WorldWideScience

Sample records for age determinations carried

  1. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    that include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here...

  2. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    2018-01-01

    -sectionally and in time series for a host of different asset classes, including global equities, global bonds, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and options. Carry is not explained by known predictors of returns from these asset classes, and it captures many of these predictors, providing a unifying framework...... for return predictability. We reject a generalized version of Uncovered Interest Parity and the Expectations Hypothesis in favor of models with varying risk premia, in which carry strategies are commonly exposed to global recession, liquidity, and volatility risks, though none fully explains carry’s premium....

  3. Age determination and geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.D.; Delabio, R.N.; Lachance, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and eight potassium-argon age determinations carried out on Canadian rocks and minerals are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in brief outline and the constants used in the calculation of ages are listed. Two geological time-scales are reproduced in tabular form for ready reference and an index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference

  4. Cave age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the age of a cave we have to determine the age of elements which were created at the same moment when the cave was. Usually a cave is dug out by infiltration of acid waters. During this alteration process rocks free some aluminium and potassium ions. In Carlsbad and Lechuguilla caves, scientists have found alunite, this aluminium and potassium sulfate can be dated by using the carbon method of age determination. (A.C.)

  5. Age determination of mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, G.L.; Johnson, D.H.; Dane, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for distinguishing adult from yearling wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), from late winter through the nesting season, was developed by applying discriminant analysis procedures to selected wing feather characters of 126 yearlings and 76 adults (2-year-olds) hand-reared from wild eggs during 1974, 1975, and 1977. Average values for feather characters generally increased as the birds advanced from yearlings to adults. Black-white surface area of greater secondary covert 2 was the single most reliable aging character identified during the study. The error rate was lowest in females (3%) when discriminant functions were used with measurements of primary 1 weight and black-white area of greater secondary covert 2 and in males (9%) when the functions were used with black-white area of greater secondary coverts 1, 2, and 3. Methodology precludes aging of birds in the field during capture operations.

  6. A device for determination of the electrical potential of a rocket carrying an electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gringauz, K.I.; Musatov, L.S.; Shutte, N.M.; Beliashin, A.P.; Denstchikova, L.I.; Kopilov, V.F.

    1978-01-01

    Data on the principle of operation, sensors and electronics of a device for determination of the electrical potential relative to the surrounding medium of a rocket carrying an electric gun are presented. The device operated successfully on board an Eridan rocket during the ARAKS experiment. (Auth.)

  7. Water Quality Assessment and Determining the Carrying Capacity of Pollution Load Batang Kuranji River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewata, I.; Adri, Z.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to determine the water quality and carrying capacity of pollution load Batang Kuranji River in the headwaters, middle, and downstream. This research is descriptive quantitative parameters of pH, BOD, COD, TSS, and DOES Depictions of river water quality refer to RegulationNo.82/2001, while determination of carrying capacity of pollution load river refers to the Kep Men LHNo.10/2003.The result is Kuranji Batang River water quality upstream region included in either category who meet the quality standard first class ofPP82/2001. TSS concentrations at head waters of 21 mg/L, BOD1,6 mg/L, COD7,99mg/L and DO 7,845 mg/L. While the carrying capacity of pollution load river in upstream region included in both categories namely BOD of 4,4 kg/sec, COD 273,60 kg/sec, TSS906,00kg/sec, and DO parameters of 49.20 kg/sec. Middle region (point 2, 3, and 4) water quality Batang Kuranji River has exceeded the quality standard of 82/2001 for class II and class III. Meanwhile, carrying capacity of pollution load river in area included in ugly category. The calculation is done with application Qual2Kw show that carrying capacity of pollution load river of BOD -857.3 kg/sec, COD -777.40 kg/sec, TSS +9511.5 kg/sec, and DO +69.30 kg/sec.

  8. Determinants of Aged Female Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    Older women (N=50) were asked a series of questions about reference groups, sex roles, sexuality, sexual desire at different stages in the life cycle, appropriateness of certain types of sexual behavior, adjustment to aging, life satisfaction, organizational activities, and male/female interaction. Quantitative and qualitative data provided the…

  9. Comparison of age determination techniques for known-age Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Known-age teeth were used to validate age determination techniques for the Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus ... The reliability with which age can be estimated for the Cape fur seal has also been improved. ... The acid solution, with a volume at least 10 times that of ... old female [0 show (he absence of GLGs in the cemenlUnl.

  10. Model for determining the load or carrying capacity of rivers and riverbanks for recreational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero, I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to determine the load or functional carrying capacity for the assimilation and recovery of rivers and riverbanks by compiling information on the environment, and to assess the potential for recreation from the environmental and scenic point of view. We set out to find the most significant basis for analysing the pressures limiting carrying capacity and constraining the demand for recreational use. This methodology will help planners and legislators in their decision-making. We also propose a methodology for assessing the recreational use of riverbanks, tested in a number of sites in the Madrid Region, in terms of the satisfaction the activity produces in the users, and the load or carrying capacity of the surrounding environment. A pilot site assessment is presented as a validation of the proposed methodology.El objetivo de este artículo es, determinar la capacidad de carga o acogida funcional, de asimilación y de recuperación de los márgenes y los cursos fluviales mediante la recopilación de información del medio; el potencial recreativo se evalúa además desde un doble punto de vista: ecológico y paisajístico. La forma en que se enfoca el problema y se presenta la metodología y los resultados puede resultar de gran utilidad para planificadores y legisladores. La metodología propuesta para valorar el uso recreativo de los márgenes fluviales, se aplica a una serie de parcelas en la Comunidad de Madrid, teniendo en cuenta la satisfacción que la actividad produce en los usuarios, y la capacidad de carga o acogida del entorno en el que se desarrollan. Como resultado, se presenta la valoración de parcelas piloto, que servirían para validar la metodología propuesta. [fr] Le but de cet article est, déterminer la capacité de charge ou réception fonctionnelle, l’assimilation et rétablissement des marges et les cours de la rivière par le biais de la collecte d’informations de l’environnement: le

  11. Can they carry on working? Later retirement, health, and social inequality in an aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaby, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In debates on pensions and retirement age, little attention has been paid to the relation between increased effective retirement age and the health of the older population. This article focuses on Britain at a crucial point in the past, when the reconstruction that followed recession in the late 1970s and early 1980s used previously accumulated pension and redundancy funds to pay off workers and make labor markets "flexible." Using secondary data analysis of surveys of the same nationally representative sample in 1984 and 1991, the author argues that, while early retirement and retirement at age 60 (women) and 65 (men) took many able-bodied people out of the labor force, every increase in retirement age would have faced diminishing returns. Moreover, unemployment and exit from the labor market were accompanied in most cases by a perceived decline in well-being. The findings suggest that retirement should be tapered, not abrupt. Finally, there was pronounced inequality in the aging process that would have led to a situation in which a uniform policy on later retirement deepened the disadvantage of those least able to fend for themselves. Accordingly, the present U.K. government should positively discriminate in favor of the disadvantaged at retirement by reinforcing the state pension.

  12. Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H; de Bruin, Karla G; van Gemert, Martin J C; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2012-03-10

    Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time elapsed since the crime was committed is still not possible. From a criminalistic point of view, an accurate estimation of when the crime was committed enables to verify witnesses' statements, limits the number of suspects and assesses alibis. Despite several attempts and exploration of many technologies during a century, no method has been materialized into forensic practice. This review gives an overview of an extensive search in scientific literature of techniques that address the quest for age determination of bloodstains. We found that most techniques are complementary to each other, in short as well as long term age determination. Techniques are compared concerning their sensitivity for short and long term ageing of bloodstains and concerning their possible applicability to be used on a crime scene. In addition, experimental challenges like substrate variation, interdonor variation and environmental influences are addressed. Comparison of these techniques contributes to our knowledge of the physics and biochemistry in an ageing bloodstain. Further improvement and incorporation of environmental factors are necessary to enable age determination of bloodstains to be acceptable in court. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Methods for determining the carrying capacity of eccentrically compressed concrete elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starishko Ivan Nikolaevich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the results of calculations of eccentrically compressed elements in the ultimate limit state of bearing capacity, taking into account all possiblestresses in the longitudinal reinforcement from the R to the R , caused by different values of eccentricity longitudinal force. The method of calculation is based on the simultaneous solution of the equilibrium equations of the longitudinal forces and internal forces with the equilibrium equations of bending moments in the ultimate limit state of the normal sections. Simultaneous solution of these equations, as well as additional equations, reflecting the stress-strain limit state elements, leads to the solution of a cubic equation with respect to height of uncracked concrete, or with respect to the carrying capacity. According to the author it is a significant advantage over the existing methods, in which the equilibrium equations using longitudinal forces obtained one value of the height, and the equilibrium equations of bending moments - another. Theoretical studies of the author, in this article and the reasons to calculate specific examples showed that a decrease in the eccentricity of the longitudinal force in the limiting state of eccentrically compressed concrete elements height uncracked concrete height increases, the tension in the longitudinal reinforcement area gradually (not abruptly goes from a state of tension compression, and load-bearing capacity of elements it increases, which is also confirmed by the experimental results. Designed journalist calculations of eccentrically compressed elements for 4 cases of eccentric compression, instead of 2 - as set out in the regulations, fully cover the entire spectrum of possible cases of the stress-strain limit state elements that comply with the European standards for reinforced concrete, in particular Eurocode 2 (2003.

  14. Parametrical Method for Determining Optimal Ship Carrying Capacity and Performance of Handling Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Jan P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of evaluating the optimal value of the cargo ships deadweight and the coupled optimal value of cargo handling capacity. The method may be useful at the stage of establishing the main owners requirements concerning the ship design parameters as well as for choosing a proper second hand ship for a given transportation task. The deadweight and the capacity are determined on the basis of a selected economic measure of the transport effectiveness of ship – the Required Freight Rate. The mathematical model of the problem is of a deterministic character and the simplifying assumptions are justified for ships operating in the liner trade. The assumptions are so selected that solution of the problem is obtained in analytical closed form. The presented method can be useful for application in the preliminary ship design or in the simulation of pre-investment transportation task studies.

  15. Age determination in juvenile bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, G.A.; Nestler, R.B.

    1943-01-01

    Following methods described by Louis Bureau (1911, 1913) in France,tabulations were made (1) of the ages at which captivity-reared bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) dropped their juvenal remiges, and (2) the rates at which post-juvenal replxcement primaries grew. These were arranged so as to permit the determination of age in healthv birds from one to five months of age. The degree of individual variation was much greater than that found by Bureau, however. and limits accuracy in age determination after the 10th week..... The post-juvenal wing molt began on the birds' 28th day and ended when the quail were 146 to 154 days old.The post-juvenal body molt was found to take place largely between the 70th and 100th days. The juvenal rectrices were renewed from the 62nd to the 122nd days, the new feathers being as long as their longest coverts when the birds were 116 days old. The color of the tarsi varied from pink, at 32 days of age, to straw color at 60 days, and yellow-gray from 83 to 180 days. At six months, the color of the beak was identical with that of adults.....Unlike several other game bird species, the flexibility of the lower jaw was not an accurate index to age in bob-whites older than 11 weeks. Rigor mortis and freezing were found to hinder the testing of this criterion.

  16. Determination of gestational age by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Kimberly; Lim, Ken

    2014-02-01

    To assist clinicians in assigning gestational age based on ultrasound biometry. To determine whether ultrasound dating provides more accurate gestational age assessment than menstrual dating with or without the use of ultrasound. To provide maternity health care providers and researchers with evidence-based guidelines for the assignment of gestational age. To determine which ultrasound biometric parameters are superior when gestational age is uncertain. To determine whether ultrasound gestational age assessment is cost effective. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library in 2013 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (gestational age, ultrasound biometry, ultrasound dating). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies written in English. There were no date restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to July 31, 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Accurate assignment of gestational age may reduce post-dates labour induction and may improve obstetric care through allowing the optimal timing of necessary interventions and the avoidance of unnecessary ones. More accurate dating allows for optimal performance of prenatal screening tests for aneuploidy. A national algorithm for the assignment of gestational age may reduce practice variations across Canada for clinicians and researchers. Potential harms include the possible reassignment of dates when significant fetal pathology

  17. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  18. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  19. Age determination of blue-winged teal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.W.

    1968-01-01

    Primary feather length, markings on the greater secondary coverts, and the degree of bill spotting were evaluated as characters for use in the spring to distinguish first-year, blue-winged teal (Anas discors) females from older ones. The length of the 10th primary feather did not prove suitable to separate different aged females. Extreme primary lengths might be used to determine the age of some males. In females that have been through a postnuptial molt the greater secondary coverts have a more symmetrical, and more acutely angled, white, inverted 'V'-marking. Any female with a 'V' subjectively classified as good has gone through at least one postnuptial molt, and a female with no sign of a 'V' on the coverts is a juvenile or yearling before her first postnuptial molt. By measuring the longest bill spot on the upper mandible of each known-age female, it was possible to determine the age of some female teal. Because the spots fade during the breeding season, no lower size limit could be set to delineate first-year females at that time of year, but any nest-trapped hen with a spot longer than 10 mm was considered to be older than 1 year. Upper and lower limits were also established to distinguish some yearlings and 2-year-olds in the fall.

  20. Age determination of soft tissue hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayer, Bernhard; Hassler, Eva; Petrovic, Andreas; Widek, Thomas; Ogris, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2014-11-01

    In clinical forensic medicine, the estimation of the age of injuries such as externally visible subcutaneous hematomas is important for the reconstruction of violent events, particularly to include or exclude potential suspects. Since the estimation of the time of origin based on external inspection is unreliable, the aim of this study was to use contrast in MRI to develop an easy-to-use model for hematoma age estimation. In a longitudinal study, artificially created subcutaneous hematomas were repetitively imaged using MRI over a period of two weeks. The hemorrhages were created by injecting autologous blood into the subcutaneous tissue of the thigh in 20 healthy volunteers. For MRI, standard commercially available sequences, namely proton-density-weighted, T2 -weighted and inversion recovery sequences, were used. The hematomas' MRI data were analyzed regarding their contrast behavior using the most suitable sequences to derive a model allowing an objective estimation of the age of soft tissue hematomas. The Michelson contrast between hematoma and muscle in the proton-density-weighted sequence showed an exponentially decreasing behavior with a dynamic range of 0.6 and a maximum standard deviation of 0.1. The contrast of the inversion recovery sequences showed increasing characteristics and was hypointense for TI = 200ms and hyperintense for TI =1000ms. These sequences were used to create a contrast model. The cross-validation of the model finally yielded limits of agreement for hematoma age determination (corresponding to ±1.96 SD) of ±38.7h during the first three days and ±54 h for the entire investigation period. The developed model provides lookup tables which allow for the estimation of a hematoma's age given a single contrast measurement applicable by a radiologist or a forensic physician. This is a first step towards an accurate and objective dating method for subcutaneous hematomas, which will be particularly useful in child abuse. Copyright © 2014 John

  1. Seasonality and shift in age-specific malaria prevalence and incidence in Binko and Carrière villages close to the lake in Selingué, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, Mahamoudou; Sanogo, Daouda; Dembele, Soumaila; Diawara, Sory Ibrahima; Oppfeldt, Karen; Schiøler, Karin L; Haidara, Dade Ben; Traoré, Sékou F; Alifrangis, Michael; Konradsen, Flemming; Doumbia, Seydou

    2016-04-18

    Malaria transmission in Mali is seasonal and peaks at the end of the rainy season in October. This study assessed the seasonal variations in the epidemiology of malaria among children under 10 years of age living in two villages in Selingué: Carrière, located along the Sankarani River but distant from the hydroelectric dam, and Binko, near irrigated rice fields, close to the dam. The aim of this study was to provide baseline data, seasonal pattern and age distribution of malaria incidence in two sites situated close to a lake in Selingué. Geographically, Selingué area is located in the basin of Sakanrani and belongs to the district of Yanfolila in the third administrative region of Mali, Sikasso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in October 2010 (end of transmission season) and in July 2011 (beginning of transmission season) to determine the point prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemia, and anaemia among the children. Cumulative incidence of malaria per month was determined in a cohort of 549 children through active and passive case detection from November 2010 through October 2011. The number of clinical episodes per year was determined among the children in the cohort. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for malaria. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia varied significantly between villages with a strong seasonality in Carrière (52.0-18.9 % in October 2010 and July 2011, respectively) compared with Binko (29.8-23.8 % in October 2010 and July 2011, respectively). Children 6-9 years old were at least twice more likely to carry parasites than children up to 5 years old. For malaria incidence, 64.8-71.9 % of all children experienced at least one episode of clinical malaria in Binko and Carrière, respectively. The peak incidence was observed between August and October (end of the rainy season), but the incidence remained high until December. Surprisingly, the risk of clinical malaria was two- to nine-fold higher among

  2. L-malate enhances the gene expression of carried proteins and antioxidant enzymes in liver of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Wu, Q; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory reported L-malate as a free radical scavenger in aged rats. To investigate the antioxidant mechanism of L-malate in the mitochondria, we analyzed the change in gene expression of two malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS)-related carried proteins (AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier and OMC, oxoglutarate/malate carrier) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and three antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px) in the mitochondria. The changes in gene expression of these proteins and enzymes were examined by real-time RT-PCR in the heart and liver of aged rats treated with L-malate. L-malate was orally administered in rats continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. We found that the gene expression of OMC and GSH-Px mRNA in the liver increased by 39 % and 38 %, respectively, in the 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment group than that in the control group. The expression levels of SOD mRNA in the liver increased by 39 %, 56 %, and 78 % in the 0.105, 0.210, and 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment groups, respectively. No difference were observed in the expression levels of AGC, OMC, CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px mRNAs in the heart of rats between the L-malate treatment and control groups. These results predicted that L-malate may increase the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria by enhancing the expression of mRNAs involved in the MAS and the antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Radiation load in determining bone age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totsev, N.; Gylybova, V.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of the bone age in children is based on X-ray of the left wrist. By means of the dosimetric device 'Robotron 2300' it is shown that the average surface dose for single X-ray is about 49.10 5 Gy. The execution of single X-ray is well-grounded and the conditions for it are specified: blending of the object and shielding of the gonads and the whole body with a lead rubber as well as immobilizing of the hand with a specially made appliance. The risk of radiation injury during the study is practically negligible. Having in mind the significance of the problems which could be solved using the results of such a study, the benefit/harm relationship is in favour of broader use of the method. 12 refs., 1tab. described

  4. Determining the Relationship between Carrying School bags and Busculo skeletal Pains in 12-15 year old students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra Zamanian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: An increase in weight of school bags may lead to changes in body position. To compensate this stress, the musculoskeletal system must react appropriately. The purpose of the present study was to compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among children and identify the risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 800 secondary school children, aged 12 to 15 years, selected by cluster random sampling in four areas of Shiraz, Iran. The researcher instrument consisted of a questionnaire and body map for evaluating musculoskeletal pains. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. Results: The results revealed that 80.6% of the students had pain correlation with carrying the school bags. 40.8% experienced pain while carrying their school bags, 27.2% expressed continuous pain and 32% of them felt pain whenever they put off their bags. Conclusion: According to the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, the prevalence of pain in the shoulders had the highest rate which was similar to the results of several studies.

  5. Common diseases as determinants of menopausal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Mikael; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A

    2016-12-01

    .08-0.50) and 0.91 (0.85-0.98), respectively). None of the other diseases examined were significantly associated with ANM. Information from the questionnaire was self-reported, making recall possible, but it is unlikely that any bias was different in the strata of different factors considered. Misclassification could also have occurred in cases where the diagnoses of common diseases were close to age at last follow-up. In addition, observational studies cannot establish that the associations identified represent cause-and-effect relationships. Our study is the first in examining multiple common diseases simultaneously as determinants of ANM. Contrary to previous reports, we did not find any significant accelerating effect of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes on ANM. KARMA was financed by the Märit and Hans Rausing's Initiative Against Breast Cancer. K.R.W. is supported by the Swedish Society of Medicine and by Stockholm County Council. J.L. is a recipient of an Alex and Eva Wallström Foundation award. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik

    2000-03-01

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results

  7. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results.

  8. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassays carried out on solid and liquid substrates: assessing the factor "indicator microorganism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosiadis Ioannis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful application of growth inhibition techniques for quantitative determination of bacteriocins relies on the sensitivity of the applied indicator microorganism to the bacteriocin to which is exposed. However, information on indicator microorganisms' performance and comparisons in bacteriocin determination with bioassays is almost non-existing in the literature. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the parameter "indicator microorganism" in bioassays carried out on solid -agar diffusion assay- and liquid -turbidometric assay- substrates, applied in the quantification of the most studied bacteriocin nisin. Results The performance of characterized microorganisms of known sources, belonging to the genera of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Micrococcus and Leuconostoc, has been assessed in this work in the assays of plate agar diffusion and turbidometry. Dose responses and sensitivities were examined and compared over a range of assay variables in standard bacteriocin solutions, fermentation broth filtrates and processed food samples. Measurements on inhibition zones produced on agar plates were made by means of digital image analysis. The data produced were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA technique and pairwise comparisons tests. Sensitivity limits and linearity of responses to bacteriocin varied significantly among different test-microorganisms in both applied methods, the lower sensitivity limits depending on both the test-microorganism and the applied method. In both methods, however, only two of the nine tested microorganisms (Lactobacillus curvatus ATCC 51436 and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 25740 were sensitive to very low concentrations of the bacteriocin and produced a linear-type of response in all kinds of samples used in this work. In all cases, very low bacteriocin concentrations, e.g. 1 IU/ml nisin, were more accurately determined in the turbidometric assay. Conclusion The present work shows that in

  9. Determination of grasscutter age (Thryonomys swinderianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... but also in Ivory Coast and sixteen other countries in West and Central Africa Azéhoun-Pazou et al. 2004a ... sex. To our knowledge, on the evaluation of ano- genital distance, no publication is dedicated, to age ... This work.

  10. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  11. OSL Age Determination of the Hearths in a Bronze Age Dwelling Site by using Bayesian Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Jin [Neosiskorea Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hye Jin [Baekje Cultural Properties Research Institute, Gongju (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Duk Geun [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    OSL dating for three hearths having the sequence of use and discard in No. 29 and 29-1 dwelling sites at Sogol cultural site was carried out. Resulting from the deconvolution of natural CW-OSL decay curve and thermal zeroing test, it was turned out that OSL signal was entirely composed of the heat- and light-sensitive fast component with high photoionization cross-section and all quartz OSL signals were thermally bleached under 300 .deg. C which is the minimum temperature related to heating and cooking in Bronze age. After dose recovery test and plateau test, paleodose of each hearth sample was evaluated by using SAR method, and OSL age was determined from the ratio of paleodose to annual dose rate. For the purpose of the precision improvement of OSL age, Bayesian statistics was applied to each hearth's age and the archaeological sequence information. Finally, it could be concluded to the accurate use period of each hearth from the resultant OSL ages.

  12. OSL Age Determination of the Hearths in a Bronze Age Dwelling Site by using Bayesian Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Jin; Yang, Hye Jin; Hong, Duk Geun

    2011-01-01

    OSL dating for three hearths having the sequence of use and discard in No. 29 and 29-1 dwelling sites at Sogol cultural site was carried out. Resulting from the deconvolution of natural CW-OSL decay curve and thermal zeroing test, it was turned out that OSL signal was entirely composed of the heat- and light-sensitive fast component with high photoionization cross-section and all quartz OSL signals were thermally bleached under 300 .deg. C which is the minimum temperature related to heating and cooking in Bronze age. After dose recovery test and plateau test, paleodose of each hearth sample was evaluated by using SAR method, and OSL age was determined from the ratio of paleodose to annual dose rate. For the purpose of the precision improvement of OSL age, Bayesian statistics was applied to each hearth's age and the archaeological sequence information. Finally, it could be concluded to the accurate use period of each hearth from the resultant OSL ages

  13. Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; de Bruin, Karla G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2012-01-01

    Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time

  14. Determination of regulatory ionophore coccidiostat residues in feedstuffs at carry-over levels by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramenga, Arianna; Colagrande, Maria Novella; Campana, Guido; Scortichini, Giampiero; Migliorati, Giacomo; Compagnone, Dario

    2017-01-01

    In this study samples of feedstuffs were collected from different feed mills and animal farms located in central Italy and analyzed for ionophore coccidiostat residues at carry-over levels by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Since unavoidable cross-contamination of feedstuffs may occur during their production as well as distribution and storage, the collection of samples covered all these different stages. Residues of lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and maduramicin were detected in 32.4% of samples, both at production and storage level. The maximum content for unavoidable carry-over set by Regulation (EU) No 574/2011 was exceeded in 11.3% of samples. The variability of the results highlighted the different approach of each investigated feed business operator to avoid any cross-contamination in non-target feed. The method developed in this study can be able to detect ionophore coccidiostats at low concentrations consequent to carry-over. PMID:28792977

  15. Motor adaptation capacity as a function of age in carrying out a repetitive assembly task at imposed work paces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Martine Annie; Guélin, Jean-Charles; Desbrosses, Kévin; Wild, Pascal

    2017-10-01

    The working population is getting older. Workers must adapt to changing conditions to respond to the efforts required by the tasks they have to perform. In this laboratory-based study, we investigated the capacities of motor adaptation as a function of age and work pace. Two phases were identified in the task performed: a collection phase, involving dominant use of the lower limbs; and an assembly phase, involving bi-manual motor skills. Results showed that senior workers were mainly limited during the collection phase, whereas they had less difficulty completing the assembly phase. However, senior workers did increase the vertical force applied while assembling parts, whatever the work pace. In younger and middle-aged subjects, vertical force was increased only for the faster pace. Older workers could adapt to perform repetitive tasks under different time constraints, but adaptation required greater effort than for younger workers. These results point towards a higher risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among seniors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A non-invasive technique for age at death determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N; Thomsen, I; Frohlich, B

    1990-01-01

    by identification of one of the five phases. An exact age determination of a single individual was not possible, but could be approximated to within 20 years. In forensic cases, however, where the removal of soft tissue is not always possible, this method can contribute to the final age determination when used...

  17. Salmonella Typhimurium ST213 is associated with two types of IncA/C plasmids carrying multiple resistance determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Magdalena; Calva, Edmundo; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Cevallos, Miguel A; Campos, Freddy; Zaidi, Mussaret B; Silva, Claudia

    2011-01-11

    Salmonella Typhimurium ST213 was first detected in the Mexican Typhimurium population in 2001. It is associated with a multi-drug resistance phenotype and a plasmid-borne blaCMY-2 gene conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between the ST213 genotype and blaCMY-2 plasmids. The blaCMY-2 gene was carried by an IncA/C plasmid. ST213 strains lacking the blaCMY-2 gene carried a different IncA/C plasmid. PCR analysis of seven DNA regions distributed throughout the plasmids showed that these IncA/C plasmids were related, but the presence and absence of DNA stretches produced two divergent types I and II. A class 1 integron (dfrA12, orfF and aadA2) was detected in most of the type I plasmids. Type I contained all the plasmids carrying the blaCMY-2 gene and a subset of plasmids lacking blaCMY-2. Type II included all of the remaining blaCMY-2-negative plasmids. A sequence comparison of the seven DNA regions showed that both types were closely related to IncA/C plasmids found in Escherichia, Salmonella, Yersinia, Photobacterium, Vibrio and Aeromonas. Analysis of our Typhimurium strains showed that the region containing the blaCMY-2 gene is inserted between traA and traC as a single copy, like in the E. coli plasmid pAR060302. The floR allele was identical to that of Newport pSN254, suggesting a mosaic pattern of ancestry with plasmids from other Salmonella serovars and E. coli. Only one of the tested strains was able to conjugate the IncA/C plasmid at very low frequencies (10-7 to 10-9). The lack of conjugation ability of our IncA/C plasmids agrees with the clonal dissemination trend suggested by the chromosomal backgrounds and plasmid pattern associations. The ecological success of the newly emerging Typhimurium ST213 genotype in Mexico may be related to the carriage of IncA/C plasmids. We conclude that types I and II of IncA/C plasmids originated from a common ancestor and that the

  18. Method for the radioimmunological in-vitro determination of thyroxine and packed test kit to carry out this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    According to the invention a radioimmunoassay has been developed for the in-vitro determination of thyroxine in non-extracted blood serum. The radioactive thyroxine is labelled with iodine 125 or iodine 131. The corresponding antiserum contains special thyroxine antibodies. The immunogen to produce the antiserum contains a conjugate of the N-acetyl derivative of thyroxine compled to bovin serum albumin with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-amino-propyl)-carbodiimide. (VJ) [de

  19. Happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chiung; Chong, Young-Sook; An, Jeong Shin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan. The data were obtained from the 2011 Taiwan Social Change Survey (aged 18 +, n = 2,199). The social determinants of happiness included socioeconomic status and social connection. Happiness was not different across the age groups. Receiving less family support, less formal support, more social trust and more control over life were significant for the younger group. Being married and having more social participation were significant for the middle-aged. Receiving less family support and having a higher economic status were significant for the older group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Age determination in jackals ( Canis adustus Sundevall, 1846, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method of ageing based on relative pulp cavity width of canine teeth differentiated young adults (one year old) from mature adults, but was of no value in determining the age after one year. A method based on cementum incremental growth layers was of no value as the layers were irregular and did not correspond with ...

  1. Determinants Of Under Nutrition Among School Age Children In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. Objective: To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income ...

  2. Determination OF Economic Age OF Marketing Local | Ugwuene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the economic age of marketing for local broiler turkeys. The age groups used were 16, 20, 24 and 28 weeks. Three rations; turkey starter, grower and finisher were formulated. Eighty four poults were fed the three rations in the study which lasted 28 weeks. A Completely Randomised ...

  3. Age determination in the bush squirrel, Paraxerus cepapi cepapi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tooth eruption and wear, measurements of skulls, eye-lens mass determination and different aspects of phallic morphology were used in an attempt at age classification in the bush squirrel, Paraxerus c. cepapi. The first method proved the most practical and allowed for three immature and three adult age classes.

  4. DNA damage: A main determinant of vascular aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.K. Bautista-Niño (Paula); E. Portilla-Fernandez (Eliana); D.E. Vaughan (Douglas E.); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); A.J.M. Roks (Anton)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative

  5. Determination of current and rotational transform profiles in a current-carrying stellarator using soft x-ray emissivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Herfindal, J. L.; Howell, E. C.; Knowlton, S. F.; Maurer, D. A.; Traverso, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Collimated soft X-ray (SXR) emissivity measurements from multi-channel cameras on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) tokamak/torsatron device are incorporated in the 3D equilibrium reconstruction code V3FIT to reconstruct the shape of flux surfaces and infer the current distribution within the plasma. Equilibrium reconstructions of sawtoothing plasmas that use data from both SXR and external magnetic diagnostics show the central safety factor to be near unity under the assumption that SXR iso-emissivity contours lie on magnetic flux surfaces. The reconstruction results are consistent with those using the external magnetic data and a constraint on the location of q = 1 surfaces determined from the sawtooth inversion surface extracted from SXR brightness profiles. The agreement justifies the use of approximating SXR emission as a flux function in CTH, at least within the core of the plasma, subject to the spatial resolution of the SXR diagnostics. This improved reconstruction of the central current density indicates that the current profile peakedness decreases with increasing external transform and that the internal inductance is not a relevant measure of how peaked the current profile is in hybrid discharges.

  6. Age determination of bottom sediments from Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazumi; Nakamura, Toshio; Duller, Geoff; Hasebe, Noriko; Kashiwaya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Dating plays a key role in determining past environmental changes in lake sediments cores. The feldspar post-IR infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) procedure is one of the IRSL procedures and has a great potential to date older samples compared to quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). In this study, the post-IR IRSL (pIRIR) procedure was applied to the polymineral fine grained sediments from Lake Khuvsgul (Hovsgol), Mongolia, and these ages were compared to 14 C ages of bulk samples from the certain depths. The pIRIR ages are always younger than 14 C ages from bulk samples, however, it was possible to construct the suitable age model based on luminescence and 14 C ages. Therefore, pIRIR 225 protocol can be contributed to estimate the sedimentation age of lake sediments as well as 14 C dating. (author)

  7. Age at Death of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in subsequent family generation carrying the E200K mutation of the prion protein gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Pocchiari

    Full Text Available The E200K mutation of the prion protein gene (PRNP is the most frequent amino acid substitution in genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and is the only one responsible for the appearance of clustered cases in the world. In the Israel and Slovakian clusters, age of disease onset was reduced in successive generations but the absence of a clear molecular basis raised the possibility that this event was an observational bias. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible selection biases or confounding factors related to anticipation in E200K CJD patients belonging to a cluster in Southern Italy.Clinical and demographical data of 41 parent-offspring pairs from 19 pedigrees of the Italian cluster of E200K patients were collected. Age at death of parents was compared with age at death of E200K CJD offspring. Subgroup analyses were performed for controlling possible selection biases, confounding factors, or both.The mean age at death/last follow-up of the parent generation was 71.4 years while that of CJD offspring was 59.3 years with an estimated anticipation of 12.1 years. When the same analysis was performed including only parents with CJD or carrying the E200K mutation (n = 26, the difference between offspring and parents increased to 14.8 years.These results show that early age at death occurs in offspring of families carrying the E200K PRNP mutation and that this event is not linked to observational biases. Although molecular or environmental bases for this occurrence remain unsettled, this information is important for improving the accuracy of information to give to mutated carriers.

  8. Automated Determination of Bone Age in a Modern Chinese Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shao-Yan; Liu, Gang; Ma, Chen-Guo; Han, Yi-San; Shen, Xun-Zhang; Xu, Rui-Long; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objective. Large studies have previously been performed to set up a Chinese bone age reference, but it has been difficult to compare the maturation of Chinese children with populations elsewhere due to the potential variability between raters in different parts of the world. We re-analysed the radiographs from a large study of normal Chinese children using an automated bone age rating method to establish a Chinese bone age reference, and to compare the tempo of maturation in the Chinese with other populations. Materials and Methods. X-rays from 2883 boys and 3143 girls aged 2–20 years from five Chinese cities, taken in 2005, were evaluated using the BoneXpert automated method. Results. Chinese children reached full maturity at the same age as previously studied Asian children from Los Angeles, but 0.6 years earlier than Caucasian children in Los Angeles. The Greulich-Pyle bone age method was adapted to the Chinese population creating a new bone age scale BX-China05. The standard deviation between BX-China05 and chronologic age was 1.01 years in boys aged 8–14, and 1.08 years in girls aged 7–12. Conclusion. By eliminating rater variability, the automated method provides a reliable and efficient standard for bone age determination in China

  9. Model experiments for {sup 14}C water-age determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, I; Stahl, W; Geyh, M; Fauth, F [Bundesanstalt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1967-05-15

    The {sup 14}C age of water samples is calculated by assuming that fossil carbonate is dissolved by biogenic CO{sub 2} according to the equation x{sub 1} {center_dot} CaCO{sub 3} + (x{sub 1}+y{sub 1}) {center_dot} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O = 2x{sub 1} {center_dot} HCO{sub 3} + y{sub 1} {center_dot} CO{sub 2} where x and y are the number of moles of the two carbon components before and after the dissolution process. In a closed system the relation y{sub 1} = K(T) (x{sub 1}){sup 3} must be satisfied additionally. The equilibrium constant K(T), which depends on the temperature, controls the concentrations of free CO{sub 2} and HCO{sub 3}. To investigate the mechanism of the dissolution, laboratory experiments under controlled conditions were carried out. Non-radioactive CaCO{sub 3}, which had a {delta}{sup 13}C-value of +30 per mille, and radioactive CO{sub 2} with {delta}{sup 13}C = -22 per mille were used. The purpose of these investigations was to check the validity of theoretical assumptions regarding the average {sup 14}C-activity and the {delta}{sup 13}C-value of the total carbon which is dissolved as CO{sub 2} and HCO{sub 3}. Furthermore, it was investigated whether, within the duration of the experiment, a possible exchange takes place between the undissolved carbon present in the CaCO{sub 3} and that present in the HCO{sub 3}. The importance of this lies in the fact that the method of {sup 14}C age determination is based on the assumption that such an exchange does not take place. The experiments which have been performed up to now show that in case of the simple CaCO{sub 3} - CO{sub 2} system, which has been considered first, this assumption is not justified even for a constant water temperature. If variations in the water temperature occur during the history of the water sample, precipitation and redissolution processes influence the {sup 14}C- and {delta}{sup 13}C -values differently. This is due to isotopic fractionation processes between the HCO{sub 3} and CO

  10. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dziechciaż

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists’ assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  11. Age determination of subdural hematomas: survey among radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postema, F A M; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Majoie, C B L M; van Rijn, R R

    2014-08-01

    Abusive head trauma is a severe form of child abuse. One important diagnostic finding is the presence of a subdural hematoma. Age determination of subdural hematomas is important to relate radiological findings to the clinical history presented by the caregivers. In court this topic is relevant as dating subdural hematomas can lead to identification of a suspect. The aim of our study is to describe the current practice among radiologists in the Netherlands regarding the age determination of subdural hematomas in children. This is a cross-sectional study, describing the results of an online questionnaire regarding dating subdural hematomas among pediatric and neuro-radiologists in the Netherlands. The questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic questions, theoretical questions and eight pediatric cases in which the participants were asked to date subdural hematomas based on imaging findings. Fifty-one out of 172 radiologists (30 %) filled out the questionnaire. The percentage of participants that reported it was possible to date the subdural hematoma varied between 58 and 90 % for the eight different cases. In four of eight cases (50 %), the age of the subdural hematoma as known from clinical history fell within the range reported by the participants. None of the participants was "very certain" of their age determination. The results demonstrate that there is a considerable practice variation among Dutch radiologists regarding the age determination of subdural hematomas. This implicates that dating of subdural hematomas is not suitable to use in court, as no uniformity among experts exists.

  12. Determining optimum aging time using novel core flooding equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahkami, Mehrdad; Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Xiarchos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    the optimum aging time regardless of variations in crude oil, rock, and brine properties. State of the art core flooding equipment has been developed that can be used for consistently determining the resistivity of the coreplug during aging and waterflooding using advanced data acquisition software......New methods for enhanced oil recovery are typically developed using core flooding techniques. Establishing reservoir conditions is essential before the experimental campaign commences. The realistic oil-rock wettability can be obtained through optimum aging of the core. Aging time is affected....... In the proposed equipment, independent axial and sleeve pressure can be applied to mimic stresses at reservoir conditions. 10 coreplugs (four sandstones and six chalk samples) from the North Sea have been aged for more than 408 days in total and more than 29000 resistivity data points have been measured...

  13. Interleukin 28B gene variation at rs12979860 determines early viral kinetics during treatment in patients carrying genotypes 2 or 3 of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, Magnus; Lagging, Martin; Färkkilä, Martti

    2011-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms upstream of the interleukin 28B (interferon λ3) gene (IL28B) strongly influence treatment efficacy in patients carrying hepatitis C virus (HCV) of genotype 1. In patients receiving 12 or 24 weeks of interferon-ribavirin therapy for infection with genotype 2 or 3 (n...... = 341), we found that rs12979860 strikingly determined the first phase of viral elimination (P

  14. Age determination of Precambrian rocks from Greenland: past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsbeek, F.

    1997-01-01

    For Precambrian rocks as well as for younger igneous intrusions, precise ages can only be obtained by isotopic analysis of minerals or rocks. Isotopic (radiometric) age determination of Greenland rocks began in the early 1960s and has continued since with gradually improving methods. In this contribution, the development of geochronological knowledge of the Precambrian of Greenland is described in historical perspective, and an outline of new results is given. The history of geochronology can be roughly divided into three periods: 1) a period of single-sample K-Ar and Rb-Sr mineral or whole-rock age determinations; 2) a time when most ages were determined with the help of Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb whole-rock isochrones and multi-grain zircon U-Pb isotope data; 3) the present, where 'single' zircon U-Pb data are the preferred method to obtain rock ages. These stages in the development of radiometric dating methods partly overlap in time, and each has yielded very significant contributions to the knowledge of Precambiran evolution in Greenland. (EG)

  15. AGE DETERMINATION FROM PUBIC SYMPHYSEAL CHANGES- AN AUTOPSY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinesh Parambathettu Sasidharan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Biological identity is one of the first things to be established when analysing skeletal, badly decomposed or otherwise unidentified human remains. The determination of age at death is an important component of identity establishment. Pubic symphysis examination is one of the reliable methods of age estimation. We attempt to determine the age of deceased from pubic symphysis using Suchey-Brooks method and to find the accuracy of Suchey-Brooks method in our population. From among the cases brought for autopsy at Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, from 01/03/2012 to 28/02/2013, 316 cases were included in the study. Their pubic symphysis were harvested. Age determined using SucheyBrooks method and compared with their chronological age. The aim of the study is to- 1. Determine the age of deceased from pubic symphysis using Suchey-Brooks method. 2. Compare the age determined by Suchey-Brooks method and chronological age and find the accuracy of Suchey-Brooks method in our population. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Design- Descriptive study- Cross-sectional study, Centre of Study- Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Study Sample- From the cases brought for medicolegal postmortem examination in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, a sample of 316 cases were selected. To make the distribution among various age groups, even the total sample divided for the age group, which resulted in having 60 samples per age group. Age groups were considered as Group 1- Age between 18-25 years; Group 2- Age between 25-35 years; Group 3- Age between 35-45 years; Group 4- Age between 45-55 years; Group 5- Age between 55-65 years. Inclusion Criteria- 1. Cases with known age; 2. Cases whose age between 18 and 65 years. Exclusion Criteria- 1. Unknown cases; 2. Known cases with doubtful age; 3. Individuals having pubic bone trauma involving the

  16. Age determination of subdural hematomas: survey among radiologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, F. A. M.; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Majoie, C. B. L. M.; van Rijn, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Abusive head trauma is a severe form of child abuse. One important diagnostic finding is the presence of a subdural hematoma. Age determination of subdural hematomas is important to relate radiological findings to the clinical history presented by the caregivers. In court this topic is relevant as

  17. Growth, Age Determination and Longevity in the Giant African Snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth rates in terms of shell lengths were investigated in four subspecies of Archachatina marginata (Swainson) under culture conditions. Number of shell whorls, shell pigmentation and microsculpture were also studied to assess their usefulness in age determination. The snails displayed a sigmoid growth pattern, with ...

  18. Age determination in roe deer - a new approach to tooth wear evaluated on known age individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A novel, simple, and objective method is presented for ageing roe deer Capreolus capreolus (Linnaeus, 1758) evaluated on 471 lower jaws from roe deer of known age (351 with permanent premolars). It is based on tooth eruption patterns and presence/absence of wear characters in jaws from roe deer...... integrated in a scoring system. Permanent cheek teeth emerge in May-July in the year after birth, which enables precise age determination of individuals with deciduous premolars. For individuals with permanent cheek teeth, the method provides the correct age for all individuals younger than 13 months...... originate from two separated Danish roe deer populations exposed to contrasting habitats, but no difference in wear rate is found between populations. Thus, previous concern about the validity of age determination methods based on tooth wear may have been overstated. The findings demonstrate that objective...

  19. DETERMINING AGES OF APOGEE GIANTS WITH KNOWN DISTANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuillet, Diane K.; Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Bovy, Jo [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Girardi, Léo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); MacDonald, Nick [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Nidever, David L., E-mail: feuilldk@nmsu.edu [Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We present a sample of 705 local giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1 m telescope with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the local star formation history (SFH). The high-resolution (R ∼ 22,500), near infrared (1.51–1.7 μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 30%. For giants, the relatively rapid evolution up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained by the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass–age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the SFH prior, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of the model SFH using the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model show a clear age–[α/M] relation at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we determine ages for individual stars. The resulting age–metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ∼0.5 dex spread in metallicity across most ages. For stars with ages ≲1 Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars.

  20. Determinants of iron accumulation in the normal aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Gesierich, Benno; De Guio, François; Freudenberger, Paul; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Duchesnay, Edouard; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2016-07-01

    In a recent postmortem study, R2* relaxometry in gray matter (GM) of the brain has been validated as a noninvasive measure for iron content in brain tissue. Iron accumulation in the normal aging brain is a common finding and relates to brain maturation and degeneration. The goal of this study was to assess the determinants of iron accumulation during brain aging. The study cohort consisted of 314 healthy community-dwelling participants of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. Their age ranged from 38-82 years. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 3T and included R2* mapping, based on a 3D multi-echo gradient echo sequence. The median of R2* values was measured in all GM regions, which were segmented automatically using FreeSurfer. We investigated 25 possible determinants for cerebral iron deposition. These included demographics, brain volume, lifestyle factors, cerebrovascular risk factors, serum levels of iron, and single nucleotide polymorphisms related to iron regulating genes (rs1800562, rs3811647, rs1799945, and rs1049296). The body mass index (BMI) was significantly related to R2* in 15/32 analyzed brain regions with the strongest correlations found in the amygdala (p = 0.0091), medial temporal lobe (p = 0.0002), and hippocampus (p ≤ 0.0001). Further associations to R2* values were found in deep GM for age and smoking. No significant associations were found for gender, GM volume, serum levels of iron, or iron-associated genetic polymorphisms. In conclusion, besides age, the BMI and smoking are the only significant determinants of brain iron accumulation in normally aging subjects. Smoking relates to iron deposition in the basal ganglia, whereas higher BMI is associated with iron content in the neocortex following an Alzheimer-like distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants of Personality Traits of School-Age Children : Evidence from Japanese Students at Age 12

    OpenAIRE

    Hojo, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    It has been widely recognized among economists that non-cognitive ability, such as self-control, self-esteem, and personality traits, has a great power in predicting social and economic success. Using survey data from students at age 12 and their parents living in Japan, this paper explores the determinants of personality traits of school-age children. Personality traits are measured by students’ answers for questions concerning daily and school life, and we constructed five measures of perso...

  2. Age determination of paintings by 210Pb method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilot, E.; Apers, D.

    1977-01-01

    Often the 210 Pb method for age determination of paintings is inoperative because the initial 210 Pb activity of undated lead oxide cannot be determined. This difficulty could be removed if the ores could be identified from which the lead white was prepared. It would be possible to measure the initial 210 Pb activity directly in Pb ores or in identical Pb oxides from properly dated pictures. Some results show that Pb ores can be identified by the isotope ratios 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb. A systematic study of Pb ores and pigment isotopic composition is necessary. (author)

  3. Radiometic methods in geologic age determination. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, I.; Schoell, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is to furnish geoscientists with an overview of the common methods of radiometric age determination, their bases and spheres of application. The first chapters outline the theoretical basis of the procedure in readily understandable form. This presentation omits complicated mathematical derivations in favour of illustrative graphs. The application of the different methods and interpretation of the results are discussed with reference to practical examples. (orig./PW) [de

  4. Where's Your Phone? A Survey of Where Women Aged 15-40 Carry Their Smartphone and Related Risk Perception: A Survey and Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are now owned by most young adults in many countries. Installed applications regularly update while the phone is in standby. If it is kept near the body, this can lead to considerably higher exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation than occurred without internet access. Very little is known about current smartphone carrying habits of young women. This survey used an online questionnaire to ask about smartphone location under several circumstances to inform the power calculation for a women's health study. They were also asked about risk perceptions. Data was analysed using Pearson chi square. Three age categories were made: 15-20, 21-30, 31-40. Smartphones were generally kept on standby (96% by day, 83% at night). Of all participants, in the last week the most common locations of the phone when not in use or during passive use was off-body (86%), in the hand (58%), a skirt/trouser pocket (57%), or against the breast (15%). Pocket and near-the-breast storage were significant by age (χ215.04, p = 0.001 and χ210.96, p = 0.04, respectively), both positively influenced by the youngest group. The same influence lay in the association between holding the phone (χ211.082, p = 0.004) and pocket-storage (χ219.971, p<0.001) during passive use. For calls, 36.5% solely used the phone against the head. More than half kept the phone 20-50 cms from their head at night (53%), while 13% kept it closer than 20 cms. Many (36%) thought RF-EMR exposure was related to health problems while 16% did not. There was no relationship between thinking RF-EMR exposure causes health problems in general and carrying the phone against the upper or lower body (p = 0.69 and p = 0.212, respectively). However, calls with the phone against the head were positively related to perception of health risk (χ2 6.695, p = 0.035). Our findings can be used in the power calculation for a case-control study.

  5. Where's Your Phone? A Survey of Where Women Aged 15-40 Carry Their Smartphone and Related Risk Perception: A Survey and Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Redmayne

    Full Text Available Smartphones are now owned by most young adults in many countries. Installed applications regularly update while the phone is in standby. If it is kept near the body, this can lead to considerably higher exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation than occurred without internet access. Very little is known about current smartphone carrying habits of young women. This survey used an online questionnaire to ask about smartphone location under several circumstances to inform the power calculation for a women's health study. They were also asked about risk perceptions. Data was analysed using Pearson chi square. Three age categories were made: 15-20, 21-30, 31-40. Smartphones were generally kept on standby (96% by day, 83% at night. Of all participants, in the last week the most common locations of the phone when not in use or during passive use was off-body (86%, in the hand (58%, a skirt/trouser pocket (57%, or against the breast (15%. Pocket and near-the-breast storage were significant by age (χ215.04, p = 0.001 and χ210.96, p = 0.04, respectively, both positively influenced by the youngest group. The same influence lay in the association between holding the phone (χ211.082, p = 0.004 and pocket-storage (χ219.971, p<0.001 during passive use. For calls, 36.5% solely used the phone against the head. More than half kept the phone 20-50 cms from their head at night (53%, while 13% kept it closer than 20 cms. Many (36% thought RF-EMR exposure was related to health problems while 16% did not. There was no relationship between thinking RF-EMR exposure causes health problems in general and carrying the phone against the upper or lower body (p = 0.69 and p = 0.212, respectively. However, calls with the phone against the head were positively related to perception of health risk (χ2 6.695, p = 0.035. Our findings can be used in the power calculation for a case-control study.

  6. Where’s Your Phone? A Survey of Where Women Aged 15-40 Carry Their Smartphone and Related Risk Perception: A Survey and Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are now owned by most young adults in many countries. Installed applications regularly update while the phone is in standby. If it is kept near the body, this can lead to considerably higher exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation than occurred without internet access. Very little is known about current smartphone carrying habits of young women. This survey used an online questionnaire to ask about smartphone location under several circumstances to inform the power calculation for a women’s health study. They were also asked about risk perceptions. Data was analysed using Pearson chi square. Three age categories were made: 15–20, 21–30, 31–40. Smartphones were generally kept on standby (96% by day, 83% at night). Of all participants, in the last week the most common locations of the phone when not in use or during passive use was off-body (86%), in the hand (58%), a skirt/trouser pocket (57%), or against the breast (15%). Pocket and near-the-breast storage were significant by age (χ215.04, p = 0.001 and χ210.96, p = 0.04, respectively), both positively influenced by the youngest group. The same influence lay in the association between holding the phone (χ211.082, p = 0.004) and pocket-storage (χ219.971, pperception of health risk (χ2 6.695, p = 0.035). Our findings can be used in the power calculation for a case-control study. PMID:28060844

  7. Ion Sensor Properties of Fluorescent Schiff Bases Carrying Dipicolylamine Groups. A Simple Spectrofluorimetric Method to Determine Cu (II) in Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlı, Elvan; Mısır, Miraç Nedim; Alp, Hakan; Ak, Tuğba; Özbek, Nurhayat; Ocak, Ümmühan; Ocak, Miraç

    2017-09-01

    Four fluorescent Schiff bases carrying dipicolylamine groups were designed and synthesized to determine their ion sensor properties in partial aqueous solution. The corresponding amine compound and the aldehyde compounds such as 1-naphthaldehyde, 9-anthraldehyde, phenanthrene-9-carboxaldehyde and 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde were used to prepare the new Schiff bases. The influence of many metal cations and anions on the spectroscopic properties of the ligands was investigated in ethanol-water (1:1) by means of emission spectrometry. From the spectrofluorimetric titrations, the complexation stoichiometry and complex stability constants of the ligands with Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ and Hg 2+ ions were determined. The ligands did not interact with the anions. However, the Schiff base derived from phenanthrene-9-carboxaldehyde showed sensitivity for Cu 2+ among the tested metal ions. The phenanthrene-based Schiff base was used as analytical ligand for the simple and fast determination of Cu 2+ ion in water samples. A modified standard addition method was used to eliminate matrix effect. The linear range was from 0.3 mg/L to 3.8 μg/L. Detection and quantification limits were 0.14 and 0.43 mg/L, respectively. Maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) for copper in drinking water according to EPA is 1.3 mg/L. The proposed method has high sensitivity to determine copper in drinking waters.

  8. Platelet size and age determine platelet function independently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.B.; Jakubowski, J.A.; Quinn, P.G.; Deykin, D.; Valeri, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the interaction of platelet size and age in determining in vitro platelet function. Baboon megakaryocytes were labeled in vivo by the injection of 75Se-methionine. Blood was collected when the label was predominantly associated with younger platelets (day 2) and with older platelets (day 9). Size-dependent platelet subpopulations were prepared on both days by counterflow centrifugation. The reactivity of each platelet subpopulation was determined on both days by measuring thrombin-induced aggregation. Platelets were fixed after partial aggregation had occurred by the addition of EDTA/formalin. After removal of the aggregated platelets by differential centrifugation, the supernatant medium was assayed for remaining platelets and 75Se radioactivity. Comparing day 2 and day 9, no significant difference was seen in the rate of aggregation of a given subpopulation. However, aggregation was more rapid in the larger platelet fractions than in the smaller ones on both days. A greater percentage of the 75Se radioactivity appeared in the platelet aggregates on day 2 than on day 9. This effect was independent of platelet size, as it occurred to a similar extent in the unfractionated platelets and in each of the size-dependent platelet subpopulations. The data indicate that young platelets are more active than older platelets. This study demonstrates that size and age are both determinants of platelet function, but by independent mechanisms

  9. ESR and TL age determination of caliche nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezer, A.M. (Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)); Wieser, A.; Goeksu, H.Y.; Mueller, P.; Regulla, D.F. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz); Erol, O. (Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). School of Geography and Marine Sciences)

    1989-01-01

    Feasibility of dating caliche nodules by ESR and TL is investigated. For both methods the properties of the dating signal are described. Chemical composition as well as TL glow curves of caliches originating from different localities exhibit some differences. Due to the complexity of the TL glow curves, some samples required a special post-annealing procedure in order to resolve the main TL peak for age determination. Typical ESR calcite signals do not exist in caliche, therefore usefulness of the g=2.0040 ESR signal is studied. The results of TL and ESR ages are found to be compatible except for two samples. Possible causes of the discrepancy in these samples are discussed. It is shown that, with proper treatment of the radiation-induced signals, it was possible to date caliche formations older than 350 ka, which is not achievable with other methods like uranium series disequilibrium and/or radiocarbon dating. (author).

  10. ESR and TL age determination of caliche nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezer, A.M.; Wieser, A.; Goeksu, H.Y.; Mueller, P.; Regulla, D.F.; Erol, O.

    1989-01-01

    Feasibility of dating caliche nodules by ESR and TL is investigated. For both methods the properties of the dating signal are described. Chemical composition as well as TL glow curves of caliches originating from different localities exhibit some differences. Due to the complexity of the TL glow curves, some samples required a special post-annealing procedure in order to resolve the main TL peak for age determination. Typical ESR calcite signals do not exist in caliche, therefore usefulness of the g=2.0040 ESR signal is studied. The results of TL and ESR ages are found to be compatible except for two samples. Possible causes of the discrepancy in these samples are discussed. It is shown that, with proper treatment of the radiation-induced signals, it was possible to date caliche formations older than 350 ka, which is not achievable with other methods like uranium series disequilibrium and/or radiocarbon dating. (author)

  11. The effects of temperature and diet on age grading and population age structure determination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Wen C; Ballard, J William O

    2013-10-01

    The age structure of natural population is of interest in physiological, life history and ecological studies but it is often difficult to determine. One methodological problem is that samples may need to be invasively sampled preventing subsequent taxonomic curation. A second problem is that it can be very expensive to accurately determine the age structure of given population because large sample sizes are often necessary. In this study, we test the effects of temperature (17 °C, 23 °C and 26 °C) and diet (standard cornmeal and low calorie diet) on the accuracy of the non-invasive, inexpensive and high throughput near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to determine the age of Drosophila flies. Composite and simplified calibration models were developed for each sex. Independent sets for each temperature and diet treatments with flies not involved in calibration model were then used to validate the accuracy of the calibration models. The composite NIRS calibration model was generated by including flies reared under all temperatures and diets. This approach permits rapid age measurement and age structure determination in large population of flies as less than or equal to 9 days, or more than 9 days old with 85-97% and 64-99% accuracy, respectively. The simplified calibration models were generated by including flies reared at 23 °C on standard diet. Low accuracy rates were observed when simplified calibration models were used to identify (a) Drosophila reared at 17 °C and 26 °C and (b) 23 °C with low calorie diet. These results strongly suggest that appropriate calibration models need to be developed in the laboratory before this technique can be reliably used in field. These calibration models should include the major environmental variables that change across space and time in the particular natural population to be studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Uranium-lead age determinations on granitic rocks from the eastern Bushveld Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faurie, J.N.

    1978-08-01

    Uranium-lead age determinations were carried out on four types of granitic rocks from the eastern Bushveld Complex. The oldest rocks in the area are gneisses and felsites - 2604 plus minus 100 m.y. old - which form the centre of the Dennilton dome. The Rooiberg felsites could not be dated directly because of the absence of zircon, however a porphyritic granite sill, which shows intrusive relations with the Rooiberg felsites, was dated at 2090 plus minus 40 m.y., an age which can also be regarded as a minimum age for the Rooiberg felsites. No reliable age could be determined for the granophyres because of the large amount of lead-loss reflected in the zircon. The majority of zircons from these granophyres showed a peculiar hieroglyphic texture, a phenomena which has not yet been recorded in literature. The samples collected from the granites gave an age of 1950 plus minus 80 m.y. and thus form part of the Nebo Granite. Attempts have been made to obtain more concordant zircon ages throughout the present study. Although some success was achieved by analysing different size fractions of a zircon population, the non-magnetic fractions gave the most promising results [af

  13. Profile and determinants of successful aging in the Ibadan Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureje, Oye; Oladeji, Bibilola D; Abiona, Taiwo; Chatterji, Somnath

    2014-05-01

    To determine the profile and determinants of successful aging in a developing country characterized by low life expectancy and where successful agers may represent a unique group. Community-based cohort study. Eight contiguous states in the Yoruba-speaking region of Nigeria. A multistage clustered sampling of households was used to select a representative sample of individuals (N = 2,149) aged 65 and older at baseline. Nine hundred thirty were successfully followed for an average of 64 months between August 2003 and December 2009. Lifestyle and behavioral factors were assessed at baseline. Successful aging, defined using each of three models (absence of chronic health conditions, functional independence, and satisfaction with life), was assessed at follow-up. Between 16% and 75% of respondents could be classified as successful agers using one of the three models while 7.5% could be so classified using a combination of all the models. Correlations between the three models were small, ranging from 0.08 to 0.15. Different features predicted their outcomes, suggesting that they represent relatively independent trajectories of aging. Whichever model was used, more men than women tended to be classified as aging successfully. Men who aged successfully, using a combination of all the three models, were more likely never to have smoked (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 4.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.55-14.46) and to report, at baseline, having contacts with friends (aOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.0-18.76) or participating in community activities (aOR = 16.0, 95% CI = 1.23-204.40). In women, there was a nonlinear trend for younger age at baseline to predict this outcome. Modifiable social and lifestyle factors predicted successful aging in this population, suggesting that health promotion targeting behavior change may lead to tangible benefits for health and well-being in old age. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Determinants of developmental delay in infants aged 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slykerman, Rebecca F; Thompson, John M D; Clark, Phillipa M; Becroft, David M O; Robinson, Elizabeth; Pryor, Jan E; Wild, Chris J; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which demographic, maternal, obstetric and postnatal variables were associated with achievement of developmental milestones at the age of 12 months in term infants. Mothers and babies were enrolled in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study shortly after birth. All infants were full term (gestation >or= 37 weeks). Approximately half of the sample were small for gestational age (SGA = birthweight 10th percentile). A maternal interview was conducted soon after birth. Phase 2 of the study occurred 12 months later when mothers were sent a postal questionnaire requesting information about the child's health and development during the first year of life using the Denver Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire. Seven hundred and forty-four (85.4%) European mothers returned the postal questionnaire. SGA children were not at increased risk of developmental delay at 12 months of age. In a sample representative of New Zealand European children, after adjustment for the effects of potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.1 [95% CI 1.1, 4.0]), maternal smoking during the first year of life (OR = 1.9 [95% CI 1.0, 3.8]) and low levels of satisfaction with parenting (OR = 2.4 [95% CI 1.1, 5.2]) were associated with significantly increased risk of developmental delay. In the subgroup of SGA children, maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.9 [95% CI 1.4, 6.2]), high levels of stress associated with parenting (OR = 2.2 [95% CI 1.2, 4.0]), and low levels of satisfaction with parenting (OR = 4.3 [95% CI 1.3, 13.5]) were significantly associated with developmental delay after adjustment for the effects of potential confounders. In conclusion, maternal and postnatal factors were better predictors of developmental delay than demographic variables.

  15. Age determination and feeding habits of Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) in the northern Oman Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Afshari, M.; Valinassab, T.; Seifabadi, J.; Kamaly, E.

    2013-01-01

    Age determination and feeding habits of the Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus, was carried out in the northern Oman Sea (Chabahar area), based on 212 specimens collected between September 2009 and May 2010. The minimum and maximum fork length and body weight were measured as 145, 258 mm and 55.31, 288.12 g. The relationship between Body Weight (BW) and Fork Length (FL) for all individuals was estimated as BW= 0.0001×FL2.83 (r2 = 0.9425, n= 212). The Vacuity Index (VI) was 55.2% t...

  16. Methods for determination of the age of Pleistocene tephra, derived ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    five of our samples has yielded material with an apparent age similar to that expected for eruption D. These numerical ages, of ..... about the history of uptake of radioactive elements ...... Approach to Management of Water and Soil of the Purna.

  17. Determinants of undernutrition among women of reproductive age in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-01

    May 1, 2015 ... child undernutrition, millions of children and women of reproductive age still suffer from ... enough to resolve the issue unless the nutritional status of poor women is also well ..... women in the reproductive age group of India.

  18. Nongenetic Determinants of Age at Menarche: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Yermachenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The acceleration of pubertal development is an important medical and social problem, as it may result in increased morbidity and mortality in later life. This systematic review summarizes relevant data about nongenetic factors, which contribute to age at menarche (AAM, and suggests those which may be the most important. Methods. The available literature from 1980 till July 2013 was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Finally, 154 papers were selected for the analysis. Results. Environmental factors, which may affect AAM, vary in populations of different ethnicity. The prenatal, infancy, and early childhood periods are the most susceptible to these factors. Body weight, high animal protein intake, family stressors (e.g., single parenting, and physical activity seem to influence AAM in most populations. Conclusions. The data about influence of nongenetic factors on AAM are still inconsistent. The factors affecting prenatal and early childhood growth seem to have a larger effect on further sexual maturation. Further studies are needed in order to validate the association between other environmental determinants and AAM in different ethnical groups.

  19. Application of diagnostics to determine operational readiness of aged motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor current signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment

  20. Prevalence and Sociodemographic Determinants of Hypertension History among Women in Reproductive Age in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel H. Nyarko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension is a global health problem. Yet, studies on hypertension rarely focus on women in Ghana. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of hypertension history among Ghanaian women in reproductive age. Methods. This study used data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were carried out to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of hypertension history among the respondents. Results. The study found that the overall prevalence of hypertension history among the respondents was 7.5%; however, there were vast variations within most of the sociodemographic categories. Age, level of education, marital status, work status, and wealth status had a significant relationship with hypertension history among the respondents. Women in advanced age groups, highly educated, married, and widowed/divorced/separated, nonworking women, and women from wealthy households were at higher risk of having hypertension history. Conclusion. Myriads of sociodemographic factors determine the hypertension history of women in Ghana. It is therefore essential to target medical and psychosocial hypertension interventions at Ghanaian women in the higher risk groups.

  1. Aging, not age-associated inflammation, determines blood pressure and endothelial responses to acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Ranadive, Sushant M; Kappus, Rebecca M; Cook, Marc D; Phillips, Shane A; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-12-01

    Aging is characterized by a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation that impairs vascular function. Acute inflammation causes additional decrements in vascular function, but these responses are not uniform in older compared with younger adults. We sought to determine if older adults with low levels of baseline inflammation respond to acute inflammation in a manner similar to younger adults. We hypothesized age-related differences in the vascular responses to acute inflammation, but that older adults with low baseline inflammation would respond similarly to younger adults. Inflammation was induced with an influenza vaccine in 96 participants [older = 67 total, 38 with baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) > 1.5 mg/l and 29 with CRP < 1.5 mg/l; younger = 29]; serum inflammatory markers IL-6 and CRP, blood pressure and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were measured 24 and 48 h later. Younger adults increased IL-6 and CRP more than the collective older adult group and increased pulse pressure, whereas older adults decreased SBP and reduced pulse pressure. The entire cohort decreased FMD from 11.3 ± 0.8 to 8.3 ± 0.7 to 8.7 ± 0.7% in younger and from 5.8 ± 0.3 to 5.0 ± 0.4 to 4.7 ± 0.4% in older adults, P less than 0.05 for main effect. Older adult groups with differing baseline CRP had the same IL-6, blood pressure, and FMD response to acute inflammation, P less than 0.05 for all interactions, but the low-CRP group increased CRP at 24 and 48 h (from 0.5 ± 0.1 to 1.4 ± 0.2 to 1.7 ± 0.3 mg/l), whereas the high-CRP group did not (from 4.8 ± 0.5 to 5.4 ± 0.5 to 5.4 ± 0.6 mg/l), P less than 0.001 for interaction. Aging, not age-related chronic, low-grade inflammation, determines the vascular responses to acute inflammation.

  2. Nutrient Canals of the Alveolar Process as an Anatomical Feature for Age and Gender Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrient canals are anatomic structures of the alveolar bone through which neurovascular elements transit to supply teeth and supporting structures. Dental identification using nutrient canal of the mandibular alveolar process as the most compelling anatomic feature for antemortem–postmortem radiographic comparison can be potentially used in forensic identification. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the appearance of nutrient canals as a potential clue to age and gender determination. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients, 60 males and 60 females, were selected in the 11–60-year age group. Systemic disease, especially hypertension, was ruled out in the patients. Periapical radiographs were taken from mandibular anterior cuspid central incisor region because nutrient canals are commonly observed in this area. Data obtained was analyzed by SPSS software and various statistical analysis were carried out. Results: Study revealed nutrient canals to be commonly seen in females compared to males. Males had maximum canals in the age group of 21–30-year whereas females in the age group of 31–40 years had the maximum canals. Conclusion: Significant correlation was seen between the gender and nutrient canals whereas no significant correlation existed between the age and presence of nutrient canals.

  3. Evaluation rate of aging person based on determination of biological age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fil

    2015-01-01

    2Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland   Abstract The article considers the value of biological and passport age of student youth. In experiment participated 140 students aged 17-19 years. Calculated their biological age. Reviewed pace of aging of the body of students. Detected indexes that have the strongest relationship with indicators of biological age. The results compared with researchers of other regions of Ukraine.   Keywords: chronological (passport age, biological age, appropriate biological age, pulse blood pressure, rate of aging, static balancing, self-reported level of health.

  4. Seasonality and shift in age-specific malaria prevalence and incidence in Binko and Carrière villages close to the lake in Selingué, Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touré, Mahamoudou; Sanogo, Daouda; Dembele, Soumaila

    2016-01-01

    but distant from the hydroelectric dam, and Binko, near irrigated rice fields, close to the dam. The aim of this study was to provide baseline data, seasonal pattern and age distribution of malaria incidence in two sites situated close to a lake in Selingué. METHODS: Geographically, Selingué area is located...

  5. Absolute age determination of quaternary fault and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating results for the fault rocks suggest the occurrence of recurrent fault activity around 80-95 Ma, 70 Ma, 50 Ma, 30 Ma and 23 Ma along the Yangsan fault zone. The apparent K-Ar ages tend to be older than Rb-Sr ages, probably indicating the effect of excess radiogenic Ar, which will be furthur investigated by Ar-Ar method. The OSL SAR protocol using 220 .deg. C cut-heat yields reproducible and stratigraphically consistent OSL ages ranging from 71 ka to 48 ka for beach deposits of the marine terrace No 2. The apparent OSL ages for the marine terrace No 3 range from 92 ka to 61 ka. These ages constrain the minimum age of the platform considering the underestimation effect resulted from deposition underwater. Therefore we regard the formation age of the terrace No 3 as MIS(Marine Isotopic Stage) 5c or 5e. Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating results for the fault rocks suggest the occurrence of recurrent fault activity around 40 Ma, 30 Ma and 23 Ma along the Ulsan fault zone. Relatively young (< 10 Ma) fault activities are recognized in the Oesa, Janghangri and Wonwonsa sites.

  6. Age determination of trace plutonium using liquid scintillation counting and α-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Chang Zhiyuan; Zhao Yonggang; Li Jinghuai; Shu Fujun

    2010-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting combined with α-spectrometry through measuring 241 Pu/ 241 Am ratio to determine the age of trace Pu was studied. The technique was explored for the age determination of nanogram grade Pu sample on the basis of Pu/Am separation. The ages of two Pu samples-one with known and the other with unknown age were determined by the method. The determined age by the method is in agreement with the reference value. The established method for determining the age of trace Pu can be adopted in the verification activities of nuclear safeguards and nuclear arms control. (authors)

  7. Use of cervical vertebral maturation to determine skeletal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ricky W K; Alkhal, Hessa A; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method as an indicator of skeletal age in the circumpubertal period by correlating it to the hand-wrist method (HWM). Hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 400 Chinese subjects were randomly selected. Their ages were 10 to 15 years for girls and 12 to 17 years for boys, so they were within the circumpubertal period. Skeletal ages were assessed according to the CVM method and the HWM. The CVM was significantly correlated with HWM skeletal age (Spearman r = 0.9521 [boys] and 0.9408 [girls]). All patients in cervical vertebral stage 3 of the CVM corresponded to stages MP3-FG or MP3-G (around the peak of the growth spurt) in the HWM. The CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth during the circumpubertal period, providing information for timing of growth modification.

  8. Determination of lunar surface ages from crater frequency–size ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the images from Apollo missions have been calibrated from the lunar soil samples from Apollo and Luna landing sites (Head 1976; Neukum et al. 1975). ... Table 1 shows the ages as derived for the craters with errors. Mare Humorum is believed to be made up of six ring structures of 210, 340, 425, 570 and 1195km.

  9. Determinants of age at first marriage in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high unemployment rate and increased cost of living in the city had tended to delay the timing of family formation in Addis Ababa. However, educated women, though delayingtheir marriage for the purposes of pursuing their education goal, had a better chance of getting married. Keywords: Age, first marriage, delayed ...

  10. Quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry carried out at different dilutions of an extract. Key differences in the odor profiles of four high-quality Spanish aged red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, V; Aznar, M; López, R; Cacho, J

    2001-10-01

    Four Spanish aged red wines made in different wine-making areas have been extracted, and the extracts and their 1:5, 1:50, and 1:500 dilutions have been analyzed by a gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) approach in which three judges evaluated odor intensity on a four-point scale. Sixty-nine different odor regions were detected in the GC-O profiles of wines, 63 of which could be identified. GC-O data have been processed to calculate averaged flavor dilution factors (FD). Different ANOVA strategies have been further applied on FD and on intensity data to check for significant differences among wines and to assess the effects of dilution and the judge. Data show that FD and the average intensity of the odorants are strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.892). However, the measurement of intensity represents a quantitative advantage in terms of detecting differences. For some odorants, dilution exerts a critical role in the detection of differences. Significant differences among wines have been found in 30 of the 69 odorants detected in the experiment. Most of these differences are introduced by grape compounds such as methyl benzoate and terpenols, by compounds released by the wood, such as furfural, (Z)-whiskey lactone, Furaneol, 4-propylguaiacol, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, isoeugenol, and ethyl vanillate, by compounds formed by lactic acid bacteria, such as 2,3-butanedione and acetoine, or by compounds formed during the oxidative storage of wines, such as methional, sotolon, o-aminoacetophenone, and phenylacetic acid. The most important differences from a quantitative point of view are due to 2-methyl-3-mercaptofuran, 4-propylguaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and isoeugenol.

  11. Age determination of 15 old to intermediate-age small Magellanic cloud star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Geisler, D.; Leiton, R.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.; Grocholski, A. J.; Sarajedini, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible 'SMC cluster age gap'. Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ∼4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel and Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  12. The role of diabetes and aging in the determinism of hypertension and the related cerebrovascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Michele; Vacante, Marco; Frazzetto, Paola Mariangela; Motta, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies carried out on a large sample (3191 elderly and 640 centenarians) with identical criteria and applying the actual diagnostic standards, have evidenced a high, statistically significant prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) (18.84%) in the elderly, as compared to the centenarians (7.50%). This aspect is correlated with the major frequency of maturity onset diabetes in elderly (MODE), compared to the centenarians, correlated also to the mortality of diabetes mellitus (DM) of long duration. The DMT2 and the aging interact in the determinism of vascular alterations, i.e., of the hypertension, and related cardio-cerebrovascular complications. The most frequently occurring hypertension in both the elderly and centenarians was always the systolic-isolated one. The prevalence of hypertension and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was statistically significantly higher in diabetics, compared to the normoglycemic patients, in both the elderly and the centenarians. In addition, in a group of 914 elderly patients, being diabetics or normoglycemic at the start of the studies, but having neither AMI nor stroke at the baseline studies, after 5 years, these complications were more prevalent, significantly in statistical terms, in the diabetic subjects, compared to the normoglycemic ones. The increase of life-span causes an increase of the age when the aging phenomena appear, resulting in that the equal-age elderly people today are of better clinical conditions, compared to the previous periods. The increased life span with a consequent progressive aging of the population causes a worse general clinical state of the elderly population, characterized by polypathologies, frailty, and appearance of cognitive deficits or incapabilities for performing manual or instrumental activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Young patient's age determines pterygium recurrence after surgery.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... and degree of fleshiness, and laterality were compared between recurrent and no recurrent pterygia. ... was performed to determine the predictors of pterygium recurrence. Recurrence rates after surgery were compared between. CAT and LCAT. Results. ... obstruction of vision, disfigurement, or frequent.

  14. Social relations as determinant of onset of disability in aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether social relations are related to onset of disability among old people at 1.5 year follow-up and whether these relations vary by age and gender. The study is based on baseline and 1.5 year follow-up data on 1396 older non-disabled adults. Social...... relations were measured by questions about diversity in social relations, social participation, satisfaction with social relations and instrumental social support. Onset of disability was described as developing need of help in at least one of six mobility activities. The results showed that a large...

  15. Social relations as determinant of onset of disability in aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether social relations are related to onset of disability among old people at 1.5 year follow-up and whether these relations vary by age and gender. The study is based on baseline and 1.5 year follow-up data on 1396 older non-disabled adults. Social...... relations were measured by questions about diversity in social relations, social participation, satisfaction with social relations and instrumental social support. Onset of disability was described as developing need of help in at least one of six mobility activities. The results showed that a large...

  16. Age of menopause and determinants of menopause age: A PAN India survey by IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Ahuja

    2016-01-01

    Results: Average age of menopause of an Indian woman is 46.2 years much less than their Western counter parts (51 years. A definite rural and urban division was also seen. There was a correlation between the age of menopause and social and economic status, married status, and parity status.

  17. Experimental determination and chemical modelling of radiolytic processes at the spent fuel/water interface. Experiments carried out in carbonate solutions in absence and presence of chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Jordi; Cera, Esther; Grive, Mireia; Duro, Lara [Enviros Spain SL (Spain); Eriksen, Trygve [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2003-01-01

    We report on the recent experimental and modelling results of a research programme that started in 1995. The aim has been to understand the kinetic and thermodynamic processes that control the radiolytic generation of oxidants and reductants at the spent fuel water interface and their consequences for spent fuel matrix stability and radionuclide release. This has been done by carrying out well-controlled dissolution experiments of PWR Ringhals spent fuel fragments in an initially anoxic closed system and by using different solution compositions. Experimental series started with several tests carried out with deionised water as solvent, in a second phase experiments were conducted with 10 mM bicarbonate solutions. New experimental series were set up during the last two years by using the same bicarbonate content in solutions with varying NaCl concentrations in order to ascertain the role of this ligand on the radiolytic products and its consequence for radionuclide release. The selected NaCl concentrations are in the range of 0.1 to 10 mM. Experimental data shows that uranium dissolution at early contact times is controlled by the oxidation of the UO{sub 2} matrix. This process controls the co-dissolution of most of the analysed radionuclides, including Sr, Mo, Tc, Np and surprisingly enough, Cs. In the overall the release rates for U and the matrix associated radionuclides are in the range of 10{sup -6} moles/day with a clear decreasing trend with exposure time and after 2 years the initial release rates have decreased down to 3x10{sup -8} moles/day. The solubility of the released actinides appears to be limited by the formation of An(IV) hydroxide phases, although Np concentrations in solution did not reach solubility levels during the time intervals of the present tests. No secondary solid phase appears to control the solubility of the rest of the elements.

  18. Determinants of health and disability in ageing population: the COURAGE in Europe Project (collaborative research on ageing in Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Matilde; Chatterji, Somnath; Koskinen, Seppo; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Frisoni, Giovanni; Frattura, Lucilla; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Gmurek, Michal; Serrano, Ramon; Finocchiaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    COURAGE in Europe was a 3-year project involving 12 partners from four European countries and the World Health Organization. It was inspired by the pressing need to integrate international studies on disability and ageing in light of an innovative perspective based on a validated data-collection protocol. COURAGE in Europe Project collected data on the determinants of health and disability in an ageing population, with specific tools for the evaluation of the role of the built environment and social networks on health, disability, quality of life and well-being. The main survey was conducted by partners in Finland, Poland and Spain where the survey has been administered to a sample of 10,800 persons, which was completed in March 2012. The newly developed and validated COURAGE Protocol for Ageing Studies has proven to be a valid tool for collecting comparable data in ageing population, and the COURAGE in Europe Project has created valid and reliable scientific evidence, demonstrating cross-country comparability, for disability and ageing research and policy development. It is therefore recommended that future studies exploring determinants of health and disability in ageing use the COURAGE-derived methodology. COURAGE in Europe Project collected data on the determinants of health and disability in an ageing population, with specific tools for the evaluation of the role of built environment and social networks on health, disability quality of life and well-being. The COURAGE Protocol for Ageing Studies has proven to be a valid tool for collecting comparable data in the ageing population. The COURAGE in Europe Consortium recommends that future studies exploring determinants of health and disability in ageing use COURAGE-derived methodology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. AGE DETERMINATION OF SIX INTERMEDIATE-AGE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTERS WITH HST/ACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatt, Katharina; Kayser, Andrea; Grebel, Eva K.; Sabbi, Elena; Gallagher, John S. III; Harbeck, Daniel; Nota, Antonella; Sirianni, Marco; Clementini, Gisella; Tosi, Monica; Koch, Andreas; Da Costa, Gary

    2008-01-01

    We present a photometric analysis of the star clusters Lindsay 1, Kron 3, NGC 339, NGC 416, Lindsay 38, and NGC 419 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the F555W and F814W filters. Our color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend ∼3.5 mag deeper than the main-sequence turnoff points, deeper than any previous data. Cluster ages were derived using three different isochrone models: Padova, Teramo, and Dartmouth, which are all available in the ACS photometric system. Fitting observed ridgelines for each cluster, we provide a homogeneous and unique set of low-metallicity, single-age fiducial isochrones. The cluster CMDs are best approximated by the Dartmouth isochrones for all clusters, except for NGC 419 where the Padova isochrones provided the best fit. Using Dartmouth isochrones we derive ages of 7.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Lindsay 1), 6.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Kron 3), 6 ± 0.5 Gyr (NGC 339), 6 ± 0.5 Gyr (NGC 416), and 6.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Lindsay 38). The CMD of NGC 419 shows several main-sequence turnoffs, which belong to the cluster and to the SMC field. We thus derive an age range of 1.2-1.6 Gyr for NGC 419. We confirm that the SMC contains several intermediate-age populous star clusters with ages unlike those of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Milky Way. Interestingly, our intermediate-age star clusters have a metallicity spread of ∼0.6 dex, which demonstrates that the SMC does not have a smooth, monotonic age-metallicity relation. We find an indication for centrally-concentrated blue straggler star candidates in NGC 416, while these are not present for the other clusters. Using the red clump magnitudes, we find that the closest cluster, NGC 419 (∼50 kpc), and the farthest cluster, Lindsay 38 (∼67 kpc), have a relative distance of ∼17 kpc, which confirms the large depth of the SMC. The three oldest SMC clusters (NGC 121, Lindsay 1, and Kron 3) lie in the northwestern part of the SMC, while the youngest

  20. Lens aging in relation to nutritional determinants and possible risk factors for age-related cataract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Broekmans, W.M.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Poppel, G. van; Norren, D. van

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether nutritional factors and possible risk factors for cataract influence the lens optical density (LOD). Design: Three hundred seventy-six subjects, aged 18 to 75 years, were recruited. In a cross-sectional design, serum was analyzed for lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin C,

  1. Evaluation of the Applicability of Different Age Determination Methods for Estimating Age of the Endangered African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreangels M Mbizah

    Full Text Available African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus are endangered and their population continues to decline throughout their range. Given their conservation status, more research focused on their population dynamics, population growth and age specific mortality is needed and this requires reliable estimates of age and age of mortality. Various age determination methods from teeth and skull measurements have been applied in numerous studies and it is fundamental to test the validity of these methods and their applicability to different species. In this study we assessed the accuracy of estimating chronological age and age class of African wild dogs, from dental age measured by (i counting cementum annuli (ii pulp cavity/tooth width ratio, (iii tooth wear (measured by tooth crown height (iv tooth wear (measured by tooth crown width/crown height ratio (v tooth weight and (vi skull measurements (length, width and height. A sample of 29 African wild dog skulls, from opportunistically located carcasses was analysed. Linear and ordinal regression analysis was done to investigate the performance of each of the six age determination methods in predicting wild dog chronological age and age class. Counting cementum annuli was the most accurate method for estimating chronological age of wild dogs with a 79% predictive capacity, while pulp cavity/tooth width ratio was also a reliable method with a 68% predictive capacity. Counting cementum annuli and pulp cavity/tooth width ratio were again the most accurate methods for separating wild dogs into three age classes (6-24 months; 25-60 months and > 60 months, with a McFadden's Pseudo-R2 of 0.705 and 0.412 respectively. The use of the cementum annuli method is recommended when estimating age of wild dogs since it is the most reliable method. However, its use is limited as it requires tooth extraction and shipping, is time consuming and expensive, and is not applicable to living individuals. Pulp cavity/tooth width ratio is a

  2. Identification of osteocalcin as a permanent aging constituent of the bone matrix: basis for an accurate age at death determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, S; Turzynski, A; Schütz, H W; Hollmann, A; Rochholz, G

    1996-01-12

    Age at death determination based on aspartic acid racemization in dentin has been applied successfully in forensic odontology for several years now. An age-dependent accumulation of D-aspartic acid has also recently been demonstrated in bone osteocalcin, one of the most abundant noncollagenous proteins of the organic bone matrix. Evaluation of these initial data on in vivo racemization of aspartic acid in bone osteocalcin was taken a step further. After purification of osteocalcin from 53 skull bone specimens, the extent of aspartic acid racemization in this peptide was determined. The D-aspartic acid content of purified bone osteocalcin exhibited a very close relationship to age at death. This confirmed identification of bone osteocalcin as a permanent, 'aging' peptide of the organic bone matrix. Its D-aspartic acid content may be used as a measure of its age and hence that of the entire organism. The new biochemical approach to determination of age at death by analyzing bone is complex and demanding from a methodologic point of view, but appears to be superior in precision and reproducibility to most other methods applicable to bone.

  3. Optical Carry Adder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    AOM’s) with the deflected beam as the modulator "on" state. These AOM’s ( TeO2 crystals, manufactured by Newport E.O. Systems) have high deflection...caused by the slow acoustic propagation (4.2 - 105 cm/s for TeO2 ), but this delay can be minimized by placing the laser beam close to the acoustic...dependent jitter in the optical carry to below 1 ns, the total carry path must be less than 30 cm long (or 20 cm in glass , 14 cm in LiNbO 3). Thus, a 32

  4. 77 FR 4858 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century)'' AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION... to the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century). The referenced notice... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century...

  5. Age ratios and their possible use in determining autumn routes of passerine migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. John Ralph

    1981-01-01

    Age ratios and abundance of 61 migrant passerine species comprising more than 42,000 birds were analyzed in an attempt to determine patterns of migration. The data were collected at 10 stations from coastal Massachusetts to inland Pennsylvania. Age ratios are thought to be useful in determining routes of migration. The principal criteria for the edge of a species...

  6. Dental maturity of Saudi children: Role of ethnicity in age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdadi, Ziad D.

    2013-01-01

    Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffe's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one.

  7. Dental maturity of Saudi children: Role of ethnicity in age determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghdadi, Ziad D. [Dept. of Preventive Dentistry, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-12-15

    Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffe's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one.

  8. Soil Respiration at Different Stand Ages (5, 10, and 20/30 Years) in Coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) and Deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode) Plantations in a Sandstorm Source Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Fadong; Zhang, Wanjun

    2016-01-01

    respiration and its temperature sensitivity at three stand ages (5, 10, and 20 or 30 years) in two plantations of coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) and deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode) species using an automated chamber system in 2013 in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source area. Results showed...... that mean soil respiration in the 5-, 10-, and 20/30-year-old plantations was 3.37, 3.17, and 2.99 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. tabulaeformis and 2.92, 2.85, and 2.57 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. davidiana, respectively. Soil respiration decreased with stand age for both species. There was no significant difference in soil...... respiration between the two plantation species at ages 5 and 10 years (p > 0.05). Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, which ranged from 1.85–1.99 in P. tabulaeformis and 2.20–2.46 in P. davidiana plantations, was found to increase with stand age. Temperature sensitivity was also significantly higher...

  9. Soil Respiration at Different Stand Ages (5, 10, and 20/30 Years in Coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière and Deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode Plantations in a Sandstorm Source Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of stand age and forest type on soil respiration is crucial for predicting the potential of soil carbon sequestration. Thus far, however, there is no consensus regarding the variations in soil respiration caused by stand age and forest type. This study investigated soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity at three stand ages (5, 10, and 20 or 30 years in two plantations of coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière and deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode species using an automated chamber system in 2013 in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source area. Results showed that mean soil respiration in the 5-, 10-, and 20/30-year-old plantations was 3.37, 3.17, and 2.99 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. tabulaeformis and 2.92, 2.85, and 2.57 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. davidiana, respectively. Soil respiration decreased with stand age for both species. There was no significant difference in soil respiration between the two plantation species at ages 5 and 10 years (p > 0.05. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, which ranged from 1.85–1.99 in P. tabulaeformis and 2.20–2.46 in P. davidiana plantations, was found to increase with stand age. Temperature sensitivity was also significantly higher in P. davidiana plantations and when the soil water content was below 12.8%. Temperature sensitivity incorporated a combined response of soil respiration to soil temperature, soil water content, soil organic carbon, and fine root biomass and, thus, provided an ecological metric for comparing forest carbon dynamics of these species.

  10. Evaluating aging in cats: How to determine what is healthy and what is disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan; Center, Sharon; Daristotle, Leighann; Estrada, Amara H; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Horwitz, Debra F; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Lepine, Allan; Perea, Sally; Scherk, Margie; Shoveller, Anna K

    2016-07-01

    Many of the changes that occur with aging are not considered pathologic and do not negatively affect overall wellness or quality of life. Ruling out disease is essential, however, when attempting to determine whether an aged cat can be considered 'healthy'. A clear understanding of the normal and abnormal changes that are associated with aging in cats can help practitioners make decisions regarding medical management, feeding interventions and additional testing procedures for their aged patients. It can be difficult to determine if a cat is displaying changes that are appropriate for age. For example, healthy aged cats may have hematologic or serum biochemistry changes that differ from those of the general feline population. Assessment of behavioral health and cognitive changes, as well as auditory, olfactory and visual changes, can also be challenging in the aged patient. This is the second of two review articles in a Special Issue devoted to feline healthy aging. The goals of the project culminating in these publications included developing a working definition for healthy aging in feline patients and identifying clinical methods that can be used to accurately classify healthy aged cats. This second review proposes criteria for assessing 'healthy aged cats'. There is a paucity of research in feline aging. The authors draw on expert opinion and available data in both the cat and other species. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. [Determinants of active aging according to quality of life and gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte

    2015-07-01

    The scope of this study was to construct an indicator of active aging and assess its association with quality of life and possible determinants according to gender. The AGEQOL (Aging, Gender and Quality of Life) study was used to interview 2052 individuals aged 60 years and older residing in Sete Lagoas in the State of Minas Gerais. The association between active aging, quality of life and possible determinants was performed by multiple logistic regression with a 5% level of statistical significance separately for each gender. Most men were in the active aging group (58%), and 51.8% of women were in the normal aging group (p active aging. Women with higher incomes, who did not suffer falls and engaged in community participation, had a better chance of belonging to the active aging group. The conclusion drawn is that quality of life and participation in groups are the main determinants of active aging, and the other factors associated with active aging are different for each gender.

  12. Age at menarche and its socioeconomic determinants among female students in an urban area in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Serajul; Hussain, Md Altaf; Islam, Saimul; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Biswas, Tuhin; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the age at menarche and its socioeconomic determinants among urban female students (n=680) in Bangladesh. The mean age of the respondents was 14±1.43years. Majority of the respondents were unmarried (98.4%). The mean age at menarche was 11.6±3.6years, median 12years. Almost one-third (35.7%) of the participants had menarche at the age of 12years. There was no statistically significant difference between age at menarche before and after 12years with the socio-economic characteristics, except education (p=<0.001). In the multivariate model, only higher education was statistically significant predictor of age at menarche. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microscopic age determination of human skeletons including an unknown but calculable variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Johan Albert; Tkocz, Izabella; Kristensen, Gustav

    1994-01-01

    estimation, which includes the covariance matrix of four single equation residuals, improves the accuracy of age determination. The standard deviation, however, of age prediction remains 12.58 years. An experimental split of the data was made in order to demonstrate that the use of subgroups gives a false...

  14. 76 FR 60112 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7615] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century)'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of... included in the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from...

  15. Work characteristics and determinants of job satisfaction in four age groups: university employees' point of view.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.T.; Donders, N.C.G.M.; Bouwman-Brouwer, K.M.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate (a) differences in work characteristics and (b) determinants of job satisfaction among employees in different age groups. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire was filled in by 1,112 university employees, classified into four age groups. (a) Work characteristics were

  16. Physical Attractiveness, Age, and Sex as Determinants of Reactions to Resumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Kay, Janet P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical attractiveness, age, and sex were manipulated to determine their effect on the evaluation of 54 hypothetical applicants' resumes for three different jobs by 60 Master's in Business Administration students. Physical attractiveness favorably influenced the suitability ratings for all jobs; raters' sex and age were not significant but…

  17. The use of dental radiography in age determination: Concepts and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Hossein Mirhashemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available   The need to identify and determine the age of the unidentified dead person s or accident victims of natural disasters is clear. Also, some remedial measures in the field of orthodontics and pediatric dentistry depend on knowing the patient’s physiological age. Previous studies suggested that dental age have a good correlation with physiological age more than skeletal or o ther common methods of age determination. Among the various methods used to determine dental age , dental radiography provides wide facilities for clinicians. Being noninvasive and the ability of performing the technique on live subjects as well as simplicity and low cost and reliable results , have led researchers to investigate further on that . The formation and calcification process of teeth and changes during aging has been regarded by many, leading to introduce various methods in which the field. In this study, 36 related articles were achieved by searching PUBMED, Science Direct and Google Scholar resources and discussed. Provided what diversified means of determining age using dental radiographs is encouraged , it is recommended to be not restricted to use only one of the methods because the multilateral approach is more reliable.

  18. Age estimation of blood stains by hemoglobin derivative determination using reflectance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; Nadort, Annemarie; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Blood stains can be crucial in reconstructing crime events. However, no reliable methods are currently available to establish the age of a blood stain on the crime scene. We show that determining the fractions of three hemoglobin derivatives in a blood stain at various ages enables relating these

  19. Determining the age of CO2 Released From Mountain Birch Forest and Heath in Arctic Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, I. P.; Garnett, M. H.; Hopkins, D. W.; Sommerkorn, M.; Wookey, P. A.

    2008-12-01

    Nuclear weapons testing released a large amount of 14C into the atmosphere during the mid 20th Century. This radiocarbon pulse provides a tracer that can be used to determine the age of C released from plants and soils. Such information is critical for predicting how terrestrial C storage will respond to global change. If respired CO2 is mainly modern, then respiration and photosynthesis are tightly coupled. In contrast, if older C is being mineralized then there is more potential for climate change to induce C loss. We carried out one of the first studies to measure seasonal variations in the 14C content of CO2 released from arctic ecosystems. Using molecular sieves, we trapped CO2 respired from a mountain birch forest and heath near Abisko, northern Sweden and measured 14C contents by accelerator mass spectrometry. CO2 was collected from both vegetated plots (control) and clipped and trenched plots (CT) on three occasions during the 2007 growing season. In addition, we used a new passive sampling technique to collect CO2 from the CT plots during winter 2007-2008. Assuming that the respired C was derived from post bomb sources (justifiable as the majority of each soil profile was enriched with bomb C), we estimated the age of the CO2 and how it changed during the year in response to changes in plant activity and key environmental drivers. On the heath, the mean age of the CO2 respired from the control plots increased from 4 to 6 years old during the growing season. The CO2 respired from the CT plots increased from 5 years old in early June to 11 years old by July, but then declined to 8 years old in September. The C released during winter was also 8 years old. In the Birch forest, the mean age of CO2 respired from the CT plots increased from 4 years old in late May to 8-9 years old during July and September. However, during winter, the CO2 released was >10 years old. In the control plots, the age of respired CO2 increased from being 1 year old in late May to 6

  20. Determination of gestational age by ultrasonography - wrong, wrong and wrong again?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratlid, D.

    1991-01-01

    The article is a critical review of principal weaknesses in the current use of ultrasonography for determination of gestational age and discusses the fact that the method in its practical use disregards any biological variation in biparietal diameter. It is concluded that second trimester determination of gestational age by ultrasonography has an accuracy no greater than ±1.5 weeks. This is comparable to the accuracy of the clinical assessment of maturation in the newborn baby. Ultrasonography as the main indicator of gestational age should be used only when the pregnant woman's own menstrual history is obviously incorrect. 6 refs., 1 fig

  1. Achievement report on research and development of medical and welfare equipment technology. Meal delivery robot for carrying food trays to aged and disabled persons; Iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Koreisha shogaishayo shokuji hanso jido robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Research and development of a mobile robot is carried out, who steers the meal distribution wagon, serves the meal at the bedside of aged or disabled people, retrieves the dishes when the meal is over, and then carry them back. The conditions discussed in the study for the robot to simultaneously satisfy are mentioned below. It should be of the size and weight fit for the job, avoid obstacles while travelling automatically and safely, behave at a safe and proper rate not jeopardizing the patient during the feeding process, communicate with the patient through picture and voice, and capable of acting without causing people to find in it anything overbearing or wrongful. The project began with the concept design process, which was followed by the basic design process, tentative manufacture of parts, tentative manufacture of components, and finally the construction of the whole. The developed robot system, after passing functional tests conducted in a mockup facility, experiences some period of tentative employment at three medical and welfare facilities. It is then confirmed that it safely performs a series of acts including meal serving and dish retrieving and that it is excellent in terms of autonomous self-control, safety, friendliness, and work efficiency. (NEDO)

  2. Clinical significance of combined determination of serum BGP, PTH, CT in aged osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Limin; Chen Kejing; Gu Weiguang; Zhu Weimin; Wang Hongfu

    1997-01-01

    Using radioimmunoassay to determine serum BGP, PTH and CT, the author showed that there are various changes of level of BGP, PTH, CT with respect to osteoporosis of different etiology. It suggested that the combined determination has certain reference value in clinical diagnosis, disease staging and treatment of the aged osteoporosis

  3. Utility of telomere length measurements for age determination of humpback whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tange Olsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the applicability of telomere length measurements by quantitative PCR as a tool for minimally invasive age determination of free-ranging cetaceans. We analysed telomere length in skin samples from 28 North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, ranging from 0 to 26 years of age. The results suggested a significant correlation between telomere length and age in humpback whales. However, telomere length was highly variable among individuals of similar age, suggesting that telomere length measured by quantitative PCR is an imprecise determinant of age in humpback whales. The observed variation in individual telomere length was found to be a function of both experimental and biological variability, with the latter perhaps reflecting patterns of inheritance, resource allocation trade-offs, and stochasticity of the marine environment.

  4. Radiometric age determination on some granitic rocks in the Hida Range, central Japan. Remarkable age difference across a fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    1999-01-01

    K-Ar and zircon fission-track dating was carried out on some granitic rocks in the Hida Range, central Japan. The samples analyzed were collected on both sides of one of the major faults in the Hida Range: the Kurobe-Takase fracture zone. Ages obtained west of the fault are ∼60 Ma, while those obtained to the east of the fault are less than ∼5 Ma. These results indicate a remarkable age difference across the fault. The Okukurobe granite, located west of the fault, cooled rapidly from ∼600degC to ∼240degC between 60-55 Ma, and the Kanazawa granodiorite, located east of the fault, cooled rapidly from ∼600degC to ∼240degC between 5-1 Ma. The Okukurobe granite has remained cooler than ∼240degC since ∼55 Ma. Thus, it was found that the granitic rocks across the fault have experienced a remarkable different cooling history. (author)

  5. NF-κB Immunity in the Brain Determines Fly Lifespan in Healthy Aging and Age-Related Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounatidis, Ilias; Chtarbanova, Stanislava; Cao, Yang; Hayne, Margaret; Jayanth, Dhruv; Ganetzky, Barry; Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2017-04-25

    During aging, innate immunity progresses to a chronically active state. However, what distinguishes those that "age well" from those developing age-related neurological conditions is unclear. We used Drosophila to explore the cost of immunity in the aging brain. We show that mutations in intracellular negative regulators of the IMD/NF-κB pathway predisposed flies to toxic levels of antimicrobial peptides, resulting in early locomotor defects, extensive neurodegeneration, and reduced lifespan. These phenotypes were rescued when immunity was suppressed in glia. In healthy flies, suppressing immunity in glial cells resulted in increased adipokinetic hormonal signaling with high nutrient levels in later life and an extension of active lifespan. Thus, when levels of IMD/NF-κB deviate from normal, two mechanisms are at play: lower levels derepress an immune-endocrine axis, which mobilizes nutrients, leading to lifespan extension, whereas higher levels increase antimicrobial peptides, causing neurodegeneration. Immunity in the fly brain is therefore a key lifespan determinant. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. NF-κB Immunity in the Brain Determines Fly Lifespan in Healthy Aging and Age-Related Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Kounatidis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During aging, innate immunity progresses to a chronically active state. However, what distinguishes those that “age well” from those developing age-related neurological conditions is unclear. We used Drosophila to explore the cost of immunity in the aging brain. We show that mutations in intracellular negative regulators of the IMD/NF-κB pathway predisposed flies to toxic levels of antimicrobial peptides, resulting in early locomotor defects, extensive neurodegeneration, and reduced lifespan. These phenotypes were rescued when immunity was suppressed in glia. In healthy flies, suppressing immunity in glial cells resulted in increased adipokinetic hormonal signaling with high nutrient levels in later life and an extension of active lifespan. Thus, when levels of IMD/NF-κB deviate from normal, two mechanisms are at play: lower levels derepress an immune-endocrine axis, which mobilizes nutrients, leading to lifespan extension, whereas higher levels increase antimicrobial peptides, causing neurodegeneration. Immunity in the fly brain is therefore a key lifespan determinant.

  7. Age determination of marine sediments in the western North Pacific by aspartic acid chronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Naomi; Kusakabe, Masashi; Handa, Nobuhiko; Oba, Tadamichi; Matsuoka, Hiromi; Kimoto, Katsunori.

    1997-01-01

    The ages of fossil planktonic foraminifera, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, in sediments (core 3bPC) from the western North Pacific were determined by aspartic acid chronology, which uses the racemization reaction rate constant of aspartic acid (k Asp ). Aspartic acid racemization-based ages (Asp ages) ranged from 7,600 yrBP at the surface, to 307,000 yrBP at a depth of 352.9 cm in the sediments. This sediment core was also dated by the glacial-interglacial fluctuation of σ 18 O chronology, and the ages determined by both chronologies were compared. The ages derived from aspartic acid chronology and σ 18 O stratigraphy were more or less consistent, but there appeared to be some differences in age estimates between these two dating methods at some depths within the core. In the core top sediments, the likely cause for the age discrepancy could be the loss of the surface sediment during sampling of the core. At depths of 66.3 and 139 cm within the core, Asp ages indicated reduced sedimentation rates during ca. 60,000-80,000 yrBP and ca. 140,000-190,000 yrBP. The maximum age differences in both chronologies are 33,000 yr and 46,600 yr during each of these periods. These anomalous reductions in sedimentation rates occurring during these periods could possibly be related to some geological events, such as an increased dissolution effect of the calcium carbonate in the western North Pacific. Another possible reason for these age differences could be the unreliability in σ 18 O ages of core 3bPC as they were estimated by σ 18 O ages of another core, 3aPC. (author)

  8. Development changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in Chrysomya rufifacies larvae: potential for determining larval age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G H; Ye, G Y; Hu, C; Xu, X H; Li, K

    2006-12-01

    Age determination is the basis of determining the postmortem interval using necrophagous fly larvae. To explore the potential of using cuticular hydrocarbons for determining the ages of fly larvae, changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in developing larvae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were investigated using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study showed that the larvae produced cuticular hydrocarbons typical of insects. Most of the hydrocarbons identified were alkanes with the carbon chain length of 21-31, plus six kinds of alkenes. The hydrocarbon composition of the larvae correlated with age. The statistical results showed that simple peak ratios of n-C29 divided by another eight selected peaks increased significantly with age; their relationships with age could be modelled using exponential or power functions with R(2) close to or > 0.80. These results suggest that cuticular hydrocarbon composition is a useful indicator for determining the age of larval C. rufifacies, especially for post-feeding larvae, which are difficult to differentiate by morphology.

  9. Age determination by teeth examination: a comparison between different morphologic and quantitative analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amariti, M L; Restori, M; De Ferrari, F; Paganelli, C; Faglia, R; Legnani, G

    1999-06-01

    Age determination by teeth examination is one of the main means of determining personal identification. Current studies have suggested different techniques for determining the age of a subject by means of the analysis of microscopic and macroscopic structural modifications of the tooth with ageing. The histological approach is useful among the various methodologies utilized for this purpose. It is still unclear as to what is the best technique, as almost all the authors suggest the use of the approach they themselves have tested. In the present study, age determination by means of microscopic techniques has been based on the quantitative analysis of three parameters, all well recognized in specialized literature: 1. dentinal tubules density/sclerosis 2. tooth translucency 3. analysis of the cementum thickness. After a description of the three methodologies (with automatic image processing of the dentinal sclerosis utilizing an appropriate computer program developed by the authors) the results obtained on cases using the three different approaches are presented, and the merits and failings of each technique are identified with the intention of identifying the one offering the least degree of error in age determination.

  10. Factors determining access to oral health services among children aged less than 12 years in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azañedo, Diego; Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Casas-Bendezú, Mixsi; Gutiérrez, César; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Cortés, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding problems of access to oral health services requires knowledge of factors that determine access. This study aimed to evaluate factors that determine access to oral health services among children aged Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar - ENDES). Children's access to oral health services within the previous 6 months was used as the dependent variable (i.e. Yes/No), and the Andersen and col model was used to select independent variables. Predisposing (e.g., language spoken by  tutor or guardian, wealth level, caregivers' educational level, area of residence, natural region of residence, age, and sex) and enabling factors (e.g. type of health insurance) were considered. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and multivariate analysis was performed using generalized linear models (Poisson family). Results: Of all the children, 51% were males, 56% were aged oral health services among children aged oral health services.

  11. An analysis of vascular surgery in elderly patients to determine whether age affects treatment strategy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of arterial disease increases with age. Increasing life expectancy in the western world will intensify demands on vascular surgeons with regard to increasing caseload, expanding patient selection criteria, and more complex and minimally-invasive treatment options. We analysed our arterial cases over the past 31 years (n = 6,144) and compared our methods of intervention and complication rates in the elderly population (>75) with the younger cohort, in order to determine whether age should influence our management strategies.

  12. Determination of timescales of nitrate contamination by groundwater age models in a complex aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, E. H.; Lee, E.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K. K.; Green, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Timing and magnitudes of nitrate contamination are determined by various factors like contaminant loading, recharge characteristics and geologic system. Information of an elapsed time since recharged water traveling to a certain outlet location, which is defined as groundwater age, can provide indirect interpretation related to the hydrologic characteristics of the aquifer system. There are three major methods (apparent ages, lumped parameter model, and numerical model) to date groundwater ages, which differently characterize groundwater mixing resulted by various groundwater flow pathways in a heterogeneous aquifer system. Therefore, in this study, we compared the three age models in a complex aquifer system by using observed age tracer data and reconstructed history of nitrate contamination by long-term source loading. The 3H-3He and CFC-12 apparent ages, which did not consider the groundwater mixing, estimated the most delayed response time and a highest period of the nitrate loading had not reached yet. However, the lumped parameter model could generate more recent loading response than the apparent ages and the peak loading period influenced the water quality. The numerical model could delineate various groundwater mixing components and its different impacts on nitrate dynamics in the complex aquifer system. The different age estimation methods lead to variations in the estimated contaminant loading history, in which the discrepancy in the age estimation was dominantly observed in the complex aquifer system.

  13. Recent understanding of the Svalbard basement in the light of new radiometric age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Several tectonothermal events in the pre-Carboniferous basement of Svalbard during Caledonian and Proterozoic times have been dated recently by radiometric age determinations. Three or four stages have been recognized in the Caledonian period; a post-orogentic graben formation during the Devonian, a late Caledonian event in the Middle Silurian, an earely Caledonian event in the Middle Ordovician and possibly an earliest event in the Middle to Late Cambrian. The Grenvillian event, 950-1270 Ma, has been well established by both radiometric ages and unconformities in Nordaustlandet and southwestern Spitsbergen. Sveco-Karelian ages, 1670-1750 Ma, also have been obtained from Ny Friesland, northerneastern Spitsbergen. Two even older ages (zircon U-Pb) upper intercept ages), 2.1 and 3.2 Ga, may suggest the presence of still older crust in Svalbard and adjacent areas. 40 refs., 2 figs

  14. Age determination of ground-waters by means of carbon 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, L.

    1982-02-01

    At present the age determination of ground-waters aged between 1,500 and approximately 40,000 years is only possible by measuring their 14 C content. A precise age assignment can be established in slightly mineralised waters, whereas it becomes vague in mineralised waters, particularly in acidulous springs. In general, additional information and data are required about the 13 C, D, 18 O, 3 H, 85 Kr and the 39 Ar contents, about the ph value, temperature and the principal ions. (DG) [de

  15. Determination of bone age in adolescents and in subjects in the third decade of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willich, E.

    1986-05-01

    The determination of bone age of hand and wrist focussing primarily on bone centre development is limited to childhood and during this period has diagnostic significance as well as therapeutic consequences. At puberty the fusion of epiphyseal growth plates is more important: it reflects the termination of growth and the biological stage of development. An extension of knowledge can be obtained by correlating age beyond 18 years into the third decade of life. This allows sex determination and reflects maturation processes trough the appearance and fusion of the apophyses of the iliac crest and the ischial bone. The indications are mainly forensic and for an individual's identification.

  16. Determination of bone age in adolescents and in subjects in the third decade of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willich, E.

    1986-01-01

    The determination of bone age of hand and wrist focussing primarily on bone centre development is limited to childhood and during this period has diagnostic significance as well as therapeutic consequences. At puberty the fusion of epiphyseal growth plates is more important: it reflects the termination of growth and the biological stage of development. An extension of knowledge can be obtained by correlating age beyond 18 years into the third decade of life. This allows sex determination and reflects maturation processes trough the appearance and fusion of the apophyses of the iliac crest and the ischial bone. The indications are mainly forensic and for an individual's identification. (orig.)

  17. Interaction between age and aerobic fitness in determining heart rate dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNarry, M A; Lewis, M J

    2012-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) and phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) estimates of heart rate dynamics are diminished in older people compared with younger people. However, it is not fully elucidated whether these differences are related to age per se or to the concomitant influence of aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen uptake, gas exchange threshold, oxygen uptake kinetics, exercise economy) was assessed in 70 healthy adults (41 male) aged 18–57 years. Participants also underwent a 24 h, ambulatory ECG for the derivation of HRV and PRSA variables. HRV was most sensitive to age and aerobic fitness when measured during the morning period (6 am–12 pm). HRV and PRSA were both diminished with age and were higher in aerobically superior participants. The decline in HRV with age was predominantly attributable to age itself (33%), with aerobic fitness representing an additional modulating factor. The present study also provides tentative evidence that assessment of the influence of aerobic fitness should not rely on .VO 2peak alone. These findings demonstrate that age per se is an important factor in determining HRV. However, given the clinical importance of diminished HRV and the immutable nature of aging, the potential significance of physical activity/training to enhance cardiac regulatory function should not be underestimated. (paper)

  18. Determination of Age-Dependent Reference Ranges for Coagulation Tests Performed Using Destiny Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Fatma Demet; Serdar, Muhittin; Merve Ari, Elif; Onur Oztan, Mustafa; Hikmet Kozcu, Sureyya; Tarhan, Huseyin; Cakmak, Ozgur; Zeytinli, Merve; Yasar Ellidag, Hamit

    2016-06-01

    In order to apply the right treatment for hemostatic disorders in pediatric patients, laboratory data should be interpreted with age-appropriate reference ranges. The purpose of this study was to determining age-dependent reference range values for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen tests, and D-dimer tests. A total of 320 volunteers were included in the study with the following ages: 1 month - 1 year (n = 52), 2 - 5 years (n = 50), 6 - 10 years (n = 48), 11 - 17 years (n = 38), and 18 - 65 years (n = 132). Each volunteer completed a survey to exclude hemostatic system disorder. Using a nonparametric method, the lower and upper limits, including 95% distribution and 90% confidence intervals, were calculated. No statistically significant differences were found between PT and aPTT values in the groups consisting of children. Thus, the reference ranges were separated into child and adult age groups. PT and aPTT values were significantly higher in the children than in the adults. Fibrinogen values in the 6 - 10 age group and the adult age group were significantly higher than in the other groups. D-dimer levels were significantly lower in those aged 2 - 17; thus, a separate reference range was established. These results support other findings related to developmental hemostasis, confirming that adult and pediatric age groups should be evaluated using different reference ranges.

  19. Validation of band counts in eyestalks for the determination of age of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf Kilada

    Full Text Available Using known-age Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba grown from eggs hatched at two different laboratories, we validate the annual pattern of bands deposited in the eyestalks of krill and determine the absolute age of these animals. Ages two through five years were validated, and these animals ranged from 37.1 to 62.6 mm in total length. The band counts in these individuals were either identical to their absolute ages, or only failed to agree by a few months, which demonstrates the accuracy of this method. Precision and bias were estimated graphically using Chang's index (Coefficient of Variation = 5.03%. High accuracy and precision between readers and low ageing bias indicate that longitudinal sections of eyestalks can be used to age krill in wild samples and to develop age-based stock assessment models for krill. Archival samples preserved in formalin (5% and stored in ambient conditions were also readable. Ageing preserved krill will provide the opportunity to examine changes in growth among krill populations within the Southern Ocean and to retrospectively examine changes in krill production over the last century to better understand the historical and future impacts of climate change on this critical Southern Ocean species.

  20. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  1. Overlap between age-at-onset and disease-progression determinants in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N Ahmad; van der Burg, Jorien M M; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard

    2018-05-09

    A fundamental but still unresolved issue regarding Huntington disease (HD) pathogenesis is whether the factors that determine age at onset are the same as those that govern disease progression. Because elucidation of this issue is crucial for the development as well as optimal timing of administration of novel disease-modifying therapies, we aimed to assess the extent of overlap between age-at-onset and disease-progression determinants in HD. Using observational data from Enroll-HD, the largest cohort of patients with HD worldwide, in this study we present, validate, and apply an intuitive method based on linear mixed-effect models to quantify the variability in the rate of disease progression in HD. A total of 3,411 patients with HD met inclusion criteria. We found that (1) about two-thirds of the rate of functional, motor, and cognitive progression in HD is determined by the same factors that also determine age at onset, with CAG repeat-dependent mechanisms having by far the largest effect; (2) although expanded HTT CAG repeat size had a large influence on average body weight, the rate of weight loss was largely independent of factors that determine age at onset in HD; and (3) about one-third of the factors that determine the rate of functional, motor, and cognitive progression are different from those that govern age at onset and need further elucidation. Our findings imply that targeting of CAG repeat-dependent mechanisms, for example through gene-silencing approaches, is likely to affect the rate of functional, motor, and cognitive impairment, but not weight loss, in manifest HD mutation carriers. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Determining gestational age for public health care users in Brazil: comparison of methods and algorithm creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Ana Paula Esteves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A valid, accurate method for determining gestational age (GA is crucial in classifying early and late prematurity, and it is a relevant issue in perinatology. This study aimed at assessing the validity of different measures for approximating GA, and it provides an insight into the development of algorithms that can be adopted in places with similar characteristics to Brazil. A follow-up study was carried out in two cities in southeast Brazil. Participants were interviewed in the first trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum period, with a final sample of 1483 participants after exclusions. The distribution of GA estimates at birth using ultrasound (US at 21–28 weeks, US at 29+ weeks, last menstrual period (LMP, and the Capurro method were compared with GA estimates at birth using the reference US (at 7–20 weeks of gestation. Kappa, sensitivity, and specificity tests were calculated for preterm (=42 weeks birth rates. The difference in days in the GA estimates between the reference US and the LMP and between the reference US and the Capurro method were evaluated in terms of maternal and infant characteristics, respectively. Results For prematurity, US at 21–28 weeks had the highest sensitivity (0.84 and the Capurro method the highest specificity (0.97. For postmaturity, US at 21–28 weeks and the Capurro method had a very high sensitivity (0.98. All methods of GA estimation had a very low specificity (≤0.50 for postmaturity. GA estimates at birth with the algorithm and the reference US produced very similar results, with a preterm birth rate of 12.5%. Conclusions In countries such as Brazil, where there is less accurate information about the LMP and lower coverage of early obstetric US examinations, we recommend the development of algorithms that enable the use of available information using methodological strategies to reduce the chance of errors with GA. Thus, this study calls into attention the care needed

  3. Determinants of acute diarrhoea in children aged 0 – 5 years in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish the prevalence and determinants of acute diarrhoea in children aged 0 – 5 years in Uganda. Design: Cross-sectional study using the 2000/2001 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) dataset. Subjects: Information was derived from the women's questionnaire done on sampled mothers ...

  4. Self-Determination among Transition-Age Youth with Autism or Intellectual Disability: Parent Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cooney, Molly; Weir, Katherine; Moss, Colleen K.; Machalicek, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 68 parents' views of the self-determination skills and capacities of their young adult children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability (ages 19-21 years). Results indicated parents placed a high value on the importance of all seven component skills (i.e., choice-making skills, decision-making skills,…

  5. Determination of the nutritional status of a population of school-age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nutrition assessment in the community is essential for accurate planning and implementation of intervention programmes to reduce the morbidity and mortality that are associated with malnutrition. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the nutritional status of a population of school-age children in ...

  6. Age versus size determination of radial variation in wood specific gravity : lessons from eccentrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2011-01-01

    Radial increases in wood specific gravity have been shown to characterize early successional trees from tropical forests. Here, we develop and apply a novel method to test whether radial increases are determined by tree age or tree size. The method compares the slopes of specific gravity changes across a short radius and a long radius of trees with eccentric trunks. If...

  7. Autofluorescence of fossil pollen and spores with special reference to age determination and coalification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzel, van Pieter

    1967-01-01

    In the present study the primary fluorescence phenomena of fossil pollen and spores are described. This new method in palynology is based on a large number of fluorescence microscopical observations and spectrophotometrical determinations of palynomorphs from deposits of various type and age. It

  8. Utility of telomere length measurements for age determination of humpback whales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Morten T.; Robbins, Jooke; Bérubé, Martine; Rew, Mary Beth; Palsboll, Per

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of telomere length measurements by quantitative PCR as a tool for minimally invasive age determination of free-ranging cetaceans. We analysed telomere length in skin samples from 28 North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), ranging from 0 to 26

  9. Why is age determination of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) so difficult?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2010-01-01

    to a consistent pattern the following year, and overlap was not influenced by sex or fish size. The results suggest that otolith opacity in Baltic cod is not associated with seasonal patterns in daily increment structure and that traditional age determination based on otolith opacity yields highly uncertain...

  10. An Overview of Age, Sex and Race Determination from Teeth and Skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Forensic dentistry represents the overlap between the dental and legal professions. Throughout this century, odontological examinations have been a critical determinant in the search for identity of individual remains. Dental maturity has played an important role in estimating the chronological age of individuals. Age estimation is a sub-discipline of the forensic sciences and should be an important part of every identification process, especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Forensic dentist helps in identification of deceased victims by age, sex and race determination from teeth and skull. Since the scope of forensic odontology is very broad and challenging, dental surgeons trained in forensic odontology can make unique contributions in the administration of justice, which is the key note of democracy.

  11. Uranium Age Determination by Measuring the 230Th / 234U Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAMONT, STEPHEN P.

    2004-01-01

    A radiochemical isotope dilution mass spectrometry method has been developed to determine the age of uranium materials. The amount of 230Th activity, the first progeny of 234U, that had grown into a small uranium metal sample was used to determine the elapsed time since the material was last radiochemically purified. To preserve the sample, only a small amount of oxidized uranium was removed from the surface of the sample and dissolved. Aliquots of the dissolved sample were spiked with 233U tracer and radiochemically purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The 234U isotopic concentration was then determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Additional aliquots of the sample were spiked with 229Th tracer, and the thorium was purified using two sequential anion-exchange chromatography separations. The isotopic concentrations of 230Th and 232Th were determined by TIMS. The lack of any 232Th confirmed the assumption that all thorium was removed from the uranium sample at the time of purification. The 230Th and 234U mass concentrations were converted to activities and the 230Th/234U ratio for the sample was calculated. The experimental 230Th/234U ratio showed the uranium in this sample was radiochemically purified in about 1945. Isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry has sufficient sensitivity to determine the age of 100 samples of uranium. This method could certainly be employed as a nuclear forensic method to determine the age of small quantities of uranium metal or salts. Accurate determination of the ultra-trace 230Th radiochemically separated from the uranium is possible due to the use of 229Th as an isotope dilution tracer. The precision in the experimental age of the uranium could be improved by making additional replicate measurements of the 230Th/234U isotopic ratio or using a larger initial sample

  12. Determining 'age at death' for forensic purposes using human bone by a laboratory-based biomechanical analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioupos, P; Williams, A; Christodoulou, G; Giles, R

    2014-05-01

    Determination of age-at-death (AAD) is an important and frequent requirement in contemporary forensic science and in the reconstruction of past populations and societies from their remains. Its estimation is relatively straightforward and accurate (±3yr) for immature skeletons by using morphological features and reference tables within the context of forensic anthropology. However, after skeletal maturity (>35yr) estimates become inaccurate, particularly in the legal context. In line with the general migration of all the forensic sciences from reliance upon empirical criteria to those which are more evidence-based, AAD determination should rely more-and-more upon more quantitative methods. We explore here whether well-known changes in the biomechanical properties of bone and the properties of bone matrix, which have been seen to change with age even after skeletal maturity in a traceable manner, can be used to provide a reliable estimate of AAD. This method charts a combination of physical characteristics some of which are measured at a macroscopic level (wet & dry apparent density, porosity, organic/mineral/water fractions, collagen thermal degradation properties, ash content) and others at the microscopic level (Ca/P ratios, osteonal and matrix microhardness, image analysis of sections). This method produced successful age estimates on a cohort of 12 donors of age 53-85yr (7 male, 5 female), where the age of the individual could be approximated within less than ±1yr. This represents a vastly improved level of accuracy than currently extant age estimation techniques. It also presents: (1) a greater level of reliability and objectivity as the results are not dependent on the experience and expertise of the observer, as is so often the case in forensic skeletal age estimation methods; (2) it is purely laboratory-based analytical technique which can be carried out by someone with technical skills and not the specialised forensic anthropology experience; (3) it can

  13. Statistical method for determining ages of globular clusters by fitting isochrones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flannery, B.P.; Johnson, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    We describe a statistical procedure to compare models of stellar evolution and atmospheres with color-magnitude diagrams of globular clusters. The isochrone depends on five parameters: m-M, age, [Fe/H], Y, and α, but in practice we can only determine m-M and age for an assumed composition. The technique allows us to determine parameters of the model, their uncertainty, and to assess goodness of fit. We test the method, and evaluate the effect of assumptions on an extensive set of Monte Carlo simulations. We apply the method to extensive observations of NGC 6752 and M5, and to smaller data sets for the clusters M3, M5, M15, and M92. We determine age and m-M for two assumed values of helium Y = (0.2, 0.3), and three values of metallicity with a spread in [Fe/H] of +- 0.3 dex. These result in a spread in age of 5-8 Gyr (1 Gyr = 10 9 yr), and a spread in m-M of 0.5 mag. The mean age is generally younger by 2-3 Gyr than previous estimates. Likely uncertainty associated with an individual fit can be small as 0.4 Gyr. Most importantly, we find that two uncalibratable sources of systematic error make the results suspect. These are uncertainty in the stellar temperatures induced by choice of mixing length, and known errors in stellar atmospheres. These effects could reduce age estimates by an additional 5 Gyr. We conclude that observations do not preclude ages as young as 10 Gyr for globular clusters

  14. Single injection techniques in determining age-related changes in porcine renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.E.C.

    1984-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were determined in 32 anaesthetised female Large White pigs, aged 4-24 months, from the plasma disappearance curves of [sup(99m)Tc]DTPA and [ 131 I]hippuran respectively. Clearance was also monitored by external counting over the heart. GFR and ERPF increased markedly with age in pigs up to 12 months old, reaching mean values of 242.06 +- 5.89 and 919.39 +- 79.01 mL/min. In pigs aged 12-24 months ERPF increased slightly but renal function remained essentially unchanged after 1 yr of age. These results for renal function were similar to previous estimates, using continuous infusion techniques inferring that GFR and ERPF could be accurately monitored using single injection procedures. (author)

  15. Efficacy of otoliths and first dorsal spines for preliminary age and growth determination in Atlantic Tripletails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Russell T.; Bringolf, Robert B.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2018-01-01

    The Atlantic Tripletail Lobotes surinamensis is a popular sport fish for which age and growth data are scarce in general and nonexistent for Georgia (GA), USA, waters. These data are necessary to ensure that management regulations are adequate to protect this species, especially given its popularity as a sport fish. We evaluated whether otoliths and spines were suitable for determining the estimated age (hereafter, “age”) and growth rates of Atlantic Tripletails, and we ascertained whether one method was more accurate than the other. Atlantic Tripletails were sampled by angling and trawling during March 30–August 10, 2009, and March 14–August 6, 2010, in nearshore GA waters of the Atlantic Ocean. During the study, 243 Atlantic Tripletails were captured and sampled for aging structures. Sagittal otoliths and the first dorsal spine were removed from each fish and used to estimate the age and growth rate. Mean differences in TL at age for spine and otolith data were evaluated with ANOVA. Estimated ages for males and females ranged from 1 to 5 years based on otoliths and spines. Both otolith and spine mean TLs at ages 1 and 2 were significantly different from each other as well as all other age‐classes, whereas mean TLs for ages 3–5 were not significantly different. Differences in Atlantic Tripletail TL among the otolith‐ and spine‐derived age‐classes were not significant. Each method used to age Atlantic Tripletails had advantages and disadvantages. Otoliths had higher initial reader agreement than spines, although agreement between the structures was 84.1%. However, otoliths require sacrifice of the fish, whereas a spine can be taken without sacrificing the fish. The lack of concrete life history data and population estimates suggests that when feasible, nonlethal aging methods would be preferred over lethal methods to ensure the survival of Atlantic Tripletail populations.

  16. ESR dating method and the age determination of Peking-Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Sizhao; Liang Renyou; Huang Peihua

    1991-01-01

    ESR dating method and the age determination of the first skull of Zhoukoudian Beijing-Man have been introduced in this paper. Some animal fossil teeth, which are contemporaneous with the Beijing-Man, were used for determination of accumulative dose. The internal and environmental doses of the tooth samples were determined by neutron activation analysis and embeded thermoluminescence dosimeter at the site, respectively. The age of 578 ka of the first skull of Beijing-Man is calculated by the linear uranium accumulation model. According to the ESR dating results, author has given a chronological scale of the cave deposits Loc. 1, Beijing-man site and discussed the mean-life of trapped electron for dating

  17. Analysis and determination of age of oil spills in soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedl, P.; Schindlbauer, H.

    1995-01-01

    The extensive searching for hydrocarbon-based spills in soil and groundwater during the last few years rises the question of whom caused these contaminations. The answer to this very specific question is not easy and often requires the exact determination of age of the contamination. Therefore, the sampling of all imaginable data around the spilled material is necessary. Beginning at the precise check-up of the geological surrounding, including the definition of the condition and construction of the soil as well as the determination of the flow-direction of the groundwater, the chemical analysis should describe the containing substances and/or the products in the best possible way. Summing all these data and taking into consideration of the well-known microbiological pathways of decomposition for one- and/or a group of substances, it should be possible to determine the age of a contamination. (orig.) [de

  18. Job satisfaction, work environment and successful ageing: Determinants of delaying retirement among acute care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo-Sugleris, Michele; Robbins, Wendie; Lane, Christianne Joy; Phillips, Linda R

    2018-04-01

    To determine the relationships between job satisfaction, work environment and successful ageing and how these factors relate to Registered Nurses' intent to retire. Although little studied, retention of older nurses by delaying early retirement, before age 65, is an important topic for research. Qualitative and quantitative studies have indicated that job satisfaction work environment and successful ageing are key motivators in acute care Registered Nurses retention and/or delaying retirement. This study was designed to provide information to administrators and policy makers about retaining older, experienced RNs longer and more productively. This was a correlational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. An online survey of acute care Registered Nurses (N = 2,789) aged 40 years or older working in Florida was conducted from September - October 2013. Participants completed items related to job satisfaction, work environment, successful ageing and individual characteristics. Hypotheses derived from the modified Ellenbecker's Job Retention Model were tested using regression analysis. Job satisfaction scores were high. Highest satisfaction was with scheduling issues and co-workers; lowest with advancement opportunities. Successful ageing scores were also high with 81% reporting excellent or good health. Work environment explained 55% of the variance in job satisfaction. Years to retirement were significantly associated with successful ageing (p income (p job satisfaction and delay of retirement in older nurses and further studies in these areas are warranted to expand on this knowledge. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The theoretical and practical principles of determining doses and carrying out dosimetric audit programmes in radiotherapy units in Poland (adjustment to the European Union Council Directive 97/43 EURATOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulski, W.

    2011-01-01

    This project was aimed at developing research and organizational programmes to implement in Poland the Council Directive 97143 EURATOM in the field of dosimetric audits. The project included two types of research in detail: (1) the preparation of precise and reproducible standards of radiation doses, or, in other words, the investigation, development and determination of exact and effective principles of the standardization of ionization chambers used in carrying out dosimetric audit programmes, (2) the investigation of TL detectors used in audits, with the aim of obtaining the best possible measurement accuracy as well as analysis of available results of audits under reference conditions, and the development and implementation of audits for non-reference conditions, including computer-assisted treatment planning systems (TPS) indispensable in present-day radiotherapy practices. (author)

  20. ACCELERATED AGING TEST IN DETERMINING THE VIGOUR OF SUNFLOWER SEEDS WITH AND WITHOUT PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Ducatti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The standard germination test alone is insufficient to attest the quality of seeds, making necessary correlation’s with vigour tests, to determine more accurately the physiological potential of a seeds lot. The accelerated aging test is an option for determine the vigour and consists in submits seeds to high temperatures and humidity, for different periods of time, has not yet standardized. The objective of this work was to analyze the efficiency of the accelerated aging test in the assessment of the effect of a lot of sunflower seed, by three periods of aging (48, 56 and 72 hours in 42 °C temperature, in seeds with and without pericarp (manually removed and relate the results with electrical conductivity test and germination first count. The experimental design was a completely randomized design and the comparison of averages made using Tukey's test at 5% probability. The results showed that standard germination, electrical conductivity and germination first count, the seeds without pericarp showed better performance. In relation to the accelerated aging, only in the period of 72 hours of aging there was no significant difference between the treatments. In this way, the appropriate period to identify differences in force between the treatments was 72 hours, which showed a positive correlation with the germination first count and electrical conductivity.

  1. Age and dose as determinants of times of appearance of radium-induced osteosarcomas in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Lucas, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    Determinants of time-until-tumor for bone sarcomas in US radium cases have been reevaluated. For the 57 measured female bone sarcoma cases exposed to 226 Ra and/or 228 Ra, ages at appearance of tumor are more strongly correlated with radium intake doses than are latency periods. Ages at appearance of tumor increase as initial radium intakes decrease. As many lower dose cases were iatrogenic cases exposed in mid-adult life, rather than about age 22 as for the dial worker cases, these results may be artifactual, resulting from an increased susceptability to sarcoma induction at older ages. Alternatively the time of appearance of a sarcoma may be in part directly determined by age. Both explanations find support in the literature. These results suggest that 226 228 Ra-induced bone sarcomas do have an expression period. The downturn in sarcoma incidence at very high doses may result from truncation of the expression period on its early side by the minimum induction period

  2. Determining Age and Origin of Spodumene-Bearing Pegmatites in Southeastern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. A.; Barros, R.; Menuge, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Exploration prospecting around Caldonian Leinster Granite has revealed pegmatite intrusions containing spodumene, a lithium ore, on the eastern margin of the Tullow Lowlands Pluton. Drill cores of these pegmatites have been extracted and studied due to increasing economic interest. Ages between 430 and 400 Ma for spodumene pegmatites have been previously determined using the in situ Rb-Sr isochron method [1]. Here we use the Sm-Nd isochron method to see if the less-mobile nature of REEs during contact metamorphism and deformation impacts ages. Suitable samples containing garnet and feldspar from spodumene and barren pegmatites were studied using regular microscopy and SEM; minerals were then isolated manually. After mineral dissolution and elemental separation via ion exchange columns, a Neptune MS measured Sm and Nd isotope ratios. Blank corrections were applied. Both types of pegmatites were used to calculate an isochron using Isoplot 3.7 [2] which yielded an initial 143Nd/144Nd ratio of 0.51190±0.00009, and an age of 414±52 Ma. Ages and ɛNd, relating to the initial Nd ratio, were compared with previous whole rock data of Leinster Granite [3] and Rb-Sr multimineral data [1]. Comparable ages from both methods likely represent crystallization age. At the minimum possible age considering uncertainty, the origins of pegmatites and granitic rocks are indistinguishable, but at the maximum age, pegmatites show lower ɛNd values suggesting heterogeneous sources. All representative data points held negative ɛNd values signifying crustal assimilation. The Sm-Nd method was found suitable for age/ source investigation; however, Leinster pegmatite garnet is particularly depleted in Nd (Microsoft Excel. Berkeley Geochronology Center Special Publication, 4 [3] Mohr, Peter (1991): "Cryptic Sr and Nd isotopic variation across the Leinster Granite, Southeast Ireland" Geology Magazine, Vol 128, 3, 251-256

  3. Reflectance-based determination of age and species of blowfly puparia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Sasha C; Magni, Paola; Dadour, Ian; Nansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Forensic entomology is primarily concerned with the estimation of time since death and involves determination of the age of immature insects colonising decomposing remains. Accurate age determination of puparia is usually accomplished by dissection, which means destructive sampling of evidence. As part of improving abilities to correctly identify species and developmental age, it is highly desirable to have available non-destructive methods. In this study, we acquired external hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data (77 spectral bands, 389-892 nm) from the dorsal and ventral sides of individual puparia of two species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora dubia Macquart 1855 and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart 1842. Puparia were dissected to determine the presence/absence of eight internal morphological development characteristics (legs, wings, labella, abdominal segments, antennae, thoracic bristles, orbital/facial bristles and eye colour and arista). Based on linear discriminant analysis and independent validation of HSI data, reflectance features from puparia could be used to successfully (1) distinguish the two species (classification accuracy = 92.5 %), (2) differentiate dorsal and ventral sides of puparia (classification accuracy C. dubia = 81.5 %; Ch. rufifacies = 89.2 %) and (3) predict the presence of these morphological characteristics and therefore the developmental stage of puparia (average classification accuracy using dorsal imaging: C. dubia = 90.3 %; Ch. rufifacies = 94.0 %). The analytical approach presented here provides proof of concept for a direct puparial age relationship (i.e. days since the onset of pupation) between external puparial reflectance features and internal morphological development. Furthermore, this approach establishes the potential for further refinement by using a non-invasive technique to determine the age and developmental stage of blowflies of forensic importance.

  4. DETERMINATION OF BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL BASELINE VALUES IN THE OSTRICH AT DIFFERENT AGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSAYED, M.A.; FARGHALY, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty four ostrich birds from the breeding flock in Nuclear Research Center, AEA, Egypt (March 2008) aged from one week old until post-sexual maturity were used to determine blood biochemical baseline values. Blood was drawn from each bird of each group and blood hematological parameters such as total red blood cells (RBC), total white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) percentage were determined. In addition, blood serum was separated to evaluate the concentrations of serum total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (Glob), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Liver function such a serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were determined. Also, kidney function such as serum urea (U), creatinine (Cr) and uric acid (UA) were measured. Serum total cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides (Trg) and serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) were determined. The results showed that:1- Hb and RBC were positively correlated with age and were significantly increased in males than females. There was non-significant difference in RBC between laying and non-laying birds, but Hb concentration was significantly increased in non-laying than laying birds. 2- WBC count was decreased in young birds than adult birds and it was significantly increased in adult females than males and in laying than non-laying birds. 3- PCV was positively correlated by age and it was increased in males than females and in non-laying than laying birds. 4- The concentrations of serum TP, Alb, Glob, Ca and P were increased as age increased and were increased in males than females and in non-laying than laying birds. 5- Serum T 3 hormone was positively correlated with age until two years old then decreased significantly. It was significantly increased in adult male than females and in laying than non-laying birds.6- Kidney function such as serum U, Cr and UA were increased in young than adult birds. It was decreased in adult females than males while it

  5. Determination of the chromium concentration of phase decomposition products in an aged duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwano, Hisashi; Imamasu, Hisanao

    2006-01-01

    A commercial duplex stainless steel has been aged at 673 K for up to 55,000 h. The aging results in the phase decomposition of the ferrite in duplex stainless steel. The end products of the phase decomposition are a Fe-rich and a Cr-rich phase. The chromium concentration of these phases is determined by measuring the hyperfine magnetic field and the isomer shift using Moessbauer effect. The experimental results are compared with a phase diagram calculated for Fe-Cr-Ni ternary system at 673 K.

  6. [Research on the social determinants of malnutrition among children under the age of 5 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, S Lm; Guo, Y

    2016-06-18

    To understand the relationship between child malnutrition and social determinants among children under the age of 5 in China, and to provide evidence and useful information to help policy makers develop social policies to improve child nutritional status. Information of 2 434 children aged 0-5 was extracted from year 1991 to 2011 longitudinal survey data in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was extracted for analysis. Child underweight, child stunting, and child wasting were defined using World Health Organization Child Growth Standards for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height. Weight-for-age values, height-for-age values or weight-for-height values below 2 standard deviations were considered as underweight, stunting and wasting. World Health Organization igrowup software was used to calculate the prevalence of child underweight, child stunting, and child wasting. Multivariate Logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between child malnutrition and social determinants (household income, parents' educational level, living regions, and communities' urbanization level). The prevalence of child underweight and child stunting were decreased by 64.8% and 67.8%, respectively from 1991 to 2011, while the prevalence of child wasting had remained at a relatively low level (below 5%). The problem of child underweight and stunting had been significantly resolved in China. Female children had better outcomes than male children on improving nutritional status. Among all the non-socio-economic determinants of child malnutrition, children with low height mother and children had inadequate protein intake were both risk factors of malnutrition. The social determinants significantly associated to child malnutrition included: living in the western regions and central regions, living in low level urbanization communities, with low household incomes, and low maternal educational levels. In order to further decrease the prevalence of child

  7. The reliability of the Greulich-Pyle method in bone age determination among Australian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, Mark L.; Lamont, Anthony C.; Stillwell, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Bone age (BA) determination in skeletally immature children has been used as a measurement of growth for many years. The Greulich-Pyle (G&P) method of estimating BA is most commonly used. The standards used within this atlas were compiled from research conducted on normal white children in the United States, during the 1930s. The applicability of G&P beyond populations similar to its own can be variable. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of G&P in BA determination among Australian children. Hand X-rays of children under the age of 18, investigated for trauma, were recruited. Mean differences between BA, according to the standards of G&P, and chronological age (CA) were compared among all patients and subgroups according to age, gender and left versus right hand. Between January and December 2010, 654 children underwent hand X-rays, 406 of these were included (276 males and 130 females). Overall BA was 2.2 months less than CA (P-value=0.005). BA of males and females was estimated to be 1.5 months (P-value=0.142) and 3.7 months (P-value=0.002) less than their CA respectively. No statistically significant difference was identified with intra-observer (P-value=0.846) and inter-observer interpretations (P-value=0.102). Our results show that the standards of G&P are an accurate means of BA determination in Australian children.

  8. The determinants of health among the population aged 50 and over: evidence from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sime Smolic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the association between demographic, socio-economic and physical health variables and self-assessed health (SAH of people aged 50 years and over in Croatia. Cross-sectional data was collected in 2012 in the survey “The Economics of Ageing in Croatiaˮ that was based on the SHARE (Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe study. Altogether 761 individuals aged 50 and over were included in the working sample that has been used in statistical analysis. Data were analysed in an ordered logistic regression model. The results show that females were more likely to report a higher category of SAH than males. Higher educational level was a statistically significant predictor of higher SAH, when controlled for other variables. This study, unlike other studies in Croatia, introduces a set of physical health variables as the determinants of health. Our results suggest that people aged 50 and over with fewer limitations, health related symptoms and diagnosed chronic conditions were more likely to report higher levels of SAH. These findings could be beneficial to policymakers in their efforts to improve health among elderly in Croatia.

  9. Study on the determination of ore-formation age of primary gold ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Junlong; Zhao Puyun; Guo Hong

    1997-01-01

    The accurate determination of gold ore-formation age and ore-source isotope composition are of important significance in the research on gold geology and prospecting. According to the summary of three year indoor and field work, the ore-formation ages and isotope compositions of some typical gold deposits were obtained: The age of gold ore of the Wuhuaaobao deposit in geo-syncline region north to the north margin of North-China paleo-land is 130-120 Ma corresponding to the Late-orogenic stage. The ore-formation age of the Saiwusu gold deposit in the southern platform region is 211 +- 15 Ma, recycling reworking of the old-land. The Hougou-Huangtuliang gold deposit located in the middle of the platform region is 243 +- 7 Ma old attributed to the regeneration ore-formation on the old-land. the age of Jiaojia-Rushan gold deposit in Eastern Shandong is 122.7 +- 3.4 Ma and 128 +- 23 Ma belonging to Yanshanian stage. The Babaoshan gold-silver deposit in Cathaysian old-land is 140 +- 5 Ma old originated from volcanic hydrothermal ore-formation

  10. Possibility of determination of the Galaxy age by the method of uranium - thorium isotopic relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutostanskij, Yu.S.; Malevannyj, S.V.; Panov, I.V.; Chechetkin, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    Calculations concerning the formation of heavy elements in an astrophysical fast nuclear process characteristics of the Supernova explosions are carried out in the kinetic model of nucleosynthesis. The age of the Galaxy T G has been calculated making use of the method of uranium-thorium isotopic relations supplemented with the data on 244 Pu abundance in meteorites. T G is shown to be strongly dependent upon the calculation method applied to production of nuclei in r process, upon the data on neutron-rich nuclei and as well upon the external conditions, i.e. the density and temperature in the explosing star. The possibility of nucleosynthesis takes place due to close Supernova explosion, which enriched the chemical content of earth matter with heavy elements is analyzed. The range of allowed values of parameters of the theory of nucleosynthesis is studied

  11. CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-M.; Ramos, E.M.; Lee, J.-H.; Gillis, T.; Mysore, J.S.; Hayden, M.R.; Warby, S.C.; Morrison, P.; Nance, M.; Ross, C.A.; Margolis, R.L.; Squitieri, F.; Orobello, S.; Di Donato, S.; Gomez-Tortosa, E.; Ayuso, C.; Suchowersky, O.; Trent, R.J.A.; McCusker, E.; Novelletto, A.; Frontali, M.; Jones, R.; Ashizawa, T.; Frank, S.; Saint-Hilaire, M.H.; Hersch, S.M.; Rosas, H.D.; Lucente, D.; Harrison, M.B.; Zanko, A.; Abramson, R.K.; Marder, K.; Sequeiros, J.; Paulsen, J.S.; Landwehrmeyer, G.B.; Myers, R.H.; MacDonald, M.E.; Durr, Alexandra; Rosenblatt, Adam; Frati, Luigi; Perlman, Susan; Conneally, Patrick M.; Klimek, Mary Lou; Diggin, Melissa; Hadzi, Tiffany; Duckett, Ayana; Ahmed, Anwar; Allen, Paul; Ames, David; Anderson, Christine; Anderson, Karla; Anderson, Karen; Andrews, Thomasin; Ashburner, John; Axelson, Eric; Aylward, Elizabeth; Barker, Roger A.; Barth, Katrin; Barton, Stacey; Baynes, Kathleen; Bea, Alexandra; Beall, Erik; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Biglan, Kevin; Bjork, Kristine; Blanchard, Steve; Bockholt, Jeremy; Bommu, Sudharshan Reddy; Brossman, Bradley; Burrows, Maggie; Calhoun, Vince; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chesire, Amy; Chiu, Edmond; Chua, Phyllis; Connell, R.J.; Connor, Carmela; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Craufurd, David; Cross, Stephen; Cysique, Lucette; Santos, Rachelle Dar; Davis, Jennifer; Decolongon, Joji; DiPietro, Anna; Doucette, Nicholas; Downing, Nancy; Dudler, Ann; Dunn, Steve; Ecker, Daniel; Epping, Eric A.; Erickson, Diane; Erwin, Cheryl; Evans, Ken; Factor, Stewart A.; Farias, Sarah; Fatas, Marta; Fiedorowicz, Jess; Fullam, Ruth; Furtado, Sarah; Garde, Monica Bascunana; Gehl, Carissa; Geschwind, Michael D.; Goh, Anita; Gooblar, Jon; Goodman, Anna; Griffith, Jane; Groves, Mark; Guttman, Mark; Hamilton, Joanne; Harrington, Deborah; Harris, Greg; Heaton, Robert K.; Helmer, Karl; Henneberry, Machelle; Hershey, Tamara; Herwig, Kelly; Howard, Elizabeth; Hunter, Christine; Jankovic, Joseph; Johnson, Hans; Johnson, Arik; Jones, Kathy; Juhl, Andrew; Kim, Eun Young; Kimble, Mycah; King, Pamela; Klimek, Mary Lou; Klöppel, Stefan; Koenig, Katherine; Komiti, Angela; Kumar, Rajeev; Langbehn, Douglas; Leavitt, Blair; Leserman, Anne; Lim, Kelvin; Lipe, Hillary; Lowe, Mark; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Mallonee, William M.; Mans, Nicole; Marietta, Jacquie; Marshall, Frederick; Martin, Wayne; Mason, Sarah; Matheson, Kirsty; Matson, Wayne; Mazzoni, Pietro; McDowell, William; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Miller, Michael; Mills, James; Miracle, Dawn; Montross, Kelsey; Moore, David; Mori, Sasumu; Moser, David J.; Moskowitz, Carol; Newman, Emily; Nopoulos, Peg; Novak, Marianne; O'Rourke, Justin; Oakes, David; Ondo, William; Orth, Michael; Panegyres, Peter; Pease, Karen; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Peterson, Asa; Phillips, Michael; Pierson, Ron; Potkin, Steve; Preston, Joy; Quaid, Kimberly; Radtke, Dawn; Rae, Daniela; Rao, Stephen; Raymond, Lynn; Reading, Sarah; Ready, Rebecca; Reece, Christine; Reilmann, Ralf; Reynolds, Norm; Richardson, Kylie; Rickards, Hugh; Ro, Eunyoe; Robinson, Robert; Rodnitzky, Robert; Rogers, Ben; Rosenblatt, Adam; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Price, Kathy; Price, Kathy; Ryan, Pat; Salmon, David; Samii, Ali; Schumacher, Jamy; Schumacher, Jessica; Sendon, Jose Luis Lópenz; Shear, Paula; Sheinberg, Alanna; Shpritz, Barnett; Siedlecki, Karen; Simpson, Sheila A.; Singer, Adam; Smith, Jim; Smith, Megan; Smith, Glenn; Snyder, Pete; Song, Allen; Sran, Satwinder; Stephan, Klaas; Stober, Janice; Sü?muth, Sigurd; Suter, Greg; Tabrizi, Sarah; Tempkin, Terry; Testa, Claudia; Thompson, Sean; Thomsen, Teri; Thumma, Kelli; Toga, Arthur; Trautmann, Sonja; Tremont, Geoff; Turner, Jessica; Uc, Ergun; Vaccarino, Anthony; van Duijn, Eric; Van Walsem, Marleen; Vik, Stacie; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Vuletich, Elizabeth; Warner, Tom; Wasserman, Paula; Wassink, Thomas; Waterman, Elijah; Weaver, Kurt; Weir, David; Welsh, Claire; Werling-Witkoske, Chris; Wesson, Melissa; Westervelt, Holly; Weydt, Patrick; Wheelock, Vicki; Williams, Kent; Williams, Janet; Wodarski, Mary; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Wood, Jessica; Wood-Siverio, Cathy; Wu, Shuhua; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; de Yebenes, Justo Garcia; Zhao, Yong Qiang; Zimbelman, Janice; Zschiegner, Roland; Aaserud, Olaf; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Andrews, Thomasin; Andrich, Jurgin; Antczak, Jakub; Arran, Natalie; Artiga, Maria J. Saiz; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Banaszkiewicz, Krysztof; di Poggio, Monica Bandettini; Bandmann, Oliver; Barbera, Miguel A.; Barker, Roger A.; Barrero, Francisco; Barth, Katrin; Bas, Jordi; Beister, Antoine; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Bertini, Elisabetta; Biunno, Ida; Bjørgo, Kathrine; Bjørnevoll, Inga; Bohlen, Stefan; Bonelli, Raphael M.; Bos, Reineke; Bourne, Colin; Bradbury, Alyson; Brockie, Peter; Brown, Felicity; Bruno, Stefania; Bryl, Anna; Buck, Andrea; Burg, Sabrina; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Burns, Peter; Burrows, Liz; Busquets, Nuria; Busse, Monica; Calopa, Matilde; Carruesco, Gemma T.; Casado, Ana Gonzalez; Catena, Judit López; Chu, Carol; Ciesielska, Anna; Clapton, Jackie; Clayton, Carole; Clenaghan, Catherine; Coelho, Miguel; Connemann, Julia; Craufurd, David; Crooks, Jenny; Cubillo, Patricia Trigo; Cubo, Esther; Curtis, Adrienne; De Michele, Giuseppe; De Nicola, A.; de Souza, Jenny; de Weert, A. Marit; de Yébenes, Justo Garcia; Dekker, M.; Descals, A. Martínez; Di Maio, Luigi; Di Pietro, Anna; Dipple, Heather; Dose, Matthias; Dumas, Eve M.; Dunnett, Stephen; Ecker, Daniel; Elifani, F.; Ellison-Rose, Lynda; Elorza, Marina D.; Eschenbach, Carolin; Evans, Carole; Fairtlough, Helen; Fannemel, Madelein; Fasano, Alfonso; Fenollar, Maria; Ferrandes, Giovanna; Ferreira, Jaoquim J.; Fillingham, Kay; Finisterra, Ana Maria; Fisher, K.; Fletcher, Amy; Foster, Jillian; Foustanos, Isabella; Frech, Fernando A.; Fullam, Robert; Fullham, Ruth; Gago, Miguel; García, RocioGarcía-Ramos; García, Socorro S.; Garrett, Carolina; Gellera, Cinzia; Gill, Paul; Ginestroni, Andrea; Golding, Charlotte; Goodman, Anna; Gørvell, Per; Grant, Janet; Griguoli, A.; Gross, Diana; Guedes, Leonor; BascuñanaGuerra, Monica; Guerra, Maria Rosalia; Guerrero, Rosa; Guia, Dolores B.; Guidubaldi, Arianna; Hallam, Caroline; Hamer, Stephanie; Hammer, Kathrin; Handley, Olivia J.; Harding, Alison; Hasholt, Lis; Hedge, Reikha; Heiberg, Arvid; Heinicke, Walburgis; Held, Christine; Hernanz, Laura Casas; Herranhof, Briggitte; Herrera, Carmen Durán; Hidding, Ute; Hiivola, Heli; Hill, Susan; Hjermind, Lena. E.; Hobson, Emma; Hoffmann, Rainer; Holl, Anna Hödl; Howard, Liz; Hunt, Sarah; Huson, Susan; Ialongo, Tamara; Idiago, Jesus Miguel R.; Illmann, Torsten; Jachinska, Katarzyna; Jacopini, Gioia; Jakobsen, Oda; Jamieson, Stuart; Jamrozik, Zygmunt; Janik, Piotr; Johns, Nicola; Jones, Lesley; Jones, Una; Jurgens, Caroline K.; Kaelin, Alain; Kalbarczyk, Anna; Kershaw, Ann; Khalil, Hanan; Kieni, Janina; Klimberg, Aneta; Koivisto, Susana P.; Koppers, Kerstin; Kosinski, Christoph Michael; Krawczyk, Malgorzata; Kremer, Berry; Krysa, Wioletta; Kwiecinski, Hubert; Lahiri, Nayana; Lambeck, Johann; Lange, Herwig; Laver, Fiona; Leenders, K.L.; Levey, Jamie; Leythaeuser, Gabriele; Lezius, Franziska; Llesoy, Joan Roig; Löhle, Matthias; López, Cristobal Diez-Aja; Lorenza, Fortuna; Loria, Giovanna; Magnet, Markus; Mandich, Paola; Marchese, Roberta; Marcinkowski, Jerzy; Mariotti, Caterina; Mariscal, Natividad; Markova, Ivana; Marquard, Ralf; Martikainen, Kirsti; Martínez, Isabel Haro; Martínez-Descals, Asuncion; Martino, T.; Mason, Sarah; McKenzie, Sue; Mechi, Claudia; Mendes, Tiago; Mestre, Tiago; Middleton, Julia; Milkereit, Eva; Miller, Joanne; Miller, Julie; Minster, Sara; Möller, Jens Carsten; Monza, Daniela; Morales, Blas; Moreau, Laura V.; Moreno, Jose L. López-Sendón; Münchau, Alexander; Murch, Ann; Nielsen, Jørgen E.; Niess, Anke; Nørremølle, Anne; Novak, Marianne; O'Donovan, Kristy; Orth, Michael; Otti, Daniela; Owen, Michael; Padieu, Helene; Paganini, Marco; Painold, Annamaria; Päivärinta, Markku; Partington-Jones, Lucy; Paterski, Laurent; Paterson, Nicole; Patino, Dawn; Patton, Michael; Peinemann, Alexander; Peppa, Nadia; Perea, Maria Fuensanta Noguera; Peterson, Maria; Piacentini, Silvia; Piano, Carla; Càrdenas, Regina Pons i; Prehn, Christian; Price, Kathleen; Probst, Daniela; Quarrell, Oliver; Quiroga, Purificacion Pin; Raab, Tina; Rakowicz, Maryla; Raman, Ashok; Raymond, Lucy; Reilmann, Ralf; Reinante, Gema; Reisinger, Karin; Retterstol, Lars; Ribaï, Pascale; Riballo, Antonio V.; Ribas, Guillermo G.; Richter, Sven; Rickards, Hugh; Rinaldi, Carlo; Rissling, Ida; Ritchie, Stuart; Rivera, Susana Vázquez; Robert, Misericordia Floriach; Roca, Elvira; Romano, Silvia; Romoli, Anna Maria; Roos, Raymond A.C.; Røren, Niini; Rose, Sarah; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Rossi, Fabiana; Rothery, Jean; Rudzinska, Monika; Ruíz, Pedro J. García; Ruíz, Belan Garzon; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Ryglewicz, Danuta; Saft, Carston; Salvatore, Elena; Sánchez, Vicenta; Sando, Sigrid Botne; Šašinková, Pavla; Sass, Christian; Scheibl, Monika; Schiefer, Johannes; Schlangen, Christiane; Schmidt, Simone; Schöggl, Helmut; Schrenk, Caroline; Schüpbach, Michael; Schuierer, Michele; Sebastián, Ana Rojo; Selimbegovic-Turkovic, Amina; Sempolowicz, Justyna; Silva, Mark; Sitek, Emilia; Slawek, Jaroslaw; Snowden, Julie; Soleti, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Sollom, Andrea; Soltan, Witold; Sorbi, Sandro; Sorensen, Sven Asger; Spadaro, Maria; Städtler, Michael; Stamm, Christiane; Steiner, Tanja; Stokholm, Jette; Stokke, Bodil; Stopford, Cheryl; Storch, Alexander; Straßburger, Katrin; Stubbe, Lars; Sulek, Anna; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Tabrizi, Sarah; Taylor, Rachel; Terol, Santiago Duran-Sindreu; Thomas, Gareth; Thompson, Jennifer; Thomson, Aileen; Tidswell, Katherine; Torres, Maria M. Antequera; Toscano, Jean; Townhill, Jenny; Trautmann, Sonja; Tucci, Tecla; Tuuha, Katri; Uhrova, Tereza; Valadas, Anabela; van Hout, Monique S.E.; van Oostrom, J.C.H.; van Vugt, Jeroen P.P.; vanm, Walsem Marleen R.; Vandenberghe, Wim; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Vergara, Mar Ruiz; Verstappen, C.C.P.; Verstraelen, Nichola; Viladrich, Celia Mareca; Villanueva, Clara; Wahlström, Jan; Warner, Thomas; Wehus, Raghild; Weindl, Adolf; Werner, Cornelius J.; Westmoreland, Leann; Weydt, Patrick; Wiedemann, Alexandra; Wild, Edward; Wild, Sue; Witjes-Ané, Marie-Noelle; Witkowski, Grzegorz; Wójcik, Magdalena; Wolz, Martin; Wolz, Annett; Wright, Jan; Yardumian, Pam; Yates, Shona; Yudina, Elizaveta; Zaremba, Jacek; Zaugg, Sabine W.; Zdzienicka, Elzbieta; Zielonka, Daniel; Zielonka, Euginiusz; Zinzi, Paola; Zittel, Simone; Zucker, Birgrit; Adams, John; Agarwal, Pinky; Antonijevic, Irina; Beck, Christopher; Chiu, Edmond; Churchyard, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Dorsey, Ray; Drazinic, Carolyn; Dubinsky, Richard; Duff, Kevin; Factor, Stewart; Foroud, Tatiana; Furtado, Sarah; Giuliano, Joe; Greenamyre, Timothy; Higgins, Don; Jankovic, Joseph; Jennings, Dana; Kang, Un Jung; Kostyk, Sandra; Kumar, Rajeev; Leavitt, Blair; LeDoux, Mark; Mallonee, William; Marshall, Frederick; Mohlo, Eric; Morgan, John; Oakes, David; Panegyres, Peter; Panisset, Michel; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Quaid, Kimberly; Raymond, Lynn; Revilla, Fredy; Robertson, Suzanne; Robottom, Bradley; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Scott, Burton; Shannon, Kathleen; Shoulson, Ira; Singer, Carlos; Tabbal, Samer; Testa, Claudia; van, Kammen Dan; Vetter, Louise; Walker, Francis; Warner, John; Weiner, illiam; Wheelock, Vicki; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; Barton, Stacey; Broyles, Janice; Clouse, Ronda; Coleman, Allison; Davis, Robert; Decolongon, Joji; DeLaRosa, Jeanene; Deuel, Lisa; Dietrich, Susan; Dubinsky, Hilary; Eaton, Ken; Erickson, Diane; Fitzpatrick, Mary Jane; Frucht, Steven; Gartner, Maureen; Goldstein, Jody; Griffith, Jane; Hickey, Charlyne; Hunt, Victoria; Jaglin, Jeana; Klimek, Mary Lou; Lindsay, Pat; Louis, Elan; Loy, Clemet; Lucarelli, Nancy; Malarick, Keith; Martin, Amanda; McInnis, Robert; Moskowitz, Carol; Muratori, Lisa; Nucifora, Frederick; O'Neill, Christine; Palao, Alicia; Peavy, Guerry; Quesada, Monica; Schmidt, Amy; Segro, Vicki; Sperin, Elaine; Suter, Greg; Tanev, Kalo; Tempkin, Teresa; Thiede, Curtis; Wasserman, Paula; Welsh, Claire; Wesson, Melissa; Zauber, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound implications for disease mechanism and modification, we tested whether the normal allele, interaction between the expanded and normal alleles, or presence of a second expanded allele affects age at onset of HD motor signs. Methods: We modeled natural log-transformed age at onset as a function of CAG repeat lengths of expanded and normal alleles and their interaction by linear regression. Results: An apparently significant effect of interaction on age at motor onset among 4,068 subjects was dependent on a single outlier data point. A rigorous statistical analysis with a well-behaved dataset that conformed to the fundamental assumptions of linear regression (e.g., constant variance and normally distributed error) revealed significance only for the expanded CAG repeat, with no effect of the normal CAG repeat. Ten subjects with 2 expanded alleles showed an age at motor onset consistent with the length of the larger expanded allele. Conclusions: Normal allele CAG length, interaction between expanded and normal alleles, and presence of a second expanded allele do not influence age at onset of motor manifestations, indicating that the rate of HD pathogenesis leading to motor diagnosis is determined by a completely dominant action of the longest expanded allele and as yet unidentified genetic or environmental factors. Neurology® 2012;78:690–695 PMID:22323755

  12. [Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE): determination of cutoff scores according to age and educational level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solias, A; Skapinakis, P; Degleris, N; Pantoleon, M; Katirtzoglou, E; Politis, A

    2014-01-01

    For the last 38 years, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been widely used as a dementia screening measure in everyday clinical practice as well as in both cohort and cross-sectional studies. Its validity and reliability for the Greek population has explicitly been documented. However, the effect of age and education on the subject's performance makes it necessary to reckon them in the estimation of the "cutoff score". The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of dementia in Greek population and determine the "cutoff score" by age and education-corrected norms. Cross sectional study of 630 patients older than 55 years, who live independently in Ilion and Helioupolis Municipalities was conducted, 27.3% of the subjects tested in the study were diagnosed with memory disorder according to their MMSE scores and the validation for the Greek population. The effect of age and education to the subjects' performance was statistically significant (p=.000). The use of standard "cutoff score" was not proved to be useful for the personalized interpretation of the results, as documented by the fact that older individuals with lower education had a poorer performance relatively to younger, highly educated subjects. Comparatively to the group age of 55-60 years, the odds ratio after the age of 75 years varies from 2.58 to 4.91. Regarding the variable factor of education, the odds ratio for the first degree education graduates decreases from 1.43 to 3.19 for the third degree education graduates in comparison with the group of illiterates. In conclusion, the use of the "cutoff score" algorithm and the simultaneous estimation of age and education effect on MMSE score may prove useful for the proper evaluation of MMSE performance. According to the age and education of examine candidates in the community and the primary care, we propose the use of the 25th percentile as a more useful cutoff score in order to decrease the false positive results.

  13. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average ± standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 ± 1.0 cm and 54% ± 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 ± 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  14. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  15. Determinant Factors of Physical Performance and Specific Throwing in Handball Players of Different Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Becerra, Manuel; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Víctor; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2018-06-01

    Ortega-Becerra, M, Pareja-Blanco, F, Jiménez-Reyes, P, Cuadrado-Peñafiel, V, and González-Badillo, JJ. Determinant factors of physical performance and specific throwing in handball players of different ages. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1778-1786, 2018-This study aimed to analyze various fitness qualities in handball players of different ages and to determine the relationships between these parameters and throwing velocity. A total of 44 handball players participated, pooled by age groups: professional (ELITE, n = 13); under-18 (U18, n = 16); under-16 (U16, n = 15). The following tests were completed: 20-m running sprints; countermovement jumps (CMJs); jump squat to determine the load that elicited ∼20 cm jump height (JSLOAD-20 cm); a progressive loading test in full squat and bench press to determine the load that elicited ∼1 m·s (SQ-V1-LOAD and BP-V1-LOAD); and handball throwing (jump throw and 3-step throw). ELITE showed greater performance in almost all sprint distances, CMJ, JSLOAD-20 cm, and bench press strength than U18 and U16. The differences between U18 and U16 were unclear for these variables. ELITE also showed greater (p handball throwing velocity is strongly associated with lower-limb strength, although upper-limb strength, jumping and sprint capacities also play a relevant role in throwing performance, suggesting the need for coaches to include proper strength programs to improve handball players' throwing velocity.

  16. Relationships between age and microarchitectural descriptors of iliac trabecular bone determined by microCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguette, C; Ramond-Roquin, A; Rougé-Maillart, C

    2017-06-01

    Estimation of age at death is a major issue in anthropology. The main anthropological histological methods propose studying the architecture of cortical bone. In bone histomorphometry, researches on metabolic bone diseases have provided normative tables for trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) according to age and gender of individuals on trans-iliac bone biopsies. We have used microCT, a non-destructive tool for measuring bone volume and trabecular descriptors to compare the French tables to a series of forensic anthropological population and if the two iliac bones could be used interchangeably. Coxal bone of a personal forensic collection whose age and gender were known (DNA identification) were used. Bone samples, centered on the same area than bone biopsy. MicroCT (pixel size: 36μm) was used to measure BV/TV and morphometric trabecular parameters of microarchitecture. An adjusted Z-score was calculated for BV/TV to compare with normative tables and a right/left comparison of trabecular parameters was provided. Twenty-seven iliac bones, which 20 forming 10 complete pelvises, aged between 24 and 73y.o. (average of 47.7 y.o.) were used. All adjusted Z-score were within normal values. There was a strong positive correlation between right and left sides for Tb.Th, Tb.N and Tb.Sp, but an insignificant correlation was obtained for BV/TV. Normative tables between age and BV/TV are valid and therefore usable in anthropology. They may represent an alternative to determine the age at death. Nevertheless, it requires a precise technique that could be a drawback in current practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Determinants of vitamin D status in fair-skinned women of childbearing age at northern latitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Hedlund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Poor vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with unfavorable outcomes for mother and child. Thus, adequate vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may be important. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD serum concentrations in women of childbearing age living in Sweden, at latitude 57-58° north. METHOD: Eighty four non-pregnant, non-lactating, healthy, fair-skinned women aged between 25-40 years were included. All subjects provided blood samples, four day food records and answered questionnaires about sun exposure and lifestyle. Total serum 25(OHD was analyzed using Roche Cobas® electrochemoluminiescent immunoassay. RESULTS: Mean 25(OHD was 65.8±19.9 nmol/l and 23% of the subjects had concentrations <50 nmol/l. Only 1% had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Determinants of 25(OHD concentrations were recent sunbed use, recent travel to southern latitude, season, estrogen contraceptive use and use of supplementary vitamin D (R(2 = 0.27. CONCLUSION: Every fifth woman had 25(OHD concentrations <50 nmol/l. About 30% of the variation in vitamin D status was explained by sun exposure, use of vitamin D supplements and use of estrogen contraceptives. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis seems to be a major contributor to vitamin D status, even at northern latitudes. Thus, recommendations on safe UV-B exposure could be beneficial for vitamin D status.

  18. Lifestyle and age as determinates of intake and dose from inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The whole-body dose from inhaled radionuclides is a complex function of factors describing exposure and physiology. Exposure-related factors may be estimated by considering likely emission rates combined with measured time-varying meteorological (transport) parameters and estimated exercise patterns. Physiological factors, strongly influencing radionuclide intake and consequent radiation dose, have been catalogued as functions of age and activity level. Both exercise patterns and physiological factors are related to age of the exposed individual. Combining these factors permits estimates to be made of the span of exposures that may be expected in a typical population. The ratio of highest to lowest radionuclide intake is predicted to be of the order of 40, suggesting that specification of an 'average' value may be misleading if this value approaches regulatory limits. Individuals exposed to maximal risk may be identified, and are likely to be active children. Activity pattern (lifestyle) is a primary determinant of risk. (author)

  19. Endocrine determinants of incident sarcopenia in middle-aged and elderly European men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Evelien; O'Neill, Terence W; Pye, Stephen R; Adams, Judith E; Wu, Frederick C; Laurent, Michaël R; Claessens, Frank; Ward, Kate A; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Verschueren, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background In men, the long-term consequences of low serum levels of sex steroids, vitamin D metabolites, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the evolution of muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical performance are unclear. Moreover, there are no data about the relationship between these hormones and incident sarcopenia defined as low muscle mass and function. The aim of this study was to determine whether the baseline levels of sex hormones, vitamin D metabolites, and IGF-1 predict changes in muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and incident sarcopenia. Methods In 518 men aged 40–79 years, recruited for participation in the European Male Ageing Study, total, free, and bioavailable testosterone (T), oestradiol (E), sex hormone-binding globulin, IGF-1, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and parathyroid hormone were assessed at baseline. Appendicular lean mass (aLM), gait speed, and grip strength were measured at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 4.3 years. Sarcopenia was defined by the definition of Baumgartner (relative aLM ≤7.26 kg/m2), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS), and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Results aLM significantly decreased from age 50 years, while gait speed and grip strength significantly decreased from age 70 years. The incidence of sarcopenia by the definitions of Baumgartner, IWGS, and EWGSOP was 8.1%, 3.0%, and 1.6%, respectively. After adjustment for age, centre, body mass index, smoking, and number of comorbidities at baseline, baseline levels of T and vitamin D metabolites were not associated with change in aLM, gait speed, and/or grip strength, while a high baseline level of total E2 was associated with a greater decrease in aLM. In men aged ≥70 years, low IGF-1 was associated with a greater decrease in gait speed. Baseline endocrine variables were not independently associated with an increased risk of incident

  20. [Child malnutrition in children under 5 years of age in Peru: trends and determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Manuel; Gutiérrez, César; Cunha, Antonio J; Dávila, Miguel; Alarcón, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Analyze malnutrition and anemia trends in Peruvian children under 5 years of age and their association with determinants in the 2000-2011 period. Nutritional indicators for children under 5 years of age from the 2011 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), and their evolution based on data from the 2000, 2005, and 2008 ENDES, were analyzed. Chronic malnutrition (CM) (height/age ≤ 2 SD), acute malnutrition (AM), (height/weight ≤ 2 SD), and anemia trends were estimated. Associations were found with factors such as sex, age, area of residence (urban or rural), region of residence, mother's education, wealth quintile, availability of public water system, sewer availability, altitude, presence of other children in household, birth order, presence of diarrhea in previous 15 days, and presence of cough in previous 15 days. AM, CM, and anemia in Peruvian children under 5 years of age decreased from 2000-2011. This reduction was not uniform for the three conditions, with decreases of 1.1% to 0.4% recorded for AM, 31.6% to 19.6% for CM, and 50.4% to 30.7% for anemia. Although the factors analyzed were related to the prevalence of these three illnesses, calculation of the adjusted odds ratios showed significant differences for CM (mother's education, Sierra region, altitude greater than 2 500 m above sea level, presence of two or more children in household, and being the third or successive child) and anemia (child sex [higher in males], children under 2 years of age, Resto de costa region and Selva region, altitude greater than 2 500 m above sea level, availability of public water system, sewer availability, presence of two or more children in household, and presence of diarrhea within 15 days prior to the survey). For AM, differences were observed according to some factors but they were not significant in the adjusted model. In the 2000-2011 period, Peru achieved reduction of its CM, AM, and anemia rates. AM rates decreased to almost one-third, with overall

  1. Age determination of sediments by Pb-210 using a plastic detector technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.M.; Enge, W.; Erlenkeuser, H.; Willkomm, H.

    1976-01-01

    For age determination of sediments up to 150 years Pb-210 is suitable on grounds of its half life of 22.3 years. By a nitric acid disintegration lead is extracted out ot the sediment and subsequently precipitated electrolytically on Pt-electrodes. The activity of the sample resp. Pb-210 is measured via the alpha-activity of its granddaughter Po-210. As detector a plastic sheet (Cellulose nitrate, CA 80-15, made by Kodak) is used. Investigated was a sediment core from the Kieler Bucht, western Baltic Sea. The results let it appear possible, that the sediment is mixed up by shellfishes (cyprina islandica). (orig.) [de

  2. Age determination of sediments by 210Pb using a plastic detector technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.M.; Enge, W.; Erlenkeuser, H.; Willkomm, A.

    1977-01-01

    For age determination of sediments up to 150y 210 Pb is suitable on grounds of its half-life of 22.3y. By a nitric acid disintegration lead is extracted out of the sediment and subsequently precipitated electrolytically on Pt-electrodes. The activity of the sample resp. 210 Pb is measured via the alpha-activity of its granddaughter 210 Po. As detector a plastic sheet (cellulose nitrate, CA 80-15, made by Kodak) is used. Investigated was a sediment core from the Kieler Bucht, western Baltic Sea. The results make it appear possible, that the sediment is mixed up by shellfish (cyprina islandica). (Auth.)

  3. HEU age determination by the activity ratio {sup 227}Th/{sup 235}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junjie; Zeng, Lina; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Chun; Li, Jiansheng, E-mail: lastljj@hotmail.com

    2014-02-15

    It is important to measure the age of a highly enriched uranium (HEU) assembly for authentication of the material in the frame of arms control inspections. A new non-destructive gamma spectrometric method for HEU age-dating is reported. This method relies on measuring the daughter/parent activity ratio {sup 227}Th/{sup 235}U by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Only a narrow gamma range of energy of uranium from 230 keV to 242 keV will be used for analysis. The relative efficiency of every characteristic gamma ray changes in a small range because it has a near energy, which makes the results more accurate in theory. It provides a quick and reliable method for HEU age determination. Several gamma spectra of the same HEU assembly have been measured with different conditions (gain settings, distance and measurement time). When a branching ratio of 12.6% was chosen for the 235.96 keV line of {sup 227}Th, we obtained the activity ratios of (5.61 ± 0.40) × 10{sup −4}, (5.17 ± 0.39) × 10{sup −4}, (5.26 ± 0.39) × 10{sup −4}, (5.10 ± 0.35) × 10{sup −4}, (5.50 ± 0.44) × 10{sup −4} and (5.47 ± 0.42) × 10{sup −4}, respectively. These ratios correspond to ages of 52.2 ± 2.4 years, 49.7 ± 2.3 years, 50.1 ± 2.3 years, 49.3 ± 2.2 years, 51.6 ± 2.5 years and 51.5 ± 2.4 years, respectively, which are consistent with the known age of this material and the results of the U–Bi method.

  4. Validity of Newborn Clinical Assessment to Determine Gestational Age in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne Cc; Mullany, Luke C; Ladhani, Karima; Uddin, Jamal; Mitra, Dipak; Ahmed, Parvez; Christian, Parul; Labrique, Alain; DasGupta, Sushil K; Lokken, R Peter; Quaiyum, Mohammed; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2016-07-01

    Gestational age (GA) is frequently unknown or inaccurate in pregnancies in low-income countries. Early identification of preterm infants may help link them to potentially life-saving interventions. We conducted a validation study in a community-based birth cohort in rural Bangladesh. GA was determined by pregnancy ultrasound (distribution, agreement, and diagnostic accuracy of different clinical methods of GA assessment were determined compared with early ultrasound dating. In the live-born cohort (n = 1066), the mean ultrasound GA was 39.1 weeks (SD 2.0) and prevalence of preterm birth (births (community health worker prematurity scorecard [sensitivity/specificity: 70%/27%]; Capurro [5%/96%]; Eregie [75%/58%]; Bhagwat [18%/87%], foot length birth weight rates of fetal growth restriction. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Stress as a major determinant of migraine in women aged 25-65 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Migraine is a primary headache causing substantial disability in patients. The prevalence of migraine in women is still high. Menarche, menstruation, pregnancy, menopause, and the use of hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement treatment may influence migraine occurrence. The aim of this study was to determine the major determinants of migraine in adult women aged 25-65 years. Methods A cross-sectional study of 2,747 women from the baseline study “Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases”. The dependent variable was migraine based on the diagnosis of health providers or symptoms. Independent variables were demographic (age, marital status, education and behavioral (smoking, diet, and stress characteristics, metabolic disorders (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hormonal factors (contraception and hormone therapy. Data were collected through interviews (characteristics, health and hormonal status, diet, measurement (anthropometrics, blood pressure, and health examination (blood specimens, neurology. Data were analyzed by chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Results Migraine in adult women was found in 710 cases (25.8% with symptoms of worsening with activity (15%, nausea and vomiting (13%, and photophobia/phonophobia (4.1%. The main determinant of migraine in adult women was stress with a 2.47-fold risk [95% CI = 2.07 to 2.95] as compared with no stress, after controlling for smoking, menstruation and hormonal drug consumption. Conclusion Stress is a major determinant of migraine in adult women, therefore health programs should be instituted through health promotion, prevention and education to control stress.

  6. Uranium age determination - Separation and analysis of 230Th and 231Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, A.; Apostolidis, C.; Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In recent years several incidents involving illicit trafficking and smuggling of nuclear material, radioactive sources and radioactively contaminated materials have raised growing public concern about criminal acts involving nuclear materials. Consequently, research efforts in nuclear forensic science have been intensified in order to develop and improve methods for the identification of the nature and origin of seized materials. Information obtained from the analysis of unknown nuclear materials is of key importance in order to aide authorities that are in charge of developing fast and appropriate response action. For the identification of nuclear materials various sample characteristics are of relevance, including isotopic composition, the content of chemical impurities, material properties and the date of production. Information on the production date, respectively the 'age' of nuclear materials, will also be of key importance in other fields of nuclear science, i.e. for the verification of a Fissile Materials Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT) in order to distinguish freshly produced materials from 'old' excess weapons materials. The age of nuclear materials may also be of relevance under a strengthened safeguards regime to reveal clandestine production of weapons usable materials, i.e. the separation of plutonium or production of highly enriched uranium (HEU). The age dating of plutonium samples has been described in detail for bulk samples as well as for particles. In this work we focused on the age determination of uranium materials of different uranium enrichment. The radioactive decay of the uranium isotopes provides a chronometer that is inherent to the material, in particular the mother/daughter pairs 234 U/ 230 Th and 235 U/ 231 Pa can be advantageously used. Due to the relatively long half-lives of 234 U (2.46·10 5 years) and 235 U (7.04·10 8 years) only minute amounts of daughter nuclides are growing in, therefore both separation of Th and Pa from

  7. The Concept of Carrying Capacity in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zelenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity is often pragmatically, theoretically as well as purely intuitively considered as a concept in the context of tourism sustainability. The carrying capacity application has the greatest potential in protected areas, in frequently visited cultural and natural attractions, and in relation to sustaining of the lifestyle of the local community and tourism destination potential in general. Despite its importance, partial applications, determination of basic theoretical principles, and specifying connection to the other theoretical concepts in tourism (particularly destination life cycle, LAC concept, visitors management, there still is a rightful opinion of some authors suggesting that there is no consistent theory of tourism carrying capacity. This theory would be the base for sophisticated practical carrying capacity applications. This paper is therefore focused on introduction of the theoretical concept of carrying capacity, which can be discussed and possibly further elaborated.

  8. Psychosocial determinants of contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in a rural area of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhas S, Sekhon H

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation reports that an estimated 94 per cent of the population of the world lives in countries with policies that favour family planning. Despite this, five of every six couples of reproductive age do not use adequate measures of fertility regulation. Gender inequalities in patriarchal societies ensure that men play a critical role in the decisions on family matters. The present study was undertaken to study the nature of acceptance of contraceptive practices and the psychosocial determinants. Methods: This was a community based cross sectional descriptive study. The anticipated prevalence of contraceptive practices among the 206 women in the age group of 15-49 years was 50%. Considering a margin of error of 10%, with finite correction and 10% of non-response and 95% CI, the sample size was calculated. 90 married women in the reproductive age group of 15-49 years residing at the village were studied after drawing the sample with simple random sampling method. Results: There were 55 (61.11% women who practised contraception. In case of 03 (3.33% couples, husbands used condoms, while in case of remaining 52 (57.78%, wife had undergone tubectomy. Conclusion: From the present study, it was concluded that the most common method of contraception practiced in the study population was tubectomy and a range of psychosocial factors played an important role in decision making.

  9. Age determination of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) from the west coast of Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Sussie; Chriél, Mariann; Hedayat, Abdi

    Age determination of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) by counting growth layer groups (GLG´s) in the teeth is to some extent considered to be subjective and only relative, due to: 1) Limited validation of GLG counts to “known age” of the individual; 2) Variation in methods for preparation...... of teeth e.g. acid (pH) and duration of etching; 3) Difference in interpretations of GLG´s between readers1,2. Bearing in mind these challenges, the age of three sperm whales stranded in Denmark in 2012 and 2014 were determined by counts of GLG´s in the erupted teeth from the lower jaw and comparing...... these with the number of GLG´s obtained from rudimentary teeth in the upper jaw. Teeth were obtained from 3 adult male sperm whales; MCE 1642, stranded at Nr. Lyngby Strand, Denmark in 2012; and MCE 1644 and MCE 1645, who stranded at Henne Strand, Denmark in 2014. From each whale one non-erupted tooth from the maxilla...

  10. Age determination of bottled Chinese rice wine by VIS-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Lin, Tao; Ying, Yibin; Pan, Xingxiang

    2006-10-01

    The feasibility of non-invasive visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy for determining wine age (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years) of Chinese rice wine was investigated. Samples of Chinese rice wine were analyzed in 600 mL square brown glass bottles with side length of approximately 64 mm at room temperature. VIS-NIR spectra of 100 bottled Chinese rice wine samples were collected in transmission mode in the wavelength range of 350-1200 nm by a fiber spectrometer system. Discriminant models were developed based on discriminant analysis (DA) together with raw, first and second derivative spectra. The concentration of alcoholic degree, total acid, and °Brix was determined to validate the NIR results. The calibration result for raw spectra was better than that for first and second derivative spectra. The percentage of samples correctly classified for raw spectra was 98%. For 1-, 2-, and 3-year-old sample groups, the sample were all correctly classified, and for 4- and 5-year-old sample groups, the percentage of samples correctly classified was 92.9%, respectively. In validation analysis, the percentage of samples correctly classified was 100%. The results demonstrated that VIS-NIR spectroscopic technique could be used as a non-invasive, rapid and reliable method for predicting wine age of bottled Chinese rice wine.

  11. Determination of 14C age of inorganic and organic carbon in ancient Siberian permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, T. C.; Liang, R.; Lau, M.; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Lloyd, K. G.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Hodgins, G.; Rivkina, E.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost represents a large reservoir of ancient carbon that could have an important impact on the global carbon budget during climate warming. Due to the low turnover rate of carbon by microorganisms at subzero temperatures, the persistence of ancient carbon in younger permafrost deposits could also pose challenges for radiocarbon dating of permafrost sediment. We utilized Accelerator Mass Spectrometry to determine the 14C age of inorganic carbon, labile and recalcitrant organic carbon in Siberian permafrost sediment sampled at various depths from 2.9 to 5.6m. The fraction of inorganic carbon (CO2) was collected after acidification using phosphoric acid. The labile (younger) and recalcitrant (old) organic carbon in the subsequent residues were collected after combustion at 400 ºC and 800 ºC, respectively. The percentages of inorganic carbon increased from the youngest (2.9m) to the oldest (5.6m), whereas the fractions for organic carbon varied significantly at different depths. The 14C age determined in the inorganic fraction in the top sample (2.9 m) was 21,760 yr BP and gradually increased to 33,900 yr BP in the relative deeper sediment (3.5 and 5.6 m). Surprisingly, the fraction of "younger" carbon liberated at 400 oC was older than the more recalcitrant and presumably older organic carbon liberated at 800 oC in all cases. Moreover, the 14C age of the younger and older organic carbon fractions did not increase with depth as observed in the carbonate fraction. In particular, the 14C age of the organic carbon in the top sample (38,590-41,700 yr BP) was much older than the deeper samples at depth of 3.5m (18,228-20,158 yr BP) and 5.6m (29,040-38,020 yr BP). It should be noticed that the metabolism of ancient carbon in frozen permafrost may vary at different depths due to the different proportion of necromass and metabolically active microbes. Therefore, additional knowledge about the carbon dynamics of permafrost and more investigation would be required to

  12. Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life in Taiwanese Middle-Aged Women Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Chang, Mei-Yueh

    Female stroke victims have a higher survival rate and experience a greater loss of quality of life than do male stroke victims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the determinants of health-related quality of life in middle-aged women stroke survivors. This study is a cross-sectional design. This cross-sectional research uses a descriptive, prospective, and correlational study design to investigate the associations between latent variables. Participants included women stroke survivors, aged 45-65 years, who were patients at a medical center in Taiwan. Participants completed an interview and a six-part questionnaire comprising the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Modified Rankin Scale, Burden Scale, Chinese Health Questionnaire, and five items that pertain to the survivor's cognitive appraisal of coping. Structural equation modeling (SEM), with the use of the partial least squares (PLS) method, was used to examine the proposed conceptual model. A total of 48 dyad samples (48 female stroke survivors, mean age = 55.29; 48 caregivers, mean age = 42.71) participated in the study. Overall, women's physical functioning (PF; stroke severity), cognitive appraisal of coping, and caregiver's psychosocial functioning were the predictors, explaining 43.3% of the variance in women's health-related quality of life. We found that female stroke survivors' level of stroke severity and negative appraisal-impact of stroke are significant predictors of the stroke survivor's quality of life. In addition to assisting women in their PF rehabilitation, rehabilitation nurses also should help to develop survivors' self-care confidence as a means to avoid the recurrence of stroke.

  13. [Epidemiology of arbovirus diseases: use and value of physiologic age determination of female mosquito vectors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondet, B

    1996-01-01

    The physiological age of Yellow Fever Aedes females in Africa was studied during four years, from 1988 to 1992. We used a method, according to Polovodova's method, which looks for the "yellow body" under natural light. Those yellow bodies exist in the old females, the "parous" ones, and not in the young females, the "nulliparous" ones. We present some results to illustrate the interest of studying the physiological age of mosquitoes in the epidemiology of the arboviral diseases. The transmission risk, in relation with abundance and parity rate was illustrated, in particular for Aedes africanus and Aedes luteocephalus, which is useful to compare species, or with a given species, to compare periods. The parity rate of Aedes furcifer females was studied on 6 points along a transect between a forest and a village. The rate and the abundance of the females caught on human bates are inversely proportional. The parity rate is minimum in the canopy forest (about 50%) and maximum inside a house (100%). The rains have different consequences on the species, according to the period of fall. At the beginning of the dry season, they bring about hatching, but not at the end of the dry season. Massive hatching, will occur just at the beginning of the rainy season, some weeks later. Studying the physiological age of Ae. africanus females, the number of nulliparous is not related to the rain. That means a possibility of "natural" hatching for part of the eggs. Among the female of the dry season, young females are found, which is important for the transmission capacity. The method, described herein, to determine the physiological age is perfectly applicable to the Yellow Fever vector Haemagogus janthinomys in Southern America. But for the Dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and probably Aedes albopictus, the Detinova's method seems better. Actually, it seems important to study the physiological age of the vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, as well as the evolution of the physiological

  14. Asteroid age distributions determined by space weathering and collisional evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willman, Mark; Jedicke, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We provide evidence of consistency between the dynamical evolution of main belt asteroids and their color evolution due to space weathering. The dynamical age of an asteroid's surface (Bottke, W.F., Durda, D.D., Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Vokrouhlický, D., Levison, H. [2005]. Icarus 175 (1), 111-140; Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž. [2005]. Icarus 173, 132-152) is the time since its last catastrophic disruption event which is a function of the object's diameter. The age of an S-complex asteroid's surface may also be determined from its color using a space weathering model (e.g. Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Moskovitz, N., Nesvorný, D., Vokrouhlický, D., Mothé-Diniz, T. [2010]. Icarus 208, 758-772; Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž., Jurić, M. [2004]. Nature 429, 275-277; Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Nesvorny, D., Moskovitz, N., Ivezić, Ž., Fevig, R. [2008]. Icarus 195, 663-673. We used a sample of 95 S-complex asteroids from SMASS and obtained their absolute magnitudes and u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes from SDSS. The absolute magnitudes yield a size-derived age distribution. The u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes lead to the principal component color which yields a color-derived age distribution by inverting our color-age relationship, an enhanced version of the 'dual τ' space weathering model of Willman et al. (2010). We fit the size-age distribution to the enhanced dual τ model and found characteristic weathering and gardening times of τw = 2050 ± 80 Myr and τg=4400-500+700Myr respectively. The fit also suggests an initial principal component color of -0.05 ± 0.01 for fresh asteroid surface with a maximum possible change of the probable color due to weathering of Δ PC = 1.34 ± 0.04. Our predicted color of fresh asteroid surface matches the color of fresh ordinary chondritic surface of PC1 = 0.17 ± 0.39.

  15. 'Age' Determination of Irradiated Materials Utilizing Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric (ICP-MS) Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommers, James; Giglio, Jeffrey J.; Cummings, Daniel; Carney, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    A gas pressurized extraction chromatography (GPEC) system has been developed to perform elemental separations on radioactive samples to determine total and isotopic compositions of Cs and Ba from an irradiated salt sample, fuel sample and two sealed radiation sources. The separation is necessary to remove isobaric interferences in the determination of 137Cs, 135Cs, 137Ba, 135Ba, which are used to determine the age of a sample from radioactive decay or purification. The micro-column extraction chromatography system employs compressed nitrogen to move liquid through the system, compared to gravity or pumped liquids that are typically used for separations. The use of compressed gas allows for accurate and precise recovery of all liquids put into the chromatography system, enabling very accurate dilutions. The use of a small analytical column permits the use of very small amounts of liquids to be used. As a benefit, the amount of radiological waste that is generated in the separation process is minimized. For this work, a commercially available Sr-Resin(trademark) was used to perform the separation for the above mentioned analytes. The column consists of a 7 inch piece of 1/16 in. O.D. x 0.030 in I.D. Teflon(trademark) tubing having an internal volume of 81 (micro)L. To this column, 49 mg of resin was added. The columns are re-usable after regeneration with 3 M HNO3. All samples were separated using batch collection, although real time analysis is possible with the current experimental design. A 1 % acetic acid solution was determined to be the best extractant for Ba. A flow rate of 0.1 mL/min was determined to be optimal for the separation of Ba. Complete recovery of the Cs and Ba was achieved, within the systematic error of the experiments.

  16. Accumulated environmental risk determining age at schizophrenia onset: a deep phenotyping-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniak, Beata; Papiol, Sergi; Hammer, Christian; Ramin, Anna; Everts, Sarah; Hennig, Lena; Begemann, Martin; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-11-01

    Schizophrenia is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, as first evidenced by twin studies. Extensive efforts have been made to identify the genetic roots of schizophrenia, including large genome-wide association studies, but these yielded very small effect sizes for individual markers. In this study, we aimed to assess the relative contribution of genome-wide association study-derived genetic versus environmental risk factors to crucial determinants of schizophrenia severity: disease onset, disease severity, and socioeconomic measures. In this parallel analysis, we studied 750 male patients from the Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia (GRAS) dataset (Germany) with schizophrenia for whom both genome-wide coverage of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and deep clinical phenotyping data were available. Specifically, we investigated the potential effect of schizophrenia risk alleles as identified in the most recent large genome-wide association study versus the effects of environmental hazards (ie, perinatal brain insults, cannabis use, neurotrauma, psychotrauma, urbanicity, and migration), alone and upon accumulation, on age at disease onset, age at prodrome, symptom expression, and socioeconomic parameters. In this study, we could show that frequent environmental factors become a major risk for early schizophrenia onset when accumulated (prodrome begins up to 9 years earlier; p=2·9×10(-10)). In particular, cannabis use-an avoidable environmental risk factor-is highly significantly associated with earlier age at prodrome (p=3·8×10(-20)). By contrast, polygenic genome-wide association study risk scores did not have any detectable effects on schizophrenia phenotypes. These findings should be translated to preventive measures to reduce environmental risk factors, since age at onset of schizophrenia is a crucial determinant of an affected individual's fate and the total socioeconomic cost of the illness. German Research Foundation

  17. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  18. Levels and ages of selenium and metals in sedimentary cores of Ise Bay as determined by 210-Pb dating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Chikuma, M.; Tanaka, H.

    1987-01-01

    Ise Bay is connected with estuaries of Nagoya harbor which is one of the most active industrial areas in Japan. Nagoya harbor estuaries are recipient of a large quantity of municipal and industrial discharge. The land boundaries of estuaries are sites of the manufacturing industries and they are utilized by oil tankers and cargo vessels. Accumulation of various kinds of metal such as selenium, mercury, zinc, copper, lead, and chromium have occurred in sediments for many years. The authors have carried out an extensive investigation on the selenium pollution of sea water and sediments of Nagoya harbor estuaries. The input of selenium to Ise Bay has occurred ever since the industrial activity was established in Nagoya city. Investigators have reported the sedimentary record of metals of Tokyo Bay, Osaka Bay and Seto Inland Sea. Some investigators reported the pollution caused by polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon in sediments of Ise Bay, but did not mention metals. The authors determined metals including selenium in sedimentary core samples. The ages of those samples were already estimated by 210-Pb dating technique

  19. Determination of the sterile release rate for stopping growing age-structured populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, Hugh John

    2016-01-01

    A freely-growing age-structured population was modelled for growth and control by sterile male releases. Equilibrium populations yield critical sterile male release rates that would hold the population at equilibrium. It is shown here that these rates may be different from the release rates required to stop a growing population and bring it to an equilibrium. A computer simulation was constructed of this population and a parameter sensitivity analysis graphed the effects on the required sterile male release rate of fertility, mating delay in adult females, net juvenile survivorship, three adult survivorship curves, the time spent in the juvenile stages, and total life span. The adult survivorship curves had the greatest effect on the required sterile release rate for population elimination. The required release rate was also determined for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) using survivorship and fertility data from a laboratory strain. The concepts of over-flooding ratio and release ratio were discussed and quantified for the cases above. (author)

  20. [Determining factors of overweight and obesity in children at school age in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mispireta, Monica L

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in children at school age is an increasing problem in Peru. It concentrates in urban areas, mainly in Lima where one out of three children is overweight. An initial study in 80 schools in Lima showed that the lack of physical activity would have a greater impact on overweight and obesity in school children than the amount of food intake. More detailed studies are required. In spite of the limited information available regarding its determining factors, it is necessary to implement culturally-sensitive measures to fight this problem as part of the current nutritional policies, and prevent the problem from spreading, making sure the sustainability of the health system is not affected.

  1. Centrality determination in Au-Au collisions at 1.23 AGeV with HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuschke, Maximilian [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: HADES-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    An important characterization of events in heavy-ion physics is the centrality. It classifies events by considering the collision's cross section relative to the total cross section of the system. This characteristics is needed for many analyses, as it provides indirect information about the initial geometrical reaction properties. As the production rate of particles is a function of the deposited energy, which itself depends on the centrality, quantities based on measured multiplicities allow to draw conclusions about the centrality of a collision. Estimators used to determine the centrality for Au-Au collisions at 1.23 AGeV recorded with HADES include the charged particle multiplicity and hit multiplicities measured with various detectors, such as the TOF/RPC or forward wall. Calibration methods accounting for variations in the acceptance of the detectors are introduced and verified by comparison with the theoretical expectations, as obtained by calculations with the Glauber-Model.

  2. [Nutritional state associated with social determinants in Arhuaco children aged less than 5 years-old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mónica; Tarazona, María C; Lamus, Francisco; Granados, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Misinformation concerning indigenous communities is an obstacle to ascertaining their healthcare status; however, the role of malnutrition concerning their morbidity and mortality is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to ascertain food security levels and identify social determinants and their association with the nutritional status of children aged less than five years-old. This was a cross-sectional, analytical study of an Arhuaco population which used non-probability sampling for convenience. Anthropometry included analyzing weight, length and head circumference based on WHO 2006 references for nutritional diagnosis. Social determinants were obtained using an instrument adapted from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Relevant ethical considerations were taken into account. 169 children were evaluated and 132 surveys conducted. Growth delay regarding size was less frequent in children aged less than 6 months (p=0.03)and acute malnutrition was higher in those who went to see a traditional doctor first (p=0.01) and whose mothers had no formal schooling (p=0.05); the latter association was also found regarding obesity (p=0.00) and in those having risk factors concerning neurodevelopment too (p=0.00). Nutritional transition was higher in males (p=0.03), in children lacking complete vaccination (p=0.03) and in those whose mothers had 4 or fewer children (p=0.00). Strategies aimed at taking action regarding acute malnutrition and being overweight must be formulated, plans for monitoring growth in this population must be promoted and communication between traditional and Western medicine must be optimized, involving mothers as the main actors.

  3. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L.; Delnatus, Jacques R.; Odom, Audrey R.; Eaton, Jacob C.; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3–13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30–4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  4. Determination of permanent premolars eruption ages among public school children in Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, A.L.; Soomro, S.H.; Khuhawar, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine mean eruption age, range and sequence of permanent maxillary and mandibular premolars in public schools of Lahore, Pakistan so as to provide a reference for planning orthodontic treatment and in pediatric dentistry. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study consisting of multistage random sampling and included 4000 children, with ages in between 9-14 years of different public schools in Lahore. Participants were examined and tooth numbering was noted by two-digit system of FDI (Federation Dentaire Internationale). Emergence was divided into three stages depending on eruption level. SPSS version 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 4000 children, 1960 were boys and 2031 were girls. In both genders maxillary premolars erupted before mandibular counterparts. All premolars erupted earlier in females than the males. The sequence of emergence for both genders was P1, P2 in upper as well as in lower arch. Conclusion: Eruption of premolar in females was earlier than males but delayed in both genders while compared with Western standard. (author)

  5. Contraceptive prevalence and determinants among women of reproductive age group in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyemi AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adewale S Adeyemi,1 Adenike I Olugbenga-Bello,2 Oluwatosin A Adeoye,3 Moshood O Salawu,3 Adesola A Aderinoye,3 Michael A Agbaje1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH, Osogbo, Osun State, 3Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: The fertility rate in Nigeria is 5.7 children per woman. The contraceptive prevalence rate has been found to be low at 15% in 2013, compared to other countries such as the US and Pakistan. Objective: The study aimed to assess the contraceptive prevalence among women of reproductive age in Ogbomoso town, and determinants of use, with a view to make appropriate recommendations that will enhance the uptake of family planning services. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with 560 respondents, using a multistage sampling technique. Data were retrieved using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Results: All the respondents were aware of contraception; however, only 49.7% (271 had ever used any method, while 25.4% (69 of the number who had ever used contraception were currently using a method. The methods being used were the traditional type (four [5.9%], natural type (two [3.0%], and modern type (63 [91.1%]. The predictors of contraception use included the age group of 40–49 years (odds ratio [OR] 14.1; confidence interval [CI] 3.06–73.24; P=0.0001; the married women were approximately four times more likely to use contraception than the single women (OR 4.5; CI 3.03–6.72; P<0.0001. The women with tertiary level of education were three times more likely to use contraception than those without formal education (OR 3.1; CI 1.13–9.95; P=0.0268, and the odds ratio of respondents with a positive attitude to using contraception more than those with negative attitude was 2

  6. Determinants of Indices of Cerebral Volume in Former Very Premature Infants at Term Equivalent Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Naud

    Full Text Available Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at term equivalent age (TEA is suggested to be a reliable tool to predict the outcome of very premature infants. The objective of this study was to determine simple reproducible MRI indices, in premature infants and to analyze their neonatal determinants at TEA. A cohort of infants born before 32 weeks gestational age (GA underwent a MRI at TEA in our center. Two axial images (T2 weighted, were chosen to realize nine measures. We defined 4 linear indices (MAfhlv: thickness of lateral ventricle; CSI: cortex-skull index; VCI: ventricular-cortex index; BOI: bi occipital index and 1 surface index (VS.A: volume slice area. Perinatal data were recorded. Sixty-nine infants had a GA (median (interquartile range of 30.0 weeks GA (27.0; 30.0 and a birth weight of 1240 grams (986; 1477. MRI was done at 41.0 (40.0; 42.0 weeks post menstrual age (PMA. The inter-investigator reproducibility was good. Twenty one MRI (30.5% were quoted abnormal. We observed an association with retinopathy of prematurity (OR [95CI] = 4.205 [1.231-14.368]; p = 0.017, surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (OR = 4.688 [1.01-21.89]; p = 0.036, early onset infection (OR = 4.688 [1.004-21.889]; p = 0.036 and neonatal treatment by cefotaxime (OR = 3.222 [1.093-9.497]; p = 0.03. There was a difference for VCI between normal and abnormal MRI (0.412 (0.388; 0.429 vs. 0.432 (0.418; 0.449; p = 0,019; BOI was higher when fossa posterior lesions were observed; VS.A seems to be the best surrogate for cerebral volume, 80% of VS.As' variance being explained by a multiple linear regression model including 7 variables (head circumference at birth and at TEA, PMA, dopamine, ibuprofen treatment, blood and platelets transfusions. These indices, easily and rapidly achievable, seem to be useful but need to be validated in a large population to allow generalization for diagnosis and follow-up of former premature infants.

  7. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  8. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  9. Stable Isotope Analysis of Extant Lamnoid Shark Centra: A New Tool in Age Determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labs, J.

    2003-12-01

    The oxygen isotopes of fourteen vertebral centra from ten extant lamnoid sharks (including Carcharodon carcharias [great white], Isurus paucus [longfin mako], and Isurus oxyrinchus [shortfin mako]) were sampled and measured along the growth axis to determine the periodicity of incremental growth represented in the centra. As part of the internal (endochondral) skeleton, shark centra are composed initially of hyaline cartilage, which then secondarily ossifies during ontogeny forming calcified hydroxyapatite bone. The incremental growth of shark centra forms definite growth rings, with darker denser portions being deposited during slower growth times (i.e., winter) and lighter portions being deposited during more rapid growth (i.e., summer). Thus, shark centra, whether they are extant or extinct, are characterized by clearly delineated incremental growth couplets. The problem with this general rule is that there are several factors in which the growth of these couplets can vary depending upon physical environment (including temperature and water depth), food availability, and stress. The challenge for paleobiological interpretations is how to interpret the periodicity of this growth. It can generally be assumed that these bands are annual, but it is uncertain the extent to which exceptions to the rule occur. Stable isotopic analysis provides the potential to independently determine the periodicity of the growth increments and ultimately the ontogenetic age of an individual.

  10. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  11. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants - Interim Study FY13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  12. Immunization coverage and its determinants among children 12-23 months of age in Aden, Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda O. Basaleem; Khaled A. Al-Sakkaf; Khadijah Shamsuddin

    2010-01-01

    To assess the immunization status of children aged 12-23 months and its determinants in Aden, Yemen. This cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and July 2007 during which time mothers of 680 children from 37 randomly selected clusters in Aden, were interviewed. Information on socio-demographic profiles and children's immunization status was obtained. Immunization coverage of all officially provided vaccines was assessed. Analysis of association between immunization coverage and the socio-demographic characteristics were tested using logistic regression analysis with the immunization status as the dependent variable. We found that 83.1% had complete, 10.4% had partial, and 6.5% were never immunized. The immunization card retention rate was 84.9%. The immunization coverage was 92.9% for Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin, 89.6% for Oral Polio Vaccine-3, 86.6% for Diphtheria, Pertusis and Tetanus-3 and Hepatitis-B vaccination, and 89.1% for measles. Multivariate analysis showed that children with an immunization card (odds ratio [OR]=14.71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.50-25.44) were more likely to have complete immunization, while children with older aged mothers (OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.22-0.77) were more likely to have complete immunization. Despite the high immunization coverage, 16.9% of children did not have complete immunization, and this rate was lower among children of older mothers, and those who retained their immunization cards. Raising awareness of immunization and increasing access to health services must be strengthened (Author).

  13. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and determinants among Brazilian children under two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Warkentin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study described the duration and identified the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study used data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher 2006 (National Demographic and Health Survey on Women and Children 2006. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by trained professionals and refer to a subsample of 1,704 children aged less than 24 months. The estimated durations of exclusive breastfeeding are presented according to socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiological variables. Kaplan Meier estimator curves were used to produce valid estimates of breastfeeding duration and the Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to identify risks. RESULTS: The median estimated duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 60 days. The final Cox model consisted of mother's age <20 years (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.11-1.48, use of pacifier (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.37-1.71, not residing in the country's southeast region (hazard ratio=1.22, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.40 and socioeconomic status (hazard ratio=1.28, 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.55. CONCLUSION: The Kaplan Meier estimator corrected the underestimated duration of breastfeeding in the country when calculated by the current status methodology. Despite the national efforts done in the last decades to promote breastfeeding, the results indicate that the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is still half of that recommended for this dietary practice to promote health. Ways to revert this situation would be ongoing educational activities involving the educational and health systems, associated with advertising campaigns on television and radio mainly targeting young mothers with low education level and low income, identified as those at high risk of weaning their children early.

  14. Age at menopause and determinants of hysterectomy and menopause in a multi-ethnic community: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Murphy, Lorna; Morrison, Lynn A; Reza, Angela M; Brown, Daniel E

    2013-12-01

    A lifespan approach was used to evaluate age at menopause, and determinants of surgical and natural menopause, in the multi-ethnic community of Hilo, Hawaii. Participants aged 40-60 years (n=898) were drawn from a larger, randomly generated sample recruited by postal questionnaires. Median age at natural menopause was computed by probit analysis. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine determinants of hysterectomy, and Cox regression analysis was used to examine risk factors for an earlier age at menopause. History of hysterectomy, age at menopause. Frequency of hysterectomy was 19.2% at a mean age of 40.5 years. The likelihood of hysterectomy increased with older ages, lower education, mixed ancestry, having been overweight at age 30, and married 20 years prior to survey. Median age at natural menopause was 53.0 years. Smoking and not being married 10 years before survey were associated with an earlier age at menopause. Median age at menopause was later than the national average. Ethnicity and education were determinants of hysterectomy, but not associated with age at natural menopause. Events later in the lifespan (e.g., smoking and not being married 10 years prior to the survey) were more important than earlier events (e.g., childhood residence) in relation to age at menopause. The timing of weight gain and marital status appear to be important in relation to surgical menopause, and the timing of marital status appears to be important in relation to the timing of natural menopause. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does a one year age gap modify the influence of age, maturation and anthropometric parameters as determinants of performance among youth elite soccer players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Lekue, José Antonio; Amado, Markos; Gil, Susana Maria

    2017-08-22

    Since age-groups in soccer often comprise children born within a two-year timeframe, characteristics that define the profile of a successful player may not be appropriate for the oldest or youngest players of the same age group. Therefore, this study aimed to determine to what extent performance was influenced by age, maturation and body size in elite soccer players with barely one year age gap. Anthropometry, 15-m sprint test, modified Barrow´s agility test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1, countermovement jump, and handgrip test were conducted in players aged twelve and under (n=82, 11.1 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD) and between twelve and thirteen (n=79, 12.8 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD). A total score of performance, chronological age and age at peak height velocity were calculated. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-tests, and multiple linear regressions were performed. The explained variance in composite score was greater in the older (54%) than in the younger (30%) players. Sum of skinfolds was the primary predictor of 15-m sprint and countermovement jump in the younger group whereas in the older group chronological age and body size appeared as predictors of performance (41%). Body size explained the variance in most tests in older players. In the younger group biological maturity status explained the variance in endurance (35%) and handgrip (59%) tests. In summary, chronological age and sum of skinfolds influenced most tests; however, predictors differed between age groups. These findings highlight the importance of assessing individual differences in young male soccer players regardless of their similarity in age.

  16. Determinants and health consequences of domestic violence among women in reproductive age at zagazig district, egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Howaida H; Abd El-Rahman, Seham I

    2008-01-01

    Violence against women is a global phenomenon that cuts across all social and economic classes, it has recently drawn attention in the medical field as a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence, to identify socio-demographic and behavioral risk factors and to investigate the relationship between the women's psychological health status and violence exposure. This is a comparative cross-sectional study using a multistage random sampling technique. The sample comprised 500 women aged 18-50y. Data was collected via a structured interview questionnaire including the socio-demographic characteristics of the women and their husbands, some of the husbands' habits, attitude and history of chronic illnesses. Also, the questionnaire assesses different forms of domestic violence, women's reaction to it and its consequences on psychological well-being of women. A depression anxiety scale was used to assess the women's psychological status. The study revealed that the overall prevalence of domestic violence among the studied group was (62.2%); the commonest form (74.0%) was psychological abuse, followed by social (26.8%) one, then the physical (22.4%) and lastly sexual abuse (19.6%). On studying the socio-demographic variables, a significantly higher percentage of younger ( pound 30 years) non-educated, low income and those having any property ownership were more exposed to violence. Also exposure to abuse was more prevalent among women whose husbands were young, non-educated, skilled workers, drug abuser, with positive history of family troubles and chronic illness. The majority of women reported that they react to violence by crying loudly or screaming, while a minority may seek medical care or call the police. Regarding the psychological effect of violence exposure, the most common effects were anxiety (69.2%) and depression (52.2%), with a highly statistically significant

  17. Postnatal Age Is a Critical Determinant of the Neonatal Host Response to Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, James L; Guthrie, Scott O; Wong, Hector R; Lahni, Patrick; Ungaro, Ricardo; Lopez, M Cecilia; Baker, Henry V; Moldawer, Lyle L

    2015-01-01

    Neonates manifest a unique host response to sepsis even among other children. Preterm neonates may experience sepsis soon after birth or during often-protracted birth hospitalizations as they attain physiologic maturity. We examined the transcriptome using genome-wide expression profiling on prospectively collected peripheral blood samples from infants evaluated for sepsis within 24 h after clinical presentation. Simultaneous plasma samples were examined for alterations in inflammatory mediators. Group designation (sepsis or uninfected) was determined retrospectively on the basis of clinical exam and laboratory results over the next 72 h from the time of evaluation. Unsupervised analysis showed the major node of separation between groups was timing of sepsis episode relative to birth (early, <3 d, or late, ≥3 d). Principal component analyses revealed significant differences between patients with early or late sepsis despite the presence of similar key immunologic pathway aberrations in both groups. Unique to neonates, the uninfected state and host response to sepsis is significantly affected by timing relative to birth. Future therapeutic approaches may need to be tailored to the timing of the infectious event based on postnatal age. PMID:26052715

  18. Personality-Related Determinants of Subtle Cognitive Decline in Old Age: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristelle Rodriguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Recent studies of cases with mild cognitive impairment (MCI suggested that besides Alzheimer disease (AD-related biomarkers, some personality dimensions are associated with progression to AD. To date, there are no studies addressing the psychological determinants of subtle cognitive decline in healthy elderly controls. Methods: 488 community-dwelling healthy controls were assessed with a detailed neuropsychological battery at baseline and an 18-month follow-up. Personality factors and facets were investigated at baseline using the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R. Upon follow-up, there were 264 stable controls (sCON and 224 deteriorating controls (dCON. Their personality data were compared to those of the 102 MCI cases using one-way analysis of variance and logistic regression models. Results: Significantly higher scores of Openness factor (as well as Aesthetics, Ideas and Values facets were found in sCON than in both dCON and MCI cases. The three groups did not differ in the other NEO-PI-R factor and facet scores. Openess factor (and the same facets was associated with cognitive preservation in healthy controls (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.87. Lower scores in the same factor and facets conferred higher risk to have MCI (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.79. Conclusion: Higher openness to new experiences and thoughts may be a protective factor against early cognitive decline in brain aging.

  19. Determination of digestible isoleucine: lysine ratio in diets for laying hens aged 42-58 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena de Carvalho Mello

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and fifty-two Hy-Line W36 laying hens were allotted in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 7 replicates and 6 hens per experimental unit in order to determine the ideal ratio of isoleucine (Ile in relation to lysine (Lys to laying hens aged 42-58 weeks. Experimental diets contained digestible Ile at different levels, resulting in different Ile:Lys ratios (0.73:1; 0.78:1; 0.83:1; 0.88:1; 0.93:1 and 0.98:1. A basal diet was formulated to provide Isoleucine in levels below recommendations. This diet was supplemented with L-isoleucine to make up the 6 diets. Each diet was made isonitrogenous by varying the dietary contents of glutamic acid and isocaloric by adjusting the contents of cornstarch. All essential amino acids were provided proportionally to lysine. Egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, albumen, yolk and eggshell contents were recorded and compiled at every 28-day period. No differences were observed in the performance over a wide range of dietary isoleucine concentrations from 5.76 to 7.73 g/kg corresponding to 0.73:1 to 0.98:1 Ile:Lys ratios. The lowest Ile:Lys ratio (0.73:1 was sufficient to ensure satisfactory performance of birds, corresponding to the consumption of 534 mg of isoleucine and 731 mg of lysine/day.

  20. Determinants of institutional delivery among childbearing age women in Western Ethiopia, 2013: unmatched case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Regassa Feyissa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. METHODS: Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. RESULTS: Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 2.754(1.510-8.911], family size [AOR (95% CI = .454(.209-.984], residence [AOR (95% CI = 3.822 (1.766-8.272] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC (AOR (95% CI = 2.914(1.105-7.682], birth order [(AOR (95% CI = .136(.054-.344, age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI = 9.995(2.101-47.556], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI = 6.957(2.422-19.987], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI = 3.541(1.732-7.239] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI = .665(.173-.954], respondents' awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI = 2.454 (1.663-6.255], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI = .258(.122-.549] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Policy makers, health service

  1. Determinants of institutional delivery among childbearing age women in Western Ethiopia, 2013: unmatched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Genemo, Gebi Agero

    2014-01-01

    Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) = 2.754(1.510-8.911)], family size [AOR (95% CI) = .454(.209-.984)], residence [AOR (95% CI) = 3.822 (1.766-8.272)] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC) (AOR (95% CI) = 2.914(1.105-7.682)], birth order [(AOR (95% CI) = .136(.054-.344), age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI) = 9.995(2.101-47.556)], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI) = 6.957(2.422-19.987)], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI) = 3.541(1.732-7.239)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI) = .665(.173-.954)], respondents' awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI) = 2.454 (1.663-6.255)], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI) = .258(.122-.549)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Policy makers, health service organizations, community leaders and other concerned bodies have

  2. Gender, age and religion as determinants of eating habit of youth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of Age, Gender and Religion on eating habit of youth. It made use of simple random technique in selecting 400 youths within Ikenne local government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The age range of the respondents was between 15 years and 40 years with the mean age of 25.2 and standard ...

  3. Fitness Level and Not Aging per se, Determines the Oxygen Uptake Kinetics Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell A. George

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although aging has been associated to slower V˙O2 kinetics, some evidence indicates that fitness status and not aging per se might modulate this response. The main goal of this study was to examine the V˙O2, deoxygenated hemoglobin+myoglobin (deoxy-[Hb+Mb] kinetics, and the NIRS-derived vascular reperfusion responses in older compared to young men of different training levels (i.e., inactive, recreationally active, and endurance trained. Ten young inactive [YI; 26 ± 5 yrs.; peak V˙O2 (V˙O2peak, 2.96 ± 0.55 L·min−1], 10 young recreationally active (YR; 26 ± 6 yrs.; 3.92 ± 0.33 L·min−1, 10 young endurance trained (YT; 30 ± 4 yrs.; 4.42 ± 0.32 L·min−1, 7 older inactive (OI; 69 ± 4 yrs.; 2.50 ± 0.31 L·min−1, 10 older recreationally active (OR; 69 ± 5 yrs.; 2.71 ± 0.42 L·min−1, and 10 older endurance trained (OT; 66 ± 3 yrs.; 3.20 ± 0.35 L·min−1 men completed transitions of moderate intensity cycling exercise (MODS to determine V˙O2 and deoxy-[Hb+Mb] kinetics, and the deoxy-[Hb+Mb]/V˙O2 ratio. The time constant of V˙O2 (τV˙O2 was greater in YI (38.8 ± 10.4 s and OI (44.1 ± 10.8 s compared with YR (26.8 ± 7.5 s and OR (26.6 ± 6.5 s, as well as compared to YT (14.8 ± 3.4 s, and OT (17.7 ± 2.7 s (p < 0.05. τV˙O2 was greater in YR and OR compared with YT and OT (p < 0.05. The deoxy-[Hb+Mb]/V˙O2 ratio was greater in YI (1.23 ± 0.05 and OI (1.29 ± 0.08 compared with YR (1.11 ± 0.03 and OR (1.13 ± 0.06, as well as compared to YT (1.01 ± 0.03, and OT (1.06 ± 0.03 (p < 0.05. Similarly, the deoxy-[Hb+Mb]/ V˙O2 ratio was greater in YR and OR compared with YT and OT (p < 0.05. There was a main effect of training (p = 0.033, whereby inactive (p = 0.018 and recreationally active men (p = 0.031 had significantly poorer vascular reperfusion than endurance trained men regardless of age. This study demonstrated not only that age-related slowing of V˙O2 kinetics can be eliminated in endurance trained individuals

  4. Tacrolimus dose requirements in paediatric renal allograft recipients are characterized by a biphasic course determined by age and bone maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, N.; Herman, J.; Dyck, M. van; Ramazani, Y.; Debbaut, E.; Damme-Lombaerts, R. van; Levtchenko, E.N.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Fieuws, S.; Kuypers, D.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Despite longstanding recognition of significant age-dependent differences in drug disposition during childhood, the exact course and the underlying mechanisms are not known. Our aim was to determine the course and determinants of individual relative dose requirements, during long-term

  5. How honey bees carry pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherne, Marguerite E.; Anyanwu, Gabriel; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Hu, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Honey bees are the tanker of the skies, carrying thirty percent of their weight in pollen per foraging trip using specialized orifices on their body. How do they manage to hang onto those pesky pollen grains? In this experimental study, we investigate the adhesion force of pollen to the honeybee. To affix pollen to themselves, honey bees form a suspension of pollen in nectar, creating a putty-like pollen basket that is skewered by leg hairs. We use tensile tests to show that the viscous force of the pollen basket is more than ten times the honeybee's flight force. This work may provide inspiration for the design of robotic flying pollinators.

  6. Determinants of resilience for people ageing in remote places: a case study in northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Gibb

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how people managed to stay resilient as they aged in remote places. In Western developed countries, 'successful ageing' is associated with older people's right to age in their chosen place. To remain resilient, older people require support to supplement diminishing self-reliance associated with increasing frailty. Such support services do not extend to remote communities, making it difficult to age in place. This article reports on a case study of ageing in remote places, from the perspective of seniors within a small community in remote northern Australia. The study found how older people attempt through volunteer efforts, to supplement the gaps in aged support services. This collective effort to achieve ageing in place demonstrated greater integration with place and social resilience within the community. However, seniors' social resilience was seen as tenuous, given collective self-reliance is based on volunteer efforts of older people.

  7. Determinants of failure to thrive (FTT) among infants aged 6-24 months: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, H; Jafarizadeh, H; Didarloo, A

    2015-01-01

    Failure to thrive (FTT) in children is one of the most important health issues around the world, especially in developing countries. Lack of success in identifying and controlling this health problem may lead to dangerous health consequences for children. The aim of this research was to explore the risk factors for this health problem in infants under two years of age in Urmia, Northwest of Iran. This case-control study was carried out on 445 infants of 6 to 24 months (180 as cases, and 265 as controls) in Urmia, Northwest of Iran, during 2013. The study samples were selected from six health centers, using the purposeful sampling method. To collect data, a questionnaire including items regarding sociodemographics of the children's families, and demographic and nutrition-related variables of infants was utilized. To analysis data and determine the real effect of the aforementioned factors on growth status of infants, a chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were applied. The regression analysis revealed that education level of infants' mothers [AOR = 1.421, 95% CI (1.172, 1.724)], duration of breastfeeding [AOR = 1.859, 95% CI (1.212, 2.852)], birth weight of infants [AOR = 2.777, 95% CI (1.276, 7.166)], family's monthly income [AOR = 1.492, 95% CI (1.117, 2.230)] were correlated with FTT as significant risk factors (P < 0.05). Birth order of infants [AOR = .741, 95% CI ( .573- .958)], however, appeared to be a protective factor for child growth (P < 0.05). The findings of the study may help health care providers in designing and implementing appropriate interventions for improving children's health. In addition, taking into account the importance of healthy growth of children, educating mothers/caretakers would seem beneficial in preventing dangerous diseases in children.

  8. Behavioral determinants of healthy aging: good news for the baby boomer generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman-Stein, Paula E; Potkanowicz, Edward S

    2003-01-01

    The first of the Baby Boomer generation will officially enter the beginning of old age in 2011 by turning 65. Recent research findings suggest that if the members of this cohort group engage in certain healthy behaviors and thought patterns in their middle years, they will experience a vital, satisfying life in their 70s and beyond. This article reviews the existing literature, including the results of longitudinal studies showing variables that predicted successful aging. Focusing on a lifespan psychology perspective of aging, the authors provide behavioral recommendations for middle age individuals that are likely to prevent disease-related disability, cognitive impairment, and late life depression. These include regular physical exercise, engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, maintaining an optimistic mental outlook, and finding meaning in life. The good news for the Baby Boomers is that there is increasing evidence that their behavior at age 50 will impact how they feel at age 80.

  9. Is Greulich–Pyle age estimation applicable for determining maturation in male Africans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G. Morri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal age estimation as a means of assessing development and skeletal maturation in children and adolescents is of great importance for clinical and forensic purposes. The skeletal age of a test population is estimated by comparison with established standards, the most common standards being those in the Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wristpublished by Greulich and Pyle in 1959. These standards are based on the assumption that skeletal maturity in male individuals is attained by the chronological age of 19 years. Although they have been widely tested, the applicability of these standards to contemporary populations has yet to be tested on a population of African biological origin living in South Africa. We therefore estimated the skeletal age of 131 male Africans aged between 13 and 21 years, using the Greulich–Pyle method which we applied to pre-existing hand–wrist radiographs. Estimated skeletal age was compared to the known chronological age for each radiograph. Skeletal age was on average approximately 6 months younger than chronological age. The Greulich–Pyle method underestimated skeletal age for approximately 74%of the sample and overestimated skeletal age for 26%of the sample. Skeletal maturity as characterised by complete epiphyseal fusion occurred approximately 2.1 years later than Greulich and Pyle’s estimate of 19 years. Thus skeletal maturation was still in progress in a large proportion of the 20- and 21-year-old individuals in our study. The Greulich–Pyle method showed high precision but low accuracy and was therefore not directly applicable to African male individuals. Formulation of skeletal age estimation standards specific to South African populations is therefore recommended.

  10. In vitro determination of the anti-aging potential of four southern African medicinal plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlovu, G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available southern African medicinal plants; Clerodendrum glabrum, Schotia brachypetala, Psychotria capensis and Peltophorum africanum, were investigated to assess their anti-aging properties....

  11. CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, J-M; Ramos, E M; Lee, J-H

    2012-01-01

    Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound...

  12. Mapping of Vegetation with the Geoinformation System and Determining of Carrying Capacity of the Pre-Urals Steppe area for a Newly Establishing Population of the Przewalski Horse Equus ferus przewalskii at the Orenburg State Nature Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, N. I.; Mikhailenko, O. I.; Zharkikh, T. L.; Bakirova, R. T.

    2018-01-01

    Mapping of the vegetation (1:25000) of the Pre-Urals Steppe area at the Orenburg State Nature Reserve was completed in 2016. A map created with the geoinformation system contains 1931 simple and complex polygons for 25 types of vegetation. In a drought year, the average stock of palatable vegetation of the whole area is estimated at 8380 tons dry weight. The estimation is based on the size of areas covered by different types of vegetation, their grass production, the correction coefficients for decreasing of pasture forage stocks in winter and decreasing of production of grass communities in dry years. Based on pasture forage stocks the area could tolerate the maximum population size of 1769 individuals of the Przewalski horse, their average density could be 0.11 horse per ha. Yet, as watering places for animals are limited in Pre-Urals Steppe, grazing pressures on the vegetation next to the water sources may increase in dry years. That is why the above-mentioned calculated maximum population size and density must be reduced at least by half until some additional watering places are established and monitoring of the grazing effect on the vegetation next to the places is carried out regularly. Thus, the maximum size of the population is estimated at 800 to 900 individuals, which is almost 1.5 times more than necessary to establish a self-sustained population of the Przewalski horse.

  13. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in waterbird nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ± 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ± 1.6 days and 1.9 ± 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ± 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ± 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates.

  14. Thermoluminescence age determination of Mt. Fuji lava dome, Takahara volcano, North Kanto, Central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Isao

    1999-01-01

    Mt. Fuji lava dome thought to be formed by recent action of Takahara volcano, is reported to be due to eruption at the Holocene epoch age on 1,000 or 6,500 years ago. However, on either of them the lava dome did not directly conduct its age measurement, and its age is obtained indirectly from eruption age of tephra estimated to be same age. Recently, precision thermo-luminescence (TL) method is improved and upgraded, by using which formulation of the Mayu-yama in the Unzen volcano was cleared to be about 4,000 years ago which corresponded to be very young. In this paper, by using the TL method for lava dome racks, it was attempted to remove uncertainty forming an indirect age estimation shown as previously. As a result, adopted samples showed 6.5 to 7.4 ka in age value, which showed a good agreement under considering of error. This result was older than 1,000 and some years, and was younger than 20,000 to 25,000 years, which showed a good agreement with 6,500 years ago, obtained by combining closed layer order survey and 14-C age. It is thought to be an important contribution in future forecasting of volcano eruption that the last period action of the Takahara volcano must be at the Holocene epoch age. And, as limited to a quartz containing sample, this can be said to show priority of TL method for a method to directly obtain age of younger dome rock than 10,000 years. (G.K.)

  15. Determining infants' age for measles vaccination based on persistence of protective level of maternal measles antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpi, Tanjida; Sattar, Humayun; Miah, Md Ruhul Amin

    2009-12-01

    The present study was conducted over a period of one year to find the right time for measles vaccination when maternal antibody titer in infants was decayed rendering them susceptible to wild virus infection. Blood samples were collected from the cord of new born (147), 2-5 months (47) and 5 to 7.5 months (24) of age. The mean measles IgG antibody titer detected in cord blood at birth (0 months) was 348.8 mlU/mL which steeply decreased to 155.6 mlU/mL by the age of 2-3 months. After that the fall in antibody becomes relatively slower and decreased to 101.6 mIU/mL by the age of 3-5 months and 38.8 mlU/mL by the age of 5-6 months and to 19.2 mIU/mL between the age of 6 to 7.5 months. The fall in antibody level with the advance of age was statistically significant (p < 0.001 ). Majority of the subjects (97.6%) exhibited protective level of antibody at birth. But only a little above one-quarter (25.5%) of them persisted the protective level between the age of 2-5 months and none had protective level from 5 months onwards.

  16. Age as a determinant of nutritional status: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariballa Salah

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undenutrition is known to be prevalent and largely unrecognised in older patients; however, aberrations in indicators of nutritional status may simply reflect effects of age and/or functional disability. Objective The aim of this study was to measure the effect, if any of age on nutritional status in older patients. Design 445 randomly selected hospitalised patients consented to nutritional status assessment derived from anthropometric, haematological, and biochemical data within 72 hours of admission. Nutritional status was compared between those age Results Body weight, body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, haemoglobin, serum albumin and plasma ascorbic acid were all significantly lower in people aged ≥ 75 years compared with those 3, red-cell folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were lower in those aged ≥ 75 years, differences were not statistically significant. After adjusting for disability and co-morbidity in a multivariate analysis, age alone had a significant and independent effect on important anthropometric and biochemical nutritional assessment variables. Conclusion Increasing age is independently associated with poor nutritional status. This may partly explain the poor clinical outcome in older patients.

  17. Age of onset, nutritional determinants, and seasonal variations in menarche in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee H; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur; Christian, Parul

    2009-12-01

    Menarche is an important milestone in the development of female adolescents. The study assessed the age at menarche using recall, its seasonality, and association with marital and nutritional status (using mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC]) among 3,923 female adolescents aged 12-19 years in a rural area of Bangladesh. At the time of assessment, most (88%) adolescents had attained menarche at the mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 12.8 (1.4) years. Age of onset of menarche among married adolescents (13%) occurred earlier than in those who were unmarried (12.6 +/- 1.3 years vs 12.9 +/- 1.4 years, p < 0.01). Age at menarche was negatively associated with MUAC after adjusting for age and marital status (beta = -0.10, p < 0.01). More than 50% of the adolescents had an onset of menarche during winter (chi2 = 634.97; p < 0.001), with peaks in December and January. In this rural population, the current age at menarche was found to be slightly lower than the previous estimates of 13.0 years in Bangladesh. An early onset of menarche was associated with season and better nutritional status of the female adolescents and may be associated with early marriage.

  18. Donor age and C1orf132/MIR29B2C determine age-related methylation signature of blood after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spólnicka, Magdalena; Piekarska, Renata Zbieć; Jaskuła, Emilia; Basak, Grzegorz W; Jacewicz, Renata; Pięta, Agnieszka; Makowska, Żanetta; Jedrzejczyk, Maciej; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka; Pluta, Agnieszka; Robak, Tadeusz; Berent, Jarosław; Branicki, Wojciech; Jędrzejczak, Wiesław; Lange, Andrzej; Płoski, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    Our recent study demonstrated that DNA methylation status in a set of CpGs located in ELOVL2, C1orf132, TRIM59, KLF14, and FHL2 can accurately predict calendar age in blood. In the present work, we used these markers to evaluate the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) on the age-related methylation signature of human blood. DNA methylation in 32 CpGs was investigated in 16 donor-recipient pairs using pyrosequencing. DNA was isolated from the whole blood collected from recipients 27-360 days (mean 126) after HSCT and from the donors shortly before the HSCT. It was found that in the recipients, the predicted age did not correlate with their calendar age but was correlated with the calendar age (r = 0.94, p = 4 × 10(-8)) and predicted age (r = 0.97, p = 5 × 10(-10)) of a respective donor. Despite this strong correlation, the predicted age of a recipient was consistently lower than the predicted age of a donor by 3.7 years (p = 7.8 × 10(-4)). This shift was caused by hypermethylation of the C1orf132 CpGs, for C1orf132 CpG_1. Intriguingly, the recipient-donor methylation difference correlated with calendar age of the donor (r = 0.76, p = 6 × 10(-4)). This finding could not trivially be explained by shifts of the major cellular factions of blood. We confirm the single previous report that after HSCT, the age of the donor is the major determinant of age-specific methylation signature in recipient's blood. A novel finding is the unique methylation dynamics of C1orf132 which encodes MIR29B2C implicated in the self-renewing of hematopoietic stem cells. This observation suggests that C1orf132 could influence graft function after HSCT.

  19. Systematic main sequence photometry of globular cluster stars for age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The individual photometric study of the coeval stars in globular clusters presents one of the best observational tests of the stellar evolution theory. Our own globular cluster system provides fundamental clues to the dynamical and chemical evolutionary history of the galaxy, and the study of their ages give a lower limit to the age of the galaxy as well as to that of the universe. The authors have undertaken a systematic research program, and discuss the ages deduced by fitting main sequence photometry to theoretical isochrones of six galactic globular clusters: M4, M22, M30, NGC 288, NGC 3201 and NGC 6397. (Auth.)

  20. Age-Based Differences in the Genetic Determinants of Glycemic Control: A Case of FOXO3 Variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Sun

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is a trait of healthy ageing and is crucial to the elderly, but less consideration has been given to the age composition in most studies involving genetics and hyperglycemia.Seven variants in FOXO3 were genotyped in three cohorts (n = 2037; LLI, MI_S and MI_N; mean age: 92.5 ± 3.6, 45.9 ± 8.2 and 46.8 ± 10.3, respectively to compare the contribution of FOXO3 to fasting hyperglycemia (FH between long-lived individuals (LLI, aged over 90 years and middle-aged subjects (aged from 35-65 years.A different genetic predisposition of FOXO3 alleles to FH was observed between LLI and both of two middle-aged cohorts. In the LLI cohort, the longevity beneficial alleles of three variants with the haplotype "AGGC" in block 1 were significantly protective to FH, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1C and HOMA-IR. Notably, combining multifactor dimensionality reduction and logistic regression, we identified a significant 3-factor interaction model (rs2802288, rs2802292 and moderate physical activity associated with lower FH risk. However, not all of the findings were replicated in the two middle-aged cohorts.Our data provides a novel insight into the inconsistent genetic determinants between middle-aged and LLI subjects. FOXO3 might act as a shared genetic predisposition to hyperglycemia and lifespan.

  1. Age-Based Differences in the Genetic Determinants of Glycemic Control: A Case of FOXO3 Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Hu, Caiyou; Qian, Yu; Zheng, Chenguang; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Zeping; Huang, Zezhi; Qi, Keyan; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Ze

    2015-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is a trait of healthy ageing and is crucial to the elderly, but less consideration has been given to the age composition in most studies involving genetics and hyperglycemia. Seven variants in FOXO3 were genotyped in three cohorts (n = 2037; LLI, MI_S and MI_N; mean age: 92.5 ± 3.6, 45.9 ± 8.2 and 46.8 ± 10.3, respectively) to compare the contribution of FOXO3 to fasting hyperglycemia (FH) between long-lived individuals (LLI, aged over 90 years) and middle-aged subjects (aged from 35-65 years). A different genetic predisposition of FOXO3 alleles to FH was observed between LLI and both of two middle-aged cohorts. In the LLI cohort, the longevity beneficial alleles of three variants with the haplotype "AGGC" in block 1 were significantly protective to FH, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1C and HOMA-IR. Notably, combining multifactor dimensionality reduction and logistic regression, we identified a significant 3-factor interaction model (rs2802288, rs2802292 and moderate physical activity) associated with lower FH risk. However, not all of the findings were replicated in the two middle-aged cohorts. Our data provides a novel insight into the inconsistent genetic determinants between middle-aged and LLI subjects. FOXO3 might act as a shared genetic predisposition to hyperglycemia and lifespan.

  2. The Advisory Opinion of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea: Matters related to the determination of effective link between the States and the legal persons they sponsor to carry out activities in the Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Nicolás Guerrero Peniche

    2012-12-01

    Tribunal for the Law of the Sea so it could be clarified. The advisory opinion of the Tribunal advanced conclusions particularly relevant for the determination of a nationality link between the legal persons and the States that sponsor them. This matter, which plays an essential role for achieving an effective protection of the marine environment within the sponsorship mechanisms for exploration and exploitation of the resources of the Area, also has some relevant consequences for the activities in reserved areas.

  3. Intention, Damage, and Age of Transgressor as Determinants of Children's Moral Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suls, Jerry; Kalle, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Examined kindergarten, first, third, and fifth graders' reactions to the moral transgressions of children and adults. The stories presented to the children varied in terms of intention, damage, and age of transgressor. (BD)

  4. The age of Male Karpaty Mts. granitoid rocks determined by Rb-Sr isochrone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badgasaryan, G.P.; Gukasyan, R.Kh.; Veselsky, J.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of nuclear geochronological datings of Male Karpaty Mts. granitoids by Rb-Sr isochrone method. Using the method the age of Bratislava massif granitoids was established to be 347+-4 mil. y. at ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)=0.7076+-0.0013 and the age of Modra massif granitoids to be 324+-18 mil. y. at ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)=0.7075+-0.00032 (2σ). The relative agreement of age of both massifs as well as the agreement of the primary ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 not only testifies to their continuity in age but also in genesis. The same relations also confirm the genetic dependence of pegmatites and leucocratic granitoids on fundamental types of granitoids building up the Bratislava and Modra massifs. (author)

  5. 40Ar-39Ar age determinations on the Owyhee basalt of the Columbia plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottomley, R.J.; York, D.

    1976-01-01

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar step-heating analyses have been performed on 11 samples of basalt from sites near Owyhee Reservoir of southeastern Oregon, U.S.A. These rocks were extruded during the great flood basalt episode of the Pacific Northwest. The whole-rock points are highly correlated on a plot of 40 Ar/ 36 Ar versus 39 Ar/ 36 Ar, corresponding to a common age of the samples of 14.3+-0.3 m.y. Inspite of this, individual 'plateau' plots of the age versus fraction of 39 Ar released do not give good plateaux. These age spectra exhibit to varying degrees a common structure in which lower age values are found at higher temperatures. This pattern may result from a closed-system redistribution of the argon isotopes. The usefulness of grinding the basalts in removing a loosely held atmospheric argon component is confirmed. (Auth.)

  6. Review of some recent techniques of age determination of blow flies having forensic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Bala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forensic entomology can aid death investigation by using predictable developmental changes to estimate the age of flies associated with a body. Forensic entomologists use size and developmental stages to estimate blowfly age, and from those, a Postmortem Interval. Calliphorids are very interesting in forensic sciences from an applied point of view, because they provide relevant evidence for estimating the Postmortem Interval. Since such estimates are generally accurate but often lack precision, particularly in the older developmental stages, so there is a need of some alternative aging methods. The range of techniques available for age grading of adult insects is reviewed, with particular emphasis on species of medical importance. The techniques described include pteridine fluorescence analysis, internal morphological analysis, cuticular hydrocarbon analysis, gene expression analysis, cuticular banding pattern analysis, volatile organic compounds analysis released by larvae and pupae.

  7. Validation of adult height prediction based on automated bone age determination in the Paris Longitudinal Study of healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D. [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Filderklinik, Filderstadt (Germany); Schittenhelm, Jan [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Thodberg, Hans Henrik [Visiana, Holte (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    An adult height prediction model based on automated determination of bone age was developed and validated in two studies from Zurich, Switzerland. Varied living conditions and genetic backgrounds might make the model less accurate. To validate the adult height prediction model on children from another geographical location. We included 51 boys and 58 girls from the Paris Longitudinal Study of children born 1953 to 1958. Radiographs were obtained once or twice a year in these children from birth to age 18. Bone age was determined using the BoneXpert method. Radiographs in children with bone age greater than 6 years were considered, in total 1,124 images. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and the observed adult height was 2.8 cm for boys in the bone age range 6-15 years and 3.1 cm for girls in the bone age range 6-13 years. The bias (the average signed difference) was zero, except for girls below bone age 12, where the predictions were 0.8 cm too low. The accuracy of the BoneXpert method in terms of root mean square error was as predicted by the model, i.e. in line with what was observed in the Zurich studies. (orig.)

  8. Validation of adult height prediction based on automated bone age determination in the Paris Longitudinal Study of healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, David D.; Schittenhelm, Jan; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    An adult height prediction model based on automated determination of bone age was developed and validated in two studies from Zurich, Switzerland. Varied living conditions and genetic backgrounds might make the model less accurate. To validate the adult height prediction model on children from another geographical location. We included 51 boys and 58 girls from the Paris Longitudinal Study of children born 1953 to 1958. Radiographs were obtained once or twice a year in these children from birth to age 18. Bone age was determined using the BoneXpert method. Radiographs in children with bone age greater than 6 years were considered, in total 1,124 images. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and the observed adult height was 2.8 cm for boys in the bone age range 6-15 years and 3.1 cm for girls in the bone age range 6-13 years. The bias (the average signed difference) was zero, except for girls below bone age 12, where the predictions were 0.8 cm too low. The accuracy of the BoneXpert method in terms of root mean square error was as predicted by the model, i.e. in line with what was observed in the Zurich studies. (orig.)

  9. Toxicity Determinations for Five Energetic Materials, Weathered and Aged in Soil, to the Collembolan Folsomia Candida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    obtained from the Soil Fauna and Ecotoxicology Research Unit, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute (Silkeborg...AND AGED IN SOIL , TO THE COLLEMBOLAN FOLSOMIA CANDIDA ECBC-TR-1273 Carlton T. Phillips Ronald T. Checkai Roman G. Kuperman Michael Simini...for Five Energetic Materials, Weathered and Aged in Soil , to the Collembolan Folsomia candida 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. Review of some recent techniques of age determination of blow flies having forensic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Bala; Anika Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Forensic entomology can aid death investigation by using predictable developmental changes to estimate the age of flies associated with a body. Forensic entomologists use size and developmental stages to estimate blowfly age, and from those, a Postmortem Interval. Calliphorids are very interesting in forensic sciences from an applied point of view, because they provide relevant evidence for estimating the Postmortem Interval. Since such estimates are generally accurate but often lack precisio...

  11. Variations in Community Prevalence and Determinants of Recreational and Utilitarian Walking in Older Age

    OpenAIRE

    Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Hannan, Marian T.; Cheng, Jie; Kane, Kevin; Li, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Background:. Regular walking is critical to maintaining health in older age. We examined influences of individual and community factors on walking habits in older adults. Methods:. We analyzed walking habits among participants of a prospective cohort study of 745 community-dwelling men and women, mainly aged 70 years or older. We estimated community variations in utilitarian and recreational walking, and examined whether the variations were attributable to community differences in individual ...

  12. Is Greulich–Pyle age estimation applicable for determining maturation in male Africans?

    OpenAIRE

    Alan G. Morri; Kundisai A. Dembetembe

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal age estimation as a means of assessing development and skeletal maturation in children and adolescents is of great importance for clinical and forensic purposes. The skeletal age of a test population is estimated by comparison with established standards, the most common standards being those in the Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wristpublished by Greulich and Pyle in 1959. These standards are based on the assumption that skeletal maturity in male individua...

  13. The utility of ultrasonographic bone age determination in detecting growth disturbances; a comparative study with the conventional radiographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajalioghli, Parisa; Tarzamni, Mohammad Kazem; Arami, Sara [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fouladi, Daniel Fadaei [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghojazadeh, Morteza [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To test whether the conventional radiographic technique in determining bone age abnormalities can be replaced by ultrasonography. A total of 54 Caucasian subjects up to 7 years of age with clinically suspected growth problems underwent left hand and wrist radiographic and ultrasonographic bone age estimations with the use of the Greulich-Pyle atlas. The ultrasonographic scans targeted the ossification centers in the radius and ulna distal epiphysis, carpal bones, epiphyses of the first and third metacarpals, and epiphysis of the middle phalanx, as described in previous reports. The degree of agreement between the two sets of data, as well as the accuracy of the ultrasonographic method in detecting radiographically suggested bone age abnormities, was examined. The mean chronological age, radiographic bone age, and ultrasonographic bone age (all in months) were 41.96 ± 22.25, 26.68 ± 14.08, and 26.71 ± 13.50 in 28 boys and 43.62 ± 24.63, 30.12 ± 17.69, and 31.27 ± 18.06 in 26 girls, respectively. According to the Bland-Altman plot there was high agreement between the results of the two methods with only three outliers. The deviations in bone age from the chronological age taken by the two techniques had the same sign in all patients. Supposing radiography to be the method of reference, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of sonography in detecting growth abnormalities were all 100 % in males and 90.9, 100, 100, and 93.8 %, respectively, in females. The conventional radiographic technique for determining bone age abnormalities could be replaced by ultrasonography. (orig.)

  14. Hormonal determinants of the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Kuczerowski, Roman; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Andropausal and depressive symptoms are common in aging males and may be associated with hormone deficiency. We investigated the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms, as well as their hormonal determinants, in 196 middle-aged and elderly men (age range: 40-80 years) with prediabetes (PD) and in 184 healthy peers. PD was diagnosed according to the definition of the American Diabetes Association. The severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Aging Males' Symptoms Rating Scale and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. The prevalence of andropausal syndrome in men with PD was significantly higher than that in healthy men (35% vs 11%, respectively). In men with PD aged 40-59 years, the severity of sexual, psychological, and all andropausal symptoms was greater than in healthy peers, while in elderly men (60-80 years), only the severity of psychological symptoms was greater than in healthy peers. The severity of depressive symptoms in the middle-aged men with PD was greater than in healthy peers, while the severity of depressive symptoms in elderly men with PD and healthy peers was similar. The higher prevalence of andropausal symptoms was independently associated with cFT and IGF-1 in middle-aged men and with TT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. The more severe depression symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS in middle-aged men and with low cFT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. In conclusion, the prevalence of andropausal symptoms, especially psychological, was higher in prediabetic patients as compared to healthy men, while the severity of depressive symptoms was higher only in middle-aged men with PD. Hormonal determinants of andropausal and depressive symptoms are different in middle-aged and elderly patients, but endocrine tests are necessary in all men with PD.

  15. Factors affecting age of onset of menopause and determination of quality of life in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Ceylan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a process in the climacteric period, characterized by a reduction in ovarian activity, a fall in the fertility rate, and a range of symptoms including irregular menstruation intervals. Most women enter menopause in their 40s, but this can vary from one individual to another. Although there are many factors affecting the age of menopause onset, there is no general agreement on them. Studies have shown many factors to affect the age of menopause, such as the mother’s age at menopause, the age at menarche, gestational age, use of oral contraceptives, irregular menstrual cycle, number of pregnancies, body mass index, use of tobacco and alcohol, physical activity, unilateral oophorectomy, serum lead levels, consumption of polyunsaturated fat, socioeconomic status and educational level. During this period, hormonal and biochemical changes give rise to various symptoms in the woman’s body. In menopause period, physical, psychological, social and sexual changes have a negative effect on quality of life in women. Recently, different measures have been used to assess women’s quality of life in this period of change. The purpose of this review was to examine the factors affecting the onset age of menopause and the measures of quality of life related to menopause.

  16. The application of NAA and ASS techniques on determination of daily dietary intake of Ca, Fe and Zn in school-aged children in Bandung city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widya Dwi Ariyani; Katharina Oginawati; Muhayatun Santoso; Diah Dwiana L; Endah Damastuti; Syukria Kurniawati; Natalia Adventini; Woro Yatu Niken S

    2011-01-01

    Micronutrient elements contained in foods have an important role in the metabolism process in human body, so micronutrient element deficiencies can cause health problems and chronic diseases. Children are the population that generally more vulnerable in suffering of micronutrient deficiencies which have significant affects on their growth and development. Micronutrient deficiencies have long been happening in Indonesia but were not solved and the nutrition status data of children in Indonesia is still limited. Therefore, through this research the daily dietary intake of Ca, Fe and Zn micronutrient in school-aged children has been determined. Food sampling was carried out using duplicate diet method and the Fe and Zn elements were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) while the Ca was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) method. The analysis results show the range concentration of Ca, Fe and Zn in food samples obtained were 307-1991; 10,1-95,5 and 11,9-29,4 mg/kg respectively, while the average of Ca, Fe and Zn daily intake were 228; 9.3 and 4.6 mg/day and they were only fulfill 28%, 74% and 39% of AKG (adequate value of nutrient). The Ca, Fe and Zn deficiencies were observed on school-aged children in Bandung. This result is expected to give description and information to the authority on planning and policies taking as efforts in quality improvement of the next human resources. (author)

  17. Determining the Ages and Eruption Rates of the Columbia River Basalt Group Magnetozones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, N. A.; Coe, R. S.; Renne, P. R.; Glen, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) eruptions have a well defined relative magnetostratigraphy but have not been definitively correlated to the geomagnetic polarity time scale. Fifteen 40Ar/39Ar ages from lavas erupted in the R0 through R1 magnetozones of the CRBG, in conjunction with the geomagnetic polarity time scales (GPTS) of Lourens et al. (2004) and Billups et al. (2004) based on sea-floor spreading rates and orbital tuning, identify the R0 as the C5Cr chron. Particularly important for correlation to GPTS are four ages from transitionally magnetized lavas from the R0-N0 transition (Steens Reversal) found at Steens Mountain, Catlow Peak and Poker Jim Ridge. These transitionally magnetized lavas, found in sections separated by ~100 km and definitively erupted during the same reversal based on the similarity of their transitional field paths, have a weighted mean age 16.58 ±± 0.19 Ma (±± stands for two sigma). At the top of the Catlow Peak section, a more precise age of 16.654 ±± 0.050 Ma of the normally magnetized Oregon Canyon Tuff places further constraints on the age of the Steens Reversal. Using Isoplot’s Bayesian statistical “Stacked Beds” function on four flows at Catlow Peak (including the mean age of the Steens Reversal) gives a best age of the Steens Reversal at that section of 16.73 +0.13/-0.08 Ma (95% confidence). A normally magnetized Imnaha Basalt age of 16.85 ±± 0.42 Ma, a normally magnetized basalt age from Pole Creek (16.45 ±± 0.22 Ma), and other ages correlate the N0 to the C5Cn.3n chron. Depending on the geomagnetic polarity time scale model, the eruption rate from N0 through R2 (0.34-0.42 Ma in the middle and the bulk of the CRBG emplacement) averaged 0.33-0.45 km3/a and peaked at a rate 1 ½ to 4 ½ times higher during R2. Billups, K., H. Palike, J. E. T. Channell, J. C. Zachos, and N. J. Shackleton, Astronomic Calibration of the Late Oligocene Through Early Miocene Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale, Earth and Planetary

  18. Parity History Determines a Systemic Inflammatory Response to Spread of Ovarian Cancer in Naturally Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzua, Ulises; Chacon, Carlos; Lizama, Luis; Sarmiento, Sebastián; Villalobos, Pía; Kroxato, Belén; Marcelain, Katherine; Gonzalez, María-Julieta

    2017-10-01

    Aging intersects with reproductive senescence in women by promoting a systemic low-grade chronic inflammation that predisposes women to several diseases including ovarian cancer (OC). OC risk at menopause is significantly modified by parity records during prior fertile life. To date, the combined effects of age and parity on the systemic inflammation markers that are particularly relevant to OC initiation and progression at menopause remain largely unknown. Herein, we profiled a panel of circulating cytokines in multiparous versus virgin C57BL/6 female mice at peri-estropausal age and investigated how cytokine levels were modulated by intraperitoneal tumor induction in a syngeneic immunocompetent OC mouse model. Serum FSH, LH and TSH levels increased with age in both groups while prolactin (PRL) was lower in multiparous respect to virgin mice, a finding previously observed in parous women. Serum CCL2, IL-10, IL-5, IL-4, TNF-α, IL1-β and IL-12p70 levels increased with age irrespective of parity status, but were specifically reduced following OC tumor induction only in multiparous mice. Animals developed hemorrhagic ascites and tumor implants in the omental fat band and other intraperitoneal organs by 12 weeks after induction, with multiparous mice showing a significantly extended survival. We conclude that previous parity history counteracts aging-associated systemic inflammation possibly by reducing the immunosuppression that typically allows tumor spread. Results suggest a partial impairment of the M2 shift in tumor-associated macrophages as well as decreased stimulation of regulatory B-cells in aged mice. This long term, tumor-concurrent effect of parity on inflammation markers at menopause would be a contributing factor leading to decreased OC risk.

  19. Ar-40/Ar-39 age determinations for the Rotoiti eruption, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flude, S.; Storey, M.

    2013-12-01

    The contemporaneous Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat ignimbrites, erupted from the Taupo Volcanic zone, New Zealand, form a distinctive tephrostratigraphic horizon in the Southern Pacific. Radioisotopic dating results for these eruptions remain controversial, with published ages ranging from 35.1 × 2.8 ka [1] to 71 × 6 ka [2], with 61.0 × 1.5 ka [3] often being cited as the most widely accepted age. These eruptions are difficult to date as their age is near the limit for various radiometric dating techniques, which are complicated by a large proportion of inherited material (xenocrysts) and a lack of phases suitable for dating. Glass-bearing plutonic blocks erupted with the Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat ignimbrites have previously been interpreted as deriving from a slowly cooled and incompletely solidified magma body that was sampled by the eruptions. They contain large vugs lined with euhedral quartz, sanidine and biotite crystals, indicating that these crystals grew in a gas or aqueous fluid rich environment and are interpreted to have formed shortly before or during eruption. Here we will present Ar-40/Ar-39 ages for sanidines and biotites extracted from vugs in lithic blocks erupted as part of the Earthquake Flat ignimbrite. We show that, even for vug-lining material, inherited ages remain a problem and are the likely source of the wide variation in published radiometric ages. Nevertheless, many of the Ar-40/Ar-39 ages are much younger than the 61 ka age [3] and are more consistent with the recent stratigraphic, C-14 and U-238/Th-230+(U-Th)/He ages that have been suggested (e.g. [4,5]). 1. Whitehead, N. & Ditchburn, R. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 37, 381-383 (1994). 2. Ota, Y., Omura, A. & Iwata, H. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 32, 327-331 (1989). 3. Wilson, C. J. N. et al. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 1861-1870 (2007). 4. Molloy, C., Shane, P. & Augustinus, P. Geological Society of America Bulletin 121, 1666-1677 (2009). 5

  20. The control of translational accuracy is a determinant of healthy ageing in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Haar, Tobias; Leadsham, Jane E; Sauvadet, Aimie; Tarrant, Daniel; Adam, Ilectra S; Saromi, Kofo; Laun, Peter; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Breitenbach-Koller, Hannelore; Breitenbach, Michael; Tuite, Mick F; Gourlay, Campbell W

    2017-01-01

    Life requires the maintenance of molecular function in the face of stochastic processes that tend to adversely affect macromolecular integrity. This is particularly relevant during ageing, as many cellular functions decline with age, including growth, mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. Protein synthesis must deliver functional proteins at all times, implying that the effects of protein synthesis errors like amino acid misincorporation and stop-codon read-through must be minimized during ageing. Here we show that loss of translational accuracy accelerates the loss of viability in stationary phase yeast. Since reduced translational accuracy also reduces the folding competence of at least some proteins, we hypothesize that negative interactions between translational errors and age-related protein damage together overwhelm the cellular chaperone network. We further show that multiple cellular signalling networks control basal error rates in yeast cells, including a ROS signal controlled by mitochondrial activity, and the Ras pathway. Together, our findings indicate that signalling pathways regulating growth, protein homeostasis and energy metabolism may jointly safeguard accurate protein synthesis during healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Age determination and development of experimental methods for quaternary fault and formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, M. S.; Kim, J. M.

    2004-02-01

    Late cretaceous to early tertiary movement ages were constrained by Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating of fault rocks near the Uljin Nuclear Power Plants. These ages are well reproducible and consistent with geologic context. Tectonic evolution of the northeastern Yeongnam massif, the site of the Uljin Nuclear Power Plants, was investigated on the basis of Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Pb isotopic systematics and geochemistry of precambrian basement rocks including the Hosanri Formation, Buncheon granite gneiss, biotite granite gneiss, and Hongjesa granite. The optical ages from the Suryum fault outcrop represent the younger limit of sedimentation timing because they are simply based upon the present-day water content. The lower, Qt 2 terrace at about 18m elevation is correlated with Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 5a, although its apparent optical age was consistently reported from 71 to 48 ka. Correlation of shoreline elevations indicates the correspondence of the Qt 3a terrace to MIS 5e, which is supported by stratigraphically concordant optical ages for aeolian sand dunes at the north of the Suryum site. This time scale yields an uplift rate of 0.266 m/ka, requiring the revision of conventional view that the Korean peninsula is tectonically very stable

  2. Age determination and development of experimental methods for quaternary fault and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, M. S.; Kim, J. M. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2004-02-15

    Late cretaceous to early tertiary movement ages were constrained by Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating of fault rocks near the Uljin Nuclear Power Plants. These ages are well reproducible and consistent with geologic context. Tectonic evolution of the northeastern Yeongnam massif, the site of the Uljin Nuclear Power Plants, was investigated on the basis of Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Pb isotopic systematics and geochemistry of precambrian basement rocks including the Hosanri Formation, Buncheon granite gneiss, biotite granite gneiss, and Hongjesa granite. The optical ages from the Suryum fault outcrop represent the younger limit of sedimentation timing because they are simply based upon the present-day water content. The lower, Qt{sub 2} terrace at about 18m elevation is correlated with Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 5a, although its apparent optical age was consistently reported from 71 to 48 ka. Correlation of shoreline elevations indicates the correspondence of the Qt{sub 3a} terrace to MIS 5e, which is supported by stratigraphically concordant optical ages for aeolian sand dunes at the north of the Suryum site. This time scale yields an uplift rate of 0.266 m/ka, requiring the revision of conventional view that the Korean peninsula is tectonically very stable.

  3. Birth weight and obstetric complications determine age at onset in first episode of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Abadal, E; Ochoa, S; Barajas, A; Baños, I; Dolz, M; Sanchez, B; Del Cacho, N; Carlson, J; Huerta-Ramos, E; Usall, J

    2015-06-01

    Earlier age at onset of psychosis (AOP) has been associated with poor social adjustment and clinical outcome. Genetic and environmental factors such as obstetric complications, parental history of psychosis, advanced paternal age at time of birth, low birth weight and gestational age, and use of drugs have been described as bringing AOP forward. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between AOP and these factors in a sample of first episode of psychosis (FEP) patients. Clinical and sociodemographic data, age at FEP, age of parents at birth, parental history of psychosis, drug-use habits of the mother during pregnancy and of the patient before psychotic onset, and Lewis and Murray obstetric complication scale were obtained from 90 patients with FEP. Statistical analysis was performed by means of Pearson correlations, Chi-square tests, Student T-test analyses and a linear regression model using SPSS version 22. Pre-eclampsia, need for incubator at birth, use of forceps, parental history of psychosis, and low birth weight were associated with an earlier AOP. Use of forceps and birth weight are the variables which best predict AOP in FEP. Stimulant drugs, which were mostly used together with cannabis and cocaine, were the only substances associated with an earlier AOP. Our findings are consistent with previous study results and underline the role of the prenatal period in the development of psychosis and the importance of careful monitoring of pregnancy and delivery, especially in cases with familial history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lifecourse Activity Participation From Early, Mid, and Later Adulthood as Determinants of Cognitive Aging: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Alan J; Pattie, Alison; Deary, Ian J

    2017-01-01

    To examine potential sensitive periods for activity participation across adulthood to reduce cognitive decline and to determine whether associations persist after accounting for the lifetime stability of cognitive ability. The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 is a longitudinal study of cognitive aging. Participants were born in 1921 and most completed a mental ability test at the age of 11 years. Cognitive assessments were completed at mean ages 79 (N = 550), 83 (N = 321), 87 (N = 235), and 90 years (N = 129). Participants provided retrospective details of their activity participation for young (20-35 years), mid (40-55 years), and later adulthood (60-75 years), and contemporaneously at age 79. Associations between activity and the level of, and change in, cognitive ability in old age were examined with latent growth curve models. Accounting for demographics and childhood cognitive ability, engagement in leisure activities in midlife was positively associated with cognitive ability level (path coefficient = .32), whereas higher physical activity in later adulthood was associated with less cognitive decline (.27). The findings support a lifecourse approach in identifying determinants of cognitive aging; leisure and physical activity during different periods of adulthood may enhance cognitive abilities or reduce decline. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  5. Non-Resident Fathers' Relationships with Their Secondary School Age Children: Determinants and Children's Mental Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2006-01-01

    Data from 520 British secondary school age children were used to explore determinants of and mental health outcomes (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) from their non-resident fathers' relationships (child-reported father's involvement and frequency of contact) with them. Frequency of contact was negatively related to time…

  6. Forensic aspects of gene expression signatures for age determination in bruises as evaluated in an experimental porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, Kristiane; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Determining the age of bruises and the force used to inflict the trauma is of crucial importance in both human and veterinary forensic pathology. In the present study, the expression of more than 50 different genes in subcutaneous fat and muscle tissue from experimental bruises in pigs...... provide valuable information in human forensic science....

  7. 3D finite compartment modeling of formation and healing of bruises may identify methods for age determination of bruises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, B.; van Gemert, M.J.C.; van Leeuwen, T.G.; Aalders, M.C.G.

    2010-01-01

    Simulating the spatial and temporal behavior of bruises may identify methods that allow accurate age determination of bruises to assess child abuse. We developed a numerical 3D model to simulate the spatial kinetics of hemoglobin and bilirubin during the formation and healing of bruises. Using this

  8. Age determination and reproduction of female Fin Whales Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758), with special regard to baleen plates and ovaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utrecht-Cock, van C.N.

    1965-01-01

    1. From Antarctic female Fin Whales, Balaenoptera physalus, a collection, consisting of baleen plates and the parts of these plates embedded in the gum, ovaries, and a number of earplugs was examined, in order to determine the age of these animals and to get a better insight in some characteristics

  9. Infant carrying methods: Correlates and associated musculoskeletal disorders among nursing mothers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojukwu, Chidiebele Petronilla; Anyanwu, Godson Emeka; Anekwu, Emelie Morris; Chukwu, Sylvester Caesar; Fab-Agbo, Chukwubuikem

    2017-10-01

    Infant carrying is an integral part of the mothering occupation. Paucity of data exists on its correlates and associated musculoskeletal injuries. In this study, factors and musculoskeletal injuries associated with infant carrying were investigated in 227 nursing mothers, using a structured questionnaire. 77.1% utilised the back infant carrying methods (ICM). Maternal comfort was the major factor influencing participants' (37.4%) choices of ICMs. Infant's age (p = .000) and transportation means (p = .045) were significantly associated with ICMs. Low back pain (82.8%) and upper back pain (74.9%) were the most reported musculoskeletal discomforts associated with ICMs, especially among women who utilised back ICM. Back ICM is predominantly used by nursing mothers. Impact statement Infant carrying has been associated with increased energy cost and biomechanical changes. Currently, there is a paucity of data on infant carrying-related musculoskeletal injuries. In this study, investigating factors and musculoskeletal injuries associated with infant carrying, the results showed that back infant carrying method is predominantly used by nursing mothers. Age of the infant and mothers' means of transportation were determinant factors of infant carrying methods. Among the several reported infant carrying-related musculoskeletal disorders, low back and upper back pain were the most prevalent, especially among women who utilised the back infant carrying method. There is need for women's health specialists to introduce appropriate ergonomic training and interventions on infant carrying tasks in order to improve maternal musculoskeletal health during the childbearing years and beyond. Further experimental studies on the effects of various infant carrying methods on the musculoskeletal system are recommended.

  10. Auger electron spectroscopy for the determination of sex and age related Ca/P ratio at different bone sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The Ca/P ratio of normal cortical and trabecular rat bone was measured by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Semiquantitative analysis was carried out using ratio techniques to draw conclusions on how age, sex and bone site affect the relative composition of calcium and phosphorus. Results show that Ca/P ratio is not sex dependent; quite the opposite, bone sites exhibit variations in elemental stoichiometry where femoral sections demonstrate higher Ca/P ratio than rear and front tibias. Age-related changes are more distinct for cortical bone in comparison with the trabecular bone. The latter's Ca/P ratio remains unaffected from all the parameters under study. This study confirms that AES is able to successfully quantify bone mineral main elements when certain critical points, related to the experimental conditions, are addressed effectively.

  11. Incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation determines performance speed during cognitive Stroop test: the effect of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kana; Liang, Nan; Idesako, Mitsuhiro; Ishii, Kei; Matsukawa, Kanji

    2018-02-19

    Cognitive function declines with age. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the deterioration of cognitive performance, however, remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that an incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation during a cognitive Stroop test decreases in progress of ageing, resulting in a slowdown of cognitive performance. To test this hypothesis, we identified, using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy, the characteristics of the oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) responses of the prefrontal cortex to both incongruent Stroop and congruent word-reading test. Spatial distributions of the significant changes in the three components (initial slope, peak amplitude, and area under the curve) of the Oxy-Hb response were compared between young and elderly subjects. The Stroop interference time (as a difference in total periods for executing Stroop and word-reading test, respectively) approximately doubled in elderly as compared to young subjects. The Oxy-Hb in the rostrolateral, but not caudal, prefrontal cortex increased during the Stroop test in both age groups. The initial slope of the Oxy-Hb response, rather than the peak and area under the curve, had a strong correlation with cognitive performance speed. Taken together, it is likely that the incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation may decrease in progress of ageing, resulting in a decline in cognitive performance.

  12. Determinants of Healthy Ageing: Studies of Disability and Survival among the Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Walter (Stefan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe increase in life expectancy over the last century is one of society’s major achievements. In particular in developed countries, though increasingly in developing countries, a higher life expectancy and a reduction in birth rates result in an ageing of the population, i.e. the shift

  13. Age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus determined with (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guanjun; Gao, Xing; Gao, Bin; Granger, Darryl E

    2009-03-12

    The age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus, commonly known as 'Peking Man', has long been pursued, but has remained problematic owing to the lack of suitable dating methods. Here we report cosmogenic (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating of quartz sediments and artefacts from the lower strata of Locality 1 in the southwestern suburb of Beijing, China, where early representatives of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus were discovered. This study marks the first radioisotopic dating of any early hominin site in China beyond the range of mass spectrometric U-series dating. The weighted mean of six meaningful age measurements, 0.77 +/- 0.08 million years (Myr, mean +/- s.e.m.), provides the best age estimate for lower cultural layers 7-10. Together with previously reported U-series dating of speleothem calcite and palaeomagnetic stratigraphy, as well as sedimentological considerations, these layers may be further correlated to S6-S7 in Chinese loess stratigraphy or marine isotope stages (MIS) 17-19, in the range of approximately 0.68 to 0.78 Myr ago. These ages are substantially older than previously supposed and may imply early hominin's presence at the site in northern China through a relatively mild glacial period corresponding to MIS 18.

  14. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Economic Growth: Age-Structure, Preindustrial Heritage and Sociolinguistic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Edward; Robison, Kristopher

    2010-01-01

    This study establishes a socio-demographic theory of international development derived from selected classical and contemporary sociological theories. Four hypotheses are tested: (1. population growth's effect on development depends on age-structure; (2. historic population density (used here as an indicator of preindustrial social complexity)…

  15. [Determination of Bloodstain Age by UV Visible Integrating Sphere Reflection Spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L Q; Gao, Y

    2016-10-01

    To establish a method for rapid identification of bloodstain age. Under laboratory conditions (20 ℃, 25 ℃ and 30 ℃), an integrating sphere ISR-240A was used as a reflection accessory on an UV-2450 UV-vis spectrophotometer, and a standard white board of BaSO₄ was used as reference, the reflection spectrums of bloodstain from human ears' venous blood were measured at regular intervals. The reflection radios R ₅₄₁ and R ₅₇₇ at a specific wavelength were collected and the value of R ₅₄₁/ R ₅₇₇ was calculated. The linear fitting and regression analysis were done by SPSS 17.0. The results of regression analysis showed that R ² of the ratios of bloodstain age to UV visible reflectivity in specific wavelengths were larger than 0.8 within 8 hours and under certain circumstances. The regression equation was established. The bloodstain age had significant correlation with the value of R ₅₄₁/ R ₅₇₇. The method of inspection is simple, rapid and nondestructive with a good reliability, and can be used to identify the bloodstain age within 8 hours elapsed-time standards under laboratory conditions. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  16. Visual determinants of reduced performance on the Stroop color-word test in normal aging individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, M P; ten Tusscher, M P; Metsemakers, J F; Willems, B; Jolles, J

    2001-10-01

    It is unknown to what extent the performance on the Stroop color-word test is affected by reduced visual function in older individuals. We tested the impact of common deficiencies in visual function (reduced distant and close acuity, reduced contrast sensitivity, and color weakness) on Stroop performance among 821 normal individuals aged 53 and older. After adjustment for age, sex, and educational level, low contrast sensitivity was associated with more time needed on card I (word naming), red/green color weakness with slower card 2 performance (color naming), and reduced distant acuity with slower performance on card 3 (interference). Half of the age-related variance in speed performance was shared with visual function. The actual impact of reduced visual function may be underestimated in this study when some of this age-related variance in Stroop performance is mediated by visual function decrements. It is suggested that reduced visual function has differential effects on Stroop performance which need to be accounted for when the Stroop test is used both in research and in clinical settings. Stroop performance measured from older individuals with unknown visual status should be interpreted with caution.

  17. Determining productivity gains from herbaceous vegetation management with 'age-shift' calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. South; James H. Miller; Mark O. Kimberley; Curtis L. Vanderschaaf

    2006-01-01

    Gains in stand volume that result from competition control and fertilization are sometimes reported as 'percentage gains'. Because percentage gains arithmetically decline over time asstand volume increases, plantation managers have difficultyin using percentage gains to project growth and revenues. The 'age-shift' method quantifies the year...

  18. Accelerated aging and controlled deterioration for the determination of the physiological potential of onion seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodo Angelica Brod

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available International research on vegetable seed vigor is not at the same level attained for grain crops species. This study was conducted to identify reliable procedures for the accelerated aging and controlled deterioration tests to rank onion (Allium cepa L. seed lots according to their physiological potential. Six seed lots of the cultivars Aurora and Petroline were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, first count, seedling vigor classification, traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging (41masculineC / 48 and 72 h, controlled deterioration (24% of water / 45masculineC / 24 h and seedling emergence tests. Seed moisture content after the saturated salt accelerated aging test was lower and uniform, which is considered an important advantage in comparison to the traditional procedure. The saturated salt accelerated aging (41masculineC / 48 and 72 h and controlled deterioration (moisture content adjusted to 24% / 45masculineC / 24 h tests were the best procedures to assess the physiological potential of onion seeds, and are indicated for use in quality control programs.

  19. Physical activity as a determinant of change in mobility performance : the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Stel, Vianda S; Bosscher, Ruud J; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association of (change in) physical activity and decline in mobility performance in older men and women. DESIGN: A 3-year prospective study using data of the Longitudinal Aging Study. SETTING: Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand one hundred nine men and women

  20. Determine Age-structure of Gelatinous Zooplankton Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, H.; Shahrestani, S.; He, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Gelatinous are delicate and transparent by nature, but are conspicuous in many ecosystems when in bloom. Their proliferations are a bothersome and costly nuisance and influencing important food webs and species interactions. More importantly, gelatinous zooplankton respond to climate change rapidly and understanding their upsurge needs information on their recruitment and population dynamics which in turn require their age-structure. However, ageing gelatinous zooplankton is often restricted by the fact that they shrink under unfavorable conditions. In the present study, we examine the potential of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to age gelatinous zooplankton. OCT is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses light waves to examine 2D or 3D structure of target objects at a resolution of 3-5 µm. We were able to successfully capture both 3D and 2D images of sea nettle muscle fibers. Preliminary results on ctenophores will be discussed. Overall, this non-destructive sampling allows us to scan and capture images of mesoglea from jellyfish cultured in the lab, using the same individual repeatedly through time, documenting its growth which will provide precise measurements to construct an age key that will be applied to gelatinous zooplankton captured in the field. Coupled with information on abundance, we can start to quantify their recruitment timing and success rate.

  1. Use of reflectance spectrophotometry and colorimetry in a general linear model for the determination of the age of bruises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Vanessa K; Langlois, Neil E I

    2010-12-01

    Bruises can have medicolegal significance such that the age of a bruise may be an important issue. This study sought to determine if colorimetry or reflectance spectrophotometry could be employed to objectively estimate the age of bruises. Based on a previously described method, reflectance spectrophotometric scans were obtained from bruises using a Cary 100 Bio spectrophotometer fitted with a fibre-optic reflectance probe. Measurements were taken from the bruise and a control area. Software was used to calculate the first derivative at 490 and 480 nm; the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin was calculated using an isobestic point method and a software application converted the scan data into colorimetry data. In addition, data on factors that might be associated with the determination of the age of a bruise: subject age, subject sex, degree of trauma, bruise size, skin color, body build, and depth of bruise were recorded. From 147 subjects, 233 reflectance spectrophotometry scans were obtained for analysis. The age of the bruises ranged from 0.5 to 231.5 h. A General Linear Model analysis method was used. This revealed that colorimetric measurement of the yellowness of a bruise accounted for 13% of the bruise age. By incorporation of the other recorded data (as above), yellowness could predict up to 32% of the age of a bruise-implying that 68% of the variation was dependent on other factors. However, critical appraisal of the model revealed that the colorimetry method of determining the age of a bruise was affected by skin tone and required a measure of the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin, which is obtained by spectrophotometric methods. Using spectrophotometry, the first derivative at 490 nm alone accounted for 18% of the bruise age estimate. When additional factors (subject sex, bruise depth and oxygenation of hemoglobin) were included in the General Linear Model this increased to 31%-implying that 69% of the variation was dependent on other factors. This

  2. 'It's like a personal motivator that you carried around wi' you': utilising self-determination theory to understand men's experiences of using pedometers to increase physical activity in a weight management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnachie, Craig; Wyke, Sally; Mutrie, Nanette; Hunt, Kate

    2017-05-05

    Self-monitoring using pedometers is an effective behaviour change technique to support increased physical activity (PA). However, the ways in which pedometers operate as motivational tools in adoption and maintenance of PA is not well understood. This paper investigates men's experiences of pedometers as motivational tools both during and after their participation in a 12-week group-based, weight management programme for overweight/obese men, Football Fans in Training (FFIT). Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 28 men, purposively sampled to include men who did and did not achieve 5% weight loss during the programme. Data were analysed thematically utilising the framework approach, using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) - namely concepts of behavioural regulation and the basic needs of relatedness, competence and autonomy - as an analytical lens. During the programme, FFIT's context and fellow participants supported relatedness and encouraged use of the pedometer. The pedometer was seen to provide tangible proof of progress, thus increasing competence for change, whilst the ability to monitor one's own progress and take remedial action supported autonomy; these men portrayed the pedometer as an 'ally'. However, a minority found the pedometer 'dispiriting' or controlling when it evidenced their inability to meet their PA targets. After the programme, some men no longer used the device as they had fully internalised their motivations for increased PA. In contrast, others continued to use pedometers or progressed to other self-monitoring technologies because it was enjoyable and facilitated maintenance of their increased PA. However, the minority of men who experienced the pedometer as controlling no longer used it. They were less successful in achieving 5% weight loss and appeared reliant on external factors, including support from coach and group members, to maintain motivation. These findings show how self-monitoring using pedometers and

  3. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Raggi

    Full Text Available To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+.In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately.Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4. The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation, chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6% and a wide and rich social network (4.6%. Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics.Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of

  4. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+. In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of ageing

  5. Ethnicity as a determinant of ovarian reserve: differences in ovarian aging between Spanish and Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Carlos; Banker, Manish; Mahajan, Nalini; Herrero, Leyre; Meseguer, Marcos; Garcia-Velasco, Juan A

    2014-07-01

    To investigate differences in ovarian reserve markers (antimüllerian hormone [AMH] and antral follicle count [AFC]) in Indian and Spanish women. Cross-sectional study. In vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. Infertile Spanish (n=229) and Indian (n=236) women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF from January to October 2012. None. Data on ovarian reserve markers and results after ovarian stimulation were collected. The mean age of women undergoing their first or second IVF cycle was significantly higher in Spanish than in Indian women (37.5±3.3 years vs. 31.5±3.8 years). Despite this 6-year age gap, AFCs were similar (9.5±4.7 vs. 9.9±4.6), as were day 3 FSH levels (7.5±4.5 IU/L vs. 6.9±2.3 IU/L). AMH levels were slightly lower in Spanish women (1.6±1.7 ng/mL vs. 2.5±1.6 ng/mL). Multivariate regression analysis showed that being Indian decreased AFC by 2.3, such that AFC in Indian women was similar to that in Spanish women 6.3 years older (95% confidence interval 3.39-1.10). Similar ovarian reserve markers and ovarian response were observed in women with a 6-year age difference in favor of the Spanish, suggesting ethnic differences in ovarian aging. Further research is needed to understand whether these differences are genetically induced or are caused by other variables, such as nutrition. Our results may help clinicians to counsel infertile women when discussing assisted reproductive technology outcomes according to age and ethnic background. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of indices of the corpus callosum associated with normal aging in Japanese individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, S.; Hirashima, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Endo, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sugitani 2630, Toyama-shi, 930-0194, Toyama (Japan); Sugino, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Sugino Hospital, Sengoku-cho 6-3-3, 930-0066, Toyama (Japan)

    2003-08-01

    Indices of the corpus callosum with normal aging and their sex differences were elucidated using quantitative MRI. We studied 94 Japanese men (mean{+-}SD 57.3{+-}20.8 years, range 6-90 years) and 111 Japanese women (mean{+-}SD 61.2{+-}17.6 years, range 9-86 years) who had no intracranial lesions on MRI and no history of neurological illness. The widths of the rostrum, body and splenium, the anterior to posterior length, and the maximum height in the midsagittal image were selected for measurement. The Evans index, which is the relative ratio of lateral ventricle expansion, and the maximum width of the third ventricle in the axial image were also estimated for comparison. The widths of rostrum, body and splenium of the corpus callosum became thinner with age. Conversely, the anterior to posterior length and the maximum height of the corpus callosum increased with age. The ratio of the width of the body to the length of the corpus callosum and the ratio of the width of the body to the height of the corpus callosum are best correlated with age. No sex differences in regional size of corpus callosum, including these two ratios, were observed in any raw measures, although ventricular indices were larger in men than women. Evaluation of the ratio of the width of the body to its length and the ratio of the width of the body to its height may enable accurate estimation of normal or pathological changes of the corpus callosum. Aging and pathological atrophy of corpus callosum can be evaluated without any adjustment for gender. (orig.)

  7. Determination of indices of the corpus callosum associated with normal aging in Japanese individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, S.; Hirashima, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Endo, S.; Sugino, M.

    2003-01-01

    Indices of the corpus callosum with normal aging and their sex differences were elucidated using quantitative MRI. We studied 94 Japanese men (mean±SD 57.3±20.8 years, range 6-90 years) and 111 Japanese women (mean±SD 61.2±17.6 years, range 9-86 years) who had no intracranial lesions on MRI and no history of neurological illness. The widths of the rostrum, body and splenium, the anterior to posterior length, and the maximum height in the midsagittal image were selected for measurement. The Evans index, which is the relative ratio of lateral ventricle expansion, and the maximum width of the third ventricle in the axial image were also estimated for comparison. The widths of rostrum, body and splenium of the corpus callosum became thinner with age. Conversely, the anterior to posterior length and the maximum height of the corpus callosum increased with age. The ratio of the width of the body to the length of the corpus callosum and the ratio of the width of the body to the height of the corpus callosum are best correlated with age. No sex differences in regional size of corpus callosum, including these two ratios, were observed in any raw measures, although ventricular indices were larger in men than women. Evaluation of the ratio of the width of the body to its length and the ratio of the width of the body to its height may enable accurate estimation of normal or pathological changes of the corpus callosum. Aging and pathological atrophy of corpus callosum can be evaluated without any adjustment for gender. (orig.)

  8. Rapid age determination of oysters using LA-ICP-MS line scans of shell Mg/Ca ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillikin, D. P.; Durham, S. R.; Goodwin, D. H.

    2016-02-01

    Magnesium to calcium (Mg/Ca) ratios exhibit a strong temperature dependence in foraminifera and corals, but not in bivalve mollusks. Various studies have reported Mg/Ca-temperature relationships with R2 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.8 and significantly different relationships for bivalves growing at different salinities. However, this poor temperature correlation does not render Mg/Ca data useless. A weak temperature dependence would allow time (seasons and years) to be determined along the growth axis of shells. This would provide information about age, growth rate and also allow other proxies to be aligned with time. Typically, oxygen isotopes (δ18O) are used to age shells without clear periodic growth lines, which is time consuming and expensive. Line scans using laser ablation systems can cover several centimeters of shell in a few minutes. We test this method on the resilifer of two oyster species (Crassostrea gigas and C. virginica) using a 193 nm Laser-Ablation-ICP-MS. Living oysters were collected from San Francisco Bay, North Carolina, South Carolina, and the Gulf of Mexico; fossil shells (Pleistocene) were also collected in South Carolina. Shells were sampled for δ18O values and Mg/Ca ratios. We use annual cycles in δ18O values to confidently determine age, then apply the Mg/Ca technique. Shells of both species exhibit annual cyclicity in Mg/Ca ratios using spot and line scan laser sampling, which matche the seasonal cyclicity determined using δ18O values. Results show a good correlation between ages determined using the different methods. We conclude that LA-ICP-MS line scans offer a rapid and inexpensive technique for determining age, growth rate, and timing of shell growth in oyster reslifers.

  9. Effect of dietary, social, and lifestyle determinants of accelerated aging and its common clinical presentation: A survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, S M S; Chandola, H M; Ravishankar, B

    2011-07-01

    Aging is unavoidable and natural phenomenon of life. Modern gerontologists are realizing the fact that aging is a disease, which Ayurveda had accepted as natural disease since long. Rate of aging is determined by one's biological, social, lifestyle, and psychological conditions and adversity of which leads to accelerated form of aging (Akalaja jara or premature aging). The aim of this study is to identify potential factors that may accelerate aging in the context of dietry factors, lifestyle and mental makeup. The 120 diagnosed subjects of premature-ageing of 30-60 years were randomly selected in the survey study. Premature ageing was common among females (75.83%), in 30-40 age group (70%), 86.67% were married, had secondary level of education (36.66%), house-views (61.67%), belongs top middle class (58.33%) and engaged in occupations that dominating physical labour (88.33%). The maximum patients are constipated (60%), had mandagni (80%), vata-kapha prakriti (48.33%), rajasika prakriti (58.33%), madhyama vyayama shakti (73.33%), and madhyama jarana shakti (85.83%). Collectively, 43.33% patients were above normal BMI. The more patients had anushna (38.33%) and vishamasana dietary pattern (25.83%), consumed Lavana (88.33%) and Amla rasa (78.33%) in excess on regular basis. Some patients had addicted to tobacco (11.67%) and beetle chewing (5.83%). The maximum patients had no any exercise (79.17%) and specific hobby (79.17%) in their leisure times. Analyzing Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Rating Scales revealed that 39.80%, 37.86%, 33.98%, 24.27% and 18.44% patients had insomnia, depression, tension, GIT symptoms and anxious mood respectively. These data suggest that certain social, dietary and lifestyle factors contribute towards accelerated ageing among young individuals.

  10. Age-Specific Determinants of Pulse Wave Velocity among Metabolic Syndrome Components, Inflammatory Markers, and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Minjoo; Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Seung Yeon; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2018-02-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is thought to have different relationships with metabolic syndrome (MS) components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress, according to age. However, age-specific determinants of PWV have not yet been studied. We investigated age-dependent relationships among PWV and MS components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress. A total of 4,318 subjects were divided into 4 groups: 19-34 y (n=687), 35-44 y (n=1,413), 45-54 y (n=1,384), and 55-79 y (n=834). MS components, brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and oxidative stress markers were measured. There were age-related increases in MS, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), triglycerides, glucose, hs-CRP, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 8-epi-prostaglandin F 2α (8-epi-PGF 2α ), and baPWV. BaPWV was significantly associated with sex and elevated BP in the 19-34 y group; with age, sex, BMI, elevated BP and triglycerides in the 35-44 y group; with age, sex, elevated BP, fasting glucose, hs-CRP and oxidized LDL in the 45-54 y group; and with age, BMI, elevated BP, fasting glucose and oxidized LDL in the 55-79 y group. Our results show that age-related increases in baPWV are associated with age-related changes in MS components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress. However, each of these factors has an age-specific, different impact on arterial stiffness. In particular, oxidative stress may be independently associated with arterial stiffness in individuals older than 45 y.

  11. Study of correcting the effect of daughter age on determining 235U enrichment of fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jingshan; Zhou Chengfang; Luo Minxuan; Liu Yun

    1997-01-01

    Gamma-ray passive technique is a very effective method to assay and determine 235 U enrichment of nuclear power plant fuel rods. There is a weakness in this passive method, i.e. only after the uranium isotope daughters of UO 2 pellets have reached to equilibrium with uranium parent, then the 235 U enrichment can be determined. This weakness greatly restricts the application of the method. A new two-peak and two-window technique is developed that can overcome the interference of uranium daughter decay in determining 235 U enrichment of nuclear fuel rods, and the results are very satisfactory. The new technique will play an important role in the gamma-ray passive technique for determining 235 U enrichment of fuel rods. This new technique also makes the gamma-ray passive method perfectly. (11 figs., 6 tabs.)

  12. Determination of the seric levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, lutein hormone and testosterone in Nellore bovine at different ages, by means of radioimmunoanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, E.; Define, R.M.; Muniz, L.M.R.; Amorim Ramos, A. de

    1988-01-01

    One hundred male bovines, Nellore breed, coming from the region of Botucatu, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, were in this research. The animals were distributed into five groups, according to their average age, as follows: 6.25, 9.50, 20.3, 29.7 and 61.1 months, and raised under range conditions. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, two and half to three hours after semen collection. Harmone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The mean values for the biochemical tests carried out with the serum samples were: 4.70+-1.15 mUI/ml, CV= 24.4% for FSH; 4.98+-0.99 mUI/ml, CV= 19.86% for LH, and 2.78+-3.68ng/ml, CV= 132.48% for testosterone. The analysis of variance showed significant effect (P [pt

  13. Determination of radiocarbon reservoir age of Lake Van by mineral magnetic and geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaroglu, Ozlem; Namik Cagatay, M.; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Orbay, Naci

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van is the largest soda lake in the world, located on the east Anatolian Plateau in Turkey. Its varved sediments provide an excellent archive of high-resolution paleoclimate record for the Near East. Varve counting and radiocarbon methods are therefore important dating techniques for investigating the Lake Van sedimentary paleoclimate record. In here we present detailed magnetic and geochemical record of Lake Van. We have studied 4.56 m (core VP0801) and 4.70 m (core VP0807) long cores recovered from 80 m and 65 m water depths located in SE and SW of Lake Van, respectively. Here, we have benefited from magnetic properties with associated remanent magnetization of the sediments from Lake Van to correlate the cores which contain of tephra layers. The cores cover the last 8.4 ka and lithologically include three laminated sedimentary units. From top to the bottom, the units were dated 4.2 ka BP-present, 5.4-4.2 ka BP and older than 5.4 ka BP. We identified tephra layers previously dated by varve counting, and used the varve ages to obtain age models for the cores. We also obtained a total of eight Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) 14C dates from total organic carbon (TOC) in the two cores, close to the tephra layers. Comparison of the varve ages of the AMS 14C dated samples with their corresponding AMS 14C dates indicates large differences, suggesting significant reservoir ages that range from 2.8 to 2.5 ka for 3.0-2.4 varve ka BP and from 2.8 to 3.3 ka for 8.0-5.9 varve ka BP. The results suggest that the reservoir age of the organic matter increases with the varve age of the sediments. This increase is mainly related to the rate of supply of "dead" carbon from the old carbonate rocks in the watershed of Lake Van, which was relatively higher during 8.4-5.9 ka than during 3.0-2.4 ka BP because of the higher atmospheric precipitation and higher rate of biochemical weathering during the former period.

  14. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  15. Potassium-argon age determination of crystalline complexes of West Carpathians and preliminary result interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, G.P.; Gukasyan, P.Kh.; Veselsky, I.

    1977-01-01

    Results obtained using the K-Ar method and comparing them with the results obtained by radiometric and palaeontological methods in general confirm the palaeozoic age of crystalline rocks in the Western Carpathians. The existence of Precambrian rocks in this region may be assumed although there is still no geochronological evidence to this. The solution of this problem will reguire also Rb-Sr isochronous and U-Th-Pb absolute dating. (author)

  16. Age Effect in the Morphological Traits Performance for Sex Determination in Human Skulls and Mandibles

    OpenAIRE

    Suazo Galdames, Iván; Zavando, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that diagnostic performance of the morphological indicators for sexual dimorphism are reduced as they are applied in skull and mandibles of older subjects. We used 275 adult human skulls, 250 of these with mandible, all subjects with sex and age registry. Sixteen classic morphological indicators of sexual dimorphism were evaluated, this information was compared with the registry and results noted in terms of precision. The best general performance of mor...

  17. Age at menarche and eruption of permanent second molars: an investigation to determine a possible correlation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taaniya Akhter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Downward shifts in the mean menarcheal age and earlier emergence of permanent second molars have been observed worldwide during the past few decades. A positive correlation between the two would make menarche a biomarker for permanent second molar eruption or vice versa, making it a simple tool for monitoring oral status of adolescent girls. This study was conducted to find a correlation between attainment of menarche and eruption status of permanent second molars in girls aged 10-13 years. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 470 female students from six randomly selected schools who consented to participate in the interview and oral examination. Data were analyzed using the Chi square (X2 test with a p-value of < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Significant differences existed within the age groups with regard to attainment of menarche (p = 0.000 and eruption status of second molars (p = 0.000 for all four teeth. However, no correlation could be found between attainment of menarche and eruption status of the permanent second molars. Conclusion: Although this study failed to find a correlation between the two variables, a population based multicentric survey may give a concrete conclusion on this issue. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 210-214

  18. Determination of SB2 masses and age: introduction of the mass ratio in the Bayesian analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarrusso, M.; Leone, F.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2018-04-01

    Stellar age assignment still represents a difficult task in Astrophysics. This unobservable fundamental parameter can be estimated only through indirect methods, as well as generally the mass. Bayesian analysis is a statistical approach largely used to derive stellar properties by taking into account the available information about the quantities we are looking for. In this paper we propose to apply the method to the double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2), for which the only available information about masses is the observed mass ratio of the two components. We validated the method on a synthetic sample of Pre-Main Sequence (PMS) SB2 systems showing the capability of the technique to recover the simulated age and masses. Then, we applied our procedure to the PMS eclipsing binaries Parenago 1802 and RX J0529.4+0041 A, whose masses of both components are known, by treating them as SB2 systems. The estimated masses are in agreement with those dynamically measured. We conclude that the method, if based on high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, represents a robust way to infer the masses of the very numerous SB2 systems together with their age, allowing to date the hosting astrophysical environments.

  19. Determination of SB2 masses and age: introduction of the mass ratio in the Bayesian analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarrusso, M.; Leone, F.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2018-07-01

    Stellar age assignment still represents a difficult task in Astrophysics. This unobservable fundamental parameter can be estimated only through indirect methods, as well as generally the mass. Bayesian analysis is a statistical approach largely used to derive stellar properties by taking into account the available information about the quantities we are looking for. In this paper, we propose to apply the method to the double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2), for which the only available information about masses is the observed mass ratio of the two components. We validated the method on a synthetic sample of pre-main-sequence (PMS) SB2 systems showing the capability of the technique to recover the simulated age and masses. Then, we applied our procedure to the PMS eclipsing binaries Parenago 1802 and RX J0529.4+0041 A, whose masses of both components are known, by treating them as SB2 systems. The estimated masses are in agreement with those dynamically measured. We conclude that the method, if based on high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, represents a robust way to infer the masses of the very numerous SB2 systems together with their age, allowing to date the hosting astrophysical environments.

  20. Hormonal determinants of erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Kuczerowski, Roman; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in diabetic men. The aim of this study was to investigate hormonal determinants, the prevalence and severity of ED and LUTS in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes (PD). We investigated 176 men with PD and 184 healthy peers. PD was defined according American Diabetes Association. ED according IIEF scale and LUTS according IPSS scale were assessed. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. The prevalence of ED in patients with PD was higher than in control group (30 versus 24%) as well as the prevalence and severity of ED and LUTS in elderly (60-80 years) and middle-aged (40-59 years) men with PD was higher than in healthy peers. In middle-aged pre-diabetic men, the more severe LUTS symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS, while in elderly men with low cFT and DHEAS. The higher prevalence of ED in middle-aged men with PD was associated with cFT and DHEAS, while in elderly pre-diabetic men with TT and IGF-1. The prevalence and severity of LUTS and ED symptoms were higher in pre-diabetic men than in healthy peers. Hormonal determinants of these symptoms are different in middle-aged and elderly patients with PD.

  1. MRI of the wrist is not recommended for age determination in female football players of U-16/U-17 competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscholl, P M; Junge, A; Dvorak, J; Zubler, V

    2016-03-01

    Age determination on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrist is a reliable method in male football players to evaluate their eligibility to participate in Under 17 tournaments. MRI of the wrist was performed in 487 female volunteers aged 13-19 years from Brazil, Germany, Malaysia, and Tanzania, and in 139 female football players participating in Under-16 and Under-17 football tournaments. A previously validated method for grading fusion of the distal radial epiphysis in male adolescent was used. Moderate correlation of chronological age and epiphyseal fusion was found in the normative control group (r = .59) and weak correlation in female football players (r = .27). Complete fusion of the distal radial epiphysis was observed in two 15-year-old volunteers of the control group (1.7%) and in 17.6% (3 of 17) of 14-year-old football players. Up to 10.8% (47 of 437) in the control group and 14.4% (20 of 139) of the football players 17 years or younger had complete fused epiphysis. Because of earlier osseous maturity in female adolescents, the grade of fusion of the distal radial epiphysis on MRI is not recommended for pretournament age determination for the age of 17 and younger in female. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. 'Age' determination of irradiated materials utilizing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommers, J.; Cummings, D.; Giglio, J.; Carney, K.

    2009-01-01

    A gas pressurized extraction chromatography (GPEC) system has been developed to perform elemental separations on radioactive samples to determine total and isotopic compositions of Cs and Ba from an irradiated salt sample, fuel sample and two sealed radiation sources. The GPEC system employs compressed nitrogen to move liquid through the system, compared to gravity or pumped liquids that are typically used for separations. A commercially available Sr-Resin TM was used to perform the separation for the above mentioned analytes. A 1% acetic acid solution was determined to be the best extractant for Ba. A flow rate of 0.1 mL/min was determined to be optimal for the separation of Ba. Complete recovery of the Cs and Ba was achieved, within the systematic uncertainties of the experiments. (author)

  3. Universal health coverage in the context of population ageing: What determines health insurance enrolment in rural Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wielen, Nele; Channon, Andrew Amos; Falkingham, Jane

    2018-05-24

    Population ageing presents considerable challenges for the attainment of universal health coverage (UHC), especially in countries where such coverage is still in its infancy. Ghana presents an important case study on the effectiveness of policies aimed at achieving UHC in the context of population ageing in low and middle-income countries. It has witnessed a profound recent demographic transition, including a large increase in the number of older adults, which coincided with the development and implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), designed to help achieve UHC. The objective of this paper is to examine the community, household and individual level determinants of NHIS enrolment among older adults aged 50-69 and 70 plus. The latter are exempt from NHIS premium payments. Using the Ghanaian Living Standards Survey from 2012 to 2013, determinants of NHIS enrolment for individuals aged 50-69 and 70 plus living in rural Ghana are examined through the application of multilevel regression analysis. Previous studies have mainly focused on the enrolment of young and middle aged adults and considered mainly demographic and socio-economic factors. The novel inclusion of spatial barriers within this analysis demonstrates that levels of NHIS enrolment are determined in part by the community provision of healthcare facilities. In addition, the findings imply that insurance enrolment increases with household expenditure even for those aged 70 plus who are exempt from the NHIS premium payment. Adequate and appropriate infrastructure as well as health insurance is vital to ensure movement to UHC in low and middle income countries. Overall, the results confirm that there remain significant inequalities in enrolment by expenditure quintile that future policy reform will need to address.

  4. Determinants of Stunting, Wasting, and Anemia in Guinean Preschool-Age Children: An Analysis of DHS Data From 1999, 2005, and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Bradley A; Wirth, James P; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Beaulière, Jean Max; Mamady, Daffe; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Rohner, Fabian

    2018-03-01

    Wasting, stunting, and anemia are persistent and important forms of malnutrition in preschool-age children in the less developed world, in particular the Republic of Guinea, which was the site of a large outbreak of Ebola virus disease in 2014 to 2015. We analyzed data from 3 Demographic and Health Surveys done in Guinea in 1999, 2005, and 2012 to identify possible determinants of wasting, stunting, and anemia. All analyses, both bivariate and multivariate, were carried out separately for each of 3 age groups: less than 6 months, 6 to 23 months, and 24 to 59 months. Variables found statistically significantly associated with stunting, wasting, or anemia in bivariate analysis were placed in an age-specific logistic regression model for that outcome. Overall, anthropometric indices were available for 9228 children and hemoglobin concentrations were available for 5681 children. Logistic regression found relatively few variables associated with nutrition outcomes in children younger than 6 months. More variables were associated with nutrition outcomes in children aged 6 to 23 months. Such variables measured a wide variety of conditions, including estimated birth size, child health and nutritional status, child caring practices, mother's nutritional and health status, and household water source and sanitation. A similarly broad range of variables was statistically significantly associated with one or more nutrition outcomes in children aged 24 to 59 months. Few of the standard infant and young child feeding indicators were associated with any nutrition outcome. Improvement in the nutritional status of young children in Guinea may require a broad range of nutrition and health interventions.

  5. Taking into account of the aging and the damage in the size determination of composite materials structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, J.

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the aging of glass fibres-epoxy composites exposed to humid conditions and loading so as to predict its effects on the lifetimes of composite structures. Water diffusion was first experimentally investigated by gravimetric method to determine water sorption kinetics for different humid conditions. A Fickian model of diffusion could describe the results obtained. Specimens, saturated at different levels, were mechanically characterised. Decreases of mechanical properties as a function of water uptake were revealed by tensile tests. Damage by cracking and the coupling with humidity were then studied. Differences between reversible and irreversible changes in properties were revealed and analysed in detail. A predictive model taking into account effects due to water and/or mechanical loading is proposed, using finite element method. As a first step, in modelling the diffusion process, the non-uniform water distribution across the composite are determined for any conditions (temperature, humidity, aging time). The resulting mechanical properties of the material, as a function of the absorbed water concentration, are determined in each point. Then, diffusion/mechanic coupled calculation allows to determine material global properties from properties at each point. It is then possible to predict continuous evolution of rigidity during aging time, at all stages of water absorption and matrix cracking, for any condition (temperature, humidity, thickness, mechanical loading level). (author)

  6. THE ADDRESSEE AGE AS A FACTOR DETERMINING THE DISCURSIVE STRUCTURE OF A WORK OF FICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloglazova Elena Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the author attempts to establish the connection between the discursive structure of a work of fiction and the addressee age factor. At that the point of departure for the argument is (a the thesis on discursive heterogeneity being a feature of fiction in general, which is a direct consequence of literature of literature being aimed at reflecting the world in its entirety and complexity, and (b the assumption that the above-said is applicable to children's fiction, though discursive heterogeneity undergoes a certain transformation due to the specific nature and role of literature for children. The category of addressee in the cornerstone of children's fiction predetermining: on the surface level – the selection of organization of language means in the text; on the contents level – the selection of story and characters; on the ideology level – the configuration of the polydiscourse of the children's fiction, as well as the selection of discourses' representatives. The peculiarity of children's fiction is primarily due to the ideology underlying it - what the society demands from the right book for kids, which is viewed as a socializing tool. And in order to be efficient, the tool needs to be tailored for its object, its exact parameters, age being one of them. Thus the complexity of the discursive structure of literary works for children appears to be directly related to the age of their ideal reader, which is shown in the article by comparative analysis of works addressed to floor and ceiling audiences of the childhood span. The analysis reveals the fact that older readership leads not only to a greater complexity of a literary work's discursive structure, but also to a wider variety in the ways of introducing interdiscursemes into text.

  7. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  8. DETERMINANTS OF RED-BLOOD-CELL DEFORMABILITY IN RELATION TO CELL AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOSCH, FH; WERRE, JM; ROERDINKHOLDERSTOELWINDER, B; HULS, T; WILLEKENS, FLA; WICHERS, G; HALIE, MR

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was determined with an ektacytometer in fractions separated on the basis of differences in cell volume or density. Deformability was measured with ektacytometry (rpm-scan and osmo-scan). We studied three groups of RBC fractions:l. By counterflow centrifugation we

  9. Effects of shock pressure on 40Ar-39Ar radiometric age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.K.

    1977-01-01

    The relation of shock to the drop in the 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar ratio seen at high release temperatures in some neutron-irradiated lunar samples is investigated through measurements of the 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar ratio in gas samples released by stepwise heating of rock samples previously subjected to shock, either in the laboratory or in nature. Explosives were used to shock solid pieces and powder of a basalt from a diabase dike in Liberia to calculated pressures of 65, 150 and 270 kbar. These, an unshocked sample of the powder, two naturally shocked samples from the Brent impact crater in Canada, one unshocked sample from near the crater, and appropriate monitors were irradiated. Ar from stepwise heating was analyzed. The unshocked basalt shows a good 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar plateau at age 198 +-9 m.y. in agreement with a previous result of 186 +- 2 m.y. The shocked samples contain varying amounts of implanted atmospheric Ar, the isotopes of which have experienced mass fractionation. This effect is small enough in four samples so that the linearity of their graphs of 39 *Ar/ 40 Ar vs 36 Ar/ 40 Ar is evidence of a plateau. The ages of these samples are then 201 +- 10, 205 +- 12 and 201 +-9 m.y. It appears that the shock has had little effect on the 40 Ar- 39 Ar age spectrum, although the release patterns of the 39 *Ar are shifted downward by the order of 200 0 C. Shock implantation of Ar was at lower shock pressure, in the presence of less Ar, and into a less porous material than previously demonstrated. The Brent Crater samples do not all show good plateaus, but do indicate an age of 420 m.y. for the crater event and 795 +- 24 m.y. for the rock formation, in agreement with previous results. None of the 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar profiles shows a drop at high temperature, but a possible role of shock implantation of Ar is indicated in the production of this effect. Further experiments are suggested. (author)

  10. Age and stress as determinants of the severity of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease in newly diagnosed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Xander G; Smit, Natalie; Endert, Erik; Brosschot, Jos F; Tijssen, Jan G P; Wiersinga, Wilmar M

    2009-02-01

    The evidence that stress may provoke Graves' hyperthyroidism in genetically susceptible subjects is substantial. Whether exposure to stress is related to the severity of thyrotoxicosis has not been studied. Advancing age is associated with not only less severe Graves' hyperthyroidism but also self-reported stress. We tested the hypothesis whether advancing age is associated with less exposure to stress, resulting in a lower immunological response, and less severe Graves' hyperthyroidism. Cross-sectional multicenter study. Two hundred and sixty-three consecutive untreated patients with a first episode of Graves' hyperthyroidism were included. The severity of Graves' hyperthyroidism was evaluated biochemically (freeT(4)-index and freeT(3)-index, thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII)) and clinically by the hyperthyroid symptom scale score (HSS score). Stress exposure was quantitated by three questionnaires. Advancing age was associated with less severe Graves' hyperthyroidism, both biochemically by lower serum freeT(3)-index and freeT(4)-index (Phyperthyroidism. Advancing age was associated with lower scores for stress exposure. Multivariate regression analysis showed that HSS score was independently related to the tendency to report negative feelings (Phyperthyroidism. Because no direct relationship exists between stress exposure and TBII or freeT(3)-index and freeT(4)-index, we reject our hypothesis that less stress is causally related to biochemically less severe Graves' hyperthyroidism in old age. HSS score is primarily determined by negative feelings and not by age.

  11. Age and Heat Stress as Determinants of Telomere Length in a Long-Lived Fish, the Siberian Sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simide, Rémy; Angelier, Frédéric; Gaillard, Sandrine; Stier, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten at each cell division due to the end-replication problem but also in response to oxidative stress. Consequently, telomeres shorten with age in many endotherms, and this shortening is accelerated under stressful environmental conditions. Data in ectotherm vertebrates remain scarce so far, so our goal was to review existing data for fish and to test the influence of age and stress on telomere length in a very long-lived fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Our review of the literature revealed age-related telomere shortening in approximately half of the published studies. In the Siberian sturgeon, we found a significant telomere shortening with age, both at the intraindividual level using red blood cells (-12.5% in 16 mo) and at the interindividual level using cross-sectional samples of fin over an age range of 8 yr. We also found that heat stress (30°C) significantly reduced telomere length by 15.0% after only 1 mo of exposure. Our results highlight that both age and stressful environmental conditions might be important determinants of telomere length in fish.

  12. Age and growth determination by skeletochronology in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta from the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casale

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Skeletochronology was applied to humerus bones to assess the age and growth rates of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the Mediterranean Sea. Fifty-five dead turtles with curved carapace lengths (CCL ranging from 24 to 86.5 cm were collected from the central Mediterranean. Sections of humeri were histologically processed to analyze annual growth marks. Two approaches were used to estimate the somatic growth in the form of a von Bertalanffy growth function. The first approach was based on calculating the total number of growth marks, which corresponds to the age of turtles at death. The second approach estimates the carapace length at old growth marks in order to provide the growth rate of each turtle. The observed individual growth rates ranged from 1.4 to 6.2 cm yr–1, and showed both elevated inter- and intra-individual variability possibly related to the environmental variability experienced by turtles during their lifetime. Both approaches gave similar results and suggest that Mediterranean loggerhead turtles take 14.9 to 28.5 years to reach a CCL of 66.5 to 84.7 cm. This size corresponds to the average size of nesting females found in the most important Mediterranean nesting sites and can be considered the approximate size at maturity.

  13. Determinants of famous name processing speed: age of acquisition versus semantic connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H; Moore, Viv; Valentine, Tim

    2013-02-01

    The age of acquisition (AoA) and the amount of biographical information known about celebrities have been independently shown to influence the processing of famous people. In this experiment, we investigated the facilitative contribution of both factors to famous name processing. Twenty-four mature adults participated in a familiarity judgement task, in which the names of famous people were grouped orthogonally by AoA and by the number of bits of biographical information known about them (number of facts known; NoFK). Age of acquisition was found to have a significant effect on both reaction time (RT) and accuracy of response, but NoFK did not. The RT data also revealed a significant AoA×NoFK interaction. The amount of information known about a celebrity played a facilitative role in the processing of late-acquired, but not early-acquired, celebrities. Once AoA is controlled, it would appear that the semantic system ceases to have a significant overall influence on the processing of famous people. The pre-eminence of AoA over semantic connectedness is considered in the light of current theories of AoA and how their influence might interact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Indonesian kalkulator of oocytes (IKO): A smart application to determine our biological age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiweko, Budi; Narasati, Shabrina; Agung, Prince Gusti; Zesario, Aulia; Wibawa, Yohanes Satrya; Maidarti, Mila; Harzif, Achmad Kemal; Pratama, Gita; Sumapraja, Kanadi; Muharam, Raden; Hestiantoro, Andon

    2018-02-01

    Background: The use of smartphones and its associated application provides new opportunities for physicians. In current situations, there are still few applications are designed in the field of infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART). A study conducted on 1616 subjects proved that AMH (Anti-Mullerian Hormone) could be used to predict a woman's biological age earlier than Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Antral Follicle Count (AFC). In this study, we describe the AMH nomogram that has been developed into a mobile application as "Indonesian Kalculator of Oocytes" (IKO). The software required to create IKO application was the Android 4.0.3 Ice Cream Sandwich and Java Application Development. The hardware specification that needed to develop the IKO apps were a 4.0-inch screen, 512 MB RAM (random-access memory), and CPU (central processing unit) with dual core 1.2 Ghz. The application is built using the Android SDK (Software Development Kit) and Java Application Development. In this application, we can predict the woman's biological age, some mature oocytes, and AMH level. This app is expected to help patients to plan effectively for pregnancy and help the doctor to choose the best intervention for patients who face infertility problems using Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). IKO application can be downloaded for free on Google PlayStore and Apple Store.

  15. Variations in Community Prevalence and Determinants of Recreational and Utilitarian Walking in Older Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Procter-Gray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regular walking is critical to maintaining health in older age. We examined influences of individual and community factors on walking habits in older adults. Methods. We analyzed walking habits among participants of a prospective cohort study of 745 community-dwelling men and women, mainly aged 70 years or older. We estimated community variations in utilitarian and recreational walking, and examined whether the variations were attributable to community differences in individual and environmental factors. Results. Prevalence of recreational walking was relatively uniform while prevalence of utilitarian walking varied across the 16 communities in the study area. Both types of walking were associated with individual health and physical abilities. However, utilitarian walking was also strongly associated with several measures of neighborhood socioeconomic status and access to amenities while recreational walking was not. Conclusions. Utilitarian walking is strongly influenced by neighborhood environment, but intrinsic factors may be more important for recreational walking. Communities with the highest overall walking prevalence were those with the most utilitarian walkers. Public health promotion of regular walking should take this into account.

  16. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Simone M; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alícia; Dos Santos, Iná S; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Hormonal determinants of the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabijewski M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Michał Rabijewski,1 Lucyna Papierska,2 Roman Kuczerowski,1 Paweł Piątkiewicz11Department of Internal Diseases, Diabetology and Endocrinology, Medical University of Warsaw, 2Department of Endocrinology, Medical Centre for Postgraduate Education, Warsaw, PolandAbstract: Andropausal and depressive symptoms are common in aging males and may be associated with hormone deficiency. We investigated the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms, as well as their hormonal determinants, in 196 middle-aged and elderly men (age range: 40–80 years with prediabetes (PD and in 184 healthy peers. PD was diagnosed according to the definition of the American Diabetes Association. The severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Aging Males’ Symptoms Rating Scale and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Total testosterone (TT, calculated free testosterone (cFT, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 were measured. The prevalence of andropausal syndrome in men with PD was significantly higher than that in healthy men (35% vs 11%, respectively. In men with PD aged 40–59 years, the severity of sexual, psychological, and all andropausal symptoms was greater than in healthy peers, while in elderly men (60–80 years, only the severity of psychological symptoms was greater than in healthy peers. The severity of depressive symptoms in the middle-aged men with PD was greater than in healthy peers, while the severity of depressive symptoms in elderly men with PD and healthy peers was similar. The higher prevalence of andropausal symptoms was independently associated with cFT and IGF-1 in middle-aged men and with TT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. The more severe depression symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS in middle-aged men and with low cFT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. In conclusion, the prevalence of andropausal symptoms, especially psychological, was higher in prediabetic

  18. New K Ar age determinations of Kilimanjaro volcano in the North Tanzanian diverging rift, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnotte, Philippe; Guillou, Hervé; Le Gall, Bernard; Benoit, Mathieu; Cotten, Joseph; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2008-06-01

    The Kilimanjaro is the African highest mountain and culminates at 5895 m high. This huge volcanic edifice is composed of three main centres along a N110°E-striking axis (Shira, Kibo and Mawenzi from W to E), and emplaced in a key area where a major N80°E-oriented volcanic lineament intersects a first-order NW-SE basement fault-like discontinuity. Seventeen K-Ar ages (on microcrystalline groundmass) acquired on lavas and intrusive facies from the three eruptive centres confirm that the Plio-Quaternary volcanicity of Kilimanjaro is clearly polyphased. The oldest phases of volcanic activity begun at ~ 2.5 Ma in the Shira vent and our data suggest that the latest important phases occurred around 1.9 Ma, just before the collapse of the Northern part of the edifice. Magmatic activity then shifted eastwards in the Mawenzi and Kibo twin centres where initial volcanism is dated at ~ 1 Ma. Two K-Ar ages obtained for the most recent Mawenzi rocks from the Neumann Tower-Mawenzi group (492 ka) and Mawenzi eruptive centre (448 ka), near the present summit, are linked to the final stage of edification for this centre. Whereas the eruptive activity ceased in the Mawenzi, it still continued on Kibo since sub-actual time. The oldest dated rocks from Kibo (482 ka) is obtained on a dyke from the Lava Tower group cropping out at 4600 m high. The main phase of magmatism on Kibo is recorded by two lava formations with a great spatial extension - the Rhomb Porphyry group and the Lent group - that have been emplaced in a short time interval at ~ 460-360 ka (including two erosive stages) and 359-337 ka, respectively. Based on the dating of Caldera rim group lavas, it is shown that the edification of the present cone was accomplished in a period ranging from 274 to 170 ka. The new ages obtained for the main episodes of volcanic activity on Kibo appear to roughly coincide with the oldest known Quaternary glaciations. The interaction between eruptive phenomena and the ice cover is assumed to

  19. Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Hand-Wrist and Cervical Vertebrae Radiography for the Determination of Skeletal Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Mohammadhashem; Zamaheni, Sara; Bashizadeh Fakhar, Hourieh; Akbari, Forough; Chalipa, Javad; Rahmati, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Prediction of skeletal growth is necessary for growth modification and surgical orthodontic treatments and is usually done by assessing skeletal maturity indicators in hand-wrist radiographs. The use of growth stages of cervical vertebrae in lateral cephalograms has been suggested to avoid overexposure. Objectives This study seeks to assess the degree of agreement between hand-wrist and cervical vertebrae maturation stages for skeletal age determination and prediction of the peak growth spurt (PGS). Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 67 boys and 66 girls between 8 and 18 years of age, divided into 11 age groups; 266 hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms were obtained and analyzed. Hand-wrist maturation stages were evaluated according to the Grave and Brown, Bjork system (stages 1 - 9). The cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS) was determined on lateral cephalograms based on a system described by Baccetti et al. (CVMS 1-5). To apply the Cohen’s kappa index, the stages of growth were reduced to 5 intervals (A - E) to relate the 5 CVMS to the 9 stages of Bjork hand-wrist analysis. Results In all age groups, the skeletal maturity stages of the hand and wrist bones and the cervical vertebrae of the girls were ahead of the boys. Cohen’s kappa test revealed a low level of agreement between the two methods [Kappa (95% CI) = 0.312 (0.290 - 0.377)]; concordance was slightly higher in males (K = 0.33 for males versus 0.27 for females). Evaluation of concordance coefficients between the stages determined by the two methods indicated the highest concordance in 8- and 9-year-olds and the lowest in 12- and 14-year-olds. The level of agreement between the two methods was only acceptable in 8- and 9-year-olds of both genders and 10-year-old boys. The level of agreement between the two methods in other age groups was not acceptable. Conclusion The level of agreement between the two methods was low; thus, they cannot be

  20. REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison: "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample"

    OpenAIRE

    VENCHIARUTTI CELIA; VARGA ZSOLT; RICHTER Stephan; JAKOPIC Rozle; MAYER Klaus; AREGBE Yetunde

    2015-01-01

    The REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison aimed at determining the production date of a uranium certified test sample (i.e. the last chemical separation date of the material). Participants in REIMEP-22 on "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample" received one low-enriched 20 mg uranium sample for mass spectrometry measurements and/or one 50 mg uranium sample for D-spectrometry measurements, with an undisclosed value for the production date. They ...

  1. Interaction between PNPLA3 I148M variant and age at infection in determining fibrosis progression in chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella De Nicola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The PNPLA3 I148M sequence variant favors hepatic lipid accumulation and confers susceptibility to hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect size of homozygosity for the PNPLA3 I148M variant (148M/M on the fibrosis progression rate (FPR and the interaction with age at infection in chronic hepatitis C (CHC. METHODS: FPR was estimated in a prospective cohort of 247 CHC patients without alcohol intake and diabetes, with careful estimation of age at infection and determination of fibrosis stage by Ishak score. RESULTS: Older age at infection was the strongest determinant of FPR (p<0.0001. PNPLA3 148M/M was associated with faster FPR in individuals infected at older age (above the median, 21 years; -0.64±0.2, n = 8 vs. -0.95±0.3, n = 166 log10 FPR respectively; p = 0.001; confirmed for lower age thresholds, p<0.05, but not in those infected at younger age (p = ns. The negative impact of PNPLA3 148M/M on fibrosis progression was more marked in subjects at risk of altered hepatic lipid metabolism (those with grade 2-3 steatosis, genotype 3, and overweight; p<0.05. At multivariate analysis, PNPLA3 148M/M was associated with FPR (incremental effect 0.08±0.03 log10 fibrosis unit per year; p = 0.022, independently of several confounders, and there was a significant interaction between 148M/M and older age at infection (p = 0.025. The association between 148M/M and FPR remained significant even after adjustment for steatosis severity (p = 0.032. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an interaction between homozygosity for the PNPLA3 I148M variant and age at infection in determining fibrosis progression in CHC patients.

  2. Joint cartilage thickness and automated determination of bone age and bone health in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twilt, Marinka; Pradsgaard, Dan; Spannow, Anne Helene

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BoneXpert is an automated method to calculate bone maturation and bone health index (BHI) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Cartilage thickness can also be seen as an indicator for bone health and arthritis damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate...... the relation between cartilage thickness, bone maturation and bone health in patients with JIA. METHODS: Patients with JIA diagnosed according ILAR criteria included in a previous ultrasonography (US) study were eligible if hand radiographs were taken at the same time as the US examination. Of the 95 patients...... 67 met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Decreased cartilage thickness was seen in 27% of the examined joints. Decreased BHI was seen in half of the JIA patient, and delayed bone maturation was seen in 33% of patients. A combination of decreased BHI and bone age was seen in 1 out of 5 JIA patients...

  3. Social relations as determinants of oral health among persons over the age of 80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E

    2003-01-01

    % CI: 1.2-7.2). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that social relations are related to the oral health status of old-old individuals. From a psychosocial perspective, our findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the background of oral health status in older adults.......OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether social relations during a 7-year follow-up influence oral health among generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 years. METHOD: The present investigation is based on a subsample of 129 dentate community-dwelling individuals from The Kungsholmen...... Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS), which included data from interviews and oral examinations. Social relations were measured in terms of marital status, living alone, frequency of contacts, number of confidants, and satisfaction with social contacts and with the frequency of contacts. Oral health...

  4. Determinants of locomotor disability in people aged 55 years and over: The Rotterdam study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odding, Else; Valkenburg, Hans A.; Stam, Hendrik J.; Hofman, Albert

    2001-01-01

    Locomotor disability, as defined by difficulties in activities of daily living related to lower limb function, can be the consequence of diseases and impairments of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, nervous, sensory and musculoskeletal system. We estimated the associations between specific diseases and impairments and locomotor disability, and the proportion of disability attributable to each condition, controlling for age and comorbidity. The Rotterdam Study is a prospective follow-up study among people aged 55 years and over in the general population. Locomotor disability in 1219 men and 1856 women was assessed with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire. Diseases and impairments were radiological osteoarthritis, pain of the hips and knees, morning stiffness, fractures, hypertension, vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), depression, Parkinson's disease, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, overweight, and low vision. Adjusted odds ratios, etiologic and attributable fractions were calculated for locomotor disability. The occurrence of locomotor disability can partly be ascribed to joint pain, COPD, morning stiffness, diabetes and heart failure in both men and women. In addition in women osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low vision, fractures, stroke and Parkinson's disease are significant etiologic fractions. In men with morning stiffness, joint pain, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and COPD a significant proportion of their disability is attributable to this impairment. In women this was the case for Parkinson's disease, morning stiffness, low vision, heart failure, joint pain, diabetes, radiological osteoarthritis, stroke, COPD, osteoporosis, and fractures of the lower limbs, in that order. We conclude that locomotor complaints, heart failure, COPD and diabetes mellitus contribute considerably to locomotor disability in non-institutionalized elderly people

  5. Dependency of magnetocardiographically determined fetal cardiac time intervals on gestational age, gender and postnatal biometrics in healthy pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geue Daniel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetocardiography enables the precise determination of fetal cardiac time intervals (CTI as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. It has been shown that fetal CTI change in course of gestation. The aim of this work was to investigate the dependency of fetal CTI on gestational age, gender and postnatal biometric data in a substantial sample of subjects during normal pregnancy. Methods A total of 230 fetal magnetocardiograms were obtained in 47 healthy fetuses between the 15th and 42nd week of gestation. In each recording, after subtraction of the maternal cardiac artifact and the identification of fetal beats, fetal PQRST courses were signal averaged. On the basis of therein detected wave onsets and ends, the following CTI were determined: P wave, PR interval, PQ interval, QRS complex, ST segment, T wave, QT and QTc interval. Using regression analysis, the dependency of the CTI were examined with respect to gestational age, gender and postnatal biometric data. Results Atrioventricular conduction and ventricular depolarization times could be determined dependably whereas the T wave was often difficult to detect. Linear and nonlinear regression analysis established strong dependency on age for the P wave and QRS complex (r2 = 0.67, p r2 = 0.66, p r2 = 0.21, p r2 = 0.13, p st week onward (p Conclusion We conclude that 1 from approximately the 18th week to term, fetal CTI which quantify depolarization times can be reliably determined using magnetocardiography, 2 the P wave and QRS complex duration show a high dependency on age which to a large part reflects fetal growth and 3 fetal gender plays a role in QRS complex duration in the third trimester. Fetal development is thus in part reflected in the CTI and may be useful in the identification of intrauterine growth retardation.

  6. Child weight growth trajectory and its determinants in a sample of Iranian children from birth until 2 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed-Mohsen Hosseini; Mohamad-Reza Maracy; Sheida Sarrafzade; Roya Kelishadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth is one of the most important indices in child health. The best and most effective way to investigate child health is measuring the physical growth indices such as weight, height and head circumference. Among these measures, weight growth is the simplest and the most effective way to determine child growth status. Weight trend at a given age is the result of cumulative growth experience, whereas growth velocity represents what is happening at the time. Methods: This long...

  7. Preliminary simulation model to determine ground-water flow and ages within the Palo Duro Basin hydrogeologic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, H.; Picking, L.

    1986-01-01

    Ground-water flow through the Palo Duro and Tucumcari Basins is simulated by developing a hydrogeolgic profile and applying a cross-sectional, finite-element, numerical model to the profile. The profile is 350 miles long and 2 miles deep and extends from east-central New Mexico to the Texas-Oklahoma border. It is comprised of hydrogeologic units that are identified from geophysical well logs, sample logs, and core descriptions. A hydrogeologic unit as used in this profile is a physically continuous rock sequence with hydrologic properties that are relatively consistent throughout and distinct from surrounding units. The resulting hydrogeologic profile, with the exception of the Ogallala Formation and the Dockum Group, is discretized into a 6000-element mesh and a 22,000-element mesh. Permeability values assigned to hydrogeologic units were, in part, calculated from drill stem tests conducted throughout the Palo Duro Basin. Ground-water age and travel paths are determined by applying Darcy's equation to selected flow lines. The 170 million-year age determined from ground-water at points within the Wolfcamp Series compares favorably with the geochemical data for this region. An age of 188 million years is determined for the Pennsylvanian granite wash

  8. Determining factors of overweight and obesity in children at school age in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Mispireta, Monica L

    2012-01-01

    La obesidad en escolares es un problema que se encuentra en incremento en el Perú. Está concentrado en las zonas urbanas, principalmente en Lima donde uno de cada tres niños tiene exceso de peso. Un estudio inicial en 80 colegios de Lima mostró que más importante sería la falta de actividad física que el volumen de la ingesta para explicar el sobrepeso y la obesidad en escolares. Se requieren estudios más detallados al respecto. A pesar de la limitada información disponible de sus determinant...

  9. Determinants of nonimmunization of children under 5 years of age in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Fowad; Mustafa, Tajammal; Awan, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Child vaccination is perhaps the first line of defense to ensure a healthy society. Unfortunately, the coverage of child vaccination in Pakistan is poor resulting in unnecessary yet preventable deaths. This study investigated the determinants and reasons for not vaccinating children in Pakistan. The study used the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001-2002 data. Demographic, distance to health facility, poverty status, literacy and education, and location of residence were used as determinants of nonimmunization of children. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution, proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables, and logistic regression analysis were done using the Stata 11.0. Almost 7.73% children in Pakistan were never immunized. More than 87.4% of these lived in the rural areas. Prevalence of nonimmunization was highest in Balochistan compared to other provinces. Large households appeared to have increased risk of a child not being vaccinated. Moreover, low literacy and education of the head of the household and the spouse was also associated with low vaccination coverage. Distance from the health facility was found to be another factor related to nonimmunization of children. Increase in per capita income significantly decreased the risk of missing vaccinations. Prevention and immunization programs should focus more on high-risk regions such as Balochistan and rural areas. Literacy, education, and economic status were among the other significant factors associated with low vaccination rates, which need a special focus in the public policy to achieve the target of a healthy society.

  10. [Forensic age determination in living individuals at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Berlin (Charité): analysis of the expert reports from 2001 to 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sven; Knüfermann, Raidun; Tsokos, Michael; Schmeling, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The analysis included the age reports provided by the Institute of Legal Medicine in Berlin (Charité) in the period from 2001 to 2007. A total of 416 age estimations were carried out, 289 in criminal and 127 in civil proceedings. 357 of the examined individuals were male, 59 were female. The vast majority of the individuals came from Vietnam. In 112 cases, there were no deviations between the indicated age and the estimated minimum age, while the actual age of the individuals was partly clearly above the estimated age. In 300 cases, there were discrepancies of up to 11 years between the indicated age and the estimated age. The study demonstrates that forensic age estimation in living individuals can make an important contribution to legal certainty.

  11. Clinical significance of determination of blood gastro-intestinal hormones levels in small for gestational age newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Lijun; Chen Yongsheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of plasma motilin, plasma somatostatin and serum gastrin levels after beginning oral feeding in 68 small for gestational age neonates (pre-term 36, full-term 32). Methods: Blood levels of somatostatin (SS), motilin and gastrin were determined with RIA before beginning of oral feeding and on 7 th day after birth in 68 small for gestational age neonates and 30 controls. Results: The blood levels of motilin and gastrin before feeding and on 7 th day in the small for gestational age neonates were significantly lower than those in the controls, while the SS levels were significantly higher. The serum levels of the hormones rose gradually after birth and on 7 th day were all significantly higher than those before feeding respectively (P th day levels were positively correlated with gestational age, original levels before feeding and early feeding. For gastrin, the levels were also positively correlated with the amount of feeding. In this study, early oral feeding was practiced in all the neonates without any adverse effect. Conclusion: Although the blood levels of gastro-intestinal hormones were lower in small for gestational age newborns, early oral feeding was practiced in all the neonates with no adverse effect observed and more rapid elevation of the hormone levels. Therefore, early oral feeding should be encouraged. (authors)

  12. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Møller, Bente K; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20-60 years with a BMI of 18.5-35.0 kg/m(2). Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (pdifferences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (pdiffered according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern. These factors should be considered when planning studies and analysing data concerning appetite sensations.

  13. Prevalence and Determinants of Glaucoma in Citizens of Qatar Aged 40 Years or Older: A Community-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansouri, Fatma A.; Kanaan, Aida; Gamra, Hamad; Khandekar, Rajiv; Hashim, Shakeel P.; Al Qahtani, Omar; Ahmed, Mohd. Farouk

    2011-01-01

    Background: We present the prevalence and determinants of glaucoma among subjects 40 years of age and older in Qatar. Materials and Methods: This community-based survey was held in 2009 at 49 randomly selected clusters. Demographic details and history of glaucoma was collected by the nurses. Ophthalmologists evaluated the optic disc and retina using a digital camera housed in a mobile van. Visual field was tested with an automated perimeter, the intraocular pressure with an applanation tonometer and the angle of the anterior chamber by gonioscopy. A panel of glaucoma experts diagnosed subjects with glaucoma. Results: This survey enrolled 3,149 (97.3%) participants. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of glaucoma in the population aged 40 years and older was 1.73% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.69-1.77). Accordingly, 5,641 individuals in this age group in Qatar would have glaucoma. Chronological age of 60 years and older (Odds ratio [OR] 11.1) and the presence of myopia (OR 1.78) were predictors of glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed in 44 (65.7%) individuals with glaucoma. In nine (13.4%) and 15 (20.9%) subjects, angle closure glaucoma and other (post-traumatic, pseudoexfoliation) glaucoma were present. Bilateral blindness (vision glaucoma, respectively. Glaucoma was treated in 36 (54%) subjects. Conclusions: The prevalence of glaucoma among citizens of Qatar aged 40 years and older was 1.71%. Glaucoma was associated with the age of 60 years and older and the presence of myopia. PMID:21731325

  14. Clinical application of automated Greulich-Pyle bone age determination in children with short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, David D.; Deusch, Dorothee; Schweizer, Roland; Binder, Gerhard; Ranke, Michael B.; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Bone age (BA) rating is time consuming and highly rater dependent. To adjust the fully automated BoneXpert method to agree with the manual Greulich and Pyle BA (GP BA) ratings of five raters and to validate the accuracy for short children. A total of 1,097 left hand radiographs from 188 children with short stature, including growth hormone deficiency (44%) and Turner syndrome (29%) were evaluated. BoneXpert rejected 14 of the 1,097 radiographs, and deviated by more than 1.9 years from the operator BA for 27 radiographs. These were rerated blindly by four operators. Of the 27 new ratings, 26 were within 1.9 years of the automatic BA values. The root mean square deviation between manual and automatic rating was 0.72 years (95% CI 0.69-0.75). BoneXpert's ability to process 99% of images automatically without errors, and to obtain good agreement with an operator suggests that the method is efficient and reliable for short children. (orig.)

  15. Joint cartilage thickness and automated determination of bone age and bone health in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilt, Marinka; Pradsgaard, Dan; Spannow, Anne Helene; Horlyck, Arne; Heuck, Carsten; Herlin, Troels

    2017-08-10

    BoneXpert is an automated method to calculate bone maturation and bone health index (BHI) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Cartilage thickness can also be seen as an indicator for bone health and arthritis damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation between cartilage thickness, bone maturation and bone health in patients with JIA. Patients with JIA diagnosed according ILAR criteria included in a previous ultrasonography (US) study were eligible if hand radiographs were taken at the same time as the US examination. Of the 95 patients 67 met the inclusion criteria. Decreased cartilage thickness was seen in 27% of the examined joints. Decreased BHI was seen in half of the JIA patient, and delayed bone maturation was seen in 33% of patients. A combination of decreased BHI and bone age was seen in 1 out of 5 JIA patients. Decreased cartilage thickness in the knee, wrist and MCP joint was negatively correlated with delayed bone maturation but not with bone health index. Delayed bone maturation and decreased BHI were not related to a thinner cartilage, but a thicker cartilage. No relation with JADAS 10 was found. The rheumatologist should remain aware of delayed bone maturation and BHI in JIA patients with cartilage changes, even in the biologic era.

  16. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Evans

    Full Text Available In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated, most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness. Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  17. Clinical application of automated Greulich-Pyle bone age determination in children with short stature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D.; Deusch, Dorothee; Schweizer, Roland; Binder, Gerhard; Ranke, Michael B. [University Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Endocrinology Section, Tuebingen (Germany); Thodberg, Hans Henrik [Visiana, Holte (Denmark)

    2009-06-15

    Bone age (BA) rating is time consuming and highly rater dependent. To adjust the fully automated BoneXpert method to agree with the manual Greulich and Pyle BA (GP BA) ratings of five raters and to validate the accuracy for short children. A total of 1,097 left hand radiographs from 188 children with short stature, including growth hormone deficiency (44%) and Turner syndrome (29%) were evaluated. BoneXpert rejected 14 of the 1,097 radiographs, and deviated by more than 1.9 years from the operator BA for 27 radiographs. These were rerated blindly by four operators. Of the 27 new ratings, 26 were within 1.9 years of the automatic BA values. The root mean square deviation between manual and automatic rating was 0.72 years (95% CI 0.69-0.75). BoneXpert's ability to process 99% of images automatically without errors, and to obtain good agreement with an operator suggests that the method is efficient and reliable for short children. (orig.)

  18. Determinants of nonimmunization of children under 5 years of age in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowad Murtaza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child vaccination is perhaps the first line of defense to ensure a healthy society. Unfortunately, the coverage of child vaccination in Pakistan is poor resulting in unnecessary yet preventable deaths. This study investigated the determinants and reasons for not vaccinating children in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: The study used the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001-2002 data. Demographic, distance to health facility, poverty status, literacy and education, and location of residence were used as determinants of nonimmunization of children. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution, proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables, and logistic regression analysis were done using the Stata 11.0. Results: Almost 7.73% children in Pakistan were never immunized. More than 87.4% of these lived in the rural areas. Prevalence of nonimmunization was highest in Balochistan compared to other provinces. Large households appeared to have increased risk of a child not being vaccinated. Moreover, low literacy and education of the head of the household and the spouse was also associated with low vaccination coverage. Distance from the health facility was found to be another factor related to nonimmunization of children. Increase in per capita income significantly decreased the risk of missing vaccinations. Conclusions: Prevention and immunization programs should focus more on high-risk regions such as Balochistan and rural areas. Literacy, education, and economic status were among the other significant factors associated with low vaccination rates, which need a special focus in the public policy to achieve the target of a healthy society.

  19. Sport and ageing: a systematic review of the determinants and trends of participation in sport for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Claire R; Eime, Rochelle M; Westerbeek, Hans; O'Sullivan, Grant; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z

    2017-12-22

    The global population is ageing. As ageing is often associated with a decline in health, there is a need to further develop preventative health measures. Physical activity can positively influence older adults' (aged 50 years and older) health. Previous research on the relationship between physical activity and health for older adults has mainly focused on physical activity in general, and not specific types of exercise. Due to the social nature of sport, it may assist in improving physical, mental and social health for older adults. Sport, as a form of physical activity, has not been widely explored as a physical activity opportunity for older adults. This review concurrently explored two research questions: the determinants and the trends of sport participation for community dwelling older adults. Two parallel systematic searches of nine electronic databases were conducted in December 2015 for the two research questions. English language quantitative and qualitative studies that provided specific results for community dwelling older adults' sport participation were included and a quality ratings assessment was undertaken. There were 10,171 studies initially identified for the first research question and 1992 studies for the second research question. This culminated in 18 and 8 studies respectively that met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently mentioned determinants of participation were health and using sport to negotiate the ageing process. The most frequently mentioned trends of sport participation were the effect of historical sport participation on current participation, and sport participation across the lifespan. The main themes for both research questions had contrasting results, for example, participation in sport could improve health, but poor health was also a limitation of sport participation. This review demonstrates that older adults are a heterogeneous age group, and therefore require different strategies than other age groups to

  20. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Vitamin intake: a possible determinant of plasma homocyst(e)ine among middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, T; Nieto, F J; Malinow, M R; Chambless, L E; Schreiner, P J; Szklo, M

    1997-05-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have identified elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thromboembolic disease. To examined the relationship between vitamin intakes and plasma homocyst(e)ine, we analyzed dietary intake data from a case-control study of 322 middle-aged individuals with atherosclerosis in the carotid artery and 318 control subjects without evidence of this disease. All of these individuals were selected from a probability sample of 15,800 men and women who participated in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Plasma homocyst(e)ine was inversely associated with intakes of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 (controls only for this vitamin)--the three key vitamins in homocyst(e)ine metabolism. Among nonusers of vitamin supplement products, on average each tertile increase in intake of these vitamins was associated with 0.4 to 0.7 mumol/L decrease in plasma homocyst(e)ine. An inverse association of plasma homocyst(e)ine was also found with thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, phosphorus, and iron. Methionine and protein intake did not show any significant association with plasma homocyst(e)ine. In almost all analyses, cases and controls showed similar associations between dietary variables and plasma homocyst(e)ine. Plasma homocyst(e)ine among users of vitamin supplement products was 1.5 mumol/L lower than that among nonusers. Further studies to examine possible causal relationships among vitamin intake, plasma homocyst(e)ine, and cardiovascular disease are needed.

  2. Impact of Distance Determinations on Galactic Structure. I. Young and Intermediate-Age Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Bono, Giuseppe; Chen, Xiaodian; de Grijs, Richard; Inno, Laura; Nishiyama, Shogo

    2018-06-01

    Here we discuss impacts of distance determinations on the Galactic disk traced by relatively young objects. The Galactic disk, ˜40 kpc in diameter, is a cross-road of studies on the methods of measuring distances, interstellar extinction, evolution of galaxies, and other subjects of interest in astronomy. A proper treatment of interstellar extinction is, for example, crucial for estimating distances to stars in the disk outside the small range of the solar neighborhood. We'll review the current status of relevant studies and discuss some new approaches to the extinction law. When the extinction law is reasonably constrained, distance indicators found in today and future surveys are telling us stellar distribution and more throughout the Galactic disk. Among several useful distance indicators, the focus of this review is Cepheids and open clusters (especially contact binaries in clusters). These tracers are particularly useful for addressing the metallicity gradient of the Galactic disk, an important feature for which comparison between observations and theoretical models can reveal the evolution of the disk.

  3. Different indicators of socioeconomic status and their relative importance as determinants of health in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin-Mattsson, Alexander; Fors, Stefan; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2017-09-26

    Socioeconomic status has been operationalised in a variety of ways, most commonly as education, social class, or income. In this study, we also use occupational complexity and a SES-index as alternative measures of socioeconomic status. Studies show that in analyses of health inequalities in the general population, the choice of indicators influence the magnitude of the observed inequalities. Less is known about the influence of indicator choice in studies of older adults. The aim of this study is twofold: i) to analyse the impact of the choice of socioeconomic status indicator on the observed health inequalities among older adults, ii) to explore whether different indicators of socioeconomic status are independently associated with health in old age. We combined data from two nationally representative Swedish surveys, providing more than 20 years of follow-up. Average marginal effects were estimated to compare the association between the five indicators of SES, and three late-life health outcomes: mobility limitations, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL), and psychological distress. All socioeconomic status indicators were associated with late-life health; there were only minor differences in the effect sizes. Income was most strongly associated to all indicators of late-life health, the associations remained statistically significant when adjusting for the other indicators. In the fully adjusted models, education contributed to the model fits with 0-3% (depending on the outcome), social class with 0-1%, occupational complexity with 1-8%, and income with 3-18%. Our results indicate overlapping properties between socioeconomic status indicators in relation to late-life health. However, income is associated to late-life health independently of all other variables. Moreover, income did not perform substantially worse than the composite SES-index in capturing health variation. Thus, if the primary objective of including an indicator of socioeconomic

  4. Determinants of musculoskeletal frailty and the risk of falls in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M; Hunter, G

    2006-01-01

    Neuromuscular parameters that describe locomotion are indispensable variables for the diagnosis and treatment of frailty, fall risk and osteoporosis. A scientifically-based standardized locomotor assessment should be an essential part of medical examinations in research and clinical practice. There has been no previous consensus regarding which test procedures should be included in a locomotor assessment. The goal of this article is to provide a rationale for the selection of appropriate locomotor tests in a comprehensive locomotor assessment for elderly patients. We propose that a locomotor assessment should comprise the parameters that have been proven predictive for both falls and impending disability. The parameters should be measured in the standard units of physics. Therefore, we propose the following tests for a standardized locomotor assessment: (1) Self-selected gait velocity as the single best measure of general locomotor status and a good predictor of age-related adverse events; (2) Chair rise test (timed 5 chair rises) which measures power on vertical movement and the hip surrounding muscles as the most important neuromuscular risk factor for falls and fall-related fractures; (3) Tandem standing and tandem walking to measure postural capacity (balance) to the side; (4) Timed up and go test as a global screening procedure; (5) Clinical gait analysis with special focus on regularity; and (6) At least on a research level, movement must be measured referring to the terms of physics by mechanography. Mechanography (Leonardo force plate system, Novotec Pforzheim, Germany) records the time course of ground reaction forces, velocity of the vertical movements of the center of mass and power during unrestricted physiological movements. In the mechanogram the eccentric and concentric phases of movements can be differentiated and the storage of energy in the elastic elements of the body can be examined. The kinetics of human movement is explained by mechanograms of

  5. The neural determinants of age-related changes in fluid intelligence: a pre-registered, longitudinal analysis in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Rogier A; Fuhrmann, Delia; Borgeest, Gesa Sophia; Simpson-Kent, Ivan L; Henson, Richard N A

    2018-01-01

    Background:  Fluid intelligence declines with advancing age, starting in early adulthood. Within-subject declines in fluid intelligence are highly correlated with contemporaneous declines in the ability to live and function independently. To support healthy aging, the mechanisms underlying these declines need to be better understood. Methods:  In this pre-registered analysis, we applied latent growth curve modelling to investigate the neural determinants of longitudinal changes in fluid intelligence across three time points in 185,317 individuals (N=9,719 two waves, N=870 three waves) from the UK Biobank (age range: 39-73 years). Results:  We found a weak but significant effect of cross-sectional age on the mean fluid intelligence score, such that older individuals scored slightly lower. However, the mean longitudinal slope was positive, rather than negative, suggesting improvement across testing occasions. Despite the considerable sample size, the slope variance was non-significant, suggesting no reliable individual differences in change over time. This null-result is likely due to the nature of the cognitive test used. In a subset of individuals, we found that white matter microstructure (N=8839, as indexed by fractional anisotropy) and grey-matter volume (N=9931) in pre-defined regions-of-interest accounted for complementary and unique variance in mean fluid intelligence scores. The strongest effects were such that higher grey matter volume in the frontal pole and greater white matter microstructure in the posterior thalamic radiations were associated with higher fluid intelligence scores. Conclusions:  In a large preregistered analysis, we demonstrate a weak but significant negative association between age and fluid intelligence. However, we did not observe plausible longitudinal patterns, instead observing a weak increase across testing occasions, and no significant individual differences in rates of change, likely due to the suboptimal task design

  6. Determinants of Sexual and Reproductive Health among Brazilian youth (aged 18 to 29 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Barbosa Fontes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the main determinants of sexual and reproductive health of Brazilian youth. It was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medicine Faculty of the University of Brasília, and it received support from Paho and Brazilian Ministry of Health. 1.208 youngsters (18 to 29 years old in 15 states and Federal District were interviewed at their residences, during the second semester of 2011. Margin of error, adjusted regional and nationally, was 2.8% (CI: 95%, regarding the assessed sample. A KAP scale (knowledge, attitudes, and practices with 17 questions (-17 to +17 points was generated. A questionnaire was pre-tested for consistency and validity analysis was performed. KAP scale was used as dependent variable in adjusted linear regression models. Mean KAP score was 5.65 points. Gaps in KAP were: 70% of the youth do not know when the fertility period of a woman is. 42% of youth do not recognize condoms as a method to prevent unwanted pregnancy and STDs. The main factors associated to explaining variances in KAP are gender, education, religion, access to health services, having had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months, and having friends as the main personal reference (p < 0.05. Youngsters with higher education, women, non-Protestant, who claim to know where to find health services have better KAP level of reproductive health. Studies are necessary to support public policies that increase the KAP levels in sexual and reproductive health of the most vulnerable groups, such as the segment comprising low education, men and Protestants.

  7. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream%Consumerism and the Sister Carrie''s American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  8. Energetics of load carrying in Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Guillaume J; Schepens, Bénédicte; Willems, Patrick A; Heglund, Norman C

    2005-06-17

    Nepalese porters routinely carry head-supported loads equal to 100 to 200% of their body weight (Mb) for many days up and down steep mountain footpaths at high altitudes. Previous studies have shown that African women carry head-supported loads of up to 60% of their Mb far more economically than army recruits carrying equivalent loads in backpacks. Here we show that Nepalese porters carry heavier loads even more economically than African women. Female Nepalese porters, for example, carry on average loads that are 10% of their Mb heavier than the maximum loads carried by the African women, yet do so at a 25% smaller metabolic cost.

  9. Age and egg-sac loss determine maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Fanny; Chiara, Violette; Trabalon, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Wolf spiders' (Lycosidae) maternal behaviour includes a specific phase called "egg brooding" which consists of guarding and carrying an egg-sac throughout the incubation period. The transport of an egg-sac can restrict mothers' exploratory and locomotor activity, in particular when foraging. The present study details the ontogeny of maternal behaviour and assesses the influence of age of egg-sac (or embryos' developmental stage) on vagrant wolf spider Pardosa saltans females' exploration and locomotion. We observed these spiders' maternal behaviour in the laboratory and evaluated their locomotor activity using a digital activity recording device. Our subjects were virgin females (without egg-sac) and first time mothers (with her egg-sac) who were divided into three groups. The first group of mothers were tested on the day the egg-sac was built (day 0), and the females of the other two groups were tested 10 or 15days after they had built their egg-sac. We evaluated the effects of the presence and the loss of egg-sac on mothers' activity. Pardosa saltans females' behaviour depended on mothers' physiological state and/or age of egg-sac (developmental stage of embryos). Virgin females' behaviour was not modified by the presence of an egg-sac in their environment. Mothers' reactions to the presence, the loss and the recovery of their egg-sac varied during the maternal cycle. Maternal behaviour changed with age of egg-sac, but the levels of locomotor activity of mothers with egg-sacs was similar to those of virgin females. Loss of egg-sac modified the maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of all mothers; these modifications were greater on "day 15" when embryos had emerged from eggs. All mothers were able to retrieve their egg-sacs and to re-attach them to their spinnerets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. From rocks to oil : researchers become the first in the world to determine the age of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawshaw, C

    2005-06-10

    This article discussed the discovery of a method to accurately determine the age of oil. The discovery was made by two geologists at the University of Alberta, and provides critical information about the formation of oil which will help to better understand oil deposits. The scientists have suggested that the giant oil sand deposits in Alberta were formed 112 million years ago and not 60 million years ago as was previously thought. They used isotopes of rhenium and osmium, elements found in trace amounts in oil, to pinpoint when oil formed in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), which contains much of the world's oil sands. It was previously thought that the time at which oil was produced from a rock and migrated as fluid could be deduced from looking at geologic relationships. This is the first time that a direct determination using any isotopic method has be applied to determine age. The research findings are expected to change the way geologists understand the evolution of the basin. It was concluded that while the discovery answers some questions about hydrocarbons, many others remain. However, the presence of an absolute number will help geologists to re-evaluate other knowledge. 1 fig.

  11. Social Inequalities on Selected Determinants of Active Aging and Health Status Indicators in a Large Brazilian City (2003-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Luciana de Souza; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; César, Cibele Comini; Macinko, James

    2016-02-01

    To assess trends in social inequalities among 2,624 elderly living in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in three domains of the World Health Organization's Active Aging model (physical environment, social determinants, use of health services) and health status indicators. Data came from two representative household surveys conducted in 2003 and 2010. Social inequality was measured by the slope and the relative index of inequality. Educational level was used to define socioeconomic status. Significant improvements were observed in the prevalence rates of 7 out of 12 indicators. However, the social inequalities persisted through 10 out of 12 selected active aging and health status indicators, except for fear of falling on the sidewalks/crossing the streets and fear of being robbed. Social inequalities persistence might be assigned to the continuity of unequal distribution of resources among groups with different educational levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Direct Measurement of Initial 230TH/ 232TH Ratios in Central Texas Speleothems for More Accurate Age Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, B. E.; Banner, J. L.; James, E.; Loewy, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Speleothems, calcite deposits in caves, preserve a record of climate in their growth rate, isotope ratios and trace element concentrations. These variables must be tied to precise ages to produce pre-instrumental records of climate. The 238U-234U- 230Th disequilibrium method of dating can yield precise ages if the amount of 230Th from the decay of radiogenic 238U can be constrained. 230Th in a speleothem calcite growth layer has two potential sources - 1) decay of radioactive 238U since the time of growth of the calcite layer; and 2) initial detrital 230Th, incorporated along with detrital 232Th, into the calcite layer at the time it grew. Although the calcite lattice does not typically incorporate Th, samples can contain impurities with relatively high Th contents. Initial 230Th/232Th is commonly estimated by assuming a source with bulk-Earth U/Th values in a state of secular equilibrium in the 238U-decay chain. The uncertainty in this 230Th/232Th estimate is also assumed, typically at +/-100%. Both assumptions contribute to uncertainty in ages determined for young speleothems. If the amount of initial detrital 230Th can be better quantified for samples or sites, then U-series ages will have smaller uncertainties and more precisely define the time series of climate proxies. This study determined the initial 230Th/232Th of modern calcite to provide more precise dates for central Texas speleothems. Calcite was grown on glass-plate substrates placed under active drips in central Texas caves. The 230Th/232Th of this modern calcite was determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Results show that: 1) initial 230Th/232Th ratios can be accurately determined in these young samples and 2) measuring 230Th/232Th reduces the uncertainties in previously-determined ages on stalagmites from under the same drips. For example, measured initial 230Th/232Th in calcite collected on substrates from different locations in the cave at Westcave Preserve are 15.3 × 0.67 ppm

  13. Prevalence and determinants of visual impairment in Canada: cross-sectional data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljied, Rumaisa; Aubin, Marie-Josée; Buhrmann, Ralf; Sabeti, Saama; Freeman, Ellen E

    2018-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and determinants of visual impairment in Canada. Cross-sectional population-based study. 30,097 people in the Comprehensive Cohort of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging METHODS: Inclusion criteria included being between the ages of 45 and 85 years old, community-dwelling, and living near one of the 11 data collection sites across 7 Canadian provinces. People were excluded if they were in an institution, living on a First Nations reserve, were a full-time member of the Canadian Armed Forces, did not speak French or English, or had cognitive impairment. Visual acuity was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart while participants wore their usual prescription for distance, if any. Visual impairment was defined as presenting binocular acuity worse than 20/40. Of Canadian adults, 5.7% (95% CI 5.4-6.0) had visual impairment. A wide variation in the provincial prevalence of visual impairment was observed ranging from a low of 2.4% (95% CI 2.0-3.0) in Manitoba to a high of 10.9% (95% CI 9.6-12.2) in Newfoundland and Labrador. Factors associated with a higher odds of visual impairment included older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.08), lower income (OR = 2.07 for those earning less than $20 000 per year, 95% CI 1.65-2.59), current smoking (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.25-1.85), type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.41), and memory problems (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.04-2.01). Refractive error was the leading cause of visual impairment. Older age, lower income, province, smoking, diabetes, and memory problems were associated with visual impairment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Age- and gender-specific differences in left ventricular cardiac function and volumes determined by gated SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondt, P. de; Wiele, C. van de; Winter, F. de; Dierckx, R.A.; Sutter, J. de; Backer, G. de

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine normative volumetric data and ejection fraction values derived from gated myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using the commercially available software algorithm QGS (quantitative gated SPET). From a prospective database of 876 consecutive patients who were referred for a 2-day stress-rest technetium-99m tetrofosmin (925 MBq) gated SPET study, 102 patients (43 men, 59 women) with a low (<10%) pre-test likelihood of coronary disease were included (mean age 57.6 years). For stress imaging, a bicycle protocol was used in 79 of the patients and a dipyridamole protocol in 23. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and end-diastolic and -systolic volumes (EDV and ESV) were calculated by QGS. EDV and ESV were corrected for body surface area, indicated by EDVi and ESVi. To allow comparison with previous reports using other imaging modalities, men and women were divided into three age groups (<45 years, ≥45 years but <65 years and ≥65 years). Men showed significantly higher EDVi and ESVi values throughout and lower LVEF values when compared with women in the subgroup ≥65 years (P<0.05, ANOVA). Significant negative and positive correlations were found between age and EDVi and ESVi values for both women and men and between LVEF and age in women (Pearson P≤0.01). LVEF values at bicycle stress were significantly higher than at rest (P=0.000, paired t test), which was the result of a significant decrease in ESV (P=0.003), a phenomenon which did not occur following dipyridamole stress (P=0.409). The data presented suggest that LVEF and EDVi and ESVi as assessed by QGS are strongly gender-specific. Although the physiological significance of these results is uncertain and needs further study, these findings demonstrate that the evaluation of cardiac function and volumes of patients by means of QGS should consider age- and gender-matched normative values. (orig.)

  15. A study of the main determinants of sexual dysfunction in women aged 15-45 years on chronic hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hekmat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction (SD is a common problem in patients with the end-stage renal disease. In contrast to SD in males, relatively little work has been performed in the field of SD in females. In this study, we tried to identify the main determinants of SD in women aged 15-45year-old on chronic hemodialysis (HD. One hundred-forty female patients aged 15-45-year-old on chronic HD were studied in the winter of the year 2013. Healthy relatives of the patients were chosen as controls and matched for age, level of education, marital status, and income. Both cases and controls were interviewed by the same female interviewer. The Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX was used as a questionnaire. A significant correlation was found between the total ASEX score and age and duration on HD (r = 0.599, P = 0.003 and r = 0.434, P = 0.043, respectively. No correlation was found between serum hemoglobin, parathormone, creatinine, iron, calcium, phosphorus, and urea reduction ratio and the ASEX score. Moreover, the correlation between the ASEX score and socioeconomic parameters like level of education and monthly income was not significant (all P >0.1. There was a significant difference in the total ASEX score between cases and controls (16.31 ± 2.50 vs. 9.80 ± 4.21, P <0.001. Our study suggests that sexual function in chronic hemodialyzed female patients is mainly impacted by age and duration on HD.

  16. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  17. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  18. It is compatible the sport in scholar age with other social roles? A study through Self-Determination Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado Alonso, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of conflict or utility of the sport regarding other social roles and self-determination level in young athletes, focusing on differences among these variables with respect to sex. Hence, we used a sample size of 1897 players from different sport modalities, 1378 male and 519 female. Participants filled a questionnaire to assess self-determination level and other to measure conflict between social roles. Results showed that utility of sport was positive and significantly associated with self-determined motivation, whereas conflict between roles was related with amotivation. Moreover, male athletes showed higher scores in all types of motivation that refer Self-Determination Theory, being the group that perceived the greater incompatibility between sport and other social roles according to their growth age. As a conclusion, we emphasize the necessity to promote intrinsic motives of practice in both sex to increase commitment with the sport activity, and avoid sport dropout that might be happened because of the demands of other contexts that surround young athletes.

  19. Structural and functional mapping of Rtg2p determinants involved in retrograde signaling and aging of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Maria Rios-Anjos

    Full Text Available In Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial dysfunction induces retrograde signaling, a pathway of communication from mitochondria to the nucleus that promotes a metabolic remodeling to ensure sufficient biosynthetic precursors for replication. Rtg2p is a positive modulator of this pathway that is also required for cellular longevity. This protein belongs to the ASKHA superfamily, and contains a putative N-terminal ATP-binding domain, but there is no detailed structural and functional map of the residues in this domain that accounts for their contribution to retrograde signaling and aging. Here we use Decomposition of Residue Correlation Networks and site-directed mutagenesis to identify Rtg2p structural determinants of retrograde signaling and longevity. We found that most of the residues involved in retrograde signaling surround the ATP-binding loops, and that Rtg2p N-terminus is divided in three regions whose mutants have different aging phenotypes. We also identified E137, D158 and S163 as possible residues involved in stabilization of ATP at the active site. The mutants shown here may be used to map other Rtg2p activities that crosstalk to other pathways of the cell related to genomic stability and aging.

  20. Autopsy-determined causes of death following organ transplantation in 25 patients aged 20 years or younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alan G

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to examine the autopsy-determined principal and proximate causes of death in 25 patients aged 20 years or younger who died during the 10-year period from 1990 to 1999 after receiving an organ transplant at the University of Minnesota/Fairview-University Medical Center. The autopsy records of this institution were examined for organ transplant recipients who were aged 20 years or younger at the time of their death. In each case, after review of the clinical and pathological data, the principle cause of death (PCOD), as well as the proximate cause of death (PXCOD) were noted. A total of 25 recipient patients were identified (five heart, five lung, five kidney and 10 liver transplants). Seven patients died 30 days or less post-operatively and 18 died thereafter. The following categories of PCOD were encountered: operative/technical complications 28%, most (6/7) being associated with liver transplantation. Infection (24%) and chronic rejection (12%) were other important PCOD. Respiratory complications accounted for 47% of the PCOD. The following categories of PXCOD were noted: technical problems 16%, pulmonary pathology 24%, miscellaneous 32%, acute rejection 4% and nil 20%. This study revealed that technical problems in liver transplants were an important PCOD; respiratory complications and chronic rejection were additional major causes of mortality in this young age group of transplant recipients. Pulmonary pathology and technical problems were the commonest specific groups contributing to the PXCOD.

  1. Tephrostratigraphy and potassium-argon age determinations of seven volcanic ash layers in the Muddy Creek formation of southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, L.A.

    1982-04-01

    Seven silicic tephra layers occur in alluvial deposits of the Muddy Creek and equivalent formations at three localities in southern Nevada. Chemical and petrographic characterization indicate the tephra were derived from seven different volcanic eruptions and do not represent any previously known tephra layers. K-Ar age determinations on minerals or glass from each layer yielded 6 to 12 m.y. ages. Discordant ages were obtained on multiple mineral phases due to incorporation of detrital contaminants. The tephra are sufficiently distinctive to constitute stratigraphic marker horizons in the Muddy Creek and equivalent formations. Derivation from the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, active 16 to 6 m.y., is highly likely for some of the tephra. The K-Ar results suggest substantial parts of the Muddy Creek Formation and equivalent basin-fill are 6 to 12 m.y., indicating basin-range faulting began prior to 12 m.y. Little tectonic deformation or physiographic change has occurrred in the past 6 m.y

  2. Determinants of times of appearance of radium-induced osteosarcomas in humans: age at appearance and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Lucas, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    Determinants of time-until-tumor for osteosarcoma in US radium cases have been reevaluated. Classically, a minimum induction period (latency period) of about five years has been recognized, but not an expression period. Lack of long induction periods at igh doses has been ascribed to scarcity of subjects at risk. Recent experiments have suggested that induction periods are directly lengthened as doses decrease. Reanalyses of time-until-tumor data for 57 measured female osteosarcoma cases exposed to 226 Ra and /or 228 Ra support new interpretations: time-until-tumor for osteosarcomas is best described by age at tumor appearance, not by induction period; age at diagnosis increases as estimated initial radium intake decreases; and, there exists an expression period which can be truncated at the low end by the minimum induction period (or by age at exposure). The downturn in sarcoma incidence at very high doses is describable as the truncation of the expression period on its early side by the minimum induction period. These results depend strongly on the assumption of homogeneity of time-until-tumor processes in diial workers and in iatrogenic radium exposure cases

  3. Cell cycle phase of nondividing cells in aging human cell cultures determined by DNA content and chromosomal constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanishevsky, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    Human diploid cell cultures, strain WI-38, have a finite proliferative capacity and have been proposed as a model of biological aging. To identify the cell cycle phase of the nondividing cells, cultures of various ages were exposed to 3 Hdt for 48 hours to label dividing cells, then the cycle phase was identified for individual cells by one of two methods, and finally, the proliferative status of the same cells was scored by autoradiographic evidence of 3 HdT uptake. The methods to identify the cycle phase were: determination of DNA strain content by Feulgen scanning cytophotometry, and determination of chromosome constitution by the technique of premature chromosome condensation (PCC). Preliminary experiments showed the effect of continuous exposure to various levels of 3 HdT on cell growth. High levels of 3 HdT inhibited cell cycle traverse: the cell number and labeling index curves reached a plateau; the cell volume increased; the cells accumulated with 4C DNA contents and it appeared that they blocked in G 2 phase. This pattern is consistent with a radiation effect. (U.S.)

  4. Age determination in archeometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagner, G.

    1984-01-01

    Definition of archeometry is given. Physical and chemical methods for dating used in archaeology at present are briefly considered. Among them a radiocarbon method widely used in archaeological laboratories the world, K-Ar method used seldom and for specimens of more then 10 5 years old. Uranium methods 230 Th/ 234 U, 231 Pa/ 235 U are used for dating calcium incrustations in paleolithic cavities, 210 Pb/ 226 Ra are used for establishing authenticity of pictures containing lead pigment. Me-- thods based on the phenomenon of residual thermomagnetism, chemical reactions are also used. Methods for dating thermoluminescent and fission tracks are considered in detail

  5. Determination of Age and Vectorial Capacity of Anopheles Maculipennis Sensu Lato in the Central Plateau of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Edalat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Islamic Republic of Iran has greatly reduced its malaria burden and has a national goal to eliminate malaria by 2025. The aim of this study was to determine the population dynamics of Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato, in relation to probable malaria transmission. For this purpose, the study was conducted in three villages in Isfahan Province of Iran, from April to March 2014. Materials and Methods: Two mosquitoes sampling methods were conducted, comprises human landing catch and human bed net collection. The results of this investigation were subjected to one-way ANOVA using SPSS. Results: A. maculipennis s.l. was found as a dominant vector with exophagic and endophilic behavior. Two peaks of blood feeding were observed, 9.00-10.00 p.m and 1.00-2.00 a.m. The gonotrophic cycle, survival rate, and life expectancy of the species were 4, 0.82, and 5 days, respectively. Malaria vectorial capacity of A. maculipennis was measured 0.0128 and 0.059 for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium Falciparum, respectively. Conclusion: The findings indicate that there is a negative correlation between the temperature and daily age of A. maculipennis s.l. The method described can be used as a standard method to determine the daily age of Anopheles, as well as of other mosquito species since it is fast and precise and needs small samples. Survey on the age structure of vectors is very important as it is useful in monitoring the success of large-scale vector control measures.

  6. First European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox teeth following oral rabies vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Demerson, Jean-Michel; Andrieu, Sabrina; Cliquet, Florence

    2012-10-01

    The first European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox (Vulpes vulpes) tooth samples was organized by the European Union Reference Laboratory for rabies. Performance and procedures implemented by member states were compared. These techniques are widely used to monitor bait uptake in European oral rabies vaccination campaigns. A panel of five red fox half-mandibles comprising one weak positive juvenile sample, two positive adult samples, one negative juvenile sample, and one negative adult sample were sent, along with a technical questionnaire, to 12 laboratories participating on a voluntary basis. The results of only three laboratories (25%) were 100% correct. False-negative results were more frequently seen in weak positive juvenile samples (58%) but were infrequent in positive adult samples (4%), probably due to differences in the ease of reading the two groups of teeth. Four laboratories (44%) had correct results for age determination on all samples. Ages were incorrectly identified in both adult and juvenile samples, with 11 and 17% of discordant results, respectively. Analysis of the technical questionnaires in parallel with test results suggested that all laboratories cutting mandible sections between the canine and first premolar obtained false results. All the laboratories using longitudinal rather than transverse sections and those not using a mounting medium also produced false results. Section thickness appeared to affect the results; no mistakes were found in laboratories using sections <150 μm thick. Factors having a potential impact on the success of laboratories were discussed, and recommendations proposed. Such interlaboratory trials underline the importance of using standardized procedures for biomarker detection in oral rabies vaccination campaigns. Several changes can be made to improve analysis quality and increase the comparability of bait uptake frequencies among member states.

  7. Predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Engle-Stone, Reina; Namaste, Sorrel Ml; Temple, Victor J; Petry, Nicolai; Macdonald, Barbara; Suchdev, Parminder S; Rohner, Fabian; Aaron, Grant J

    2017-07-01

    Background: Anemia in women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) remains a public health problem globally, and reducing anemia in women by 50% by 2025 is a goal of the World Health Assembly. Objective: We assessed the associations between anemia and multiple proximal risk factors (e.g., iron and vitamin A deficiencies, inflammation, malaria, and body mass index) and distal risk factors (e.g., education status, household sanitation and hygiene, and urban or rural residence) in nonpregnant WRA. Design: Cross-sectional, nationally representative data from 10 surveys ( n = 27,018) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and pooled by the infection burden and risk in the country. We examined the severity of anemia and measured the bivariate associations between anemia and factors at the country level and by infection burden, which we classified with the use of the national prevalences of malaria, HIV, schistosomiasis, sanitation, and water-quality indicators. Pooled multivariate logistic regression models were constructed for each infection-burden category to identify independent determinants of anemia (hemoglobin concertation <120 g/L). Results: Anemia prevalence was ∼40% in countries with a high infection burden and 12% and 7% in countries with moderate and low infection burdens, respectively. Iron deficiency was consistently associated with anemia in multivariate models, but the proportion of anemic women who were iron deficient was considerably lower in the high-infection group (35%) than in the moderate- and low-infection groups (65% and 71%, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, inflammation, vitamin A insufficiency, socioeconomic status, and age were also significantly associated with anemia, but malaria and vitamin B-12 and folate deficiencies were not. Conclusions: The contribution of iron deficiency to anemia varies according to a country's infection

  8. Predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Bradley A; Petry, Nicolai; Macdonald, Barbara; Aaron, Grant J

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anemia in women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15–49 y) remains a public health problem globally, and reducing anemia in women by 50% by 2025 is a goal of the World Health Assembly. Objective: We assessed the associations between anemia and multiple proximal risk factors (e.g., iron and vitamin A deficiencies, inflammation, malaria, and body mass index) and distal risk factors (e.g., education status, household sanitation and hygiene, and urban or rural residence) in nonpregnant WRA. Design: Cross-sectional, nationally representative data from 10 surveys (n = 27,018) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and pooled by the infection burden and risk in the country. We examined the severity of anemia and measured the bivariate associations between anemia and factors at the country level and by infection burden, which we classified with the use of the national prevalences of malaria, HIV, schistosomiasis, sanitation, and water-quality indicators. Pooled multivariate logistic regression models were constructed for each infection-burden category to identify independent determinants of anemia (hemoglobin concertation Anemia prevalence was ∼40% in countries with a high infection burden and 12% and 7% in countries with moderate and low infection burdens, respectively. Iron deficiency was consistently associated with anemia in multivariate models, but the proportion of anemic women who were iron deficient was considerably lower in the high-infection group (35%) than in the moderate- and low-infection groups (65% and 71%, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, inflammation, vitamin A insufficiency, socioeconomic status, and age were also significantly associated with anemia, but malaria and vitamin B-12 and folate deficiencies were not. Conclusions: The contribution of iron deficiency to anemia varies according to a country’s infection burden. Anemia

  9. StarHorse: a Bayesian tool for determining stellar masses, ages, distances, and extinctions for field stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, A. B. A.; Anders, F.; Santiago, B. X.; Chiappini, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Dal Ponte, M.; Stassun, K. G.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Crestani, J.; Beers, T. C.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Zamora, O.

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of our Galaxy requires accurate distances, ages, and chemistry for large populations of field stars. Here, we present several updates to our spectrophotometric distance code, which can now also be used to estimate ages, masses, and extinctions for individual stars. Given a set of measured spectrophotometric parameters, we calculate the posterior probability distribution over a given grid of stellar evolutionary models, using flexible Galactic stellar-population priors. The code (called StarHorse) can accommodate different observational data sets, prior options, partially missing data, and the inclusion of parallax information into the estimated probabilities. We validate the code using a variety of simulated stars as well as real stars with parameters determined from asteroseismology, eclipsing binaries, and isochrone fits to star clusters. Our main goal in this validation process is to test the applicability of the code to field stars with known Gaia-like parallaxes. The typical internal precisions (obtained from realistic simulations of an APOGEE+Gaia-like sample) are {˜eq } 8 {per cent} in distance, {˜eq } 20 {per cent} in age, {˜eq } 6 {per cent} in mass, and ≃ 0.04 mag in AV. The median external precision (derived from comparisons with earlier work for real stars) varies with the sample used, but lies in the range of {˜eq } [0,2] {per cent} for distances, {˜eq } [12,31] {per cent} for ages, {˜eq } [4,12] {per cent} for masses, and ≃ 0.07 mag for AV. We provide StarHorse distances and extinctions for the APOGEE DR14, RAVE DR5, GES DR3, and GALAH DR1 catalogues.

  10. The neural determinants of age-related changes in fluid intelligence: a pre-registered, longitudinal analysis in UK Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Rogier A.; Fuhrmann, Delia; Henson, Richard N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Fluid intelligence declines with advancing age, starting in early adulthood. Within-subject declines in fluid intelligence are highly correlated with contemporaneous declines in the ability to live and function independently. To support healthy aging, the mechanisms underlying these declines need to be better understood. Methods: In this pre-registered analysis, we applied latent growth curve modelling to investigate the neural determinants of longitudinal changes in fluid intelligence across three time points in 185,317 individuals (N=9,719 two waves, N=870 three waves) from the UK Biobank (age range: 39-73 years). Results: We found a weak but significant effect of cross-sectional age on the mean fluid intelligence score, such that older individuals scored slightly lower. However, the mean longitudinal slope was positive, rather than negative, suggesting improvement across testing occasions. Despite the considerable sample size, the slope variance was non-significant, suggesting no reliable individual differences in change over time. This null-result is likely due to the nature of the cognitive test used. In a subset of individuals, we found that white matter microstructure (N=8839, as indexed by fractional anisotropy) and grey-matter volume (N=9931) in pre-defined regions-of-interest accounted for complementary and unique variance in mean fluid intelligence scores. The strongest effects were such that higher grey matter volume in the frontal pole and greater white matter microstructure in the posterior thalamic radiations were associated with higher fluid intelligence scores. Conclusions: In a large preregistered analysis, we demonstrate a weak but significant negative association between age and fluid intelligence. However, we did not observe plausible longitudinal patterns, instead observing a weak increase across testing occasions, and no significant individual differences in rates of change, likely due to the suboptimal task design. Finally

  11. Chemical aspects of hydrogen ingress in zirconium and zircaloy pressure tubes: ageing management of Indian PHWR coolant channels - determination of hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayi, Y.S.; Shankaran, P.S.; Yadav, C.S.; Ramanjaneyulu, P.S.; Venugopal, V.; Ramakumar, K.L.; Chhapru, G.C.; Prasad, R.; Jain, H.C.; Sood, D.D.

    2009-02-01

    Pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) use zirconium and zirconium based alloys as clad and coolant tubes since its beginning. The first ever zircaloy-2 pressure tube failure occurred in 1983 at Ontario Hydro's Pickering Unit 2 in Canada which necessitated a thorough examination of causes of such failure. The failure was attributed to massive hydriding at the failed spot of pressure tube. Continuous usage of zirconium alloys could result in their hydrogen and deuterium pick-up leading to hydrogen/ deuterium embrittlement. The life of the zircaloy coolant channels is dictated by hydrogen/deuterium content and hence ageing management of the pressure tubes is essential for ensuring their trouble-free usage. It is desirable to have a sound knowledge on the chemical aspects of zirconium and zirconium based alloys metallurgy, the mechanistic principles of hydrogen ingress into the pressure tubes during in reactor service, and identifying suitable analytical methodologies for precise and accurate determination of hydrogen in wafer thin sliver samples carved out from insides of pressure tubes without causing any structural damage so that it can continue to remain in service. This is desirable so that the ageing management does not result in cost-escalation. This report is divided in to three main parts. The first part deals with the chemical aspects of zirconium and zirconium based alloy metallurgy, the mechanism of hydrogen pick-up and hydride formation in zirconium matrix. The second part describes various methodologies and their limitations, available for hydrogen/deuterium determination. The third part deals in detail, about the extensive investigations carried out at Radioanalytical Chemistry Division (RACD) in Radiochemistry and Isotope Group for establishing an indigenously developed hot vacuum extraction system in combination with quadrupole mass spectrometry for precise determination of hydrogen and deuterium in wafer thin sliver sample of zircaloy. The

  12. Night shift work and other determinants of estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate among middle-aged nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Lie, Jenny Anne; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh

    2016-09-01

    The aims of our study were to (i) investigate the association between rotating night shift work and blood concentrations of estradiol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and (2) evaluate the role of their non-occupational determinants. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 345 premenopausal and 187 postmenopausal nurses and midwives (263 women working rotating night shifts and 269 women working during days). Data from in-person interviews were used, anthropometric measurements were performed, and body mass index (BMI) and waist- to-hip ratio were calculated. Morning blood and spot urine samples were collected. Multiple linear regression models were fitted with hormone concentrations as dependent variables, and night shift work characteristics and demographic, reproductive, lifestyle and anthropometric determinants as independent variables. Modification of the effect by chronotype was examined. Among postmenopausal women, we observed a statistically significant positive association between the total duration of night shift work >15 years and estradiol level (Pnight work duration Night shift work characteristics were significantly associated with estradiol among morning-type postmenopausal women. The well-established associations between hormones and their major determinants, such as age and BMI, were confirmed. The findings of our study imply that prolonged night shift work may be associated with increased estradiol levels among postmenopausal women, especially among the morning-type postmenopausal women.

  13. Measuring Social carrying Capacity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The tourist carrying capacity commands a growing interest given that it is closely linked with sustainable tourist development. The justification of the utility of this concept is given by means of a simple and efficient methodological proposal, by analysing the social carrying capacity. To this end, an empirical application is carried out in the Western Andalusia. In some of the cases analysed, the satisfaction of the tourist is found to decline when the levels of the tourist use are higher ...

  14. Determinants of anemia among 6-59 months aged children in Bangladesh: evidence from nationally representative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahidur Rahman; Awan, Nabil; Misu, Farjana

    2016-01-11

    Anemia is a global public health problem but the burden of anemia is disproportionately borne among children in developing countries. Anemia in early stages of life has serious consequences on the growth and development of the children. We examine the prevalence of anemia, possible association between anemia and different socio-economic, demographic, health and other factors among children with ages from 6 to 59 months from the nationally representative 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Data on hemoglobin (Hb) concentration among the children aged 6-59 months from the most recent BDHS (2011) were used. This nationally representative survey allowed a multistage stratified cluster sampling design and provided data on a wide range of indicators such as fertility, mortality, women and child health, nutrition and other background characteristics. Anemia status was determined using hemoglobin level (<11.0 g/dl), and weighted prevalence of childhood anemia along with 95 % confidence intervals were provided. We also examined the distribution of weighted anemia prevalence across different groups and performed logistic regression to assess the association of anemia with different factors. A total of 2171 children aged 6-59 months were identified for this analysis, with weighted prevalence of anemia being 51.9 % overall- 47.4 % in urban and 53.1 % in rural regions. Results of a multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that, children below 24 months of age (odds ratio, [OR] 3.01; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.38-3.81), and those from an anemic mother (OR 1.80; 95 % CI 1.49-2.18) were at higher risk of anemia. Childhood anemia was significantly associated with chronic malnutrition of child, source of drinking water, household wealth and geographical location (defined by division). A high prevalence of anemia among 6-59 months aged children was observed in Bangladesh. Given the negative impact of anemia on the development of children in

  15. Maternal age, education level and migration: Socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanik Feride A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Method Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256. The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with χ2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the χ2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Results Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1% were daily smokers. Young mothers ( Conclusions Systematic attention should be paid to socioeconomic determinants in smoking for pregnant women, especially in countries like Turkey with high rates of infant and mother mortality and substantial health inequalities. Young mothers (

  16. Dental and Chronological Ages as Determinants of Peak Growth Period and Its Relationship with Dental Calcification Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsas, George; Lucchese, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between dental, chronological, and cervical vertebral maturation growth in the peak growth period, as well as to study the association between the dental calcification phases and the skeletal maturity stages during the same growth period. Subjects were selected from orthodontic pre-treatment cohorts consisting of 420 subjects where 255 were identified and enrolled into the study, comprising 145 girls and 110 boys. The lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs were examined from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Dental age was assessed according to the method of Demirjian, and skeletal maturation according to the Cervical Vertebral Maturation Method. Statistical elaboration included Spearman Brown formula, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient and regression analysis, paired samples t-test, and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient. Chronological and dental age showed a high correlation for both gender(r =0.741 for boys, r = 0.770 for girls, pStage IV for both males (r=0.554) and females (r=0.68). The lowest correlation was for the CVM Stage III in males (r=0.433, pStage II in females (r=0.393, p>0.001). The t-test revealed statistically significant differences between these variables (pstages was determined. The second molars showed the highest correlation with CVM stages (CVMS) (r= 0.65 for boys, r = 0.72 for girls). Dental age was more advanced than chronological for both boys and girls for all CVMS. During the peak period these differences were more pronounced. Moreover, all correlations between skeletal and dental stages were statistically significant. The second molars showed the highest correlation whereas the canines showed the lowest correlation for both gender.

  17. Determinants of premature mortality in a city population: An eight-year observational study concerning subjects aged 18–64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Maniecka-Bryła

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature deaths constitute 31.1% of all deaths in Łódź. Analysis of the causes of premature deaths may be helpful in the evaluation of health risk factors. Moreover, findings of this study may enhance prophylactic measures. Material and Methods: In 2001, 1857 randomly selected citizens, aged 18-64, were included in the Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention (CINDI Programme. In 2009, a follow-up study was conducted and information on the subjects of the study was collected concerning their health status and if they continued to live in Łódź. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for evaluation of hazard coefficients. We adjusted our calculations for age and sex. The analysis revealed statistically significant associations between the number of premature deaths of the citizens of Łódź and the following variables: a negative self-evaluation of health - HR = 3.096 (95% CI: 1.729-5.543, poor financial situation - HR = 2.811 (95% CI: 1.183‑6.672, occurring in the year preceding the study: coronary pain - HR = 2.754 (95% CI: 1.167-6.494, depression - HR = 2.001 (95% CI: 1.222-3.277 and insomnia - HR = 1.660 (95% CI: 1.029-2.678. Our research study also found a negative influence of smoking on the health status - HR = 2.782 (95% CI: 1.581-4.891. Moreover, we conducted survival analyses according to sex and age with Kaplan-Meier curves. Conclusions: The risk factors leading to premature deaths were found to be highly significant but possible to reduce by modifying lifestyle-related health behaviours. The confirmed determinants of premature mortality indicate a need to spread and intensify prophylactic activities in Poland, which is a post-communist country, in particular, in the field of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Determinants of Health Insurance Coverage among People Aged 45 and over in China: Who Buys Public, Private and Multiple Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinzi; Hou, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Donglan

    2016-01-01

    Background China is reforming and restructuring its health insurance system to achieve the goal of universal coverage. This study aims to understand the determinants of public, private and multiple insurance coverage among people of retirement-age in China. Methods We used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey 2011 and 2013, a nationally representative survey of Chinese people aged 45 and over. Multinomial logit regression was performed to identify the determinants of public, private and multiple health insurance coverage. We also conducted logit regression to examine the association between public insurance coverage and demand for private insurance. Results In 2013, 94.5% of this population had at least one type of public insurance, and 12.2% purchased private insurance. In general, we found that rural residents were less likely to be uninsured (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 0.40, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.34–0.47) and were less likely to buy private insurance (RRR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.16–0.31). But rural-to-urban migrants were more likely to be uninsured (RRR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.24–1.57). Public health insurance coverage may crowd out private insurance market (Odds Ratio = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.48–0.63), particularly among enrollees of Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance. There exists a huge socioeconomic disparity in both public and private insurance coverage. Conclusion The migrants, the poor and the vulnerable remained in the edge of the system. The growing private insurance market did not provide sufficient financial protection and did not cover the people with the greatest need. To achieve universal coverage and reduce socioeconomic disparity, China should integrate the urban and rural public insurance schemes across regions and remove the barriers for the middle-income and low-income to access private insurance. PMID:27564320

  19. Radiocarbon ages of ground water as a basis for the determination of safe limits of aquifer exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamers, M.A.; Stipp, J.J.; Weiner, R.

    1975-01-01

    Deep ground waters of the Biscayne aquifer of south Florida were studied with radiocarbon dating techniques. Dissolved carbonates served as the material for the age determinations. Limestone dilution corrections of the measured carbon-14 activities were made by comparison of the relative concentrations of bicarbonate and total carbonates. The deep well waters of the southern portion of the deposit have corrected radiocarbon contents indicating thermonuclear weapon testing contamination; they are, therefore, less than 20 years old. The ages of the ground waters generally increase in the northern direction. This is interpreted as due to the greater depth of the deposit of that region. A model is formulated for ground water movement in an unconfined producing hydrological unit and applied to the radiocarbon results of the most intensively exploited zone of the Biscayne aquifer. It is shown that the water which is extracted by the municipal wells in this area is limited to the bottom third of the deposit. The avoidance of pollution from the surrounding septic tanks in the shallower depths of the area is explained in this way. The model leads to an objective estimation of the safe limit for the ground water extraction rate in the zone. By application of radiocarbon dating, it is possible to obtain useful information without disturbing the water supply

  20. The Use of Diethanolamine as a Co2 Absorbent in Was Take the Determination Coral Reef Age in Barrang Lompo Island Spermonde Islands Through Measurements of 14c Activity by Liquid Scintillation Counting (Lsc) Method

    OpenAIRE

    Matande, Jumiati Bunga; Zakir, Muhammad; Noor, Alfian

    2017-01-01

    Research on the use of diethanolamine (DEA) as a CO2 absorbent in was take the determination coral reef age in Barrang Lompo Island, Spermonde Islands through measurements of 14C activity by liquid scintillation Counting method (LSC) was carried our. Coral reef sample of the island Barrang Lompo at coordinates 5 ° 06 '49 " LS 119 ° 25' 20" BT with a dept of 3-4 meters from the sea surface. Coral reefs (coral reef) is an ecosystem that live on the water in the form of limestone formations (CaC...

  1. Sensitivity of the speed evaluation tests of carrying the ball in youth soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakojević Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at examining sensitivity of the speed evaluation tests while carrying the ball. The research included 76 male examinees, aged 17 years (+/- 6 months, who were divided into two qualitatively different subgroups. For determining the speed while carrying the ball, the tests of M type of carrying the ball between cones and slalom ball carrying with a pass were performed. The obtained results proved that the examinees from the group of more successful soccer players (Group 1 scored better on the applied tests when compared to the results of the group consisting of the soccer players from lower ranked clubs and who are not national team members (Group 2. High values of the result homogeneity in the two groups (for the Groups 1 and 2 it was 75% and 68.75% respectively lead to the conclusion that this ability is essential characteristics of young soccer players. The coefficient of discrimination of 0.269 for the results of M type test and 0.197 for the results of the test of carrying the ball with a pass indicate that the results of the two tests provide possibility to qualitatively distinguish youth players. Therefore, it can be concluded that as a technical element, carrying the ball significantly affects the quality of players' performance.

  2. Mortar and surface dating with Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL): Innovative techniques for the age determination of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzeri, L.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the results of a dating study on bricks and mortars using both Thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) are shown. The samples came from the outside walls of the Certosa di Pavia, located in northern Italy and independently dated (XVII-XVIII century). TL dating, applied to bricks using the fine grain technique, allowed to determine the time of manufacture of the bricks (XII century), that resulted therefore re-used. To circumvent this problem the application of two innovative dating techniques, OSL surface dating and mortar dating, was attempted. The first was applied to the light-shielded surfaces of bricks and allowed to successfully determine the edification of the wall (XVII century). Mortar dating gave instead severe age overestimation: the results obtained on coarse grain quartz with the SAR technique both on multi-grains aliquots and with single-grain analyses were highly dispersed indicating an incomplete bleaching of the quartz grains. The shine-down curves were in fact characterized by the absence of the so-called fast component, as confirmed by Linear Modulated OSL technique.

  3. Social determinants of bone densitometry uptake for osteoporosis risk in patients aged 50yr and older: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sharon L; Wluka, Anita E; Gould, Haslinda; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Leslie, William D; Ebeling, Peter R; Oldenburg, Brian; Kotowicz, Mark A; Pasco, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization identifies that osteoporosis is one of the leading health problems in the Western world. An increased risk of fragility fracture is observed in more socially disadvantaged individuals in most Western countries. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the procedure of choice to diagnose osteoporosis and assess fracture risk. We systematically reviewed the literature regarding social determinants of DXA utilization for osteoporosis detection in patients aged 50yr and older using a computer-aided search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO from January 1994 to December 2010. Five cross-sectional studies, incorporating 16 separate analyses, were identified for inclusion in this review. The best evidence analysis identified limited evidence for a positive association between either income or education with DXA utilization; furthermore, the best evidence analysis found no evidence for an association between either marital status or working status and DXA utilization. Further research is required to identify whether a relationship exists and elucidate reasons for disparities in DXA utilization between different social groups, such as choice and referral processes, as a necessary precursor in identifying modifiable determinants and appropriate strategies to promote preventive screening to identify fracture risk. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on Tourist Carrying Capacity Based on Matter Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYunguo; FanTing; LiXin; ZhouMing; WangXianhai

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that it is necessary to implement the concept of tourist carrying capacity to facilitate the tourism planning, and presents a method to evaluate the carrying capacity. The method called matter element analysis can solve the uncertain and incompatible problem of the evaluated factors in assessing carrying capacity.The current state of a destination's carrying capacity can be determined by establishing the standard indexes and the matter element model. Through the evaluating of the travel industry zones of the Autonomous Prefecture of Western Hunan, the method is proved to be simple and feasible, and it is improved to be significant for the tourism planning and determination as well as the sustainable development of the regional tourism.

  5. Determining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  6. Maternal age, education level and migration: socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Isil; Hassoy, Hur; Tanik, Feride A; Aslan, Gokce

    2010-06-09

    Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC) in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256). The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with chi2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the chi2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1%) were daily smokers. Young mothers (educated women and migrants were at increased risk for smoking during pregnancy. Low education and being a migrant were risk factors for daily consumption (p educated women and migrants are important groups to focus on.

  7. Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2009-01-01

    The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of \\emph{garbage}. Here, we present a novel parallelization scheme...... wherein $m$ parallel $k$-bit reversible ripple-carry adders are combined to form a reversible $mk$-bit \\emph{ripple-block carry adder} with logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(m+k)$ for a \\emph{minimal} logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(\\sqrt{mk})$, thus improving on the $mk$-bit ripple-carry adder logic depth $\\mathcal...

  8. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  9. Determinants of early withdrawal and of early withdrawal by reason of disability from the Irish labour force in the third age

    OpenAIRE

    Lawless, Martin

    2015-01-01

    III – Abstract: Determinants of early withdrawal and early withdrawal by reason of disability from the Irish labour force in the Third Age.Background. This study examines the relationship between early withdrawal and early withdrawal through disability from the Irish labour force in the Third Age. The relationship between unemployment or early retirement and ill health has been determined by a number of studies and, while unemployment through ill health or occupational disability may lead to ...

  10. Determinants of repeated abortion among women of reproductive age attending health facilities in Northern Ethiopia: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Alemayehu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year, an estimated 19–20 million unsafe abortions take place, almost all in developing countries, leading to 68,000 deaths and millions more injured many permanently. Many women throughout the world, experience more than one abortion in their lifetimes. Repeat abortion is an indicator of the larger problem of unintended pregnancy. This study aimed to identify determinants of repeat abortion in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Methods Unmatched case–control study was conducted in hospitals in Tigray Region, northern Ethiopia, from November 2014 to June 2015. The sample included 105 cases and 204 controls, recruited from among women seeking abortion care at public hospitals. Clients having two or more abortions (“repeat abortion” were taken as cases and those who had a total of one abortion were taken as controls (“single abortion”. Cases were selected consecutive based on proportional to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression analyses were calculated with 95% CI. Results Mean age of cases was 24 years (±6.85 and 22 years (±6.25 for controls. 79.0% of cases had their sexual debut in less than 18 years of age compared to 57% of controls. 42.2% of controls and 23.8% of cases cited rape as the reason for having an abortion. Study participants who did not understand their fertility cycle and when they were most likely to conceive after menstruation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.7, having a previous abortion using medication (AOR = 3.3, CI: 1.83, 6.11, having multiple sexual partners in the preceding 12 months (AOR = 4.4, CI: 2.39,8.45, perceiving that the abortion procedure is not painful (AOR = 2.3, CI: 1.31,4.26, initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 18 years (AOR = 2.7, CI: 1.49, 5.23 and disclosure to a third

  11. DETERMINING THE AGE OF THE KEPLER OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819 WITH A NEW TRIPLE SYSTEM AND OTHER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, Lauren N.; Sandquist, Eric L.; Jeffries, Mark W. Jr.; Orosz, Jerome A.

    2016-01-01

    As part of our study of the old (∼2.5 Gyr) open cluster NGC 6819 in the Kepler field, we present photometric (Kepler and ground-based BVR C I C ) and spectroscopic observations of the detached eclipsing binary WOCS 24009 (Auner 665; KIC 5023948) with a short orbital period of 3.6 days. WOCS 24009 is a triple-lined system, and we verify that the brightest star is physically orbiting the eclipsing binary using radial velocities and eclipse timing variations. The eclipsing binary components have masses M B  = 1.090 ± 0.010 M ⊙ and M C  = 1.075 ± 0.013 M ⊙ , and radii R B  = 1.099 ± 0.006 ± 0.005 R ⊙ and R C  = 1.069 ± 0.006 ± 0.013 R ⊙ . The bright non-eclipsing star resides at the cluster turnoff, and ultimately its mass will directly constrain the turnoff mass: our preliminary determination is M A  = 1.251 ± 0.057 M ⊙ . A careful examination of the light curves indicates that the fainter star in the eclipsing binary undergoes a very brief period of total eclipse, which enables us to precisely decompose the light of the three stars and place them in the color–magnitude diagram (CMD). We also present improved analysis of two previously discussed detached eclipsing stars in NGC 6819 (WOCS 40007 and WOCS 23009) en route to a combined determination of the cluster’s distance modulus (m − M) V  = 12.38 ± 0.04. Because this paper significantly increases the number of measured stars in the cluster, we can better constrain the age of the CMD to be 2.21 ± 0.10 ± 0.20 Gyr. Additionally, using all measured eclipsing binary star masses and radii, we constrain the age to 2.38 ± 0.05 ± 0.22 Gyr. The quoted uncertainties are estimates of measurement and systematic uncertainties (due to model physics differences and metal content), respectively

  12. Age at menopause and determinants of hysterectomy and menopause in a multi-ethnic community: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Murphy, Lorna; Morrison, Lynn; Reza, Angela; Brown, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A lifespan approach was used to evaluate age at menopause, and determinants of surgical and natural menopause, in the multi-ethnic community of Hilo, Hawaii. Study design Participants aged 40–60 years (n=898) were drawn from a larger, randomly-generated sample recruited by postal questionnaires. Median age at natural menopause was computed by probit analysis. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine determinants of hysterectomy, and Cox regression analysis was used to examine risk factors for an earlier age at menopause. Main outcome measures History of hysterectomy, Age at menopause Results Frequency of hysterectomy was 19.2% at a mean age of 40.5 years. The likelihood of hysterectomy increased with older ages, lower education, mixed ancestry, having been overweight at age 30, and married 20 years prior to survey. Median age at natural menopause was 53.0 years. Smoking and not being married 10 years before survey were associated with an earlier age at menopause. Conclusions Median age at menopause was later than the national average. Ethnicity and education were determinants of hysterectomy, but not associated with age at natural menopause. Events later in the lifespan (e.g., smoking and not being married 10 years prior to the survey) were more important than earlier events (e.g., childhood residence) in relation to age at menopause. The timing of weight gain and marital status appear to be important in relation to surgical menopause, and the timing of marital status appears to be important in relation to the timing of natural menopause. PMID:24054435

  13. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life – the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33–2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the

  14. Experimental determinations of soil copper toxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth in highly different copper spiked and aged soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Karen S; Borggaard, Ole K; Holm, Peter E; Vijver, Martina G; Hauschild, Michael Z; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-04-01

    Accurate knowledge about factors and conditions determining copper (Cu) toxicity in soil is needed for predicting plant growth in various Cu-contaminated soils. Therefore, effects of Cu on growth (biomass production) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were tested on seven selected, very different soils spiked with Cu and aged for 2 months at 35 °C. Cu toxicity was expressed as pEC50(Cu(2+)), i.e., the negative logarithm of the EC50(Cu(2+)) activity to plant growth. The determined pEC50(Cu(2+)) was significantly and positively correlated with both the analytically readily available soil pH and concentration of dissolved organic carbon [DOC] which together could explain 87% of the pEC50(Cu(2+)) variation according to the simple equation: pEC50(Cu(2+)) = 0.98 × pH + 345 × [DOC] - 0.27. Other soil characteristics, including the base cation concentrations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)), the cation exchange capacity at soil pH (ECEC), and at pH 7 (CEC7), soil organic carbon, clay content, and electric conductivity as well as the distribution coefficient (Kd) calculated as the ratio between total soil Cu and water-extractable Cu did not correlate significantly with pEC50(Cu(2+)). Consequently, Cu toxicity, expressed as the negative log of the Cu(2+) activity, to plant growth increases at increasing pH and DOC, which needs to be considered in future management of plant growth on Cu-contaminated soils. The developed regression equation allows identification of soil types in which the phytotoxicity potential of Cu is highest.

  15. How voluntary is the active ageing life? A life-course study on the determinants of extending careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero-Cabib, Ignacio; Kaeser, Laure

    2016-03-01

    In Switzerland, as in many other European states, there is an increasing emphasis in public policy on promoting later retirement from the labour market. But this accelerating drive in Swiss policy-making to extend occupational activity does not mean that every worker is currently likely to retire late, nor does it imply that all those who do retire late do so voluntarily. This article uses a life-course approach, first to study the determinants of late retirement, and secondly to analyse whether the decision to postpone retirement is made voluntarily or involuntarily. Both objectives are addressed on the basis of data from the Swiss survey Vivre/Leben/Vivere. The results of logistic regression modelling indicate that, whereas self-employed and more highly educated individuals are more likely to retire late, people with access to private pension funds and workers who have benefited from periods of economic growth have a lower tendency to retire late. Regarding voluntariness, those who are more likely to opt for voluntary late retirement tend to be Swiss citizens, more highly educated, and also benefited from periods of economic expansion, while the self-employed, men and widowed individuals leaving the labour market late tend to do so involuntarily. In conclusion, the article discusses the absence of a social inequality debate in the design of active ageing policies.

  16. Radium isotopes, alkaline earth diagenesis, and age determination of travertine from Mammoth Hot Springs, Wyoming, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturchio, N.C.

    1990-01-01

    Travertine from active springs, former vents, and drill core was analyzed for Ra isotopes, other alkaline earth elements, and mineralogical composition. Thermal water also was analyzed. Travertine, presently being deposited, contains 3.0-15.3 pCi/g 226 Ra, and has a 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio identical to that in thermal water. Travertine precipitates mostly as aragonite and experiences a complete diagenetic transformation to calcite within 9 a. Systematic compositional changes associated with this diagenetic transformation are enrichment of Mg and depletion of Sr, Ba and Ra. Apparent mineral-water distribution coefficients for Mg, Sr and Ba in aragonite and calcite are within the range of those determined experimentally, implying near-equilibrium conditions and high water-rock ratios during diagenesis. Impure travertine from near the base of a section in the Y-10 drill hole (at 72.9 m depth) has a 230 Th/ 234 U isochron age of 7700±440 a. The content of 226 Ra in the normal, subhorizontally layered, porous travertine decreases with depth. The observed 226 Ra vs depth relation is consistent with continuous deposition of travertine at the site from 7700 a BP to near present at a mean rate of ∼1.0 cm/a, and indicates minimal exchange of Ra between travertine and pore water after the early diagenetic transformation of aragonite to calcite. (author)

  17. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Rønning

    Full Text Available The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR, as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (P<0.1. Thus, the effect of BMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  18. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Bernt; Moe, Børge; Berntsen, Henrik H; Noreen, Elin; Bech, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR), as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age) and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (PBMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  19. Determination of diets for the populations of eleven regions of the European community to be used for obtaining radioactive contamination levels. First results concerning the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledermann, S.; Lacourly, G.; Garnier, A.; Cresta, M.; Lombardo, E.

    1968-01-01

    The present document continues the report CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. The processing of the data given by the family food enquiry carried out in eleven regions of the European Community, has permitted to determine the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups, in order to study the radioactive contamination levels in the food-chain. The used statistical method is described, and the obtained results are presented in form of double-entry tables giving for each region and for each age-group the mean weekly food-consumption and the contribution of each diet in nutrition principles, in minerals, vitamins, trace elements and calories. (authors) [fr

  20. Age dynamics of zinc and iron contents in human hair determined by INAA and ICP-ES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In last decades, the determination of chemical element levels in human hair has been a subject of continual interest in the forensic, clinical, occupational and environmental medicine. Hair has been increasingly used as a monitor for many elements and has been proposed for assessing environmental exposure, nutritional status, and for diagnosis of disease. It has many advantages for assessment over the more traditional kinds of medical objects such as blood and urine because of ease of collection, transport and storage. Also, trace element concentrations in hair samples represent an integrated response over time compared with blood and urine levels, which can rapidly fluctuate in response to variations of nutritional and environmental conditions. The fact that contents of many chemical elements in hair are relatively high also facilitates the analysis. It is known that the result of the hair analysis may not directly relate to the intake amount, nor does it always reflect the amount actually absorbed. Despite these limitations, the analysis of human hair can still provide a basis for estimating ambient exposure to certain elements. The first step in construction of such basis is investigations the national population normal levels of chemical element contents in hair related to sex, age and some other factors under quality control of results. The objectives of this analytical work were to evaluate the reference range of Zn and Fe in adult scalp hair and to evaluate the effect of age and sex on elemental contents. In this study, head hair samples from adult health persons living in or near Obninsk (the small city in rural region 105 km south-west Moscow), were analysed by two methods in three analytical laboratories: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA - one laboratory) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ISP-AES - two laboratories). Scalp hair samples were obtained at necropsy from eighty-three cadavers (38 women

  1. Notes on age determination, growth and measurements of Brown Hyaenas Hyaena Brunnea from the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G.L Mills

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown hyaenas were aged on the basis of tooth eruption and wear and five age-classes were recognised. Weights and seven different body measurements were recorded from 38 immobilised hyaenas. Full size is reached at the age of 30 months, but age-class 5 animals were significantly lighter than were animals from the other adult age-classes. This was probably due to the worn down premolars of old animals resulting in less efficient bone chewing. With a few puzzling exceptions the sizes of brown hyaenas from different parts of their distribution range are similar.

  2. Investigation into the metamorphic Nappes of the Central Scandinavian Caledonides on the basis of Rb-Sr and K-Ar age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymer, A.P.S.

    1979-01-01

    This study concerns age determinations on several rock units of metamorphic nappes in the central Scandinavian Caledonides. Rb-Sr analyses on whole-rocks and minerals (biotite, muscovite/phengite, feldspars, garnet) were made as well as K-Ar determinations on biotite, muscovite/phengite, amphibole and feldspar. (Auth.)

  3. Abstraction carrying code and resource-awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hermenegildo, Manuel V.; Albert Albiol, Elvira; López García, Pedro; Puebla Sánchez, Alvaro Germán

    2005-01-01

    Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) is a general approach to mobile code safety in which the code supplier augments the program with a certifícate (or proof). The intended benefit is that the program consumer can locally validate the certifícate w.r.t. the "untrusted" program by means of a certifícate checker—a process which should be much simpler, eíñcient, and automatic than generating the original proof. Abstraction Carrying Code (ACC) is an enabling technology for PCC in which an abstract mod...

  4. Determination of diets for the populations of eleven regions of the European community to be used for obtaining radioactive contamination levels. First results concerning the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la Communaute Europenne et vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive. Premiere serie de resultats concernant la consommation alimentaire des individus groupes en neuf classes d'ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledermann, S; Lacourly, G; Garnier, A; Cresta, M; Lombardo, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The present document continues the report CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. The processing of the data given by the family food enquiry carried out in eleven regions of the European Community, has permitted to determine the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups, in order to study the radioactive contamination levels in the food-chain. The used statistical method is described, and the obtained results are presented in form of double-entry tables giving for each region and for each age-group the mean weekly food-consumption and the contribution of each diet in nutrition principles, in minerals, vitamins, trace elements and calories. (authors) [French] Ce rapport fait suite au rapport CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. Le traitement de l'information apportee par les enquetes alimentaires familiales realisees dans onze regions de la Communaute Europeenne a permis de determiner les consommations alimentaires des individus groupes en neuf classes d'age, en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive dans les chaines alimentaires. La methode statistique employee est decrite et les resultats obtenus sont presentes sous forme de tableaux a double entree donnant pour chacune des regions etudiees et pour chacune des neuf classes d'age, les consommations moyennes hebdomadaires, ainsi que les apports en principes nutritifs, mineraux, vitamines et oligo-elements, et calories de chaque regime. (auteurs)

  5. Social Determinants of Active Aging: Differences in Mortality and the Loss of Healthy Life between Different Income Levels among Older Japanese in the AGES Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Hirai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES. Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regressions were used to calculate the hazard ratio for mortality and loss of healthy life by income level. We found that people with lower incomes were more likely than those with higher incomes to report worse health. For the overall sample, using the governmental administrative data, the hazard ratios of mortality and loss of healthy life-years comparing the lowest to the highest income level were 3.50 for men and 2.48 for women for mortality and 3.71 for men and 2.27 for women for loss of healthy life. When only those who responded to questions about income on the mail survey were included in the analysis, the relationships became weaker and lost statistical significance.

  6. Groundwater age determination using 85Kr and multiple age tracers (SF6, CFCs, and 3H to elucidate regional groundwater flow systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kagabu

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The groundwater ages could not be estimated using CFCs or SF6, particularly in the urban areas because of artificial additions to the concentration over almost the entire study area. However, even in these regional circumstances, apparent ages of approximately 16, 36, and not less than 55 years were obtained for three locations on the A–A’ line (recharge area, discharge area, and stagnant zone of groundwater, respectively from 85Kr measurements. This trend was also supported by lumped parameter model analysis using a time series of 3H observations. In contrast, along the B–B’ line, the groundwater age of not less than 55 years at three locations, including the recharge to discharge area, where CFCs and SF6 were not detected, implies old groundwater: this is also the area in which denitrification occurs. In the C area, very young groundwater was obtained from shallow water and older groundwater was detected at greater depths, as supported by the long-term fluctuations of the NO3−–N concentration in the groundwater. The results of this study can be effectively used as a “time axis” for sustainable groundwater use and protection of groundwater quality in the study area, where groundwater accounts for almost 100% of the drinking water resources.

  7. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C; Skouby, S O; Byskov, A G

    2009-08-01

    Reliable age determination of first-trimester human embryos and fetuses is an important parameter for clinical use and basic science. Age determination by ultrasound or morphometric parameters of embryos 4-6 weeks post conception (p.c.) have been questioned, and more accurate methods are required. Data on whether and how maternal smoking and alcohol consumption influence embryonic and fetal foot growth is also lacking. Embryonic tissue from 102 first-trimester legal abortions (aged 35-69 days p.c.) were collected. All women answered a questionnaire concerning smoking and drinking habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p.c. (range 0.8-2.1 mm). In embryos and fetuses aged 41-69 days p.c., heel-toe length was measured (range 2.5-7.5 mm). We found a significant linear correlation between foot length and age. Morphology of the feet was compared visually with the Carnegie collection, and we found that the mean ages of the two collections correlated well. Foot length was independent of gender, Environmental Tobacco Smoke, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. Foot length correlated linearly to embryonic and foetal age, and was unaffected by gender, ETS, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption.

  8. Maternal age as a factor in determining the reproductive and behavioral outcome of rats prenatally exposed to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhees, C V

    1988-01-01

    Nulliparous Long-Evans rats were bred at one of four different ages and assigned to one of three treatment groups within each age condition. Maternal ages were 9, 18, 32, and 36 weeks. Treatment groups were ethanol (E), administered by gavage as 8 g/kg in two divided doses on days 10-14 of gestation, pair-fed (PF) controls, administered as an isocaloric sucrose solution by gavage on days 10-14 of gestation, and ad lib fed controls (C). All offspring were surrogate fostered shortly after delivery to untreated recently parturient dams. Litter sizes were standardized to 8 on the day of birth. Offspring were assessed longitudinally for growth, mortality, and behavior (olfaction, locomotor activity, maze learning, avoidance acquisition and startle). Approximately 85% of the 36 week old dams did not produce viable litters. In the remaining maternal age conditions, ethanol delayed offspring olfactory orientation and increased locomotor activity, the latter dissipating after 50-60 days of age. These ethanol-related effects occurred independent of maternal age condition. Maternal age, independent of ethanol, was a factor which reduced litter size and offspring weight up to 50 days, but produced few effects on behavior. The combination of maternal age and prenatal ethanol interacted to increase pregnancy loss (oldest maternal age), reduce offspring weight up to day 99 (oldest and middle maternal age), alter olfactory orientation performance (oldest and middle maternal age), reverse the typical ethanol-induced increase in activity for males in the figure-8 test (oldest maternal age group), shift the pattern of open-field activity, and change errors in a complex water maze. Not all of these interactions turned out to be specific to the ethanol X old maternal age condition. Several of the interactions occurred in both the old and middle maternal age conditions. The only effect of old maternal age that interacted strongly with ethanol was in their combined effects on

  9. Age and closeness of death as determinants of health and social care utilization: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forma, Leena; Rissanen, Pekka; Aaltonen, Mari; Raitanen, Jani; Jylhä, Marja

    2009-06-01

    We used case-control design to compare utilization of health and social services between older decedents and survivors, and to identify the respective impact of age and closeness of death on the utilization of services. Data were derived from multiple national registers. The sample consisted of 56,001 persons, who died during years 1998-2000 at the age of > or = 70, and their pairs matched on age, gender and municipality of residence, who were alive at least 2 years after their counterpart's death. Data include use of hospitals, long-term care and home care. Decedents' utilization within 2 years before death and survivors' utilization in the same period of time was assessed in three age groups (70-79, 80-89 and > or = 90 years) and by gender. Decedents used hospital and long-term care more than their surviving counterparts, but the time patterns were different. In hospital care the differences between decedents and survivors rose in the last months of the study period, whereas in long-term care there were clear differences during the whole 2-year period. The differences were smaller in the oldest age group than in younger age groups. Closeness of death is an important predictor of health and social service use in old age, but its influence varies between age groups. Not only the changing age structure, but also the higher average age at death affects the future need for services.

  10. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... production of flowers, apomixis (Nassar et al., 2000; ... In order to increase the stress tolerance capacity of ... stress-related procedure due to the activities of auxin ... the evaluation of the transgenic lines for rate of OES .... Some transgenic lines carrying the 35S-AOX fragment amplified using 35S303F1 and.

  11. Infections That Pets Carry (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how to protect your family from infections. How Pets Spread Infections Like people, all animals carry germs . Illnesses common among housepets — ... get an infection that can be passed to people. Safely Caring for Your Pet Here are some tips to help your family ...

  12. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in ... pGEX6p2-PEP and pUcD3-FLAG-PEP constructed vectors were transformed into the one shot TOP10 and JM105 bacterial competent cells, respectively.

  13. Magnetoacoustic waves in current-carrying plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.H.

    1980-04-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the characteristics of magnetoacoustic waves in non-uniform, current-carrying plasmas are reviewed. Dissipative MHD and collisionless theories are considered. Also discussed is the use of magnetoacoustic waves in plasma diagnostics and plasma heating

  14. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene. (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in chimeric cDNA types, encompassing. GST and FLAG with PEP-cDNA. PEP-cDNA was sub-cloned in pGEX6p2 prokaryotic expression ...

  15. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Organized embryogenic callus development: In our experiment, somatic embryos were developed from leaf lobes collected from transgenic cassava lines carrying the AtAOX1a gene. Immature leaf lobes measuring about 1 to 6 mm obtained from about six weeks old in vitro derived plants were used.

  16. Carrying capacity of Chaetoceros gracilis in Homa Lagoon and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility for nutrient limitation to affect C. gracilis was assessed from two different ecosystems (Izmir Bay and Homa Lagoon). Our goal was to determine the growth rate of all nutrients and the maximum levels of the C. gracilis phytoplankton biomass (the maximum biomass carrying capacity) on the extent of its full ...

  17. The logistic model-generated carrying capacities for wild herbivores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jesse

    Under this formulation, both carrying capacity and exchange ratios are endogenously determined (Kinyua and Njoka, 2001), making it possible to empirically estimate the population growth models for Grant's gazelle, Thompson's gazelle and Zebra. (1) for i = 1,…,n-1 j = 1,…,2 and i ≠ j. Here Hit+1, measured in animal units, ...

  18. Age determination of the world’s oldest movable metal types through measuring the “meog” using AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, W.; Lee, S.C.; Park, J.H.; Park, G.; Sung, K.H.; Lee, J.G.; Nam, K.H.

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication year of a set of movable metal types that were thought to be used for printing “Jeungdoga” was investigated. Since the types were made from bronze and did not contain carbon, an organic black ink called “meog” was collected from the type surfaces to quantify their ages. The meog samples were collected from 34 metal types, and 27 ages were obtained. The youngest age was 798 ± 44 yrBP, and the oldest reasonable age was 1166 ± 43 yrBP. The weighted average after eliminating ages with poor statistics was 950 ± 28 yrBP. This age is 300 years older than that of the Jikji (AD 1377), which is a Buddhist document recognized as the world’s oldest document printed using metal types, and also older than that of the Gutenberg bible (AD 1450).

  19. Age determination of the world’s oldest movable metal types through measuring the “meog” using AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, W., E-mail: whong@kigam.re.kr [Geochemical Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Accelerator and Beam Nano Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.C. [Cheongju Early Printing Museum, 866 Uncheon-dong, Hongdeok-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Park, J.H.; Park, G. [Geochemical Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, K.H. [Geochemical Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Accelerator and Beam Nano Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.G. [Geochemical Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, K.H. [Department of Library and Information Science, Kyungpook National University, 67 Kyungdaejungmun-no, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The fabrication year of a set of movable metal types that were thought to be used for printing “Jeungdoga” was investigated. Since the types were made from bronze and did not contain carbon, an organic black ink called “meog” was collected from the type surfaces to quantify their ages. The meog samples were collected from 34 metal types, and 27 ages were obtained. The youngest age was 798 ± 44 yrBP, and the oldest reasonable age was 1166 ± 43 yrBP. The weighted average after eliminating ages with poor statistics was 950 ± 28 yrBP. This age is 300 years older than that of the Jikji (AD 1377), which is a Buddhist document recognized as the world’s oldest document printed using metal types, and also older than that of the Gutenberg bible (AD 1450).

  20. Intrapersonal, social and physical environmental determinants of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in working-age women: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Stephanie A; Reed, Jennifer L; Nerenberg, Kara A; Kristjansson, Elizabeth A; Hiremath, Swapnil; Adamo, Kristi B; Tulloch, Heather E; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Fodor, J George; Wright, Erica; Reid, Robert D

    2014-11-04

    The majority of North American adult females do not meet current physical activity recommendations (150 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) per week accrued in ≥10 min bouts) ultimately placing themselves at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Working-age females face particular challenges in meeting physical activity recommendations as they have multiple demands, including occupational, family and social demands. To develop effective interventions to increase MVPA among working-age females, it is necessary to identify and understand the strongest modifiable determinants influencing these behaviours. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence to identify intrapersonal, social and environmental determinants of MVPA among working-age females. Six electronic databases will be searched to identify all prospective cohort studies that report on intrapersonal, social and/or environmental determinants of MVPA in working-age females. Grey literature sources including theses, published conference abstracts and websites from relevant organizations will also be included. Articles that report on intrapersonal (e.g. health status, self-efficacy, socio-economic status (SES), stress, depression), social environmental (e.g. crime, safety, area SES, social support, climate and capital, policies), and environmental (e.g. weather, workplace, home, neighbourhood, recreation environment, active transportation) determinants of MVPA in a working-age (mean age 18-65 years) female population will be included. Risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies using the Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Cohort Studies and the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Harvest plots will be used to synthesize results across all determinants, and meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity. This review will provide a

  1. The deglaciation of Iztaccíhuatl volcano (Mexico) from the Little Ice Age maximum to the present, determined by photogrametry and lichenometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, D.; García-Sancho, L.; Zamorano, J. J.; Andrés, N.; Pintado, A.

    2012-04-01

    Iztaccíhualt Volcano (19°10'20''N, 98°38'30''W, 5230 m asl) preserves an important moraine complex from the Little Ice Age (LIA), which stretches to 4300 m asl. These moraines are different from former ones because they are not covered by ash fall from the last plinian explosive phases of the nearby Popocatépetl volcano. In fact, the last emission of those pyroclasts took place during the XI century (Vázquez-Selem, 2000). The summit area of the Iztaccíhualt volcano still has glaciers whose terminus are located around 5000 m asl. From the end of the LIA until present the glacier terminus have ascended 700 m. To study the deglaciation process in Iztaccíhualt volcano from the LIA maximum to present, the Ayoloco valley was selected as it is the most important valley of the western slope of the volcano. Taking this valley as a reference, we determined the limits of glaciers in different dates by georeferencing the aerial and panoramic photographs (from 1897 to 2000) and analysing the 1958 field cartography of the glacial limits (Lorenzo, 1964). On the one hand, we carried out a statistical analysis of the size of the Rhizocarpon geographicum thallus and, on the other hand, we undertook a statistical study of the biodiversity of the lichen species through a number of cross-sections from the lowest LIA moraines to the current glacier snouts. This methodology allowed dating the exact moment in which the glacier retreated over certain points of the analysed cross-sections and determining the ecesis and the growth curve of the Rhizocarpon geographicum specie. In the Ayoloco valley the average growth rate is of 0.23 mm per year. From this information, we could deduce the evolution of the glacier from the LIA maximum to present. The results indicate that two main advances took place during the XVII and the XIX centuries. At the beginning of the XX century the glacier terminus were very close to the moraines of the maximum advance. An intense glacial retreat took place

  2. Individual and maternal determinants of self-reported dental health among Turkish school children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....

  3. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in water bird nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ?? 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ?? 1.6 days and 1.9 ?? 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ?? 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ?? 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  4. Research on Water Resources Design Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development mode for one area or city in the future are quite uncertain. This paper focused on the limits of traditional methods of WRCC and proposed a new concept, water resources design carrying capacity (WRDCC, which incorporated the concept of design. In WRDCC, the population size that the local water resources can support is calculated based on the balance of water supply and water consumption, under the design water supply and design socio-economic development mode. The WRDCC of Chengdu city in China is calculated. Results show that the WRDCC (population size of Chengdu city in development modeI (II, III will be 997 ×104 (770 × 104, 504 × 104 in 2020, and 934 × 104 (759 × 104, 462 × 104 in 2030. Comparing the actual population to the carrying population (WRDCC in 2020 and 2030, a bigger gap will appear, which means there will be more and more pressure on the society-economic sustainable development.

  5. Aging and the Social Cognitive Determinants of Physical Activity Behavior and Behavior Change: Evidence from the Guide to Health Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Smith Anderson-Bill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this study investigated the effect of aging on social-cognitive characteristics related to physical activity (PA among adults in the baseline phase of a health promotion intervention. Participants' questionnaire responses and activity logs indicated PA levels and self-efficacy declined with age, while social support and the use of self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., goal setting, planning, and keeping track increased. With age participants were also less likely to expect PA to interfere with their daily routines and social obligations. Part two of the study was among overweight/obese, inactive participants completing the intervention; it examined whether improvements in psychosocial variables might counteract declining PA associated with age. After treatment, participants were more active and decreased body weight regardless of age, and improved self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulatory behaviors. In a causal model, increases in self-efficacy at 7-months lead to increased PA levels and, albeit marginally, weight loss at 16 months; increased PA was associated with greater weight loss. Aging adults who were more confident exercised more and as a result lost more weight. This longitudinal study suggests interventions that offset the effect of aging on self-efficacy may be more successful in helping older participants become more active and avoid weight gain.

  6. Oral Administration of (S)-Allyl-l-Cysteine and Aged Garlic Extract to Rats: Determination of Metabolites and Their Pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taehoon; Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Joo Hyun; Park, Sang Cheol; Jang, Young Pyo; Lee, Young-Joo

    2017-11-01

    ( S )-Allyl-l-cysteine is the major bioactive compound in garlic. ( S )-Allyl-l-cysteine is metabolized to ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide after oral administration. An accurate LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites in rat plasma, and the feasibility of using it in pharmacokinetic studies was tested. The analytes were quantified by multiple reaction monitoring using an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer. Because significant quantitative interference was observed between ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine as a result of the decomposition of N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine at the detector source, chromatographic separation was required to discriminate ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites on a reversed-phase C 18 analytical column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. The calibration curves of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide were linear over each concentration range, and the lower limits of quantification were 0.1 µg/mL [( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine] and 0.25 µg/mL [( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide]. Acceptable intraday and inter-day precisions and accuracies were obtained at three concentration levels. The method satisfied the regulatory requirements for matrix effects, recovery, and stability. The validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully used to determine the concentration of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites in rat plasma samples after the administration of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine or aged garlic extract. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. A simple radiocarbon dating method for determining the age and growth rate of deep-sea sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallon, S.J.; James, K.; Norman, R.; Kelly, M.; Ellwood, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to reliably age siliceous sponges is explored using radiocarbon dating of several hexactinellid sponge specimens including Rossella racovitzaeracovitzae Topsent, 1901 (C. Hexactinellida: O. Lyssacinosida: F. Rossellidae), collected from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The optimal pretreatment was found to consist of both sequential acid digestion and pre-roasting at temperatures >400 deg. C. Subsequent combustion at 900 deg. C liberated the proteinaceous material within the spicule matrix and once the reservoir age of the surrounding water was accounted for, a linear extension rate was calculated to be around 2.9 mm yr -1 , aging the sponge at ∼440 years old.

  8. A simple radiocarbon dating method for determining the age and growth rate of deep-sea sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, S. J.; James, K.; Norman, R.; Kelly, M.; Ellwood, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    The ability to reliably age siliceous sponges is explored using radiocarbon dating of several hexactinellid sponge specimens including Rossella racovitzaeracovitzae Topsent, 1901 ( C. Hexactinellida: O. Lyssacinosida: F. Rossellidae), collected from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The optimal pretreatment was found to consist of both sequential acid digestion and pre-roasting at temperatures >400 °C. Subsequent combustion at 900 °C liberated the proteinaceous material within the spicule matrix and once the reservoir age of the surrounding water was accounted for, a linear extension rate was calculated to be around 2.9 mm yr -1, aging the sponge at ˜440 years old.

  9. Are the determinants of vertebral endplate changes and severe disc degeneration in the lumbar spine the same? A magnetic resonance imaging study in middle-aged male workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpelainen Raija

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modic changes are bone marrow lesions visible in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and they are assumed to be associated with symptomatic intervertebral disc disease, especially changes located at L5-S1. Only limited information exists about the determinants of Modic changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of vertebral endplate (Modic changes, and whether they are similar for Modic changes and severe disc degeneration focusing on L5-S1 level. Methods 228 middle-aged male workers (159 train engineers and 69 sedentary factory workers from northern Finland underwent sagittal T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Modic changes and disc degeneration were analyzed from the scans. The participants responded to a questionnaire including items of occupational history and lifestyle factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between selected determinants (age, lifetime exercise, weight-related factors, fat percentage, smoking, alcohol use, lifetime whole-body vibration and Modic type I and II changes, and severe disc degeneration (= grade V on Pfirrmann's classification. Results The prevalences of the Modic changes and severe disc degeneration were similar in the occupational groups. Age was significantly associated with all degenerative changes. In the age-adjusted analyses, only weight-related determinants (BMI, waist circumference were associated with type II changes. Exposure to whole-body vibration, besides age, was the only significant determinant for severe disc degeneration. In the multivariate model, BMI was associated with type II changes at L5-S1 (OR 2.75 per one SD = 3 unit increment in BMI, and vibration exposure with severe disc degeneration at L5-S1 (OR 1.08 per one SD = 11-year increment in vibration exposure. Conclusion Besides age, weight-related factors seem important in the pathogenesis of Modic changes, whereas whole-body vibration was the only significant determinant

  10. The epiphyseal union of the medial clavicle determined by CT - an axillary method in age identification during adolescence and 3rd decade of life?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitner, K.F.; Schweden, F.; Schild, H.H.; Riepert, T.; Nafe, B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To establish a reference population for the stages of epiphyseal union of the medical clavicle determined by CT. Material and methods: Retrospectively, the thoracic CTs of patients under 30 years of age were reevaluated. Basic conditions were the lack of a bone development disorder and a sufficient assessment of the medial clavicle in a bone window setting. The stages of epiphyseal union were categorized as follows: Stage 1 refers to nonunion without ossification of the epiphysis, Stage 2 to nonunion with a separate and ossified epiphysis, Stage 3 to partial, and Stage 4 to complete union. Results: Up to now, 279 individuals coul be included in the study. Stage 1 was observed till age 16, Stage 2 occurred from ages 13 through 22, Stage 3 was found from ages 16 through 26. Stage 4 was first noted at age 22, and in 100% of the sample at age 27. Conclusions: CT is well suitable to determine the stages of epiphyseal union of the medial clavicle. It may become a generally accepted method of age identification during adolescence and the 3rd decade of life. The presented data serve as a reference population at least for white Europeans. (orig.) [de

  11. Accelerometer-Determined Physical Activity among Elementary School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Hsieh, Kai-Wen; Chu, Chia-Hua; Li, Ya-Lin; Huang, Shih-Tse

    2011-01-01

    To examine age-related physical activity (PA) patterns between- and within-day in elementary school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). PA was recorded every 5-s by uniaxial accelerometry in 35 children (grades 1-2, n = 13; grades 3-4, n = 13; grades 5-6, n = 9) for up to five weekdays and two weekend days. Younger children were…

  12. Central Determinants of Age-Related Declines in Motor Function (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 515)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-18

    postural muscle response latencies are significantly longer in the aging adult (con1- pared to the young one) when these responses are activated by external...posterior sway) were calculated and com- pared for the two age groups. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed be- tween correlations in the two...Laboratory of Celular and Molecu/ar Bioloi< Gerontology Research Center" Aautional Institute on .lging Francis Scott Key Medical Center Bc imore

  13. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)

  14. Determination of the availability of appropriate aged flight rocket motors. [captive tests to determine case bond separation and grain bore cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    A program to identify surplus solid rocket propellant engines which would be available for a program of functional integrity testing was conducted. The engines are classified as: (1) upper stage and apogee engines, (2) sounding rocket and launch vehicle engines, and (3) jato, sled, and tactical engines. Nearly all the engines were available because their age exceeds the warranted shelf life. The preference for testing included tests at nominal flight conditions, at design limits, and to establish margin limits. The principal failure modes of interest were case bond separation and grain bore cracking. Data concerning the identification and characteristics of each engine are tabulated. Methods for conducting the tests are described.

  15. Gender-related differences in the multi-pathway effect of social determinants on quality of life in older age?the COURAGE in Europe project

    OpenAIRE

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Galas, Aleksander; Zawisza, Katarzyna; Chatterji, Somnath; Haro, Josep Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, Jos? Luis; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Gender-related differences in life expectancy, prevalence of chronic conditions and level of disability in the process of ageing have been broadly described. Less is known about social determinants, which may have different impacts on quality of life in men and women. The investigation aims to reveal gender-related differences in social determinants on quality of life assessed by a multi-pathway model including health, social, demographic and living place characteristics. Methods The ...

  16. Determination of mean fetal transcerebellar diameter as a predictive biometric parameter in third trimester of pregnancy in correlation with fetal gestational age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, K.; Shahid, R.; Virk, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine mean transcerebellar diameter (TCD) in third trimester of pregnancy on ultrasound as a predictive biometric parameter of gestational age. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Radiology Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from Feb to Aug 2013. Material and Methods: A total of 100 pregnant women in their third trimester were included in this study. TCD was measured on ultrasound, by identifying the cerebellum in the posterior cranial fossa and measuring it in from outer edge to outer edge. Results: Mean age of the patients was 26.80 +- 2.71 years. Mean gestational age was 33.18+-2.42 weeks. In present study mean TCD was 36.47 +- 4.30 cm. After applying ANOVA test on parity, gestational age and maternal age it revealed that gestational age and TCD (mm) had significant relation (p<0.001). Conclusion: In the normally developing fetus, the TCD increases in a linear fashion with advancing gestational age. The data of this study suggest fetal TCD on ultrasound is a reliable predictive biometric parameter of gestational age. (author)

  17. Determination of hydrogen concentration in a-Si and a-Ge layers by elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanh, N.Q.; Serenyi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Compete text of publication follows. Hydrogenated amorphous Si and Ge films are of current interest in academic and industrial research due to their unique physical properties and important applications. The incorporation of hydrogen in the amorphous network is an accepted means for reducing the density of defect states in the midgap. The passivation of dangling-bonds leads to a significant improvement in the electronic and optical properties of these layers. However, hydrogen is also suspected to degrade the performance of amorphous Si and Ge material and devices. Several studies related to hydrogen motion have been proposed to explain the light and thermal degradation effect in these layers. Thus to improve the performance and reliability of these devices, it is crucially important to understand the role of hydrogen in amorphous layers. In our previous works the structural changes of hydrogenated a-Si/Ge multilayers as a function of annealing condition was investigated. It was shown that during annealing the samples underwent significant structural changes. Due to the fast out-diffusion of hydrogen from the layers prepared with high (6 ml/min) H 2 flow rate, bubbles and craters were created on the surface. However, in the multilayer samples prepared with hydrogen flow rate lower than 6 ml/min the macroscopic degradation by formation bubbles and craters was more moderated. The diffusion measurement shows that in these samples the structural degradation and intermixing of layers was slower than in the non-hydrogenated samples. As it was suggested the hydrogen can inactivate the dangling bonds of amorphous layers and, as a result of this, the intermixing slows down. It was also predicted that the hydrogen first released from the Ge layers because of the lower binding energy. In this work, we have studied the individual a-Si and a-Ge hydrogenated layers prepared by RF sputtering on Si (100) substrates. The absolute value of atomic content of the H was determined by

  18. Maternal weight determines the association between Hbalc in second half of pregnancy and risk of large for gestational age babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus; Møller, Margrethe

    Aim: To assess the association between maternal glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetic pregnancies and the risk of delivering large for gestational age babies (LGA) taking into account maternal body mass index (BMI), weight gain, age, White class, and smoking habits.  Method: We identified...... all pregnant diabetic women in a Danish county. HbA1c values after 20th gestational week were collected and offspring was categorized as large, normal or small for gestational age. Logistic regression models we fitted to assess the association between HbA1c and risk of delivering a LGA baby taking...... into account the impact of potential confounding from the above mentioned factors.   Results: We found 209 singleton pregnancies of which 59% (95% CI: 52%-65%) terminated with a LGA baby. HbA1c, BMI, and weight gain were all associated with increasing risk of delivering a LGA baby. Analyses stratified...

  19. Isotopic age determineations on granitic and gneissic rocks from the Ubendian-Usagaran System in southern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priem, H.N.A.; Boelrijk, N.A.I.M.; Hebeda, E.H.; Verdurmen, E.A.Th.; Verschure, R.H.; Oen, I.S.; Westra, L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic age measurements on granites and gneisses are reported from the Ubendian-Usagaran System in southern Tanzania. For the Lukumburu-Wino Granites a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron (9 points) of 1771 +- 145 Ma with initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of 0.704 +- 0.003 was obtained (γ 87 Rb = 1.42 10 -11 a -1 ; errors 95% confidence level). Two samples from neighbouring granites and three gneisses from the contact zone of the Lukumburu-Wino Granites also fit to this isochron; inclusion into the isochron calculation yields an age of 1747 +- 85 Ma with the same initial Sr composition. Five parts of a banded Usagaran gneiss sample produce an isochron of 589 +- 70 Ma with initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of 0.7194 +- 0.0005. This internal isochron is interpreted as reflecting Sr isotopic equilibration through the sample during the main phase (or one of the main phases) of the Pan-African thermotectonic episode. Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages of 17 micas show a general resetting by the Pan-African thermotectonic episode. The Rb-Sr ages of the muscovites and the biotites average 528 Ma and 463 Ma, respectively, and are interpreted as reflecting subsequent stages in the cooling history after the termination of the event. Biotites have K-Ar ages persistently higher than the corresponding Rb-Sr ages, possibly reflecting a high partial 40 Ar pressure through the crust during the resetting of the biotite K-Ar systems. (Auth.)

  20. Analysis of 1202 orthopantograms to evaluate the potential of forensic age determination based on third molar developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willershausen, B; Löffler, N; Schulze, R

    2001-09-28

    A total of 1202 orthopantograms of young dental patients were analyzed to assess the correlation of third molar root development with chronological age. The investigated patients were treated at a university dental clinic on an outpatient basis, included a variety of demographic characteristics (600 males and 602 females, 28% of other than central European background), and were 15-24 years old when the radiographs were obtained. Radiographs in which more than one third molar were either missing due to agenesia or extraction, or not evaluable because of deep destruction or marked tilting, were not included in the analysis. Our findings show that the growth patterns of third molars, based on seven defined stages of root development, did correlate with chronological age; age estimation when applied to a specific individual would involve a margin of error of +/- 2-4 years. There were no significant differences between the left and right jaw segments, but the stage of root development was generally more advanced in the upper than in the lower third molars. Root development was also more advanced among boys than among girls of the same age. There were no apparent differences in growth patterns based on national/ethnic background. While only 2.5% of 18-year-olds revealed fully developed third molars in all four quadrants, this percentage leaped to 38.4% among the 21-year-olds. To summarize, while the developmental stage of third molars is not per se a highly useful indicator of chronological age in juveniles and young adults, it is nevertheless a valuable supplementary parameter given the scarcity of other available age indicators.

  1. Promoting Self-Determination for Transition-Age Youth: Views of High School General and Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Pierson, Melinda R.; Stang, Kristin K.

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in policy and practice have emphasized the importance of promoting self-determination and supporting access to the general curriculum for youth with disabilities. To understand how these trends align, we examined the efforts of 340 general and special educators to promote student self-determination in high school classrooms.…

  2. Determination of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 228/Ra in human teeth by age groups and in other substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuzil, E F; Dysart, M E [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham (USA)

    1984-12-01

    The total /sup 90/Sr content of human teeth peaks at a value of 0.65 pCi/g calcium in the age group of 20-30 years. It is not present in those 50 years or older. Various other substances show extensive amounts of /sup 90/Sr especially in cow bones, bone meal and dry milk. The radionuclide /sup 228/Ra (daughter of /sup 232/Th) is present at a mean level of about 0.5 pCi/g Ca in all substances tested and in all age groups, but especially high in bone meal (5.60 pCi/g Ca) and calcium lactate tablets.

  3. Plasma advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and NF-κB activity are independent determinants of diastolic and pulse pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sourris, Karly C; Lyons, Jasmine G; Dougherty, Sonia L

    2013-01-01

    was to characterize the relationship between serum AGEs, CLAIS and other risk factors for CV disease in normotensive non-diabetic individuals. Methods: We measured body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, lipid and glucose profile in 44 non-diabetic volunteers (17 female, 27 males......). Carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) was measured by ELISA as a marker for circulating AGEs and NF-κB p65 activity as an inflammatory marker by DNA-binding in peripheral blood mononuclear cells lysates (PBMC). Results: Plasma CML concentrations were related to diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.51, p...

  4. The determination of 90Sr and 228Ra in human teeth by age groups and in other substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuzil, E.F.; Dysart, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The total 90 Sr content of human teeth peaks at a value of 0.65 pCi/g calcium in the age group of 20-30 years. It is not present in those 50 years or older. Various other substances show extensive amounts of 90 Sr especially in cow bones, bone meal and dry milk. The radionuclide 228 Ra (daughter of 232 Th) is present at a mean level of about 0.5 pCi/g Ca in all substances tested and in all age groups, but especially high in bone meal (5.60 pCi/g Ca) and calcium lactate tablets. (author)

  5. Cryptococcus neoformans carried by Odontomachus bauri ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos de Jesus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common causative agent of cryptococcosis worldwide. Although this fungus has been isolated from a variety of organic substrates, several studies suggest that hollow trees constitute an important natural niche for C. neoformans. A previously surveyed hollow of a living pink shower tree (Cassia grandis positive for C. neoformans in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was chosen for further investigation. Odontomachus bauri ants (trap-jaw ants found inside the hollow were collected for evaluation as possible carriers of Cryptococcus spp. Two out of 10 ants were found to carry phenoloxidase-positive colonies identified as C. neoformans molecular types VNI and VNII. The ants may have acted as a mechanical vector of C. neoformans and possibly contributed to the dispersal of the fungi from one substrate to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of C. neoformans with ants of the genus Odontomachus.

  6. Digit Sucking, Age, Sex, and Socioeconomic Status as Determinants of Oral Hygiene Status and Gingival Health of Children in Suburban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaje, Hakeem O; Kolawole, Kikelomo A; Folayan, Morenike O; Onyejaka, Nneka K; Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Oyedele, Titus A; Chukwumah, Nneka M; Oshomoji, Olusegun V

    2016-09-01

    This study determines prevalence of digit sucking and gingivitis, and association among age, sex, socioeconomic status, presence of digit-sucking habits, oral hygiene status (OHS), and gingivitis among a group of Nigerian children. Data of 992 children aged 1 to 12 years recruited through a household survey conducted in Osun State, Nigeria were analyzed. Information on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and history of digit-sucking habits were collected. Children were assessed for OHS and severity of gingivitis using the simplified oral hygiene index and the gingival index, respectively. Predictors of presence of gingivitis and poor oral hygiene were determined using multivariate logistic regression. One (0.2%) and 454 (93.0%) children aged 1 to 5 years had poor oral hygiene and mild gingivitis, respectively. Twenty-two (4.4%) and 361 (72.9%) children aged 6 to 12 years had poor oral hygiene and mild gingivitis, respectively. The odds of having poor oral hygiene (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20 to 0.35; P oral hygiene and gingivitis. Increasing age and low socioeconomic status were factors that significantly increased chances of having poor oral hygiene and gingivitis.

  7. Age determination of vessel wall hematoma in spontaneous cervical artery dissection: A multi-sequence 3T Cardiovascular Magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habs Maximilian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously proposed classifications for carotid plaque and cerebral parenchymal hemorrhages are used to estimate the age of hematoma according to its signal intensities on T1w and T2w MR images. Using these classifications, we systematically investigated the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR in determining the age of vessel wall hematoma (VWH in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD. Methods 35 consecutive patients (mean age 43.6 ± 9.8 years with sCAD received a cervical multi-sequence 3T CMR with fat-saturated black-blood T1w-, T2w- and TOF images. Age of sCAD was defined as time between onset of symptoms (stroke, TIA or Horner's syndrome and the CMR scan. VWH were categorized into hyperacute, acute, early subacute, late subacute and chronic based on their signal intensities on T1w- and T2w images. Results The mean age of sCAD was 2.0, 5.8, 15.7 and 58.7 days in patients with acute, early subacute, late subacute and chronic VWH as classified by CMR (p Conclusions Signal intensities of VWH in sCAD vary over time and multi-sequence CMR can help to determine the age of an arterial dissection. Furthermore, findings of this study suggest that the time course of carotid hematomas differs from that of cerebral hematomas.

  8. The Relationship between Pedometer-Determined and Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Composition Variables in College-Aged Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestek, Michael L.; Plaisance, Eric; Grandjean, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) is inversely related to body composition in middle-aged adults; however, researchers have not established such a relationship in college students. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors attempted to characterize PA and examine its relationship with body composition in undergraduate…

  9. USE OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ON A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL FOR CHLOROFORM IN RATS TO DETERMINE AGE-RELATED TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    USE OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ON A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL FOR CHLOROFORM IN RATS TO DETERMINE AGE-RELATED TOXICITY.CR Eklund, MV Evans, and JE Simmons. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD,PKB, Research Triangle Park, NC. Chloroform (CHCl3) is a disinfec...

  10. The determination of irradiation and so-called terrestrial ageing of rock meteorites based on the cosmogenic resulting radionuclides 53Mn and 26Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, P.

    1979-01-01

    The contents of cosmogenic occuring 53 Mn was determined by neutron activation in over 90 samples of 75 individual rock meteorites. The distinct depth effect of the 53 Mn production rate in rock meteorites could be measured by a depth profile at LL6 chondrite St. Severin (falling weight 271 kg). The experimental results confirm the present model concepts. By comparing with the spallogenic 22 Ne/ 21 Ne and 3 He/ 21 Ne ratios applicable as depth indicators, one could derive linear relationships suitable for correcting 53 Mn. They enable the determination of the average 53 Mn production rate from the saturation activities of long-term irradiated meteorites. Using this method it was possible to calculate the irradiation age of 40 rock meteorites. As 26 Al is formed with a similar effective cross-section to 53 Mn, the production rate ratio 53 Mn: 26 Al was also taken to derive the depth-independent irradiation ages. A method to determine the depth-independent terrestrial ageing of meteriorites has been developed based on the same isotope ratio, the effective field of application is between 0.10 to 2x10 6 a. Furthermore, an attempt was made to draw up the dependence of noble gas contents of 53 Mn resp. 53 Mn/ 26 Al irradiation age for the new determination of the 3 He, 21 Ne and 38 Ar production rates by means of a linear regression analysis. (orig./RB) [de

  11. Intra- and inter-observer variation in histological criteria used in age at death determination based on femoral cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N; Thomsen, J L; Frohlich, B

    1998-01-01

    been carried out dealing with the intra- and inter-observer error. Furthermore, when such studies have been completed, the statistical tools for assessing variability have not been adequate. This study presents the results of applying simple quantitative statistics on several counts of microscopic...... elements as observed on photographic images of cortical bone, in order to assess intra- and inter-observer error. Overall, substantial error was present at the level of identifying and counting secondary osteons, osteon fragments and Haversian canals. Only secondary osteons can be reliably identified...

  12. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's... or with their health and well-being and shall not be deemed to be oppressive child labor. Effective...

  13. Origin-related, environmental, sex, and age determinants of immunocompetence, susceptibility to ectoparasites, and disease symptoms in the barn owl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulin, Alexandre; Christe, Philippe; Dijkstra, Cor; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Jungi, Thomas W.

    Knowledge of the role of origin-related, environmental, sex, and age factors on host defence mechanisms is important to understand variation in parasite intensity. Because alternative components of parasite defence may be differently sensitive to various factors, they may not necessarily covary.

  14. Integrated U-Pb zircon and palynological/palaeofloristic age determinations of a Bashkirian palaeofjord fill, Quebrada Grande (Western Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Buso, Victoria; di Pasquo, Mercedes; Milana, Juan Pablo; Kneller, Benjamin; Fallgatter, Claus; Junior, Farid Chemale; Gomes Paim, Paulo Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a new age framework for the main Bashkirian glacio-eustatic transgression in Argentina, including the first absolute age for the Jejenes Formation, San Juan Province, based on radiometric dating of a crystal-rich tuff, supported by palynological and palaeofloristic studies, and presented within a revised palaeogeographic setting. The Jejenes Formation represents the glacial to postglacial fill of the Quebrada Grande palaeofjord carved in the Eastern Precordillera. The succession has been subdivided into five stages, the youngest of which suggests a previously unrecognised glacial event for this locality. Six productive levels for palynology were found within proglacial strata, and in the base and top of the succeeding interglacial stage. Palynoassemblages are characterized by poorly preserved trilete spores and monosaccate pollen grains along with a large amount of terrestrial phytoclasts. Main species indicating the Raistrickia densa-Convolutispora muriornata SubZone (DMa SZ) are Vallatisporites ciliaris, Cristatisporites rollerii, C. stellatus, C. chacoparanensis, C. inconstans and monosaccates such as Circumplicatipollis plicatus. This DMa SZ is estimated as Serpukhovian/Bashkirian and characterizes the glacial-related Guandacol Formation and equivalents units of the western Paganzo Basin. A tuffaceous level in the proglacial unit, bearing platyspermic seeds, plant remains and palynomorphs, yielded first-cycle volcanic zircons that were analysed by SHRIMP. An absolute age of 321.3 ± 5.3 Ma confirms a Bashkirian age for the main postglacial transgression in the Paganzo Basin, and offers a novel calibration for the palynoassemblages of DMa SZ that occurs elsewhere in Western Argentina.

  15. Age and stress as determinants of the severity of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease in newly diagnosed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Xander G.; Smit, Natalie; Endert, Erik; Brosschot, Jos F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The evidence that stress may provoke Graves' hyperthyroidism in genetically susceptible subjects is substantial. Whether exposure to stress is related to the severity of thyrotoxicosis has not been studied. Advancing age is associated with not only less severe Graves' hyperthyroidism but

  16. Effect of multipurpose solutions against Acinetobacter carrying QAC genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boost, Maureen V; Chan, Jessica; Shi, Guang-sen; Cho, Pauline

    2014-03-01

    Acinetobacter has low virulence but causes infections in subjects with reduced immunity. It has been reported in ocular infections including those of patients using contact lenses. Treatment is difficult because Acinetobacter is frequently multidrug resistant. Antibiotic-resistant strains frequently also harbor genes for antiseptic resistance (quaternary ammonium compound [QAC]) genes. Because Acinetobacter is part of the normal flora, it may contaminate contact lens and accessories. This study aims to investigate carriage rates of QAC genes in household and clinical isolates of Acinetobacter and to determine the effectiveness of two multipurpose solutions (MPSs) for soft lenses against organisms carrying QAC genes. DNA was extracted from 11 bathroom isolates and 15 clinical isolates and amplified by polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of qacEΔ1. Gene-positive and gene-negative control strains were used to challenge the two MPSs, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these organisms to benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate were determined. More than 90% of isolates carried qacEΔ1. The MICs of clinical isolates were higher than those of isolates of bathrooms. Both MPSs were able to produce a 3-log reduction in the numbers of all isolates. Although most isolates carried qacEΔ1 and elevated MICs to benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate were observed, all were susceptible to both MPSs tested. However, if there were to be poor compliance with care procedures, it is probable that such organisms could survive in the presence of diluted or expired solutions.

  17. 14C age determination for human bones during the Yayoi period - the calibration ambiguity around 2400 BP and the marine reservoir effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, S.; Miyamoto, K.; Nakamura, T.; Koike, H.

    2004-01-01

    14 C ages for Japanese prehistoric samples from the Latest Jomon period to the early Yayoi period have a calibration ambiguity for dates around 2400 BP. It is also necessary to correct for the marine reservoir effect on 14 C ages of human bone samples from people who consumed marine food as a protein source. The Ohtomo site in western Japan, is a cemetery site used from the end of the Latest Jomon period to the Kofun period, provide a useful archaeological chronology. Human bones found in dolmen burials, jar burials and cist burials. In this study, we determined the 14 C ages of human bone samples and calculated the marine reservoir effect, using diet analysis based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Diet analysis showed that these people obtained from 40% to 60% of their protein from marine sources. Their 14 C ages with calibration and marine reservoir correction were serially matched with the archaeological chronology

  18. Determinants of Exposure to Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke (SHS among Current Non-Smoking In-School Adolescents (aged 11–18 years in South Africa: Results from the 2008 GYTS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent’s exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents.

  19. Determinants of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among current non-smoking in-school adolescents (aged 11-18 years) in South Africa: results from the 2008 GYTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years) in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents.

  20. It is compatible the sport in scholar age with other social roles? A study through Self-Determination Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Amado Alonso, Diana; Leo Marcos, Francisco Miguel; Sánchez Oliva, David; González Ponce, Inmaculada; López Chamorro, José María

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of conflict or utility of the sport regarding other social roles and self-determination level in young athletes, focusing on differences among these variables with respect to sex. Hence, we used a sample size of 1897 players from different sport modalities, 1378 male and 519 female. Participants filled a questionnaire to assess self-determination level and other to measure conflict between social roles. Results show...

  1. Voltage-carrying states in superconducting microstrips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuivinga, M.E.C.

    1983-01-01

    When the critical current is exceeded in a superconducting microstrip, voltage-carrying states with a resistance significantly below the normal state resistance can occur. Phase-slip centers (PSC) appear at about the critical temperature. These are successive local voltage units which manifest themselves as strip-like increments in voltage in the I-V characteristic. For temperatures off the critical temperature the PSC regime degenerates into a region of normal material, a so-called hot spot. These two phenomena, PSC and hot spots, form the subject of this thesis. To gain a better understanding of the phase-slip center process, an experiment was designed to measure local values of the quasi-particle and pair potential. The results of local potential and gap measurements at a PSC in aluminium are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to pair-breaking interactions which can shorten the relaxation time. A non-linear differential equation is derived which describes the development of a PSC into a normal hot spot under the influence of Joule heating. It incorporates the temperature rise due to the dissipative processes occurring in the charge imbalance tails. Numerical solutions are presented for a set of parameters, including those for aluminium and tin. Subsequently, they are compared with experiments. (Auth.)

  2. Detecting Vessels Carrying Migrants Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfyridis, A.; Cheng, T.; Vespe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Political instability, conflicts and inequalities result into significant flows of people worldwide, moving to different countries in search of a better life, safety or to be reunited with their families. Irregular crossings into Europe via sea routes, despite not being new, have recently increased together with the loss of lives of people in the attempt to reach EU shores. This highlights the need to find ways to improve the understanding of what is happening at sea. This paper, intends to expand the knowledge available on practices among smugglers and contribute to early warning and maritime situational awareness. By identifying smuggling techniques and based on anomaly detection methods, behaviours of interest are modelled and one class support vector machines are used to classify unlabelled data and detect potential smuggling vessels. Nine vessels are identified as potentially carrying irregular migrants and refugees. Though, further inspection of the results highlights possible misclassifications caused by data gaps and limited knowledge on smuggling tactics. Accepted classifications are considered subject to further investigation by the authorities.

  3. Retinal oscillations carry visual information to cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Koepsell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs and thalamic outputs (spikes and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz, is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40-80 Hz and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene.

  4. DETECTING VESSELS CARRYING MIGRANTS USING MACHINE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sfyridis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Political instability, conflicts and inequalities result into significant flows of people worldwide, moving to different countries in search of a better life, safety or to be reunited with their families. Irregular crossings into Europe via sea routes, despite not being new, have recently increased together with the loss of lives of people in the attempt to reach EU shores. This highlights the need to find ways to improve the understanding of what is happening at sea. This paper, intends to expand the knowledge available on practices among smugglers and contribute to early warning and maritime situational awareness. By identifying smuggling techniques and based on anomaly detection methods, behaviours of interest are modelled and one class support vector machines are used to classify unlabelled data and detect potential smuggling vessels. Nine vessels are identified as potentially carrying irregular migrants and refugees. Though, further inspection of the results highlights possible misclassifications caused by data gaps and limited knowledge on smuggling tactics. Accepted classifications are considered subject to further investigation by the authorities.

  5. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Physical Activity as a Determinant of Quality of Life in Working-Age People in Wrocław, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Puciato

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity can greatly contribute to the improvement of physical fitness and performance, reduction of the incidence risk of some occupational diseases, and as a consequence, to a general improvement of quality of life in terms of health status. The aim of the article was to assess relationships between the quality of life and physical activity of a working-age population. The study material comprised 4460 residents of the city of Wrocław, Poland (2129 men, 2331 women aged 18–64 years. The study was a questionnaire survey using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF and The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. The highest levels of overall quality of life and its four particular domains (physical, psychological, social, and environmental, as well as perceived health conditions were found among the most physically active respondents. Furthermore, the odds of high assessment of perceived overall quality of life were shown to increase with the increasing levels of physical activity. Activities aimed at the improvement of the quality of life of working-age people should involve programs enhancing the development of physical activity.

  7. Age-specific vibrissae growth rates: a tool for determining the timing of ecologically important events in Steller sea lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, L.D.; Christ, A.M.; Hayden, A.B.; Stegall, V.K.; Farley, S.D.; Stricker, Craig A.; Mellish, J.E.; Maniscalco, John M.; Waite, J.N.; Burkanov, V.N.; Pitcher, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) grow their vibrissae continually, providing a multiyear record suitable for ecological and physiological studies based on stable isotopes. An accurate age-specific vibrissae growth rate is essential for registering a chronology along the length of the record, and for interpreting the timing of ecologically important events. We utilized four methods to estimate the growth rate of vibrissae in fetal, rookery pup, young-of-the-year (YOY), yearling, subadult, and adult SSL. The majority of vibrissae were collected from SSL live-captured in Alaska and Russia between 2000 and 2013 (n = 1,115), however, vibrissae were also collected from six adult SSL found dead on haul-outs and rookeries during field excursions to increase the sample size of this underrepresented age group. Growth rates of vibrissae were generally slower in adult (0.44 ± 0.15 cm/mo) and subadult (0.61 ± 0.10 cm/mo) SSL than in YOY (0.87 ± 0.28 cm/mo) and fetal (0.73 ± 0.05 cm/mo) animals, but there was high individual variability in these growth rates within each age group. Some variability in vibrissae growth rates was attributed to the somatic growth rate of YOY sea lions between capture events (P = 0.014, r2 = 0.206, n = 29).

  8. Violence and weapon carrying in music videos. A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, R H; Rich, M; Emans, S J; Rome, E S; Allred, E; Woods, E R

    1997-05-01

    The positive portrayal of violence and weapon carrying in televised music videos is thought to have a considerable influence on the normative expectations of adolescents about these behaviors. To perform a content analysis of the depictions of violence and weapon carrying in music videos, including 5 genres of music (rock, rap, adult contemporary, rhythm and blues, and country), from 4 television networks and to analyze the degree of sexuality or eroticism portrayed in each video and its association with violence and weapon carrying, as an indicator of the desirability of violent behaviors. Five hundred eighteen videos were recorded during randomly selected days and times of the day from the Music Television, Video Hits One, Black Entertainment Television, and Country Music Television networks. Four female and 4 male observers aged 17 to 24 years were trained to use a standardized content analysis instrument. Interobserver reliability testing resulted in a mean (+/- SD) percentage agreement of 89.25% +/- 7.10% and a mean (+/- SD) kappa of 0.73 +/- 0.20. All videos were observed by rotating 2-person, male-female teams that were required to reach agreement on each behavior that was scored. Music genre and network differences in behaviors were analyzed with chi 2 tests. A higher percentage (22.4%) of Music Television videos portrayed overt violence than Video Hits One (11.8%), Country Music Television (11.8%), and Black Entertainment Television (11.5%) videos (P = .02). Rap (20.4%) had the highest portrayal of violence, followed by rock (19.8%), country (10.8%), adult contemporary (9.7%), and rhythm and blues (5.9%) (P = .006). Weapon carrying was higher on Music Television (25.0%) than on Black Entertainment Television (11.5%), Video Hits One (8.4%), and Country Music Television (6.9%) (P violence (P violence and weapon carrying, which is glamorized by music artists, actors, and actresses.

  9. Factors determining access to oral health services among children aged less than 12 years in Peru [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Azañedo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding problems of access to oral health services requires knowledge of factors that determine access. This study aimed to evaluate factors that determine access to oral health services among children aged <12 years in Peru between 2014 and 2015. Methods: We performed a secondary data analysis of 71,614 Peruvian children aged <12 years and their caregivers. Data were obtained from the Survey on Demography and Family Health 2014-2015 (Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar - ENDES. Children’s access to oral health services within the previous 6 months was used as the dependent variable (i.e. Yes/No, and the Andersen and col model was used to select independent variables. Predisposing (e.g., language spoken by  tutor or guardian, wealth level, caregivers’ educational level, area of residence, natural region of residence, age, and sex and enabling factors (e.g. type of health insurance were considered. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and multivariate analysis was performed using generalized linear models (Poisson family. Results: Of all the children, 51% were males, 56% were aged <5 years, and 62.6% lived in urban areas. The most common type of health insurance was Integral Health Insurance (57.8%, and most respondents were in the first quintile of wealth (31.6%. Regarding caregivers, the most common educational level was high school (43.02% and the most frequently spoken language was Spanish (88.4%. Univariate analysis revealed that all variables, except sex and primary educational level, were statistically significant. After adjustment, sex, area of residence, and language were insignificant, whereas the remaining variables were statistically significant. Conclusions: Wealth index, caregivers’ education level, natural region of residence, age, and type of health insurance are factors that determine access to oral health services among children aged <12 years in Peru. These factors should be considered when

  10. Can `loss and damage' carry the load?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verchick, Robert R. M.

    2018-05-01

    Even assuming a heroic rush towards carbon reduction and adaptation, some regions of the world will be hammered hard by climate impacts. Thus, a global consensus now sees the need for a supplemental plan to deal with the kind of harms that cannot be avoided-what Parties call `loss and damage'. For a loss-and-damage plan to work, it must be capable of carrying the load, the load being whatever minimal standards that morality and political consensus require. But if residual risk climbs too high, it will fall short of even the most basic expectations. The Paris Agreement calls for holding the rise in global average temperature to `well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels', while working to limit the increase to 1.5°C. How much difference is in that half-degree? From the point of view of residual risk, quite a lot. According to a 2016 study published by the European Geosciences Union, a jump from 1.5°C to 2°C could produce outsize impacts, particularly in tropical latitudes. That difference could mark the line between a plan that is politically and morally defensible and one that is not. At the very least, the difference is enough to inform the design and expectations of any future plan. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  11. Determination of the spallogenic radionuclides 26Al and 53Mn in Antartic meteorites with respect to cosmic ray exposure and terrestrial ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpers, U.; Sarafin, R.

    1987-01-01

    The spallogenic radionuclides 26 Al (T=7.18x10 5 a) and 53 Mn (T=3.8x10 6 a) were determined in 11 ordinary chondrites and 7 achondrites from Antarctica by nondestructive coincidence counting techniques and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The results are discussed with respect to exposure ages, terrestrial residence times and possible genetic relationships of the meteorites investigated. The high terrestrial ages of some specimens (up to 800 000 years) are of importance for the study of the ice flow in Antarctica. (author)

  12. Determinants of Walking among Middle-Aged and Older Overweight and Obese Adults: Sociodemographic, Health, and Built Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N. Forjuoh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study examined the association between selected sociodemographic, health, and built environmental factors and walking behaviors of middle-aged and older overweight/obese adults. Methods. Subjective data were obtained from surveys administered to community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged ≥50 years residing in four Texas cities from October 2013 to June 2014, along with objective data on neighborhood walkability (Walk Score™. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors predicting the odds of walking the recommended ≥150 minutes per week for any purpose. Results. Of 253 participants, the majority were non-Hispanic white (81.8%, married (74.5%, and male (53.4% and reported an annual income of ≥$50,000 (65.5%. Approximately, half were employed (49.6% or had at least a college degree (51.6%. Walking the recommended ≥150 minutes per week for any purpose (n=57, 22.5% was significantly associated with having at least a college degree (OR=5.55, 95% CI = 1.79–17.25, having no difficulty walking a quarter of a mile (OR=5.18, 95% CI = 1.30–20.83, and being unemployed (OR=3.25, 95% CI = 1.18–8.93 as well as perceived presence of sidewalks/protected walkways (OR=3.56, 95% CI = 1.10–11.50 and perceived absence of distracted drivers in the neighborhood (OR=4.08, 95% CI = 1.47–11.36. Conclusion. Addressing neighborhood conditions related to distracted drivers and pedestrian infrastructure may promote walking among middle-aged and older overweight/obese individuals.

  13. Determinants of reduced cognitive performance in HIV-1-infected middle-aged men on combination antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Judith; Su, Tanja; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Geurtsen, Gert J.; Schmand, Ben A.; Stolte, Ineke G.; Prins, Maria; Majoie, Charles B.; Portegies, Peter; Reiss, Peter; van der Valk, M.; Kooij, K. W.; van Zoest, R. A.; Elsenga, B. C.; Prins, M.; Stolte, I. G.; Martens, M.; Moll, S.; Berkel, J.; Möller, L.; Visser, G. R.; Gras, L. A. J.; van Leeuwen, E.; Geerlings, S. E.; Godfried, M. H.; Goorhuis, A.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Nellen, F. J. B.; van der Poll, T.; Prins, J. M.; Wiersinga, W. J.; Postema, P. G.; Bisschop, P. H. L. T.; Serlie, M. J. M.; Dekker, E.; de Rooij, S. E. J. A.; Vogt, L.; van Eck-Smit, B. L. F.; de Jong, M.; Richel, D. J.; Verbraak, F. D.; Demirkaya, N.; Ruhé, H. G.; Nieuwkerk, P. T.; van Steenwijk, R. P.; van Lunsen, H. W.; van den Born, B. J. H.; Stroes, E. S. G.

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of risk factors for HIV-associated cognitive impairment is likely very broad and includes not only HIV/antiretroviral therapy-specific factors but also other comorbid conditions. The purpose of this current study was to explore possible determinants for decreased cognitive performance.

  14. Experimental determinations of soil copper toxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth in highly different copper spiked and aged soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karen Søgaard; Borggaard, Ole K.; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge about factors and conditions determining copper (Cu) toxicity in soil is needed for predicting plant growth in various Cu-contaminated soils. Therefore, effects of Cu on growth (biomass production) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were tested on seven selected, very different soils...

  15. Determinants of reduced cognitive performance in HIV-1-infected middle-aged men on combination antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.; Su, T.; Wit, F.W.; Kootstra, N.A.; Caan, M.W.A.; Geurtsen, G.J.; Schmand, B.A.; Stolte, I.G.; Prins, M.; Majoie, C.B.; Portegies, P.; Reiss, P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The spectrum of risk factors for HIV-associated cognitive impairment is likely very broad and includes not only HIV/antiretroviral therapy-specific factors but also other comorbid conditions. The purpose of this current study was to explore possible determinants for decreased cognitive

  16. What determines the preference for future living arrangements of middle-aged and older people in urban China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dijuan; Xu, Guihua; He, Ling; Zhang, Min; Lin, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Living arrangements are important to the elderly. However, it is common for elderly parents in urban China to not have a living situation that they consider ideal. An understanding of their preferences assists us in responding to the needs of the elderly as well as in anticipating future long-term care demands. The aim of this study is to provide a clear understanding of preferences for future living arrangements and their associated factors among middle-aged and older people in urban China. Data were extracted from the CHARLS 2011-2012 national baseline survey of middle-aged and elderly people. In the 2011 wave of the CHARLS, a total of 17,708 individual participants (10,069 main respondents and 7,638 spouses) were interviewed; 2509 of the main respondents lived in urban areas. In this group, 41 people who were younger than 45 years old and 162 who had missing data in the variable "living arrangement preference" were excluded. Additionally, 42 people were excluded because they chose "other" for the variable "living arrangement preference" (which was a choice with no specific answer). Finally, a total of 2264 participants were included in our study. The most popular preference for future living arrangements was living close to their children in the same community/neighborhoods, followed by living with adult children. The degree of community handicapped access, number of surviving children, age, marital status, access to community-based elderly care centers and number of years lived in the same community were significantly associated with the preferences for future living arrangements among the respondents. There is a trend towards preference for living near adult children in urban China. Additionally, age has a positive effect on preference for living close to their children. Considerations should be made in housing design and urban community development plans to fulfill older adults' expectations. In addition, increasing the accessibility of public facilities in

  17. BLOOD SUBSTITUTES: EVOLUTION FROM NON-CARRYING TO OXYGEN AND GAS CARRYING FLUIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrales, Pedro; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The development of oxygen (O2) carrying blood substitutes has evolved from the goal of replicating blood O2 transports properties to that of preserving microvascular and organ function, reducing the inherent or potential toxicity of the material used to carry O2, and treating pathologies initiated by anemia and hypoxia. Furthermore, the emphasis has shifted from blood replacement fluid to “O2 therapeutics” that restore tissue oxygenation to specific tissues regions. This review covers the different alternatives, potential and limitations of hemoglobin based O2 carriers (HBOCs) and perfluorocarbon based O2 carriers (PFCOCs), with emphasis on the physiological conditions disturbed in the situation that they will be used. It describes how concepts learned from plasma expanders without O2 carrying capacity can be applied to maintain O2 delivery and summarizes the microvascular responses due to HBOCs and PFCOCs. This review also presents alternative applications of HBOCs and PFCOCs namely: 1) How HBOC O2 affinity can be engineered to target O2 delivery to hypoxic tissues; and 2) How the high gas solubility of PFCOCs provides new opportunities for carrying, dissolving and delivering gases with biological activity. It is concluded that current blood substitutes development has amplified their applications horizon by devising therapeutic functions for oxygen carriers requiring limited O2 delivery capacity restoration. Conversely, full, blood-like O2 carrying capacity re-establishment awaits control of O2 carrier toxicity. PMID:23820271

  18. Constraining the age of the NGC 4565 H I disk WARP: Determining the origin of gas WARPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Bell, Eric F.; Monachesi, Antonela [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Holwerda, Benne W. [European Space Agency, ESTEC, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Bailin, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We have mapped the distribution of young and old stars in the gaseous H I warp of NGC 4565. We find a clear correlation of young stars (<600 Myr) with the warp but no coincident old stars (>1 Gyr), which places an upper limit on the age of the structure. The formation rate of the young stars, which increased ∼300 Myr ago relative to the surrounding regions, is (6.3{sub −1.5}{sup +2.5})×10{sup −5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. This implies a ∼60 ± 20 Gyr depletion time of the H I warp, similar to the timescales calculated for the outer H I disks of nearby spiral galaxies. While some stars associated with the warp fall into the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) region of the color-magnitude diagram, where stars could be as old as 1 Gyr, further investigation suggests that they may be interlopers rather than real AGB stars. We discuss the implications of these age constraints for the formation of H I warps and the gas fueling of disk galaxies.

  19. Age of the introduction of the first complementary food and determinants of its early introduction by Slovak mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávka Mrosková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the age of introduction of complementary food (CF and the factors leading to early introduction of CF (≤ four months. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: In the period October 2011 to April 2012 we conducted research on 405 mothers of infants living in the Slovak Republic, particularly in the regions of Prešov (56.0% and Košice (20.5%. The questionnaire, of our own design, integrated 13 factors. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and logistic regression (95% CI. Results: The first CF was introduced at 5.5 months (M = 5.47; SD = 1.22; range 1.0 to 10.0. Early introduction of CF was identified in 24.2% of children. A significantly higher risk of early introduction of first CF was found in respondents with: lower maternal age (OR = 4.436, lower levels of education (secondary education without GCE/vocational qualifications - OR = 10.140, lower maternal awareness of healthy nutrition (OR = 2.996, lower levels of satisfaction with their financial situation (OR = 1.927, and in single mothers (OR = 5.143, and children receiving combined milk nutrition rather than purely breastfeeding (OR = 3.888. Conclusion: Recognition of the factors leading to early introduction of CF allows the implementation of effective prevention strategies by health professionals.

  20. BANYAN. IV. Fundamental parameters of low-mass star candidates in nearby young stellar kinematic groups—isochronal age determination using magnetic evolutionary models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Albert, Loïc; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Gagné, Jonathan [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Riedel, Adric, E-mail: malo@cfht.hawaii.edu, E-mail: doyon@astro.umontreal.ca [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Based on high-resolution optical spectra obtained with ESPaDOnS at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we determine fundamental parameters (T {sub eff}, R, L {sub bol}, log g, and metallicity) for 59 candidate members of nearby young kinematic groups. The candidates were identified through the BANYAN Bayesian inference method of Malo et al., which takes into account the position, proper motion, magnitude, color, radial velocity, and parallax (when available) to establish a membership probability. The derived parameters are compared to Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models and field stars with the goal of constraining the age of our candidates. We find that, in general, low-mass stars in our sample are more luminous and have inflated radii compared to older stars, a trend expected for pre-main-sequence stars. The Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models show a good fit to observations of field K and M stars, assuming a magnetic field strength of a few kG, as typically observed for cool stars. Using the low-mass members of the β Pictoris moving group, we have re-examined the age inconsistency problem between lithium depletion age and isochronal age (Hertzspring-Russell diagram). We find that the inclusion of the magnetic field in evolutionary models increases the isochronal age estimates for the K5V-M5V stars. Using these models and field strengths, we derive an average isochronal age between 15 and 28 Myr and we confirm a clear lithium depletion boundary from which an age of 26 ± 3 Myr is derived, consistent with previous age estimates based on this method.

  1. Goitre in girls at the age of puberty. Part 2. Determination of thyroid iodine uptake and triiodothyronine-binding index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mach, W.

    1977-01-01

    Thyroid iodine uptake and 125 I-triiodothyronine-binding index (T 3 BC) were determined in 114 girls with juvenile goitre and the results were related to the size of the goitre and its duration. Measurements of thyroid iodine uptake showed a gradual decrease of its value with increasing size of goitre and its longer duration without reaching, however, the values regarded as normal. T 3 BC showed no significant changes in relation to the size of goitre and its duration. (author)

  2. Radiosensitivity of mice of different lines and age as determinated with reference to ''intestinal'' death and DNA repair in intestinal epithelium cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konoplyannikova, O.A.; Sklobovskaya, M.V.; Konoplyannikov, A.G.; Saenko, A.S. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii)

    A study was made of the influence of strain- and age-related differences on mouse mortality after irradiation with doses lying within the ''intestinal'' dose range, and also damages to stem cells of intestinal epithelium and induction and repair of single-strand DNA breaks in intestinal epitherium cells. Mice of different lines and age vary in LDsub(50/4) and stem cell radiosensitivity. There are no differences in the sedimentation constants of DNA fragments in alkaline lysates of intestinal crypts of intact mice of different age. Radiosensitivity determined with reference to single-strand breaks induction in DNA is similar with different mouse groups. Repair of single-strand DNA breaks of elderly mice is slower than that of young animals.

  3. Radiosensitivity of mice of different lines and age as determinated with reference to ''intestinal'' death and DNA repair in intestinal epithelium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplyannikova, O.A.; Sklobovskaya, M.V.; Konoplyannikov, A.G.; Saenko, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of strain- and age-related differences on mouse mortality after irradiation with doses lying within the ''intest+nal'' dose range, and also damages to stem cells of intestinal epithelium and induction and repair of single-strand DNA breaks in intestinal epitherium cells. Mice of different lines and age vary in LDsub(50/4) and stem cell radiosensitivity. There are no differences in the sedimentation constants of DNA fragments in alkaline lysates of intestinal crypts of intact mice of different age. Radiosensitivity determined with reference to single-strand breaks induction in DNA is similar with different mo use groups. Repair of single-strand DNA breaks of eldery mice is slower than that of young animals

  4. REIMEP-22 U age dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample Inter-laboratory comparison, Report to participants

    OpenAIRE

    VENCHIARUTTI CELIA; VARGA ZSOLT; RICHTER Stephan; NICHOLL Adrian; KRAJKO JUDIT; JAKOPIC Rozle; MAYER Klaus; AREGBE Yetunde

    2015-01-01

    The REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample" was organised by JRC-IRMM as support to the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) This ILC was organised prior to the release of the candidate certified reference material IRMM-1000, produced in cooperation with JRC-ITU. The aim of REIMEP-22 was to determine the production date of the uranium certified test sample (i.e. the last chem...

  5. Using a Novel Absolute Ontogenetic Age Determination Technique to Calculate the Timing of Tooth Eruption in the Saber-Toothed Cat, Smilodon fatalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aleksander Wysocki

    Full Text Available Despite the superb fossil record of the saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, ontogenetic age determination for this and other ancient species remains a challenge. The present study utilizes a new technique, a combination of data from stable oxygen isotope analyses and micro-computed tomography, to establish the eruption rate for the permanent upper canines in Smilodon fatalis. The results imply an eruption rate of 6.0 millimeters per month, which is similar to a previously published average enamel growth rate of the S. fatalis upper canines (5.8 millimeters per month. Utilizing the upper canine growth rate, the upper canine eruption rate, and a previously published tooth replacement sequence, this study calculates absolute ontogenetic age ranges of tooth development and eruption in S. fatalis. The timing of tooth eruption is compared between S. fatalis and several extant conical-toothed felids, such as the African lion (Panthera leo. Results suggest that the permanent dentition of S. fatalis, except for the upper canines, was fully erupted by 14 to 22 months, and that the upper canines finished erupting at about 34 to 41 months. Based on these developmental age calculations, S. fatalis individuals less than 4 to 7 months of age were not typically preserved at Rancho La Brea. On the whole, S. fatalis appears to have had delayed dental development compared to dental development in similar-sized extant felids. This technique for absolute ontogenetic age determination can be replicated in other ancient species, including non-saber-toothed taxa, as long as the timing of growth initiation and growth rate can be determined for a specific feature, such as a tooth, and that growth period overlaps with the development of the other features under investigation.

  6. Using a Novel Absolute Ontogenetic Age Determination Technique to Calculate the Timing of Tooth Eruption in the Saber-Toothed Cat, Smilodon fatalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, M Aleksander; Feranec, Robert S; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Bjornsson, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the superb fossil record of the saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, ontogenetic age determination for this and other ancient species remains a challenge. The present study utilizes a new technique, a combination of data from stable oxygen isotope analyses and micro-computed tomography, to establish the eruption rate for the permanent upper canines in Smilodon fatalis. The results imply an eruption rate of 6.0 millimeters per month, which is similar to a previously published average enamel growth rate of the S. fatalis upper canines (5.8 millimeters per month). Utilizing the upper canine growth rate, the upper canine eruption rate, and a previously published tooth replacement sequence, this study calculates absolute ontogenetic age ranges of tooth development and eruption in S. fatalis. The timing of tooth eruption is compared between S. fatalis and several extant conical-toothed felids, such as the African lion (Panthera leo). Results suggest that the permanent dentition of S. fatalis, except for the upper canines, was fully erupted by 14 to 22 months, and that the upper canines finished erupting at about 34 to 41 months. Based on these developmental age calculations, S. fatalis individuals less than 4 to 7 months of age were not typically preserved at Rancho La Brea. On the whole, S. fatalis appears to have had delayed dental development compared to dental development in similar-sized extant felids. This technique for absolute ontogenetic age determination can be replicated in other ancient species, including non-saber-toothed taxa, as long as the timing of growth initiation and growth rate can be determined for a specific feature, such as a tooth, and that growth period overlaps with the development of the other features under investigation.

  7. Meta-analytic approaches to determine gender differences in the age-incidence characteristics of schizophrenia and related psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan; Kirkbride, James; Croudace, Tim; Morgan, Craig; Boydell, Jane; Errazuriz, Antonia; Murray, Robin M; Jones, Peter B

    2013-03-01

    A recent systematic rev