet (a semantic database of English language) to improve low-sample classification accuracy of newsgroup categorization. WordNet is viewed as an approximate, but readily available source of background knowledge, and our framework is capable of utilizing it in a flexible way.

  14. Action Recognition Using Discriminative Structured Trajectory Groups

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2015-01-06

    In this paper, we develop a novel framework for action recognition in videos. The framework is based on automatically learning the discriminative trajectory groups that are relevant to an action. Different from previous approaches, our method does not require complex computation for graph matching or complex latent models to localize the parts. We model a video as a structured bag of trajectory groups with latent class variables. We model action recognition problem in a weakly supervised setting and learn discriminative trajectory groups by employing multiple instance learning (MIL) based Support Vector Machine (SVM) using pre-computed kernels. The kernels depend on the spatio-temporal relationship between the extracted trajectory groups and their associated features. We demonstrate both quantitatively and qualitatively that the classification performance of our proposed method is superior to baselines and several state-of-the-art approaches on three challenging standard benchmark datasets.

  15. A Primer on Accent Discrimination in the Canadian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Murray J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews aspects of the Canadian human rights process as they pertain to language and accent, and identifies three types of accent discrimination arising in human rights cases: discrimination in employment due to inappropriate concern with accent; discrimination due to accent stereotyping, and harassment based on accent. (Author/VWL)

  16. 21 CFR 882.1200 - Two-point discriminator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Two-point discriminator. 882.1200 Section 882.1200...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1200 Two-point discriminator. (a) Identification. A two-point discriminator is a device with points used for testing a...

  17. 29 CFR 1604.4 - Discrimination against married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination against married women. 1604.4 Section 1604.4... DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.4 Discrimination against married women. (a) The Commission has determined that an employer's rule which forbids or restricts the employment of married women and which is...

  18. Discriminability of tryptophan containing dipeptides using quantum control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonina, S.; Nenadl, O.; Rondi, A.; Bonacina, L.; Extermann, J.; Kiselev, D.; Dolamic, I.; Burgi, T.; Wolf, J. P.

    2013-06-01

    We show that the coherent manipulation of molecular wavepackets in the excited states of trp-containing dipeptides allows efficient discrimination among them. Optimal dynamic discrimination fails, however, for some dipeptide couples. When considering the limited spectral resources at play (3 nm bandwidth at 266 nm), we discuss the concept of discriminability, which appears uncorrelated to both static spectra and relaxation lifetimes.

  19. Pigeons' Discrimination of Michotte's Launching Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Michael E; Beckmann, Joshua S.; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2006-01-01

    We trained four pigeons to discriminate a Michotte launching animation from three other animations using a go/no-go task. The pigeons received food for pecking at one of the animations, but not for pecking at the others. The four animations featured two types of interactions among objects: causal (direct launching) and noncausal (delayed, distal, and distal & delayed). Two pigeons were reinforced for pecking at the causal interaction, but not at the noncausal interactions; two other pigeons w...

  20. CORRELATION BETWEEN EDUCATION , DEVELOPMENT AND GENDER DISCRIMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    GAZALA BHOJE

    2013-01-01

    Education is the tool that can help break the pattern of gender discrimination and bring lasting change for women in developing countries. Education helps men and women claim their rights and realize their potential in the economic, political and social arenas. It is also the single most powerful way to lift people out of poverty. Education plays a particularly important role as a foundation for girls' development towards adult life. It should be an intrinsic part of any strategy to address t...

  1. A Discriminative Model for Polyphonic Piano Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliner Graham E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a discriminative model for polyphonic piano transcription. Support vector machines trained on spectral features are used to classify frame-level note instances. The classifier outputs are temporally constrained via hidden Markov models, and the proposed system is used to transcribe both synthesized and real piano recordings. A frame-level transcription accuracy of 68% was achieved on a newly generated test set, and direct comparisons to previous approaches are provided.

  2. Pitch discrimination of patterned electric stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H B; Ishihara, Y C; Zeng, F G

    2005-01-01

    One reason for the poor pitch performance in current cochlear-implant users may be the highly synchronized neural firing in electric hearing that lacks stochastic properties of neural firing in normal acoustic hearing. This study used three different electric stimulation patterns, jittered, probabilistic, and auditory-model-generated pulses, to mimic some aspects of the normal neural firing pattern in acoustic hearing. Pitch discrimination was measured at standard frequencies of 100, 250, 500...

  3. Object recognition with hierarchical discriminant saliency networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhyoung eHan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of integrating attention and object recognition are investigated. While attention is frequently modeled as pre-processor for recognition, we investigate the hypothesis that attention is an intrinsic component of recognition and vice-versa. This hypothesis is tested with a recognitionmodel, the hierarchical discriminant saliency network (HDSN, whose layers are top-down saliency detectors, tuned for a visual class according to the principles of discriminant saliency. The HDSN has two possible implementations. In a biologically plausible implementation, all layers comply with the standard neurophysiological model of visual cortex, with sub-layers of simple and complex units that implement a combination of filtering, divisive normalization, pooling, and non-linearities. In a neuralnetwork implementation, all layers are convolutional and implement acombination of filtering, rectification, and pooling. The rectificationis performed with a parametric extension of the now popular rectified linearunits (ReLUs, whose parameters can be tuned for the detection of targetobject classes. This enables a number of functional enhancementsover neural network models that lack a connection to saliency, including optimal feature denoising mechanisms for recognition, modulation ofsaliency responses by the discriminant power of the underlying features,and the ability to detect both feature presence and absence.In either implementation, each layer has a precise statistical interpretation, and all parameters are tuned by statistical learning. Each saliency detection layer learns more discriminant saliency templates than its predecessors and higher layers have larger pooling fields. This enables the HDSN to simultaneously achieve high selectivity totarget object classes and invariance. The resulting performance demonstrates benefits for all the functional enhancements of the HDSN.

  4. Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Drydakis

    2007-01-01

    This research examines the possible discrimination faced by gay men compared to heterosexuals when applying for jobs in the Greek private sector. This issue was addressed through the observation of employer hiring decisions. Mailing pairs of curriculum vitae, distinguished only by the sexual orientation of the applicants, led to the observation that gay men faced a significantly lower chance of receiving an invitation for an interview. However, in cases where employers called applicants back,...

  5. PREDICTING COMPANY PERFORMANCE BY DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitra STANCU; Andrei-Tudor STANCU

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating the performance through discriminant analysis of 20 companies traded on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BVB). As these companies are similar in terms of business profile (manufacturing industry), we choose ten financial indicators that relate to stock value (PRICE, BETA, ALPHA, etc.) and book value (Debt / Equity, ROA and ROE) to assess and classify the companies as "good" or "bad". For a sustainable characterization the average value of the financial indicators is...

  6. Discrimination and Resistance to Low Skilled Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Kemnitz, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that the immigration of some low skilled workers can be of advantage for the low skilled natives when the host economy suffers from unemployment due to trade unions and an unemployment insurance scheme. This benefit arises if trade unions have appropriate bargaining power and preferences for members' income, labor market discrimination against immigrants is strong enough and the unemployment tax rate is low.

  7. Price Discrimination through Refund Contracts in Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Escobari, Diego; Jindapon, Paan

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how an airline monopoly uses refundable and non-refundable tickets to screen consumers who are uncertain about their travel. Our theoretical model predicts that the difference between these two fares diminishes as individual demand uncertainty is resolved. Using an original data set from U.S. airline markets, we find strong evidence supporting our model. Price discrimination opportunities through refund contracts decline as the departure date nears and individuals learn about...

  8. Dynamic Repeated Random Dictatorship and Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Dittrich, Dennis Alexis Valin; Büchner, Susanne; Kulesz, Micaela Maria

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the cognitive experimenter demand effect we embed a dictator game in a more complex decision environment, a dynamic household savings decision problem, thus rendering the dictator decision to share some endowment less salient. We then use this game in a laboratory experiment to investigate gender specific allocation behaviour and discrimination. We observe that dictators treat females nicer than males independent of their own gender. Participants are not aware of their discriminatin...

  9. Proportionality and employment discrimination in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the justification defence in UK statutory indirect discrimination cases should incorporate proportionality as applied by the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). It first analyses the evolution of the UK approach to proportionality before the enactment of the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA), when its primary influence was the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) applying EC equal treatment directives. This assessment shows that the UK judiciary was alread...

  10. Large number discrimination in newborn fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Piffer

    Full Text Available Quantitative abilities have been reported in a wide range of species, including fish. Recent studies have shown that adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata can spontaneously select the larger number of conspecifics. In particular the evidence collected in literature suggest the existence of two distinct systems of number representation: a precise system up to 4 units, and an approximate system for larger numbers. Spontaneous numerical abilities, however, seem to be limited to 4 units at birth and it is currently unclear whether or not the large number system is absent during the first days of life. In the present study, we investigated whether newborn guppies can be trained to discriminate between large quantities. Subjects were required to discriminate between groups of dots with a 0.50 ratio (e.g., 7 vs. 14 in order to obtain a food reward. To dissociate the roles of number and continuous quantities that co-vary with numerical information (such as cumulative surface area, space and density, three different experiments were set up: in Exp. 1 number and continuous quantities were simultaneously available. In Exp. 2 we controlled for continuous quantities and only numerical information was available; in Exp. 3 numerical information was made irrelevant and only continuous quantities were available. Subjects successfully solved the tasks in Exp. 1 and 2, providing the first evidence of large number discrimination in newborn fish. No discrimination was found in experiment 3, meaning that number acuity is better than spatial acuity. A comparison with the onset of numerical abilities observed in shoal-choice tests suggests that training procedures can promote the development of numerical abilities in guppies.

  11. Collection Selection with Highly Discriminative Keys

    OpenAIRE

    Bockting, S.; Hiemstra, D.

    2009-01-01

    The centralized web search paradigm introduces several problems, such as large data traffic requirements for crawling, index freshness problems and problems to index everything. In this study, we look at collection selection using highly discriminative keys and query-driven indexing as part of a distributed web search system. The approach is evaluated on different splits of the TREC WT10g corpus. Experimental results show that the approach outperforms a Dirichlet smoothing language modeling a...

  12. Within centre evaluation of hypercalcaemia discriminant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Conradsen, Knut

    1996-01-01

    with hypercalcaemia, were consecutively recorded, during six and three months respectively, 5 years apart under similar circumstances. The prevalence of hypercalcaemia was comparable in both populations, being 2.57 and 2.38% respectively (non-significant) (NS). The female/male ratio was 1.9 and 1.7 (NS......). The discriminant functions correctly classified 81 and 80% of the women, respectively (NS) and respectively 75% and 64% of the men (NS) in the first and second recorded populations....

  13. Perception of police on discrimination in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Zekavica Radomir

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses results deriving from the research on the attitudes of criminal investigation officers in five police departments in Serbia: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Novi Pazar, Subotica and Vranje. The case studies examined the attitudes of members of criminal investigation police and their perception(s) of discrimination towards vulnerable groups. The study aimed to determine the level of animosity exhibited in speech, to analyse socio-ethnic ...

  14. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Carrara

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors ...

  15. Quantile forecast discrimination ability and value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben Bouallègue, Zied; Pinson, Pierre; Friederichs, Petra

    2015-01-01

    While probabilistic forecast verification for categorical forecasts is well established, some of the existing concepts and methods have not found their equivalent for the case of continuous variables. New tools dedicated to the assessment of forecast discrimination ability and forecast value are ...... is illustrated based on synthetic datasets, as well as for the case of global radiation forecasts from the high resolution ensemble COSMO-DE-EPS of the German Weather Service....

  16. Aspects of Price Discrimination in the Monopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Angelo Ioan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis allowed the determination in general of the consumer’s surplus or of the manufacturer’s surpluss in the case of monopoly and the determination of the allocative inefficiency in relation to the situation of perfect competition. Also, we broached the price discrimination of third order, analyzing, in terms of goods elasticities, the opportunity to separate prices in the conditions of differences existing between groups of firms.

  17. Target discrimination technique utilizing noise waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodington, Gordon; DeLuca, Mark; Moro, Richard; Lemus, Daniel; Vela, Russell; Narayanan, Ram

    2011-06-01

    Noise waveforms generated using low cost diodes are a simple way for radars to transmit a wideband (> 4 GHz) multi-bit pseudorandom code for use in a cross correlation receiver. This type of waveform also has the advantage of being difficult to intercept and is less prone to interfere with adjacent systems. Radar designed to operate over this wide frequency range can take advantage of unique target Radar Cross Section (RCS) ripple versus frequency for objects of different materials and sizes. Specifically the periodicity and amplitude of the ripple is dependent on the shape and size of a target. Since background clutter does not display this variation, RCS variation determines whether a known target is present in a return. This paper will present the radar hardware and signal processing techniques used to maximize a target's unique spectral response against a cluttered background. The system operates CW over a 4-8 GHz bandwidth requiring the need to address issues regarding range resolution and far out undesired returns. Lessons learned from field observations and mitigation techniques incorporated in the system are included. This paper also deals with the signal processing technique used for detection, then discrimination. Detection thresholds are set and triggered by a simple correlation peak level. Discrimination involves inspection of the spectral return. A comparison performed in real time to a stored library value determines the presence of known objects. Measured data provided demonstrates the ability of the radar to discriminate multiple targets against multiple backgrounds.

  18. Visual discrimination learning in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwill, Ruth M; Raymond, Maria P; Ferreira, Lisa; Escudero, Holly

    2005-08-31

    Three experiments demonstrated visual discrimination learning in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In each experiment, zebrafish were given a choice between two visually distinct arms of a T-maze. Choice of one stimulus was always followed by a food reward, but choice of the other stimulus was not rewarded. Different colored sleeves fitted around the arms of the T-maze were used in Experiments 1 (green and purple) and 2 (red and blue). The stimuli used in Experiment 3 were white sleeves lined with horizontal or vertical black stripes. In all three experiments, zebrafish acquired a significant preference for the stimulus that led to a food reward. Experiments 1 and 2 also showed that zebrafish could learn a reversal of the discrimination. Finally, the effect of discontinuing food rewards was examined after reversal training in Experiment 2 and after initial discrimination training in Experiments 1 and 3. Non-reinforcement led to a decrease in correct responding in Experiments 2 and 3 independent of stimulus identity, but to an asymmetrical pattern of responding in Experiment 1. The median latency to make a choice response decreased over the course of acquisition in all three experiments; during extinction, median response times did not change at all in Experiment 1 and increased only very slightly in Experiment 2, but showed a substantial increase in Experiment 3. The implications of these results for the zebrafish as a model system for genetic studies of learning and memory are discussed. PMID:15967284

  19. Discrimination, crypticity, and incipient taxa in entamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Avelina; Paz-Y-Miño-C, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Persistent difficulties in resolving clear lineages in diverging populations of prokaryotes or unicellular eukaryotes (protistan polyphyletic groups) are challenging the classical species concept. Although multiple integrated approaches would render holistic taxonomies, most phylogenetic studies are still based on single-gene or morphological traits. Such methodologies conceal natural lineages, which are considered "cryptic." The concept of species is considered artificial and inadequate to define natural populations. Social organisms display differential behaviors toward kin than to nonrelated individuals. In "social" microbes, kin discrimination has been used to help resolve crypticity. Aggregative behavior could be explored in a nonsocial protist to define phylogenetic varieties that are considered "cryptic." Two Entamoeba invadens strains, IP-1 and VK-1:NS are considered close populations of the same "species." This study demonstrates that IP-1 and VK-1:NS trophozoites aggregate only with alike members and discriminate members of different strains based on behavioral and chemical signals. Combined morphological, behavioral/chemical, and ecological studies could improve Archamoebae phylogenies and define cryptic varieties. Evolutionary processes in which selection acted continuously and cumulatively on ancestors of Entamoeba populations gave rise to chemical and behavioral signals that allowed individuals to discriminate nonpopulation members and, gradually, to the emergence of new lineages; alternative views that claim a "Designer" or "Creator" as responsible for protistan diversity are unfounded.

  20. Piezoresistive Tactile Sensor Discriminating Multidirectional Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdo Jung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Flexible tactile sensors capable of detecting the magnitude and direction of the applied force together are of great interest for application in human-interactive robots, prosthetics, and bionic arms/feet. Human skin contains excellent tactile sensing elements, mechanoreceptors, which detect their assigned tactile stimuli and transduce them into electrical signals. The transduced signals are transmitted through separated nerve fibers to the central nerve system without complicated signal processing. Inspired by the function and organization of human skin, we present a piezoresistive type tactile sensor capable of discriminating the direction and magnitude of stimulations without further signal processing. Our tactile sensor is based on a flexible core and four sidewall structures of elastomer, where highly sensitive interlocking piezoresistive type sensing elements are embedded. We demonstrate the discriminating normal pressure and shear force simultaneously without interference between the applied forces. The developed sensor can detect down to 128 Pa in normal pressure and 0.08 N in shear force, respectively. The developed sensor can be applied in the prosthetic arms requiring the restoration of tactile sensation to discriminate the feeling of normal and shear force like human skin.

  1. Skin aging:

    OpenAIRE

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2008-01-01

    There are two main processes that induce skin aging: intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies random cell damage as a result of mutations during metabolic processes due to the production of free radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, air pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. Intrinsicaging reflects the genetic background and depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging include smooth, ...

  2. Gender Inequalities in the Health of Immigrants and Workplace Discrimination in Czechia

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmar Dzúrová; Dušan Drbohlav

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between immigrants’ self-reported/rated health (SRH) and their perceived working conditions in Czechia materialized via discrimination, based on the example of Ukrainian immigrants analyzed by gender dimension. The role of age, education, and marital status is also analyzed. A sample of native-born Czechs serves as a reference frame. A cross-sectional design was applied. Using data from two surveys of Ukrainian immigrants in Czechia and a countrywide...

  3. Temporal stability of otolith elemental fingerprints discriminates among lagoon nursery habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Tournois, J.; Ferraton, Franck; Velez, Laure; D.J. McKenzie; Aliaume, C.; L. Mercier; Darnaude, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of fish otoliths reflects that of the water masses that they inhabit. Otolith elemental compositions can, therefore, be used as natural tags to discriminate among habitats. However, for retrospective habitat identification to be valid and reliable for any adult, irrespective of its age, significant differences in environmental conditions, and therefore otolith signatures, must be temporally stable within each habitat, otherwise connectivity studies have to be carried ...

  4. Object recognition with hierarchical discriminant saliency networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sunhyoung; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of integrating attention and object recognition are investigated. While attention is frequently modeled as a pre-processor for recognition, we investigate the hypothesis that attention is an intrinsic component of recognition and vice-versa. This hypothesis is tested with a recognition model, the hierarchical discriminant saliency network (HDSN), whose layers are top-down saliency detectors, tuned for a visual class according to the principles of discriminant saliency. As a model of neural computation, the HDSN has two possible implementations. In a biologically plausible implementation, all layers comply with the standard neurophysiological model of visual cortex, with sub-layers of simple and complex units that implement a combination of filtering, divisive normalization, pooling, and non-linearities. In a convolutional neural network implementation, all layers are convolutional and implement a combination of filtering, rectification, and pooling. The rectification is performed with a parametric extension of the now popular rectified linear units (ReLUs), whose parameters can be tuned for the detection of target object classes. This enables a number of functional enhancements over neural network models that lack a connection to saliency, including optimal feature denoising mechanisms for recognition, modulation of saliency responses by the discriminant power of the underlying features, and the ability to detect both feature presence and absence. In either implementation, each layer has a precise statistical interpretation, and all parameters are tuned by statistical learning. Each saliency detection layer learns more discriminant saliency templates than its predecessors and higher layers have larger pooling fields. This enables the HDSN to simultaneously achieve high selectivity to target object classes and invariance. The performance of the network in saliency and object recognition tasks is compared to those of models from the biological and

  5. Meaning Discrimination in Bilingual Venda Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munzhedzi James Mafela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Venda, one of the minority languages in South Africa, has few dictionaries. All are translational bilingual dictionaries meant for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Dictionary users find it difficult to use the bilingual Venda dictionaries because they are confronted with equivalents which they cannot distinguish. In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not helpful for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Devices such as giving illustrative examples, indicating parts of speech and adding etymology could be used to solve the problem of meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries. This article highlights the problem of the absence of meaning discrimination and suggests solutions to future Venda lexico-graphers in this regard.


    Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, MEANING DISCRIMINATION, EQUIVALENCE, ENTRY-WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, CULTURE, TRANSLATION, SOURCE LANGUAGE, TAR-GET LANGUAGE, SYNONYM, POLYSEMY


    *****

    OPSOMMING: Betekenisonderskeiding in tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke. Venda, een van die minderheidstale in Suid-Afrika, het min woordeboeke. Almal is vertalende tweetalige woordeboeke bedoel vir woordeboekgebruikers wat nie moedertaalsprekers van die taal is nie. Woordeboekgebruikers vind dit moeilik om tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke te gebruik om-dat hulle gekonfronteer word met ekwivalente wat hulle nie kan onderskei nie. In die meeste gevalle word die ekwivalente van die trefwoorde verskaf sonder om betekenisonderskeiding aan te dui. Sonder 'n goeie beheersing van Venda en die aanduiding van betekenisonderskeiding, sal gebruikers dit moeilik vind om die regte keuse van die

  6. Use of DXA-Based Structural Engineering Models of the Proximal Femur to Discriminate Hip Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lang; Peel, Nicola; Clowes, Jackie A; McCloskey, Eugene V; Eastell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Several DXA-based structural engineering models (SEMs) of the proximal femur have been developed to estimate stress caused by sideway falls. Their usefulness in discriminating hip fracture has not yet been established and we therefore evaluated these models. The hip DXA scans of 51 postmenopausal women with hip fracture (30 femoral neck, 17 trochanteric, and 4 unspecified) and 153 age-, height-, and weight-matched controls were reanalyzed using a special version of Hologic’s software that produced a pixel-by-pixel BMD map. For each map, a curved-beam, a curved composite-beam, and a finite element model were generated to calculate stress within the bone when falling sideways. An index of fracture risk (IFR) was defined over the femoral neck, trochanter, and total hip as the stress divided by the yield stress at each pixel and averaged over the regions of interest. Hip structure analysis (HSA) was also performed using Hologic APEX analysis software. Hip BMD and almost all parameters derived from HSA and SEM were discriminators of hip fracture on their own because their ORs were significantly >1. Because of the high correlation of total hip BMD to HSA and SEM-derived parameters, only the bone width discriminated hip fracture independently from total hip BMD. Judged by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, the trochanteric IFR derived from the finite element model was significant better than total hip BMD alone and similar to the total hip BMD plus bone width in discriminating all hip fracture and femoral neck fracture. No index was better than total hip BMD for discriminating trochanteric fractures. In conclusion, the finite element model has the potential to replace hip BMD in discriminating hip fractures. PMID:18767924

  7. Score-moment combined linear discrimination analysis (SMC-LDA) as an improved discrimination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jintae; Chung, Hoeil; Han, Sung-Hwan; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2007-01-01

    A new discrimination method called the score-moment combined linear discrimination analysis (SMC-LDA) has been developed and its performance has been evaluated using three practical spectroscopic datasets. The key concept of SMC-LDA was to use not only the score from principal component analysis (PCA), but also the moment of the spectrum, as inputs for LDA to improve discrimination. Along with conventional score, moment is used in spectroscopic fields as an effective alternative for spectral feature representation. Three different approaches were considered. Initially, the score generated from PCA was projected onto a two-dimensional feature space by maximizing Fisher's criterion function (conventional PCA-LDA). Next, the same procedure was performed using only moment. Finally, both score and moment were utilized simultaneously for LDA. To evaluate discrimination performances, three different spectroscopic datasets were employed: (1) infrared (IR) spectra of normal and malignant stomach tissue, (2) near-infrared (NIR) spectra of diesel and light gas oil (LGO) and (3) Raman spectra of Chinese and Korean ginseng. For each case, the best discrimination results were achieved when both score and moment were used for LDA (SMC-LDA). Since the spectral representation character of moment was different from that of score, inclusion of both score and moment for LDA provided more diversified and descriptive information.

  8. OPINIONS ON THE RIGHT TO NON-DISCRIMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Emilia ŞTEFAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the non-discrimination concept, as regulated by the national and foreign legislation. It is important to know that there are international documents which protect the right to non-discrimination, so that these documents will also be contemplated by this study. In Romania, the competent authority established in order to investigate and to apply civil sanctions for the deeds or acts of discrimination is the National Council for Combating Discrimination. In this respect, this study shall be focused on the presentation of the role and the activity of this institution in fighting against discrimination.

  9. Different conceptions of anti-discrimination: an analytical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2011-01-01

    In social science and legal studies there is a lack of clarity in the categorisation of different national anti-discrimination policies. To remedy this situation, the article develops an analytical framework for categorising anti-discrimination policies. It suggests that it is useful to distinguish...... between assimilationist, liberal and multiculturalist anti-discrimination policies and demonstrates the usefulness of the analytical framework by analysing the Danish anti-discrimination policy. The categorisation of anti-discrimination policies as assimilationist, liberal or multiculturalist depends...

  10. Labour Market Performance Effects of Discrimination and Loss of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during the experience of unemployment. Within a search and matching model, we show that all natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... has positive spillovers, inducing employment increases in the other sector. Discrimination may induce immigrants to train more or less than natives, depending on the sector where it is present. Welfare tends to be most negatively affected by discrimination among highproductivity workers....

  11. Discrimination of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Using Transfer Entropy Measures of Scalp EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph McBride

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a neurological condition related to early stages of dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD. This study investigates the potential of measures of transfer entropy in scalp EEG for effectively discriminating between normal aging, MCI, and AD participants. Resting EEG records from 48 age-matched participants (mean age 75.7 years—15 normal controls, 16 MCI, and 17 early AD—are examined. The mean temporal delays corresponding to peaks in inter-regional transfer entropy are computed and used as features to discriminate between the three groups of participants. Three-way classification schemes based on binary support vector machine models demonstrate overall discrimination accuracies of 91.7— 93.8%, depending on the protocol condition. These results demonstrate the potential for EEG transfer entropy measures as biomarkers in identifying early MCI and AD. Moreover, the analyses based on short data segments (two minutes render the method practical for a primary care setting.

  12. How discrimination and stress affects self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Dawson, Beverly Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States is very important given the growing Latina population. Although researchers have investigated the health and mental health status among Latinas, the relationship between mental health and self-esteem has not been given a lot of attention. Given that self-esteem is a proxy for mental health status, investigations exploring the factors that can negatively affect self-esteem are needed. Therefore, the current study examined the influence of discrimination and stress on self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 235 immigrant Dominican women in New York City. Women (age 18-49 years) and in the United States for fewer than 20 years were more likely to report experiencing discrimination compared to women older than age 50 years and in the United States for more than 20 years. After controlling for age, time in the United States, educational level, and income, high levels of discrimination (-0.09, p stress (-0.69, p self-esteem. Interventions with Latino/a populations, especially women, need to acknowledge their individual evaluations of the discriminatory and stressful experiences that negatively influence their self-esteem and subsequently their mental health status.

  13. The Analysis of the Impact of Anti-Discrimination Act and its Conformity with the Theory of Discrimination of Gary Becker

    OpenAIRE

    Lupiňská, Dana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to evaluate the impact of Act no. 198/2009 Coll., on equal treatment and legal means of protection against discrimination (Anti-Discrimination Act) on the status of women in the labor market and progression in the perception of discrimination of Czech population. The thesis responds to the question whether the Anti-Discrimination Act is sufficient to combat discrimination in the labor market. Equality, discrimination and forms of discrimination are defined in the intr...

  14. Multivariate discrimination technique based on the Bayesian theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Ping; PAN Chang-zhou; XIAO Wei-guo

    2007-01-01

    A multivariate discrimination technique was established based on the Bayesian theory. Using this technique, P/S ratios of different types (e.g., Pn/Sn, Pn/Lg, Pg/Sn or Pg/Lg) measured within different frequency bands and from different stations were combined together to discriminate seismic events in Central Asia. Major advantages of the Bayesian approach are that the probability to be an explosion for any unknown event can be directly calculated given the measurements of a group of discriminants, and at the same time correlations among these discriminants can be fully taken into account. It was proved theoretically that the Bayesian technique would be optimal and its discriminating performance would be better than that of any individual discriminant as well as better than that yielded by the linear combination approach ignoring correlations among discriminants. This conclusion was also validated in this paper by applying the Bayesian approach to the above-mentioned observed data.

  15. The 95% confidence intervals of error rates and discriminant coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fisher proposed a linear discriminant function (Fisher’s LDF. From 1971, we analysed electrocardiogram (ECG data in order to develop the diagnostic logic between normal and abnormal symptoms by Fisher’s LDF and a quadratic discriminant function (QDF. Our four years research was inferior to the decision tree logic developed by the medical doctor. After this experience, we discriminated many data and found four problems of the discriminant analysis. A revised Optimal LDF by Integer Programming (Revised IP-OLDF based on the minimum number of misclassification (minimum NM criterion resolves three problems entirely [13, 18]. In this research, we discuss fourth problem of the discriminant analysis. There are no standard errors (SEs of the error rate and discriminant coefficient. We propose a k-fold crossvalidation method. This method offers a model selection technique and a 95% confidence intervals (C.I. of error rates and discriminant coefficients.

  16. Anti-discrimination Analysis Using Privacy Attack Strategies

    KAUST Repository

    Ruggieri, Salvatore

    2014-09-15

    Social discrimination discovery from data is an important task to identify illegal and unethical discriminatory patterns towards protected-by-law groups, e.g., ethnic minorities. We deploy privacy attack strategies as tools for discrimination discovery under hard assumptions which have rarely tackled in the literature: indirect discrimination discovery, privacy-aware discrimination discovery, and discrimination data recovery. The intuition comes from the intriguing parallel between the role of the anti-discrimination authority in the three scenarios above and the role of an attacker in private data publishing. We design strategies and algorithms inspired/based on Frèchet bounds attacks, attribute inference attacks, and minimality attacks to the purpose of unveiling hidden discriminatory practices. Experimental results show that they can be effective tools in the hands of anti-discrimination authorities.

  17. Labor Market Performance Effects of Discrimination and Loss of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of discrimination on labor market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during an unemployment experience. Within a search and matching framework, we show that both natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... has positive spillovers, inducing employment to increase in the other sector and the effect on labor market performance therefore depends on whether discrimination is present in only one sector or in both. Discrimination may induce workers to train more or less than natives after having lost...... their skills, dependent upon in which sector there is discrimination. Net output tends to be most negatively affected by discrimination among high-skilled workers. (JEL J15, J31, J61, J64, J71)...

  18. Labour Market Performance Effects of Discrimination and Loss of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during an unemployment experience. Within a search and matching framework, we show that both natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... has positive spill-overs, inducing employment to increase in the other sector and the effect on labour market performance therefore depends on whether discrimination is present in only one sector or in both sectors. Discrimination may induce workers to train more or less than natives after having lost...... their skills, dependent upon which sector there is discrimination. Net output tends to the be most negatively affected by discrimination among high-skilled workers....

  19. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? Materials and Methods: To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients′ opinions. Results and Conclusion : At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women′s lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous

  20. Latino Adolescents' Mental Health: Exploring the Interrelations among Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, Cultural Orientation, Self-Esteem, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2007-01-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study used cross-sectional data to examine the degree to which Latino adolescents' (N=274; M age=16.3; 47.1% female) self-esteem, ethnic identity, and cultural orientations mediated or moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a multiple group…