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Sample records for age determination by skeleton

  1. Structure of the proton skeleton of nitrobenzene, determined by /sup 1/H NMR in the nematic phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhatuni, A.G.; Panosyan, G.A.; Chertkov, V.A.; Sergeev, N.M.

    1987-09-01

    As a structural method NMR spectroscopy in LC solvents in primarily intended for determination of the geometry of the proton skeleton of the molecule and makes it possible to refine the data from other structural methods by the introduction of information on the proton coordinates. The authors determined the structure of the proton skeleton of nitrobenzene in two thermotropic nematic liquid crystals. These data, together with published data, make it possible to take account of the effect of the solvent and to calculate the supposed geometry of the proton skeleton of nitrobenzene in a hypothetical solvent.

  2. Microscopic age determination of human skeletons including an unknown but calculable variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Johan Albert; Tkocz, Izabella; Kristensen, Gustav

    1994-01-01

    Histomorphometric semi-automatic image analysis of cross-sections of 101 femoral diaphyseal bone sections were performed to reconsider to what degree osteon remodelling in the outer cortex is affected by age. The data were analysed statistically using the generalized least squares method. The model...

  3. Evidence of authentic DNA from Danish Viking Age skeletons untouched by humans for 1,000 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, Linea; Kivisild, Toomas; Lynnerup, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    , pre-laboratory contamination occurring during excavation and archaeological-/anthropological handling of human remains as well as rapid degradation of authentic DNA after excavation are major obstacles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We avoided some of these obstacles by analyzing DNA from ten Viking...... Age subjects that at the time of sampling were untouched by humans for 1,000 years. We removed teeth from the subjects prior to handling by archaeologists and anthropologists using protective equipment. An additional tooth was removed after standard archaeological and anthropological handling. All pre...... with the "unhandled" teeth and there was no indication of contamination, while the latter was the case with half of the "handled" teeth. The results allowed the unequivocal assignment of a specific haplotype to each of the subjects, all haplotypes being compatible in their character states with a phylogenetic tree...

  4. Evidence of authentic DNA from Danish Viking Age skeletons untouched by humans for 1,000 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linea Melchior

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the relative abundance of modern human DNA and the inherent impossibility for incontestable proof of authenticity, results obtained on ancient human DNA have often been questioned. The widely accepted rules regarding ancient DNA work mainly affect laboratory procedures, however, pre-laboratory contamination occurring during excavation and archaeological-/anthropological handling of human remains as well as rapid degradation of authentic DNA after excavation are major obstacles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We avoided some of these obstacles by analyzing DNA from ten Viking Age subjects that at the time of sampling were untouched by humans for 1,000 years. We removed teeth from the subjects prior to handling by archaeologists and anthropologists using protective equipment. An additional tooth was removed after standard archaeological and anthropological handling. All pre-PCR work was carried out in a "clean- laboratory" dedicated solely to ancient DNA work. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted and overlapping fragments spanning the HVR-1 region as well as diagnostic sites in the coding region were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. Consistent results were obtained with the "unhandled" teeth and there was no indication of contamination, while the latter was the case with half of the "handled" teeth. The results allowed the unequivocal assignment of a specific haplotype to each of the subjects, all haplotypes being compatible in their character states with a phylogenetic tree drawn from present day European populations. Several of the haplotypes are either infrequent or have not been observed in modern Scandinavians. The observation of haplogroup I in the present study (<2% in modern Scandinavians supports our previous findings of a pronounced frequency of this haplogroup in Viking and Iron Age Danes. CONCLUSION: The present work provides further evidence that retrieval of ancient human DNA is a possible task provided adequate

  5. Estimation of sex and age of 'virtual skeletons'-a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabherr, Silke [University Hospital of Lausanne, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland)]|[University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cooper, Christine; Ulrich-Bochsler, Susi [University of Bern, Institute for the History of Medicine, Historical Anthropology, Bern (Switzerland); Uldin, Tanya [Service of Osteo-Archaeology, Aesch (Switzerland); Ross, Steffen; Oesterhelweg, Lars; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J. [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Christe, Andreas [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland)]|[University of Bern, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Schnyder, Pierre [University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mangin, Patrice [University Hospital of Lausanne, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    This article presents a feasibility study with the objective of investigating the potential of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to estimate the bone age and sex of deceased persons. To obtain virtual skeletons, the bodies of 22 deceased persons with known age at death were scanned by MDCT using a special protocol that consisted of high-resolution imaging of the skull, shoulder girdle (including the upper half of the humeri), the symphysis pubis and the upper halves of the femora. Bone and soft-tissue reconstructions were performed in two and three dimensions. The resulting data were investigated by three anthropologists with different professional experience. Sex was determined by investigating three-dimensional models of the skull and pelvis. As a basic orientation for the age estimation, the complex method according to Nemeskeri and co-workers was applied. The final estimation was effected using additional parameters like the state of dentition, degeneration of the spine, etc., which where chosen individually by the three observers according to their experience. The results of the study show that the estimation of sex and age is possible by the use of MDCT. Virtual skeletons present an ideal collection for anthropological studies, because they are obtained in a non-invasive way and can be investigated ad infinitum. (orig.)

  6. Studies on the structure of peat humic acid (II). Study on the determination of the aromatic skeletons in peat humic acid by zinc-dust distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, H.; Sasaki, M.

    1979-01-01

    In order to determine aromatic skeletons in the chemical structure of peat humic acid, zinc-dust distillation was carried out at 500 C for 2 hours in a stream of hydrogen, and the results compared to those from other substances such as phtholic acid, cumarin, naphthoquinone and ..cap alpha..-lactone. Subsequently, methods for the identification and semi-quantitative determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were applied. The total yield of polycyclic hydrocarbon having anthracene, pyrene and perylene rings was 1.9% of the original peat humic acid. However, the yield of aromatic hydrocarbons containing 3 to 5 rings from peat humic acid was approximately equal to those from the other substances. From the results, it is assumed that peat humic acid has no polycyclic ring systems as the aromatic structure, and that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced by zinc-dust distillation were formed by a rearrangement and condensation of oxygen containing structures during the reaction.

  7. Iterating skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Horstmeyer, Thomas; Berthold, Jost;

    2012-01-01

    Skeleton-based programming is an area of increasing relevance with upcoming highly parallel hardware, since it substantially facilitates parallel programming and separates concerns. When parallel algorithms expressed by skeletons involve iterations – applying the same algorithm repeatedly...... block inside a bigger structure. In this work, we present a general framework for skeleton iteration and discuss requirements and variations of iteration control and iteration body. Skeleton iteration is expressed by synchronising a parallel iteration body skeleton with a (likewise parallel) state......-based iteration control, where both skeletons offer supportive type safety by dedicated types geared towards stream communication for the iteration. The skeleton iteration framework is implemented in the parallel Haskell dialect Eden. We use example applications to assess performance and overhead....

  8. Age determination of raccoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  9. Rock fracture skeleton tracing by image processing and quantitative analysis by geometry features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanjie

    2016-06-01

    In rock engineering, fracture measurement is important for many applications. This paper proposes a novel method for rock fracture skeleton tracing and analyzing. As for skeleton localizing, the curvilinear fractures are multiscale enhanced based on a Hessian matrix, after image binarization, and clutters are post-processed by image analysis; subsequently, the fracture skeleton is extracted via ridge detection combined with a distance transform and thinning algorithm, after which gap sewing and burrs removal repair the skeleton. In regard to skeleton analyzing, the roughness and distribution of a fracture network are respectively described by the fractal dimensions D s and D b; the intersection and fragmentation of a fracture network are respectively characterized by the average number of ends and junctions per fracture N average and the average length per fracture L average. Three rock fracture surfaces are analyzed for experiments and the results verify that both the fracture tracing accuracy and the analysis feasibility are satisfactory using the new method.

  10. HEU age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique has been developed to determine the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Age which is defined as the time since the HEU was produced in an enrichment process. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium parents and their daughters viz 230Th/234U and 231Pa/235U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gammas and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of 231Pa since there is negligible quantity of 230Th due to very low atom concentrations of 234U in the sample. In this paper we have presented data and methodology of finding the age of two HEU samples

  11. Determination of the Topology Skeleton of Magnetic Fields in a Solar Active Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhao; Jing-Xiu Wang; Jun Zhang; Chi-Jie Xiao; Hai-Min Wang

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic topology has been a key to the understanding of magnetic energy re-lease mechanism. Based on observed vector magnetograms, we have determined the three-dimensional (3D) topology skeleton of the magnetic fields in the active region NOAA 10720.The skeleton consists of six 3D magnetic nulls and a network of corresponding spines, fans,and null-null lines. For the first time, we have identified a spiral magnetic null in Sun's corona.The magnetic lines of force twisted around the spine of the null, forming a 'magnetic wreath'with excess of free magnetic energy and resembling observed brightening structures at extra-ultraviolet (EUV) wavebands. We found clear evidence of topology eruptions which are re-ferred to as catastrophic changes of topology skeleton associated with a coronal mass ejection(CME) and an explosive X-ray flare. These results shed new lights on the structural complex-ity and its role in explosive magnetic activity. The concept of flux rope has been widely used in modelling explosive magnetic activity, although their observational identity is rather ob-scure or, at least, lacking of necessary details up to date. We suggest that the magnetic wreath associated with the 3D spiral null is likely an important class of the physical entity of flux ropes.

  12. Age of menopause and determinants of menopause age: A PAN India survey by IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Ahuja

    2016-01-01

    Results: Average age of menopause of an Indian woman is 46.2 years much less than their Western counter parts (51 years. A definite rural and urban division was also seen. There was a correlation between the age of menopause and social and economic status, married status, and parity status.

  13. The determination of male adult age at death by central and posterior coxal analysis--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde; Telmon, Norbert; Rissech, Carme; Malgosa, Assumption; Rougé, Daniel

    2004-03-01

    In forensic anthropological analysis, the pelvis is of particular interest as it is often a comparatively well-preserved part of the skeleton. This study in age determination uses the acetabulum, the central element of the pelvis, as a complement to the examination of the auricular surface. The test sample consisted of 30 individuals. First, the authors studied the auricular surface using the Lovejoy criteria. Second, they isolated four criteria based on chronological changes in the acetabulum. Third, they conducted an evaluation of each of these variables. The study examines the correlation between these criteria and the age of the individuals. A significant correlation was found between the acetabular criteria and age, and between the acetabular criteria and the Lovejoy criteria of the auricular surface. For forensic purposes, the acetabulum is an effective predictor in the determination of age. This newly proposed method explores the same criteria of ageing as the Lovejoy method. The combination of the two methods produces relatively consistent results in the estimation of age.

  14. Determination of age, longevity and age at reproduction of the frog Microhyla ornata by skeletochronology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suresh M Kumbar; Katti Pancharatna

    2001-06-01

    Skeletochronological estimation of age, longevity, age at sexual maturity and breeding of Microhyla ornata was done. Frogs ( = 62) were collected locally in August (rainy season) 1997 and brought to the laboratory. Body mass and snout-vent-length (SVL) of each frog was recorded; the 4th toe of both the hind limbs was clipped under anaesthesia, fixed in 10% formalin, demineralized in 5% nitric acid and processed for histology. Limb bones (femur, humerus, tibiofibula and radioulna) of 6 large sized frogs were also processed for skeletochronology in order to study the rate of resorption. Gonads of 25 frogs (belonging to different body size ranges) were processed for histology in order to ascertain the gametogenic status of individual frogs. One to four growth rings consisting of growth zones and lines of arrested growth (LAGs) were noticed in frogs of different body sizes; the number of LAGs remained identical in all the limb bones and phalanges in 5 out of 6 frogs. Back calculation indicated that the resorption rate is very low in this frog. Male frogs possessed sperm bundles in seminiferous tubules in the 1st year, while females showed yolky follicles in the ovary in the 2nd year. Frogs found in amplexus were 3–5 years old. The results suggest that this frog may live for a maximum of 5 years in the natural population.

  15. Radiation exposure by Tc-99m-methyldiphosphonate - development and use of a biophysical model for the determination of the local dose distribution in growth zones of a child's skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the determination of the data necessary for dose calculations of an intraveneous application of Tc-99m-MDP in children, ages 3 months to 7 years, test data for the biokinetics of MDP in the whole body as well as in body areas with and without radioactive concentrations was determined by the use of a whole body activity counter and a gamma camera. These investigations were supplemented by laboratory data on the radioactive decay of Tc-99m-MDP in blood serum and on the urinary excretion of MDP. For the determination of the target volume of epiphyseal growth areas with radioactive concentrations distortion corrected measurements of the patient from the bone scintographs were compared to the biological data taken from our X-ray images. The radiation exposure of these growth areas was calculated with consideration of results from animal investigations as well as under the assumption that larger target volumes could be present in the patients. In the animal investigations the organ distribution of the MDP at various times after application, along with the biokinetic data of MDP in the whole body was ascertained as well as the distribution along long hollow bones. The calcium distribution was activationally analytically ascertained along long hollow bones in a young and an adult dog. It was attempted in the animal investigations to autoradiographically present the microdistribution of MDP in border regions epiphyseal cartilage/epiphyseal center and epiphyseal cartilage/metaphyseal growth plate. (orig./MG)

  16. Age determination of ground-waters by means of carbon 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present the age determination of ground-waters aged between 1,500 and approximately 40,000 years is only possible by measuring their 14C content. A precise age assignment can be established in slightly mineralised waters, whereas it becomes vague in mineralised waters, particularly in acidulous springs. In general, additional information and data are required about the 13C, D, 18O, 3H, 85Kr and the 39Ar contents, about the ph value, temperature and the principal ions. (DG)

  17. Prediction of radiation pressure force exerted on moving particles by the two-level skeletonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-Min; Gou, Ming-Jiang; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2014-04-21

    A fast full-wave method for computing radiation pressure force (RPF) exerted by shaped light beams on moving particles is presented. The problem of evaluating RPF exerted on a moving particle by a single excitation beam is converted into that of computing RPF's exerted on a static particle by multiple beams. The discretization of different beams leads to distinct right hand sides (RHS's) for the matrix system. To avoid solving each RHS by the brute-force manner, the algorithm conducts low-rank decomposition on the excitation matrix consisting of all RHS's to figure out the so-called skeleton light beams by interpolative decomposition (ID). The peak memory requirement of the skeletonization is a bottle-neck if the particle is large. A two-level skeletonization scheme is proposed to solve this problem. Some numerical experiments on arbitrarily shaped homogeneous particles are performed to illustrate the performance and capability of the developed method. PMID:24787885

  18. The cleaning of Skeletons by means of larvae of Dermestid Beetles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuse, A.D.J.

    1965-01-01

    Skeletons are an essential part of every zoological collection. The cleaning of the carcasses or other crude skeletal material obtained from collected animals can be carried out by mechanical defleshing, by boiling in water with or without chemicals, or by a combination of mechanical cleaning and bo

  19. Age Determination of Trace Plutonium by Using ID-MC-ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In the analysis of the origin of plutonium, the isotopic composition and the age of the material are very important. The age is the first parameter necessary to be determined when deducing the history of the

  20. Determining the relative age of blue ballpoint ink by gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Lijuan; Zhao Pengcheng; Wang Jinghan; Wang Yanji

    2006-01-01

    A method for identifying the writing age of blue ballpoint pen ink has been established due to the imperative demand in forensic laboratories.The content of the volatile components in blue ballpoint pen ink were determined by gas chromatography(GC).The absorbance of dye in blue ballpoint pen ink was measured by UV-Vis spectrometry A writing age curve of the ink was established using the ratio of the content of the volatile components to the dye,based on the identification of 74 kinds of blue ballpoint pen ink of domestic and international origins.The change of benzene alcohol or phenoxetol with the writing age was also tested.Different kinds of blue ballpoint pen ink were detected and the repeatability of the experiment was investigated.The results indicate that the method is reliable,sensitive,systematic and is especially suitable for practical use.

  1. Genetic analysis of 7 medieval skeletons from the Aragonese Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Núńez, Carolina; Sosa, Cecilia; Baeta, Miriam; Geppert, Maria; Turnbough, Meredith; Phillips, Nicole; Casalod, Yolanda; Bolea, Miguel; Roby, Rhonda; Budowle, Bruce; Martínez-Jarreta, Begońa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a genetic characterization of 7 skeletons from medieval age found in a burial site in the Aragonese Pyrenees. Methods Allele frequencies of autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci were determined by 3 different STR systems. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplogroups were determined by sequencing of the hypervariable segment 1 of mtDNA and typing of phylogenetic Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (YSNP) markers, respectively. Po...

  2. Genetic analysis of 7 medieval skeletons from Aragonese Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Núńez, Carolina; Sosa, Cecilia; Baeta, Miriam; Geppert, Maria; Turnbough, Meredith; Phillips, Nicole; Casalod, Yolanda; Bolea, Miguel; Roby, Rhonda; Budowle, Bruce; Martínez-Jarreta, Begońa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a genetic characterization of 7 skeletons from medieval age found in a burial site in the Aragonese Pyrenees. Methods Allele frequencies of autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci were determined by 3 different STR systems. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplogroups were determined by sequencing of the hypervariable segment 1 of mtDNA and typing of phylogenetic Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP) markers, respectively. Possible familial relationsh...

  3. Age determination by back length for African savanna elephants: extending age assessment techniques for aerial-based surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan J Trimble

    Full Text Available Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables.

  4. Age determination of mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, G.L.; Johnson, D.H.; Dane, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for distinguishing adult from yearling wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), from late winter through the nesting season, was developed by applying discriminant analysis procedures to selected wing feather characters of 126 yearlings and 76 adults (2-year-olds) hand-reared from wild eggs during 1974, 1975, and 1977. Average values for feather characters generally increased as the birds advanced from yearlings to adults. Black-white surface area of greater secondary covert 2 was the single most reliable aging character identified during the study. The error rate was lowest in females (3%) when discriminant functions were used with measurements of primary 1 weight and black-white area of greater secondary covert 2 and in males (9%) when the functions were used with black-white area of greater secondary coverts 1, 2, and 3. Methodology precludes aging of birds in the field during capture operations.

  5. Electrostatic skeletons

    OpenAIRE

    Eremenko, Alexandre; Lundberg, Erik; Ramachandran, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Let u be the equilibrium potential of a compact set K. An electrostatic skeleton of K is a positive measure whose closed support has connected complement and no interior, and whose potential is equal to u near infinity. We prove the existence of an electrostatic skeleton for any simplex.

  6. Age estimation of blood stains by hemoglobin derivative determination using reflectance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Bremmer; A. Nadort; T.G. van Leeuwen; M.J.C. van Gemert; M.C.G. Aalders

    2011-01-01

    Blood stains can be crucial in reconstructing crime events. However, no reliable methods are currently available to establish the age of a blood stain on the crime scene. We show that determining the fractions of three hemoglobin derivatives in a blood stain at various ages enables relating these ti

  7. Daily physical activity as determined by age, body mass and energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Klaas R Westerterp

    2015-01-01

    Aim Insight into the determinants of physical activity, including age, body mass and energy balance, facilitates the design of intervention studies with body mass and energy balance as determinants of health and optimal performance. Methods An analysis of physical activity energy expenditure in relation to age and body mass and in relation to energy balance, where activity energy expenditure is derived from daily energy expenditure as measured with doubly labelled water and body movement is m...

  8. Age of an Indonesian Fossil Tooth Determined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogard, JS

    2004-04-07

    The first fossil hominid tooth recovered during 1999 excavations from the Cisanca River region in West Java, Indonesia, was associated with a series of bovid teeth from a single individual that was recovered 190 cm beneath the hominid tooth. The age of the fossil bovid teeth was determined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis as part of an effort to bracket the age of the hominid tooth. The EPR-derived age of the bovid teeth is (5.16 {+-} 2.01) x 10{sup 5} years. However, the age estimate reported here is likely an underestimate of the actual age of deposition since evidence of heating was detected in the EPR spectra of the bovid teeth, and the heating may have caused a decrease in the intensity of EPR components on which the age calculation is based.

  9. Determination of the Rubidium Decay Constant by Age Comparison Against the U-Pb System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, O.; Mezger, K.; Scherer, E. E.; Davies, G. R.

    2006-12-01

    The currently accepted Rb decay constant (λ 87Rb) was suggested by the Subcommission on Geochronology [1] is 1.42 x 10-11yr-1, and has a potential precision at the percent level at best [2]. This value has been used in most Rb-Sr studies in the last three decades. Several attempts to refine λ87Rb by different techniques yielded results that, despite excellent reported precisions, differed from the proposed value and also from each other. In a recent evaluation of published calibrations of the decay constant, Begemann et al. [2] suggested a lower value [~ 1.40 x 10-11yr-1] but also called for a re-determination of λ87Rb to check its accuracy and significantly improve the precision. Subsequent re-determinations [3,4] yielded values that differ significantly from each other and from that proposed by the Subcommission on Geochronology [1], one of which being higher [3], the other one lower [4] than the recommended value. Therefore, at present, there is no consensus on the λ87Rb to be used in Rb-Sr chronology. Here we report three individual determinations of λ87Rb by the method of age comparison. This entails solving for λ87Rb using 1) the measured slopes of high precision Rb-Sr isochrons from igneous rocks and minerals and 2) the emplacement ages of these samples as determined by the precise and presumably accurate U-Pb method. The precision of the measured 87Rb/86Sr has been improved to ~0.2% by measuring Rb concentrations by isotope dilution MC-ICPMS [5] (cf. ~1% for TIMS data). A challenging aspect of Rb-Sr studies is that of spike calibration, which is generally performed using standards prepared from salts of Rb and Sr rather than pure metals. The Rb/Sr values of individual spikes calibrated against two standard solutions made from different salts (iodide and carbonate) agree to within 0.15%, strongly suggesting that the stoichiometry of the salts, after careful dehydration, is sufficiently ideal for accurate spike calibrations. The calibration was checked

  10. Age validation of great hammerhead shark (Sphyrna mokarran), determined by bomb radiocarbon analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Passerotti, Michelle S.; John K. Carlson; Piercy, Andrew N.; Campana, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary validation of annual growth band deposition in vertebrae of great hammerhead shark (Sphyrna mokarran) was conducted by using bomb radiocarbon analysis. Adult specimens (n=2) were collected and thin sections of vertebral centra were removed for visual aging and use in radiocarbon assays. Vertebral band counts were used to estimate age, and year of formation was assigned to each growth band by subtracting estimated age from the year of capture. A total of 10 samples were extra...

  11. Skeletonization Algorithm for Numeral Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rakesh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletonization has been a part of morphological image processing for a wide variety of applications. Skeletonization algorithms have played an important role in the preprocessing phase of OCR systems. Many algorithms for vectorization by skeletonization have been devised and applied to a great variety of pictures and drawings for data compression, pattern recognition and raster-to-vector conversion. The vectorization algorithms often used in pattern recognition tasks also require one-pixel-wide lines as input. But parallel skeletonization algorithms which generate one-pixel-wide skeletons can have difficulty in preserving the connectivity of an image or generate spurious branches. In this paper an alternative parallel skeletonization algorithm has been developed and implemented. This algorithm is better than already existing algorithms in terms of connectivity and spurious branches. A few most common skeletonization algorithms have been implemented and evaluated on the basis of performance parameters and compared with newly developed algorithm.

  12. Determination of the bone-mineral content of the peripheral skeleton (ulna and calcaneus) in chronic renal failure patients on maintenance dialysis using 125 I-photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone-mineral content (BMC) of the peripheral skeleton was measured in 53 chronic renal-failure patients on maintenance dialysis using the 125 I photon absorptiometry according to Cameron. 39.6% of the patients were found to have a clearly pathological calcium content in calcaneus and ulna (33%). In total BMC assessments 43.4% of the patients examined showed strongly reduced BMC values at two measurement sites at least. Average bone-mineral content was below the value of the corresponding normal groups in all age groups of the dialysis patients. In addition, a significant correlation was verified to exist between the calcium contents of calcaneus and ulna. A significant correlation was found as well between reduced BMC values and dialysis duration. The correlation between the increased serum level of alkaline phosphatase and the reduced mineral content of the skeleton was significant as well. A minor but not significant correlation existed between the increase of the parathormone (PTH) level in the serum and the decrease of calcium content in calcaneus and ulna. A good correlation was found when contrasting the results of visual roentgenography and the BMC values established by photodensitometry: the median BMC value of patients with clear pathological X-ray findings was significantly below the one of patients without pathological X-ray findings. However, photon absorptiometry is superior to the subjective evaluation of X-ray pictures in the early diagnosis of bone diseases involving bone-mineral loss. (orig.)

  13. Determination of gestational age by ultrasonography - wrong, wrong and wrong again. Bestemmelse av foedselstermin ved tidlig ultralydundersoekelse - galt, galere, galest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratlid, D. (Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway))

    1991-04-01

    The article is a critical review of principal weaknesses in the current use of ultrasonography for determination of gestational age and discusses the fact that the method in its practical use disregards any biological variation in biparietal diameter. It is concluded that second trimester determination of gestational age by ultrasonography has an accuracy no greater than +-1.5 weeks. This is comparable to the accuracy of the clinical assessment of maturation in the newborn baby. Ultrasonography as the main indicator of gestational age should be used only when the pregnant woman's own menstrual history is obviously incorrect. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Automated characterization of cell shape changes during amoeboid motility by skeletonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Douglas N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of a cell to change shape is crucial for the proper function of many cellular processes, including cell migration. One type of cell migration, referred to as amoeboid motility, involves alternating cycles of morphological expansion and retraction. Traditionally, this process has been characterized by a number of parameters providing global information about shape changes, which are insufficient to distinguish phenotypes based on local pseudopodial activities that typify amoeboid motility. Results We developed a method that automatically detects and characterizes pseudopodial behavior of cells. The method uses skeletonization, a technique from morphological image processing to reduce a shape into a series of connected lines. It involves a series of automatic algorithms including image segmentation, boundary smoothing, skeletonization and branch pruning, and takes into account the cell shape changes between successive frames to detect protrusion and retraction activities. In addition, the activities are clustered into different groups, each representing the protruding and retracting history of an individual pseudopod. Conclusions We illustrate the algorithms on movies of chemotaxing Dictyostelium cells and show that our method makes it possible to capture the spatial and temporal dynamics as well as the stochastic features of the pseudopodial behavior. Thus, the method provides a powerful tool for investigating amoeboid motility.

  15. Image segmentation and registration algorithm to collect thoracic skeleton semilandmarks for characterization of age and sex-based thoracic morphology variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ashley A; Nguyen, Callistus M; Schoell, Samantha L; Maldjian, Joseph A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-12-01

    Thoracic anthropometry variations with age and sex have been reported and likely relate to thoracic injury risk and outcome. The objective of this study was to collect a large volume of homologous semilandmark data from the thoracic skeleton for the purpose of quantifying thoracic morphology variations for males and females of ages 0-100 years. A semi-automated image segmentation and registration algorithm was applied to collect homologous thoracic skeleton semilandmarks from 343 normal computed tomography (CT) scans. Rigid, affine, and symmetric diffeomorphic transformations were used to register semilandmarks from an atlas to homologous locations in the subject-specific coordinate system. Homologous semilandmarks were successfully collected from 92% (7077) of the ribs and 100% (187) of the sternums included in the study. Between 2700 and 11,000 semilandmarks were collected from each rib and sternum and over 55 million total semilandmarks were collected from all subjects. The extensive landmark data collected more fully characterizes thoracic skeleton morphology across ages and sexes. Characterization of thoracic morphology with age and sex may help explain variations in thoracic injury risk and has important implications for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. PMID:26496701

  16. Extraction of bone structure with a single-scan skeletonization driven by distance

    OpenAIRE

    Arlicot, Aurore; NORMAND, Nicolas; Amouriq, Yves; Guédon, Jeanpierre

    2011-01-01

    Shape description is an important step in image analysis. Skeletonization methods are widely used in image analysis since they are a powerful tool to describe a shape. This paper presents a new single-scan skeletonization using different diskrete distances. The application of this method is the extraction of caracteristics from µCT images in order to estimate the bone state.

  17. Euclidean skeletons of 3D data sets in linear time by the integer medial axis transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Visser, Menno; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Ronse, C; Najman, L; Decenciere, E

    2005-01-01

    A general algorithm for computing Euclidean skeletons of 3D data sets in linear time is presented. These skeletons are defined in terms of a new concept, called the integer medial axis (IMA) transform. The algorithm is based upon the computation of 3D feature transforms, using a modification of an a

  18. The reliability of chronological age determination by means of mandibular third molar development in subjects in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legović, Mario; Sasso, Anja; Legović, Izak; Brumini, Gordana; Cabov, Tomislav; Slaj, Martina; Vancura, Irena; Lapter, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the development of the mandibular third molar and its relation to chronological age. The evaluated material consisted of 979 orthopantomograms of patients of Croatian Caucasian origin aged between 5.7 and 14.6 years. Third molar developmental stages were evaluated according to the stages proposed by Nolla. The frequencies of different stages of mineralization and the mean value of the mineralization of the mandibular third molars with regard to age, gender, and size of the mandible were determined and the coefficient of correlation determined between the age of the subject and the stage of development of the mandibular molars. Statistically significant correlation was determined between mineralization of the mandibular third molar and chronological age of the subjects (boys, mandibular left third molar r = 0.779, right third molar r = 0.793; girls, mandibular left third molar r = 0.746, right third molar r = 0.725). It can be concluded that the accuracy of age estimation based on Nolla's method is applicable for Croatian children.

  19. A novel brain partition highlights the modular skeleton shared by structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Ibai; Bonifazi, Paolo; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Muñoz, Miguel A; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes, Jesus M

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the intricate relationship between brain structure and function, both in healthy and pathological conditions, is a key challenge for modern neuroscience. Recent progress in neuroimaging has helped advance our understanding of this important issue, with diffusion images providing information about structural connectivity (SC) and functional magnetic resonance imaging shedding light on resting state functional connectivity (rsFC). Here, we adopt a systems approach, relying on modular hierarchical clustering, to study together SC and rsFC datasets gathered independently from healthy human subjects. Our novel approach allows us to find a common skeleton shared by structure and function from which a new, optimal, brain partition can be extracted. We describe the emerging common structure-function modules (SFMs) in detail and compare them with commonly employed anatomical or functional parcellations. Our results underline the strong correspondence between brain structure and resting-state dynamics as well as the emerging coherent organization of the human brain.

  20. Epiphyseal union at the innominate and lower limb in a modern Portuguese skeletal sample, and age estimation in adolescent and young adult male and female skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Hugo F V

    2008-02-01

    This study documents the timing of epiphyseal union at the innominate, femur, tibia, and fibula in a sample of modern Portuguese skeletons. The sample was taken from the Lisbon documented skeletal collection and it is comprised of 57 females and 49 males between the ages of 9 and 25. Individuals are mostly representative of the middle-to-low socioeconomic segment of the early 20th century Lisbon population. A total of 18 anatomical locations were examined for epiphyseal union using a three-stage scheme: 1) no union; 2) partial union; and 3) completed union, all traces of fusion having disappeared. Results show that females are ahead of males by 1-2 years and provide similar age ranges for the stages of union than previous studies. Some variations between studies can be explained by methodological differences between dry bone and radiographic observations. However, a review of the literature indicates that socioeconomic status of a given population seems to be of decisive importance to the rate of ossification and most of the differences in skeletal maturation across studies and populations can probably be ascribed to different levels of social and economic development of the societies in which the individuals lived. Although the effects of socioeconomic status in skeletal maturation are greater during childhood than in adolescence, as to make the timing of epiphyseal union a reliable estimate of age at death, they are not negligible and age estimates should take into account the likely socioeconomic status of the individual, whose remains are under examination. PMID:18044694

  1. Crop leaf deformation driven by skeleton%骨架驱动的作物叶片变形模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍艳莲; 汤亮; 曹卫星; 朱艳

    2011-01-01

    针对作物器官的变形问题,将骨架驱动物体变形的方法应用于作物器官的局部变形,提出了一种骨架驱动的叶片变形方法:生成叶片骨架模型,驱动骨架模型发生变形,并根据变形后的叶片骨架将变形操作应用到叶片曲面上,进而实现叶片曲面变形,应用该方法,分别对小麦叶片曲面进行弯曲和扭曲变形模拟.实验结果表明,基于骨架驱动的作物叶片形变方法能灵活控制叶片弯曲和扭曲程度,从而获得自然的叶片曲面变形效果.%To deform crop organs,the method of object deforming driven by skeleton is applied to crop organ, and then a skeleton driven method for deforming leaf is proposed. Firstly, the leaf skeleton is generated. Secondly,the leaf skeleton is deformed,and the leaf mesh is mapped to the deformed leaf skeleton. Thus the deformation of the leaf mesh follows the deformarion of the leaf skeleton. Finally, the proposed techniques are applied to simulate wheat leaf deformation including curling and twisting.The results on leaves deformation demonstrate that the proposed approach is applicable for simulating deformation of cereal leaves with realistic effects.

  2. Age determination of blood spots in forensic medicine by force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Stefan; Zink, Albert; Kada, Gerald; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Peschel, Oliver; Heckl, Wolfgang M; Nerlich, Andreas G; Thalhammer, Stefan

    2007-07-20

    We present a new tool for the estimation of the age of bloodstains, which could probably be used during forensic casework. For this, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) for high-resolution imaging of erythrocytes in a blood sample and the detection of elasticity changes on a nanometer scale. For the analytic procedure we applied a fresh blood spot on a glass slide and started the AFM detection after drying of the blood drop. In a first step, an overview image was generated showing the presence of several red blood cells, which could easily be detected due to their typical "doughnut-like" appearance. The consecutively morphological investigations in a timeframe of 4 weeks could not show any alterations. Secondly, AFM was used to test the elasticity by recording force-distance curves. The measurements were performed immediately after drying, 1.5 h, 30 h and 31 days. The conditions were kept constant at room temperature (20 degrees C) and a humidity of 30%. The obtained elasticity parameters were plotted against a timeline and repeated several times. The elasticity pattern showed a decrease over time, which are most probably influenced by the alteration of the blood spot during the drying and coagulation process. The preliminary data demonstrates the capacity of this method to use it for development of calibration curves, which can be used for estimation of bloodstain ages during forensic investigations.

  3. Age Determination by X-ray Fluorescence Rubidium-Strontium Ratio Measurement in Lepidolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, L F

    1960-07-29

    X-ray fluorescence analysis of several lepidolites whose rubidium and strontium concentrations had already been determined by neutron activation and stable isotope dilution, or both, indicates that this technique can be used for rapid nondestructive reconnaissance rubidiumstrontium studies, and that an x-ray analysis method comparable in accuracy to isotope dilution can probably be developed for dating Precambrian lepidolites, as the simple technique presently used has many obvious possibilities for improvement.

  4. A New Approach for Human Forearm Motion Assist by Actuated Artificial Joint-An Inner Skeleton Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Subrata Kumar; Kiguchi, Kazuo; Teramoto, Kenbu

    In order to help the physical activities of the elderly or physically disabled persons, we propose a new concept of a power-assist inner skeleton robot (i.e., actuated artificial joint) that is supposed to assist the human daily life motion from inside of the human body. This paper presents an implantable 2 degree of freedom (DOF) inner skeleton robot that is designed to assist human elbow flexion-extension motion and forearm supination-pronation motion for daily life activities. We have developed a prototype of the inner skeleton robot that is supposed to assist the motion from inside of the body and act as an actuated artificial joint. The proposed system is controlled based on the activation patterns of the electromyogram (EMG) signals of the user's muscles by applying fuzzy-neuro control method. A joint actuator with angular position sensor is designed for the inner skeleton robot and a T-Mechanism is proposed to keep the bone arrangement similar to the normal human articulation after the elbow arthroplasty. The effectiveness of the proposed system has been evaluated by experiment.

  5. Independent SST and SSS reconstructions from coral skeleton, by using Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillet-Leclerc, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Pacific Warm Pool is strongly affected by interannual climatic variability. However, few instrumental measurements document environmental changes prior to 1955, in particular in the southern hemisphere. Studies have thus to be based on few instrumental data complemented by interpolations and /or indirect tracers, such as coral skeleton. This is regarded as the best archive of tropical oceans and may provide continuous records of seasurface temperature and salinity (SST and SSS) during the past at, high resolution. However, the different approaches up to now developed do not allow independent reconstructions of SST and SSS. In addition, chemical biases caused by biological activity prevent relevant conversion of measured values into environmental factors. Our understanding of the coral skeletogenesis is sufficient to suppose that the mechanism of mineral deposition is complex, strongly impacted by biology, governed by other physical processes than that earlier considered, but not enough to establish quantified relationships taking into account all the factors involved. In this case, the use of Neural Network, well suited to non-linear processes may not be totally assimilated with a black box. This statistical treatment has been applied on a coral core collected in Yasawa (Fiji Archipelago), by considering SST and SSS measured from 1960 and 1997 as learning phase. Reconstructions performed from 1910 to 1960 indicate that only four strong ENSO occurred prior to 1960. Both SST and SSS have been impacted confirming that SPCZ migration is associated with oceanic advection.

  6. Age Determination of Microlepidotus brevipinnis (Steindachner, 1869 (Pisces: Haemulidae in the Coast of Jalisco, Mexico, by Reading Otoliths and Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Cabral-Solis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with age determination of the brassy grunt Microlepidotus brevipinnis by reading otoliths (sagittae and scales which allowed the identification of 13 age groups. Growth of otoliths and scales is proportional to the growth of the fish. The time of formation of fast and slow growth bands in sagittae, as well as the time of ring formation in the scales is one year. The highest growth in length of this species takes place during the first year of life, in which the organism reaches 125.0 mm, this reduces natural mortality of the individuals by decreasing depredation. Growth in weight of this species is isometric. Sexual differentiation of the organisms is apparent after the age of two years and there were differences in the average length for each age in scales and otoliths for males and females. The age of other members of the Haemulidae family were compared with those obtained in the present study and M. brevipinnis reaches its oldest age in 13 years. It occupies a middle point (442.4 mm in relation to the total lengths of other haemulids in the Mexican Pacific coast.

  7. Vegetation abundance in lowland flood plain lakes determined by surface area, age and connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van G.J.; Roozen, F.C.J.M.; Coops, H.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Buijse, A.D.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Scheffer, M.

    2003-01-01

    The authors analyzed the vegetation structure of 215 lakes in the flood plain of the river Lower Rhine in relation to environmental variables related to hydrological connectivity, lake morphometry, lake age and land use on adjacent land1. We analysed the vegetation structure of 215 lakes in the floo

  8. Skeleton castings dynamic load resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article is to show selected results of research in a field of new type of cast spatial composite reinforcements. This article shows skeleton casting case as a particular approach to continuous, spatial composite reinforcement.Design/methodology/approach: The research is concerning properties of cast spatial microlattice structures called skeleton castings. In this paper results of impact test of skeleton casting with octahedron elementary cell were shown. The selection of internal topology of skeleton casting was based on numerical simulations of stress distribution.Findings: The possibility of manufacturing of geometrically complex skeleton castings without use of advanced techniques was confirmed.Research limitations/implications: With use of computer tomography, analysis of deformation mechanisms was carried out. Different levels of impact energies were usedPractical implications: Spatial skeleton casting with octahedron elementary cell confirmed their usefulness as impact energy absorbers.Originality/value: The overall aim of presented research was to determine the mechanisms of skeleton castings deformation processes. Thanks to CT data next step will be to create accurate numerical model for further simulation and design optimization.

  9. Root dentine transparency: age determination of human teeth using computerized densitometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusini, A; Calliari, I; Volpe, A

    1991-05-01

    Root dentine transparency (RDT) was used to estimate the ages of human subjects from 152 intact teeth. Teeth were from 134 subjects, both historical and recent, of known age and sex. The aims of this work are 1) to compare two methods of using RDT to estimate age; 2) to test the applicability of the regression formulae for estimating age obtained from a recent sample on an historical sample; and 3) to estimate the suitability of RDT to determine age at death of 100-year-old skeletons. RDT was measured by two techniques: 1) computerized densitometric analysis and 2) vernier caliper. Age estimations based on computerized densitometric analysis were no more accurate than were those determined by caliper measurement; both give a predictive success of +/- 5 years in about 45-48% of cases for premolars. The television-based digitization system has some disadvantages: It is expensive, not portable, and requires some training to use. However, it furnishes a more standardized method, a rapid graphic illustration of the results, and an immediate storage of statistical information for future use. PMID:1853940

  10. Anti-Bacterial effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) determined by Disc Diffusion Method against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Saha, S K; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Gomes, R R; Imtiaz, M; Islam, M M; Nahar, H; Begum, S A; Mirza, T T

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to determine the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) against standard strain of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Antibacterial effect of AGE was determined by disc diffusion method. Sensitivity of AGE determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 4 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm at 25 μg/10 μl, 50 μg/10 μl and 100 μg/10 μl concentrations respectively. From the findings it is clearly determined the extract has definite antibacterial effect upon Escherichia coli. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract as well as detail steps of mechanism responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account. PMID:26931244

  11. NMR spectroscopy of lactate in the skeleton muscle: visibility, quantification and measurement of carbon 13 enrichment by double quantum edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of skeleton muscles gave rise to numerous research works since the beginning of the century in order to make some reply about the muscle physiology with the will to improve the sport performances or the understanding of muscles diseases. This metabolism is complex and the lactate has an importance place; the purpose of this work is to answer these questions with some strategy studies by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (N.C.)

  12. Biology of bone and how it orchestrates the form and function of the skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerfeldt, D; Rubin, C.

    2001-01-01

    The principal role of the skeleton is to provide structural support for the body. While the skeleton also serves as the body's mineral reservoir, the mineralized structure is the very basis of posture, opposes muscular contraction resulting in motion, withstands functional load bearing, and protects internal organs. Although the mass and morphology of the skeleton is defined, to some extent, by genetic determinants, it is the tissue's ability to remodel – the local resorption and formation of...

  13. Euclidean Skeletons of Digital Image and Volume Data in Linear Time by the Integer Medial Axis Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    A general algorithm for computing euclidean skeletons of 2D and 3D data sets in linear time is presented. These skeletons are defined in terms of a new concept, called the integer medial axis (IMA) transform. We prove a number of fundamental properties of the IMA skeleton and compare these with prop

  14. Asteroseismic age determination for dwarfs and giants

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, V Silva

    2015-01-01

    Asteroseismology can make a substantial contribution to our understanding of the formation history and evolution of our Galaxy by providing precisely determined stellar properties for thousands of stars in different regions of the Milky Way. We present here the different sets of observables used in determining asteroseismic stellar properties, the typical level of precision obtained, the current status of results for ages of dwarfs and giants and the improvements than can be expected in the near future in the context of Galactic archaeology.

  15. Role of the membrane skeleton in preventing the shedding of procoagulant-rich microvesicles from the platelet plasma membrane

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The platelet plasma membrane is lined by a membrane skeleton that appears to contain short actin filaments cross-linked by actin-binding protein. Actin-binding protein is in turn associated with specific plasma membrane glycoproteins. The aim of this study was to determine whether the membrane skeleton regulates properties of the plasma membrane. Platelets were incubated with agents that disrupted the association of the membrane skeleton with membrane glycoproteins. The consequences of this c...

  16. Age determination of blue-winged teal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.W.

    1968-01-01

    Primary feather length, markings on the greater secondary coverts, and the degree of bill spotting were evaluated as characters for use in the spring to distinguish first-year, blue-winged teal (Anas discors) females from older ones. The length of the 10th primary feather did not prove suitable to separate different aged females. Extreme primary lengths might be used to determine the age of some males. In females that have been through a postnuptial molt the greater secondary coverts have a more symmetrical, and more acutely angled, white, inverted 'V'-marking. Any female with a 'V' subjectively classified as good has gone through at least one postnuptial molt, and a female with no sign of a 'V' on the coverts is a juvenile or yearling before her first postnuptial molt. By measuring the longest bill spot on the upper mandible of each known-age female, it was possible to determine the age of some female teal. Because the spots fade during the breeding season, no lower size limit could be set to delineate first-year females at that time of year, but any nest-trapped hen with a spot longer than 10 mm was considered to be older than 1 year. Upper and lower limits were also established to distinguish some yearlings and 2-year-olds in the fall.

  17. Age dynamics of zinc and iron contents in human hair determined by INAA and ICP-ES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In last decades, the determination of chemical element levels in human hair has been a subject of continual interest in the forensic, clinical, occupational and environmental medicine. Hair has been increasingly used as a monitor for many elements and has been proposed for assessing environmental exposure, nutritional status, and for diagnosis of disease. It has many advantages for assessment over the more traditional kinds of medical objects such as blood and urine because of ease of collection, transport and storage. Also, trace element concentrations in hair samples represent an integrated response over time compared with blood and urine levels, which can rapidly fluctuate in response to variations of nutritional and environmental conditions. The fact that contents of many chemical elements in hair are relatively high also facilitates the analysis. It is known that the result of the hair analysis may not directly relate to the intake amount, nor does it always reflect the amount actually absorbed. Despite these limitations, the analysis of human hair can still provide a basis for estimating ambient exposure to certain elements. The first step in construction of such basis is investigations the national population normal levels of chemical element contents in hair related to sex, age and some other factors under quality control of results. The objectives of this analytical work were to evaluate the reference range of Zn and Fe in adult scalp hair and to evaluate the effect of age and sex on elemental contents. In this study, head hair samples from adult health persons living in or near Obninsk (the small city in rural region 105 km south-west Moscow), were analysed by two methods in three analytical laboratories: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA - one laboratory) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ISP-AES - two laboratories). Scalp hair samples were obtained at necropsy from eighty-three cadavers (38 women

  18. Anthropogenic stressors and eutrophication processes as recorded by stable isotopes compositions in coral skeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Levy

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The northern Gulf of Aqaba, in the northeastern branch of the Red Sea, is a clear example of humans effecting on the health of fringing reefs. Our results demonstrate the effect of an anthropogenic stressor on the carbon and oxygen stable isotopes compositions, namely net pen fish farming with annual fish production of 2.4×106 kg yr−1. We sampled and studied long coral cores from stressed, remote and intermediate localities and short- term transplanted Porites sp. colonies from the west side of the Gulf of Aqaba to a remote and a polluted sites, respectively. The data shows that mariculture and other human related stressors did not influence the oxygen isotopic signature over a period of two decades. However, the carbon fractionation changed along a geographical gradient and depended on proximity to the source of contamination. We suggest that δ13C of coral skeleton is a promising proxy for identifying long term processes of coral growth under high nutrient loads and potential disturbances to the coral reef ecology.

  19. Anthropogenic stressors and eutrophication processes as recorded by stable isotopes compositions in coral skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, O.; Rosenfeld, M.; Loya, Y.; Yam, R.; Mizrachi, I.; Shemesh, A.

    2010-10-01

    The northern Gulf of Aqaba, in the northeastern branch of the Red Sea, is a clear example of humans effecting on the health of fringing reefs. Our results demonstrate the effect of an anthropogenic stressor on the carbon and oxygen stable isotopes compositions, namely net pen fish farming with annual fish production of 2.4×106 kg yr-1. We sampled and studied long coral cores from stressed, remote and intermediate localities and short- term transplanted Porites sp. colonies from the west side of the Gulf of Aqaba to a remote and a polluted sites, respectively. The data shows that mariculture and other human related stressors did not influence the oxygen isotopic signature over a period of two decades. However, the carbon fractionation changed along a geographical gradient and depended on proximity to the source of contamination. We suggest that δ13C of coral skeleton is a promising proxy for identifying long term processes of coral growth under high nutrient loads and potential disturbances to the coral reef ecology.

  20. 人类骨骼衰老及其相关疾病%Human skeleton aging and its related diseases(

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星慧; 秦娇琴; 贾春媛; 何本进; 韩晶; 杨泽; 张毓洪; 杜建财; 郭忠琴; 张翻弟; 孙亮; 朱小泉; 原惠萍; 杨帆

    2015-01-01

    Age-related fragility fractures are a major public health problem affecting today's society.Obtain and age-related bone loss of bone mass in the growing season are affecting their brittleness risks .High-resolution peripheral quantitative ( HRpQCT) in-crease the development of micro-structures on the spongy bone and cortical bone in the body throughout life changing .Studies have shown that teenagers use HRpQCT can see growing in the distal forearm fracture and transient increase in cortical bone changes relat -ed, including cortical thinning and increased cortical porosity .Children with mild distal forearm fracture , without severe cases , loss of body trauma increases the distal radius bone cortex and bone quality .In addition, the transition period from adolescence to adult peak bone mass will fall .Old age men in the history of childhood forearm fracture will increase risk in elderly patients with osteopo-rotic fractures excluding senile women .From the biomechanical point of view with ageing , male cancellous bone loss was mainly due to trabecular thinning , women is mainly to reduce the number of trabecular bone .However , with the increase in age-related loss of cortical bone and cortical porosity seems bigger impact than previously recognized , cortical porosity may increase the risk of brittle fracture in patients.%与年龄相关性脆性骨折是影响当今社会的重大公共卫生健康问题,在生长期骨量的获得和老年相关性骨丢失都是影响其脆性的风险因素。高分辨率外周定量( HRpQCT)的发展增加了对松质骨和皮质骨的微结构变化在整个生命体内改变的认识与评估。研究表明,使用HRpQCT可以看到青少年成长期在前臂远端骨折与骨皮质改变的瞬时增加有关,也包括骨皮质变薄和皮质孔隙度的增加。儿童前臂远端轻度骨折,在不严重的情况下,外伤也增加全身桡骨远端骨皮质和骨质量的亏损。此外,从青少年到

  1. Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton on cortical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Thompson, P M; Dinov, I; Toga, A W

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to construct graphical representations of cortical folding patterns by computing skeletons on triangulated cortical surfaces. In our approach, a cortical surface is first partitioned into sulcal and gyral regions via the solution of a variational problem using graph cuts, which can guarantee global optimality. After that, we extend the method of Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton [1] to subsets of triangulated surfaces, together with a geometrically intuitive pruning process that can trade off between skeleton complexity and the completeness of representing folding patterns. Compared with previous work that uses skeletons of 3-D volumes to represent sulcal patterns, the skeletons on cortical surfaces can be easily decomposed into branches and provide a simpler way to construct graphical representations of cortical morphometry. In our experiments, we demonstrate our method on two different cortical surface models, its ability of capturing major sulcal patterns and its application to compute skeletons of gyral regions. PMID:18450539

  2. Linear Algorithm for Digital Euclidean Connected Skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Leborgne, Aurélie; Mille, Julien; Tougne, Laure

    2013-01-01

    The skeleton is an essential shape characteristic providing a compact representation of the studied shape. Its computation on the image grid raises many issues. Due to the effects of discretization, the required properties of the skeleton - thinness, homotopy to the shape, reversibility, connectivity - may become incompatible. However, as regards practical use, the choice of a specific skeletonization algorithm depends on the application. This allows to classify the desired properties by orde...

  3. Late Pleistocene leopards across Europe - northernmost European German population, highest elevated records in the Swiss Alps, complete skeletons in the Bosnia Herzegowina Dinarids and comparison to the Ice Age cave art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2013-09-01

    European leopard sites in Europe demonstrate Early/Middle Pleistocene out of Africa lowland, and Late Pleistocene Asian alpine migrations being driven by climatic changes. Four different European Pleistocene subspecies are known. The final European Late Pleistocene “Ice Age leopard” Panthera pardus spelaea (Bächler, 1936) is validated taxonomically. The skull shows heavy signs of sexual dimorphism with closest cranial characters to the Caucasian Panthera pardus ciscaucasica (Persian leopard). Late Pleistocene leopards were distributed northernmost, up to S-England with the youngest stratigraphic records by skeletons and cave art in the MIS 2/3 (about 32,000-26,000 BP). The oldest leopard painting left by Late Palaeolithics (Aurignacians/Gravettians) in the Chauvet Cave (S-France) allows the reconstruction of the Ice Age leopard fur spot pattern being close to the snow or Caucasian leopards. The last Ice Age glacial leopard habitat was the mountain/alpine boreal forest (not mammoth steppe lowland), where those hunted even larger prey such as alpine game (Ibex, Chamois). Into some lairs, those imported their prey by short-term cave dwelling (e.g. Baumann's Cave, Harz Mountains, Germany). Only Eurasian Ice Age leopards specialized, similar as other Late Pleistocene large felids (steppe lions), on cave bear predation/scavenging partly very deep in caves. In Vjetrenica Cave (Dinarid Mountains, Bosnia Herzegovina), four adult leopards (two males/two females) of the MIS 3 were found about two km deep from the entrance in a cave bear den, near to one cave bear skeleton, that remained articulated in its nest. Leopards died there, partly being trapped by raising water levels of an active ponor stream, but seem to have been killed possibly either, similar as for lions known, in battles with cave bears in several cave bear den sites of Europe (e.g. Baumann's Cave, Wildkirchli Cave, Vjetrenica Cave). At other large cave sites, with overlap of hyena, wolf and dhole dens at

  4. The Skeletons' Halloween

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Mexican printer Jose Guadalupe Posada's (1851-1913) numerous prints of "calaveras" gave vast popularity to skeleton figures through his satirical and politically critical renditions of skeletons engaged in daily activities. They are oftentimes represented in festive and playful posturing. Calaveras have now become the most original trait of…

  5. In vitro study on porous silver scaffolds prepared by electroplating method using cellular carbon skeleton as the substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, M.; Wang, X.; Zhou, H.M.; Li, L. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Nie, F.L. [Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, Y. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zheng, Y.F., E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-05-01

    Porous silver scaffolds, with the porosity ranging from 68% to 81% and the apparent density ranging from 0.4 to 1 g Dot-Operator cm{sup -3} were prepared by electroplating method using cellular carbon skeleton as the substrate. The microstructure, mechanical property, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of the prepared porous silver scaffold were studied. The present porous silver scaffolds had a highly three-dimensional trabecular porous structure with the porosity and the apparent density close to that of the cancellous bone. Furthermore, the mechanical property such as elastic modulus and yield strength of the porous silver scaffolds were lower than that of commercial available porous Ti and porous Ti alloys but much closer to that of the cancellous bone and porous Ta. In addition, study of in vitro behavior showed that the porous silver scaffold possessed significant antibacterial capability of inhibition of bacterial proliferation and adherence against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and little cytotoxicity to Mg-63 cell line and NIH-3T3 cell line. Consequently, the porous silver scaffolds prepared by electrodeposition possess a promising application for bone implants. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous Ag scaffolds were produced by electroplating Ag on cellular carbon skeleton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous Ag scaffolds have the porosity 68-81% and the apparent density 0.4-1 g Dot-Operator cm{sup -3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical property of porous Ag is close to cancellous bone and porous Ta. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous Ag inhibits the proliferation and adherence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

  6. The composition of cell wall skeleton and outermost lipids of Mycobacterium vaccae is modified by ethambutol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumijowska-Galewicz, Anna; Korycka-Machała, Małgorzata; Lisowska, Katarzyna; Dziadek, Jarosław

    2008-01-01

    Ethambutol (EMB) is a first line drug in tuberculosis treatment inhibiting the biosynthesis of arabinogalactan, which is a component of the mycobacterial cell wall. The growth of Mycobacterium vaccae cells in the presence of EMB increases cell wall permeability, which was monitored by beta-sitosterol biotransformation. GC/MS and GLC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) analysis revealed dramatic changes in the content of covalently bound mycolic acids and in molar ratio galactose (Gal) to arabinose (Ara) in the cell envelopes of EMB-treated cells. The detected variations in the compositions of fatty acids indicate that both the cell wall skeleton and outer layer (free lipids) are decomposed due to EMB treatment.

  7. Analyzer of Spectra for Age Determination (ASAD) - Algorithm and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Asa'd, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Analyzer of Spectra for Age Determination (ASAD) is a new package that can easily predict the age and reddening of stellar clusters from their observed optical integrated spectra by comparing them to synthesis model spectra. The ages obtained with ASAD are consistent with ages obtained from previous cluster age methods requiring a more rigorous and time-consuming analysis. This package not only provides fast results, but also allows the user to comprehend the accuracy of these results by prov...

  8. Determination of the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Concrete at Early Ages by Using Temperature-stress Testing Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Kaicheng; SHUI Zhonghe; LI Yue

    2006-01-01

    By using the uptodate temperatuer-stress testing machine, the thermal expansion coefficient of concrete at early ages was studied and indicative conclusions were achieved: temperature rising due to hydration heat is not directly correlated with cracking, but the temperature and stress evolution process should be taken into consideration in the same time. Proper chemical admixtures and mineral compositions can improve the mechanical properties of concrete such as thermal expansion coefficient, which is very indicative in practice.

  9. The stapl Skeleton Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Zandifar, Mani

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. This paper describes the stapl Skeleton Framework, a highlevel skeletal approach for parallel programming. This framework abstracts the underlying details of data distribution and parallelism from programmers and enables them to express parallel programs as a composition of existing elementary skeletons such as map, map-reduce, scan, zip, butterfly, allreduce, alltoall and user-defined custom skeletons. Skeletons in this framework are defined as parametric data flow graphs, and their compositions are defined in terms of data flow graph compositions. Defining the composition in this manner allows dependencies between skeletons to be defined in terms of point-to-point dependencies, avoiding unnecessary global synchronizations. To show the ease of composability and expressivity, we implemented the NAS Integer Sort (IS) and Embarrassingly Parallel (EP) benchmarks using skeletons and demonstrate comparable performance to the hand-optimized reference implementations. To demonstrate scalable performance, we show a transformation which enables applications written in terms of skeletons to run on more than 100,000 cores.

  10. Coral skeletons defend against ultraviolet radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Reef

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many coral reef organisms are photosynthetic or have evolved in tight symbiosis with photosynthetic symbionts. As such, the tissues of reef organisms are often exposed to intense solar radiation in clear tropical waters and have adapted to trap and harness photosynthetically active radiation (PAR. High levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR associated with sunlight, however, represent a potential problem in terms of tissue damage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By measuring UVR and PAR reflectance from intact and ground bare coral skeletons we show that the property of calcium carbonate skeletons to absorb downwelling UVR to a significant extent, while reflecting PAR back to the overlying tissue, has biological advantages. We placed cnidarians on top of bare skeletons and a UVR reflective substrate and showed that under ambient UVR levels, UVR transmitted through the tissues of cnidarians placed on top of bare skeletons were four times lower compared to their counterparts placed on a UVR reflective white substrate. In accordance with the lower levels of UVR measured in cnidarians on top of coral skeletons, a similar drop in UVR damage to their DNA was detected. The skeletons emitted absorbed UVR as yellow fluorescence, which allows for safe dissipation of the otherwise harmful radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study presents a novel defensive role for coral skeletons and reveals that the strong UVR absorbance by the skeleton can contribute to the ability of corals, and potentially other calcifiers, to thrive under UVR levels that are detrimental to most marine life.

  11. Production Rates of Noble Gases in the Near-Surface Layers of Europa by Energetic Charged Particles and the Potential for Determining Exposure Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, T. D.; Reedy, R. C.; Masarik, J.

    2003-01-01

    The surface of Europa is expected to be extremely active, undergoing tectonic and/or tidal geological activity and sputtering/ deposition, as well as impact cratering. Determination of the actual age of the surface at one or more places would greatly simplify trying to sort out what processes are occurring, and at what rate. If there is K present, as the spectral and compositional modeling discussed predict, it should be possible, in principle, to determine K-Ar crystallization ages. Whether or not there is K present, a consideration of the environment suggests we can determine an energetic particle exposure age if we can make in situ measurements of the abundances of major elements and of noble gas isotopes. This requires instrumentation that is within reach of current technology. In this paper, we calculate production rates for noble-gas isotopes in a simplified Europan surface, to quantify the amount of light noble gases produced by exposure to energetic particles.

  12. Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H; de Bruin, Karla G; van Gemert, Martin J C; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2012-03-10

    Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time elapsed since the crime was committed is still not possible. From a criminalistic point of view, an accurate estimation of when the crime was committed enables to verify witnesses' statements, limits the number of suspects and assesses alibis. Despite several attempts and exploration of many technologies during a century, no method has been materialized into forensic practice. This review gives an overview of an extensive search in scientific literature of techniques that address the quest for age determination of bloodstains. We found that most techniques are complementary to each other, in short as well as long term age determination. Techniques are compared concerning their sensitivity for short and long term ageing of bloodstains and concerning their possible applicability to be used on a crime scene. In addition, experimental challenges like substrate variation, interdonor variation and environmental influences are addressed. Comparison of these techniques contributes to our knowledge of the physics and biochemistry in an ageing bloodstain. Further improvement and incorporation of environmental factors are necessary to enable age determination of bloodstains to be acceptable in court. PMID:21868178

  13. 挤出滚圆法制备香青兰黄酮骨架型微丸%Preparation of Dracocephalum moldevica Flavonoids Skeleton-TypePellets by Extrusion Spheronization Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 邢建国; 杨秀; 王新春; 薛桂蓬

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To optimize preparation technology of Dracocephalum moldevica flavonoids skeleton -type pellets by extrusion spheronization method. Method: D. Moldevica flavonoids skeleton-type pellets were prepared by extrusion spheronization Method: Optimal formulation and process was obtained by single factor test and orthogonal design; Micromeritic properties and cumulative in vitro release of pellets were determined. Result:D. Moldevica flavonoids skeleton-type pellets were prepared by extrusion spheronization method were all good of roundness, fluidity and density, product yield was high, in vitro release reached more than 80% in 30 min. Conclusion:D. Moldevica flavonoids skeleton-type pellets were prepared by extrusion spheronization method, this preparation process was simple and feasible, quality of prepared pellets was excellent and product yield was high.%目的:优化挤出滚圆法制备维药香青兰黄酮骨架微丸的制备工艺.方法:用挤出滚圆法制备香青兰黄酮骨架微丸;采用单因素考察和正交设计筛选最优处方和工艺条件;考察微丸的粉体学性质和体外释放度.结果:采用挤出滚圆法制备的香青兰黄酮骨架微丸圆整度、流动性及堆密度均较好,成品收率高,且30 min内体外释放度均达到80%以上.结论:挤出滚圆法制备维药香青兰黄酮骨架微丸,工艺简便易行,制得的微丸质量好,收率高.

  14. Stable Isotope Analysis of Extant Lamnoid Shark Centra: A New Tool in Age Determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labs, J.

    2003-12-01

    The oxygen isotopes of fourteen vertebral centra from ten extant lamnoid sharks (including Carcharodon carcharias [great white], Isurus paucus [longfin mako], and Isurus oxyrinchus [shortfin mako]) were sampled and measured along the growth axis to determine the periodicity of incremental growth represented in the centra. As part of the internal (endochondral) skeleton, shark centra are composed initially of hyaline cartilage, which then secondarily ossifies during ontogeny forming calcified hydroxyapatite bone. The incremental growth of shark centra forms definite growth rings, with darker denser portions being deposited during slower growth times (i.e., winter) and lighter portions being deposited during more rapid growth (i.e., summer). Thus, shark centra, whether they are extant or extinct, are characterized by clearly delineated incremental growth couplets. The problem with this general rule is that there are several factors in which the growth of these couplets can vary depending upon physical environment (including temperature and water depth), food availability, and stress. The challenge for paleobiological interpretations is how to interpret the periodicity of this growth. It can generally be assumed that these bands are annual, but it is uncertain the extent to which exceptions to the rule occur. Stable isotopic analysis provides the potential to independently determine the periodicity of the growth increments and ultimately the ontogenetic age of an individual.

  15. Development of a SPME-GC-MS method for the determination of volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar and its analytical characterization by aroma wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Zhu, Jie; Wang, Lili; Li, Zaigui

    2016-01-01

    A solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed to determine the volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar. The optimal extraction conditions were: 50 °C for 20 min with a PDMS/DVB fiber. This analytical method was validated and showed satisfactory repeatability (0.5 %volatile compounds. According to the calculation of odor activity value, 19 volatile compounds were identified as aroma-active compounds. Among them, propanoic acid, acetic acid, trimethyl-oxazole, butanoic acid, acetoin, 3-methylbutanoic acid and furfural were the most powerful odorants. The aroma wheel of Shanxi aged vinegar showed that the classes of sensory descriptors are first fatty and roasty, next woody and nutty and minor fruity and floral. Principal component analysis enabled us to investigate dissimilarity/similarity of Shanxi aged vinegar sample of different raw material and ageing time. PMID:26787940

  16. Photogrammetric survey of dinosaur skeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiedemann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To derive physiological data of dinosaurs, it is necessary to determine the volume and the surface area of this animals. For this purpose, a detailed survey of reconstructed skeletons is required. The skeletons of three dinosaurs in the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin and two skeletons in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris have been surveyed using stereo photogrammetry. Two of the Berlin skeletons were also surveyed with the close range laser scanners of the Institut für Navigation of the Universität Stuttgart. Both data acquisition techniques require a geodetic control network as a geometric reference system. The surveying methods used, together with results of mathematical approaches for the determination of the volume and surface of the animals are presented in this paper. Zur Herleitung physiologischer Daten der Dinosaurier ist es erforderlich, zunächst Volumen und Oberfläche ihres Körpers zu bestimmen. Dazu wurde eine detaillierte Vermessung rekonstruierter Skelette durchgeführt. Die Skelette dreier Saurier im Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin und zweier im Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris wurden stereophotogrammetrisch vermessen. Bei zwei der Berliner Skelette wurden zusätzlich die Laserscanner des Instituts für Navigation der Universität Stuttgart eingesetzt. Beide Datenerfassungstechniken benötigen ein Paßpunktfeld als geometrisches Referenzsystem. Die verwendeten Vermessungsmethoden, die mathematischen Ansätze für die Berechnung von Volumina und Oberflächen und die Ergebnisse werden in diesem Aufsatz vorgestellt. doi:10.1002/mmng.1999.4860020108

  17. Meshless simulation for skeleton driven elastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Chao; ZHANG Hong-xin; HUANG Jin; BAO Hu-jun

    2006-01-01

    A meshless simulation system is presented for elastic deformation driven by skeleton in this paper. In this system, we propose a new method for calculating node rotation while applying a similar technique with stiffness warping to tackle the nonlinear large deformation. In our method, all node rotations are evaluated from sampling points in attached skeleton by constructing and solving the diffusion partial differential equation. The experiments indicated that the method can enhance the stability of the dynamics and avoid fussy sub-step calculation in static deformation edition. Moreover, rational deformation results for the area around the skeleton joints can be simulated without user interaction by adopting the simplified technique.

  18. Frequency of Intracranial Aneurysms Determined by Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Children (Mean Age 16) Having Operative or Endovascular Treatment of Coarctation of the Aorta (Mean Age 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donti, Andrea; Spinardi, Luca; Brighenti, Maurizio; Faccioli, Luca; Leoni, Chiara; Fabi, Marianna; Trossello, Marco P; Gargiulo, Gaetano D; Bonvicini, Marco

    2015-08-15

    Coarctation of the aorta (CofA) has been associated with an increased risk of intracranial aneurysm (IA). This magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) study investigates the prevalence of IAs in 80 children treated in early life for CofA. MRA was performed at mean age of 15.7 ± 7.1 years, and surgical or endovascular treatment for CofA occurred at a mean age of 2.6 ± 4.4 years. No IA was found. In contrast with earlier findings in adult patients with late treatment for CofA, this first systematic study of very early treated patients for CofA failed to confirm the association between CofA and IAs. Our results call the abnormal developmental relation between CofA and IAs into question and suggest that modifiable risk factors like hypertension may be responsible for IA development in patients with CofA with adult diagnosis and treatment. In conclusion, our data suggest that early treatment of CofA can reduce the formation of IAs in children so as to make MRA screening less valuable in this young population.

  19. Simultaneous in-situ determination of U-Pb age and trace elements in zircon by LA-ICP-MS in 20 μm spot size

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XiaoMing; GAO Shan; DIWU ChunRong; YUAN HongLin; HU ZhaoChu

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous in-situ determination of U-Pb agea and 20 trace elements of three international zircon standards (91500, GJ1 and TEMORA 1) and one laboratory zircon standard (SK10-2) separated from Cenozoic fine-grained gabbro was carried out on quadrupole ICP-MS equipped with 193 nm excimer laser in 20 μm spot size. The weighted mean 208Pb/238U ages of g1500, GJ1 and TEMORA 1 are 1064.4±4.8 Ma (2σ), 603.2±2.4 Ma (2σ) and 418.2±2.4 Ma (2σ), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 206Pb/238U ages (2σ) are less than 2.2% for single measurements and 0.6% for weighted means. The obtained weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of three atandard zircons agree with the recommended values within 2σσerror. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of SK10-2 is 31.42±0.25 Ma (2σ)and the RSDs of 206Pb/238U ages (2σ) are between 2.4% and 5.7% for single measurements and less than 0.8% for weighted mean. The obtained weighted mean 206Pb/238U age is in good agreement with the age obtained by Yuan (2004). Trace element concentrations of NIST612 and NIST614 obtained under the same LA-ICP-MS operating conditions agree with the recommended values within analytical error. The results indicate that it is possible to measure U-Pb age and trace elements aimultaneously by LA-ICP-MS in a small spot size of 20 μm.

  20. Analyzer of Spectra for Age Determination (ASAD) - Algorithm and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Asa'd, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Analyzer of Spectra for Age Determination (ASAD) is a new package that can easily predict the age and reddening of stellar clusters from their observed optical integrated spectra by comparing them to synthesis model spectra. The ages obtained with ASAD are consistent with ages obtained from previous cluster age methods requiring a more rigorous and time-consuming analysis. This package not only provides fast results, but also allows the user to comprehend the accuracy of these results by providing surface plots and spectral plots for all combinations of observations and models. ASAD is available for download on the Web and can be immediately used on both Mac and Windows.

  1. Connection Skeleton Extraction Based on Contour Connectedness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mang; LIU Yun-cai

    2008-01-01

    A stable skeleton is very important to some applications such as vehicle navigation, object represent and pattern recognition. The connection skeleton is just one that not only can be computed stably but also can figure the connectivity structure of contour. A new method named continuous connectivity detection and a new model named approximate regular polygon (ARP) were proposed for connection skeleton extraction. Both the method and the model were tested by the real maps of road network including flyovers, interchanges and other common object contours. Satisfactory results were obtained.

  2. Impact of the environment on the skeleton: is it modulated by genetic factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L; Karasik, David

    2013-09-01

    The etiology of skeletal disease is driven by genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of osteoporotic phenotypes have identified novel candidate genes, but have only uncovered a small proportion of the trait variance explained. This "missing heritability" is caused by several factors, including the failure to consider gene-by-environmental (G*E) interactions. Some G*E interactions have been investigated, but new approaches to integrate environmental data into genomic studies are needed. Advances in genotyping and meta-analysis techniques now allow combining genotype data from multiple studies, but the measurement of key environmental factors in large human cohorts still lags behind, as do the statistical tools needed to incorporate these measures in genome-wide association meta-studies. This review focuses on discussing ways to enhance G*E interaction studies in humans and how the use of rodent models can inform genetic studies. Understanding G*E interactions will provide opportunities to effectively target intervention strategies for individualized therapy.

  3. Increasing the Richness of Culturable Arsenic-Tolerant Bacteria from Theonella swinhoei by Addition of Sponge Skeleton to the Growth Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ray; Lavy, Adi; Ilan, Micha

    2016-05-01

    Theonella swinhoei is an arsenic hyper-accumulator sponge, harboring a multitude of associated bacteria. These bacteria reside in the mesohyl, the dense extracellular matrix of the sponge. Previous elemental analysis of separated cell fractions from the sponge had determined that arsenic is localized to the associated bacteria. Subsequently, sponge-associated arsenic-tolerant bacteria were isolated here and grouped into 15 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% similarity). Both culture-dependent and culture-independent work had revealed that T. swinhoei harbors a highly diverse bacterial community. It was thus hypothesized the acclimation of bacteria in the presence of a sponge skeleton, better mimicking its natural environment, would increase the yield of isolation of sponge-associated bacteria. Using seven modularly designed media, 380 bacteria isolates were grown and grouped into 22 OTUs. Inclusion of sponge skeleton in the growth medium promoted bacterial growth in all seven media, accounting for 20 of the 22 identified OTUs (the other two in a medium without skeleton). Diversity and richness indices were calculated for each treatment or combination of treatments with shared growth parameters. Integrating data inherent in the modularly designed media with the ecological indices led to the formation of new hypotheses regarding the aeration conditions and expected arsenic form in situ. Both aerobic and anoxic conditions are expected to occur in the sponge (temporally and/or spatially). Arsenate is expected to be the dominant (or even the only) arsenic form in the sponge.

  4. Tensor Network Skeletonization

    CERN Document Server

    Ying, Lexing

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new coarse-graining algorithm, tensor network skeletonization, for the numerical computation of tensor networks. This approach utilizes a structure-preserving skeletonization procedure to remove short-range correlations effectively at every scale. This approach is first presented in the setting of 2D statistical Ising model and is then extended to higher dimensional tensor networks and disordered systems. When applied to the Euclidean path integral formulation, this approach also gives rise to new efficient representations of the ground states for 1D and 2D quantum Ising models.

  5. Age determination using ultrasonography in young football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Karami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing of age cheating in sports makes problems to athletes comparable to taking illegal substances. Current method used by AFC and FIFA is applying MRI of growth plate of distal of radius to determine the bone age. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in bone age determination by measuring the width of growth plate in distal of radius, and comparing it with identity documents. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from September to December 2009 in the Department of Radiology at Al-Zahra University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Ultrasonography was done for 82 (15-20 years old young professional football players and results were compared with identity documents (such as National ID card. Young football players were divided into three age categories: 16 years old, 17 years old, and 18 years old. Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC curves for discriminant values and sensitivity and specificity were analyzed. Results: Cut-off point was set for each group, based on the width of the growth plate, and negative test was defined as subjects < cut-off point, showing subjects over the defined age in each group. ROC curve analysis demonstrates consistently acceptable diagnostic sensitivity and specificity values in age determination of each group. Conclusions: The overall predictive accuracy of ultrasonography, as described by the area under the ROC curve, was high for determination of bone age. It has an acceptable sensitivity and specificity to use for determination of age in sport competitions, and has the capability to become the screening test for age determination, especially because it is inexpensive and without any risk of radiation. It seems to be comparable with MRI in age determination.

  6. Investigating the Human Skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1982-01-01

    Instructions are provided for assembly of a pull-out, two-sided picture puzzle of the skeleton of a seven-year-old girl. Suggestions for activities using the assembled puzzle and comments on bones and bone morphology are also provided. (Author/JN)

  7. Gray Cerebrovascular Image Skeleton Extraction Algorithm Using Level Set Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguity and complexity of medical cerebrovascular image makes the skeleton gained by conventional skeleton algorithm discontinuous, which is sensitive at the weak edges, with poor robustness and too many burrs. This paper proposes a cerebrovascular image skeleton extraction algorithm based on Level Set model, using Euclidean distance field and improved gradient vector flow to obtain two different energy functions. The first energy function controls the  obtain of topological nodes for the beginning of skeleton curve. The second energy function controls the extraction of skeleton surface. This algorithm avoids the locating and classifying of the skeleton connection points which guide the skeleton extraction. Because all its parameters are gotten by the analysis and reasoning, no artificial interference is needed.

  8. Foetal age determination and development in elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Drews, Barbara; Gaeth, Ann P; Goeritz, Frank; Hermes, Robert; Schmitt, Dennis; Gray, Charlie; Rich, Peter; Streich, Wolf Juergen; Short, Roger V; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2007-02-01

    Elephants have the longest pregnancy of all mammals, with an average gestation of around 660 days, so their embryonic and foetal development have always been of special interest. Hitherto, it has only been possible to estimate foetal ages from theoretical calculations based on foetal mass. The recent development of sophisticated ultrasound procedures for elephants has now made it possible to monitor the growth and development of foetuses of known gestational age conceived in captivity from natural matings or artificial insemination. We have studied the early stages of pregnancy in 10 captive Asian and 9 African elephants by transrectal ultrasound. Measurements of foetal crown-rump lengths have provided the first accurate growth curves, which differ significantly from the previous theoretical estimates based on the cube root of foetal mass. We have used these to age 22 African elephant foetuses collected during culling operations. Pregnancy can be first recognized ultrasonographically by day 50, the presumptive yolk sac by about day 75 and the zonary placenta by about day 85. The trunk is first recognizable by days 85-90 and is distinct by day 104, while the first heartbeats are evident from around day 80. By combining ultrasonography and morphology, we have been able to produce the first reliable criteria for estimating gestational age and ontological development of Asian and African elephant foetuses during the first third of gestation. PMID:17164195

  9. Collagenous skeleton of the rat mystacial pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidarliu, Sebastian; Simony, Erez; Golomb, David; Ahissar, Ehud

    2011-05-01

    Anatomical and functional integrity of the rat mystacial pad (MP) is dependent on the intrinsic organization of its extracellular matrix. By using collagen autofluorescence, in the rat MP, we revealed a collagenous skeleton that interconnects whisker follicles, corium, and deep collagen layers. We suggest that this skeleton supports MP tissues, mediates force transmission from muscles to whiskers, facilitates whisker retraction after protraction, and limits MP extensibility.

  10. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dziechciaż

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists’ assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  11. Computational tool for phase-shift calculation in an interference pattern by fringe displacements based on a skeletonized image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Pico-Gonzalez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript an algorithm based on a graphic user interface (GUI) designed in MATLAB for an automatic phase-shifting estimation between two digitalized interferograms is presented. The proposed algorithm finds the midpoint locus of the dark and bright interference fringes in two skeletonized fringe patterns and relates their displacements with the corresponding phase-shift. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed GUI, its application to simulated and experimental interference patterns will be shown. The viability of this GUI makes it a helpful and easy-to-use computational tool for educational or research purposes in optical phenomena for undergraduate or graduate studies in the field of physics.

  12. Age of Cu-Au mineralisation, Cloncurry district, eastern Mt Isa Inlier, Queensland, as determined by 40Ar/39Ar dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 40Ar/39Ar dating of alteration biotite. muscovite and amphibole from a number of post-peak metamorphic Cu-Au deposits and alteration systems in the Cloncurry district. north Queensland has determined the timing of mineralisation and hydrothermal activity. Alteration biotite from the Ernest Henry Cu-Au, Starra Au-Cu, and Mt Elliott Cu-Au deposits, sericite associated with hematite breccias in the Wimberu Granite, muscovite from an albitite pipe that intrudes the Gilded Rose Breccia. And sericite from a granitoid near the Osborne Cu-Au deposit. yield ages which are broadly contemporaneous with the late ca 1510-1485 Ma phases of the Williams and Naraku Batholiths. Hornblende and biotite alteration, which pre-date Cu-Au mineralisation at Osborne. give a maximum age of ca 1540 Ma for the deposit. which is also a probable minimum age for peak metamorphism. Metamorphic minerals from the vicinity of Osborne yield dates which are significantly older (ca 1590-1570 Ma) than those from the hydrothermal phases. Dating by the K-Ar method of red. Hematitic K-feldspars which are regionally common in the Cloncurry district was not effective as the mineral yields ages up to 300 million years younger than coexisting alteration sericite. The 40Ar/39Ar age spectra obtained from most hydrothermal phases in the Eastern Fold Belt. Mt Isa Inlier commonly contain flat parts which comprise a large proportion of the released gas and are indicative of rapid cooling through the temperature of partial closure to Ar diffusion for the respective minerals. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Asia

  13. Automated Determination of Bone Age in a Modern Chinese Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rationale and Objective. Large studies have previously been performed to set up a Chinese bone age reference, but it has been difficult to compare the maturation of Chinese children with populations elsewhere due to the potential variability between raters in different parts of the world. We re-analysed the radiographs from a large study of normal Chinese children using an automated bone age rating method to establish a Chinese bone age reference, and to compare the tempo of maturation in the Chinese with other populations. Materials and Methods. X-rays from 2883 boys and 3143 girls aged 2–20 years from five Chinese cities, taken in 2005, were evaluated using the BoneXpert automated method. Results. Chinese children reached full maturity at the same age as previously studied Asian children from Los Angeles, but 0.6 years earlier than Caucasian children in Los Angeles. The Greulich-Pyle bone age method was adapted to the Chinese population creating a new bone age scale BX-China05. The standard deviation between BX-China05 and chronologic age was 1.01 years in boys aged 8–14, and 1.08 years in girls aged 7–12. Conclusion. By eliminating rater variability, the automated method provides a reliable and efficient standard for bone age determination in China

  14. Age determination of nephrite by in-situ SIMS U-Pb dating syngenetic titanite: A case study of the nephrite deposit from Luanchuan, Henan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xiao-Xiao; Schmädicke, Esther; Li, Qiu-Li; Gose, Jürgen; Wu, Rui-Hua; Wang, Shi-Qi; Liu, Yu; Tang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Xian-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Nephrite is a kind of valuable jade which forms during metamorphism under greenschist facies conditions. Most investigations focus on the genesis of nephrite, however, the formation age of nephrite remains poorly constrained due to the lack of suitable dating methods. In this paper, the petrological, chemical characteristics, and mineral inclusions of nephrite collected from Luanchuan, Henan, China have been studied by optical and electron microscopy and wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe (EMP). The petrological observations show that nephrite consists mainly of tremolite, minor calcite and titanite, occasionally with rutile, quartz, serpentine, chlorite, pyrite, and apatite. The titanite and tremolite which are intergrown with each other share low-energy grain boundaries. It indicates that the two phases are equilibrated and can be considered as cogenetic. The chemical composition of tremolite is high in Si, Mg, Ca, but low in Fe, Cr, and Ni, which indicates that the nephrite from Luanchuan belongs to the dolomite type rather than the serpentinite type. The petrography of different nephrite structures suggests that the grain size of tremolite was determined by the stress intensity undergone during the nephrite formation progress. In-situ Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) U-Pb dating of titanite from nephrite yielded an age of 361 ± 4 Ma, which is the first estimate for the time of formation of the Luanchuan nephrite deposit. This investigation provides a powerful in-situ dating method to unravel the age of nephrite, which could be served as a tool for future research on other nephrite deposits.

  15. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    OpenAIRE

    AB Traldi; Menten JFM; CS Silva; PV Rizzo; PWZ Pereira; J Santarosa

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval...

  16. A neglected requirement for optimizing treatment of age-related osteoporosis: Replenishing the skeleton's base reservoir with net base-producing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Anthony; Frassetto, Lynda A

    2016-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a disorder of bone in which the mass of the bone is reduced and the bone's architecture at the microscopic level is disordered. Together those abnormalities predispose affected individuals to experience fractures despite only minimal trauma (i.e., fragility fractures). Age related osteoporosis is a common type of osteoporosis that occurs with aging in both men and women usually beginning after the age of peak bone mass. Research has found that the disorder can be partially reversed by reducing the net amount of acid that is produced when consuming typical Western diets. However, the amelioration that results has not been so dramatic or so consistent that physicians have adopted the procedure as part of the standard treatment for age-related osteoporosis. We propose that reducing the net acid load from the diet is not sufficient to reverse age related osteoporosis because it fails to supply base needed to restore the large amount of base in bone that had been lost by reacting with the net acid load of the diet that had been consumed for years or decades. Reducing the net acid load from the diet might be expected to have little ameliorative effect or merely slow the progression of the disorder. We hypothesize that both to restore osteoporotic bone to, or nearly to, its pre-disease state, as well as to eliminate the risk of fragility fractures, requires consuming diets that produce net amounts of base to restore the base lost from years to decades of consuming diets that produce net amounts of acid. We hypothesize also that the excess base and attendant subclinical metabolic alkalosis will both stimulate the cellular process of bone formation and suppress the cellular process of bone resorption, and thereby implement the restorative process.

  17. Skeleton scintigraphy in trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal trauma is common and presents both an opportunity and a problem in skeletal scintigraphy. The opportunity arises in the ability of skeletal scintigraphy to demonstrate abnormalities early after direct trauma. It is well recognized that the early detection of fractures in some sites cannot be reliably achieved by standard radiography, especially in the femoral neck and scaphoid bone. The problem comes in recognizing the effects of skeletal trauma when using skeletal scintigraphy for another purpose, such as the detection of metastatic disease. iatrogenic trauma to either the skeleton or soft tissues may be manifest scintigraphic ally. For example Craniotomy typically leaves a rim pattern at the surgical margin. Rib Retraction during thoracotomy can elicit periosteal reaction. Areas of the skeletal receiving curative levels of ionizing radiation (typically 4000 rads or greater) characteristically demonstrate decreased uptake within 6 months to 1 year after therapy. The generally high sensitivity of the skeletal scintigraphy seems to make it an ideal survey test in cases of suspected child abuse especially in which radiographs are unrevealing. Because of difficulties in obtaining a history of trauma from a preschool child or even eliciting a satisfactory description of the location and nature of the pain, skeletal scintigraphy provides a simple and reliable investigation in these children. Subtle trauma, such as that from stress fractures is often difficult to visualize on a plain radiograph. Skeletal scintigraphy is frequently positive at the time of clinical presentation. Skeletal scintigraphy is exquisitely sensitive to the remodeling process and typically shows abnormalities 1 to 2 weeks or more before the appearance of radiographic changes in stress fractures. The periosteal reaction can be visualized within hours of the injury. Insufficiency and fatigue fractures such as vertebral compression fracture, which is probably the most common consequence of

  18. Acid-Base and the Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushinsky, David A.

    2008-09-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis increases urine calcium (Ca) excretion in the absence of a concomitant increase in intestinal Ca absorption resulting in a net loss of total body. The source of this additional urine Ca is almost certainly the skeleton, the primary reservoir of body Ca. In vitro metabolic acidosis, modeled as a primary reduction in medium bicarbonate concentration, acutely (24 h) cell-mediated mechanisms predominate. In cultured neonatal mouse calvariae, acidosis-induced, cell-mediated Ca efflux is mediated by effects on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Metabolic acidosis inhibits extracellular matrix production by osteoblasts, as determined by measurement of collagen levels and levels for the non-collagenous matrix proteins osteopontin and matrix gla protein. Metabolic acidosis upregulates osteoblastic expression of RANKL (Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand), an important osteoclastogenic and osteoclast-activating factor. Acidosis also increases osteoclastic activity as measured by release of β-glucuronidase, an enzyme whose secretion correlates with osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.

  19. Comparison of detection rate of osteoporosis in different sex,age and skeleton location%不同性别、年龄及不同骨骼部位骨质疏松检出率的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹志伟; 裴育; 杜瑞琴; 陈国昌; 邵伟庆; 崔志辉

    2005-01-01

    股骨颈和大转子 BMD有明显正相关( r=0.306,0.329,0.338,P< 0.05). 结论 : OP的检出率随骨骼测量部位和年龄的变化而变化.正确认识和评价这些客观现象,对 OP的诊治具有重要意义.%BACKGROUND:Bone mineral density(BMD) is still regarded as the standard of early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis(OP) at present.But it is found in detection that different sex,age and skeleton location have different OP detection rate,so it is necessary to analyze the difference. OBJECTIVE:To compare the difference of OP detection rate at different skeleton location between males and females with the increase of age. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study taking patients as the subjects. SETTING:Endocrine department of an artillery general hospital of Chinese PLA. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 147 patients,including 54 males and 93 females, aged from 50 to 78 years old,who were hospitalized in our outpatient clinic from September 2000 to January 2002,were selected and divided into 3 groups according to age,50 to 59 years old group (n=46,13 males and 33 females),60 to 69 years old group (n=66,26 males and 40 females) and 70 to 79 years old group (n=35,15 accordance with the OP diagnostic criteria recommended by WHO[1]. Exclusive criterion: secondary OP patients caused by chronic disease of liver,kidney, heart, and gastrointestinal tract and some endocrine disease such as diabetes,hyperthyroidism and so on. INTERVENTIONS:Every subject filled in the history questionnaire in detail.Height and body mass were measured accurately and body mass index(BMI) was calculated (kg/m2).A new type of Norland Excell plus dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) was used to detect BMD(g/cm2) of L2- 4 and proximate femur(neck of femur, Ward's triangle,greater trochanter).The detected values were compared with the normal data of young adults of the same sex and the T value(SD) was obtained. RESULTS:OP in lumber vertebra was predominant in female climacteric(χ 2=10.14,P< 0.01),and the detection rate of

  20. Asteroseismic age determination for dwarfs and giants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Serenelli, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Asteroseismology can make a substantial contribution to our understanding of the formation history and evolution of our Galaxy by providing precisely determined stellar properties for thousands of stars in different regions of the Milky Way. We present here the different sets of observables used...

  1. Photochemical Age Determinations in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.; Lee, Y.- N.; Nunnermacker, L. J.; Springston, S. R.; Weinstein-Lloyd, J.; Hyde, P.; Doskey, Paul; Rudolph, Jochen; Fast, Jerome D.; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2003-02-05

    An extensive VOC data set was gathered as part of a photochemical oxidant field campaign conducted in the Phoenix air basin in the late spring of 1998. Sampling was done at the surface and by aircraft at mid-boundary layer height; in regions with emission sources and downwind in the urban plume. VOC concentration ratios were used to calculate photochemical age, defined as the time integrated exposure of an air mass to OH radical. Based on the VOC ratios of 15 compounds (with OH reactivity varying between acetylene and p,m-xylene), we present estimates for photochemical age and dilution factors for several regions within the air basin. Geographic trends are in agreement with the expectation that pollutants are transported in a generally eastward direction so that older and more dilute mixtures occur to the east of the city. Photochemical ages determined from aircraft samples agree with those determined at a downwind surface site. The bias in photochemical age that occurs because fresh pollutants are added to an aged mixture has been quantified by using a particle trajectory model. A combination of trajectory results (actual age of the pollutants in an air mass) and photochemical age yields an estimate of the average OH concentration experienced by the air parcel. OH obtained in this way is somewhat lower, but has the same trends as OH concentrations calculated using a photochemical box model that is constrained with observed concentrations coincident with the VOC samples.

  2. Skeleton castings dynamic load resistance

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cholewa; J. Szajnar; T. Szuter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article is to show selected results of research in a field of new type of cast spatial composite reinforcements. This article shows skeleton casting case as a particular approach to continuous, spatial composite reinforcement.Design/methodology/approach: The research is concerning properties of cast spatial microlattice structures called skeleton castings. In this paper results of impact test of skeleton casting with octahedron elementary cell were shown. The selection of interna...

  3. Juvenile (age 13-18) smoking incidence determinants in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, Aristidis; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Hatzoglou, Chryssi; Roupa, Zoe

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a form of medical addiction, usually adopted during adolescence. The aim was to determine the prevalence of smoking in adolescents, aged 13-18 years old, to investigate their attitudes towards smoking and determine the contribution of social influences to onset and continuation of smoking. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was filled in by 873 high school students of Central Greece. Smoking incidence was 19.2%, with a 13.7% of regular smokers. The presence of a smoker in the family and a smoker friend were correlated with increased smoking rates. School grades were correlated negatively with smoking attitude and positively with allowance. Age was correlated negatively with social influence. Social influence appears stronger on younger ages and is a main determinant of smoking behavior. A more susceptible attitude towards smoking is formed during late adolescence. Certain social predictive factors for attitude towards smoking are proposed. PMID:24628676

  4. Age determination of subdural hematomas: survey among radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postema, F A M; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Majoie, C B L M; van Rijn, R R

    2014-08-01

    Abusive head trauma is a severe form of child abuse. One important diagnostic finding is the presence of a subdural hematoma. Age determination of subdural hematomas is important to relate radiological findings to the clinical history presented by the caregivers. In court this topic is relevant as dating subdural hematomas can lead to identification of a suspect. The aim of our study is to describe the current practice among radiologists in the Netherlands regarding the age determination of subdural hematomas in children. This is a cross-sectional study, describing the results of an online questionnaire regarding dating subdural hematomas among pediatric and neuro-radiologists in the Netherlands. The questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic questions, theoretical questions and eight pediatric cases in which the participants were asked to date subdural hematomas based on imaging findings. Fifty-one out of 172 radiologists (30 %) filled out the questionnaire. The percentage of participants that reported it was possible to date the subdural hematoma varied between 58 and 90 % for the eight different cases. In four of eight cases (50 %), the age of the subdural hematoma as known from clinical history fell within the range reported by the participants. None of the participants was "very certain" of their age determination. The results demonstrate that there is a considerable practice variation among Dutch radiologists regarding the age determination of subdural hematomas. This implicates that dating of subdural hematomas is not suitable to use in court, as no uniformity among experts exists. PMID:24553773

  5. Age determination of female redhead ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

  6. Determining Ages of APOGEE Giants with Known Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet, Diane K.; Bovy, Jo; Holtzman, Jon; Girardi, Léo; MacDonald, Nick; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 705 local giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1 m telescope with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the local star formation history (SFH). The high-resolution (R ˜ 22,500), near infrared (1.51-1.7 μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 30%. For giants, the relatively rapid evolution up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained by the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass-age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the SFH prior, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of the model SFH using the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model show a clear age-[α/M] relation at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we determine ages for individual stars. The resulting age-metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ˜0.5 dex spread in metallicity across most ages. For stars with ages ≲1 Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars.

  7. Sex determination from scapular length measurements by CT scans images in a Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurazza, F; Schena, E; Del Vescovo, R; Cazzato, R L; Mortato, L; Saccomandi, P; Paternostro, F; Onofri, L; Zobel, B Beomonte

    2013-01-01

    Together with race, stature and age, sex is a main component of the biological identity. Thanks to its proportional correlation with parts of the human body, sex can be evaluated form the skeleton. The most accurate approach to determine sex by bone size is based on os coxae or skull. After natural disaster their presence can never be guaranteed, therefore the development of methods of sex determination using other skeletal elements can result crucial. Herein, sexual dimorphism in the human scapula is used to develop a two-variable discriminant function for sex estimation. We have enrolled 100 males and 100 females who underwent thoracic CT scan evaluation and we have estimated two scapular diameters. The estimation has been carried out by analyzing images of the scapulae of each patient after three dimensional post-processing reconstructions. The two-variable function allows to obtain an overall accuracy of 88% on the calibration sample. Furthermore, we have employed the mentioned function on a collection of 10 individual test sample from the collection of the "Museo di Anatomia Umana di Firenze" of the Università degli Studi di Firenze; sex has been correctly predicted on 9 skeletons.

  8. 面颅种族判定的测量研究%Racial identification of the facial skeleton by measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志敏; 张继宗; 高冲

    2011-01-01

    Through introducing and criticizing the development of racial identification from the facial skeleton all over the world, we find viscerocranium have more advantage than palate and mandible in racial identification. So our Chinese racial identification should enhance viscerocranium's study.%通过对国内外面颅种族判定测量研究现状的回顾和评析,指出目前尚没有进行中国黄种人面颅测量种族判定的有效方法.在已进行的面颅种族判定测量研究中,上面部指标的种族判定效果最好,而上腭区和下颌骨指标的种族判定效果较差.所以对于中国黄种人面颅种族判定的测量研究应当更多借鉴上面部的研究成果.

  9. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C;

    2009-01-01

    habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. RESULTS: Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p...... collections correlated well. Foot length was independent of gender, Environmental Tobacco Smoke, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. CONCLUSION: Foot length correlated linearly to embryonic and foetal age, and was unaffected by gender, ETS, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption....

  10. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results.

  11. Age as a Determinant of Interpersonal Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheier, Michael F.; Schulz, Richard

    This study focuses on the impact of age on interpersonal evaluation of persons, particularly the elderly as individuals and not as a group. Using a 75-year-old target and a 23-year-old target, the experimenter predicted and found support for the idea that personal information contained in a transcript would evoke sympathy, and thereby lead…

  12. Production of Chondroitin Sulphate from Head, Skeleton and Fins of Scyliorhinus canicula By-Products by Combination of Enzymatic, Chemical Precipitation and Ultrafiltration Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, María; Fraguas, Javier; Sotelo, Carmen G.; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I.; Vázquez, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This study illustrates the optimisation of the experimental conditions of three sequential steps for chondroitin sulphate (CS) recovery from three cartilaginous materials of Scyliorhinus canicula by-products. Optimum conditions of temperature and pH were first obtained for alcalase proteolysis of head cartilage (58 °C/pH 8.5/0.1% (v/w)/10 h of hydrolysis). Then, similar optimal conditions were observed for skeletons and fin materials. Enzymatic hydrolysates were subsequently treated with a combination of alkaline hydroalcoholic saline solutions in order to improve the protein hydrolysis and the selective precipitation of CS. Ranges of 0.53–0.64 M (NaOH) and 1.14–1.20 volumes (EtOH) were the levels for optimal chemical treatment depending on the cartilage origin. Finally, selective purification and concentration of CS and protein elimination of samples obtained from chemical treatment, was assessed by a combination of ultrafiltration and diafiltration (UF-DF) techniques at 30 kDa. PMID:26023837

  13. Production of Chondroitin Sulphate from Head, Skeleton and Fins of Scyliorhinus canicula By-Products by Combination of Enzymatic, Chemical Precipitation and Ultrafiltration Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Blanco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrates the optimisation of the experimental conditions of three sequential steps for chondroitin sulphate (CS recovery from three cartilaginous materials of Scyliorhinus canicula by-products. Optimum conditions of temperature and pH were first obtained for alcalase proteolysis of head cartilage (58 °C/pH 8.5/0.1% (v/w/10 h of hydrolysis. Then, similar optimal conditions were observed for skeletons and fin materials. Enzymatic hydrolysates were subsequently treated with a combination of alkaline hydroalcoholic saline solutions in order to improve the protein hydrolysis and the selective precipitation of CS. Ranges of 0.53–0.64 M (NaOH and 1.14–1.20 volumes (EtOH were the levels for optimal chemical treatment depending on the cartilage origin. Finally, selective purification and concentration of CS and protein elimination of samples obtained from chemical treatment, was assessed by a combination of ultrafiltration and diafiltration (UF-DF techniques at 30 kDa.

  14. Determinants of differences in the activity budgets of Rhinopithecus bieti by age/sex class at Xiangguqing in the Baimaxueshan nature reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological factors are known to influence the activity budgets of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti. However, little is known about how activity budgets vary between age/sex classes, because the species is difficult to observe in the wild. This study provides the first detailed activity budgets subdivided by age/sex classes based on observations of the largest habituated group at Xiangguqing in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve. This study was conducted from June 2008 to May 2009. We found that adult females spent more time feeding (44.8% than adult males (39.5%, juveniles (39.1%, and infants (14.2%. Adult males allocated more time to miscellaneous activities (12.5% than did adult females (3.8%. Infants were being groomed 6.9% of the time, which was the highest proportion among all age/sex classes. Adults spent more time feeding, while immature individuals allocated more time to moving and other activities. There are several reasons activity budgets may vary by age/sex class: 1 differential reproductive investment between males and females; 2 developmental differences among the age categories; 3 social relationships between members of different age/sex classes, particularly dominance. In addition, group size and adult sex ratio may also impact activity budgets. These variations in activity budgets among the different age/sex classes may become a selective pressure that shapes the development and growth pattern in this species.

  15. A multi-method luminescence dating of the Palaeolithic sequence of La Ferrassie based on new excavations adjacent to the La Ferrassie 1 and 2 skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerin, Guillaume; Frouin, Marine; Talamo, Sahra;

    2015-01-01

    as on the skeletons unearthed by Capitan and Peyrony in the early 1900's. We report here preliminary results on the lithics, faunal remains, site formation processes, and on the stratigraphic context of the La Ferrassie 1 and 2 skeletons that were found adjacent to our excavations. Finally, results from luminescence......, between 54 ± 3 and 40 ± 2 ka, and thus appear very late in the final Middle Palaeolithic of the region; furthermore, these ages constrain the chronology of the La Ferrassie 1 and 2 skeletons, which have been attributed to one of these Ferrassie Mousterian layers. The Châtelperronian layer is dated to 42...... ± 3 ka and the Aurignacian to 37 ± 2 ka. Implications of the ages for the La Ferrassie 1 and 2 skeletons, and for the variability of late Mousterian, are discussed....

  16. Pteridine fluorescence for age determination of Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D; Lehane, M J

    1999-02-01

    The age structure of mosquito populations is of great relevance to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and in monitoring the success of control operations. Unfortunately, the ovarian dissection methods currently available for determining the age of adult mosquitoes are technically difficult, slow and may be of limited value, because the proportion of diagnostic ovarioles in the ovary declines with age. By means of reversed-phase HPLC this study investigated the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and An. stephensi to see if changes in fluorescent pteridine pigments, which have been used in other insects to determine the age of field-caught individuals, may be useful for age determination in mosquitoes. Whole body fluorescence was inversely proportional to age (P 91%) up to 30 days postemergence, with the regression values: y = 40580-706x for An. gambiae, and y = 52896-681x for An. stephensi. In both species the main pteridines were 6-biopterin, pterin-6-carboxylic acid and an unidentified fluorescent compound. An. gambiae had only 50-70% as much fluorescence as An. stephensi, and fluorescent compounds were relatively more concentrated in the head than in the thorax (ratios 1:0.8 An. gambiae; 1:0.5 An. stephensi). The results of this laboratory study are encouraging. It seems feasible that this simpler and faster technique of fluorescence quantification could yield results of equivalent accuracy to the interpretation of ovarian dissection. A double-blind field trial comparing the accuracy of this technique to marked, released and recaptured mosquitoes is required to test the usefulness of the pteridine method in the field. PMID:10194749

  17. Assessment of age at death by microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Frohlich, Bruno; Thomsen, Jørgen L

    2006-01-01

    The microscopic method of age at death determination was introduced by Kerley in 1965 [E.R. Kerley, The microscopic determination of age in human bone, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol, 23 (1965) 149-163.]. However, even though the method has been revised several times, there remain some fundamental issues...... the regions of interest, as well as for dealing with border phenomena, and we only counted secondary osteons. Our results show a statistically significant increase in the median number of osteons per area unit with increasing age at death. However, this was after exclusion of one outlier. This result...

  18. Anatomy of the red cell membrane skeleton: unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Samuel E

    2016-01-14

    The red cell membrane skeleton is a pseudohexagonal meshwork of spectrin, actin, protein 4.1R, ankyrin, and actin-associated proteins that laminates the inner membrane surface and attaches to the overlying lipid bilayer via band 3-containing multiprotein complexes at the ankyrin- and actin-binding ends of spectrin. The membrane skeleton strengthens the lipid bilayer and endows the membrane with the durability and flexibility to survive in the circulation. In the 36 years since the first primitive model of the red cell skeleton was proposed, many additional proteins have been discovered, and their structures and interactions have been defined. However, almost nothing is known of the skeleton's physiology, and myriad questions about its structure remain, including questions concerning the structure of spectrin in situ, the way spectrin and other proteins bind to actin, how the membrane is assembled, the dynamics of the skeleton when the membrane is deformed or perturbed by parasites, the role lipids play, and variations in membrane structure in unique regions like lipid rafts. This knowledge is important because the red cell membrane skeleton is the model for spectrin-based membrane skeletons in all cells, and because defects in the red cell membrane skeleton underlie multiple hemolytic anemias. PMID:26537302

  19. Isotope and trace element proxies in sclerosponge skeletons: reproducibility and alteration through sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, K.; Haase-Schramm, A.; Böhm, F.; Eisenhauer, A.; Joachimski, M. M.; Dullo, W.-C.

    2003-04-01

    During the last decade sclerosponge skeletons have been increasingly used as proxy recorders, e.g. for reconstructions of mixed layer temperature histories, variations of the carbon isotopic composition of seawater or trace metal input to the oceans. We investigated the influences of drilling and bleaching on the reproducibility of the most commonly used proxies in the skeletons of Ceratoporella nicholsoni: δ13C, δ18O and Sr/Ca ratios. We further compare proxy records from different specimens that were correlated by U-Th dating. We find a good reproducibility for δ13C and Sr/Ca ratios. On the other hand, δ18O records show no reproducible trends and do not correlate with the Sr/Ca records. Bleaching alters the isotopic composition of the samples and decreases the reproducibilty. Sr/Ca ratios are not affected by bleaching. XRD analysis shows that fast sample drilling in the dense aragonitic skeletons can produce up to about 1 percent of calcite. Isotope values from samples drilled with different drill speeds show no significant variation, even at elevated calcite contents. Analysis of the organic carbon content shows a 3 cm wide zone in the youngest part of the skeletons with slightly elevated values (0.25 percent). In the older skeletal parts organic carbon contents are lower (0.1 percent). X-ray radiographs show no porosity change with increasing age of the skeleton except for a thin (contamination by organic carbon phases. We conclude that the skeletons of C. nicholsoni are very well suited as recorder of environmental proxies like Sr/Ca and δ13C.

  20. Differences in the initial deposition of Pu and Ra in the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio (still unknown) relating the experimentally determined effects of Pu and Ra in some animal species to observed effects of various isotopes of Ra in man presently provides the most reasonable basis for an assessment of the risk resulting to man from Pu. Extensive studies with the beagle have shown that an evaluation of this ratio on the basis of average skeletal radiation dose is complicated by several factors, one of which is the difference in the initial (gross) distribution of Pu and Ra between the various skeletal parts. Studies on the initial deposition of Pu and Ra in the whole skeleton and in individual parts of the skeleton after injection of the two nuclides as citrates demonstrated that significant differences in the distribution within the various skeletal parts exist, although the total deposition of the two nuclides in the whole skeleton is practically the same

  1. The deglaciation of Iztaccíhuatl volcano (Mexico) from the Little Ice Age maximum to the present, determined by photogrametry and lichenometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, D.; García-Sancho, L.; Zamorano, J. J.; Andrés, N.; Pintado, A.

    2012-04-01

    Iztaccíhualt Volcano (19°10'20''N, 98°38'30''W, 5230 m asl) preserves an important moraine complex from the Little Ice Age (LIA), which stretches to 4300 m asl. These moraines are different from former ones because they are not covered by ash fall from the last plinian explosive phases of the nearby Popocatépetl volcano. In fact, the last emission of those pyroclasts took place during the XI century (Vázquez-Selem, 2000). The summit area of the Iztaccíhualt volcano still has glaciers whose terminus are located around 5000 m asl. From the end of the LIA until present the glacier terminus have ascended 700 m. To study the deglaciation process in Iztaccíhualt volcano from the LIA maximum to present, the Ayoloco valley was selected as it is the most important valley of the western slope of the volcano. Taking this valley as a reference, we determined the limits of glaciers in different dates by georeferencing the aerial and panoramic photographs (from 1897 to 2000) and analysing the 1958 field cartography of the glacial limits (Lorenzo, 1964). On the one hand, we carried out a statistical analysis of the size of the Rhizocarpon geographicum thallus and, on the other hand, we undertook a statistical study of the biodiversity of the lichen species through a number of cross-sections from the lowest LIA moraines to the current glacier snouts. This methodology allowed dating the exact moment in which the glacier retreated over certain points of the analysed cross-sections and determining the ecesis and the growth curve of the Rhizocarpon geographicum specie. In the Ayoloco valley the average growth rate is of 0.23 mm per year. From this information, we could deduce the evolution of the glacier from the LIA maximum to present. The results indicate that two main advances took place during the XVII and the XIX centuries. At the beginning of the XX century the glacier terminus were very close to the moraines of the maximum advance. An intense glacial retreat took place

  2. Low-Level Mechanical Vibrations can Reduce Bone Resorption and Enhance Bone Formation in the Growing Skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie,L.; Jacobsen, J.; Busa, B.; Donahue, L.; Miller, L.; Rubin, C.; Judex, S.

    2006-01-01

    Short durations of extremely small magnitude, high-frequency, mechanical stimuli can promote anabolic activity in the adult skeleton. Here, it is determined if such signals can influence trabecular and cortical formative and resorptive activity in the growing skeleton, if the newly formed bone is of high quality, and if the insertion of rest periods during the loading phase would enhance the efficacy of the mechanical regimen. Eight-week-old female BALB/cByJ mice were divided into four groups, baseline control (n = 8), age-matched control (n = 10), whole-body vibration (WBV) at 45 Hz (0.3 g) for 15 min day{sup -1} (n = 10), and WBV that were interrupted every second by 10 of rest (WBV-R, n = 10). In vivo strain gaging of two additional mice indicated that the mechanical signal induced strain oscillations of approximately 10 microstrain on the periosteal surface of the proximal tibia. After 3 weeks of WBV, applied for 15 min each day, osteoclastic activity in the trabecular metaphysis and epiphysis of the tibia was 33% and 31% lower (P < 0.05) than in age-matched controls. Bone formation rates (BFR{center_dot}BS{sup -1}) on the endocortical surface of the metaphysis were 30% greater (P < 0.05) in WBV than in age-matched control mice but trabecular and middiaphyseal BFR were not significantly altered. The insertion of rest periods (WBV-R) failed to potentiate the cellular effects. Three weeks of either WBV or WBV-R did not negatively influence body mass, bone length, or chemical bone matrix properties of the tibia. These data indicate that in the growing skeleton, short daily periods of extremely small, high-frequency mechanical signals can inhibit trabecular bone resorption, site specifically attenuate the declining levels of bone formation, and maintain a high level of matrix quality. If WBV prove to be efficacious in the growing human skeleton, they may be able to provide the basis for a non-pharmacological and safe means to increase peak bone mass and, ultimately

  3. DNA Damage: A Main Determinant of Vascular Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Niño, Paula K; Portilla-Fernandez, Eliana; Vaughan, Douglas E; Danser, A H Jan; Roks, Anton J M

    2016-01-01

    Vascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative mechanisms by which chronological aging mediates its impact, independently from classical risk factors, remain to be elucidated. In recent years evidence has accumulated that unrepaired DNA damage may play an important role. Observations in animal models and in humans indicate that under conditions during which DNA damage accumulates in an accelerated rate, functional decline of the vasculature takes place in a similar but more rapid or more exaggerated way than occurs in the absence of such conditions. Also epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between DNA maintenance and age-related cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, mouse models of defective DNA repair are means to study the mechanisms involved in biological aging of the vasculature. We here review the evidence of the role of DNA damage in vascular aging, and present mechanisms by which genomic instability interferes with regulation of the vascular tone. In addition, we present potential remedies against vascular aging induced by genomic instability. Central to this review is the role of diverse types of DNA damage (telomeric, non-telomeric and mitochondrial), of cellular changes (apoptosis, senescence, autophagy), mediators of senescence and cell growth (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)/senescence-messaging secretome (SMS), insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling), the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) axis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) vs. endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c

  4. The Skeleton Forming Proteome of an Early Branching Metazoan: A Molecular Survey of the Biomineralization Components Employed by the Coralline Sponge Vaceletia Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Germer

    Full Text Available The ability to construct a mineralized skeleton was a major innovation for the Metazoa during their evolution in the late Precambrian/early Cambrian. Porifera (sponges hold an informative position for efforts aimed at unraveling the origins of this ability because they are widely regarded to be the earliest branching metazoans, and are among the first multi-cellular animals to display the ability to biomineralize in the fossil record. Very few biomineralization associated proteins have been identified in sponges so far, with no transcriptome or proteome scale surveys yet available. In order to understand what genetic repertoire may have been present in the last common ancestor of the Metazoa (LCAM, and that may have contributed to the evolution of the ability to biocalcify, we have studied the skeletal proteome of the coralline demosponge Vaceletia sp. and compare this to other metazoan biomineralizing proteomes. We bring some spatial resolution to this analysis by dividing Vaceletia's aragonitic calcium carbonate skeleton into "head" and "stalk" regions. With our approach we were able to identify 40 proteins from both the head and stalk regions, with many of these sharing some similarity to previously identified gene products from other organisms. Among these proteins are known biomineralization compounds, such as carbonic anhydrase, spherulin, extracellular matrix proteins and very acidic proteins. This report provides the first proteome scale analysis of a calcified poriferan skeletal proteome, and its composition clearly demonstrates that the LCAM contributed several key enzymes and matrix proteins to its descendants that supported the metazoan ability to biocalcify. However, lineage specific evolution is also likely to have contributed significantly to the ability of disparate metazoan lineages to biocalcify.

  5. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  6. The study of Parametric Design for Body of Organization based on Skeleton Model by Pro/E%曲柄摇杆机构的骨架模型法参数化设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润

    2012-01-01

    The top- down design mode accords with the design process for product. The skeleton model design is one of the method that top - down designs in pro/E. The skeleton model of Pro/E reflects the total structure and design project of product. The skeleton model promises scientific product design and the accuracy of assemble. With Pro/Engineer parametric design, a new method of skeleton model for body of organization is proposed. By skeleton model method, the parts of organization body is designed. The Parametric designs and the series designs is finished with change of the parameter of skeleton model. This system provides a simple and convenient modeling method, which is helpful to improve the designing quality and working efficiency and shorten the design cycle. The model can be applied to other similar parts of the design process.%自顶向下的设计模式符合产品的设计思路,Pro/E软件在组件模式下的骨架模型设计是自顶向下设计的方法之一。该法可以使设计信息在整个组件中顺利地传达,保证了产品设计合理性和装配的准确性,从而确保稳妥的设计。结合Pro/E参数化建模思路,在组件模式下设计了曲柄摇杆机构的参数化骨架模型,并通过该骨架模型创建了机构零件,通过改变机构骨架模型参数,实现了曲柄摇杆机构的参数化和系列化设计。

  7. Determining the Type, Redshift, and Age of a Supernova Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blondin, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    We present an algorithm to identify the type of an SN spectrum and to determine its redshift and age. This algorithm, based on the correlation techniques of Tonry & Davis, is implemented in the Supernova Identification (SNID) code. It is used by members of ongoing high-redshift SN searches to distinguish between type Ia and type Ib/c SNe, and to identify "peculiar" SNe Ia. We develop a diagnostic to quantify the quality of a correlation between the input and template spectra, which enables a formal evaluation of the associated redshift error. Furthermore, by comparing the correlation redshifts obtained using SNID with those determined from narrow lines in the SN host galaxy spectrum, we show that accurate redshifts (with a typical error less than 0.01) can be determined for SNe Ia without a spectrum of the host galaxy. Last, the age of an input spectrum is determined with a typical 3-day accuracy, shown here by using high-redshift SNe Ia with well-sampled light curves. The success of the correlation techn...

  8. Determination of Diastolic Dysfunction Cut-Off Value by Tissue Doppler Imaging in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older: A Comparative Analysis of Pulsed-Wave and Color-Coded Tissue Doppler Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Hee-Kyung; Park, Tae-Ho; Park, Sun-Yi; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Seo, Jeong-Min; Kim, Woo-Jae; Nam, Young-Hee; Kim, Moo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Dae

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives The cut-off value of diastolic dysfunction by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is affected by aging and modalities used (pulsed-wave vs. color-coded). The purpose of this study was to investigate the diastolic function of healthy elderly people and to determine the appropriate cut-off value of diastolic dysfunction in elderly individuals. Subjects and Methods Healthy volunteers (n=76) and patients with hypertension (n=51) aged ≥70 years underwent 2-dimensional and Dopple...

  9. 77 FR 4858 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... determinations made by ] the Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  10. The age of second language acquisition determines the variability in activation elicited by narration in three languages in Broca's and Wernicke's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Constantine; Kaiser, Anelis; Kuenzli, Esther; Zappatore, Daniela; Haller, Sven; Franceschini, Rita; Luedi, Georges; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula

    2009-02-01

    It is generally accepted that the presence of a second language (L2) has an impact on the neuronal substrates build up and used for language processing; the influence of the age of L2 exposure, however, is not established. We tested the hypothesis that the age of L2 acquisition has an effect on the cortical representation of a multilingual repertoire in 44 multilinguals with different age of exposure to a L2 (simultaneous or covert simultaneous exposure to L1 and L2, sequential acquisition of L1 and L2 between 1 and 5 years, late learning of L2 after 9 years of age) and all fluent in a late learned L3. Regional activation in a language production task showed a high in-between-subject variability, which was higher than within-subject variability between L1, L2, and L3. We, therefore, performed a single subject analysis and calculated the within-subject variance in the numbers of activated voxels in Broca's and Wernicke's area. Subjects with early exposure to L2 showed low variability in brain activation in all three languages, in the two early as well as the late learned language. In contrast, late multilinguals exhibited higher variability. Thus, cerebral representation of languages is linked to the age of L2 acquisition: early exposure to more than one language gives rise to a language processing network that is activated homogeneously by early and late learned languages, while the inhomogeneous activation in late multilinguals indicates more independent access to the multilingual repertoire. Early passive exposure to L2 results in the same low variance as active bilingual upbringing. Variability in local brain activity increases progressively from the simultaneous to late L2 exposure, indicating a gradual transition from the mode of early bilingual language representation to that of late ones.

  11. The age of second language acquisition determines the variability in activation elicited by narration in three languages in Broca's and Wernicke's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Constantine; Kaiser, Anelis; Kuenzli, Esther; Zappatore, Daniela; Haller, Sven; Franceschini, Rita; Luedi, Georges; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula

    2009-02-01

    It is generally accepted that the presence of a second language (L2) has an impact on the neuronal substrates build up and used for language processing; the influence of the age of L2 exposure, however, is not established. We tested the hypothesis that the age of L2 acquisition has an effect on the cortical representation of a multilingual repertoire in 44 multilinguals with different age of exposure to a L2 (simultaneous or covert simultaneous exposure to L1 and L2, sequential acquisition of L1 and L2 between 1 and 5 years, late learning of L2 after 9 years of age) and all fluent in a late learned L3. Regional activation in a language production task showed a high in-between-subject variability, which was higher than within-subject variability between L1, L2, and L3. We, therefore, performed a single subject analysis and calculated the within-subject variance in the numbers of activated voxels in Broca's and Wernicke's area. Subjects with early exposure to L2 showed low variability in brain activation in all three languages, in the two early as well as the late learned language. In contrast, late multilinguals exhibited higher variability. Thus, cerebral representation of languages is linked to the age of L2 acquisition: early exposure to more than one language gives rise to a language processing network that is activated homogeneously by early and late learned languages, while the inhomogeneous activation in late multilinguals indicates more independent access to the multilingual repertoire. Early passive exposure to L2 results in the same low variance as active bilingual upbringing. Variability in local brain activity increases progressively from the simultaneous to late L2 exposure, indicating a gradual transition from the mode of early bilingual language representation to that of late ones. PMID:19061905

  12. Efficient volume preserving approach for skeleton-based implicit surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史红兵; 童若锋; 董金祥

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient way to preserve the volume of implicit surfaces generated by skeletons. Recursive subdivision is used to efficiently calculate the volume. The criterion for subdivision is obtained by using the property of density functions and treating different types of skeletons respectively to get accurate minimum and maximum distances from a cube to a skeleton. Compared with the criterion generated by other ways such as using traditional Interval Analysis, Affine Arithmetic, or Lipschitz condition, our approach is much better both in speed and accuracy.

  13. Morphological, motor and technical determinants of fighting efficiency of Croatian female cadet age karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Josefina; Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the significance of morphological factors, factors of basic motor and specific motor abilities, and the factors of technical efficiency, on the karate fight success in Croatian female cadet karate athletes. With this purpose, the group of 18 anthropometric measures, 10 basic motor tests, 5 situational karate motor tests, the group of 8 evaluations of 6 basic karate techniques, and 2 karate kata performances was applied on the sample of 101 Croatian karateka aged 14 to 16. Inside the morphological area, the factor analysis isolated: Body mass and volume factor, Subcutaneous fat tissue factor, Longitudinal skeleton dimensionality factor, and Transversal fist dimensionality factor; in the basic motor area: General motor efficiency factor; in the situational motor area: General specific motor efficiency factor; in the area of karate technique performance evaluation: General technical efficiency factor. After that, the application of canonical discriminative analysis determined the differences between high and lower quality karate athletes in the overall area of the isolated factors. The discriminative function showed that high quality female karate athletes compared to those of lower quality differ the most in higher technical efficiency, higher basic and specific motor efficiency, while having somewhat less fat tissue and somewhat wider wrist and fist diameter.

  14. A Robust Rigid Skeleton Extraction Method from Noisy Visual Hull Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The existing skeleton extraction algorithms from a coarse and noisy model cannot achieve a satisfactory skeleton, let alone the joints’ central position in a markerless motion capture system (e.g., a rigid skeleton. To solve this problem, we propose a rigid skeleton extraction algorithm from a noisy visual hull model with phantom volumes. Firstly, we reconstruct the subject visual hull and the corresponding volumetric model from a multiple-view synchronized video sequence. Secondly, the curve skeleton of the volume model is computed based on the theory of repulsive force fields. Thirdly, we propose a criterion for linking a curved skeleton to link the different skeleton limbs using a back-tracking method. At the same time, we obtain the distance and angle threshold values adaptively using a binary search algorithm. Finally, after achieving a smooth curve skeleton, we determine the joints’ central positions in the skeleton using a priori information of the human body to form a rigid skeleton. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can obtain a desirable rigid skeleton with good robustness, less sensitivity to noise, and using an automatic procedure.

  15. Tables for determining lead, uranium, and thorium isotope ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, E.

    1974-01-01

    Tables for determining lead, uranium, and thorium isotope ages are presented in the form of computer printouts. Decay constants, analytical expressions for the functions evaluated, and the precision of the calculations are briefly discussed.

  16. Age determination of bottom sediments from Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dating plays a key role in determining past environmental changes in lake sediments cores. The feldspar post-IR infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) procedure is one of the IRSL procedures and has a great potential to date older samples compared to quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). In this study, the post-IR IRSL (pIRIR) procedure was applied to the polymineral fine grained sediments from Lake Khuvsgul (Hovsgol), Mongolia, and these ages were compared to 14C ages of bulk samples from the certain depths. The pIRIR ages are always younger than 14C ages from bulk samples, however, it was possible to construct the suitable age model based on luminescence and 14C ages. Therefore, pIRIR225 protocol can be contributed to estimate the sedimentation age of lake sediments as well as 14C dating. (author)

  17. Towards an accurate determination of the age of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, R

    1998-01-01

    In the past 40 years a considerable effort has been focused in determining the age of the Universe at zero redshift using several stellar clocks. In this review I will describe the best theoretical methods to determine the age of the oldest Galactic Globular Clusters (GC). I will also argue that a more accurate age determination may come from passively evolving high-redshift ellipticals. In particular, I will review two new methods to determine the age of GC. These two methods are more accurate than the classical isochrone fitting technique. The first method is based on the morphology of the horizontal branch and is independent of the distance modulus of the globular cluster. The second method uses a careful binning of the stellar luminosity function which determines simultaneously the distance and age of the GC. It is found that the oldest GCs have an age of $13.5 \\pm 2$ Gyr. The absolute minimum age for the oldest GCs is 10.5 Gyr and the maximum is 16.0 Gyr (with 99% confidence). Therefore, an Einstein-De S...

  18. The Derivation of Skeleton Lines for Terrain Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The geometric and physical analysis methods are conventional methods for the derivation of skeleton lines in the fields of cartography,digital photogrammetry,and related areas.This paper proposes a stepwise approach that uses the physical analysis method in the first stage and the geometric analysis method in the subsequent stage.The physical analysis method analyses the terrain globally to obtain a rough set of skeleton lines for a terrain surface.The rough skeleton lines help to structure the ordering of feature points by the geometric analysis method.

  19. Harmonic skeleton guided evaluation of stenoses in human coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen R; Giddens, Don P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that three-dimensionally visualizes and evaluates stenoses in human coronary arteries by using harmonic skeletons. A harmonic skeleton is the center line of a multi-branched tubular surface extracted based on a harmonic function, which is the solution of the Laplace equation. This skeletonization method guarantees smoothness and connectivity and provides a fast and straightforward way to calculate local cross-sectional areas of the arteries, and thus provides the possibility to localize and evaluate coronary artery stenosis, which is a commonly seen pathology in coronary artery disease. PMID:16685882

  20. Evaluation of age determination techniques for gray wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, D.B.; Waite, C.A.; Peterson, R.O.; Mech, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated tooth wear, cranial suture fusion, closure of the canine pulp cavity, and cementum annuli as methods of age determination for known- and unknown-age gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, Ontario, and Isle Royale, Michigan. We developed age classes for cranial suture closure and tooth wear. We used measurement data obtained from known-age captive and wild wolves to generate a regression equation to predict age based on the degree of closure of the canine pulp cavity. Cementum annuli were studied in known- and unknown-age animals, and calcified, unstained thin sections were found to provide clear annulus patterns under polarized transmitted light. Annuli counts varied among observers, partly because of variation in the pattern of annuli in different regions of the cementum. This variation emphasizes the need for standardized models of cementum analysis. Cranial suture fusion is of limited utility in age determination, while tooth wear can be used to estimate age of adult wolves within 4 years. Wolves lt 7 years old could be aged to within 13 years with the regression equation for closure of the canine pulp cavity. Although inaccuracy remains a problem, cementum-annulus counts were the most promising means of estimating age for gray wolves.

  1. A novel strain energy relationship for red blood cell membrane skeleton based on spectrin stiffness and its application to micropipette deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetina, Saša; Kokot, Gašper; Kebe, Tjaša Švelc; Žekš, Boštjan; Waugh, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) membrane skeleton is a closed two-dimensional elastic network of spectrin tetramers with nodes formed by short actin filaments. Its three-dimensional shape conforms to the shape of the bilayer, to which it is connected through vertical linkages to integral membrane proteins. Numerous methods have been devised over the years to predict the response of the RBC membrane to applied forces and determine the corresponding increase in the skeleton elastic energy arising either directly from continuum descriptions of its deformation, or seeking to relate the macroscopic behavior of the membrane to its molecular constituents. In the current work, we present a novel continuum formulation rooted in the molecular structure of the membrane and apply it to analyze model deformations similar to those that occur during aspiration of RBCs into micropipettes. The microscopic elastic properties of the skeleton are derived by treating spectrin tetramers as simple linear springs. For a given local deformation of the skeleton, we determine the average bond energy and define the corresponding strain energy function and stress-strain relationships. The lateral redistribution of the skeleton is determined variationally to correspond to the minimum of its total energy. The predicted dependence of the length of the aspirated tongue on the aspiration pressure is shown to describe the experimentally observed system behavior in a quantitative manner by taking into account in addition to the skeleton energy an energy of attraction between RBC membrane and the micropipette surface. PMID:26376642

  2. The Success Rate in a Complicated Spatial Memory Test Is Determined by Age, Sex, Life History and Search Strategies in Cynomolgus Monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda S; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sajuthi, Dondin;

    2014-01-01

    In a retrospective analysis of data from three studies using a delayed response task in cynomolgus monkeys, we examined the subjects' search patterns and success rates. Twenty-seven monkeys of both sexes, divided into three age groups, were tasked with retrieving two food items hidden in an array...... of six identical opaque cups. Although the task was challenging for all subjects, generating a high level of guesswork, evidence of common behaviors when approaching the spatial memory test were found. The search patterns employed by the monkeys suggest the use of landmark cues, adaption in response...

  3. The Difficulty of Sexing Skeletons from Unknown Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sierp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of sex from skeletal remains is performed using a number of methods developed by biological anthropology. They must be evaluated for consistency and for their performance in a forensic setting. Twenty skeletons of varied provenance had their sex determined by 15 existing methods of forensic anthropology (7 metric and 8 morphological. The methods were evaluated for their consistency in determination of sex. No single individual was identified as belonging to one sex exclusively. Ambiguous results were obtained by metric methods for fourteen individuals (70% and by morphological methods for only five individuals (25% (Chi-squared = 4.3, df = 1, P<0.05. Methods which use the size of bones as an indicator of sex perform poorly on skeletal remains of individuals of unknown provenance. Methods which combine morphologic and metric techniques, that is, geometric morphometric analysis, may result in greater levels of consistency.

  4. Clinical and prognostic significance of bone marrow abnormalities in the appendicular skeleton detected by low-dose whole-body multidetector computed tomography in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical significance of medullary abnormalities in the appendicular skeleton (AS) detected by low-dose whole-body multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) was investigated. A total of 172 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n=17), smoldering MM (n=47) and symptomatic MM (n=108) underwent low-dose MDCT. CT values (CTv) of medullary density of AS⩾0 Hounsfield unit (HU) was considered as abnormal. Percentage of medullary abnormalities and the mean CTv of AS in patients with MGUS, smoldering MM and symptomatic MM were 18, 55 and 62% and −44.5 , −20.3 and 11.2 HU, respectively (P<0.001 and P<0.001). Disease progression of MM was independently associated with high CTv on multivariate analysis. In symptomatic MM, the presence of abnormal medullary lesions was associated with increased incidence of high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (34.4% vs 7.7% P=0.002) and extramedullary disease (10.4% vs 0% P=0.032). It was also an independent poor prognostic predictor (hazard ratio 3.546, P=0.04). This study showed that CTv of AS by MDCT is correlated with disease progression of MM, and the presence of abnormal medullary lesions is a predictor for poor survival

  5. Determining optimum aging time using novel core flooding equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahkami, Mehrdad; Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Xiarchos, Ioannis;

    2016-01-01

    New methods for enhanced oil recovery are typically developed using core flooding techniques. Establishing reservoir conditions is essential before the experimental campaign commences. The realistic oil-rock wettability can be obtained through optimum aging of the core. Aging time is affected...... the optimum aging time regardless of variations in crude oil, rock, and brine properties. State of the art core flooding equipment has been developed that can be used for consistently determining the resistivity of the coreplug during aging and waterflooding using advanced data acquisition software...

  6. A Stochastic Skeleton Model for the MJO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechmann, S. N.; Thual, S.; Majda, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of variability in the tropical atmosphere on intraseasonal time scales and planetary spatial scales. Despite the primary importance of the MJO and the decades of research progress since its original discovery, a generally accepted theory for its essential mechanisms has remained elusive. In recent work by two of the authors, a minimal dynamical model has been proposed that recovers robustly the most fundamental MJO features of (i) a slow eastward speed of roughly 5 m/s, (ii) a peculiar dispersion relation with dω/dk≈0, and (iii) a horizontal quadrupole vortex structure. This model, the skeleton model, depicts the MJO as a neutrally stable atmospheric wave that involves a simple multiscale interaction between planetary dry dynamics, planetary lower-tropospheric moisture, and the planetary envelope of synoptic-scale activity. In this article, it is shown that the skeleton model can further account for (iv) the intermittent generation of MJO events and (v) the organization of MJO events into wave trains with growth and demise, as seen in nature. The goal is achieved by developing a simple stochastic parameterization for the unresolved details of synoptic-scale activity, which is coupled to otherwise deterministic processes in the skeleton model. In particular, the intermittent initiation, propagation, and shut down of MJO wave trains in the skeleton model occur through these stochastic effects. This includes examples with a background warm pool where some initial MJO-like disturbances propagate through the western region but stall at the peak of background convection/heating corresponding to the Maritime Continent in nature. Also shown are examples with an idealized seasonal cycle, namely a background warm pool state of heating/moistening displacing meridionally during the year. This seasonally varying case considers both equatorial and off-equatorial components of the envelope of synoptic scale convective

  7. Parallel FFT using Eden Skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Dieterle, Mischa; Lobachev, Oleg;

    2009-01-01

    approaches like calculating FFT using a parallel map-and-transpose skeleton provide more flexibility to overcome these problems. Assuming a distributed access to input data and re-organising computation to return results in a distributed way improves the parallel runtime behaviour....

  8. 3D Elastic Registration of Ultrasound Images Based on Skeleton Feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dan-dan; LIU Zhi-Yan; SHEN Yi

    2005-01-01

    In order to eliminate displacement and elastic deformation between images of adjacent frames in course of 3D ultrasonic image reconstruction, elastic registration based on skeleton feature was adopt in this paper. A new automatically skeleton tracking extract algorithm is presented, which can extract connected skeleton to express figure feature. Feature points of connected skeleton are extracted automatically by accounting topical curvature extreme points several times. Initial registration is processed according to barycenter of skeleton. Whereafter, elastic registration based on radial basis function are processed according to feature points of skeleton. Result of example demonstrate that according to traditional rigid registration, elastic registration based on skeleton feature retain natural difference in shape for organ's different part, and eliminate slight elastic deformation between frames caused by image obtained process simultaneously. This algorithm has a high practical value for image registration in course of 3D ultrasound image reconstruction.

  9. Plants flex their skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Randy; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on the fragile fiber mutants of Arabidopsis has identified microtubule-associated proteins that affect the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in cell walls, a major determinant of plant elongation growth. These same proteins are implicated in responses to gibberellin, provoking fresh...

  10. Naked Stony Corals: Skeleton Loss in Scleractinia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Takaoka, Tori L.; Kuehl,Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Hexacorallia includes the Scleractinia, or stony corals, characterized by having an external calcareous skeleton made of aragonite, and the Corallimorpharia, or mushroom corals, that lack such a skeleton. Although each group has traditionally been considered monophyletic, some molecular phylogenetic analyses have challenged this, suggesting that skeletal features are evolutionarily plastic, and reviving notions that the scleractinian skeleton may be ephemeral and that the group itself may be polyphyletic. Nevertheless, the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of Hexacorallia supported scleractinian monophyly (REF), and so this remains controversial. In order to resolve this contentious issue, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of nine scleractinians and four corallimorpharians and performed phylogenetic analysis that also included three outgroups (an octocoral and two sea anemones). Our data provide the first strong evidence that Scleractinia is paraphyletic and that the Corallimorpharia is derived from within the group, from which we conclude that skeletal loss has occurred in the latter group secondarily. It is possible that a driving force in such skeletal loss could be the high levels of CO{sub 2} in the ocean during the mid-Cretaceous, which would have impacted aragonite solubility. We estimate from molecular divergence measures that the Corallimorpharia arose in the mid-Cretaceous, approximately 87 million years ago (Ma), supporting this view. These data also permit us to date the origin of Scleractinia to 265 Ma, narrowing the gap between the group's phylogenetic origin and its earliest fossil record.

  11. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M.; Norton, Andrew L.; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J.; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R. S.; Ronald A. Dixon; Nader, Helena B.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archae...

  12. METHODS FOR AGE AND GROWTH DETERMINATION IN CEPHALOPODS

    OpenAIRE

    Svjetlana Krstulović Šifner

    2008-01-01

    Different methods used in age determination of cephalopods and their importance for assessment and management purposes for this group of marine organisms are described in the paper. Scientific investigations have proved that indirect methods (length frequency data) are not reliable enough and should always be accompanied with one direct method, although these methods are very demanding and time consuming. Today, statoliths are the most frequently used direct method for age estimation. These h...

  13. Non-financial determinants of the retirement age

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeer, C.A.F.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines the importance of non-financial determinants for the individual retirement age. Recent increases in statutory retirement ages around the world point to the relevance of this issue. Financial incentives alone cannot fully explain observed retirement behavior. Chapter 2 examines the possible relevance of insights from behavioral economics and social norms for retirement and concludes that defaults, reference points and social norms are likely explanations for observed...

  14. The prevalence and determinants of Chinese medicine use by Australian women: analysis of a cohort of 10,287 women aged 56-61 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbritt, David; Adams, Jon; Murthy, Vijayendra

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the factors associated with Chinese medicine use amongst a sample of 10,287 Australian women aged 56-61 years. Data was obtained from a cross-sectional postal questionnaire conducted in 2007, this being the fifth survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. This representative sample of 10,287 women was randomly selected from the Health Insurance Commission (Medicare) database. The outcome measure was the use of Chinese medicine in the previous 12 months. The predictive factors included demographics, health status measures and health service utilization measures. Statistical analyses included univariate chi-square and ANOVA tests and backward stepwise multiple logistic regression modelling. The use of Chinese medicine amongst women aged 56-61 years appears to be strongly influenced by their country of birth, consultation with a range of CAM practitioners, and the use of some self-prescribed CAM. Interestingly, severe tiredness was the only symptom or diagnosis that predicted Chinese medicine use. Given the substantial prevalence of Chinese medicine use and the finding that the use of Chinese medicine is heavily integrated alongside the use of many other CAM and conventional treatments, it is imperative for the safety of patients that health professionals (across complementary and conventional healthcare) fully recognise the possible Chinese medicine use amongst their practice populations. In order to help inform relevant practice and policy development it is also important that future research further examining women's decision-making, motivations and evaluations regarding Chinese medicine use considers such issues within the context of broader CAM and conventional health care utilization. PMID:23548119

  15. Rational Improvement of Molar Absorptivity Guided by Oscillator Strength: A Case Study with Furoindolizine-Based Core Skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngjun; Jo, Ala; Park, Seung Bum

    2015-12-21

    The rational improvement of photophysical properties can be highly valuable for the discovery of novel organic fluorophores. Using our new design strategy guided by the oscillator strength, we developed a series of full-color-tunable furoindolizine analogs with improved molar absorptivity through the fusion of a furan ring into the indolizine-based Seoul fluorophore. The excellent correlation between the computable values (oscillator strength and theoretical S0 -S1 energy gap) and photophysical properties (molar absorptivity and emission wavelength) confirmed the effectualness of our design strategy.

  16. A reservoir skeleton-based multiple point geostatistics method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Traditional stochastic reservoir modeling,including object-based and pixel-based methods,cannot solve the problem of reproducing continuous and curvilinear reservoir objects. The paper first dives into the various stochastic modeling methods and extracts their merits,then proposes the skeleton-based multiple point geostatistics(SMPS) for the fluvial reservoir. The core idea is using the skeletons of reservoir objects to restrict the selection of data patterns. The skeleton-based multiple point geostatistics consists of two steps. First,predicting the channel skeleton(namely,channel centerline) by using the method in object-based modeling. The paper proposes a new method of search window to predict the skeleton. Then forecasting the distributions of reservoir objects using multiple point geostatistics with the restriction of channel skeleton. By the restriction of channel centerline,the selection of data events will be more reasonable and the realization will be achieved more really. The checks by the conceptual model and the real reservoir show that SMPS is much better than Sisim(sequential indicator simulation) ,Snesim(Single Normal Equation Simulation) and Simpat(simulation with patterns) in building the fluvial reservoir model. This new method will contribute to both the theoretical research of stochastic modeling and the oilfield developments of constructing highly precise reservoir geological models.

  17. Skeleton-based Hierarchical Shape Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    We present an effective framework for segmenting 3D shapes into meaningful components using the curve skeleton. Our algorithm identifies a number of critical points on the curve skeleton, either fully automatically as the junctions of the curve skeleton, or based on user input. We use these points t

  18. Towards Global Age-Friendly Cities: Determining Urban Features that Promote Active Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Plouffe, Louise; Kalache, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    At the same time as cities are growing, their share of older residents is increasing. To engage and assist cities to become more “age-friendly,” the World Health Organization (WHO) prepared the Global Age-Friendly Cities Guide and a companion “Checklist of Essential Features of Age-Friendly Cities”. In collaboration with partners in 35 cities from developed and developing countries, WHO determined the features of age-friendly cities in eight domains of urban life: outdoor spaces and buildings...

  19. Deconstructing the Iboga Alkaloid Skeleton: Potentiation of FGF2-induced Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Release by a Novel Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassaway, Madalee M; Jacques, Teresa L; Kruegel, Andrew C; Karpowicz, Richard J; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Shu; Myer, Yves; Sames, Dalibor

    2016-01-15

    Modulation of growth factor signaling pathways in the brain represents a new experimental approach to treating neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and addiction. Neurotrophins and growth factors exert synaptic, neuronal, and circuit level effects on a wide temporal range, which suggests a possibility of rapid and lasting therapeutic effects. Consequently, identification of small molecules that can either enhance the release of growth factors or potentiate their respective pathways will provide a drug-like alternative to direct neurotrophin administration or viral gene delivery and thus represents an important frontier in chemical biology and drug design. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), in particular, has been implicated in marked reduction of alcohol consumption in rodent addiction models, and the natural product ibogaine, a substance used traditionally in ritualistic ceremonies, has been suggested to increase the synthesis and release of GDNF in the dopaminergic system in rats. In this report, we describe a novel iboga analog, XL-008, created by unraveling the medium size ring of the ibogamine skeleton, and its ability to induce release of GDNF in C6 glioma cells. Additionally, XL-008 potentiates the release of GDNF induced by fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), another neurotrophin implicated in major depressive disorder, increasing potency more than 2-fold (from 7.85 ± 2.59 ng/mL to 3.31 ± 0.98 ng/mL) and efficacy more than 3-fold. The GDNF release by both XL-008 and the FGF2/XL-008 mixture was found to be mediated through the MEK and PI3K signaling pathways but not through PLCγ in C6 glioma cells.

  20. Building Up the Milky Way's Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    designed to identify long filaments that are coherent both in physical and velocity space.Using this method, Wang and collaborators found a total of 54 large-scale filaments that met all of their criteria. The survey covered nearly half of the galactic plane, and the team estimates that there may be a total of ~200 large-scale filaments like these in the Milky Way.Histograms of the mass and length of the newly discovered filaments (N=54). The distributions for the filaments that are bones (N=13) are overplotted in red. [Adapted from Wang et al. 2016]A Catalog of Bones and MoreThe authors generated a catalog of the newly discovered filaments, determining properties like their masses (1,000100,000 solar masses), lengths (30900 light-years), aspect ratios, temperatures, and more. They then used this catalog to make several statistical observations:The filaments are widely distributed across the galactic disk, with roughly 50% located within 65 light-years of the galactic plane (for reference, the Sun is 82 light-years above the galactic plane).Roughly a 1/3 of the filaments are part of the Milky Ways skeleton, lying along the centers of our galaxys spiral arms.Around 1% of the molecular interstellar medium in our galaxy is confined in large filaments like these.The formation of massive stars occurs more favorably in large filaments, compared to elsewhere in our galaxy.This catalog is an important building block in our understanding of the structure of the interstellar medium of our galaxy. The authors next plan to extend this census to the rest of our galaxy, providing us with the best picture yet of the skeleton of the Milky Way.BonusCheck out all 54 of the filaments discovered by Wang and collaborators in the gif below (or follow the link to the article to view the original images)! Submillimeter dust emission is shown in red, and Spitzer/WISE 24/22 m emission is shown in cyan. The connected dots show how the filament was identified by the minimum spanning tree algorithm

  1. Spectroscopic Determination of Masses (and Implied Ages) for Red Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, M.; Hogg, David W.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Ho, A. Y. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter. For red giant stars, tracers luminous enough to be observed across the Galaxy, mass implies a stellar evolution age. It has proven to be extremely difficult to infer ages and masses directly from red giant spectra using existing methods. From the Kepler and apogee surveys, samples of several thousand stars exist with high-quality spectra and asteroseismic masses. Here we show that from these data we can build a data-driven spectral model using The Cannon, which can determine stellar masses to ˜0.07 dex from apogee dr12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to ˜0.2 dex (40%). We show that The Cannon constrains these ages foremost from spectral regions with CN absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 70,000 giants (including 20,000 red clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R˜ 20 kpc). We show that the age information in the spectra is not simply a corollary of the birth-material abundances {{[Fe/H]}} and [α /{Fe}], and that, even within a monoabundance population of stars, there are age variations that vary sensibly with Galactic position. Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  2. Spectroscopic Determination of Masses (and Implied Ages) for Red Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, M.; Hogg, David W.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Ho, A. Y. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter. For red giant stars, tracers luminous enough to be observed across the Galaxy, mass implies a stellar evolution age. It has proven to be extremely difficult to infer ages and masses directly from red giant spectra using existing methods. From the Kepler and apogee surveys, samples of several thousand stars exist with high-quality spectra and asteroseismic masses. Here we show that from these data we can build a data-driven spectral model using The Cannon, which can determine stellar masses to ∼0.07 dex from apogee dr12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to ∼0.2 dex (40%). We show that The Cannon constrains these ages foremost from spectral regions with CN absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 70,000 giants (including 20,000 red clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R∼ 20 kpc). We show that the age information in the spectra is not simply a corollary of the birth-material abundances {{[Fe/H]}} and [α /{Fe}], and that, even within a monoabundance population of stars, there are age variations that vary sensibly with Galactic position. Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  3. Reciprocal Changes in Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase and Pyruvate Kinase with Age Are a Determinant of Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yiyuan; Hakimi, Parvin; Kao, Clara; Kao, Allison; Liu, Ruifu; Janocha, Allison; Boyd-Tressler, Andrea; Hang, Xi; Alhoraibi, Hanna; Slater, Erin; Xia, Kevin; Cao, Pengxiu; Shue, Quinn; Ching, Tsui-Ting; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Erzurum, Serpil C; Dubyak, George R; Berger, Nathan A; Hanson, Richard W; Feng, Zhaoyang

    2016-01-15

    Aging involves progressive loss of cellular function and integrity, presumably caused by accumulated stochastic damage to cells. Alterations in energy metabolism contribute to aging, but how energy metabolism changes with age, how these changes affect aging, and whether they can be modified to modulate aging remain unclear. In locomotory muscle of post-fertile Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a progressive decrease in cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), a longevity-associated metabolic enzyme, and a reciprocal increase in glycolytic pyruvate kinase (PK) that were necessary and sufficient to limit lifespan. Decline in PEPCK-C with age also led to loss of cellular function and integrity including muscle activity, and cellular senescence. Genetic and pharmacologic interventions of PEPCK-C, muscle activity, and AMPK signaling demonstrate that declines in PEPCK-C and muscle function with age interacted to limit reproductive life and lifespan via disrupted energy homeostasis. Quantifications of metabolic flux show that reciprocal changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age shunted energy metabolism toward glycolysis, reducing mitochondrial bioenergetics. Last, calorie restriction countered changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age to elicit anti-aging effects via TOR inhibition. Thus, a programmed metabolic event involving PEPCK-C and PK is a determinant of aging that can be modified to modulate aging.

  4. Determinants of active aging among the elderly Portuguese population

    OpenAIRE

    Calha, António

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in this communication is to contribute to the characterization of motor skills of the Portuguese elderly population, determining their relationship with age and with the subjective health status. We characterized the capabilities of gross motor skills (GMS) and fine motor skills (FMS) based on two indices that aggregate various indicators.

  5. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A skeletal x-ray is an imaging test used to look at the bones. It is used to detect fractures , tumors, or ... in the health care provider's office by an x-ray technologist. You will lie on a table or ...

  6. Electrical Aging Phenomena of Power Cables Aged by Switching Impulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Cao; A.Zanwar; S.Grzybowski

    2013-01-01

    Due to the insufficient information regarding the aging phenomenon of cables caused by switching impulses,we aged 15 kV XLPE and EPR cable samples by 10000 switching impulses in experiments and tested them.Plus in order to compare the aging phenomenon under multi-stress conditions,additional EPR cable samples were aged by rated AC voltage and current with switching impulses superimposed.We used measurements of partial discharge parameters to monitor the cables' conditions during their aging process,and the AC breakdown voltages measurement to evaluate the cables after aging.Moreover,the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements revealed the changes of insulation materials after aging.The measurement results confirm that the accelerated aging of cable samples had taken place.The impacts of each individual aging factor are shown through the selected measurements and comparison.The study also helps to assess the reliability of the XLPE and EPR cables under similar condition while serving in power systems.

  7. Determination of U-Pb age and rare earth element concentrations of zircons from Cenozoic intrusions in northeastern China by laser ablation ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Honglin; WU Fuyuan; GAO Shan; LIU Xiaoming; XU Ping; SUN Deyou

    2003-01-01

    Using the in situ zircon U-Pb dating method of LA-ICPMS, we analyzed the 31 Ma old SHRIMP U-Pb age of the Yongsheng nepheline syenite from southern Jilin Province under different spot sizes. The obtained ages are comparable with that of SHRIMP in both accuracy and precision. The age is also identical to that of the Yinmawanshan gabbro from the Liaodong Peninsula within error. Both the Yongsheng nepheline syenite and the Yinmawanshan gabbro represent the youngest known exposed intrusions in northeastern and even eastern China. The results indicate the Eocene mantle-derived magmatic underplating, and the rapid crustal uplifting of this region since 30 Ma. The analyses also document extremely high LREE concentrations and relatively flat REE patterns for the zircons from the Yongsheng nepheline syenite, which represent a new type of zircon REE pattern.

  8. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it. PMID:25528930

  9. Age determination in roe deer - a new approach to tooth wear evaluated on known age individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A novel, simple, and objective method is presented for ageing roe deer Capreolus capreolus (Linnaeus, 1758) evaluated on 471 lower jaws from roe deer of known age (351 with permanent premolars). It is based on tooth eruption patterns and presence/absence of wear characters in jaws from roe deer...... originate from two separated Danish roe deer populations exposed to contrasting habitats, but no difference in wear rate is found between populations. Thus, previous concern about the validity of age determination methods based on tooth wear may have been overstated. The findings demonstrate that objective...

  10. Spiroquinazoline, a novel substance P inhibitor with a new carbon skeleton, isolated from Aspergillus flavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, C J; Sun, H H

    1994-04-01

    A novel substance P inhibitor, spiroquinazoline [1], was isolated from the fungus Aspergillus flavipes, which was originally obtained from soil. The structure of 1 was determined by analysis of spectroscopic data and 1 was shown to contain a new carbon skeleton containing a spiro-carbon center. Also isolated from the same culture extract were the new natural product, benzodiazepiedione [3], and the known compounds, acyl aszonalenin [4], N-benzoyl-L-phenylalaninol, and seven diketopiperazines. PMID:7517439

  11. Growth and shape modelling of the rabbit tibia: study of the dynamics of developing skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, U E; Zarattini, G; Spagnuolo, F; Superti, G; Marchese, M

    2012-06-01

    The proliferative impulse of the growth plate cartilage and related structures and its effect on the dimensions of long bones are well documented. The modulation of shape, however, is less known, and in general, it is referred to the coupled resorption/apposition process of bone modelling. A morphometric study was carried out on rabbit tibiae comparing size increments and shape changes in relation to age. Utilizing measurements made using dried bones, radiography and computerized tomography, it was possible to perform a three-dimensional analysis of shape modulation occurring during a period of growth extending from 3 months to 1 year of age. The dynamics of the shape changes related to growth were studied with a fluorescent tetracycline labelling. This enabled correlation of shape modulation with the 3-D distribution of apposition and resorption. The current thinking behind the influences and mechanical forces affecting bone architecture was discussed in the light of these findings. Several factors play a role in the structural organization of the human and upper vertebrates' skeleton, whose shape is genetically determined in the complex process usually referred as 'modelling'. This does not conflict with the existing evidence of remodelling being influenced by mechanical stimuli, but the unsolved question remains how physical forces (strains) act on the biological substrate of cartilage and bone cells.

  12. Shedding Light on the Cosmic Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Astronomers have tracked down a gigantic, previously unknown assembly of galaxies located almost seven billion light-years away from us. The discovery, made possible by combining two of the most powerful ground-based telescopes in the world, is the first observation of such a prominent galaxy structure in the distant Universe, providing further insight into the cosmic web and how it formed. "Matter is not distributed uniformly in the Universe," says Masayuki Tanaka from ESO, who led the new study. "In our cosmic vicinity, stars form in galaxies and galaxies usually form groups and clusters of galaxies. The most widely accepted cosmological theories predict that matter also clumps on a larger scale in the so-called 'cosmic web', in which galaxies, embedded in filaments stretching between voids, create a gigantic wispy structure." These filaments are millions of light years long and constitute the skeleton of the Universe: galaxies gather around them, and immense galaxy clusters form at their intersections, lurking like giant spiders waiting for more matter to digest. Scientists are struggling to determine how they swirl into existence. Although massive filamentary structures have been often observed at relatively small distances from us, solid proof of their existence in the more distant Universe has been lacking until now. The team led by Tanaka discovered a large structure around a distant cluster of galaxies in images they obtained earlier. They have now used two major ground-based telescopes to study this structure in greater detail, measuring the distances from Earth of over 150 galaxies, and, hence, obtaining a three-dimensional view of the structure. The spectroscopic observations were performed using the VIMOS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope and FOCAS on the Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Thanks to these and other observations, the astronomers were able to make a real demographic study of this structure

  13. Age determination of 15 old to intermediate-age small Magellanic cloud star clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, Córdoba, CP 5000 (Argentina); Geisler, D.; Leiton, R. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Carraro, G. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Costa, E. [Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Grocholski, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Sarajedini, A., E-mail: celeste@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: claria@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: andres@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: roger.leiton@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: gcarraro@eso.org, E-mail: costa@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: grocholski@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible 'SMC cluster age gap'. Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ∼4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel and Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  14. Spectroscopic determination of masses (and implied ages) for red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, M; Rix, H-W; Martig, M; Pinsonneault, Marc H; Ho, A Y Q

    2015-01-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter. For red giant stars, tracers luminous enough to be observed across the Galaxy, mass implies a stellar evolution age. It has proven to be extremely difficult to infer ages and masses directly from red giant spectra using existing methods. From the KEPLER and APOGEE surveys, samples of several thousand stars exist with high-quality spectra and asteroseismic masses. Here we show that from these data we can build a data-driven spectral model using The Cannon, which can determine stellar masses to $\\sim$ 0.07 dex from APOGEE DR12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to $\\sim$ 0.2 dex (40 percent). We show that The Cannon constrains these ages foremost from spectral regions with CN absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 80,000 giants (including 20,000 red-clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center t...

  15. Kaks luustikku Tartu toomkirikust: arheoloogia ja osteoloogia andmed / Two skeletons from the Tartu Cathedral Cemetery: archaeological and osteological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with two case studies based on the osteological obtained in the rescue excavations in the Cathedral of Tartu in 2001 and 2008 (fig. 1. The first case study focuses on the skeleton of the child who suffered from congenital syphilis. The grave has been dated to the end of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. The child had been buried in the eighth nave of the northern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave was, according to the Christian burial traditions, west-oriented with the head facing towards the east. A Swedish 1/6 öre, minted during the reign of King Charles XI (1600–1697, was recovered from the grave. The skeleton was relatively complete and well preserved (fig. 2. Based on the dental eruption, the age at death was 9 years ± 24 months. Sexually distinctive characteristics had not developed, and thus it was impossible to determine the sex of the child. Both the microscopical and radiological analyses revealed that the skeleton had indicators of congenital syphilis. Damage from gummatous osteomyelitis and periostitis were visible on the skull and on the axial and appendicular skeleton (fig. 6, while Hutchinson’s incisors and Mulberry molars were present among the teeth. Deformations and damage on the bones suggest that the child had suffered from the disease for quite a long time.The second case study discusses a beheaded man found from the eighth nave in the southern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave pit had a depth of 80 cm from the medieval floor surface of the church, which indicates that the burial dates from the Middle Ages. Also, the head of the deceased pointed to the west.The bones were well preserved (fig. 6. Sex was determined from the characteristics of the skull and the length of the right humerus. Calcification of the cranial sutures and cartilages suggests that the age of the man at death was probably 50+. Macroscopic examination of the skeleton revealed that the man had suffered

  16. Absolute age determination of quaternary fault and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating results for the fault rocks suggest the occurrence of recurrent fault activity around 80-95 Ma, 70 Ma, 50 Ma, 30 Ma and 23 Ma along the Yangsan fault zone. The apparent K-Ar ages tend to be older than Rb-Sr ages, probably indicating the effect of excess radiogenic Ar, which will be furthur investigated by Ar-Ar method. The OSL SAR protocol using 220 .deg. C cut-heat yields reproducible and stratigraphically consistent OSL ages ranging from 71 ka to 48 ka for beach deposits of the marine terrace No 2. The apparent OSL ages for the marine terrace No 3 range from 92 ka to 61 ka. These ages constrain the minimum age of the platform considering the underestimation effect resulted from deposition underwater. Therefore we regard the formation age of the terrace No 3 as MIS(Marine Isotopic Stage) 5c or 5e. Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating results for the fault rocks suggest the occurrence of recurrent fault activity around 40 Ma, 30 Ma and 23 Ma along the Ulsan fault zone. Relatively young (< 10 Ma) fault activities are recognized in the Oesa, Janghangri and Wonwonsa sites.

  17. Right to Left Ventricular Diameter Ratio ≥0.42 is the Warning Flag for Suspecting Atrial Septal Defect in Preschool Children: Age- and Body Surface Area-Related Reference Values Determined by M-Mode Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Ichida, Fukiko

    2016-04-01

    It is not always easy to observe and screen atrial septal defects (ASD) using echocardiography. In addition, there are no established echocardiographic reference indices for screening patients with ASDs. We retrospectively reviewed our database and recruited 151 isolated ASD patients and 2769 healthy subjects. In total, 307 echocardiographic studies were performed for ASD patients. Surgical repairs were done in 75 of the ASD patients. The ratio of right to left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions (RVD/LVD), which was determined by M-mode echocardiography, was used as an index of RV dilatation. After obtaining age- and body surface area (BSA)-related RVD/LVD nomograms in healthy subjects, we calculated the z-scores of RVD/LVD for all subjects and obtained the optimal cut-off values to differentiate patients with ASD from healthy subjects. The optimal cut-off values were high in neonates and gradually decreased with an increase in the age and BSA, but were almost constant in children aged >4 years or whose BSA was >0.65 m(2). The cut-off values of RVD/LVD for suspected ASD were ≥0.42 in children aged >4 years or those whose BSA was >0.65 m(2). Those for an ASD operation were ≥0.46 in those whose BSA > 0.65 m(2). The RVD/LVD determined by M-mode echocardiography is a useful index to evaluate RV dilatation in patients with ASDs. The RVD/LVD ≥ 0.42 is the warning flag for suspecting ASD in preschool children and that ≥0.46 may be a clinical important sign to determine ASD operation. PMID:26700967

  18. Osteogenic potential of bone-lining cells in the adult skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced osteogenic sarcomas are believed to arise from proliferating osteogenic precursor cells. The identity and location of these cells in the adult skeleton is not well understood. In order to determine reliable cell dose estimates, it is important to determine the osteogenic pathway in the adult skeleton. Bone-lining cells (BLCs) cover inactive endosteal surfaces in the adult skeleton of long-lived animals. BLCs are flat elongated cells which are directly apposed to the bone surface. They have cell processes extending into canaliculi and have gap junctions at some contacts with other bone-lining cells. The morphology of the bone-lining cell and its proximity to the bone surface can only be resolved at the ultrastructural level. These cells are a distinct morphologic phenotype but have been referred to by a variety of names including resting osteoblasts, surface osteocytes, and flattened mesenchymal cells. The BLC, as a distinct phenotype, should not be confused with the more descriptive term cells lining the bone surface of bone lining cells, sometimes used to include any cell near the bone. The purpose of the study was to determine what role, if any, the bone-lining cells have in the osteogenic process. Do these cells proliferate and contribute to the population of osteoblasts?

  19. The membrane skeleton of a unicellular organism consists of bridged, articulating strips

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we show that a membrane skeleton associated with the plasma membrane of the unicellular organism Euglena consists of approximately 40 individual S-shaped strips that overlap along their lateral margins. The region of strip overlap is occupied by a set of microtubule-associated bridges and microtubule-independent bridges. Both cell form and plasma membrane organization are dependent on the integrity of this membrane skeleton. Removal of the membrane skeleton with a low-molar base...

  20. Experimental modal analysis on damage of skeleton in brake of airplane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The relation between damage and modal parameters of skeleton has been discussed and analysed.Some significant results for detecting damage have been obtained by using experimental data of ωdi and ζi· Then, the modal experiments of four type of skeleton have been performed, the modal bifurcation phenomenon is discovered. It follows that this method for studying skeleton damage is a very promising method through theoretical and experimental analysis.

  1. Skeletonized Least Squares Wave Equation Migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2010-10-17

    The theory for skeletonized least squares wave equation migration (LSM) is presented. The key idea is, for an assumed velocity model, the source‐side Green\\'s function and the geophone‐side Green\\'s function are computed by a numerical solution of the wave equation. Only the early‐arrivals of these Green\\'s functions are saved and skeletonized to form the migration Green\\'s function (MGF) by convolution. Then the migration image is obtained by a dot product between the recorded shot gathers and the MGF for every trial image point. The key to an efficient implementation of iterative LSM is that at each conjugate gradient iteration, the MGF is reused and no new finitedifference (FD) simulations are needed to get the updated migration image. It is believed that this procedure combined with phase‐encoded multi‐source technology will allow for the efficient computation of wave equation LSM images in less time than that of conventional reverse time migration (RTM).

  2. Bisabocurcumin, a new skeleton curcuminoid from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Chuan Xiao; Jing Xie; Min Yu; Miao Liu; Jian Ran; Zhen Xi; Wei Li; Jing Huang

    2011-01-01

    A new skeleton bisabolane-type sesquiterpene curcuminoid, bisabocurcumin (1), along with 5 known compounds, curcumin (2), demethoxycurcumin (3), bidemethoxycurcumin (4), (1E,4E)-l,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-penta-1,4-dien-3-one (5), and (1E,4E)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-(4-hydroxy phenyl-)-penta-1,4-dien-3-one (6) were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Bisabocurcumin (1) is firstly obtained from nature with a new skeleton combined by a bisabolane-type sesquiterpene and a 1,7-diphenylheptanoid through a C-C bond.

  3. Work characteristics and determinants of job satisfaction in four age groups: university employees' point of view.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.T.; Donders, N.C.G.M.; Bouwman-Brouwer, K.M.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate (a) differences in work characteristics and (b) determinants of job satisfaction among employees in different age groups. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire was filled in by 1,112 university employees, classified into four age groups. (a) Work characteristics were analy

  4. Physical Attractiveness, Age, and Sex as Determinants of Reactions to Resumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Kay, Janet P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical attractiveness, age, and sex were manipulated to determine their effect on the evaluation of 54 hypothetical applicants' resumes for three different jobs by 60 Master's in Business Administration students. Physical attractiveness favorably influenced the suitability ratings for all jobs; raters' sex and age were not significant but…

  5. DPIV Measurements of Olympic Skeleton Athletes

    CERN Document Server

    Leong, Chia Min; Wu, Vicki; Wei, Timothy; Peters, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a mock section of a bobsled track which was positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. DPIV measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position. In the fluid dynamics video shown, the athlete slowly raised his head while DPIV measurements were made behind the helmet in the separated flow region.

  6. Landform skeleton reconstruction from unorganized points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingliang; Tang, Guoan; Liu, Xuejun; Bian, Lu

    2007-11-01

    Landform skeleton are lines that indicate significant topographic features of the terrain. It is widely used in mapping and surveying, hydrology simulation, topography representation and engineering designing. In order to derive the landform skeleton, many kinds of data source have been used, including digitized contour lines, Grid-DEMs and TIN. As time goes by, more and more unorganized points have been acquired, created, maintained and disseminated in many fields. Those unorganized points are the most original and important information which is vital for mapping and surveying. How to extract the feature lines from unorganized points has been the hot-pot in computer design and reverse-engineering. Methods used to extract landform features in existence have shown dependence on data types and thresholds more or less. In the paper, the view sheds principle used to extract the feature points has been put forward and then those points have been organized into feature lines according to related rules. The result has shown that the view sheds principle can extract the features and give the levels of feature points.

  7. Skeletal metastasis: the effect on immature skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.A.; Ogden, D.A.

    1982-12-01

    The unique opportunity to study the entire appendicular skeleton of a child who died from metastatic angiosarcoma allowed detailed assessment of radiographically evident involvement. Virtually every portion of the appendicular skeleton had evidence of metastatic disease. However, the extent of involvement was extremely variable, especially when contralateral regions were assessed. The most likely region of metastasis, the metaphysis, is normally a fenestrated cortex of woven bone in the young child, rather than a well demarcated cortex formed by osteon (lamellar) bone, as it is in the adult. The pattern of destruction is such that less extensive areas may be involved before becoming radiographically evident, and trabecular bone involvement may be evident even without cortical damage. The metaphyseal metastatic spread supports the concept of arterial hematogeneous dissemination, comparable to osteomyelitis in the child. Pathologic metaphyseal fractures involved both proximal humeri; the fracture also extended along a portion of the methaphyseal-physeal interface in one humerus. In one distal femur the physis readily separated from the metaphysis; this was a nondisplaced type 1 growth mechanism injury.

  8. Dynamic constitutive model for soils considering asymmetry of skeleton curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxing Chen; Hua Pan; Hui Long; Xiaojun Li

    2013-01-01

    Based on the asymmetric characteristic of skeleton curve obtained from dynamic tests on soils, a func-tion with double asymptotes is proposed for describing the dynamic constitutive relations of soils. The hysteresis loops observed during unloading and reloading show the same form as the skeleton curve and are constructed by taking the ultimate stress as the corresponding asymptote. The coefficient of initial unloading modulus is used to ensure that the constructed hysteresis loop fits well with the experimental data. Then, a new dynamic constitutive model considering the asymmetry of skeleton curve is elaborated. The verification tests on saturated Nanjing fine sand are performed using a hollow cylinder apparatus to verify the applicability of the UD model. It is found that the predicted curves by the UD model agree well with the test data.

  9. Vortex and strain skeletons in Eulerian and Lagrangian frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahner, Jan; Weinkauf, Tino; Teuber, Nathalie; Hege, Hans-Christian

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach to analyze mixing in flow fields by extracting vortex and strain features as extremal structures of derived scalar quantities that satisfy a duality property: they indicate vortical as well as high-strain (saddletype) regions. Specifically, we consider the Okubo-Weiss criterion and the recently introduced MZ-criterion. While the first is derived from a purely Eulerian framework, the latter is based on Lagrangian considerations. In both cases high values indicate vortex activity whereas low values indicate regions of high strain. By considering the extremal features of those quantities, we define the notions of a vortex and a strain skeleton in a hierarchical manner: the collection of maximal 0D, 1D and 2D structures assemble the vortex skeleton; the minimal structures identify the strain skeleton. We extract those features using scalar field topology and apply our method to a number of steady and unsteady 3D flow fields. PMID:17622681

  10. The use of dental radiography in age determination: Concepts and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Hossein Mirhashemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available   The need to identify and determine the age of the unidentified dead person s or accident victims of natural disasters is clear. Also, some remedial measures in the field of orthodontics and pediatric dentistry depend on knowing the patient’s physiological age. Previous studies suggested that dental age have a good correlation with physiological age more than skeletal or o ther common methods of age determination. Among the various methods used to determine dental age , dental radiography provides wide facilities for clinicians. Being noninvasive and the ability of performing the technique on live subjects as well as simplicity and low cost and reliable results , have led researchers to investigate further on that . The formation and calcification process of teeth and changes during aging has been regarded by many, leading to introduce various methods in which the field. In this study, 36 related articles were achieved by searching PUBMED, Science Direct and Google Scholar resources and discussed. Provided what diversified means of determining age using dental radiographs is encouraged , it is recommended to be not restricted to use only one of the methods because the multilateral approach is more reliable.

  11. Mineral distribution in rat skeletons after exposure to a microgravity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Harper, Jennifer S.; Navidi, Meena

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to space flight models induces changes in the distribution of bone mineral in the human skeleton that has the features of a gravitational gradient. Regional bone mineral measurements with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in male adults exposed to head-down tilt bed rest for 30 days shown non-significant decrements in the pelvis and legs with 10% increases in the head region. Horizontal bed rest for 17 weeks reveals losses of bone mineral ranging from 2.2 to 10.4% from the lumbar spine to the calcaneus and an increase of 3.4% in the skull. Investigation of this phenomena would be most definitively carried out in an animal model. One candidate is the flight simulation model in the rat which removes body weight from the hind limbs and induces a cephalad fluid shift by suspending the animal by the tail. Weanling rats exposed to this model showed bone mineral to be lower in the hind limbs and higher in the skull after 3 weeks. These finds are similar in older 200 g animals after 2 weeks tail suspension. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age on the distribution of skeletal mineral in this model.

  12. Optimal Inference for Hierarchical Skeleton Abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Sminchisescu, Cristian; Dickinson, Sven

    2004-01-01

    Skeletons are well-known representations that accommodate shape abstraction and qualitative shape matching. However, skeletons are sometimes unstable to compute and sensitive to shape detail, thus making shape abstraction and matching difficult. To address these problems, we propose a principled fra

  13. A clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Visser, P.M.; Broenink, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI (Real Time Application Interface). The skeleton is a thin layer that provides unified but extendible interfaces to the underlying operating system, the synchronization algorithms and the upper level applications in need of clock sync

  14. Effect of dietary, social, and lifestyle determinants of accelerated aging and its common clinical presentation: A survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Samarakoon, S. M. S.; Chandola, H. M.; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    Aging is unavoidable and natural phenomenon of life. Modern gerontologists are realizing the fact that aging is a disease, which Ayurveda had accepted as natural disease since long. Rate of aging is determined by one's biological, social, lifestyle, and psychological conditions and adversity of which leads to accelerated form of aging (Akalaja jara or premature aging). The aim of this study is to identify potential factors that may accelerate aging in the context of dietry factors, lifestyle ...

  15. The use of radionuclide skeleton visualization method in hygienic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation, intragastric and combined effect of two cadmium compounds on rats is studied. Investigations are performed by biochemical methods and the method of radionuclide visualization of the skeleton which was performed delta hours after RPP introduction in gamma-chamber with computer tape recording for the following mathematical treatment of the image. Using the method of radionuclide skeleton visualization pronounced quantitative characteristics of changes in the bone tissue are obtained, it is found that dose dependence of these changes is especially important when estimating the complex effect. Biochemical methods, are used to find alterations, however they have not been assessed quantitatively

  16. Synthesis of Novel Basic Skeletons Derived from Naltrexone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideaki

    We will describe eight interesting reactions using naltrexone derivatives. Almost all these reactions are characteristic of naltrexone derivatives, and can lead to the synthesis of many novel skeletons that provide new interesting pharmacological data. Some of the new reactions that were found with naltrexone derivatives were expanded into general reactions. For example, the reaction of 6α-hydroxyaldehyde derived from naltrexone led to the oxazoline dimer and the 1,3,5-trioxazatriquinane skeleton (triplet drug); this reaction was applied to general ketones which were converted to α-hydroxyaldehydes, followed by conversion to dimers and trimers, as described in Sect. 7.

  17. The second complete skeleton of Archidiskodon meridionalis (Elephantidae, Proboscidea) from the Stavropol Region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschenko, E. N.; Schvyreva, A. K.; Kalmykov, N. P.

    2011-08-01

    The skeleton of Archidiskodon meridionalis ( Nesti, 1825) from the Rodionovo locality (Stavropol Administrative Region, Russia) is described in detail. It represents the second discovery of an almost complete skeleton of a fossil elephant in the Northern Caucasus. The age of the fossil is estimated as Early Pleistocene (upper Apsheronian, late Middle Villafranchian). Attribution of the skeleton to this species, widely distributed in Eurasia during the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene, is based on the tooth characters (M3/m3 enamel thickness and lamellar frequency). Validity of the genus Archidiskodon Pohlig, 1888 is discussed.

  18. Utility of telomere length measurements for age determination of humpback whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tange Olsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the applicability of telomere length measurements by quantitative PCR as a tool for minimally invasive age determination of free-ranging cetaceans. We analysed telomere length in skin samples from 28 North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, ranging from 0 to 26 years of age. The results suggested a significant correlation between telomere length and age in humpback whales. However, telomere length was highly variable among individuals of similar age, suggesting that telomere length measured by quantitative PCR is an imprecise determinant of age in humpback whales. The observed variation in individual telomere length was found to be a function of both experimental and biological variability, with the latter perhaps reflecting patterns of inheritance, resource allocation trade-offs, and stochasticity of the marine environment.

  19. Social relations as determinant of onset of disability in aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether social relations are related to onset of disability among old people at 1.5 year follow-up and whether these relations vary by age and gender. The study is based on baseline and 1.5 year follow-up data on 1396 older non-disabled adults. Social...... network of social relations provides protection against disability by reducing risk of developing disability....

  20. Biology of bone and how it orchestrates the form and function of the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeldt, D. W.; Rubin, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    The principal role of the skeleton is to provide structural support for the body. While the skeleton also serves as the body's mineral reservoir, the mineralized structure is the very basis of posture, opposes muscular contraction resulting in motion, withstands functional load bearing, and protects internal organs. Although the mass and morphology of the skeleton is defined, to some extent, by genetic determinants, it is the tissue's ability to remodel--the local resorption and formation of bone--which is responsible for achieving this intricate balance between competing responsibilities. The aim of this review is to address bone's form-function relationship, beginning with extensive research in the musculoskeletal disciplines, and focusing on several recent cellular and molecular discoveries which help understand the complex interdependence of bone cells, growth factors, physical stimuli, metabolic demands, and structural responsibilities. With a clinical and spine-oriented audience in mind, the principles of bone cell and molecular biology and physiology are presented, and an attempt has been made to incorporate epidemiologic data and therapeutic implications. Bone research remains interdisciplinary by nature, and a deeper understanding of bone biology will ultimately lead to advances in the treatment of diseases and injuries to bone itself.

  1. Stable isotopic records of bleaching and endolithic algae blooms in the skeleton of the boulder forming coral Montastraea faveolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A. C.; Carilli, J. E.; Norris, R. D.; Charles, C. D.; Deheyn, D. D.

    2010-12-01

    Within boulder forming corals, fixation of dissolved inorganic carbon is performed by symbiotic dinoflagellates within the coral tissue and, to a lesser extent, endolithic algae within the coral skeleton. Endolithic algae produce distinctive green bands in the coral skeleton, and their origin may be related to periods of coral bleaching due to complete loss of dinoflagellate symbionts or “paling” in which symbiont populations are patchily reduced in coral tissue. Stable carbon isotopes were analyzed in coral skeletons across a known bleaching event and 12 blooms of endolithic algae to determine whether either of these types of changes in photosynthesis had a clear isotopic signature. Stable carbon isotopes tended to be enriched in the coral skeleton during the initiation of endolith blooms, consistent with enhanced photosynthesis by endoliths. In contrast, there were no consistent δ13C patterns directly associated with bleaching, suggesting that there is no unique isotopic signature of bleaching. On the other hand, isotopic values after bleaching were lighter 92% of the time when compared to the bleaching interval. This marked drop in skeletal δ13C may reflect increased kinetic fractionation and slow symbiont recolonization for several years after bleaching.

  2. The 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' Collection: an Argentinian sample of modern skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salceda, S A; Desántolo, B; Mancuso, R García; Plischuk, M; Inda, A M

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' skeletal collection. The Lambre Collection is housed in the School of Medical Sciences of the National University of La Plata and it consists of skeletal remains ceded by the Municipal Cemetery of La Plata. The collection has more than four hundred skeletons, with information on age, sex, nationality, date and cause of death. It was created for teaching and research purposes in compliance with current legislation, and its management meets guidelines specified in the Declaration of the Argentinian Association for Biological Anthropology on Research Ethics on Human Remains (2007). PMID:22769855

  3. Revisiting the Debate: Does Exercise Build Strong Bones in the Mature and Senescent Skeleton?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julie M.; Charkoudian, Nisha; Barnes, Jill N.; Morgan, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional exercise programs seem to be less osteogenic in the mature and post-mature skeleton compared to the young skeleton. This is likely because of the decline in sensitivity of bone to mechanical loading that occurs with advancing age. Another factor contributing to the apparently diminished benefit of exercise in older adults is failure of widely used measurement techniques (i.e., DXA) to identify changes in 3-dimensional bone structure, which are important determinants of bone strength. Moreover, although hormonal contributors to bone loss in the elderly are well-recognized, the influence of age-related increases in sympathetic nervous system activity, which impacts bone metabolism, is rarely considered. In this Perspective, we cite evidence from animal and human studies demonstrating anabolic effects of exercise on bone across the lifespan and we discuss theoretical considerations for designing exercise regimens to optimize bone health. We conclude with suggestions for future research that should help define the osteogenic potential of exercise in older individuals. PMID:27679578

  4. Youngest radiocarbon age for Jefferson's ground sloth, Megalonyx jeffersonii (Xenarthra, Megalonychidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory McDonald, H.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Gnidovec, Dale M.

    2015-03-01

    A partial skeleton of the extinct ground sloth, Megalonyx jeffersonii, recovered from a farm near Millersburg, Ohio in 1890, was radiocarbon dated for the first time. The ungual dated is part of a skeleton mounted for exhibit at the Orton Geological Museum at Ohio State University and was the first mounted skeleton of this animal. From its initial discovery the bones were treated with multiple organic compounds that had the potential to compromise the radiocarbon age and the specimen required special treatments in order to obtain a valid radiocarbon age. The 14C measurement on the ungual from this skeleton (11,235 ± 40 14C yr BP = 13,180-13,034 cal yr BP) is the youngest 14C age presently determined for M. jeffersonii.

  5. THE PALEODEMOGRAPHIC PATTERN OF OYLUM HOYUK POPULATION (THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE, KİLİS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşen Açıkkol Yıldırım

    2013-01-01

    In this study skeleton remaining of 72 individuals excavated from Middle Bronze Age layers of Oylum Höyük (mound) situated in Kilis province, were studied. Sex and age of skeletons, unearthed between 2007-2012, were determined and life tables of the population were formed. Mortality of infants and children of Oylum population was very high. Death rates were determined as 36.6 % for 0-5 years of age group, 57.75 % for 0-15 years of age group. 34.62 % of infants and children from 0-5 years of a...

  6. Marine reservoir corrections for bowhead whale radiocarbon age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-two pairs of radiocarbon dates on driftwood and bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) bones from raised beaches, dates on whale bone and terrestrial plant detritus from a stratigraphic section, and 25 additional dates on whale bones from the lowest (≤ 1 ka BP) raised beaches in the eastern Canadian Arctic suggest that a marine reservoir correction of about -200 years is appropriate for normalized age determinations on bone collagen from the bowhead whale in this region. This is less than the correction (-400 years) normally applied to carbonate shells of marine molluscs from this region. The carbon in bowhead collagen appears to be derived from the whales' zooplankton food rather than from marine bicarbonate. (author). 39 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  7. Perinatal Complications and Aging Indicators by Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Ambler, Antony; Belsky, Daniel W.; Chapple, Simon; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Israel, Salomon; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Rivera, Christine D.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Wolke, Dieter; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal complications predict increased risk for morbidity and early mortality. Evidence of perinatal programming of adult mortality raises the question of what mechanisms embed this long-term effect. We tested a hypothesis related to the theory of developmental origins of health and disease: that perinatal complications assessed at birth predict indicators of accelerated aging by midlife. METHODS: Perinatal complications, including both maternal and neonatal complications, were assessed in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort (N = 1037), a 38-year, prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Two aging indicators were assessed at age 38 years, objectively by leukocyte telomere length (TL) and subjectively by perceived facial age. RESULTS: Perinatal complications predicted both leukocyte TL (β = −0.101; 95% confidence interval, −0.169 to −0.033; P = .004) and perceived age (β = 0.097; 95% confidence interval, 0.029 to 0.165; P = .005) by midlife. We repeated analyses with controls for measures of family history and social risk that could predispose to perinatal complications and accelerated aging, and for measures of poor health taken in between birth and the age-38 follow-up. These covariates attenuated, but did not fully explain the associations observed between perinatal complications and aging indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide support for early-life developmental programming by linking newborns’ perinatal complications to accelerated aging at midlife. We observed indications of accelerated aging “inside,” as measured by leukocyte TL, an indicator of cellular aging, and “outside,” as measured by perceived age, an indicator of declining tissue integrity. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying perinatal programming of adult aging is needed. PMID:25349321

  8. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  9. Ultrasound Determination of Gestational Age Using Placental Thickness in Female Dogs: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Louzada Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To verify if the placental thickness allows determining the gestational age, evaluating the correlation between the referred gestational age with the studied one, and the accuracy of the placental thickness measurement (biometry with fetal morphologic parameters in bitches. Methods. The placental thickness of 336 bitches of diverse breeds was evaluated. Bitches were divided in three groups by body weight: small, medium, and big large size. The gestations pregnancies were evaluated by ultrasound from the third week of gestation. An analysis was performed between the mean values of the gestational age obtained of placental thickness by adjustment of curves and the reported gestational age. Student's t-test was applied to compare the mean of reported and placental thickness gestational age. Significance was defined as P<0.05. Results. A positive and statistically significant correlation exists between the placental thickness and gestational age. The expression that presents the best correlation coefficient and explanation was thickness of placenta = 0.021x gestational age −0.314. Conclusion. It is possible to determine the gestational age in relation to the placental thickness measured by ultrasound in bitches with a satisfactory accuracy in relation to fetal morphologic parameters as gestational vesicle, ribs, or kidneys.

  10. Ultrasound determination of gestational age using placental thickness in female dogs: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, André Luiz Louzada; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Mendonça, Débora Sartori; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To verify if the placental thickness allows determining the gestational age, evaluating the correlation between the referred gestational age with the studied one, and the accuracy of the placental thickness measurement (biometry) with fetal morphologic parameters in bitches. Methods. The placental thickness of 336 bitches of diverse breeds was evaluated. Bitches were divided in three groups by body weight: small, medium, and big large size. The gestations pregnancies were evaluated by ultrasound from the third week of gestation. An analysis was performed between the mean values of the gestational age obtained of placental thickness by adjustment of curves and the reported gestational age. Student's t-test was applied to compare the mean of reported and placental thickness gestational age. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results. A positive and statistically significant correlation exists between the placental thickness and gestational age. The expression that presents the best correlation coefficient and explanation was thickness of placenta = 0.021x gestational age -0.314. Conclusion. It is possible to determine the gestational age in relation to the placental thickness measured by ultrasound in bitches with a satisfactory accuracy in relation to fetal morphologic parameters as gestational vesicle, ribs, or kidneys. PMID:22848867

  11. /sup 13/C-NMR of diterpenes with rosane skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Cunha Pinto, A.; Garcez, W.S.; Ficara, M.L.G.; Vasconcelos, T.C.; Pereira, A.L.; Gomes, L.N.L.F.; Frechiani, M.doC.; Patitucci, M.L. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais)

    1982-03-01

    /sup 13/C-NMR data of three diterpenoids with rosane skeleton isolated from Vellozia candida Mikan, and of their oxidated and acetylated derivatives are presented. The main effects caused by small structural differences are discussed and used in the assignment of the chemical shifts of all carbons.

  12. Study on Virtual Human Skeleton System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭巧; 李亦

    2004-01-01

    A solution of virtual human skeleton system is proposed. Some issues on integration of anatomical geometry, biodynamics and computer animation are studied. The detailed skeleton system model that incorporates the biodynamic and geometric characteristics of a human skeleton system allows some performance studies in greater detail than that performed before. It may provide an effective and convenient way to analyze and evaluate the movement performance of a human body when the personalized anatomical data are used in the models. An example shows that the proposed solution is effective for the stated problems.

  13. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries. PMID:24672198

  14. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.

  15. Dentition and age determination of the Warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus in Zululand, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R Mason

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Age-specific stages of tooth replacement, eruption and attrition are described for warthogs shot during population control in Zululand. Patterns of tooth replacement and eruption allowed reasonably accurate age determination up to 24 months, whereafter 2-3 year old warthogs could generally be distinguished from older individuals by the relative growth of their third molars. Although stages of wear and loss of the teeth, especially the three molars, were associated with broad age classes, age of adult warthogs may be determined more precisely by counting cementum annuli in sectioned incisor teeth. However, cementum annuli were insufficiently distinctive to permit age estimation in approximately 33 of sections, reflecting particularly variation in intensity and clarity of staining and splitting and merging of rest lines. The use of eye lens dry mass and tusk length: snout width ratios as indices of age was also evaluated. Eye lens dry mass became increasingly unreliable for predicting age beyond 24 months. Considering males and females separately, tusk length: snout width ratios for yearling, 2-3 year old and 3-4 year old warthogs were reasonably distinctive, but subsequent overlap was apparently unfavourable for reliable differentiation of year classes among older warthogs. Body size and tusk * development criteria for distinguishing between three age classes ofwarthogs in the field are presented.

  16. A Faster Algorithm for Computing Straight Skeletons

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Siu-Wing

    2014-09-01

    We present a new algorithm for computing the straight skeleton of a polygon. For a polygon with n vertices, among which r are reflex vertices, we give a deterministic algorithm that reduces the straight skeleton computation to a motorcycle graph computation in O(n (logn)logr) time. It improves on the previously best known algorithm for this reduction, which is randomized, and runs in expected O(n√h+1log2n) time for a polygon with h holes. Using known motorcycle graph algorithms, our result yields improved time bounds for computing straight skeletons. In particular, we can compute the straight skeleton of a non-degenerate polygon in O(n (logn) logr + r 4/3 + ε ) time for any ε > 0. On degenerate input, our time bound increases to O(n (logn) logr + r 17/11 + ε ).

  17. A Faster Algorithm for Computing Straight Skeletons

    KAUST Repository

    Mencel, Liam A.

    2014-05-06

    We present a new algorithm for computing the straight skeleton of a polygon. For a polygon with n vertices, among which r are reflex vertices, we give a deterministic algorithm that reduces the straight skeleton computation to a motorcycle graph computation in O(n (log n) log r) time. It improves on the previously best known algorithm for this reduction, which is randomised, and runs in expected O(n √(h+1) log² n) time for a polygon with h holes. Using known motorcycle graph algorithms, our result yields improved time bounds for computing straight skeletons. In particular, we can compute the straight skeleton of a non-degenerate polygon in O(n (log n) log r + r^(4/3 + ε)) time for any ε > 0. On degenerate input, our time bound increases to O(n (log n) log r + r^(17/11 + ε))

  18. A Practical Introduction to Skeletons for the Plant Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bucksch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Before the availability of digital photography resulting from the invention of charged couple devices in 1969, the measurement of plant architecture was a manual process either on the plant itself or on traditional photographs. The introduction of cheap digital imaging devices for the consumer market enabled the wide use of digital images to capture the shape of plant networks such as roots, tree crowns, or leaf venation. Plant networks contain geometric traits that can establish links to genetic or physiological characteristics, support plant breeding efforts, drive evolutionary studies, or serve as input to plant growth simulations. Typically, traits are encoded in shape descriptors that are computed from imaging data. Skeletons are one class of shape descriptors that are used to describe the hierarchies and extent of branching and looping plant networks. While the mathematical understanding of skeletons is well developed, their application within the plant sciences remains challenging because the quality of the measurement depends partly on the interpretation of the skeleton. This article is meant to bridge the skeletonization literature in the plant sciences and related technical fields by discussing best practices for deriving diameters and approximating branching hierarchies in a plant network.

  19. Work characteristics and determinants of job satisfaction in four age groups: university employees’ point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Judith T; Donders, Nathalie C. G. M.; Bouwman-Brouwer, Karin M.; Van der Gulden, Joost W. J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate (a) differences in work characteristics and (b) determinants of job satisfaction among employees in different age groups. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire was filled in by 1,112 university employees, classified into four age groups. (a) Work characteristics were analysed with ANOVA while adjusting for sex and job classification. (b) Job satisfaction was regressed against job demands and job resources adapted from the Job Demands-Resources model. Results Statistic...

  20. Antemortem tooth loss in the Ablanganis Early Iron Age skeletons, Van - TurkeyAblanganis Erken Demir Çağ iskeletlerinde antemortem diş kaybı, Van - Türkiye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yılmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Necropolis Ablanganis is located 25 km north of Van city center, in Van F Type Prison field. The nearest residential area to Necropolis is the village, located about 2.5 km. away, in the north central, Yumrutepe that is connected to Van (Derleş. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence rate of antemortem tooth loss date in the Early Iron Age from Ablanganis human tooth. Study material consists of 19 individuals’ maxilla and mandible, of which 405 were teeth and tooth socket. The age distribution by sex examined 19 members: 7 female individual age classes are young adults (20-35 age, 11 male individuals again in the age classes are young adults (20-35 age and 1 adult male individual in the age classes is middle adult (35-50. The mean age at death is estimated at 20-50 years. The Examining adult individual permanent tooth and tooth socket were observed to antemortem tooth loss at the rate of 6.42%.  The rates of antemortem tooth loss observed for males 7.75% and 4.08% for female. The probable cause of tooth loss seen in the Ablanganis teeth may be associated with lifestyle, diet and periodontal disease.   Özet Ablanganis Nekropolü, Van il merkezinin 25 km. kuzeyindeki Van F Tipi Cezaevi sahasında yer almaktadır. Nekropole en yakın yerleşim alanı, yaklaşık 2.5 km. kuzeyinde bulunan ve Van il merkezine bağlı Yumrutepe (Derleşin  köyüdür. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Erken Demir Çağ’a tarihlendirilen Ablanganis iskeletlerine ait dişlerde gözlenen antemortem diş kayıplarının dağılım oranının değerlendirilmesidir. Çalışmanın materyali, toplam 19 bireye ait 405 adet diş ve diş soketidir.  Cinsiyete göre 19 bireyin yaş dağılımına bakıldığında 7 kadın birey genç erişkin (20–35 yaş, 11 erkek birey yine genç erişkin (20–35 yaş ve 1 erkek birey orta yaş grubundadır. İncelenen bireylerin ölüm yaşı 20–50 yaş aralığındadır. Söz konusu erişkin bireylerin daimî diş ve di

  1. Nongenetic Determinants of Age at Menarche: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Yermachenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The acceleration of pubertal development is an important medical and social problem, as it may result in increased morbidity and mortality in later life. This systematic review summarizes relevant data about nongenetic factors, which contribute to age at menarche (AAM, and suggests those which may be the most important. Methods. The available literature from 1980 till July 2013 was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Finally, 154 papers were selected for the analysis. Results. Environmental factors, which may affect AAM, vary in populations of different ethnicity. The prenatal, infancy, and early childhood periods are the most susceptible to these factors. Body weight, high animal protein intake, family stressors (e.g., single parenting, and physical activity seem to influence AAM in most populations. Conclusions. The data about influence of nongenetic factors on AAM are still inconsistent. The factors affecting prenatal and early childhood growth seem to have a larger effect on further sexual maturation. Further studies are needed in order to validate the association between other environmental determinants and AAM in different ethnical groups.

  2. Using colours to determine the stellar ages and metallicities of distant galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhongmu

    2013-01-01

    The determination of stellar populations of galaxies are important for studying the formation and evolution of galaxies, because all galaxies contain many stars and they evolve with galaxies. Spectra data are usually used to determine the stellar populations of nearby galaxies as they have the ability to disentangle the degeneracy between stellar age and metallicity. However, it is difficult to give similar studies to distant (e.g., $z >$ 0.3) galaxies because of the lack of reliable spectra data. This is actually limited by current observational equipments and methods. In fact, the information of the stellar ages and metallicities of distant galaxies are crucial for solving the problem of galaxy formation and evolution. Colours can give us some information of the stellar populations of distant galaxies. In the paper, I introduce our works about using colours to estimate the ages and metallicities of the stellar populations of galaxies. Some potential colours for studying stellar-population parameters (age an...

  3. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age TABLE I-10—Selection of Retirement Rate Category... Participant's earliest retirement age at valuation date. Unreduced retirement age 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67...

  4. Correlating the end-Triassic mass extinction and basalt volcanism of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province at the 100,000-year level by high-precision U-Pb age determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, Blair; Guex, Jean; Bartolini, Annachiara; Schaltegger, Urs; Blackburn, Terrence J.

    2010-05-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction is one of the five largest extinctions in Earth history, though considerable uncertainty remains in terms of its duration, causes and effects. Many workers suggest that the extinction was related directly or indirectly to adverse climate following the onset of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), which erupted > 2.5x106 km3 of basalt in less than 1 Ma. However, there remains a need for precise and accurate geochronology to correlate the onset of CAMP volcanism, recorded uniquely in terrestrial sections, with the well-documented marine extinction event. We provide new chemical abrasion ID-TIMS U-Pb age determinations on ash bed and basaltic zircons using the well-calibrated EARTHTIME 202Pb-205Pb-233U-235U tracer solution, yielding data that are up to 70% more precise compared to single-Pb/single-U tracers. We show that the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (TJB) and end-Triassic biological crisis from two independent marine stratigraphic sections in northern Peru and in Nevada (USA) correlate with the onset of terrestrial flood volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) to <150 ka. Ash bed samples reveal complicated U-Pb systematics, showing ranges in 206Pb/238U zircon dates of up to 2 Ma, representing a range of growth histories prior to eruption. Therefore, we use the youngest single closed-system zircon to approximate the eruption date. Three volcanic ash beds from the Pucara basin, northern Peru, bracket the TJB to a 206Pb/238U age of 201.31 ± 0.18/0.31/0.43 Ma (internal uncertainties/ with tracer calibration uncertainty/ with decay constant uncertainties). The first discovered ash bed from the New York canyon, Nevada, 1.5 m above TJB requires a boundary age of less than 201.33 ± 0.13 Ma. We also provide data from two laboratories which yield a new 206Pb/238U zircon age of 201.28 ± 0.02/0.22/0.31 Ma for the North Mtn. basalt, the lowest CAMP basalt from the Fundy basin, Nova Scotia. This narrows the

  5. Social relations as determinant of onset of disability in aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn E;

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether social relations are related to onset of disability among old people at 1.5 year follow-up and whether these relations vary by age and gender. The study is based on baseline and 1.5 year follow-up data on 1396 older non-disabled adults. Social...... relations were measured by questions about diversity in social relations, social participation, satisfaction with social relations and instrumental social support. Onset of disability was described as developing need of help in at least one of six mobility activities. The results showed that a large...... diversity in social relations and high social participation were important factors for maintaining functional ability among the 75-year-old men and women, while social support was a risk factor for functional decline among the 80-year-old men. The present study suggests that being "embedded" in a strong...

  6. Determination of age and its correlation with biometric variables and seasonal reproductive indices of Leporinus obtusidens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Oliveira Felizardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the age and its correlation with biometric variables and reproductive indices of piapara Leporinus obtusidens caught at the Funil Reservoir. We caught 133 specimens between September 2006 and August 2007. Weight, total length, standard length, depth, height, head length and radius of the scales were measured. The sex was determined by macroscopic examination of gonads. The age of each fish was determined by analyzing the growth rings on the scales. Seasonal differences in biometric variables were tested using the NK test at 5%. The correlation of age and radius of the scales with the biometric variables and reproductive indices were analyzed using the SAEG software. Fish individuals ranging from 3 to 14 years of age were caught. In the spring and summer, smaller fish were captured compared to those caught during the fall and winter. Females tended to have higher weight and morphometric values when compared to males. Age and radius of the scales were correlated with biometric variables in L. obtusidens. It can be concluded that the biometric variables of this species can be used as an indicator of age.

  7. Automated Determination of Bone Age in a Modern Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shao-yan; Liu, Gang; Ma, Chen-Guo; Han, Yi-San; Shen, Xun-Zhang; XU, RUI-LONG; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objective. Large studies have previously been performed to set up a Chinese bone age reference, but it has been difficult to compare the maturation of Chinese children with populations elsewhere due to the potential variability between raters in different parts of the world. We re-analysed the radiographs from a large study of normal Chinese children using an automated bone age rating method to establish a Chinese bone age reference, and to compare the tempo of maturation in the...

  8. Determination of fetal thymic morphometric dimensions in relation to gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Niurka Piña Loyola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: the appropriate relationship between gestational age and fetal weight are variables that reflect the intrauterine development and fetal welfare. There are studies that have attempted to establish morphological patterns of the thymus in relation to gestational age and who report dissimilar values. Objective: To determine the morphometric dimensions of the thymus in relation to gestational age. Methods: A descriptive, observational case series conducted in the period May 2003 to May 2008 in General Hospital Universitario "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "of Cienfuegos. The sample consisted of 147 scams dead fetuses from 17 weeks gestational age until the end, who met the inclusion criteria. Body measurements were made such as: weight, height, width, thickness and volume. Results: We observed a progressive increase of all the morphometric dimensions of the thymus in relation to higher gestational age, marked in the late fetal stage where the values are doubled. The weight, height and volume were lower thymic 80% of the sample. For 90% of cases the thickness of the organ was below 5 mm and width, regardless of gestational age was less than 20 mm by 50%, and the remaining 50% of 20-50 mm. Conclusions: determined morphometric dimensions of the thymus and showed a gradual increase of these in relation to gestational age and fetal weight.

  9. Ligubenzocycloheptanone A, a Novel Tricyclic Butenolide with a 6/7/5 Skeleton from Ligusticum chuanxiong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Zhang, Xu; Feng, Zi-Ming; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Li, Li; Yang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Ligubenzocycloheptanone A (1), a novel tricyclic butenolide with a 6/7/5-membered ring skeleton, was isolated from the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong. Its unusual structure was determined using UV, IR, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR data, X-ray diffraction crystallography and by the comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. 1 possessed a benzocycloheptanone core featuring butyrolactone, which is rarely observed in nature. A possible biosynthetic pathway was proposed. Ligubenzocycloheptanone A showed strong radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 2.3 μM. PMID:27461841

  10. Radionuclide distribution dynamics in skeletons of beagles fed 90Sr: Correlation with injected 226Ra and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data for the bone-by-bone redistribution of 90Sr in the beagle skeleton are reported for a period of 4000 d following a midgestation-to-540-d-exposure by ingestion. The partitioned clearance model (PCM) that was originally developed to describe bone-by-bone radionuclide redistribution of 226Ra after eight semimonthly injections at ages 435-535 d has been fitted to the 90Sr data. The parameter estimates for the PCM that describe the distribution and clearance of 226Ra after deposition on surfaces following injection and analogous parameter estimates for 90Sr after uniform deposition in the skeleton as a function of Ca mass are given. Fractional compact bone masses per bone group (mi,COM) are also predicted by the model and compared to measured values; a high degree of correlation (r = 0.84) is found. Bone groups for which the agreement between the model and experimental values of mi,COM was poor had tissue-to-calcium weight ratios about 1.5 times those for bones that agreed well. Metabolically defined surface in PCM is initial activity fraction per Ca fraction in a given skeletal component for intravenously injected alkaline earth (Sae) radionuclides; comparisons are made to similarly defined surface (Sact) values from 239Pu injection studies. The patterns of Sae and Sact distribution throughout the skeleton are similar

  11. Multidimensional $\\beta$-skeletons in $L_1$ and $L_{\\infty}$ metric

    OpenAIRE

    Kowaluk, Mirosław; Majewska, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    The $\\beta$-skeleton $\\{G_{\\beta}(V)\\}$ for a point set V is a family of geometric graphs, defined by the notion of neighborhoods parameterized by real number $0 < \\beta < \\infty$. By using the distance-based version definition of $\\beta$-skeletons we study those graphs for a set of points in $\\mathbb{R}^d$ space with $l_1$ and $l_{\\infty}$ metrics. We present algorithms for the entire spectrum of $\\beta$ values and we discuss properties of lens-based and circle-based $\\beta$-skeletons in tho...

  12. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  13. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  14. Relative age determination of Rattus tiomanicus using allometric measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Verwilghen, Aude; Rabillard, Marie-Agnes; Chaval, Yannick; Rieffel, Dominique; Sinaga, Martua Hasiholan; Naim, Mohd; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis

    2015-01-01

    For sustainable oil palm production, barn owl (Tyto alba) predation should be enhanced and monitored to better understand its impact on rodent population dynamics, notably for selective predation based on age or size. Our aim was to assess the best combination of osteometric variables that predict eye lens weight and thus the relative age of an individual Rattus tiomanicus based on pellet remains. We captured 161 individuals in an oil palm plantation in Indonesia and measured 15 osteometric v...

  15. Midlife Determinants Associated with Sedentary Behavior in Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Berg, Julianne D; Bosma, Hans; Caserotti, Paolo;

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is associated with adverse health effects. To prevent sedentary behavior and limit health risks, insights into associated determinants are essential. Sedentary behavior should be viewed as a distinct health behavior, therefore its determinants should be independently identified...

  16. Dual embryonic origin and patterning of the pharyngeal skeleton in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Piekarski, Nadine; Hanken, James

    2015-01-01

    The impressive morphological diversification of vertebrates was achieved in part by innovation and modification of the pharyngeal skeleton. Extensive fate mapping in amniote models has revealed a primarily cranial neural crest derivation of the pharyngeal skeleton. Although comparable fate maps of amphibians produced over several decades have failed to document a neural crest derivation of ventromedial elements in these vertebrates, a recent report provides evidence of a mesodermal origin of one of these elements, basibranchial 2, in the axolotl. We used a transgenic labeling protocol and grafts of labeled cells between GFP+ and white embryos to derive a fate map that describes contributions of both cranial neural crest and mesoderm to the axolotl pharyngeal skeleton, and we conducted additional experiments that probe the mechanisms that underlie mesodermal patterning. Our fate map confirms a dual embryonic origin of the pharyngeal skeleton in urodeles, including derivation of basibranchial 2 from mesoderm closely associated with the second heart field. Additionally, heterotopic transplantation experiments reveal lineage restriction of mesodermal cells that contribute to pharyngeal cartilage. The mesoderm-derived component of the pharyngeal skeleton appears to be particularly sensitive to retinoic acid (RA): administration of exogenous RA leads to loss of the second basibranchial, but not the first. Neural crest was undoubtedly critical in the evolution of the vertebrate pharyngeal skeleton, but mesoderm may have played a central role in forming ventromedial elements, in particular. When and how many times during vertebrate phylogeny a mesodermal contribution to the pharyngeal skeleton evolved remain to be resolved. PMID:25963195

  17. Dual embryonic origin and patterning of the pharyngeal skeleton in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Piekarski, Nadine; Hanken, James

    2015-01-01

    The impressive morphological diversification of vertebrates was achieved in part by innovation and modification of the pharyngeal skeleton. Extensive fate mapping in amniote models has revealed a primarily cranial neural crest derivation of the pharyngeal skeleton. Although comparable fate maps of amphibians produced over several decades have failed to document a neural crest derivation of ventromedial elements in these vertebrates, a recent report provides evidence of a mesodermal origin of one of these elements, basibranchial 2, in the axolotl. We used a transgenic labeling protocol and grafts of labeled cells between GFP+ and white embryos to derive a fate map that describes contributions of both cranial neural crest and mesoderm to the axolotl pharyngeal skeleton, and we conducted additional experiments that probe the mechanisms that underlie mesodermal patterning. Our fate map confirms a dual embryonic origin of the pharyngeal skeleton in urodeles, including derivation of basibranchial 2 from mesoderm closely associated with the second heart field. Additionally, heterotopic transplantation experiments reveal lineage restriction of mesodermal cells that contribute to pharyngeal cartilage. The mesoderm-derived component of the pharyngeal skeleton appears to be particularly sensitive to retinoic acid (RA): administration of exogenous RA leads to loss of the second basibranchial, but not the first. Neural crest was undoubtedly critical in the evolution of the vertebrate pharyngeal skeleton, but mesoderm may have played a central role in forming ventromedial elements, in particular. When and how many times during vertebrate phylogeny a mesodermal contribution to the pharyngeal skeleton evolved remain to be resolved.

  18. Aging related changes in determinants of muscle force generating capacity: a comparison of muscle aging in men and male rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballak, Sam B; Degens, Hans; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    Human aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and force generating capacity, however the exact mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. Rodents models have often been used to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of age-related changes in human skeletal muscle. However, to what extent age-related alterations in determinants of muscle force generating capacity observed in rodents resemble those in humans has not been considered thoroughly. This review compares the effect of aging on muscle force generating determinants (muscle mass, fiber size, fiber number, fiber type distribution and muscle specific tension), in men and male rodents at similar relative age. It appears that muscle aging in male F344*BN rat resembles that in men most; 32-35-month-old rats exhibit similar signs of muscle weakness to those of 70-80-yr-old men, and the decline in 36-38-month-old rats is similar to that in men aged over 80 yrs. For male C57BL/6 mice, age-related decline in muscle force generating capacity seems to occur only at higher relative age than in men. We conclude that the effects on determinants of muscle force differ between species as well as within species, but qualitatively show the same pattern as that observed in men.

  19. Alendronate increases BMD at appendicular and axial skeletons in patients with established osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Au Szeki

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify high-risk patients and provide pharmacological treatment is one of the effective approaches in prevention of osteoporotic fractures. This study investigated the effect of 12-month Alendronate treatment on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover biochemical markers in postmenopausal women with one or more non-traumatic fractures, i.e. patients with established osteoporosis. Methods A total of 118 Hong Kong postmenopausal Chinese women aged 50 to 75 with low-energy fracture at distal radius (Colles' fracture were recruited for BMD measurement at lumbar spine and non-dominant hip using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. 47 women with BMD T-score below -2 SD at either side were identified as patients with established osteoporosis and then randomized into Alendronate group (n = 22 and placebo control group (n = 25 for BMD measurement at spine and hip using DXA and distal radius of the non-fracture side by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT, and bone turnover markers, including bone forming alkaline phosphatase (BALP and bone resorbing urinary Deoxypyridinoline (DPD. All measurements were repeated at 6 and 12 months. Results Alendronate treatment significantly increased BMD, more in weight-bearing skeletons (5.1% at spine and 2.5% at hip than in non-weight bearing skeleton (0.9% at distal radius after 12 months treatment. Spine T-score was significant improved in Alendronate group (p Conclusion 12 months Alendronate treatment was effective to increase BMD at both axial and appendicular skeletons in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis.

  20. Determining Ages of APOGEE Giants with Known Distances

    CERN Document Server

    Feuillet, Diane K; Holtzman, Jon; Girardi, Leo; MacDonald, Nick; Majewski, Steven R; Nidever, David L

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of local red giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1 m telescope with the APOGEE spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the age distribution from the high-resolution spectroscopic stellar parameters and accurate distance measurements from Hipparcos. The high-resolution (R ~ 23,000), near infrared (H-band, 1.5-1.7 micron) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of the stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [alpha/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 40%. For red giants, the relatively rapid evolution of stars up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained based on the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass-age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant star formation history (SFH). To i...

  1. Age and sex determination of juvenile band-tailed pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J.A.; Braun, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Captive band-tailed pigeons (Columbafasciata) were studied to document progression of molts and plumages from juvenal to adult age. Immature pigeons began the post-juvenal molt at 35 days which continued up to 340 days. The only 3 plumage characters useful for identification and estimation of age were presence of juvenal lesser, middle, and greater secondary coverts, juvenal secondaries, and juvenal primaries. While juvenal primaries were still present, hatching dates could be estimated up to 252 days (N = 84). Secondary feather presence and molt stage could be used to identify juvenile pigeons for more than 340 days (N = 24). Using coloration of the crown and breast feathers, 96 percent of the immature pigeons examined (106 of 110) at 80 days of age were classified accurately as to sex.

  2. Human skeleton proportions from monocular data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG En; LI Ling

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel method for estimating the skeleton proportions ofa human figure from monocular data.The proposed system will first automatically extract the key frames and recover the perspective camera model from the 2D data.The human skeleton proportions are then estimated from the key frames using the recovered camera model without posture reconstruction. The proposed method is tested to be simple, fast and produce satisfactory results for the input data. The human model with estimated proportions can be used in future research involving human body modeling or human motion reconstruction.

  3. Axon Membrane Skeleton Structure is Optimized for Coordinated Sodium Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yihao; Li, He; Tzingounis, Anastasios V; Lykotrafitis, George

    2016-01-01

    Axons transmit action potentials with high fidelity and minimal jitter. This unique capability is likely the result of the spatiotemporal arrangement of sodium channels along the axon. Super-resolution microscopy recently revealed that the axon membrane skeleton is structured as a series of actin rings connected by spectrin filaments that are held under entropic tension. Sodium channels also exhibit a periodic distribution pattern, as they bind to ankyrin G, which associates with spectrin. Here, we elucidate the relationship between the axon membrane skeleton structure and the function of the axon. By combining cytoskeletal dynamics and continuum diffusion modeling, we show that spectrin filaments under tension minimize the thermal fluctuations of sodium channels and prevent overlap of neighboring channel trajectories. Importantly, this axon skeletal arrangement allows for a highly reproducible band-like activation of sodium channels leading to coordinated sodium propagation along the axon.

  4. Aging process on spectrally determined spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity: a 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Cerutti, Catherine; Mpio, Ignace; Ducher, Michel

    2007-09-01

    The interindividual age-related decrease in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was reported in many cross-sectional studies. However, the long-term intraindividual decrease in BRS has never been confirmed by longitudinal studies. Data obtained from a 5-year prospective study designed to assess the 5-year stress effects on blood pressure (BP) provided the opportunity to assess longitudinal aging process on spectrally determined BRS (S-BRS) using the cross spectral analysis. This analysis was carried out in 205 men aged between 18 and 50 years who had 2 valid beat to beat BP recordings (Finapress) at a mean 5-year interval. At inclusion and at end of follow-up, S-BRS was significantly correlated with age (r=-0.50, P<0.001, r=-0.33, P<0.001 respectively). Interestingly, the slopes and the intercepts were not significantly different at a 5-year interval. This result is in favor of the good reproducibility of S-BRS. The attenuation with age of S-BRS was calculated at 3.6% a year. This decrease was slightly higher than the one obtained with the baseline data (2.3% per year). This longitudinal study provided, for the first time, an estimate of the slope of the age-related physiological S-BRS decrease in a mid-aged healthy male population. Our findings reinforce the interest of evaluating spontaneous BRS reported to predict hypertension and cardiovascular events in various populations.

  5. The Skeleton of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Zucker, Catherine; Goodman, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. (2014) argued that the very long, very thin infrared dark cloud "Nessie" lies directly in the Galactic mid-plane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-position-velocity ($p-p-v$) space as traced by lower density $\\rm {CO}$ and higher density ${\\rm NH}_3$ gas. Nessie was presented as the first "bone" of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high-contrast filament that can be used to map our Galaxy's "skeleton." Here, we present evidence for additional bones in the Milky Way Galaxy, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of several filaments that could potentially trace Galactic structure. Our ten bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features which lie parallel to, and no more than 20 pc from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use $\\rm {CO}$, ${\\rm N}_2{\\rm H}^+$, $\\rm {HCO}^+$, and ${\\rm NH}_3$ radial velocity data to establish the three-dimensional location of the candidates in ${\\it p-p-v}$ space. Of the ten candidates, si...

  6. Determinants of labor market choices : age differentials and family circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Kutyavina, Marina

    2015-01-01

    My research explores the interactions between labor market choices, public programs, and family circumstances. In the following three chapters, I study the relationship between labor market conditions and job search behavior of workers of differing ages, the effect of children's events on parental retirement timing, as well as the impact of UI extensions on recipients' spouses

  7. Quantifying yeast chronological life span by outgrowth of aged cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Christopher; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an important model organism in the field of aging research. The replicative and chronological life spans are two established paradigms used to study aging in yeast. Replicative aging is defined as the number of daughter cells a single yeast mother cell produces before senescence; chronological aging is defined by the length of time cells can survive in a non-dividing, quiescence-like state. We have developed a high-throughput method for quantitative measurement of chronological life span. This method involves aging the cells in a defined medium under agitation and at constant temperature. At each age-point, a sub-population of cells is removed from the aging culture and inoculated into rich growth medium. A high-resolution growth curve is then obtained for this sub-population of aged cells using a Bioscreen C MBR machine. An algorithm is then applied to determine the relative proportion of viable cells in each sub-population based on the growth kinetics at each age-point. This method requires substantially less time and resources compared to other chronological lifespan assays while maintaining reproducibility and precision. The high-throughput nature of this assay should allow for large-scale genetic and chemical screens to identify novel longevity modifiers for further testing in more complex organisms. PMID:19421136

  8. CodeSkelGen - A Program Skeleton Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Queirós, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Existent computer programming training environments help users to learn programming by solving problems from scratch. Nevertheless, initiating the resolution of a program can be frustrating and demotivating if the student does not know where and how to start. Skeleton programming facilitates a top-down design approach, where a partially functional system with complete high-level structures is available, so the student needs only to progressively complete or update the code to meet the r...

  9. Direct Age Determination of a Subtropical Freshwater Crayfish (Redclaw, Cherax quadricarinatus Using Ossicular Growth Marks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse C Leland

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that crustacean age determination is possible. We applied a direct ageing method (i.e. transverse cross sectioning of gastric ossicles to a subtropical freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus sourced from an aquaculture population. Growth mark periodicity and the potential for chronological depositions were investigated by staining C. quadricarinatus with calcein and examining their ossicles a year later. Pterocardiac ossicles were superior to other ageing structures (i.e. other ossicles and eyestalks and produced repeatable between-reader counts (87% were corroborated and 13% varied by ±1. C. quadricarinatus size-at-age data (for an aquaculture population was described by a von Bertalanffy growth equation (L∞ = 32 mm occipital carapace length; K = 0.64; t0 = -0.18; R2 = 0.81. Ossicular growth marks did not correspond to moult history. The calcein stain was retained over an annual cycle comprising multiple moults, demonstrating that pterocardiac ossicles retain chronological information. The maximum age (3+ corroborated other indirectly-obtained longevity estimates for C. quadricarinatus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the growth marks in C. quadricarinatus ossicles are probably deposited annually during winter. The ability to extract age information from subtropical decapods provides substantial opportunities for advancing fisheries and conservation research globally, but further research is needed to provide a definitive validation and elucidate the mechanism governing the accrual of ossicular growth marks.

  10. Age and dose as determinants of times of appearance of radium-induced osteosarcomas in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determinants of time-until-tumor for bone sarcomas in US radium cases have been reevaluated. For the 57 measured female bone sarcoma cases exposed to 226Ra and/or 228Ra, ages at appearance of tumor are more strongly correlated with radium intake doses than are latency periods. Ages at appearance of tumor increase as initial radium intakes decrease. As many lower dose cases were iatrogenic cases exposed in mid-adult life, rather than about age 22 as for the dial worker cases, these results may be artifactual, resulting from an increased susceptability to sarcoma induction at older ages. Alternatively the time of appearance of a sarcoma may be in part directly determined by age. Both explanations find support in the literature. These results suggest that 226228Ra-induced bone sarcomas do have an expression period. The downturn in sarcoma incidence at very high doses may result from truncation of the expression period on its early side by the minimum induction period

  11. The determination of the age of Globular Clusters a statistical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rengel, M; Bruzual, A G; Rengel, Miriam; Mateu, Juan; Bruzual, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    We present a statistical approach for determining the age of Globular Clusters (GCs) that allows estimating the age derived from CMDs more accurately than the conventional methods of the isochrone fitting. We measure how closely a set of synthetic CMDs constructed from different evolutionary models resemble the observed ones by determining the likelihood using Saha and Chi-square statistics. The model which best matches the observational data, of a set of plausible ones, is the one with the highest value of the estimator. We apply this method to a set of three different evolutionary models presented by three different authors. Each of theses sets consists again of many different models of various chemical abundances, ages, input physics and there alike. We subsequently derive the age of GCs NGC 6397, M92 and M3. With a confidence level of 99%, we find that the best estimate of the age is 14.0 Gyrs within the range of 13.8 to 14.4 Gyrs for NGC 6397, 14.75 Gyrs within the range of 14.50 to 15.40 Gyrs for M92, a...

  12. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Skeleton Development of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lan-xia; SHI Zheng-xiang; WANG Xin-ying; GENG Ai-lian; LI Bao-ming

    2006-01-01

    Seven hundred and twenty one-day-old AA broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups (male and female for half), and put into two identical closed houses with different lighting programs. The first house was illuminated by using common incandescence light, and the second one was added with ultraviolet radiation light from the second week onwards. The birds lived in a floor with litters and free access to feed and water. Temperature, humidity and immune programs in the two houses were similar. The results showed that under ultraviolet radiation, the growth speed of skeleton increased (the shank length was significantly increased in the third week, P < 0.05; the leg muscle weight was significantly improved by 3.87%, P < 0.05); the skeleton quality improved (the density of skeleton mineralization was significantly increased by 6.11%, P < 0.01; serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase activity were all improved); and the growth performance was improved (feed conversion ratio was improved by 1.4% averagely; the uniformity of body weight, the shank length, the inclined body length and body height were significantly improved) in broiler chicken.

  13. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Buzuloiu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  14. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Coquin, Didier; Lambert, Patrick; Buzuloiu, Vasile

    2005-12-01

    This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  15. Diagenesis of echinoderm skeletons: Constraints on paleoseawater Mg/Ca reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Krzykawski, Tomasz; Stolarski, Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    One of the most profound environmental changes thought to be reflected in chemical composition of numerous geological archives is Mg/Ca ratio of the seawater, which has varied dramatically throughout the Phanerozoic. Echinoderms that today typically form high magnesium calcite skeletons are increasingly being utilized as a proxy for interpreting secular changes in seawater chemistry. However, accurate characterization of the diagenetic changes of their metastable high magnesium calcite skeletons is a prerequisite for assessing their original, major-element geochemical composition. Here we expand the existing models of diagenesis of echinoderm skeleton by integration of various analytical methods that up to now rarely have been used to assess the diagenetic changes of fossil echinoderms. We validated the preservation of a suite of differently preserved echinoderm ossicles, mostly crinoids, ranging in age from the Cambrian through Recent. In 13 of 99 fossil echinoderm ossicles we found well-preserved porous microstructure (stereom), non-luminescent behaviour or blotchy dark color in cathodoluminescence, and distinct nanostructural features (layered and nanocomposite structure). Moreover, in representatives of such preserved samples, distribution of sulphates associated with organic matter is identical to those in Recent echinoderms. Only such ossicles, despite of local micrometer-scale diagenetic changes, were herein considered well-preserved, retaining their original major-element skeletal composition. By contrast, majority of samples show transformation to the stable low magnesium calcite that leads to obliteration of the primary geochemical and micro/nanostructural features and is accompanied with increase in cathodoluminescence emission intensity. Using only well-preserved fossil echinoderm samples, we found purely random variation in Mg/Ca in echinoderm skeletons through the observed time series; any periodicities in echinoderm skeletal Mg/Ca ratio which might

  16. Aging is a weak but relentless determinant of dementia severity

    OpenAIRE

    Royall, Donald R.; Raymond F. Palmer

    2016-01-01

    Structural Equation Models (SEM) can explicitly distinguish “dementia-relevant” variance in cognitive task performance (i.e., “δ” for dementia). In prior work, δ appears to uniquely account for dementia severity regardless of the cognitive measures used to construct it. In this study, we test δ as a mediator of age's prospective association with future cognitive performance and dementia severity in a large, ethnically diverse longitudinal cohort, the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consor...

  17. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to...

  18. ACCELERATED AGING TEST IN DETERMINING THE VIGOUR OF SUNFLOWER SEEDS WITH AND WITHOUT PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Ducatti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The standard germination test alone is insufficient to attest the quality of seeds, making necessary correlation’s with vigour tests, to determine more accurately the physiological potential of a seeds lot. The accelerated aging test is an option for determine the vigour and consists in submits seeds to high temperatures and humidity, for different periods of time, has not yet standardized. The objective of this work was to analyze the efficiency of the accelerated aging test in the assessment of the effect of a lot of sunflower seed, by three periods of aging (48, 56 and 72 hours in 42 °C temperature, in seeds with and without pericarp (manually removed and relate the results with electrical conductivity test and germination first count. The experimental design was a completely randomized design and the comparison of averages made using Tukey's test at 5% probability. The results showed that standard germination, electrical conductivity and germination first count, the seeds without pericarp showed better performance. In relation to the accelerated aging, only in the period of 72 hours of aging there was no significant difference between the treatments. In this way, the appropriate period to identify differences in force between the treatments was 72 hours, which showed a positive correlation with the germination first count and electrical conductivity.

  19. Age as a determinant of reproductive success among captive female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Christine; Liukkonen, John R; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine M; Harrison, Richard M; Kubisch, H Michael

    2007-04-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on fertility outcomes among a colony of captive Indian rhesus monkeys. The analysis covered over 30 years and was based on 1443 females with a total of 11,453 pregnancies. Various determinants of fertility were assessed including birth rates, pregnancy loss, infant survival, interbirth intervals, and interval from last birth to death. Binary variables were analyzed with generalized linear models with random intercepts, while linear mixed models were used for analysis of continuous variables. Age of the dam was a significant factor in determining whether a pregnancy resulted in a birth and whether an infant survived the first 30 days with primiparous or older mothers being less likely to produce an infant surviving to that age. In contrast, sex proved to be the only significant factor in determining whether an infant lived to 1 year, with females being more likely to survive. The interval between births proved to be affected primarily by dam age, while the late death of an infant depressed the likelihood of an extended time interval between her last birth and her death. Overall, these results demonstrate that maternal age contributes significantly to a decline in fertility and older females can live relatively long periods following birth of their last infant. PMID:17504925

  20. Skeleton-Sectional Structural Analysis for 3D Printing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Peng Xu; Wei Li; Li-Gang Liu

    2016-01-01

    3D printing has become popular and has been widely used in various applications in recent years. More and more home users have motivation to design their own models and then fabricate them using 3D printers. However, the printed objects may have some structural or stress defects as the users may be lack of knowledge on stress analysis on 3D models. In this paper, we present an approach to help users analyze a model’s structural strength while designing its shape. We adopt sectional structural analysis instead of conventional FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis which is computationally expensive. Based on sectional structural analysis, our approach imports skeletons to assist in integrating mesh designing, strength computing and mesh correction well. Skeletons can also guide sections building and load calculation for analysis. For weak regions with high stress over a threshold value in the model from analysis result, our system corrects them by scaling the corresponding bones of skeleton so as to make these regions stiff enough. A number of experiments have demonstrated the applicability and practicability of our approach.

  1. Paleodysmorphology and paleoteratology: Diagnosing and interpreting congenital conditions of the skeleton in anthropological contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Boer, Lucas; van der Merwe, Alie E

    2016-10-01

    Most congenital conditions have low prevalence, but collectively they occur in a few percent of all live births. Congenital conditions are rarely encountered in anthropological studies, not least because many of them have no obvious effect on the skeleton. Here, we discuss two groups of congenital conditions that specifically affect the skeleton, either qualitatively or quantitatively. Skeletal dysplasias (osteochondrodysplasias) interfere with the histological formation, growth and maturation of skeletal tissues leading to diminished postural length, but the building plan of the body is unaffected. Well- known skeletal dysplasias represented in the archeological record include osteogenesis imperfecta and achondroplasia. Dysostoses, in contrast, interfere with the building plan of the body, leading to e.g. missing or extraskeletal elements, but the histology of the skeletal tissues is unaffected. Dysostoses can concern the extremities (e.g., oligodactyly and polydactyly), the vertebral column (e.g., homeotic and meristic anomalies), or the craniofacial region. Conditions pertaining to the cranial sutures, i.e., craniosynostoses, can be either skeletal dysplasias or dysostoses. Congenital conditions that are not harmful to the individual are known as anatomical variations, several of which have a high and population-specific prevalence that could potentially make them useful for determining ethnic origins. In individual cases, specific congenital conditions could be determinative in establishing identity, provided that ante-mortem registration of those conditions was ensured. Clin. Anat. 29:878-891, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Clinical Anatomy published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Clinical Anatomists.

  2. Skeleton based parallel programming: functional and parallel semantics in a single shot

    OpenAIRE

    Aldinucci, Marco; Danelutto, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Different skeleton based parallel programming systems have been developed in past years. The main goal of these programming environments is to provide programmers with handy, effective ways of writing parallel applications. In particular, skeleton based parallel programming environments automatically deal with most of the difficult, cumbersome programming problems that must be usually handled by programmers of parallel applications using traditional programming environments (e.g. environments...

  3. Lamprey type II collagen and Sox9 reveal an ancient origin of the vertebrate collagenous skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guangjun; Miyamoto, Michael M.; Cohn, Martin J.

    2006-01-01

    Type II collagen is the major cartilage matrix protein in the jawed vertebrate skeleton. Lampreys and hagfishes, by contrast, are thought to have noncollagenous cartilage. This difference in skeletal structure has led to the hypothesis that the vertebrate common ancestor had a noncollagenous skeleton, with type II collagen becoming the predominant cartilage matrix protein after the divergence of jawless fish from the jawed vertebrates ≈500 million years ago. Here we report that lampreys have ...

  4. Pavement Aging Model by Response Surface Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzano-Ramírez A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, surface course aging was modeled by Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The Marshall specimens were placed in a conventional oven for time and temperature conditions established on the basis of the environment factors of the region where the surface course is constructed by AC-20 from the Ing. Antonio M. Amor refinery. Volatilized material (VM, load resistance increment (ΔL and flow resistance increment (ΔF models were developed by the RSM. Cylindrical specimens with real aging were extracted from the surface course pilot to evaluate the error of the models. The VM model was adequate, in contrast (ΔL and (ΔF models were almost adequate with an error of 20 %, that was associated with the other environmental factors, which were not considered at the beginning of the research.

  5. Age determinations in the Precambrian basement of the Wadi Araba area, southwest Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrar, G. (Jordan Univ., Amman. Dept of Geology); Baumann, A. (Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Mineralogie, Mineralogisches Museum); Wachendorf, H. (Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Geologie und Palaeontologie)

    1983-05-01

    The Precambrian basement of Jordan belongs to the northern margin of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Age determinations by U-Pb isotopic analyses on sized and magnetic zircon fractions, a monazite and an apatite sample and by Rb-Sr isotopic studies on whole-rocks and minerals of metasedimentary rocks, granodiorites, granites and dykes have elucidated the following events: (1) A major regional high-grade metamorphism accompanied by magmatization and synkinematic plutonism occurred at about 800 Ma according to U-Pb zircon ages of metasediments and granites. (2) During a postkinematic plutonic event between 615 and 600 Ma extensive masses of granodioritic to granitic composition and dykes were emplaced. The U-Pb data of zircons of the rocks yielded upper intercept ages with the concordia consistent with RbSr biotite ages. The Rb-Sr mineral ages of the older metasedimentary rocks document the resetting of the Rb-Sr system due to the thermal pulse at this time. (3) A younger plutonic event produced diorites and dykes at about 570 Ma. The plutonic events are related to the Pan-African orogenic phase. The low initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of the plutonic rocks (0.7032-0.7046) correspond to values reported from equivalent rocks throughout the Arabian-Nubian Shield and suggest that no significant portions of ancient sialic crustal material contributed to the generation of the granitic to granodioritic magmas.

  6. Age determinations in the Precambrian basement of the Wadi Araba area, southwest Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrar, Ghaleb; Baumann, Albrecht; Wachendorf, Horst

    1983-05-01

    The Precambrian basement of Jordan belongs to the northern margin of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Age determinations by U-Pb isotopic analyses on sized and magnetic zircon fractions, a monazite and an apatite sample and by Rb-Sr isotopic studies on whole-rocks and minerals of metasedimentary rocks, granodiorites, granites and dykes have elucidated the following events: (1)A major regional high-grade metamorphism accompanied by migmatization and synkinematic plutonism occurred at about 800 Ma according to U-Pb zircon ages of metasediments and granites. (2)During a postkinematic plutonic event between 615 and 600 Ma extensive masses of granodioritic to granitic composition and dykes were emplaced. The U-Pb data of zircons of the rocks yielded upper intercept ages with the concordia consistent with Rb-Sr biotite ages. The Rb-Sr mineral ages of the older metasedimentary rocks document the resetting of the Rb-Sr system due to the thermal pulse at this time. (3)A younger plutonic event produced diorites and dykes at about 570 Ma. The plutonic events are related to the Pan-African orogenic phase. The low initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of the plutonic rocks (0.7032-0.7046) correspond to values reported from equivalent rocks throughout the Arabian-Nubian Shield and suggest that no significant portions of ancient sialic crustal material contributed to the generation of the granitic to granodioritic magmas.

  7. Development and evaluation of an articulated registration algorithm for human skeleton registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate registration over multiple scans is necessary to assess treatment response of bone diseases (e.g. metastatic bone lesions). This study aimed to develop and evaluate an articulated registration algorithm for the whole-body skeleton registration in human patients. In articulated registration, whole-body skeletons are registered by auto-segmenting into individual bones using atlas-based segmentation, and then rigidly aligning them. Sixteen patients (weight = 80–117 kg, height = 168–191 cm) with advanced prostate cancer underwent the pre- and mid-treatment PET/CT scans over a course of cancer therapy. Skeletons were extracted from the CT images by thresholding (HU>150). Skeletons were registered using the articulated, rigid, and deformable registration algorithms to account for position and postural variability between scans. The inter-observers agreement in the atlas creation, the agreement between the manually and atlas-based segmented bones, and the registration performances of all three registration algorithms were all assessed using the Dice similarity index—DSIobserved, DSIatlas, and DSIregister. Hausdorff distance (dHausdorff) of the registered skeletons was also used for registration evaluation. Nearly negligible inter-observers variability was found in the bone atlases creation as the DSIobserver was 96 ± 2%. Atlas-based and manual segmented bones were in excellent agreement with DSIatlas of 90 ± 3%. Articulated (DSIregsiter = 75 ± 2%, dHausdorff = 0.37 ± 0.08 cm) and deformable registration algorithms (DSIregister = 77 ± 3%, dHausdorff = 0.34 ± 0.08 cm) considerably outperformed the rigid registration algorithm (DSIregsiter = 59 ± 9%, dHausdorff = 0.69 ± 0.20 cm) in the skeleton registration as the rigid registration algorithm failed to capture the skeleton flexibility in the joints. Despite superior skeleton registration performance, deformable registration algorithm failed to preserve the local rigidity of bones as over

  8. SkelTre: Robust skeleton extraction from imperfect point clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Bucksch, A.; R. Lindenbergh; M. Menenti

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial laser scanners capture 3D geometry of real world objects as a point cloud. This paper reports on a new algorithm developed for the skeletonization of a laser scanner point cloud. The skeletonization algorithm proposed in this paper consists of three steps: (i) extraction of a graph from an octree organization, (ii) reduction of the graph to a skeleton, and (iii) embedding of the skeleton into the point cloud. For these three steps, only one input parameter is required. The results...

  9. Analytical estimation of skeleton thermal conductivity of a geopolymer foam from thermal conductivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henon, J.; Alzina, A.; Absi, J.; Smith, D. S.; Rossignol, S.

    2015-07-01

    The geopolymers are alumino-silicate binders. The addition of a high pores volume fraction, gives them a thermal insulation character desired in the building industry. In this work, potassium geopolymer foams were prepared at room temperature (< 70 ∘C) by a process of in situ gas release. The porosity distribution shows a multiscale character. However, the thermal conductivity measurements gave values from 0.35 to 0.12 Wm-1.K-1 for a pore volume fraction values between 65 and 85%. In the aim to predict the thermal properties of these foams and focus on the relationship "thermal-conductivity/microstructure", knowledge of the thermal conductivity of their solid skeleton (λ s ) is paramount. However, there is rare work on the determination of this value depending on the initial composition. By the formulation used, the foaming agent contributes to the final network, and it is not possible to obtain a dense material designate to make a direct measurement of λ s . The objective of this work is to use inverse analytical methods to identify the value of λ s . Measurements of thermal conductivity by the fluxmetre technique were performed. The obtained value of the solid skeleton thermal conductivity by the inverse numerical technique is situated in a framework between 0.95 and 1.35 Wm-1.K-1 and is in agreement with one issue from the literature.

  10. Determination of the age of the earth from Kamland measurement of geo-neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Subhendra

    2003-01-01

    The low energy component of the antineutrino spectrum observed in the recent Kamland experiment has significant contribution from the radioactive decay of $^{238}U$ and $^{232}Th$ in the crust and mantle of the earth. By taking the ratio of the antineutrino events obeserved in two different energy ranges we can determine the present value $[Th/U]$ independent of the U,Th distribution in the earth. Comparing with the r-process initial value of $[Th/U]_0$ we determine the age of the earth as a ...

  11. THE SKELETON OF THE SYMMETRICAL TRAVELING SALESMAN POLYTOPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIERKSMA, G

    1993-01-01

    The vertices of the skeleton of the symmetric Traveling Salesman Polytope are the characteristic vectors coffesponding to the Hamiltonian tours in the complete graph K(n) with n greater-than-or-equal-to 3, and the edges of this skeleton are the 1-faces of the polytope. It is shown that this skeleton

  12. Effect of single chemotherapeutic agents on the growing skeleton of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, BL; Kamps, WA; Hartel, RM; Veth, RPH; Sluiter, WJ; Hoekstra, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Background: To establish the effect of chemotherapeutics on the growing skeleton, male Wistar rats were studied. Design: Between the ages of 4 and 13 weeks the rats were given i.v. doxorubicin 15 mg/m(2) body surface area (BSA), methotrexate 60 mg/m(2) BSA or cisplatin 7.5 mg/m(2) BSA. For each grou

  13. A Skeleton Tells Its Own Story: Forensic Analyses of Skeletal Elements for the Science Classroom Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Virginia L.; Breed, David; Miller, Jon S.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques of forensic anthropology and pathology can provide new information to increase student interest in studying the structural details of the human skeleton. We present a simplified methodology for assessing skeletal ethnicity, sex, age, and stature. An inexpensive method has been devised for constructing an osteometric board to allow…

  14. The Skeleton of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Catherine; Battersby, Cara; Goodman, Alyssa

    2015-12-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. argued that the very long, very thin infrared dark cloud “Nessie” lies directly in the Galactic midplane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in position-position-velocity (p-p-v) space as traced by lower-density {{CO}} and higher-density {{NH}}3 gas. Nessie was presented as the first “bone” of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high-contrast filament that can be used to map our Galaxy’s “skeleton.” Here we present evidence for additional bones in the Milky Way, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of several filaments that could potentially trace Galactic structure. Our 10 bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features that lie parallel to, and no more than 20 pc from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use {{CO}}, {{{N}}}2{{{H}}}+, {{{HCO}}}+, and {{NH}}3 radial velocity data to establish the three-dimensional location of the candidates in p-p-v space. Of the 10 candidates, 6 also have a projected aspect ratio of ≥50:1 run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in p-p-v space; and exhibit no abrupt shifts in velocity. The evidence presented here suggests that these candidates mark the locations of significant spiral features, with the bone called filament 5 (“BC_18.88-0.09”) being a close analog to Nessie in the northern sky. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, it should be possible to find more bones in future studies.

  15. Effects of diabetes drugs on the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christian; Schwartz, Ann V; Egger, Andrea; Lecka-Czernik, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased fracture risk and the mechanisms underlying the detrimental effects of diabetes on skeletal health are only partially understood. Antidiabetic drugs are indispensable for glycemic control in most type 2 diabetics, however, they may, at least in part, modulate fracture risk in exposed patients. Preclinical and clinical data clearly demonstrate an unfavorable effect of thiazolidinediones on the skeleton with impaired osteoblast function and activated osteoclastogenesis. The negative effect of thiazolidinediones on osteoblastogenesis includes decreased activity of osteoblast-specific transcription factors (e.g. Runx2, Dlx5, osterix) and decreased activity of osteoblast-specific signaling pathways (e.g. Wnt, TGF-β/BMP, IGF-1). In contrast, metformin has a positive effect on osteoblast differentiation due to increased activity of Runx2 via the AMPK/USF-1/SHP regulatory cascade resulting in a neutral or potentially protective effect on bone. Recently marketed antidiabetic drugs include incretin-based therapies (GLP-1 receptor agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors) and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2)-inhibitors. Preclinical studies indicate that incretins (GIP, GLP-1, and GLP-2) play an important role in the regulation of bone turnover. Clinical safety data are limited, however, meta-analyses of trials investigating the glycemic-lowering effect of both, GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP4-inhibitors, suggest a neutral effect of incretin-based therapies on fracture risk. For SGLT2-inhibitors recent data indicate that due to their mode of action they may alter calcium and phosphate homeostasis (secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by increased phosphate reabsorption) and thereby potentially affect bone mass and fracture risk. Clinical studies are needed to elucidate the effect of SGLT2-inhibitors on bone metabolism. Meanwhile SGLT2-inhibitors should be used with caution in patients with high fracture risk, which is specifically true

  16. Age of a prehistoric "Rodedian" cult site constrained by sediment and rock surface luminescence dating techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Porat, N.;

    2015-01-01

    The construction age of a pavement in a “Rodedian” prehistoric cult site in Negev desert, Israel, is established by determining the burial age of (i) a cobble used in the pavement, and (ii) the underlying sediment. The quartz OSL age and the K-feldspar corrected IR50 age from the sediment...

  17. Abnormalities of the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton in adults with Laron syndrome (growth hormone insensitivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, L.; Konen, O.; Schwarz, M.; Horev, G. [Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Imaging Department, Petah Tiqwa (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Siegel, Y. [Rabin Medical Center, Imaging Department, Petah Tiqwa (Israel); Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Thoracic Section, Miami, FL (United States); Hershkovitz, I. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Laron, Z. [Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit, Petah Tiqwa (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2008-02-15

    To investigate abnormalities in the skeleton (with the exclusion of the skull, cervical spine, hands and feet) in patients with Laron syndrome, who have an inborn growth hormone resistance and congenital insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. The study group was composed of 15 untreated patients with Laron syndrome (seven male and eight female) aged 21-68 years. Plain films of the axial and appendicular skeleton were evaluated retrospectively for abnormalities in structure and shape. The cortical width of the long bones was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively (in the upper humerus and mid-femur), and the cortical index was calculated and compared with published references. Measurements were taken of the mid-anteroposterior and cranio-caudal diameters of the vertebral body and spinous process at L3, the interpedicular distance at L1 and L5, and the sacral slope. Thoracic and lumbar osteophytes were graded on a 5-point scale. Values were compared with a control group of 20 healthy persons matched for age. The skeleton appeared small in all patients. No signs of osteopenia were visible. The cortex of the long bones appeared thick in the upper limbs in 11 patients and in the lower limbs in four. Compared with the reference values, the cortical width was thicker than average in the humerus and thinner in the femur. The vertebral diameters at L3 and the interpedicular distances at L1 and L5 were significantly smaller in the patients than in the control subjects (P < 0.001); however, at L5 the canal was wider, relative to the vertebral body. The study group had a higher rate of anterior osteophytes in the lumbar spine than the controls had, and their osteophytes were also significantly larger. In the six patients for whom radiographs of the upper extremity in its entirety were available on one film, the ulna appeared to be rotated. In one 22-year-old man, multiple epiphyses were still open. Congenital IGF-1 deficiency leads to skeletal abnormalities

  18. CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-M.; Ramos, E.M.; Lee, J.-H.; Gillis, T.; Mysore, J.S.; Hayden, M.R.; Warby, S.C.; Morrison, P.; Nance, M.; Ross, C.A.; Margolis, R.L.; Squitieri, F.; Orobello, S.; Di Donato, S.; Gomez-Tortosa, E.; Ayuso, C.; Suchowersky, O.; Trent, R.J.A.; McCusker, E.; Novelletto, A.; Frontali, M.; Jones, R.; Ashizawa, T.; Frank, S.; Saint-Hilaire, M.H.; Hersch, S.M.; Rosas, H.D.; Lucente, D.; Harrison, M.B.; Zanko, A.; Abramson, R.K.; Marder, K.; Sequeiros, J.; Paulsen, J.S.; Landwehrmeyer, G.B.; Myers, R.H.; MacDonald, M.E.; Durr, Alexandra; Rosenblatt, Adam; Frati, Luigi; Perlman, Susan; Conneally, Patrick M.; Klimek, Mary Lou; Diggin, Melissa; Hadzi, Tiffany; Duckett, Ayana; Ahmed, Anwar; Allen, Paul; Ames, David; Anderson, Christine; Anderson, Karla; Anderson, Karen; Andrews, Thomasin; Ashburner, John; Axelson, Eric; Aylward, Elizabeth; Barker, Roger A.; Barth, Katrin; Barton, Stacey; Baynes, Kathleen; Bea, Alexandra; Beall, Erik; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Biglan, Kevin; Bjork, Kristine; Blanchard, Steve; Bockholt, Jeremy; Bommu, Sudharshan Reddy; Brossman, Bradley; Burrows, Maggie; Calhoun, Vince; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chesire, Amy; Chiu, Edmond; Chua, Phyllis; Connell, R.J.; Connor, Carmela; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Craufurd, David; Cross, Stephen; Cysique, Lucette; Santos, Rachelle Dar; Davis, Jennifer; Decolongon, Joji; DiPietro, Anna; Doucette, Nicholas; Downing, Nancy; Dudler, Ann; Dunn, Steve; Ecker, Daniel; Epping, Eric A.; Erickson, Diane; Erwin, Cheryl; Evans, Ken; Factor, Stewart A.; Farias, Sarah; Fatas, Marta; Fiedorowicz, Jess; Fullam, Ruth; Furtado, Sarah; Garde, Monica Bascunana; Gehl, Carissa; Geschwind, Michael D.; Goh, Anita; Gooblar, Jon; Goodman, Anna; Griffith, Jane; Groves, Mark; Guttman, Mark; Hamilton, Joanne; Harrington, Deborah; Harris, Greg; Heaton, Robert K.; Helmer, Karl; Henneberry, Machelle; Hershey, Tamara; Herwig, Kelly; Howard, Elizabeth; Hunter, Christine; Jankovic, Joseph; Johnson, Hans; Johnson, Arik; Jones, Kathy; Juhl, Andrew; Kim, Eun Young; Kimble, Mycah; King, Pamela; Klimek, Mary Lou; Klöppel, Stefan; Koenig, Katherine; Komiti, Angela; Kumar, Rajeev; Langbehn, Douglas; Leavitt, Blair; Leserman, Anne; Lim, Kelvin; Lipe, Hillary; Lowe, Mark; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Mallonee, William M.; Mans, Nicole; Marietta, Jacquie; Marshall, Frederick; Martin, Wayne; Mason, Sarah; Matheson, Kirsty; Matson, Wayne; Mazzoni, Pietro; McDowell, William; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Miller, Michael; Mills, James; Miracle, Dawn; Montross, Kelsey; Moore, David; Mori, Sasumu; Moser, David J.; Moskowitz, Carol; Newman, Emily; Nopoulos, Peg; Novak, Marianne; O'Rourke, Justin; Oakes, David; Ondo, William; Orth, Michael; Panegyres, Peter; Pease, Karen; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Peterson, Asa; Phillips, Michael; Pierson, Ron; Potkin, Steve; Preston, Joy; Quaid, Kimberly; Radtke, Dawn; Rae, Daniela; Rao, Stephen; Raymond, Lynn; Reading, Sarah; Ready, Rebecca; Reece, Christine; Reilmann, Ralf; Reynolds, Norm; Richardson, Kylie; Rickards, Hugh; Ro, Eunyoe; Robinson, Robert; Rodnitzky, Robert; Rogers, Ben; Rosenblatt, Adam; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Price, Kathy; Price, Kathy; Ryan, Pat; Salmon, David; Samii, Ali; Schumacher, Jamy; Schumacher, Jessica; Sendon, Jose Luis Lópenz; Shear, Paula; Sheinberg, Alanna; Shpritz, Barnett; Siedlecki, Karen; Simpson, Sheila A.; Singer, Adam; Smith, Jim; Smith, Megan; Smith, Glenn; Snyder, Pete; Song, Allen; Sran, Satwinder; Stephan, Klaas; Stober, Janice; Sü?muth, Sigurd; Suter, Greg; Tabrizi, Sarah; Tempkin, Terry; Testa, Claudia; Thompson, Sean; Thomsen, Teri; Thumma, Kelli; Toga, Arthur; Trautmann, Sonja; Tremont, Geoff; Turner, Jessica; Uc, Ergun; Vaccarino, Anthony; van Duijn, Eric; Van Walsem, Marleen; Vik, Stacie; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Vuletich, Elizabeth; Warner, Tom; Wasserman, Paula; Wassink, Thomas; Waterman, Elijah; Weaver, Kurt; Weir, David; Welsh, Claire; Werling-Witkoske, Chris; Wesson, Melissa; Westervelt, Holly; Weydt, Patrick; Wheelock, Vicki; Williams, Kent; Williams, Janet; Wodarski, Mary; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Wood, Jessica; Wood-Siverio, Cathy; Wu, Shuhua; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; de Yebenes, Justo Garcia; Zhao, Yong Qiang; Zimbelman, Janice; Zschiegner, Roland; Aaserud, Olaf; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Andrews, Thomasin; Andrich, Jurgin; Antczak, Jakub; Arran, Natalie; Artiga, Maria J. Saiz; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Banaszkiewicz, Krysztof; di Poggio, Monica Bandettini; Bandmann, Oliver; Barbera, Miguel A.; Barker, Roger A.; Barrero, Francisco; Barth, Katrin; Bas, Jordi; Beister, Antoine; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Bertini, Elisabetta; Biunno, Ida; Bjørgo, Kathrine; Bjørnevoll, Inga; Bohlen, Stefan; Bonelli, Raphael M.; Bos, Reineke; Bourne, Colin; Bradbury, Alyson; Brockie, Peter; Brown, Felicity; Bruno, Stefania; Bryl, Anna; Buck, Andrea; Burg, Sabrina; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Burns, Peter; Burrows, Liz; Busquets, Nuria; Busse, Monica; Calopa, Matilde; Carruesco, Gemma T.; Casado, Ana Gonzalez; Catena, Judit López; Chu, Carol; Ciesielska, Anna; Clapton, Jackie; Clayton, Carole; Clenaghan, Catherine; Coelho, Miguel; Connemann, Julia; Craufurd, David; Crooks, Jenny; Cubillo, Patricia Trigo; Cubo, Esther; Curtis, Adrienne; De Michele, Giuseppe; De Nicola, A.; de Souza, Jenny; de Weert, A. Marit; de Yébenes, Justo Garcia; Dekker, M.; Descals, A. Martínez; Di Maio, Luigi; Di Pietro, Anna; Dipple, Heather; Dose, Matthias; Dumas, Eve M.; Dunnett, Stephen; Ecker, Daniel; Elifani, F.; Ellison-Rose, Lynda; Elorza, Marina D.; Eschenbach, Carolin; Evans, Carole; Fairtlough, Helen; Fannemel, Madelein; Fasano, Alfonso; Fenollar, Maria; Ferrandes, Giovanna; Ferreira, Jaoquim J.; Fillingham, Kay; Finisterra, Ana Maria; Fisher, K.; Fletcher, Amy; Foster, Jillian; Foustanos, Isabella; Frech, Fernando A.; Fullam, Robert; Fullham, Ruth; Gago, Miguel; García, RocioGarcía-Ramos; García, Socorro S.; Garrett, Carolina; Gellera, Cinzia; Gill, Paul; Ginestroni, Andrea; Golding, Charlotte; Goodman, Anna; Gørvell, Per; Grant, Janet; Griguoli, A.; Gross, Diana; Guedes, Leonor; BascuñanaGuerra, Monica; Guerra, Maria Rosalia; Guerrero, Rosa; Guia, Dolores B.; Guidubaldi, Arianna; Hallam, Caroline; Hamer, Stephanie; Hammer, Kathrin; Handley, Olivia J.; Harding, Alison; Hasholt, Lis; Hedge, Reikha; Heiberg, Arvid; Heinicke, Walburgis; Held, Christine; Hernanz, Laura Casas; Herranhof, Briggitte; Herrera, Carmen Durán; Hidding, Ute; Hiivola, Heli; Hill, Susan; Hjermind, Lena. E.; Hobson, Emma; Hoffmann, Rainer; Holl, Anna Hödl; Howard, Liz; Hunt, Sarah; Huson, Susan; Ialongo, Tamara; Idiago, Jesus Miguel R.; Illmann, Torsten; Jachinska, Katarzyna; Jacopini, Gioia; Jakobsen, Oda; Jamieson, Stuart; Jamrozik, Zygmunt; Janik, Piotr; Johns, Nicola; Jones, Lesley; Jones, Una; Jurgens, Caroline K.; Kaelin, Alain; Kalbarczyk, Anna; Kershaw, Ann; Khalil, Hanan; Kieni, Janina; Klimberg, Aneta; Koivisto, Susana P.; Koppers, Kerstin; Kosinski, Christoph Michael; Krawczyk, Malgorzata; Kremer, Berry; Krysa, Wioletta; Kwiecinski, Hubert; Lahiri, Nayana; Lambeck, Johann; Lange, Herwig; Laver, Fiona; Leenders, K.L.; Levey, Jamie; Leythaeuser, Gabriele; Lezius, Franziska; Llesoy, Joan Roig; Löhle, Matthias; López, Cristobal Diez-Aja; Lorenza, Fortuna; Loria, Giovanna; Magnet, Markus; Mandich, Paola; Marchese, Roberta; Marcinkowski, Jerzy; Mariotti, Caterina; Mariscal, Natividad; Markova, Ivana; Marquard, Ralf; Martikainen, Kirsti; Martínez, Isabel Haro; Martínez-Descals, Asuncion; Martino, T.; Mason, Sarah; McKenzie, Sue; Mechi, Claudia; Mendes, Tiago; Mestre, Tiago; Middleton, Julia; Milkereit, Eva; Miller, Joanne; Miller, Julie; Minster, Sara; Möller, Jens Carsten; Monza, Daniela; Morales, Blas; Moreau, Laura V.; Moreno, Jose L. López-Sendón; Münchau, Alexander; Murch, Ann; Nielsen, Jørgen E.; Niess, Anke; Nørremølle, Anne; Novak, Marianne; O'Donovan, Kristy; Orth, Michael; Otti, Daniela; Owen, Michael; Padieu, Helene; Paganini, Marco; Painold, Annamaria; Päivärinta, Markku; Partington-Jones, Lucy; Paterski, Laurent; Paterson, Nicole; Patino, Dawn; Patton, Michael; Peinemann, Alexander; Peppa, Nadia; Perea, Maria Fuensanta Noguera; Peterson, Maria; Piacentini, Silvia; Piano, Carla; Càrdenas, Regina Pons i; Prehn, Christian; Price, Kathleen; Probst, Daniela; Quarrell, Oliver; Quiroga, Purificacion Pin; Raab, Tina; Rakowicz, Maryla; Raman, Ashok; Raymond, Lucy; Reilmann, Ralf; Reinante, Gema; Reisinger, Karin; Retterstol, Lars; Ribaï, Pascale; Riballo, Antonio V.; Ribas, Guillermo G.; Richter, Sven; Rickards, Hugh; Rinaldi, Carlo; Rissling, Ida; Ritchie, Stuart; Rivera, Susana Vázquez; Robert, Misericordia Floriach; Roca, Elvira; Romano, Silvia; Romoli, Anna Maria; Roos, Raymond A.C.; Røren, Niini; Rose, Sarah; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Rossi, Fabiana; Rothery, Jean; Rudzinska, Monika; Ruíz, Pedro J. García; Ruíz, Belan Garzon; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Ryglewicz, Danuta; Saft, Carston; Salvatore, Elena; Sánchez, Vicenta; Sando, Sigrid Botne; Šašinková, Pavla; Sass, Christian; Scheibl, Monika; Schiefer, Johannes; Schlangen, Christiane; Schmidt, Simone; Schöggl, Helmut; Schrenk, Caroline; Schüpbach, Michael; Schuierer, Michele; Sebastián, Ana Rojo; Selimbegovic-Turkovic, Amina; Sempolowicz, Justyna; Silva, Mark; Sitek, Emilia; Slawek, Jaroslaw; Snowden, Julie; Soleti, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Sollom, Andrea; Soltan, Witold; Sorbi, Sandro; Sorensen, Sven Asger; Spadaro, Maria; Städtler, Michael; Stamm, Christiane; Steiner, Tanja; Stokholm, Jette; Stokke, Bodil; Stopford, Cheryl; Storch, Alexander; Straßburger, Katrin; Stubbe, Lars; Sulek, Anna; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Tabrizi, Sarah; Taylor, Rachel; Terol, Santiago Duran-Sindreu; Thomas, Gareth; Thompson, Jennifer; Thomson, Aileen; Tidswell, Katherine; Torres, Maria M. Antequera; Toscano, Jean; Townhill, Jenny; Trautmann, Sonja; Tucci, Tecla; Tuuha, Katri; Uhrova, Tereza; Valadas, Anabela; van Hout, Monique S.E.; van Oostrom, J.C.H.; van Vugt, Jeroen P.P.; vanm, Walsem Marleen R.; Vandenberghe, Wim; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Vergara, Mar Ruiz; Verstappen, C.C.P.; Verstraelen, Nichola; Viladrich, Celia Mareca; Villanueva, Clara; Wahlström, Jan; Warner, Thomas; Wehus, Raghild; Weindl, Adolf; Werner, Cornelius J.; Westmoreland, Leann; Weydt, Patrick; Wiedemann, Alexandra; Wild, Edward; Wild, Sue; Witjes-Ané, Marie-Noelle; Witkowski, Grzegorz; Wójcik, Magdalena; Wolz, Martin; Wolz, Annett; Wright, Jan; Yardumian, Pam; Yates, Shona; Yudina, Elizaveta; Zaremba, Jacek; Zaugg, Sabine W.; Zdzienicka, Elzbieta; Zielonka, Daniel; Zielonka, Euginiusz; Zinzi, Paola; Zittel, Simone; Zucker, Birgrit; Adams, John; Agarwal, Pinky; Antonijevic, Irina; Beck, Christopher; Chiu, Edmond; Churchyard, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Dorsey, Ray; Drazinic, Carolyn; Dubinsky, Richard; Duff, Kevin; Factor, Stewart; Foroud, Tatiana; Furtado, Sarah; Giuliano, Joe; Greenamyre, Timothy; Higgins, Don; Jankovic, Joseph; Jennings, Dana; Kang, Un Jung; Kostyk, Sandra; Kumar, Rajeev; Leavitt, Blair; LeDoux, Mark; Mallonee, William; Marshall, Frederick; Mohlo, Eric; Morgan, John; Oakes, David; Panegyres, Peter; Panisset, Michel; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Quaid, Kimberly; Raymond, Lynn; Revilla, Fredy; Robertson, Suzanne; Robottom, Bradley; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Scott, Burton; Shannon, Kathleen; Shoulson, Ira; Singer, Carlos; Tabbal, Samer; Testa, Claudia; van, Kammen Dan; Vetter, Louise; Walker, Francis; Warner, John; Weiner, illiam; Wheelock, Vicki; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; Barton, Stacey; Broyles, Janice; Clouse, Ronda; Coleman, Allison; Davis, Robert; Decolongon, Joji; DeLaRosa, Jeanene; Deuel, Lisa; Dietrich, Susan; Dubinsky, Hilary; Eaton, Ken; Erickson, Diane; Fitzpatrick, Mary Jane; Frucht, Steven; Gartner, Maureen; Goldstein, Jody; Griffith, Jane; Hickey, Charlyne; Hunt, Victoria; Jaglin, Jeana; Klimek, Mary Lou; Lindsay, Pat; Louis, Elan; Loy, Clemet; Lucarelli, Nancy; Malarick, Keith; Martin, Amanda; McInnis, Robert; Moskowitz, Carol; Muratori, Lisa; Nucifora, Frederick; O'Neill, Christine; Palao, Alicia; Peavy, Guerry; Quesada, Monica; Schmidt, Amy; Segro, Vicki; Sperin, Elaine; Suter, Greg; Tanev, Kalo; Tempkin, Teresa; Thiede, Curtis; Wasserman, Paula; Welsh, Claire; Wesson, Melissa; Zauber, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound implications for disease mechanism and modification, we tested whether the normal allele, interaction between the expanded and normal alleles, or presence of a second expanded allele affects age at onset of HD motor signs. Methods: We modeled natural log-transformed age at onset as a function of CAG repeat lengths of expanded and normal alleles and their interaction by linear regression. Results: An apparently significant effect of interaction on age at motor onset among 4,068 subjects was dependent on a single outlier data point. A rigorous statistical analysis with a well-behaved dataset that conformed to the fundamental assumptions of linear regression (e.g., constant variance and normally distributed error) revealed significance only for the expanded CAG repeat, with no effect of the normal CAG repeat. Ten subjects with 2 expanded alleles showed an age at motor onset consistent with the length of the larger expanded allele. Conclusions: Normal allele CAG length, interaction between expanded and normal alleles, and presence of a second expanded allele do not influence age at onset of motor manifestations, indicating that the rate of HD pathogenesis leading to motor diagnosis is determined by a completely dominant action of the longest expanded allele and as yet unidentified genetic or environmental factors. Neurology® 2012;78:690–695 PMID:22323755

  19. 20 CFR 410.426 - Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria. 410.426 Section 410.426 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.426 Determining total disability: Age, education, and...

  20. Observations of the tissue-skeleton interface in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambutté, E.; Allemand, D.; Zoccola, D.; Meibom, A.; Lotto, S.; Caminiti, N.; Tambutté, S.

    2007-09-01

    Recent micro-analytical studies of coral skeletons have led to the discovery that the effects of biology on the skeletal chemical and isotopic composition are not uniform over the skeleton. The aim of the present work was to provide histological observations of the coral tissue at the interface with the skeleton, using Stylophora pistillata as a model, and to discuss these observations in the context of skeletal ultra-structural organization and composition. Several important observations are reported: (1) At all scales of observation, there was a precise morphological correspondence between the tissues and the skeleton. The morphological features of the calicoblastic ectoderm correspond exactly to the shape of individual crystal fiber bundles in the underlying skeleton, indicating that the calicoblastic cell layer is in direct physical contact with the skeletal surface. This is consistent with the previously observed chemical and isotopic composition of the ultra-structural components in the skeleton. (2) The distribution and density of desmocyte cells, which anchor the calicoblastic ectoderm to the skeletal surface, vary spatially and temporally during skeletal growth. (3) The tissue above the coenosteal spines lack endoderm and consists only of ectodermal cell-layers separated by mesoglea. These findings have important implications for models of vital effects in coral skeletal chemistry and isotope composition.

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow in aged diabetic patients without a history of cerebrovascular accident, determined by N-isopropyl- sup 123 I-p-iodoamphetamine with single photon emission CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakisaka, Masanori; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Inoue, Kenjiro; Morotomi, Yasuyuki (National Sanatorium Miyazaki Higashi Hospital (Japan)); Nunoi, Kiyohide; Fujishima, Masatoshi

    1989-07-01

    N-isopropyl-{sup 123}I-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was used to determine the regional cerebral blood flow in 9 diabetic patients (average age: 71.8 years) and 9 non-diabetic subjects (average age: 71.7 years), none of whom had a history of cerebrovascular accident. There were no significant differences in the physiological or laboratory data between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups except in fasting plasma glucose and HbA{sub 1}c levels. Areas of hypoperfusion of the cerebral hemispheres were observed in 7 diabetic patients, 5 of whom showed multiple lesions. On the other hand, areas of hypoperfusion were observed only in 4 of the non-diabetic subjects and only 1 of these demonstrated multiple lesions. We evaluated the cerebral blood flow semiquantitatively as follows: the area where the radioactive count was 65% or more of the maximum count of the slice was defined as a region of normal cerebral blood flow (ROI-A); the area where the count was 45% or more as region of brain tissue except for ventricles (RUI-B). The numbers of pixels of ROI-A and ROI-B were counted in each slice and the ROI-A/B ratios of 16 slices were averaged individually. The average percent ROI-A/B ratio was significantly lower in the diabetic group than that in the control group (49.4+-1.9 (Mean+-SEM) vs 56.6+-1.9%, p<0.05). These observations suggest that the area of normal regional cerebral blood flow is reduced in aged diabetics, even in the absence of a history of cerebrovascular accident. (author).

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow in aged diabetic patients without a history of cerebrovascular accident, determined by N-isopropyl-123I-p-iodoamphetamine with single photon emission CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-isopropyl-123I-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was used to determine the regional cerebral blood flow in 9 diabetic patients (average age: 71.8 years) and 9 non-diabetic subjects (average age: 71.7 years), none of whom had a history of cerebrovascular accident. There were no significant differences in the physiological or laboratory data between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups except in fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c levels. Areas of hypoperfusion of the cerebral hemispheres were observed in 7 diabetic patients, 5 of whom showed multiple lesions. On the other hand, areas of hypoperfusion were observed only in 4 of the non-diabetic subjects and only 1 of these demonstrated multiple lesions. We evaluated the cerebral blood flow semiquantitatively as follows: the area where the radioactive count was 65% or more of the maximum count of the slice was defined as a region of normal cerebral blood flow (ROI-A); the area where the count was 45% or more as region of brain tissue except for ventricles (RUI-B). The numbers of pixels of ROI-A and ROI-B were counted in each slice and the ROI-A/B ratios of 16 slices were averaged individually. The average percent ROI-A/B ratio was significantly lower in the diabetic group than that in the control group (49.4±1.9 (Mean±SEM) vs 56.6±1.9%, p<0.05). These observations suggest that the area of normal regional cerebral blood flow is reduced in aged diabetics, even in the absence of a history of cerebrovascular accident. (author)

  3. 不同年生西洋参中20种有机氯农药的气相色谱分析%Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Panax quinquefolium L. with Different Ages by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦公伟; 曹小勇; 耿敬章; 张静; 陈玉芳; 陈富东

    2012-01-01

    a high performance gas chromatography method has been developed for determining 20 kinds of organochlorine pesticides including α-BHC and 4,4'-DDT in American ginseng(Panax quinquefolium L.) grown in different areas of GAP plantation base from Liuba county,shaanxi province.The accumulation of organochlorine pesticides in American ginseng with different ages was also explored.Organochlorine pesticides in samples were extracted by hexane-ethyl acetate(1:1) solution,and then purified by a column packed with Florisil using hexane-ethyl acetate(1:1) as elution solvent.Chromatographic analysis was performed on a DB-17 capillary column supplemented with electron capture detector(ECD).A total of 19 organochlorine pesticides except for endrin were detected.The contents of organochlorine pesticides in samples from different areas revealed an obvious difference.Moreover,the residues of organochlorine pesticides in four-year-old American ginseng were higher than those in three-year-old or five-year-old American ginseng.Therefore,this developed method is effective,fast and accurate,which can be used for determining 20 kinds of organochlorine pesticides in American ginseng.%建立西洋参中α-六六六(α-BHC)、4,4'-滴滴涕(4,4'-DDT)等20种有机氯农药残留量的一种简便有效的气相色谱分析方法,对陕西留坝县西洋参GAP生产基地不同种植地块、不同生长年限西洋参中有机氯农药的种类和含量进行测定,并探讨不同生长年限西洋参中有机氯农药富集规律。样品有机氯农药残留用正己烷-乙酸乙酯(1:1)溶液提取,通过弗罗里硅土小柱净化,正己烷-乙酸乙酯(1:1)溶液洗脱后浓缩定容,采用DB-17毛细管柱分离,气相色谱-电子捕获检测器(gas chromatography-electron capture detector,GC-ECD)检测,以保留时间定性,外标法定量。结果表明:10个西洋参样品中除异狄氏剂未检出外,标准溶液中的其他19

  4. Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alease

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

  5. Determination of the lactate threshold and maximal blood lactate steady state intensity in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rafael Rodrigues; Cunha, Verusca Najara de Carvalho; Segundo, Paulo Russo; Moreira, Sérgio Rodrigues; Kokubun, Eduardo; Campbell, Carmen Sílvia Grubert; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2009-08-01

    The reliability of the lactate threshold (LT) determined in aged rats and its validity to identify an exercise intensity corresponding to the maximal blood lactate steady state (MLSS) were analyzed. Eighteen male aged Wistar rats (approximately 365 days) were submitted to two incremental swimming tests until exhaustion, consisting of an initial load corresponding to 1% of body mass (BM) and increments of 1% BM at each 3-min with blood lactate ([lac]) measurements. The LT was determined by visual inspection (LT(V)) as well by applying a polynomial function on the [lac]/workload ratio (LT(P)) by considering the vertices of the curve. For the MLSS, twelve animals were submitted, on different days, to 3-4 exercise sessions of 30-min with workload corresponding to 4, 5 or 6% BM. The MLSS was considered the highest exercise intensity at which the [lac] variation was not higher than 0.07 mM.min(-1) during the last 20-min. No differences were observed for the test-retest results (4.9 +/- 0.7 and 5.0 +/- 0.8 %BM for LTv; and 6.0 +/- 0.6 and 5.8 +/- 0.6 %BM for LTp) that did not differ from the MLSS (5.4 +/- 0.5 %BM). The LT identified for aged rats in swimming, both by visual inspection and polynomial function, was reliable and did not differ from the MLSS. PMID:19585487

  6. Structural integrity assessment and stress measurement of CHASNUPP-1 fuel assembly skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waseem,, E-mail: wazim_me@hotmail.com; Elahi, N.; Murtaza, G.; Siddiqui, A.A.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • FE model of CHASNUPP-1 FA Skeleton produced, using Shell181 Element. • Non-linear buckling analysis has been performed. • Structural integrity and stress measurement of FA skeleton is calculated. • Test results obtained at each strain gauge is compared with FE results at same locations. • Results of both studies are comparable, which validate the FE methodology. -- Abstract: A fuel assembly (FA) structure without fuel rods is called FA skeleton which is a long and flexible structure. This study has been made in an attempt to find the structural integrity of the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant-1 (CHASNUPP-1) FA Skeleton at room temperature in air. Non-linear buckling analysis has been performed using ANSYS 13.0, in-order to determine the buckling behavior of the FA skeleton as well as the location/values of the maximum stress intensity and stresses developed in axial direction under applied compression load of 4900 N. The finite element (FE) model of spacer grids, guide thimbles with dash-pots and flow holes, in addition to spot welds between spacer grids and guide thimbles, has been developed using Shell 181 element. The FA skeleton is a non-straight structure. Its actual behavior of the geometry is non-linear. The value of the perturbation force is related to the geometry of the model and/or the tolerance defined for the geometry. Therefore, a sensitivity study has been made to determine the appropriate value of an arbitrary perturbation load. It has been observed that FA skeleton deformation values obtained through FE Analysis and Experiment (Technical Report, 1994a,b) under applied compression load are comparable and show linear behaviors. Therefore, it is confirmed that buckling of FA skeleton will not occur at the specified load. Moreover, the values of stresses obtained at different locations of the guide thimbles are also comparable with the stress values of the experiment determined at the same locations through strain gauges. Since the

  7. Structural integrity assessment and stress measurement of CHASNUPP-1 fuel assembly skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • FE model of CHASNUPP-1 FA Skeleton produced, using Shell181 Element. • Non-linear buckling analysis has been performed. • Structural integrity and stress measurement of FA skeleton is calculated. • Test results obtained at each strain gauge is compared with FE results at same locations. • Results of both studies are comparable, which validate the FE methodology. -- Abstract: A fuel assembly (FA) structure without fuel rods is called FA skeleton which is a long and flexible structure. This study has been made in an attempt to find the structural integrity of the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant-1 (CHASNUPP-1) FA Skeleton at room temperature in air. Non-linear buckling analysis has been performed using ANSYS 13.0, in-order to determine the buckling behavior of the FA skeleton as well as the location/values of the maximum stress intensity and stresses developed in axial direction under applied compression load of 4900 N. The finite element (FE) model of spacer grids, guide thimbles with dash-pots and flow holes, in addition to spot welds between spacer grids and guide thimbles, has been developed using Shell 181 element. The FA skeleton is a non-straight structure. Its actual behavior of the geometry is non-linear. The value of the perturbation force is related to the geometry of the model and/or the tolerance defined for the geometry. Therefore, a sensitivity study has been made to determine the appropriate value of an arbitrary perturbation load. It has been observed that FA skeleton deformation values obtained through FE Analysis and Experiment (Technical Report, 1994a,b) under applied compression load are comparable and show linear behaviors. Therefore, it is confirmed that buckling of FA skeleton will not occur at the specified load. Moreover, the values of stresses obtained at different locations of the guide thimbles are also comparable with the stress values of the experiment determined at the same locations through strain gauges. Since the

  8. [Determination of amanitatoxins by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Chiemi; Yamaura, Yoshio

    2003-10-01

    High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay has been developed for the simultaneous determination of alpha-amanitin, beta-amanitin and phalloidin in serum. Three toxins were extracted by reflux in a water bath at 80 degrees C for one hour and purified by Sep-Pak Plus tC18 cartridges. The HPLC assay was performed under gradient conditions using Develosil RP AQUEOUS column. The moble phase consisted with a mixture of acetonitorile containing 0.01 M ammonium acetate(pH 5.0). The column effluence was monitored at 295 nm, 302 nm and 230 nm for 35 min. Detection limit of three toxins in serum were 0.2 microgram/ml respectively. High recovery yields in the range of 81.5-88.1% for toxins were obtained by using this method. PMID:14740566

  9. Age-related energy values of bakery meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Xue, P; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used. Birds were fed the same experimental diets in these 3 evaluated ages. Birds were grouped by weight into 10 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract retention of DM, N, and energy were calculated. Expression of mucin (MUC2), sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb), solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, Y(+) system, SLC7A2), glucose (GLUT2), and sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT1) genes were measured at each age in the jejunum by real-time PCR. Addition of bakery meal to the reference diet resulted in a linear decrease in retention of DM, N, and energy, and a quadratic reduction (P energy as birds' ages increased from 1 to 3 wk. Dietary bakery meal did not affect jejunal gene expression. Expression of genes encoding MUC2, NaPi-IIb, and SLC7A2 linearly increased (P energy and nitrogen in the basal diet decreased when bakery meal was included and increased with age of broiler chickens.

  10. Direct Joint Detection from Humanoid 3D Models without using Skeleton Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terumasa Aoki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Skeletonization, or automatic skeleton extraction, is one of the most essential technologies in 3DCG. This technology makes it possible to automatically extract skeletons (i.e. bones, joints and their hierarchical structures from 3D models. Such skeletons are important shape and pose descriptors for object representation, object recognition etc. They are used in many applications such as 3D model search, virtual character's pose estimation and collision detection between two or more 3D models. However, existing skeletonization methods have some drawbacks. Most of the existing skeletonization methods have difficulties in correctly extracting the positions of joints. In most methods, bones are extracted from a 3D model first and joints are defined as the cross points of bones. However some errors always occur when bones are extracted. Hence joints cannot be found in this scheme so often. Furthermore, they are not allowing for controlling the number of bones/joints and their structure. Therefore applying motion data acquired from motion capture devices to 3D models still involves a lot of cumbersome manual work. In this paper, we propose a novel joint detection method suited for kinematic skeleton generation, skeleton rigging etc. Unlike the existing methods, the proposed method detects joint positions directly without using skeleton (bone information. So the proposed method can avoid propagating errors occurred by skeletonization process. Also, the proposed method is able to extract the same numbers of joints/bones and the same structure as in given motion data, i.e. one can directly apply existing motion data without the need of manual adjustment. In general, 3D models describe shape information and pose information simultaneously. Distinguishing one from the other seems to be very difficult. However, the proposed method solves this problem by extracting only the pose information of 3D models by using a vertex Gauss sphere representation and

  11. Objective criteria for determination of functional-reserve potentials of secondary school age pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnar I.R.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to substantiate criteria for determination of functional-reserve potentials of secondary school age pupils. Material: 1017 pupils of 5-9 forms from 16 schools were questioned. Besides, 200 physical culture teachers from 75 schools of 25 Ukrainian cities were questioned. 154 schoolchildren were tested/ Physical fitness and health levels were tested by index. Pupils fulfilled 4 simple test exercises. Results: we determined indicators of physical condition, psychic state, scopes of motor functioning. We substantiated criteria for determination of schoolchildren’s functional-reserve potentials as well as values of boundary physical condition and physical fitness indicators, which guarantee strong health and optimal functional-reserve potentials of pupil’s organism. Conclusions: Deviation of these indicators’ complex from boundary values informs about pupils’ potential belonging to group of risk. It requires correction of pupil’s way of life and his (her motor functioning.

  12. Absolute ages from crater statistics: Using radiometric ages of Martian samples for determining the Martian cratering chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, G.

    1988-01-01

    In the absence of dates derived from rock samples, impact crater frequencies are commonly used to date Martian surface units. All models for absolute dating rely on the lunar cratering chronology and on the validity of its extrapolation to Martian conditions. Starting from somewhat different lunar chronologies, rather different Martian cratering chronologies are found in the literature. Currently favored models are compared. The differences at old ages are significant, the differences at younger ages are considerable and give absolute ages for the same crater frequencies as different as a factor of 3. The total uncertainty could be much higher, though, since the ratio of lunar to Martian cratering rate which is of basic importance in the models is believed to be known no better than within a factor of 2. Thus, it is of crucial importance for understanding the the evolution of Mars and determining the sequence of events to establish an unambiguous Martian cratering chronology from crater statistics in combination with clean radiometric ages of returned Martian samples. For the dating goal, rocks should be as pristine as possible from a geologically simple area with a one-stage emplacement history of the local formation. A minimum of at least one highland site for old ages, two intermediate-aged sites, and one very young site is needed.

  13. Quantitative assessment of cancer vascular architecture by skeletonization of high-resolution 3-D contrast-enhanced ultrasound images: role of liposomes and microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, F; Meiburger, K M; Giustetto, P; Rizzitelli, S; Boffa, C; Castano, M; Terreno, E

    2014-12-01

    The accurate characterization and description of the vascular network of a cancer lesion is of paramount importance in clinical practice and cancer research in order to improve diagnostic accuracy or to assess the effectiveness of a treatment. The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of liposomes as an ultrasound contrast agent to describe the 3-D vascular architecture of a tumor. Eight C57BL/6 mice grafted with syngeneic B16-F10 murine melanoma cells were injected with a bolus of 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DSPC)-based non-targeted liposomes and with a bolus of microbubbles. 3-D contrast-enhanced images of the tumor lesions were acquired in three conditions: pre-contrast, after the injection of microbubbles, and after the injection of liposomes. By using a previously developed reconstruction and characterization image processing technique, we obtained the 3-D representation of the vascular architecture in these three conditions. Six descriptive parameters of these networks were also computed: the number of vascular trees (NT), the vascular density (VD), the number of branches, the 2-D curvature measure, the number of vascular flexes of the vessels, and the 3-D curvature. Results showed that all the vascular descriptors obtained by liposome-based images were statistically equal to those obtained by using microbubbles, except the VD which was found to be lower for liposome images. All the six descriptors computed in pre-contrast conditions had values that were statistically lower than those computed in presence of contrast, both for liposomes and microbubbles. Liposomes have already been used in cancer therapy for the selective ultrasound-mediated delivery of drugs. This work demonstrated their effectiveness also as vascular diagnostic contrast agents, therefore proving that liposomes can be used as efficient "theranostic" (i.e. therapeutic 1 diagnostic) ultrasound probes.

  14. Uranium age determination: Separation and analysis of 230Th and 231Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we focused on the age determination of uranium materials of different uranium enrichment. The radioactive decay of the uranium isotopes provides a chronometer that is inherent to the material, in particular the mother/daughter pairs 234U/230Th and 235U/231Pa can be advantageously used. Due to the relatively long half-lives of 234U (2.46 · 105 years) and 235U (7.04 · 108 years) only minute amounts of daughter nuclides are growing in, therefore both separation of Th and Pa from uranium must be of high chemical recovery and must afford large decontamination factors. Analytical methods for the age determination of uranium samples using the parent/daughter relations 234U/230Th and 235U/231Pa is demonstrated. Thorium is separated from bulk uranium using extraction chromatography and subsequently quantified using square-spectrometry, thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) and inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Protactinium is separated by highly selective sorption of protactinium to silica gel followed by square-spectrometric quantification. The methods were tested and validated using uranium reference materials of different uranium enrichment and of known ages. The experimental results obtained with both methods were found to agree with the assumed ages of the reference materials within the combined uncertainty of the measurement. The analysis exploiting the parent/daughter pair 235U/231Pa exhibits a slightly larger combined uncertainty and bias than the thorium method but is found valuable in validating the experimental results by means of a second, independent analysis

  15. Determinants of vitamin D status in fair-skinned women of childbearing age at northern latitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Hedlund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Poor vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with unfavorable outcomes for mother and child. Thus, adequate vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may be important. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD serum concentrations in women of childbearing age living in Sweden, at latitude 57-58° north. METHOD: Eighty four non-pregnant, non-lactating, healthy, fair-skinned women aged between 25-40 years were included. All subjects provided blood samples, four day food records and answered questionnaires about sun exposure and lifestyle. Total serum 25(OHD was analyzed using Roche Cobas® electrochemoluminiescent immunoassay. RESULTS: Mean 25(OHD was 65.8±19.9 nmol/l and 23% of the subjects had concentrations <50 nmol/l. Only 1% had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Determinants of 25(OHD concentrations were recent sunbed use, recent travel to southern latitude, season, estrogen contraceptive use and use of supplementary vitamin D (R(2 = 0.27. CONCLUSION: Every fifth woman had 25(OHD concentrations <50 nmol/l. About 30% of the variation in vitamin D status was explained by sun exposure, use of vitamin D supplements and use of estrogen contraceptives. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis seems to be a major contributor to vitamin D status, even at northern latitudes. Thus, recommendations on safe UV-B exposure could be beneficial for vitamin D status.

  16. NF-κB/AP-1-Targeted Inhibition of Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Depigmenting Compound AP736 Derived from Natural 1,3-Diphenylpropane Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thai Ha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO/prostaglandin (PG E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264.7 cells. AP736 was found to strongly inhibit the production of both NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AP736 strongly inhibited both LPS-induced morphological changes and FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake. Furthermore, AP736 also downregulated the expression of multiple inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2, and interleukin- (IL- 1β in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Transcription factor analysis, including upstream signalling events, revealed that both NF-κB and AP-1 were targeted by AP736 via inhibition of the IKK/IκBα and IRAK1/TAK1 pathways. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that AP736 is a potential anti-inflammatory drug due to its suppression of NF-κB-IKK/IκBα and AP-1-IRAK1/TAK1 signalling, which may make AP736 useful for the treatment of macrophage-mediated skin inflammation.

  17. [Biologic age as a criterion for work evaluation (exemplified by titanium alloys production)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'eva, R F; Prokopenko, L V

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with results of studies concerning biologic age of workers (males) under occupational hazards of titanium alloys (jeopardy classes 3.3, 3.4.4) in Verkhne-Saldinsky metallurgic production association. Based on mathematic statistic analysis, the authors worked out an equation of multiple regression for ageing pace to forecast the ageing with consideration of age, length of service, occupation. The authors determined occupational groups characterized by premature ageing and increased risk of health disorders.

  18. Study of jojoba oil aging by FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dréau, Y; Dupuy, N; Gaydou, V; Joachim, J; Kister, J

    2009-05-29

    As the jojoba oil was used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, dietetic food, animal feeding, lubrication, polishing and bio-diesel fields, it was important to study its aging at high temperature by oxidative process. In this work a FT-MIR methodology was developed for monitoring accelerate oxidative degradation of jojoba oils. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to differentiate various samples according to their origin and obtaining process, and to differentiate oxidative conditions applied on oils. Two spectroscopic indices were calculated to report simply the oxidation phenomenon. Results were confirmed and deepened by multivariate curve resolution-alternative least square method (MCR-ALS). It allowed identifying chemical species produced or degraded during the thermal treatment according to a SIMPLISMA pretreatment.

  19. Anabolic effects of IGF-1 signaling on the skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice G. T Tahimic

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the anabolic effects of IGF-1 signaling on the skeleton, emphasizing the requirement for IGF-1 signaling in normal bone formation and remodeling. We first discuss the genomic context, splicing variants and species conservation of the IGF-1 locus. The modulation of IGF-1 action by growth hormone (GH is then reviewed while also discussing the current model which takes into account the GH-independent actions of IGF-1. Next, the skeletal phenotypes of IGF-1-deficient animals are described in both embryonic and postnatal stages of development, which include severe dwarfism and an undermineralized skeleton. We then highlight two mechanisms by which IGF-1 exerts its anabolic action on the skeleton. Firstly, the role of IGF-1 signaling in the modulation of anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH on bone will be discussed, presenting in vitro and in vivo studies that establish this concept and the proposed underlying molecular mechanisms involving Indian hedgehog (Ihh and the ephrins. Secondly, the crosstalk of IGF-1 signaling with mechanosensing pathways will be discussed, beginning with the observation that animals subjected to skeletal unloading by hindlimb elevation are unable to mitigate cessation of bone growth despite infusion with IGF-1 and the failure of IGF-1 to activate its receptor in bone marrow stromal cell cultures from unloaded bone. Disrupted crosstalk between IGF-1 signaling and the integrin mechanotransduction pathways is discussed as one of the potential mechanisms for this IGF-1 resistance. Next, emerging paradigms on bone-muscle crosstalk are examined, focusing on the potential role of IGF-1 signaling in modulating such interactions. Finally, we present a future outlook on IGF research.

  20. Alteration of Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Properties Induced by Particle Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R. C.; Polen, M.; Beydoun, H.; Lawlis, E.; Ahern, A.; Jahn, L.; Hill, T. C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol particles that can serve as ice nuclei frequently experience rapid and extensive chemical aging during atmospheric transport. This is known to significantly alter some ice nucleation modes of the few types of ice nucleation particle systems where aging effects have been simulated, such as for mineral dust. Yet much of our understanding of atmospheric particle freezing properties is derived from measurements of fresh or unaged particles. We know almost nothing regarding how atmospheric aging might alter the freezing properties of biomass burning aerosol or biological particle nucleants. We have investigated the effects of simulated aging using a chamber reactor on the heterogeneous ice nucleation properties of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) and ice-active bacteria particles. Some types of aging were found to enhance the freezing ability of BBA, exhibited as a shift in a portion of the droplet freezing curve to warmer temperatures by a few °C. Ice-active bacteria were found to consistently loose their most ice-active nucleants after repeated aging cycles. The bacterial systems always retained significantly efficient ice active sites that still allowed them to induce freezing at mild/warm temperatures, despite this decrease in freezing ability. A comprehensive series of online single-particle mass spectrometry and offline spectromicroscopic analysis of individual particles was used to determine how the aging altered the aerosol's composition, and gain mechanistic insights into how this in turn altered the freezing properties. Our new ice nucleation framework that uses a continuous distribution of ice active site ability (contact angle) was used to interpret the droplet freezing spectra and understand how aging alters the internal and external variability, and rigidity, of the ice active sites.

  1. 1-Skeletons of the Spanning Tree Problems with Additional Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bondarenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study polyhedral properties of two spanning tree problems with additional constraints. In the first problem, it is required to find a tree with a minimum sum of edge weights among all spanning trees with the number of leaves less than or equal to a given value. In the second problem, an additional constraint is the assumption that the degree of all nodes of the spanning tree does not exceed a given value. The recognition versions of both problems are NP-complete. We consider polytopes of these problems and their 1-skeletons. We prove that in both cases it is a NP-complete problem to determine whether the vertices of 1-skeleton are adjacent. Although it is possible to obtain a superpolynomial lower bounds on the clique numbers of these graphs. These values characterize the time complexity in a broad class of algorithms based on linear comparisons. The results indicate a fundamental difference between combinatorial and geometric properties of the considered problems from the classical minimum spanning tree problem.

  2. Determination of Lead by Electrochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Lead is one of the poisonous trace element for human body. It is important to find a way for measuring content of lead. Deternination of lead by electrochemistry is one of a method[1]. In this paper, lead is determined by single-sweep polarography. The absorption behavior of meso-tetra (4-sulfonylphenyl) porphyrin (H2TPPS4) complex with lead ion has also been studied.In Na2B4O7-NaOH solution with pH=l 0.5, the reduction peaks of the ligand are P1 (Ep1=-0.38V), P2 (Ep2=-1.04V), which potentials are obtained vs. S.C.E. When lead ion has been added into above solution. The peak current of P1 and P2 decrease, and a new reduction peak P3 (Ep3=-1.10 V) appears. It shows that the TPPS4-Pb(Ⅱ) complex forms,and this method can be applied to study the complex.

  3. Determination of Lead by Electrochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; YuFeng

    2001-01-01

    Lead is one of the poisonous trace element for human body. It is important to find a way for measuring content of lead. Deternination of lead by electrochemistry is one of a method[1]. In this paper, lead is determined by single-sweep polarography. The absorption behavior of meso-tetra (4-sulfonylphenyl) porphyrin (H2TPPS4) complex with lead ion has also been studied.In Na2B4O7-NaOH solution with pH=l 0.5, the reduction peaks of the ligand are P1 (Ep1=-0.38V), P2 (Ep2=-1.04V), which potentials are obtained vs. S.C.E. When lead ion has been added into above solution. The peak current of P1 and P2 decrease, and a new reduction peak P3 (Ep3=-1.10 V) appears. It shows that the TPPS4-Pb(Ⅱ) complex forms,and this method can be applied to study the complex.……

  4. [Princess Anna Vasa--her fascinating life story and skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    During, Ebba

    2005-01-01

    The Princess Anna Vasa was born in Sweden in 1568 and spent her first 19 years there. She was the daughter of the Swedish king Johan III and his wife, the Polish Royal Princess Katarina Jagellonica. She was brought up as a Catholic but converted to be a Protestant already in 1583 and remained a fervent Protestant to the end of her life. She was an exceptionally intelligent and extensively educated woman. When her brother became king, Sigismund III of Poland, she accompanied him there. She exerted great influence on Sigismund who was brought up to be a Catholic. She was persistent in her religion, yet working for religious liberty. "The Swedish Princess" was also named "the Queen of Polish Botany". She was never married and she died 57 years old in 1625. For religious reasons her body had to wait 11 years for a funeral of royal standing. The funeral took place in 1636 in St Mary's Church in Torun, Poland. During restoration work at the church in April 1994, Anna Vasa's skeleton was removed from the tomb, and an antropological investigation in order to establish her identity was carried by Dr Andrzej Florkowski at the Dept of Anthrop, Nicholas Copernicus University of Torun. I was invited to Torun to examine her remains in May 1995. The skeleton was in a rather good state of preservation. However, her grave had been plundered at least twice. Her skeleton lacked the right forearm and hand, probably as the result of the pillage of her rings and bracelets. Some other bones and teeth were also missing. At our ocular examination the skeleton revealed a number of anatomical deformations and pathological changes. A conventional radiography and CT of Anna Vasa's skeletal remains was later carried out in 1995 by M. Grzegorzewski, Z. Boron and W. Lasek at the Dept of Radiology, Med. Acad. of Bydgoszcz, Polen. A DNA-analysis was carried out by Dr Anders Götherström at the Archaeol. Res. Lab., Stockholm Univ. An odontological and radiological study was performed by Dr Sigrid I

  5. U-Pb systematics of the unique achondrite Ibitira: Precise age determination and petrogenetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Amelin, Yuri; Kaltenbach, Angela; Koefoed, Piers; Stirling, Claudine H.

    2014-05-01

    Ibitira is an unbrecciated, equilibrated vesicular basaltic achondrite that is considered to have originated on a parent body distinct from all other known meteorites. We present the first combined high-precision U and Pb isotopic data for this unique meteorite. The 238U/235U value of 137.777 ± 0.013 determined for the whole rock is comparable to values determined for bulk chondrites and other basaltic achondrites. This value results in corrections of -1.1 Ma for Pb-Pb dates calculated using the previously assumed invariant 238U/235U value of 137.88. Using the determined 238U/235U value, the 7 most radiogenic Pb isotopic analyses for acid-leached pyroxene-rich and whole rock fractions yield an isochron Pb-Pb age of 4556.75 ± 0.57 Ma, in excellent agreement with the results of Mn-Cr chronology which give the ages of 4557.4 ± 2.5 Ma and 4555.9 ± 3.2 Ma using the U-corrected Pb-Pb age of D'Orbigny as a time anchor. Along with the previously proposed thermal history of Ibitira and our closure temperature estimates for Pb diffusion, the Pb-Pb age is interpreted as the timing of the last chemical equilibration and coarse pyroxene exsolution that occurred during high temperature metamorphism. The metamorphism may have been caused by burial of Ibitira lava under successive lava flows and, if so, the Pb-Pb age should post-date the crystallization by a short time interval. The Pb isotopic data for acid leachates suggest partial re-equilibration of Pb between plagioclase and phosphate, perhaps during an impact event at 4.49 Ga, as recorded by K-Ar systematics. The whole rock 238U/204Pb indicates that compared to CI chondrites, Ibitira is less depleted in Pb than in some alkali elements despite a lower condensation temperature of Pb than the alkali elements. The restricted Pb depletion may reflect preferential concentration of metals with high fluid/melt partition coefficients including Pb and Zn as a result of fluid exsolution and migration within the parent magma. We

  6. Is pathological gambling moderated by age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Pérez-Serrano, Miriam; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2014-06-01

    The age of a patient is a strong moderator of both the course and the evolution of disorders/diseases. However, the effects of current age in pathological gambling (PG) have rarely been examined. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating effects of the patients' current age in relation to personality traits and clinical outcomes of PG. A total sample of 2,309 treatment-seeking patients for PG, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study and were assessed with the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling according to DSM-IV criteria, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Checklist, the Temperament and Character Inventory-R, and other clinical and psychopathological measures. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed linear trends in the relationship between age and PG: the older the patient, the more comorbid health problems were visible. The presence of additional quadratic trends also suggests that age plays a significant role in moderating the possibility of existing PG problems and general psychopathology. No interaction term was found between age and sex, but it was present for age and some personality traits: self-transcendence and reward dependence (these two traits were only relevant to the level of impairment due to PG at specific ages). This study suggests that the patients' age influences psychopathological and clinical aspects associated to PG. Intervention in the earliest manifestations of this complex problem is essential in order to better address the need of successful treatment planning.

  7. 76 FR 60112 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  8. A skeleton model for the MJO with refined vertical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thual, Sulian; Majda, Andrew J.

    2016-05-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of variability in the tropical atmosphere on intraseasonal timescales and planetary spatial scales. The skeleton model is a minimal dynamical model that recovers robustly the most fundamental MJO features of (I) a slow eastward speed of roughly 5 {ms}^{-1}, (II) a peculiar dispersion relation with dω /dk ≈ 0, and (III) a horizontal quadrupole vortex structure. This model depicts the MJO as a neutrally-stable atmospheric wave that involves a simple multiscale interaction between planetary dry dynamics, planetary lower-tropospheric moisture and the planetary envelope of synoptic-scale activity. Here we propose and analyse an extended version of the skeleton model with additional variables accounting for the refined vertical structure of the MJO in nature. The present model reproduces qualitatively the front-to-rear vertical structure of the MJO found in nature, with MJO events marked by a planetary envelope of convective activity transitioning from the congestus to the deep to the stratiform type, in addition to a front-to-rear structure of moisture, winds and temperature. Despite its increased complexity the present model retains several interesting features of the original skeleton model such as a conserved energy and similar linear solutions. We further analyze a model version with a simple stochastic parametrization for the unresolved details of synoptic-scale activity. The stochastic model solutions show intermittent initiation, propagation and shut down of MJO wave trains, as in previous studies, in addition to MJO events with a front-to-rear vertical structure of varying intensity and characteristics from one event to another.

  9. Shedding light into the function of the earliest vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Perez, Carlos; Purnell, Mark; Rayfield, Emily; Donoghue, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates, the first in our evolutionary lineage to develop a biomineralized skeleton. As such, the conodont skeleton is of great significance because of the insights it provides concerning the biology and function of the primitive vertebrate skeleton. Conodont function has been debated for a century and a half on the basis of its paleocological importance in the Palaezoic ecosystems. However, due to the lack of extanct close representatives and the small size of the conodont element (under a milimiter in length) strongly limited their functional analysis, traditional restricted to analogy. More recently, qualitative approaches have been developed, facilitating tests of element function based on occlusal performance and analysis of microwear and microstructure. In this work we extend these approaches using novel quantitative experimental methods including Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Tomographic Microscopy or Finite Element Analysis to test hypotheses of conodont function. The development of high resolution virtual models of conodont elements, together with biomechanical approaches using Finite Element analysis, informed by occlusal and microwear analyses, provided conclusive support to test hypothesis of structural adaptation within the crown tissue microstructure, showing a close topological co-variation patterns of compressive and tensile stress distribution with different crystallite orientation. In addition, our computational analyses strongly support a tooth-like function for many conodont species. Above all, our study establishes a framework (experimental approach) in which the functional ecology of conodonts can be read from their rich taxonomy and phylogeny, representing an important attempt to understand the role of this abundant and diverse clade in the Phanerozoic marine ecosystems.

  10. Recent Advances in Imaging of the Axial Skeleton in Spondyloarthritis for Diagnosis, Assessment of Treatment Effect, and Prognostication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, many studies have investigated the role of imaging for improved diagnosis, assessment of treatment effects, and determining prognosis in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Recent research has primarily focused on the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for...... developed and have provided insight into effects of treatment on structural progression and the interrelationships between different lesions visualized by MRI. This review gives an overview of the recent advances in imaging of the axial skeleton in axial SpA from a clinical perspective....

  11. Modification of diphenylamine-linked bis(oxazoline)ligands:Tuning of electronic effect and rigidity of ligand skeleton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Han; LI Wei; DU DaMing

    2009-01-01

    The electronic effect of diphenylamine-linked bis(oxazoline) ligands was tuned through introduction of electron-withdrawing bromo and nitro substituents onto the 4 and 4' position.The variation of the NH bond acidity was determined by the different chemical shifts of NH.The catalytic activity and enantioselectivity of the modified ligands were tested in the asymmetric FriedeI-Crafts alkylation of indole with β-nitrostyrene.The effect of iigand skeleton rigidity was also investigated through the synthesis of iminodibenzyl-linked bis(oxazoline) ligands and evaluation of their catalytic activity in Friedel-Crafts alkylation.

  12. Modification of diphenylamine-linked bis(oxazoline) ligands: Tuning of electronic effect and rigidity of ligand skeleton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The electronic effect of diphenylamine-linked bis(oxazoline) ligands was tuned through introduction of electron-withdrawing bromo and nitro substituents onto the 4 and 4′ position. The variation of the NH bond acidity was determined by the different chemical shifts of NH. The catalytic activity and enantioselectivity of the modified ligands were tested in the asymmetric Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole with β-nitrostyrene. The effect of ligand skeleton rigidity was also investigated through the synthesis of iminodibenzyl-linked bis(oxazoline) ligands and evaluation of their catalytic activity in Friedel-Crafts alkylation.

  13. Geomagnetic paleointensity and direct age determination of the ISEA (M0r?) chron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rixiang; Hoffman, Kenneth A.; Nomade, Sébastien; Renne, Paul R.; Shi, Ruiping; Pan, Yongxin; Shi, Guanghai

    2004-01-01

    A combined paleomagnetic and geochronologic study has been conducted on an andesite lava sequence at Jianguo (Liaoning province, northeastern China). Thermal demagnetization and thermomagnetic analysis revealed that natural remanent magnetization is carried by both magnetite and hematite. Stepwise thermal demagnetization up to 675°C isolated well-defined reverse characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) in three time-independent lava flows with a mean direction of D/ I=179.2°/-59.7° with α95=3.0°. It also showed that a high-temperature component (>585°C) has the same ChRM direction as that of the low- to medium-temperature (ca. 170/300-585°C) components. A modified version of the Thellier-Thellier paleointensity method [Coe, J. Geophys. Res. 72 (1967) 3247-3262] with systematic partial thermoremanent magnetization checks was used for paleointensity determinations. Twelve out of 39 samples yielded reliable results in the temperature interval of 170-550°C. Virtual dipole moment values range from 3.9 to 4.7×10 22 Am 2 with an average of 4.2±0.1×10 22 Am 2. 40Ar/ 39Ar age determination on one lava flow is 116.8±3.0 Myr (2σ error, relative to Fish Canyon sanidine: 28.02±0.28 Myr). The magnetic reversed polarity with well-defined age could correspond to the 'ISEA' within the older part of the Cretaceous normal superchron (CNS), but we cannot rule out the possibility that this reversal interval could also correspond to the M0r due to many ambiguities on previous published ages on ISEA and M0r intervals as well as the new monitor age correction we applied. It also suggests that a weak magnetic field nature already documented before the CNS extended at least into the very beginning of the CNS.

  14. Erythrocyte membrane proteins and membrane skeleton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yiqin; LIU Junfan

    2007-01-01

    Considerable advances in the research field of erythrocyte membrane were achieved in the recent two decades.New findings in the structure-function correlation and interactions of erythrocyte membrane proteins have attracted extensive attention.Interesting progress was also made in the molecular pathogenesis of erythrocyte membrane disorders.Advances in the composition,function and interaction of erythrocyte membrane proteins,erythrocyte membrane skeleton,and relevant diseases are briefly described and summarized here on the basis of domestic and world literatures.

  15. NMR spectroscopy of lactate in the skeleton muscle: visibility, quantification and measurement of carbon 13 enrichment by double quantum edition; Spectroscopie RMN du lactate dans le muscle squeletique: visibilite, quantification et mesure de l'enrichissement au carbone 13 par edition a double quantum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouvensal, L

    1997-12-18

    The metabolism of skeleton muscles gave rise to numerous research works since the beginning of the century in order to make some reply about the muscle physiology with the will to improve the sport performances or the understanding of muscles diseases. This metabolism is complex and the lactate has an importance place; the purpose of this work is to answer these questions with some strategy studies by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (N.C.)

  16. Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Immobilization onto Hippospongia communis Marine Demosponge Skeleton and Its Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Norman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Hippospongia communis marine demosponge skeleton was used as an adsorbent for sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC. Obtained results indicate the high sorption capacity of this biomaterial with respect to SCC. Batch experiments were performed under different conditions and kinetic and isotherms properties were investigated. Acidic pH and the addition of sodium chloride increased SCC adsorption. The experimental data were well described by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were determined and the experimental data were analyzed using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The effectiveness of the process was confirmed by 13C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C CP/MAS NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and thermogravimetric analysis (TG. This novel SCC-sponge-based functional hybrid material was found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Immobilization onto Hippospongia communis Marine Demosponge Skeleton and Its Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Małgorzata; Bartczak, Przemysław; Zdarta, Jakub; Tomala, Wiktor; Żurańska, Barbara; Dobrowolska, Anna; Piasecki, Adam; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Ehrlich, Hermann; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Hippospongia communis marine demosponge skeleton was used as an adsorbent for sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC). Obtained results indicate the high sorption capacity of this biomaterial with respect to SCC. Batch experiments were performed under different conditions and kinetic and isotherms properties were investigated. Acidic pH and the addition of sodium chloride increased SCC adsorption. The experimental data were well described by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were determined and the experimental data were analyzed using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The effectiveness of the process was confirmed by 13C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C CP/MAS NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). This novel SCC-sponge-based functional hybrid material was found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:27690001

  18. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Syed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC—aged 5.00–14.99 years globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID were available only for girls aged 12.00–14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%, n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%, n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%, n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02 and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007. In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001 and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001. In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005, lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005, ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001, and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02. While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions.

  19. Uranium age determination - Separation and analysis of 230Th and 231Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    be of high chemical recovery and must afford large decontamination factors. In general, the age obtained from parent/daughter ratios refers to the last separation of the parent nuclide from its daughters, i.e. the last purification of the material. The accuracy of the obtained age therefore depends on the quality of the purification process and assumes that the material subsequently has not been contaminated. Obviously the availability of two analytical methods relying on both, independent parent/daughter pairs will therefore significantly increase the confidence in the experimental results. In this work we demonstrate analytical methods for the age determination of uranium samples using the parent/daughter relations 234U/230Th and 235U/231Pa. Thorium is separated from bulk uranium using extraction chromatography and subsequently quantified using □-spectrometry, thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) and inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Protactinium is separated by highly selective sorption of protactinium to silica gel followed by □-spectrometric quantification. The methods were tested and validated using uranium reference materials of different uranium enrichment and of known ages. The experimental results obtained with both methods were found to agree with the assumed ages of the reference materials within the combined uncertainty of the measurement. The analysis exploiting the parent/daughter pair 235U/231Pa exhibits a slightly larger combined uncertainty and bias than the thorium method but is found valuable in validating the experimental results by means of a second, independent analysis. (author)

  20. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans in the aging skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, M F; Bi, Y; Ameye, L;

    2006-01-01

    Small Leucine-Rich Proteoglyans (SLRPs) are major skeletal extracellular matrix (ECM) components that comprise a family of 13 members containing repeats of a leucine-rich motif. To examine SLRP function, we generated mice deficient in one or more member and analyzed them at the tissue, cell...

  1. An accurate 3D shape context based non-rigid registration method for mouse whole-body skeleton registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Zahra, David; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Berghofer, Paula; Acosta Tamayo, Oscar; Wimberley, Catriona; Gregoire, Marie C.; Salvado, Olivier

    2011-03-01

    Small animal image registration is challenging because of its joint structure, and posture and position difference in each acquisition without a standard scan protocol. In this paper, we face the issue of mouse whole-body skeleton registration from CT images. A novel method is developed for analyzing mouse hind-limb and fore-limb postures based on geodesic path descriptor and then registering the major skeletons and fore limb skeletons initially by thin-plate spline (TPS) transform based on the obtained geodesic paths and their enhanced correspondence fields. A target landmark correction method is proposed for improving the registration accuracy of the improved 3D shape context non-rigid registration method we previously proposed. A novel non-rigid registration framework, combining the skeleton posture analysis, geodesic path based initial alignment and 3D shape context model, is proposed for mouse whole-body skeleton registration. The performance of the proposed methods and framework was tested on 12 pairs of mouse whole-body skeletons. The experimental results demonstrated the flexibility, stability and accuracy of the proposed framework for automatic mouse whole body skeleton registration.

  2. The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Duncan J.E.; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E.; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the ‘inside-out’ hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws.

  3. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dziuba

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of core by liquid metal at estability technological parameters.. Below the assumptions and results of the initial simulated calculations are presented. The total number of the nodes in the casting was 1920 and of the connectors was 5280 what gave filling of 100% for the nodes and 99,56% for the connectors in the results of the simulation. Together it resulted as 99,78 % of filling the volume of the casting. The nodes and connectors were filled up to the 30 level of the casting in the simulation. The all connectors were filled up to the 25 level of the casting in the simulation. Starting from the 25 level individual connectors at the side surface of the casting weren’t filled up. The connectors weren’t supplied by multi-level getting system. The differences of filling the levels are little (maximally 5 per cent.

  4. Trace elements and the European skeleton through 5000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrčka, V; Jambor, J

    2000-01-01

    For our research, one thousand forty-four samples were taken from the femurs of 522 skeletons from 25 sites in Europe from the Neolithic Age (4000-5000 B.C), from La Téne Period, the Roman Era (500 B.C-400 A.D.), the Middle Ages and from contemporary cadavers. We found the following distribution of elements in the longitudional axis of long bones (the femurs and the tibias). The elements Zn, Fe, Ni, Cr, Pb, Mn, Co and Sn cumulated in the epiphysis. On the other hand, we found that Ca, Sr, Na and K prevailed in the central part of the diaphysis. In the central parts of the cross-section the highest concentration of the metal element Pb was in the external layer from the historical femurs. It was the same with cadavers of the recent population. A specific shift from Neolithic farming to agricultural intensification in the Roman Era was also apparent in the skeletons. Special sources of the above mentioned elements were found both in Celtic and Germanic tribes. Meat is the main source of zinc. Zinc is also important for the growth of the skeleton. When we investigated the development of the human skeleton during the last 5000 years we found the highest concetrations of Zn in communities with a good supply of animal food, whereas the lowest concentrations were paralleled with well-developed agriculturists. We assume the Neolithic gracilization, which is in the background for the increase of agricultural populations, is directly linked with the concentration of Zn and other elements essential for growth (Cu, Fe and others). The individuals most vulnerable to zinc deficiency include infants, adolescents during rapid growth phases and women during pregnancy and lactation. Trace elements in the bones of the La Téne period designate two areas of Celtic diet patterns--a "French one" (Roulier, Mont Trote and Acy Romance) and a "Czech one" (Karlov, Radovesice and Jenisův Ujezd). At Czech sites levels of zinc increased westward towards the Germanic region. Over the Germanic

  5. Posterior midgut epithelial cells differ in their organization of the membrane skeleton from other drosophila epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, O

    2001-11-01

    In epithelial cells, the various components of the membrane skeleton are segregated within specialized subregions of the plasma membrane, thus contributing to the development and stabilization of cell surface polarity. It has previously been shown that, in various Drosophila epithelia, the membrane skeleton components ankyrin and alphabeta-spectrin reside at the lateral surface, whereas alphabeta(H)-spectrin is restricted to the apical domain. By use of confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, the present study characterizes the membrane skeleton of epithelial cells in the posterior midgut, leading to a number of unexpected results. First, ankyrin and alphabeta-spectrin are not detected on the entire lateral surface but appear to be restricted to the apicolateral area, codistributing with fasciclin III at smooth septate junctions. The presumptive ankyrin-binding proteins neuroglian and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, however, do not colocalize with ankyrin. Second, alphabeta(H)-spectrin is enriched at the apical domain but is also present in lower amounts on the entire lateral surface, colocalizing apicolaterally with ankyrin/alphabeta-spectrin. Finally, despite the absence of zonulae adherentes, F-actin, beta(H)-spectrin, and nonmuscle myosin-II are enriched in the midlateral region. Thus, the model established for the organization of the membrane skeleton in Drosophila epithelia does not hold for the posterior midgut, and there is quite some variability between the different epithelia with respect to the organization of the membrane skeleton.

  6. Age, introduction of solid feed and weaning are more important determinants of gut bacterial succession in piglets than breed and nursing mother as revealed by a reciprocal cross-fostering model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Gaorui; Ma, Shouqing; Zhu, Zhigang; Su, Yong; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Mackie, Roderick; Liu, Junhua; Mu, Chunlong; Huang, Ruihua; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-05-01

    A reciprocal cross-fostering model with an obese typical Chinese piglet breed and a lean Western breed was used to identify genetic and maternal effects on the acquisition and development gut bacteria from birth until after weaning. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes results revealed an age- and diet-dependent bacterial succession process in piglets. During the first 3 days after birth, the bacterial community was relatively simple and dominated by Firmicutes with 79% and 65% relative abundance for Meishan and Yorkshire piglets, respectively. During the suckling period until day 14, the piglet breed and the nursing mother lead to increasing differentiation of the fecal bacterial community, with specific bacteria taxa associated with breed, and others with the nursing sow most likely due to its milk composition. Although the effect of nursing mother and the breed were evident through the suckling period, the introduction of solid feed and subsequent weaning were the major events occurring that dominated succession of the gut microbiota in the early life of piglets. This piglet cross-fostering model is a useful tool for studying the effects of diet, host genetics and the environment on the development and acquisition of the gut microbiota and over longer studies the subsequent impact on growth, health and performance of pigs.

  7. A SKELETONIZATION ALGORITHM BASED ON EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE MAPS AND MORPHOLOGICAL OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Lihong; Yu Yinglin; Zhang Yu

    2001-01-01

    In this letter a new skeletonization algorithm is proposed. It combines techniques of fast construction of Euclidean Distance Maps(EDMs), ridge extraction, Hit-or-Miss Transformation(HMT) of structuring elements and the set operators. It first produces the EDM image with no more than 4 passes through an image of any kinds, and then the ridge image is extracted by applying a turn-on scheme and performing a rain-fall elimination to accelerate the processing. The one-pixel wide skeleton is finally acquired by carrying out the HMTs of two structure elements and the SUBTRACT and OR operations. Experimental results obtained by practical applications are also presented.

  8. The utility of ultrasonographic bone age determination in detecting growth disturbances; a comparative study with the conventional radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test whether the conventional radiographic technique in determining bone age abnormalities can be replaced by ultrasonography. A total of 54 Caucasian subjects up to 7 years of age with clinically suspected growth problems underwent left hand and wrist radiographic and ultrasonographic bone age estimations with the use of the Greulich-Pyle atlas. The ultrasonographic scans targeted the ossification centers in the radius and ulna distal epiphysis, carpal bones, epiphyses of the first and third metacarpals, and epiphysis of the middle phalanx, as described in previous reports. The degree of agreement between the two sets of data, as well as the accuracy of the ultrasonographic method in detecting radiographically suggested bone age abnormities, was examined. The mean chronological age, radiographic bone age, and ultrasonographic bone age (all in months) were 41.96 ± 22.25, 26.68 ± 14.08, and 26.71 ± 13.50 in 28 boys and 43.62 ± 24.63, 30.12 ± 17.69, and 31.27 ± 18.06 in 26 girls, respectively. According to the Bland-Altman plot there was high agreement between the results of the two methods with only three outliers. The deviations in bone age from the chronological age taken by the two techniques had the same sign in all patients. Supposing radiography to be the method of reference, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of sonography in detecting growth abnormalities were all 100 % in males and 90.9, 100, 100, and 93.8 %, respectively, in females. The conventional radiographic technique for determining bone age abnormalities could be replaced by ultrasonography. (orig.)

  9. The utility of ultrasonographic bone age determination in detecting growth disturbances; a comparative study with the conventional radiographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajalioghli, Parisa; Tarzamni, Mohammad Kazem; Arami, Sara [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fouladi, Daniel Fadaei [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghojazadeh, Morteza [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To test whether the conventional radiographic technique in determining bone age abnormalities can be replaced by ultrasonography. A total of 54 Caucasian subjects up to 7 years of age with clinically suspected growth problems underwent left hand and wrist radiographic and ultrasonographic bone age estimations with the use of the Greulich-Pyle atlas. The ultrasonographic scans targeted the ossification centers in the radius and ulna distal epiphysis, carpal bones, epiphyses of the first and third metacarpals, and epiphysis of the middle phalanx, as described in previous reports. The degree of agreement between the two sets of data, as well as the accuracy of the ultrasonographic method in detecting radiographically suggested bone age abnormities, was examined. The mean chronological age, radiographic bone age, and ultrasonographic bone age (all in months) were 41.96 ± 22.25, 26.68 ± 14.08, and 26.71 ± 13.50 in 28 boys and 43.62 ± 24.63, 30.12 ± 17.69, and 31.27 ± 18.06 in 26 girls, respectively. According to the Bland-Altman plot there was high agreement between the results of the two methods with only three outliers. The deviations in bone age from the chronological age taken by the two techniques had the same sign in all patients. Supposing radiography to be the method of reference, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of sonography in detecting growth abnormalities were all 100 % in males and 90.9, 100, 100, and 93.8 %, respectively, in females. The conventional radiographic technique for determining bone age abnormalities could be replaced by ultrasonography. (orig.)

  10. Mechanically Viscoelastic Properties of Cellulose Nanocrystals Skeleton Reinforced Hierarchical Composite Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Han, ChunRui

    2016-09-28

    With inspiration from the concept of natural dynamic materials, binary-component composite hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties and recovery capability were prepared from the cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) skeleton reinforced covalently cross-linked polyacrylamide (PAAm) networks. The hierarchical skeleton obtained by freeze-drying of CNC aqueous suspension was directly impregnated into acrylamide (AAm) monomer solution, and in situ polymerization occurred in the presence of hydrophilic cross-linker PEGDA575. Under stress, hydrogen bonds at the interface between CNC and PAAm as well as inside the CNC skeleton acted as sacrificial bonds to dissipate energy, while the covalently cross-linked PAAm chains bind the network together by providing adhesion to CNC and thereby suppress the catastrophic craze propagation. The above synergistic effects of the CNC skeleton and the elastic PAAm network enabled the composite hydrogels to withstand up to 181 kPa of tensile stress, 1.01 MPa of compressive strength, and 1392% elongation at break with the fracture energy as high as 2.82 kJ/m(2). Moreover, the hydrogels recovered more than 70% elasticity after eight loading-unloading cycles, revealing excellent fatigue resistance. The depth-sensing instrumentation by indentation test corroborated that the CNC skeleton contributed simultaneous improvements in hardness and elasticity by as much as 500% in comparison with the properties of the pristine PAAm hydrogels. This elegant strategy by using the CNC skeleton as a reinforcing template offers a new perspective for the fabrication of robust hydrogels with exceptional mechanical properties that may be important for biomedical applications where high strength is required, such as scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:27606621

  11. Mechanically Viscoelastic Properties of Cellulose Nanocrystals Skeleton Reinforced Hierarchical Composite Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Han, ChunRui

    2016-09-28

    With inspiration from the concept of natural dynamic materials, binary-component composite hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties and recovery capability were prepared from the cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) skeleton reinforced covalently cross-linked polyacrylamide (PAAm) networks. The hierarchical skeleton obtained by freeze-drying of CNC aqueous suspension was directly impregnated into acrylamide (AAm) monomer solution, and in situ polymerization occurred in the presence of hydrophilic cross-linker PEGDA575. Under stress, hydrogen bonds at the interface between CNC and PAAm as well as inside the CNC skeleton acted as sacrificial bonds to dissipate energy, while the covalently cross-linked PAAm chains bind the network together by providing adhesion to CNC and thereby suppress the catastrophic craze propagation. The above synergistic effects of the CNC skeleton and the elastic PAAm network enabled the composite hydrogels to withstand up to 181 kPa of tensile stress, 1.01 MPa of compressive strength, and 1392% elongation at break with the fracture energy as high as 2.82 kJ/m(2). Moreover, the hydrogels recovered more than 70% elasticity after eight loading-unloading cycles, revealing excellent fatigue resistance. The depth-sensing instrumentation by indentation test corroborated that the CNC skeleton contributed simultaneous improvements in hardness and elasticity by as much as 500% in comparison with the properties of the pristine PAAm hydrogels. This elegant strategy by using the CNC skeleton as a reinforcing template offers a new perspective for the fabrication of robust hydrogels with exceptional mechanical properties that may be important for biomedical applications where high strength is required, such as scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  12. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in western Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Ren, Jiayin; Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Na; Wu, Wanhong; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Hu

    2012-06-10

    The purpose of this study is to provide reference data about estimating dental age from third molars of the western Chinese population for comparing with other populations and being applied to the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents. A total of 2078 digital panoramic radiographs of 989 male and 1089 female Chinese subjects aged between 5 and 23 years were examined. The mineralization status of the third molars was assessed using the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. The results showed that the development of third molars in the western Chinese population was likely to begin at age 5 in both males and females. The third molars 28 and 48 showed significantly higher frequency in females than in males. The third molars 18 in the stage 1, 38 in the stages 1, A and G, and 48 in the stage H showed significantly older average age in females than in males. The Demirjian's stages C and D could be used as a reference stage to determine dichotomously whether a western Chinese is more likely to be under or above age 14 or 16, respectively. This study provided reference data for the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents by the mineralization stages of the third molar. Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons.

  13. Genotype by sex and genotype by age interactions with sedentary behavior: the Portuguese Healthy Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (SB expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge and Genotype x Sex (GxSex interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05 and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day, EEsed (kcal/day, personal computer (PC usage and physical activty (PA tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day. For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex.

  14. Determination of radionuclides in samples of middle-aged and older human femurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the studies of the presence of gamma isotopes and 90Sr in 19 middle-to old-aged human femur samples. The samples were taken up during routine orthopedic operations in 2012. The aim of the paper was determination of some radionuclides in human bones and estimation of radiation dose created by 90Sr and 90Y (in bones). The 137Cs, 40K, 226Ra, 228Th, 234Th and 210Pb isotopes were determined by gamma spectrometry. The above mentioned radionuclide contents were in the ranges: 137Cs (0.04–1.45); 40K (13–86); 226Ra (1–21.5); 228Th (1.4–40.2); 234Th (0.4–5.7); 210Pb (0.7–8.4) Bq/kg d.w. 90Sr was assayed based on radiometric measurement of ingrown 90Y. The 90Sr content was in the range 0.27–1.85 Bq/kg d.w. Measurements of concentration of 90Sr and 90Y in bones were used to estimation of health risk by calculation of radiation dose. Adsorbed doses ranged from 2.7· 10−7 to 1.9 · 10−6 Gy/y for 90Sr and from 1.2 · 10−6 to 8.3 · 10−7 Gy/y for 90Y. - Highlights: • The paper presents the studies of the presence of gamma isotopes and 90Sr in 19 human femur samples. • The 137Cs, 40K, 226Ra, 228Th, 234Th, 210Pb. isotopes were determined by the gamma spectrometry method. • The 90Sr content was determined by LSC method

  15. An analysis of vascular surgery in elderly patients to determine whether age affects treatment strategy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of arterial disease increases with age. Increasing life expectancy in the western world will intensify demands on vascular surgeons with regard to increasing caseload, expanding patient selection criteria, and more complex and minimally-invasive treatment options. We analysed our arterial cases over the past 31 years (n = 6,144) and compared our methods of intervention and complication rates in the elderly population (>75) with the younger cohort, in order to determine whether age should influence our management strategies.

  16. PROSPECTS FOR APPLICATION OF Aplysinidae FAMILY MARINE SPONGE SKELETONS AND MESENCHYMAL STROMAL CELLS IN TISSUE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Yu. Rogulska

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Development of the new types of tissue engineered structures is one of the promising trends of current biotechnology. The study was directed to the assessment of prospects for the application of chitin-based skeletons derived from marine sponges of Aplysinidae family (Aplysina fulva and Aplysina aerophoba for creation of bioengineered constructs based on human mesenchymal stromal cells. After cleaning and demineralization procedures, sponge skeletons appeared as three-dimensional macroporous matrices formed by intersecting chitin fibrils. After seeding into chitin-based matrices the cells were attached to the surface of the fibrils and were able to spread and proliferate. Mesenchymal stromal cells within Aplysina fulva differentiated into osteogenic and adipogenic directions under the influence of appropriate inductors. Demineralized skeletons derived from marine sponges of Aplysinidae family could be used as scaffolds for mesenchymal stromal cells which provides new opportunities for the creation of adipose and bone tissue engineered structures.

  17. DETERMINATION OF F-WAVE LATENCY IN INDIVIDUALS AGED 20 YEARS AND OLDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Hatamian M. R. Imamhadi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of F-wave latency is a simple and valuable method in evaluating proximal part of peripheral nerves. The aim of this study was to determine the mean minimal peroneal F wave (F min in healthy individuals. A total of 282 individuals were studied. The mean age was 45.6 years. The F min (± SD for 564 peroneal nerves was 47.09 ± 4.51 ms. The F min for the age group of 20-45 and height group of 160-180 cm were 47.63 ± 4.50 and 49.77 ± 3.76, respectively. This study demonstrates that the mean F min of our samples was not significantly different from other important similar studies. Age and particularly height had a major role in determination of F min value and these two parameters must be considered in clinical evaluation of patients.

  18. Determination of residual boron in thermally treated controlled-porosity glasses, by colorimetry, spectrography and isotachophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled-porosity glasses (CPGs) are often applied as sorbents in chromatography. Besides having high thermal, chemical and mechanical resistance they are characterized by a very narrow pore-size distribution and the choice of mean pore diameter and porosity covers a wide range. In spite of these advantages, their range of use in chromatography is restricted because of their strong adsorption properties, which are connected with the presence of residual boron atoms in the porous CPG skeleton. The boron concentration on the CPG surface can be increased by proper thermal treatment. When CPGs are heated in the range 400-8000 the residual boron atoms in the network diffuse from the bulk to the surface. The paper discusses the boron content in porous glasses of different mean pore diameters and the determination of the enrichment of boron on the GPG surface, by three independent methods: colorimetry, spectrography and isotachophoresis. (author)

  19. Age and season determine European rabbit habitat use in Mediterranean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Marta; Rebollo, Salvador; Bravo, Lucía Gálvez

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge about the factors determining habitat use is especially interesting for herbivores living under seasonal climates as they have to deal with food shortage during the drought season. In this context, different-aged individuals are expected to respond differently to seasonal variations because nutritional requirements and predation risk can vary with age. We investigated adult and juvenile European rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) habitat use in a Mediterranean ecosystem of central Spain, during spring, summer and winter. Relationships between adult and juvenile rabbit pellet abundances and 11 environmental variables related to food availability and refuge density were analysed by means of multiple regression, and evaluated using information theory to identify the set of models best supported by the data. Density of warren entrances was the more constant predictor of habitat use for juvenile rabbits in all the seasons. Herbaceous vegetation volume had a negative influence and was the strongest predictor for adult rabbit habitat use in spring and winter. In summer, green vegetation cover became the strongest positive habitat use predictor. These results suggest that adults prefer to forage in low volume swards ensuring a wide sensory range for the detection of approaching predators. However, the arrival of summer and its associated food depletion forces them to shift toward more open productive areas where green vegetation persists, but at the expense of higher predation risk. Seasonal variation induces minor changes in juvenile habitat use due to their strong dependence on warrens. Thus, our results show that rabbit habitat use is influenced by animal age and seasonal variations in resources.

  20. Skeleton-Based Edge Bundling for Graph Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersoy, Ozan; Hurter, Christophe; Paulovich, Fernando V.; Cantareira, Gabriel; Telea, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for constructing bundled layouts of general graphs. As layout cues for bundles, we use medial axes, or skeletons, of edges which are similar in terms of position information. We combine edge clustering, distance fields, and 2D skeletonization to construct p

  1. Qualitative Comparison of Contraction-Based Curve Skeletonization Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobiecki, André; Yasan, Haluk C.; Jalba, Andrei C.; Telea, Alexandru C.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many new methods have been proposed for extracting curve skeletons of 3D shapes, using a mesh-contraction principle. However, it is still unclear how these methods perform with respect to each other, and with respect to earlier voxel-based skeletonization methods, from the viewpoint

  2. SkelTre: Robust skeleton extraction from imperfect point clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucksch, A.; Lindenbergh, R.; Menenti, M.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial laser scanners capture 3D geometry of real world objects as a point cloud. This paper reports on a new algorithm developed for the skeletonization of a laser scanner point cloud. The skeletonization algorithm proposed in this paper consists of three steps: (i) extraction of a graph from

  3. Validation of adult height prediction based on automated bone age determination in the Paris Longitudinal Study of healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adult height prediction model based on automated determination of bone age was developed and validated in two studies from Zurich, Switzerland. Varied living conditions and genetic backgrounds might make the model less accurate. To validate the adult height prediction model on children from another geographical location. We included 51 boys and 58 girls from the Paris Longitudinal Study of children born 1953 to 1958. Radiographs were obtained once or twice a year in these children from birth to age 18. Bone age was determined using the BoneXpert method. Radiographs in children with bone age greater than 6 years were considered, in total 1,124 images. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and the observed adult height was 2.8 cm for boys in the bone age range 6-15 years and 3.1 cm for girls in the bone age range 6-13 years. The bias (the average signed difference) was zero, except for girls below bone age 12, where the predictions were 0.8 cm too low. The accuracy of the BoneXpert method in terms of root mean square error was as predicted by the model, i.e. in line with what was observed in the Zurich studies. (orig.)

  4. Validation of adult height prediction based on automated bone age determination in the Paris Longitudinal Study of healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D. [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Filderklinik, Filderstadt (Germany); Schittenhelm, Jan [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Thodberg, Hans Henrik [Visiana, Holte (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    An adult height prediction model based on automated determination of bone age was developed and validated in two studies from Zurich, Switzerland. Varied living conditions and genetic backgrounds might make the model less accurate. To validate the adult height prediction model on children from another geographical location. We included 51 boys and 58 girls from the Paris Longitudinal Study of children born 1953 to 1958. Radiographs were obtained once or twice a year in these children from birth to age 18. Bone age was determined using the BoneXpert method. Radiographs in children with bone age greater than 6 years were considered, in total 1,124 images. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and the observed adult height was 2.8 cm for boys in the bone age range 6-15 years and 3.1 cm for girls in the bone age range 6-13 years. The bias (the average signed difference) was zero, except for girls below bone age 12, where the predictions were 0.8 cm too low. The accuracy of the BoneXpert method in terms of root mean square error was as predicted by the model, i.e. in line with what was observed in the Zurich studies. (orig.)

  5. 基于凸壳与有向包围盒的骨架提取方法%Skeleton Extraction Method Based on Convex Hull and OBB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林佼; 李重; 金小刚; 李亮

    2012-01-01

    为获取三维模型的几何及拓扑信息,提出一种基于凸壳与有向包围盒(OBB)的线性骨架提取方法.首先将三维网格模型进行分割生成多个子网格模型;然后对各子网格中的点集求取凸壳作为该子网格点集的近似,由凸壳顶点的形心构成原始骨架点;再用OBB进行重叠计算求出相交点集,以生成关节骨架点;最后对原始骨架点与关节骨架点进行连接,经冗余检测后形成完整骨架.实验结果表明,该方法快速、有效,提取出的骨架能保证连通性与中心性且能很好地提取关节骨架点,为蒙皮关节动画、模型形状分析等提供有效信息.%In order to obtain the geometry and topology of a 3D model, a skeleton extraction method based on the convex hull and the oriented bounding box (OBB) is presented in this paper. It firstly divides the mesh into several parts; computes the convex hull of each part's point set as its approximation, and uses the convex hull's centroid as the original skeleton point. Then it looks for the overlapping point set between two adjacent parts by using OBB, determines the centroid of the overlapping point set as the joint point. It finally connects original skeleton points with joint points and removes redundant points to get the entire skeleton. Experimental results show that this skeleton extraction method is simple, fast and effective. It guarantees the connectivity and centrality of the skeleton, which can provide useful information for skinning joint animation, 3D model shape analysis, etc.

  6. Characterization of cultural remains associated to a human skeleton found at the site HMS Swift (1770)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M. S.; Gómez, B. A.; Parera, S. D.; Elkin, D.; De Rosa, H.; Ciarlo, N. C.; Svoboda, H.

    2010-08-01

    Different types of materials found in association with a human skeleton found in an 18th century shipwreck in Patagonia (Argentina) were analyzed by means of OM, SEM-EDX, HPLC, and chemical analysis. Alizarin and purpurin, the main anthraquinones of the dye plant Rubia tinctorum L. (madder) were identified as the coloring matter of a red fabric attached to the skeleton. Metallographic and chemical analysis of one of the dome-shaped buttons associated to the human bones revealed that it was composed of a Pb-Sn-Cu alloy known as pewter. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the remains originally were part of a private marine uniform.

  7. Age, growth and size interact with stress to determine life span and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Deborah Ann

    2012-10-01

    Individuals in a large experimental field population, of the short-lived perennial species Plantago lanceolata, were followed to determine the sources of variation that influence mortality and life span. The design included multiple age groups with initially similar genetic structure, which made it possible to separate age effects from period effects and to identify the genetic component to variation in life span. During a period of stress, individuals of all ages showed parallel increases in mortality but different cohorts experienced this period of high mortality at different ages. This then influenced the distribution of life spans across cohorts. Age and size-age interactions influenced mortality during the period of stress. Smaller individuals died but only if they were old. Additionally, growth and age interacted with stress such that older individuals had negative growth and high mortality whereas younger individuals had positive growth and relatively lower mortality during stress. The results of this study show that it is not simply the environment that can have a major impact on demography in natural populations; rather, age, size and growth can interact with the environment to influence mortality and life span when the environment is stressful. PMID:22664575

  8. Interaction between age and aerobic fitness in determining heart rate dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart rate variability (HRV) and phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) estimates of heart rate dynamics are diminished in older people compared with younger people. However, it is not fully elucidated whether these differences are related to age per se or to the concomitant influence of aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen uptake, gas exchange threshold, oxygen uptake kinetics, exercise economy) was assessed in 70 healthy adults (41 male) aged 18–57 years. Participants also underwent a 24 h, ambulatory ECG for the derivation of HRV and PRSA variables. HRV was most sensitive to age and aerobic fitness when measured during the morning period (6 am–12 pm). HRV and PRSA were both diminished with age and were higher in aerobically superior participants. The decline in HRV with age was predominantly attributable to age itself (33%), with aerobic fitness representing an additional modulating factor. The present study also provides tentative evidence that assessment of the influence of aerobic fitness should not rely on .VO2peak alone. These findings demonstrate that age per se is an important factor in determining HRV. However, given the clinical importance of diminished HRV and the immutable nature of aging, the potential significance of physical activity/training to enhance cardiac regulatory function should not be underestimated. (paper)

  9. Who Believes in the Giant Skeleton Myth? An Examination of Individual Difference Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined individual difference correlates of belief in a narrative about the discovery of giant skeletal remains that contravenes mainstream scientific explanations. A total of 364 participants from Central Europe completed a survey that asked them to rate their agreement with a short excerpt describing the giant skeleton myth. Participants also completed measures of the Big Five personality factors, New Age orientation, anti-scientific attitudes, superstitious beliefs, and religiosity. Results showed that women, as compared with men, and respondents with lower educational qualifications were significantly more likely to believe in the giant skeleton myth, although effect sizes were small. Correlational analysis showed that stronger belief in the giant skeleton myth was significantly associated with greater anti-scientific attitudes, stronger New Age orientation, greater religiosity, stronger superstitious beliefs, lower Openness to Experience scores, and higher Neuroticism scores. However, a multiple regression showed that the only significant predictors of belief in myth were Openness, New Age orientation, and anti-scientific attitudes. These results are discussed in relation to the potential negative consequences of belief in myths.

  10. Births By Age of Mother, 1960-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is for California live births by age of mother, for years 1960-2013. The live birth counts per age bracket represent the live births to California...

  11. Determination of permanent premolars eruption ages among public school children in Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine mean eruption age, range and sequence of permanent maxillary and mandibular premolars in public schools of Lahore, Pakistan so as to provide a reference for planning orthodontic treatment and in pediatric dentistry. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study consisting of multistage random sampling and included 4000 children, with ages in between 9-14 years of different public schools in Lahore. Participants were examined and tooth numbering was noted by two-digit system of FDI (Federation Dentaire Internationale). Emergence was divided into three stages depending on eruption level. SPSS version 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 4000 children, 1960 were boys and 2031 were girls. In both genders maxillary premolars erupted before mandibular counterparts. All premolars erupted earlier in females than the males. The sequence of emergence for both genders was P1, P2 in upper as well as in lower arch. Conclusion: Eruption of premolar in females was earlier than males but delayed in both genders while compared with Western standard. (author)

  12. 黄芩苷对肺炎支原体骨架蛋白质的影响%Effects of Baicalin on Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Skeleton Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振宇; 张树明

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过给药前后,对肺炎支原体骨架蛋白的sds-PaGe电泳分析,探讨黄芩苷对肺炎支原体骨架蛋白质的影响。方法采用微量倍比稀释法确定黄芩苷Mic,利用 ccU法测定肺炎支原体生长曲线,通过sds-PaGe分析肺炎支原体骨架蛋白的变化。结果黄芩苷Mic为16ug/ml,接种105~106ccU/ml的支原体传代,72h后达峰值7.0×107ccU/ml,在黄芩苷干预下,支原体骨架蛋白条带减少,表达降低。结论黄芩苷能能降低肺炎支原体骨架蛋白的表达。%ABSTRCAT: Objective to investigate the effects of Baicalin on Mycoplasma pneumoniae skeleton protein, through sds-PaGe electrophoresis analysis before and after the treatment.Methods Baicalin Mic was determined by broth microdilution method.the growth curve of Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detimined by the color change unit(ccU ). changes of mycoplasma pneumoniae skeleton protein was analyzed by sds-PaGe electrophoresis analysis.Result Mic of Baicalin was 16ug/ml. Mycoplasma pneumoniae reached the peak of 7.0×107ccU/ml after 72h in the case of initial concentration of 105~106ccU/ml. under the baicalin intervention, Mycoplasma skeleton protein bands decreased and protein expression is reduced.Conlusion Baicalin can reduce the expression of Mycoplasma pneumoniae skeleton protein expression.

  13. Stable isotopic records of bleaching and endolithic algae blooms in the skeleton of the boulder forming coral Montastraea faveolata

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, A.C.; Carilli, J. E.; Norris, R. D.; Charles, C. D.; Deheyn, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    Within boulder forming corals, fixation of dissolved inorganic carbon is performed by symbiotic dinoflagellates within the coral tissue and, to a lesser extent, endolithic algae within the coral skeleton. Endolithic algae produce distinctive green bands in the coral skeleton, and their origin may be related to periods of coral bleaching due to complete loss of dinoflagellate symbionts or “paling” in which symbiont populations are patchily reduced in coral tissue. Stable carbon isotopes were a...

  14. Is Greulich–Pyle age estimation applicable for determining maturation in male Africans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G. Morri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal age estimation as a means of assessing development and skeletal maturation in children and adolescents is of great importance for clinical and forensic purposes. The skeletal age of a test population is estimated by comparison with established standards, the most common standards being those in the Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wristpublished by Greulich and Pyle in 1959. These standards are based on the assumption that skeletal maturity in male individuals is attained by the chronological age of 19 years. Although they have been widely tested, the applicability of these standards to contemporary populations has yet to be tested on a population of African biological origin living in South Africa. We therefore estimated the skeletal age of 131 male Africans aged between 13 and 21 years, using the Greulich–Pyle method which we applied to pre-existing hand–wrist radiographs. Estimated skeletal age was compared to the known chronological age for each radiograph. Skeletal age was on average approximately 6 months younger than chronological age. The Greulich–Pyle method underestimated skeletal age for approximately 74%of the sample and overestimated skeletal age for 26%of the sample. Skeletal maturity as characterised by complete epiphyseal fusion occurred approximately 2.1 years later than Greulich and Pyle’s estimate of 19 years. Thus skeletal maturation was still in progress in a large proportion of the 20- and 21-year-old individuals in our study. The Greulich–Pyle method showed high precision but low accuracy and was therefore not directly applicable to African male individuals. Formulation of skeletal age estimation standards specific to South African populations is therefore recommended.

  15. Persuasion Tactics Used by College Age Females on College Age Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Erika J.; Pollard, Gloria D.; Williams, Christina M.

    This paper researched persuasive tactics used by college age females on college age males. Previous evidence indicates that nonverbal persuasion is more effective than verbal persuasion. The topics explored in previous research on persuasion consisted of physical attractiveness, indirect knowledge of influence, tactics used by children and college…

  16. Burnup determination and age dating of spent nuclear fuel using noble gas isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the chopping and dissolving phases of reprocessing, gases (such as tritium, krypton, xenon, iodine, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and steam) are released. These gases are traditionally transferred to a gas-treatment system for treatment, release, and/or recycle. Because of their chemically inert nature, the xenon and krypton noble gases are generally released directly into the loser atmosphere through the facility's stack. These gases (being fission products) contain information about the fuel being reprocessed and may prove a valuable monitor of reprocessing activities. Two properties of the fuel that may prove valuable from a safeguards standpoint are the fuel burnup and the fuel age (or time since discharge from the reactor). Both can be used to aid in confirming declared activities, and the burnup is generally indicative of the usability of the fuel for fabricating nuclear explosives. A study has been ongoing at Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop a methodology to determine spent-fuel parameters from measured xenon and/or krypton isotopic ratios on-stack at reprocessing facilities. This study has resulted in the generation of the NOVA data analysis code, which links to a comprehensive database of reactor physics parameters (calculated using the Monteburns 3.01 code system). NOVA has been satisfactorily tested for burnup determination of weapons-grade fuel from a US production reactor. Less effort has been spent quantifying NOVA's ability to predict burnup and fuel age for power reactor fuel. The authors describe the results predicted by NOVA for xenon and krypton isotopic ratios measured after the dissolution of spent-fuel samples from the Borssele reactor. The Borssele reactor is a 450-MW(electric) pressurized water reactor (PWR) consisting of 15 x 15 KWU assemblies. The spent-fuel samples analyzed were single fuel rods removed from one assembly and dissolved at the La Hague reprocessing facility. The assembly average burnup was estimated at 32

  17. Self-Determination among Transition-Age Youth with Autism or Intellectual Disability: Parent Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cooney, Molly; Weir, Katherine; Moss, Colleen K.; Machalicek, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 68 parents' views of the self-determination skills and capacities of their young adult children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability (ages 19-21 years). Results indicated parents placed a high value on the importance of all seven component skills (i.e., choice-making skills, decision-making skills,…

  18. Gestational age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ...

  19. A Human Activity Recognition System Using Skeleton Data from RGBD Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippitelli, Enea; Gasparrini, Samuele; Gambi, Ennio; Spinsante, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of Active and Assisted Living is to develop tools to promote the ageing in place of elderly people, and human activity recognition algorithms can help to monitor aged people in home environments. Different types of sensors can be used to address this task and the RGBD sensors, especially the ones used for gaming, are cost-effective and provide much information about the environment. This work aims to propose an activity recognition algorithm exploiting skeleton data extracted by RGBD sensors. The system is based on the extraction of key poses to compose a feature vector, and a multiclass Support Vector Machine to perform classification. Computation and association of key poses are carried out using a clustering algorithm, without the need of a learning algorithm. The proposed approach is evaluated on five publicly available datasets for activity recognition, showing promising results especially when applied for the recognition of AAL related actions. Finally, the current applicability of this solution in AAL scenarios and the future improvements needed are discussed.

  20. Age determinations and Earth-based multispectral observations of lunar light plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    The history of light plains still remains doubtful, but there are good arguments - mainly obtained by age determinations and supported by multispectral observations - for an endogenic (magmatic) instead of an (exclusively) impact related origin. Light plains are characterized by smooth areas with an albedo lower than the surrounding highlands (12 - 13 percent), but significantly higher than maria (5 - 6 percent). Before Apollo 16 a volcanic source has been supposed, but analysis of returned samples (highly brecciated and metamorphosed rocks) favored an impact ejecta related origin. Among the currently discussed models are formation by ejecta sedimentation from multi-ringed basins, formation by secondary and tertiary cratering action of ballistically ejected material during the formation of multi-ringed basins, in situ formation by impact melt of large events, and premare (crypto-) volcanism basalts covered by a thin ejecta cover; younger impacts penetrated the ejecta surface to create the dark haloed craters. To find arguments in favor or against these ideas the chronology of light plains is of major importance. Obviously a genetic relationship between the evolution of light plains and the basin forming impacts can be possible only if the events of emplacement features happened simultaneously.

  1. [Comparative analysis of cosmonauts skeleton changes after space flights on orbital station Mir and international space station and possibilities of prognosis for interplanetary missions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganov, V S; Bogomolov, V V; Bakulin, A V; Novikov, V E; Kabitskaia, O E; Murashko, L M; Morgun, V V; Kasparskiĭ, R R

    2010-01-01

    A summary of investigations results of human bone tissue changes in space flight on the orbital station (OS) Mir and international space station (ISS) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is given. Results comparative analysis revealed an absence of significant differences in bone mass (BM) changes on the both OS. Theoretically expected BM loss was observed in bone trabecular structure of skeleton low part after space flight lasting 5-7 month. The BM losses are qualified in some cases as quicly developed but reversible osteopenia and generally interpreted as evidence of bone functional adaptation to the alterating mechanical loading. It was demonstrated the high individual variability BM loss amplitudes. Simultaneously was observed the individual pattern of BM loss distribution across different segments of skeleton after repetitive flights independently upon type of OS. In according with the above mentioned individual peculiarities it was impossible to establish the dependence of BM changes upon duration of space missions. Therefore we have not sufficiently data for calculation of probability to achive the critical demineralization level by the augmentation the space mission duration till 1.5-2 years. It is more less possibility of the bone quality changes prognosis, which in the aggregate with BM losses determines the bone fracture risk. It become clearly that DXA technology is unsuffitiently for this purpose. It is considered the main direction which may optimized the elaboration of the interplanetary project meaning the perfectly safe of skeleton mechanical function.

  2. Regeneration of the aged thymus by a single transcription factor

    OpenAIRE

    Bredenkamp, N.; Nowell, C. S.; Blackburn, C C

    2014-01-01

    Thymic involution is central to the decline in immune system function that occurs with age. By regenerating the thymus, it may therefore be possible to improve the ability of the aged immune system to respond to novel antigens. Recently, diminished expression of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC)-specific transcription factor Forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) has been implicated as a component of the mechanism regulating age-related involution. The effects of upregulating FOXN1 function in the aged thymu...

  3. Companions for ``Nessie'' in the Milky Way's Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    The recent discovery of a purported bone of the Milky Way, a dark cloud nicknamed Nessie, has provided us with new clues for mapping out the spiral structure of our galaxy. It turns out that Nessie may not be alone: a follow-up study has identified more bones, potentially making up a skeleton of the Milky Way that traces out the densest parts of its spiral arms.Inconvenient Vantage PointHow many spiral arms does the Milky Way have? Where are they located? What does the structure look like between the arms? It may seem surprising that these fundamental questions dont yet have clear answers. But because were stuck in the galaxys disk, were forced to piece together our understanding of the Milky Ways structure based primarily on measurements of position and radial velocity of structures within the galactic plane.The discovery of Nessie presents an intriguing new tool to identify the layout of the galaxy. Nessie is a very long, thin, infrared-dark filament that runs along the modeled position of the Scutum-Centaurus arm and is believed therefore to trace the structure of the arm. In a new study led by Catherine Zucker (University of Virginia, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), the authors have searched for additional bones like Nessie, hoping to use them to map out the skeleton of the Milky Way.New Bones DiscoveredIn this map of radial velocity vs. galactic longitude, the bone candidates are indicated by the numbered points. The colored lines indicate the positions of two of the galactic spiral arms, according to various models. Click for a closer look! [Zucker et al. 2015]Zucker and collaborators began by using World Wide Telescope, a tool that facilitates visualization of multiple layers of data at a variety of scales, to search through Spitzer infrared data for additional structures like Nessie. Searching specifically along the predicted positions of galactic arms, they found 15 initial bone candidates.Next, the team obtained radial-velocity data for the

  4. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  5. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Raggi

    Full Text Available To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+.In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately.Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4. The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation, chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6% and a wide and rich social network (4.6%. Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics.Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of

  6. ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONSE AFFECTED BY AGING AND CHOLINERGIC NEUROTRANSMITTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Hansen; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic startle response has been used to evaluate tinnitus and hyperacusis in animal models. Gap induced prepulse in-hibition of the acoustic startle reflex (gap-PPI) is affected by tinnitus and loudness changes. Since tinnitus and reduced sound tolerance are commonly seen in elderly, we measured gap-PPI in Fischer 344 rats, an aging related hearing loss model, at dif-ferent ages: 3-5 months, 9-12 months, and 15-17 months. The startle response was induced by three different intensity of sound:105, 95 and 85 dB SPL. Gap-PPI was induced by different duration of silent gaps from 1 to 100 ms. When the startle was induced by 105 dB SPL sound intensity, the gap-PPI induced by 50 ms silent gap was significantly lower than those in-duced by 25 or 100 ms duration, showing a“notch”in the gap-PPI function. The“notch”disappeared with the reduction of startle sound, suggesting the“notch”may be related with hyper-sensitivity to loud sound. As the intensity of the stimulus de-creased, the appearance of the hyperacusis-like effect decreased more quickly for the youngest group of rats. We also tested scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, and mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antago-nist, on the effect of gap-PPI. When scopolamine was administered, the results indicated no addition effect on the hyperacu-sis-like phenomenon in the two older groups. Mecamylamine, the nicotinic antagonist also showed effects on the appearance of hyperacusis on rats in different ages. The information derived from the study will be fundamental for the further research in determining the cause and treatment for hyperacusis.

  7. Accurate age determinations of several nearby open clusters containing magnetic Ap stars

    CERN Document Server

    Silaj, J

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Our aim is to obtain ages that are as accurate as possible for the seven nearby open clusters alpha Per, Coma Ber, IC 2602, NGC 2232, NGC 2451A, NGC 2516, and NGC 6475, each of which contains at least one magnetic Ap or Bp star. Simultaneously, we test the current calibrations of Te and luminosity for the Ap/Bp star members, and identify clearly blue stragglers in the clusters studied. Methods: We explore the possibility that isochrone fitting in the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (i.e. log (L/L&sun;) vs. log Te), rather than in the conventional colour-magnitude diagram, can provide more precise and accurate cluster ages, with well-defined uncertainties. Results: Well-defined ages are found for all the clusters studied. For the nearby clusters studied, the derived ages are not very sensitive to the small uncertainties in distance, reddening, membership, metallicity, or choice of isochrones. Our age determinations are all within the range of previously determined values, but the associated u...

  8. Effect of dietary, social, and lifestyle determinants of accelerated aging and its common clinical presentation: A survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, S M S; Chandola, H M; Ravishankar, B

    2011-07-01

    Aging is unavoidable and natural phenomenon of life. Modern gerontologists are realizing the fact that aging is a disease, which Ayurveda had accepted as natural disease since long. Rate of aging is determined by one's biological, social, lifestyle, and psychological conditions and adversity of which leads to accelerated form of aging (Akalaja jara or premature aging). The aim of this study is to identify potential factors that may accelerate aging in the context of dietry factors, lifestyle and mental makeup. The 120 diagnosed subjects of premature-ageing of 30-60 years were randomly selected in the survey study. Premature ageing was common among females (75.83%), in 30-40 age group (70%), 86.67% were married, had secondary level of education (36.66%), house-views (61.67%), belongs top middle class (58.33%) and engaged in occupations that dominating physical labour (88.33%). The maximum patients are constipated (60%), had mandagni (80%), vata-kapha prakriti (48.33%), rajasika prakriti (58.33%), madhyama vyayama shakti (73.33%), and madhyama jarana shakti (85.83%). Collectively, 43.33% patients were above normal BMI. The more patients had anushna (38.33%) and vishamasana dietary pattern (25.83%), consumed Lavana (88.33%) and Amla rasa (78.33%) in excess on regular basis. Some patients had addicted to tobacco (11.67%) and beetle chewing (5.83%). The maximum patients had no any exercise (79.17%) and specific hobby (79.17%) in their leisure times. Analyzing Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Rating Scales revealed that 39.80%, 37.86%, 33.98%, 24.27% and 18.44% patients had insomnia, depression, tension, GIT symptoms and anxious mood respectively. These data suggest that certain social, dietary and lifestyle factors contribute towards accelerated ageing among young individuals. PMID:22529643

  9. Distribution of 239Pu and 241Am in the human skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 241Am and 239Pu distribution in the skeletons of two former nuclear workers has been measured. The skeletons of both individuals appear to be within normal limits for Caucasian men about 50 y old. Both had lower limb bones that were heavier than the age controls and Case I had upper-body bones that were lighter than the age control group. The distribution of americium in the skeleton of Case I, 25 years post exposure, indicated that a more rapid turnover of initially deposited americium on the bone surfaces of cancellous bone, as compared to that deposited on the bone surfaces of compact bone, had occurred. This resulted in a larger proportion of americium located in the compact bone of the extremities and a lesser quantity in the more cancellous bones of the vertebral column, pelvis and rib cage. A similar shift in the distribution of plutonium occurred in Case II in the 35 y since initial deposition, but at a slower rate than that for americium. The ratio of each actinide in the liver to that in the systemic system (liver content/systemic system content) was 0.065 and 0.436, for americium and plutonium, respectively, suggesting that a much more rapid turnover of americium in the liver, compared to plutonium, provided a much larger fraction of that nuclide for circulatory feedback to the remodeling skeletal system. 8 references, 3 tables

  10. What's Inside Bodies? Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    This paper describes a study of young children's understanding of what is on the inside of animals--skeletons and other organ systems. The study uses 2-D drawings based on the idea that a drawing is the representational model and is the outward expression of the mental model. The 617 drawings made by participants in the study were awarded one of…

  11. Structure of Salvioccidentalin, a Diterpenoid with a Rearranged neo-Clerodane Skeleton from Salvia occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Cárdenas; José Antonio Morales-Serna; Bernardo Antonio Frontana-Uribe; Manuel Salmón; Miguel Ángel Jaime-Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Salvia occidentalis (Labiatae) a new diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton was isolated. This new compound was named salvioccidentalin and its structure was established by spectroscopic means. A probable biogenetic relationship with salvigenolide from S. fulgens and salvileucalin A and spiroleucantholide from Salvia leucantha is proposed.

  12. Mukaiyama and Torgov Chemistry in the Synthesis of (D-homo) Steroid Skeletons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarabèr, F.C.E.; Drach, S.V.; Baranovsky, A.; Charnikhova, T.; Pogrebnoi, S.; Jansen, B.J.M.; Groot, de Æ.

    2006-01-01

    Three new, short, and efficient procedures have been developed for syntheses of steroid and D-homo steroid skeletons by application of Mukaiyama and Torgov chemistry. An important element in the first and in the second route is a Mukaiyama-Michael reaction with transfer of the silyl group from the s

  13. Structure of Salvioccidentalin, a Diterpenoid with a Rearranged neo-Clerodane Skeleton from Salvia occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cárdenas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia occidentalis (Labiatae a new diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton was isolated. This new compound was named salvioccidentalin and its structure was established by spectroscopic means. A probable biogenetic relationship with salvigenolide from S. fulgens and salvileucalin A and spiroleucantholide from Salvia leucantha is proposed.

  14. Automated detection of branch dimensions in woody skeletons of leafless fruit tree canopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucksch, A.; Fleck, S.

    2009-01-01

    Light driven physiological processes of tree canopies need to be modelled based on detailed 3Dcanopy structure – we explore the possibilities offered by terrestrial LIDAR to automatically represent woody skeletons of leafless trees as a basis for adequate models of canopy structure. The automatic ev

  15. Partial ages: diagnosing transport processes by means of multiple clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Anne; Cornaton, Fabien; Deleersnijder, Éric; Delhez, Éric J. M.

    2016-03-01

    The concept of age is widely used to quantify the transport rate of tracers - or pollutants - in the environment. The age focuses only on the time taken to reach a given location and disregards other aspects of the path followed by the tracer parcel. To keep track of the subregions visited by the tracer parcel along this path, partial ages are defined as the time spent in the different subregions. Partial ages can be computed in an Eulerian framework in much the same way as the usual age by extending the Constituent oriented Age and Residence Time theory (CART, www.climate.be/CARTocean are provided. They demonstrate the versatility of the concept of partial age and the potential new insights that can be gained with it.

  16. Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep-dwellers live longer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailliet, G M; Andrews, A H; Burton, E J; Watters, D L; Kline, D E; Ferry-Graham, L A

    2001-04-01

    Age determination and validation studies on deep-water marine fishes indicate they are difficult to age and often long-lived. Techniques for the determination of age in individual fish includes growth-zone analysis of vertebral centra, fin rays and spines, other skeletal structures, and otoliths (there are three sets of otoliths in most bony fish semicircular canals, each of which is made of calcium carbonate). Most have regular increments deposited as the fish (and its semicircular canals) grows. The most commonly used otolith for age determination is the largest one called the sagitta. Age validation techniques include: (1) tag-recapture, often combined with oxytetracycline injection and analysis in growth-zones of bone upon recapture; (2) analysis of growth-zones over time; and (3) radiometric approaches utilizing a known radioactive decay series as an independent chronometer in otoliths from bony fishes. We briefly summarize previous studies using these three validation approaches and present results from several of our radiometric studies on deep-water, bony fishes recently subjected to expanding fisheries. Radiometric age validation results are presented for four species of scorpaenid fishes (the bank, Sebastes rufus, and bocaccio, S. paucispinis, rockfishes, and two thornyhead species, Sebastolobus altivelis and S. alascanus). In addition, our analysis of scorpaenids indicates that longevity increases exponentially with maximum depth of occurrence. The reason that the deep-water forms of scorpaenid fishes are long-lived is uncertain. Their longevity, however, may be related to altered physiological processes relative to environmental parameters like low temperature, high pressures, low light levels, low oxygen, and poor food resources.

  17. Calcite formation in soft coral sclerites is determined by a single reactive extracellular protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Oomori, Tamotsu; Wörheide, Gert

    2011-09-01

    Calcium carbonate exists in two main forms, calcite and aragonite, in the skeletons of marine organisms. The primary mineralogy of marine carbonates has changed over the history of the earth depending on the magnesium/calcium ratio in seawater during the periods of the so-called "calcite and aragonite seas." Organisms that prefer certain mineralogy appear to flourish when their preferred mineralogy is favored by seawater chemistry. However, this rule is not without exceptions. For example, some octocorals produce calcite despite living in an aragonite sea. Here, we address the unresolved question of how organisms such as soft corals are able to form calcitic skeletal elements in an aragonite sea. We show that an extracellular protein called ECMP-67 isolated from soft coral sclerites induces calcite formation in vitro even when the composition of the calcifying solution favors aragonite precipitation. Structural details of both the surface and the interior of single crystals generated upon interaction with ECMP-67 were analyzed with an apertureless-type near-field IR microscope with high spatial resolution. The results show that this protein is the main determining factor for driving the production of calcite instead of aragonite in the biocalcification process and that -OH, secondary structures (e.g. α-helices and amides), and other necessary chemical groups are distributed over the center of the calcite crystals. Using an atomic force microscope, we also explored how this extracellular protein significantly affects the molecular-scale kinetics of crystal formation. We anticipate that a more thorough investigation of the proteinaceous skeleton content of different calcite-producing marine organisms will reveal similar components that determine the mineralogy of the organisms. These findings have significant implications for future models of the crystal structure of calcite in nature. PMID:21768106

  18. Thermoluminescence age determination of Mt. Fuji lava dome, Takahara volcano, North Kanto, Central Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Isao [Akita Univ. (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    Mt. Fuji lava dome thought to be formed by recent action of Takahara volcano, is reported to be due to eruption at the Holocene epoch age on 1,000 or 6,500 years ago. However, on either of them the lava dome did not directly conduct its age measurement, and its age is obtained indirectly from eruption age of tephra estimated to be same age. Recently, precision thermo-luminescence (TL) method is improved and upgraded, by using which formulation of the Mayu-yama in the Unzen volcano was cleared to be about 4,000 years ago which corresponded to be very young. In this paper, by using the TL method for lava dome racks, it was attempted to remove uncertainty forming an indirect age estimation shown as previously. As a result, adopted samples showed 6.5 to 7.4 ka in age value, which showed a good agreement under considering of error. This result was older than 1,000 and some years, and was younger than 20,000 to 25,000 years, which showed a good agreement with 6,500 years ago, obtained by combining closed layer order survey and 14-C age. It is thought to be an important contribution in future forecasting of volcano eruption that the last period action of the Takahara volcano must be at the Holocene epoch age. And, as limited to a quartz containing sample, this can be said to show priority of TL method for a method to directly obtain age of younger dome rock than 10,000 years. (G.K.)

  19. What determines age-related disease: do we know all the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, David A

    2010-06-01

    The average human lifespan has increased throughout the last century due to the mitigation of many infectious diseases. More people now die of age-related diseases than ever before, but these diseases have been resistant to elimination. Progress has been made in treatments and preventative measures to delay the onsets of these diseases, but most cancers and vascular diseases are still with us and they kill about the same fraction of the population year after year. For example, US Caucasian female deaths from breast plus genital cancers have remained a fairly constant approximately 7% of the age-related disease deaths from 1938 to 1998 and have been consistently approximately 2-fold greater than female colon plus rectal cancer deaths over that span. This type of stability pattern pervades the age-related diseases and suggests that intrinsic properties within populations determine these fractions. Recognizing this pattern and deciphering its origin will be necessary for the complete understanding of these major causes of death. It would appear that more than the random processes of aging drive this effect. The question is how to meaningfully approach this problem. This commentary discusses the epidemiological and aging perspectives and their current limitations in providing an explanation. The age of bioinformatics offers hope, but only if creative systems approaches are forthcoming. PMID:19904627

  20. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and determinants among Brazilian children under two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Warkentin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study described the duration and identified the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study used data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher 2006 (National Demographic and Health Survey on Women and Children 2006. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by trained professionals and refer to a subsample of 1,704 children aged less than 24 months. The estimated durations of exclusive breastfeeding are presented according to socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiological variables. Kaplan Meier estimator curves were used to produce valid estimates of breastfeeding duration and the Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to identify risks. RESULTS: The median estimated duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 60 days. The final Cox model consisted of mother's age <20 years (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.11-1.48, use of pacifier (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.37-1.71, not residing in the country's southeast region (hazard ratio=1.22, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.40 and socioeconomic status (hazard ratio=1.28, 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.55. CONCLUSION: The Kaplan Meier estimator corrected the underestimated duration of breastfeeding in the country when calculated by the current status methodology. Despite the national efforts done in the last decades to promote breastfeeding, the results indicate that the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is still half of that recommended for this dietary practice to promote health. Ways to revert this situation would be ongoing educational activities involving the educational and health systems, associated with advertising campaigns on television and radio mainly targeting young mothers with low education level and low income, identified as those at high risk of weaning their children early.

  1. [Sonographic diagnosis of pregnancy and determination of fetal number and gestational age in ewes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D; Schiess, A; Tustain, G; Fleisch, A; Bollwein, H; Janett, F

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis, determination of fetal number and estimation of gestational age in ewes. A total of 1068 ewes from 8 different flocks (Swiss White Alpine n = 379, Swiss Black-Brown Mountain n = 189, Oxford-type n = 164, Ostfriesian n = 154, Texel n = 104, Lacaune x Osfriesian crossbred n = 78) was investigated using an Ovi-Scan™ ultrasound scanner with a 3.5 MHz 170° mechanical axial probe (BCF Technology Ltd., BelIshill, Great Britain). Scanning was performed transabdominally at the right inguinal region in ewes restrained in standing position. Sonographic findings were compared with lambing data recorded by the farmers. Included in the analysis were all ewes that, at the time of examination, were not pregnant and those that were pregnant between 26 and 110 days with a known lambing date and number of lambs born (n = 882). The sensitivity of pregnancy diagnosis was 97.8% and the specificity 97.6% (overall accuracy 97.8%, n = 853). Sensitivity and specificity for discrimination between single and multiple pregnancies was 95.8% and 90.5% (overall accuracy 93.9%, n = 752), respectively, when multiples were defined as positive. Discrimination between twins and triplets reached a sensitivity of 86.0% and a specificity of 99.5% (overall accuracy 98.0%, n = 458) when triplets were defined as positive. Considering a gestation period of 150 days, the mean deviation of the estimated to the effective day of gestation at examination was 5.6 ± 5.0 days (n = 781). The correlation between estimated and true gestational age was very high (r=0.936, Page is possible using an Ovi-Scan™ ultrasound scanner by an experienced examiner. PMID:27145684

  2. Analysis of capillary chromatographic skeleton compounds in Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor by liquid-liquid microextraction and aroma recombination%酱香型白酒液液微萃取-毛细管色谱骨架成分与香气重组

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪玲玲; 范文来; 徐岩

    2012-01-01

    应用液液微萃取(LLME)、气相-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)研究酱香型白酒骨架成分。液液微萃取定量48种香气物质,确定29种骨架成分。通过52种物质香气重组,得到的模拟酒香气较为丰满,且富有层次感,呈现酱香型白酒的背景香,但未出现典型酱香。缺失实验表明酱香型白酒骨架成分中香气贡献较大的主要是酯类和醇类物质,其中:己酸乙酯、乙酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯、1-丙醇、2-苯乙醇以及3-甲基丁醇是重要的香气物质;缺失与添加实验验证了三甲基吡嗪、糠醛、4-乙基愈创木酚和呋喃扭尔(furaneol)与酱香型白酒的典型酱香无关。%The skeleton compounds in Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor were isolated by liquid-liquid microextraction(LLME), and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- MS).48 aroma compounds were identified and quantified.29 compounds belong to skeleton compounds.The overall aroma of Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor, while excluding the typical aromas, could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of 52 compounds. According to omission experiments, esters and alcohols of skeleton compounds contributed a lot to the aroma of Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor, and ethyl hexanoate, ethyl acetate,ethyl butanoate, !- propanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 3- methylbutanol were important skeleton aroma compounds.Omission and addition experiments corroborated that trimethylpyrazine, furfural,4-ethyl guaiacol, and furaneol was not related to the soy sauce aroma of Chinese liquor.

  3. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  4. Age dependence of natural uranium and thorium concentrations in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Dominic; Packer, Ana Paula; Marro, Leonora; Li, Chunsheng; Chen, Jing; Cornett, R Jack

    2007-02-01

    The age dependence of the natural concentration of uranium and thorium in the skeleton was investigated using human vertebrae bone collected from two Canadian locations (Winnipeg, Manitoba, and Regina, Saskatchewan). The concentration of both radioelements in digested ashed bone samples was determined using sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The geometric means for uranium level in bones showed a significant statistical difference between the two locations studied. Similarly for thorium, a statistical difference was observed, although this difference was considered marginal. The thorium concentration differed only marginally with respect to age group, indicating that its behavior in the body could be age-independent. Conversely, the uranium level in bones was found to change for the age groups tested, an indication of age-specific deposition. The age profile for uranium was comparable to the calcium turn-over rate, indicating that uranium deposition is probably, in part, dictated by this metabolic process, showing the role of present uptake into the uranium concentration in bones for populations exposed to significant uranium intake. PMID:17220713

  5. Taking into account of the aging and the damage in the size determination of composite materials structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to better understand the aging of glass fibres-epoxy composites exposed to humid conditions and loading so as to predict its effects on the lifetimes of composite structures. Water diffusion was first experimentally investigated by gravimetric method to determine water sorption kinetics for different humid conditions. A Fickian model of diffusion could describe the results obtained. Specimens, saturated at different levels, were mechanically characterised. Decreases of mechanical properties as a function of water uptake were revealed by tensile tests. Damage by cracking and the coupling with humidity were then studied. Differences between reversible and irreversible changes in properties were revealed and analysed in detail. A predictive model taking into account effects due to water and/or mechanical loading is proposed, using finite element method. As a first step, in modelling the diffusion process, the non-uniform water distribution across the composite are determined for any conditions (temperature, humidity, aging time). The resulting mechanical properties of the material, as a function of the absorbed water concentration, are determined in each point. Then, diffusion/mechanic coupled calculation allows to determine material global properties from properties at each point. It is then possible to predict continuous evolution of rigidity during aging time, at all stages of water absorption and matrix cracking, for any condition (temperature, humidity, thickness, mechanical loading level). (author)

  6. Socioeconomic determinants of iron-deficiency anemia among children aged 6 to 59 months in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Chakrabarty, Suman; Bharati, Premananda

    2015-03-01

    The extent of anemia and its socioeconomic determinants among the preschool children (6-59 months old) in India have been studied in this article. Relevant data are taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey. The initial analysis reveals some interesting features. The most affected children are in the age-group of 6 to 23 months. Beyond this age a decreasing trend is observed up to the age of 48 to 59 months. The highest and the lowest prevalence of anemia have been found to be in the central and the northeast zones, respectively. The vulnerable groups are the children of illiterate parents and those belonging to the poor families in the rural areas. Categorical logistic regression also confirms that status of literacy and wealth of parents have strong negative association with the status of anemia of the children.

  7. Determinants of institutional delivery among women of childbearing age in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Khan, Maria R; Striley, Catherine W; Boldon, Ellen; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Saint-Fleur, Jean Ernst; Koo, Leslie; Clermont, Miliane

    2015-06-01

    Institutional delivery is an important factor associated with reduced maternal mortality rate (MMR). MMR in Haiti is high (350 per 100,000) and institutional delivery is low-just over 25 % of women delivered at a health facility in 2010. There also exists substantial rural-urban disparity in delivery with more hospital deliveries in urban than in rural areas. We aimed to study the prevalence and determinants of institutional delivery in a sample of women of childbearing age in rural Haiti. The study took place in Fond des Blancs and Villa, as part of a baseline assessment undertaken prior to implementation of a maternal, child health, nutrition, and water and sanitation program. From October to November 2011, women 15-49 years old (N = 575) were selected using a cross-sectional two-stage sampling strategy. We used descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with institutional delivery. The prevalence of institutional delivery was 45.4 %; a rate higher than the national average of 25 %. In adjusted analyses, correlates of institutional delivery were younger maternal age (25 years and younger) (OR 1.82; CI 1.15, 2.90; P = 0.0112), antenatal care receipt (OR 3.70; CI 1.84, 7.43; P = 0.0003) and those who were poor according to our poverty index score classification (OR 2.04; CI 1.13, 3.69; P = 0.0187). This study shows that increased hospital delivery is likely explained by accessibility to antenatal care. Programs that improve access to antenatal care, with concurrent efforts to address structural inequalities that drive socio-economic deprivation, are likely critical to increasing institutional delivery.

  8. Three-dimensional image technology in forensic anthropology: Assessing the validity of biological profiles derived from CT-3D images of the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Leon Valenzuela, Maria Julia

    This project explores the reliability of building a biological profile for an unknown individual based on three-dimensional (3D) images of the individual's skeleton. 3D imaging technology has been widely researched for medical and engineering applications, and it is increasingly being used as a tool for anthropological inquiry. While the question of whether a biological profile can be derived from 3D images of a skeleton with the same accuracy as achieved when using dry bones has been explored, bigger sample sizes, a standardized scanning protocol and more interobserver error data are needed before 3D methods can become widely and confidently used in forensic anthropology. 3D images of Computed Tomography (CT) scans were obtained from 130 innominate bones from Boston University's skeletal collection (School of Medicine). For each bone, both 3D images and original bones were assessed using the Phenice and Suchey-Brooks methods. Statistical analysis was used to determine the agreement between 3D image assessment versus traditional assessment. A pool of six individuals with varying experience in the field of forensic anthropology scored a subsample (n = 20) to explore interobserver error. While a high agreement was found for age and sex estimation for specimens scored by the author, the interobserver study shows that observers found it difficult to apply standard methods to 3D images. Higher levels of experience did not result in higher agreement between observers, as would be expected. Thus, a need for training in 3D visualization before applying anthropological methods to 3D bones is suggested. Future research should explore interobserver error using a larger sample size in order to test the hypothesis that training in 3D visualization will result in a higher agreement between scores. The need for the development of a standard scanning protocol focusing on the optimization of 3D image resolution is highlighted. Applications for this research include the possibility

  9. Historic timber skeleton structures and the local seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation deals with the employment of timber skeleton structure and the local seismic culture. After the 1755 earthquake in the reconstruction of Lisbon a type of building with timber skeleton and masonry infill called "gaiola pombalina" was promoted, since this was designed to better resists earthquakes. "Gaiola" means cage, and it was also named after the Marques de Pombal who introduced it in the reconstruction following the earthquake. The „gaiola pombalina" presents a timber skeleton with Saint Andrew crosses in the interior walls with masonry infill and thick masonry load bearing walls loosing in thickness to the upper floors in the exterior walls. The masonry can fall out during earthquakes but the building remains staying given the interior timber skeleton. The type of buildings with timber structure and (masonry) infill behaved well in earthquakes in various parts of the earth, like Nepal (the dhaji dewary type), Pakistan, Turkey (the himiş type after the 1999 earthquake) [both latter types were researched by Langenbach, www.conservationtech.com and www.traditional-is-modern.net] and also in Germany after the 1356 earthquake (the Southern German subtype of Fachwerk). Also in Italy a subtype called "casa baraccata" was promoted in a construction code to a similar time (following the 1783 earthquake in Southern Italy, see Tobriner 1983) as that of the "gaiola pombalina", the time of the Baroque, when town planning acquired another status. Unlike at the "gaiola pombalina" the "casa baraccata" the timber skeleton is at the exterior walls. For this reason this type of buildings is considered to be an expression of the local seismic culture. However, this type of buildings is common also for areas where seismic risk is not an issue, like half-timbered in England and the northern subtype of Fachwerk in Northern Germany, and in some high seismic risk regions with mountains and timber resources like Romania is not spread. Given these premises the author

  10. Multifractal characterization of morphology of human red blood cells membrane skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ţălu, Ş; Stach, S; Kaczmarska, M; Fornal, M; Grodzicki, T; Pohorecki, W; Burda, K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show applicability of multifractal analysis in investigations of the morphological changes of ultra-structures of red blood cells (RBCs) membrane skeleton measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human RBCs obtained from healthy and hypertensive donors as well as healthy erythrocytes irradiated with neutrons (45 μGy) were studied. The membrane skeleton of the cells was imaged using AFM in a contact mode. Morphological characterization of the three-dimensional RBC surfaces was realized by a multifractal method. The nanometre scale study of human RBCs surface morphology revealed a multifractal geometry. The generalized dimensions Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α) provided quantitative values that characterize the local scale properties of their membrane skeleton organization. Surface characterization was made using areal ISO 25178-2: 2012 topography parameters in combination with AFM topography measurement. The surface structure of human RBCs is complex with hierarchical substructures resulting from the organization of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton. The analysed AFM images confirm a multifractal nature of the surface that could be useful in histology to quantify human RBC architectural changes associated with different disease states. In case of very precise measurements when the red cell surface is not wrinkled even very fine differences can be uncovered as was shown for the erythrocytes treated with a very low dose of ionizing radiation.

  11. Oviraptorosaurian Eggs (Dinosauria) with Embryonic Skeletons Discovered for the First Time in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yen-nien CHENG; JI Qiang; Xiao-chun WU; Hsi-yin SHAN

    2008-01-01

    Two elongatoolithid dinosaur eggs from the Upper Cretaceous of Ganzhou, Jiangxi Province and the embryonic skeletons they bear are described. They represent the first Oviraptorosaurian eggs with embryonic skeletons in China and provide the first example that an oospecies can be correlated to certain dinosaur taxon/taxa. The two eggs are the same as the pair of the eggs inside a female Oviraptorosaurian pelvis from the same horizon of the same area in both macro- and micro-structures of the egg shells, and can be referred to the oospecies, Macroolithus yaotunensis Zhao, 1975. The morphology of the preserved part of the embryonic skeletons indicates that they may have been laid by an oviraptorid, Heyuannia huangi from Guangdong Province or a closely related Oviraptorosaurian, which may have been lived in the Ganzhou area too in the Late Cretaceous. The embryonic skeletons of the two eggs are not in the same developing stage. In one of the eggs, the postzygapophysis of the preserved vertebrae are well ossified, indicating that it was just hatched.

  12. Skeleton-based OPC application for DSA full chip mask correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L.; Farys, V.; Serret, E.; Fenouillet-Beranger, C.

    2015-09-01

    Recent industrial results around directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP) have demonstrated the high potential of this technique [1-2]. The main advantage being cost reduction thanks to a reduced number of lithographic steps. Meanwhile, the associated correction for mask creation must account for the introduction of this new technique, maintaining a high level of accuracy and reliability. In order to create VIA (Vertical Interconnect Layer) layer, graphoepitaxy DSA can be used. The technique relies on the creation of a confinement guides where the BCP can separate into distinct regions and resulting patterns are etched in order to obtain an ordered series of VIA contact. The printing of the guiding pattern requires the use of classical lithography. Optical proximity correction (OPC) is applied to obtain the best suited guiding pattern allowing to match a specific design target. In this study, an original approach for DSA full chip mask optical proximity correction based on a skeleton representation of a guiding pattern is proposed. The cost function for an OPC process is based on minimizing the Central Placement Error (CPE), defined as the difference between an ideal skeleton target and a generated skeleton from a guiding contour. The high performance of this approach for DSA OPC full chip correction and its ability to minimize variability error on via placement is demonstrated and reinforced by the comparison with a rigorous model. Finally this Skeleton approach is highlighted as an appropriate tool for Design rules definition.

  13. An evaluation of the precision of fin ray, otolith, and scale age determinations for brook trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, J.T.; Hartman, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ages of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis are typically estimated using scales despite a lack of research documenting the effectiveness of this technique. The use of scales is often preferred because it is nonlethal and is believed to require less effort than alternative methods. To evaluate the relative effectiveness of different age estimation methodologies for brook trout, we measured the precision and processing times of scale, sagittal otolith, and pectoral fin ray age estimation techniques. Three independent readers, age bias plots, coefficients of variation (CV = 100 x SD/mean), and percent agreement (PA) were used to measure within-reader, among-structure bias and within-structure, among-reader precision. Bias was generally minimal; however, the age estimates derived from scales tended to be lower than those derived from otoliths within older (age > 2) cohorts. Otolith, fin ray, and scale age estimates were within 1 year of each other for 95% of the comparisons. The measures of precision for scales (CV = 6.59; PA = 82.30) and otoliths (CV = 7.45; PA = 81.48) suggest higher agreement between these structures than with fin rays (CV = 11.30; PA = 65.84). The mean per-sample processing times were lower for scale (13.88 min) and otolith techniques (12.23 min) than for fin ray techniques (22.68 min). The comparable processing times of scales and otoliths contradict popular belief and are probably a result of the high proportion of regenerated scales within samples and the ability to infer age from whole (as opposed to sectioned) otoliths. This research suggests that while scales produce age estimates rivaling those of otoliths for younger (age > 3) cohorts, they may be biased within older cohorts and therefore should be used with caution. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  14. The influence of age on the relationships between SMEs growth and its determinants: empirical evidence using Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Marco Xavier Badalo Mourato

    2010-01-01

    Using two sub-samples of Portuguese SMEs: 1) 495 young SMEs; and 2) 1350 old SMEs, through the two-step estimation method, we examine if age is a fundamental characteristic of the relationships established between determinants and SME growth. The multiple empirical evidence allows us to conclude that age is a determinant for the relationships formed between determinants and SME growth: 1) age and size are negatively related to growth in young SMEs, but are not relevant in explaini...

  15. Removing a Major Uncertainty in Mass and Age Determinations of Young Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Marcos; Hartigan, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Mass and age measurements of young stars rely on the stars' placement in an HR diagram relative to pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks. Uncertainties in T_eff include a systematic error introduced by converting spectral types to T_eff according to a conversion scale derived from main-sequence stars. The advent of sophisticated synthetic spectra and modern molecular opacities offers us an opportunity to determine a new T_eff scale designed for young stars. We propose to measure T_eff for a large sample of non- accreting (weak-lined) T Tauri stars using low resolution red spectra on Goldcam. The resulting spectra will make it possible to estimate T_eff for any young star by simply finding the best spectral match with a star in our sample. This procedure will also work for accreting (classical) T Tauri stars, where weak-lined T Tauri stars are used as photospheric templates to distinguish stellar features from accretion signatures.

  16. Determination of digestible isoleucine: lysine ratio in diets for laying hens aged 42-58 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena de Carvalho Mello

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and fifty-two Hy-Line W36 laying hens were allotted in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 7 replicates and 6 hens per experimental unit in order to determine the ideal ratio of isoleucine (Ile in relation to lysine (Lys to laying hens aged 42-58 weeks. Experimental diets contained digestible Ile at different levels, resulting in different Ile:Lys ratios (0.73:1; 0.78:1; 0.83:1; 0.88:1; 0.93:1 and 0.98:1. A basal diet was formulated to provide Isoleucine in levels below recommendations. This diet was supplemented with L-isoleucine to make up the 6 diets. Each diet was made isonitrogenous by varying the dietary contents of glutamic acid and isocaloric by adjusting the contents of cornstarch. All essential amino acids were provided proportionally to lysine. Egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, albumen, yolk and eggshell contents were recorded and compiled at every 28-day period. No differences were observed in the performance over a wide range of dietary isoleucine concentrations from 5.76 to 7.73 g/kg corresponding to 0.73:1 to 0.98:1 Ile:Lys ratios. The lowest Ile:Lys ratio (0.73:1 was sufficient to ensure satisfactory performance of birds, corresponding to the consumption of 534 mg of isoleucine and 731 mg of lysine/day.

  17. The reliability of the Greulich-Pyle method in bone age determination among Australian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone age (BA) determination in skeletally immature children has been used as a measurement of growth for many years. The Greulich-Pyle (G&P) method of estimating BA is most commonly used. The standards used within this atlas were compiled from research conducted on normal white children in the United States, during the 1930s. The applicability of G&P beyond populations similar to its own can be variable. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of G&P in BA determination among Australian children. Hand X-rays of children under the age of 18, investigated for trauma, were recruited. Mean differences between BA, according to the standards of G&P, and chronological age (CA) were compared among all patients and subgroups according to age, gender and left versus right hand. Between January and December 2010, 654 children underwent hand X-rays, 406 of these were included (276 males and 130 females). Overall BA was 2.2 months less than CA (P-value=0.005). BA of males and females was estimated to be 1.5 months (P-value=0.142) and 3.7 months (P-value=0.002) less than their CA respectively. No statistically significant difference was identified with intra-observer (P-value=0.846) and inter-observer interpretations (P-value=0.102). Our results show that the standards of G&P are an accurate means of BA determination in Australian children.

  18. A secondary analysis to determine variations of dental arch measurements with age and gender among Ugandans

    OpenAIRE

    Okori, Hilda; Apolot, Pricilla S.; Mwaka, Erisa; Tumusiime, Gerald; Buwembo, William; Munabi, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental arch dimensions are useful in dental practice and in forensic odontology. Local data is essential because ethnic differences exist in dental arch dimensions. In the Ugandan population no studies had been done on dental arch dimensions. The objective of the current study was to determine the variations in dental arch dimensions with age and gender in a sample of dental casts from the Ugandan population. Method This was a secondary analysis of dental casts previously prepared ...

  19. Determination of the functional status of vestibular apparatus at children aged 5-6 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko E.K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological methods of determination of the functional state of vestibular analyzer are considered. The indexes of systole and diastole pressure, frequencies of heart-throbs, are chosen. Methods were used before and after standard vestibular irritation. Research was conducted on the base of child's preschool establishment. In it took part 120 children in age 5 - 6 years. Insufficient development of vestibular analyzer is set for children. Selected exercise for the improvement of spatial orientation and statodynamic stability.

  20. Social relations and filial maturity in middle-aged adults: contextual conditions and psychological determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrig-Chiello, P; Sturzenegger, M

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the contextual and psychological preconditions of parent help and helpfulness in a sample of 260 middle-aged persons belonging to two age groups, 40-45 years and 50-55 years. In a first step we want to focus on the description of the contextual situation of the persons of this "hinge generation": What are their available social networks; what are their commitments towards children and parents in terms of perceived obligation and investment; how is their perceived balance of giving and receiving; how do they anticipate and experience dependency of their parents? In a second step we will highlight the readiness of middle-aged women and men to help their parents as well as the effectively reported help. Here we are interested in the psychological determinants of such attitude and behaviour. Structural equation models are performed to estimate the predictory power of personality variables, control beliefs and reported stress (family and job) on filial helpfulness and help. Results suggest that differential aspects such as gender and age group explain a large amount of variance of the variables intergenerational commitment and satisfaction with social networks and have--along with personality variables--a strong impact on filial help and helpfulness of middle-aged adults. PMID:11310223

  1. Determination of the micro-nutrient elements and the toxic in food of peruvian children of the city of Lima. Part I: determination through instrumental neutron activation of Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na in samples of milk and milk with cereal consumed by peruvian children in the age of weaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na in milk and milk with cereal, consumed by the peruvian children were determined by short irradiation INAA using RP-10 reactor, with a thermal flux of 1013 n/cm-2s-1 and a pneumatic system. The comparative method with solutions of primary standards of each element determined was used. The IAEA-A11-milk powder, IAEA-H4-animal muscle and IAEA-V10-hay powder, reference materials were periodically analyzed, together with the samples, in order to check the quality of analytical results. (authors) 3 refs., 3 tabs, 2 figs

  2. The Age of the Directly-Imaged Planet Host Star $\\kappa$ Andromedae Determined From Interferometric Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeremy; Quinn, S; Ireland, M; Boyajian, T; Schaefer, G; Baines, E K

    2016-01-01

    $\\kappa$ Andromedae, an early type star that hosts a directly imaged low mass companion, is expected to be oblate due to its rapid rotational velocity ($v\\sin i$ = $\\sim$162 $\\mathrm{km~s^{-1}}$). We observed the star with the CHARA Array's optical beam combiner, PAVO, measuring its size at multiple orientations and determining its oblateness. The interferometric measurements, combined with photometry and this $v\\sin i$ value are used to constrain an oblate star model that yields the fundamental properties of the star and finds a rotation speed that is $\\sim$85\\% of the critical rate and a low inclination of $\\sim$30$^\\circ$. Three modeled properties (the average radius, bolometric luminosity, and equatorial velocity) are compared to MESA evolution models to determine an age and mass for the star. In doing so, we determine an age for the system of 47$^{+27}_{-40}$ Myr. Based on this age and previous measurements of the companion's temperature, the BHAC15 evolution models imply a mass for the companion of 22$^...

  3. Wear determination in braking systems by radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friction and wear behaviour of friction couples has been tested applying loads and sliding speeds. The determination was carried out by direct measurements of the lining material and by surface activation of the opposite material with protons. The application limits of several braking materials could be determined and compared

  4. Determination of arginine catabolism by salivary pellet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hoogenkamp; J.M. ten Cate

    2014-01-01

    To determine the formation of ammonium from arginine by oral bacteria residing in saliva and dental plaque, an arginolytic activity assay based on the work described by Nascimento et al. [2] was developed. Following the original methodology, insufficient ammonium production could be determined. To i

  5. Age and Heat Stress as Determinants of Telomere Length in a Long-Lived Fish, the Siberian Sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simide, Rémy; Angelier, Frédéric; Gaillard, Sandrine; Stier, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten at each cell division due to the end-replication problem but also in response to oxidative stress. Consequently, telomeres shorten with age in many endotherms, and this shortening is accelerated under stressful environmental conditions. Data in ectotherm vertebrates remain scarce so far, so our goal was to review existing data for fish and to test the influence of age and stress on telomere length in a very long-lived fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Our review of the literature revealed age-related telomere shortening in approximately half of the published studies. In the Siberian sturgeon, we found a significant telomere shortening with age, both at the intraindividual level using red blood cells (-12.5% in 16 mo) and at the interindividual level using cross-sectional samples of fin over an age range of 8 yr. We also found that heat stress (30°C) significantly reduced telomere length by 15.0% after only 1 mo of exposure. Our results highlight that both age and stressful environmental conditions might be important determinants of telomere length in fish. PMID:27617363

  6. The 3D skeleton: tracing the filamentary structure of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousbie, T.; Pichon, C.; Colombi, S.; Novikov, D.; Pogosyan, D.

    2008-02-01

    The skeleton formalism, which aims at extracting and quantifying the filamentary structure of our Universe, is generalized to 3D density fields. A numerical method for computing a local approximation of the skeleton is presented and validated here on Gaussian random fields. It involves solving equation , where ∇ρ and are the gradient and Hessian matrix of the field. This method traces well the filamentary structure in 3D fields such as those produced by numerical simulations of the dark matter distribution on large scales, and is insensitive to monotonic biasing. Two of its characteristics, namely its length and differential length, are analysed for Gaussian random fields. Its differential length per unit normalized density contrast scales like the probability distribution function of the underlying density contrast times the total length times a quadratic Edgeworth correction involving the square of the spectral parameter. The total length-scales like the inverse square smoothing length, with a scaling factor given by 0.21 (5.28 + n) where n is the power index of the underlying field. This dependency implies that the total length can be used to constrain the shape of the underlying power spectrum, hence the cosmology. Possible applications of the skeleton to galaxy formation and cosmology are discussed. As an illustration, the orientation of the spin of dark haloes and the orientation of the flow near the skeleton is computed for cosmological dark matter simulations. The flow is laminar along the filaments, while spins of dark haloes within 500 kpc of the skeleton are preferentially orthogonal to the direction of the flow at a level of 25 per cent.

  7. Selective arterial embolization of 36 aneurysmal bone cysts of the skeleton with N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Giuseppe [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Interventional Angiographic Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, Eugenio; Vanel, Daniel [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Bartalena, Tommaso [University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Gerardi, Antonio [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Anatomical Human Science and Physiopathology of the Musculoskeletal System, Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, Marco [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Pathological Anatomy, Bologna (Italy); Staals, Eric Lodwijk; Errani, Costantino; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Toscano, Angelo; Mercuri, Mario [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, V Division of Musculoskeletal Tumors, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a lytic benign bone lesion representing about 1% of all primary bone tumors. The lesion causes pain and swelling, which are generally present for less than 3 months. From April 2003 to April 2008 36 patients affected by aneurysmal bone cysts were treated by selective arterial embolization with N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate. The study population comprised 20 male and 16 female patients with an age range of 3.3-60.8 years. Nine lesions were localized in the appendicular skeleton (1 in the upper and 8 in the lower limb), 4 in the thoracic cage (1 rib lesion and 3 scapular lesions), 17 in the pelvis and 6 in the spine (1 thoracic and 5 sacral localizations). A total of 55 embolizations were performed: in 22 cases (61%) only one embolization was needed, whilst two embolizations were necessary in 9 cases (25%) and 3 in the remaining 5 patients (14%). The treatment was effective in 32 patients (94%): follow-up was 0.9-5 years. In one patient, previously surgically treated, only the cyanoacrylate embolization turned out to be useful for healing the lesion. Another 7 patients underwent surgery during the study period. In the 55 procedures we performed we had 3 complications (5%): 2 cases of skin necrosis and 1 of transient paresis. Arterial embolization with cyanoacrylate may be the treatment of choice for aneurysmal bone cysts. Embolization is a less invasive, lower cost, simpler procedure than surgery and is easily repeatable. (orig.)

  8. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  9. Spinal arthritis and physical stress at Bronze Age Harappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, N C

    1994-02-01

    This study examines joint changes in the vertebral skeleton in human remains excavated in 1987 and 1988 at Bronze Age Harappa, an urban center of the Indus Valley civilization. The sample consists of 23 complete skeletons from primary burial context, the partial remains of more than 69 other individuals, and hundreds of skeletal elements from secondary context, totalling 3,084 vertebral joint margins and articular surfaces. Marginal bone proliferation, pitting of articular surfaces, eburnation, and ankylosis were scored macroscopically for vertebral body margins and surfaces and posterior apophyseal facet joints. Marginal lipping is far more prevalent on the vertebral bodies than on the apophyseal facets and surface pitting is also more frequent on vertebral bodies although its expression is relatively low overall. Cervical vertebrae in this sample exhibit the same amount of marginal new bone and much more surface pitting of the vertebral bodies than do either thoracic or lumbar vertebrae; the cervical segment also exhibits the most severe expressions of both types of lesions. In addition, although the frequencies of cervical and lumbar posterior facet involvement are similar, the cervical facets exhibit much more severe lipping as well as the only cases of eburnation and ankylosis. Pitting of the posterior facets is most common in the lumbar segment, but the cervical examples are the only severe cases. It is proposed that the severe joint changes in the cervical spine result from trauma, perhaps accumulated microtrauma from activity stresses. There are no age or sex associated patterns in the frequency of arthritis although this result may be influenced by the small proportions of the total sample for which age and sex could be determined. PMID:8147433

  10. Thermal consolidation of porous medium with a rheological kelvin-voigt skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewska-Urban, Monika; Strzelecki, Tomasz

    2012-10-01

    This study presents calculations results of thermal consolidation process of the porous medium with the rheological Kelvin-Voigt skeleton, obtained numerically with the use of Flex.PDE software. The investigated calculation scheme consisted of the porous column filled with a liquid. The vertical load was applied to the top surface of the column through a porous plate allowing the free flow of liquid through this surface. Numerical solution is based on compression of the sample at appropriately defined boundary conditions. The aim of this study was to describe the influence of external load and temperature gradient on the deformation tests progress at different values of three parameters: λ, rs and cv. The results obtained, in the context of further research, can also be used for the determination of the influence of other parameters of the state and model parameters on the process of thermo poroelasticity of Biot model with rheological skeleton.

  11. Free radicals created by radiation and aging symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The universality of aging implies that its cause is basically the same in all species. A free radical hypothesis of aging has been proposed that the free radicals produced during normal metabolism of the cell over time damage DNA and other macromolecules leading to degenerative diseases, malignancies, and eventual death of vital cells which in turn causes aging and death of the organism. This hypothesis is supported by several observations. Radiation produces its biologic effect through free radical formation and causes premature aging. Second, the age pigment lipo fuscin is associated with lipid peroxidation. The hypothesis that oxygen radicals play a role in aging is also supported by the observation that, in general, long-lived species produce less endogenous free oxygen radicals because of their lower metabolic rate. Long-lived animals also have more superoxide dismutase than do their short-lived counterparts, and animal species with the longest lifespan have the highest levels of superoxide dismutase. Oxidative DNA damage is rapidly and effectively repaired. It has been estimated that there are several thousand oxidative DNA damage sites in a human cell every day, and the majority of these are repaired. However, a small fraction of unrepaired lesions could cause permanent changes in DNA and might be a major contributor to aging and cancer. A consequence of the free radical hypothesis of aging is the idea that free radical scavenging agents might be used to prevent aging. (author)

  12. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Section of Positron Emission Tomography, Freiburg (Germany); Korsten-Reck, Ulrike [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Sports Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Mueller, Frank [PET-Institute Rhein-Neckar, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Merk, Stefan [Kantonsspital Basel, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81{+-}15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV{sub LBM}). (orig.)

  13. Individual Differences in Exercise Behavior: Stability and Change in Genetic and Environmental Determinants From Age 7 to 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Hudziak, James J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; de Geus, Eco J C

    2016-09-01

    Exercise behavior during leisure time is a major source of health-promoting physical activity and moderately tracks across childhood and adolescence. This study aims to investigate the absolute and relative contribution of genes and the environment to variance in exercise behavior from age 7 to 18, and to elucidate the stability and change of genetic and shared environmental factors that underlie this behavior. The Netherlands Twin Register collected data on exercise behavior in twins aged approximately 7, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 years (N = 27,332 twins; 48 % males; 47 % with longitudinal assessments). Three exercise categories (low, middle, high) were analyzed by means of liability threshold models. First, a univariate model was fitted using the largest available cross-sectional dataset with linear and quadratic effects of age as modifiers on the means and variance components. Second, a simplex model was fitted on the longitudinal dataset. Heritability was low in 7-year-olds (14 % in males and 12 % in females), but gradually increased up to age 18 (79 % in males and 49 % in females), whereas the initially substantial relative influence of the shared environment decreased with age (from 80 to 4 % in males and from 80 to 19 % in females). This decrease was due to a large increase in the genetic variance. The longitudinal model showed the genetic effects in males to be largely stable and to accumulate from childhood to late adolescence, whereas in females, they were marked by both transmission and innovation at all ages. The shared environmental effects tended to be less stable in both males and females. In sum, the clear age-moderation of exercise behavior implies that family-based interventions might be useful to increase this behavior in children, whereas individual-based interventions might be better suited for adolescents. We showed that some determinants of individual differences in exercise behavior are stable across childhood and youth, whereas

  14. Basic properties of 3D cast skeleton structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to present recent achievements in field of skeleton structures. The aim of this work is to show results of searching for mechanically and technologically advantageous micro- and macrostructures. Methods of microstructure controlling were described. Most important parameters of the manufacturing process were identified.Design/methodology/approach: The influence of internal topology to stress distribution was described with the use of computer simulations. Simulations of the mold filling processes were also carried out. Real experiments were performed to prove the simulation results. The Qualitative and quantitative metallographic analysis were also carried out.Findings: It was found that the octahedron shape of internal cell causes best stress distribution and that the skeleton castings are a good alternative for cellular materials such as metal foams, lattice structures and sandwich panels. Their structured arranged topology allows precise design of properties.Research limitations/implications: Casting methods used to manufacture materials such as described skeleton castings confirmed their usefulness. Not well known and used yet rheological properties of liquid metals allow obtaining shape complicated structures near to metallic foams but structured arranged.Practical implications: Technological parameters of the skeleton castings manufacturing process were developed. Without use of advanced techniques there is a possibility to manufacture cheap skeleton structures in a typical foundry. With use of advanced technology like 3D printing there are almost unlimited possibilities of the skeleton castings internal topologies.Originality/value: Three dimensional cast skeleton structures with internal topology of octahedron confirmed their usefulness as elements used for energy dissipation. Obtaining the homogenous microstructure in the whole volume of complicated shape castings can be achieved.

  15. 3D Skeleton model derived from Kinect Depth Sensor Camera and its application to walking style quality evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction for gait recognition has been created widely. The ancestor for this task is divided into two parts, model based and free-model based. Model-based approaches obtain a set of static or dynamic skeleton parameters via modeling or tracking body components such as limbs, legs, arms and thighs. Model-free approaches focus on shapes of silhouettes or the entire movement of physical bodies. Model-free approaches are insensitive to the quality of silhouettes. Its advantage is a low computational costs comparing to model-based approaches. However, they are usually not robust to viewpoints and scale. Imaging technology also developed quickly this decades. Motion capture (mocap device integrated with motion sensor has an expensive price and can only be owned by big animation studio. Fortunately now already existed Kinect camera equipped with depth sensor image in the market with very low price compare to any mocap device. Of course the accuracy not as good as the expensive one, but using some preprocessing we can remove the jittery and noisy in the 3D skeleton points. Our proposed method is part of model based feature extraction and we call it 3D Skeleton model. 3D skeleton model for extracting gait itself is a new model style considering all the previous model is using 2D skeleton model. The advantages itself is getting accurate coordinate of 3D point for each skeleton model rather than only 2D point. We use Kinect to get the depth data. We use Ipisoft mocap software to extract 3d skeleton model from Kinect video. From the experimental results shows 86.36% correctly classified instances using SVM.

  16. Interaction between PNPLA3 I148M variant and age at infection in determining fibrosis progression in chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella De Nicola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The PNPLA3 I148M sequence variant favors hepatic lipid accumulation and confers susceptibility to hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect size of homozygosity for the PNPLA3 I148M variant (148M/M on the fibrosis progression rate (FPR and the interaction with age at infection in chronic hepatitis C (CHC. METHODS: FPR was estimated in a prospective cohort of 247 CHC patients without alcohol intake and diabetes, with careful estimation of age at infection and determination of fibrosis stage by Ishak score. RESULTS: Older age at infection was the strongest determinant of FPR (p<0.0001. PNPLA3 148M/M was associated with faster FPR in individuals infected at older age (above the median, 21 years; -0.64±0.2, n = 8 vs. -0.95±0.3, n = 166 log10 FPR respectively; p = 0.001; confirmed for lower age thresholds, p<0.05, but not in those infected at younger age (p = ns. The negative impact of PNPLA3 148M/M on fibrosis progression was more marked in subjects at risk of altered hepatic lipid metabolism (those with grade 2-3 steatosis, genotype 3, and overweight; p<0.05. At multivariate analysis, PNPLA3 148M/M was associated with FPR (incremental effect 0.08±0.03 log10 fibrosis unit per year; p = 0.022, independently of several confounders, and there was a significant interaction between 148M/M and older age at infection (p = 0.025. The association between 148M/M and FPR remained significant even after adjustment for steatosis severity (p = 0.032. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an interaction between homozygosity for the PNPLA3 I148M variant and age at infection in determining fibrosis progression in CHC patients.

  17. The skeleton gets a (reproductive) life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles M Allan; David J Handelsman

    2011-01-01

    @@ To most well-informed scientists who do not work on bone,the idea that bone:determine anything other than your posture and location for the miseries of arthritis would come as quite a surprise.It would be like imagining that the walls of our home played something more than a passive role in the complexities of the lives conducted within.Yet something precisely as radical as that is what Karsenty and his colleague;boldly imagined,and then provocatively established in a series of studies over the pasl decade.Osteocalcin (OCN) is a vitamin Kdependent peptide hormone secreted by the bone-forming osteoblasts.

  18. Human Star Skeleton Feature Vector Quantization Using PSO%粒子群优化人体星形骨架特征矢量量化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢刘阳; 潘晓露; 李一民

    2011-01-01

    实现了人体星形骨架特征提取,并利用粒子群优化骨架特征矢量的量化.星形骨架通过连接人体质心点到人体四肢及头部端点实现,是一种快速骨架提取技术.把质心点和端点连接,人体星型骨架可以用一个五维矢量Si表示,Si∈Rn,Rn是星型骨架特征空间.时序图像中的人体动作可以用星型骨架序列表示的特征矢量序列S代替.最后用粒子群优化S的特征量化过程,生成特征码本G.%The paper introduces how to extract the human star skeleton and by using the particle swarm to optimize the skeleton characteristic vector quantization. Star skeleton, generated by connecting human center - of - mass point to the human limbs and head endpoint, is a kind of fast skeleton extraction techniques. Connecting center - of - mass point with endpoint, human skeleton could be represented by five dimensional vector Si, Si ∈ Rn, Rn is the star skeleton feature space. Star skeleton sequence can take the place of the timing sequences of human actions. Finally,we generated the codebook G by using particle swarm optimization quantification process.

  19. Mutual inhibition of insulin signaling and PHLPP-1 determines cardioprotective efficiency of Akt in aged heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yuan; Sun, Wanqing; Wang, Yishi; Gao, Feng; Ma, Heng

    2016-05-01

    Insulin protects cardiomyocytes from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury through activating Akt. However, phosphatase PHLPP-1 (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase-1) dephosphorylates and inactivates Akt. The balanced competitive interaction of insulin and PHLPP-1 has not been directly examined. In this study, we have identified the effect of mutual inhibition of insulin signaling and PHLPP-1 on the cardioprotective efficiency of Akt in aged heart. Young (3 months) and aged (20 months) Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to MI/Rin vivo. The PHLPP-1 level was higher in aged vs. young hearts at base. But, insulin treatment failed to decrease PHLPP-1 level during reperfusion in the aged hearts. Consequently, the cardioprotection of insulin-induced Akt activation was impaired in aged hearts, resulting in more susceptible to MI/R injury. In cultured rat ventricular myocytes, PHLPP-1 knockdown significantly enhanced insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and reduced simulated hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis. Contrary, PHLPP-1 overexpression terminated Akt phosphorylation and deteriorated myocytes apoptosis. Using in vivo aged animal models, we confirmed that cardiac PHLPP-1 knockdown or enhanced insulin sensitivity by exercise training dramatically increased insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. Specifically, MI/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and infarct size were decreased and cardiac function was increased. More importantly, we found that insulin regulated the degradation of PHLPP-1 and insulin treatment could enhance the binding between PHLPP-1 and β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP) to target for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Altogether, we have identified a new mechanism by which insulin suppresses PHLPP-1 to enhance Akt activation. But, aged heart possesses lower insulin effectiveness and fails to decrease PHLPP-1 during MI/R, which subsequently limited Akt activity and cardioprotection. PHLPP-1 could be a

  20. Losartan increases bone mass and accelerates chondrocyte hypertrophy in developing skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan; Grover, Monica; Sibai, Tarek; Black, Jennifer; Rianon, Nahid; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Munivez, Elda; Bertin, Terry; Dawson, Brian; Chen, Yuqing; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Lee, Brendan; Yang, Tao; Bae, Yangjin

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are a group of anti-hypertensive drugs that are widely used to treat pediatric hypertension. Recent application of ARBs to treat diseases such as Marfan syndrome or Alport syndrome has shown positive outcomes in animal and human studies, suggesting a broader therapeutic potential for this class of drugs. Multiple studies have reported a benefit of ARBs on adult bone homeostasis; however, its effect on the growing skeleton in children is unknown. We investigated the effect of Losartan, an ARB, in regulating bone mass and cartilage during development in mice. Wild type mice were treated with Losartan from birth until 6 weeks of age, after which bones were collected for microCT and histomorphometric analyses. Losartan increased trabecular bone volume vs. tissue volume (a 98% increase) and cortical thickness (a 9% increase) in 6-weeks old wild type mice. The bone changes were attributed to decreased osteoclastogenesis as demonstrated by reduced osteoclast number per bone surface in vivo and suppressed osteoclast differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, Angiotensin II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in RAW cells was attenuated by Losartan. Similarly, RANKL-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was suppressed by Losartan, suggesting a convergence of RANKL and angiotensin signaling at the level of ERK1/2 regulation. To assess the effect of Losartan on cartilage development, we examined the cartilage phenotype of wild type mice treated with Losartan in utero from conception to 1 day of age. Growth plates of these mice showed an elongated hypertrophic chondrocyte zone and increased Col10a1 expression level, with minimal changes in chondrocyte proliferation. Altogether, inhibition of the angiotensin pathway by Losartan increases bone mass and accelerates chondrocyte hypertrophy in growth plate during skeletal development.

  1. Maternal Characteristics Determine Stunting in Children of Less than Five Years of Age Results from a National Probabilistic Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Shamah-Levy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal nutrition and some variables are the main determining factors of birthweight and delayed intrauterine growth of children.Objective: To explore the association between the mothers’ biological and sociodemographic characteristics, and the anthropometry status in children under five years of age.Design: The population consisted of a sub-sample of 1,047 mother-and-child selected pairs from the probabilistic National Nutrition Survey, carried out in Mexico. Mother-and-child pairs included mothers aged 12 to 49 years, with children under five years of age. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric history, 24-hour recall dietary intake, and the women and children’s anthropometry were collected. The association between maternal characteristics and children’s anthropometry status was assessed using multiple logistic regression models.Result: Nearly 16.7% of the children 2y. The height/age of the children was severely affected by maternal height and birth order. In addition, the interaction between socioeconomic level and maternal schooling had a marginal effect (p = 0.09 in the ≤2y group. On the other hand, whether the family received social services and the interaction between maternal height and a dichotomy urbanism variable were significant ( p = 0.05 and (p 2y group.Conclusion: Some biological and socioeconomic characteristics among mothers have a negative effect on their children’s attained size, especially in the period between 2 and 5 years of age.

  2. Determining gestational age based on information from the Birth in Brazil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Paula Esteves; Leal, Maria do Carmo; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Schilithz, Arthur Orlando Corrêa; Bastos, Maria Helena

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed at assessing the validity of different measures for estimating gestational age and to propose the creation of an algorithm for gestational age at birth estimates for the Birth in Brazil survey--a study conducted in 2011-2012 with 23,940 postpartum women. We used early ultrasound imaging, performed between 7-20 weeks of gestation, as the reference method. All analyses were performed stratifying by payment of maternity care (public or private). When compared to early ultrasound imaging, we found a substantial intraclass correlation coefficient of ultrasound-based gestational age at admission measure (0.95 and 0.94) and of gestational age reported by postpartum women at interview measure (0.90 and 0.88) for the public and private payment of maternity care, respectively. Last menstrual period-based measures had lower intraclass correlation coefficients than the first two measures evaluated. This study suggests caution when using the last menstrual period as the first measure for estimating gestational age in Brazil, strengthening the use of information obtained from early ultrasound imaging results. PMID:25167191

  3. Age determination and development of experimental methods for quaternary fault and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, M. S.; Kim, J. M. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2004-02-15

    Late cretaceous to early tertiary movement ages were constrained by Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating of fault rocks near the Uljin Nuclear Power Plants. These ages are well reproducible and consistent with geologic context. Tectonic evolution of the northeastern Yeongnam massif, the site of the Uljin Nuclear Power Plants, was investigated on the basis of Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Pb isotopic systematics and geochemistry of precambrian basement rocks including the Hosanri Formation, Buncheon granite gneiss, biotite granite gneiss, and Hongjesa granite. The optical ages from the Suryum fault outcrop represent the younger limit of sedimentation timing because they are simply based upon the present-day water content. The lower, Qt{sub 2} terrace at about 18m elevation is correlated with Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 5a, although its apparent optical age was consistently reported from 71 to 48 ka. Correlation of shoreline elevations indicates the correspondence of the Qt{sub 3a} terrace to MIS 5e, which is supported by stratigraphically concordant optical ages for aeolian sand dunes at the north of the Suryum site. This time scale yields an uplift rate of 0.266 m/ka, requiring the revision of conventional view that the Korean peninsula is tectonically very stable.

  4. Determination of Reddening and Age for Ten Large Magellanic Cloud Star Clusters from Integrated Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Andrea V.; Vega, Luis R.; Clariá, Juan J.; Oddone, Mónica A.; Palma, Tali

    2016-09-01

    We present flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the optical range (3700-6800 Å) obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) for a sample of 10 concentrated star clusters belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). No previous data exist for two of these objects (SL 142 and SL 624), while most of the remaining clusters have been only poorly studied. We derive simultaneously foreground E(B - V) reddening values and ages for the cluster sample by comparing their integrated spectra with template LMC cluster spectra and with two different sets of simple stellar population models. Cluster reddening values and ages are also derived from both available interstellar extinction maps and by using diagnostic diagrams involving the sum of equivalent widths of some selected spectral features and their calibrations with age, respectively. For the studied sample, we derive ages between 1 Myr and 240 Myr. In an effort to create a spectral library at the LMC metallicity level with several clusters per age range, the cluster sample presented here stands out as a useful complement to previous ones.

  5. Age determination and development of experimental methods for quaternary fault and formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late cretaceous to early tertiary movement ages were constrained by Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating of fault rocks near the Uljin Nuclear Power Plants. These ages are well reproducible and consistent with geologic context. Tectonic evolution of the northeastern Yeongnam massif, the site of the Uljin Nuclear Power Plants, was investigated on the basis of Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Pb isotopic systematics and geochemistry of precambrian basement rocks including the Hosanri Formation, Buncheon granite gneiss, biotite granite gneiss, and Hongjesa granite. The optical ages from the Suryum fault outcrop represent the younger limit of sedimentation timing because they are simply based upon the present-day water content. The lower, Qt2 terrace at about 18m elevation is correlated with Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 5a, although its apparent optical age was consistently reported from 71 to 48 ka. Correlation of shoreline elevations indicates the correspondence of the Qt3a terrace to MIS 5e, which is supported by stratigraphically concordant optical ages for aeolian sand dunes at the north of the Suryum site. This time scale yields an uplift rate of 0.266 m/ka, requiring the revision of conventional view that the Korean peninsula is tectonically very stable

  6. Hydrochemical modelling and determination of 14C ages of geothermal waters in Kizildere and Tekkehamam fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many geothermal fluids are encountered as springs and wells in the area between Buharkent - Yenice - Pamukkale located in the Aegean Region to the east of the Bueyuek Menderes Graben. This study, constituting a part of the project called 'Age and Origin Determination of the High Temperature Geothermal Fluids in the Bueyuek Menderes Graben' and directed by the MTA General Directorate, aims the recharge and circulation period verification of related resources by means of interpreting isotopic and hydrochemical data of the above mentioned region. For this purpose, water chemistry, δ18O, δ2H, δ3H, 14C, δ34S-SO4 ve δ18O-SO4 isotope sampling have been realized in order to determine the geochemical processes taken place in underground. As a result of the study the origin, the recharge altitudes and the circulation periods of grouped fluids with temperatures between 35 degrees- 242 degreeslocated in the region were clarified. According to the given chemical data, hydrochemically characterized waters are classified in 10 different types. It has been indicated that, six subtypes of the classification are constituted from the mixtures of waters at 242 degreesand 4th type Na-HCO3 belonging to Kizildere thermal waters, first type Ca-HCO3 waters, second type Ca-HCO3-SO4 waters and third type Ca-SO4 waters. According to the evaluation of the 14C isotope, the geothermal fluid discharging from the Kizildere Power Plant, corresponds to a turnovertime of 22.500 - 27.500 years. Previous studies reveal that the waters of the Tekkehamam geothermal field originate from the mixture of shallow groundwaters encountered in the site with geothermal fluids underflowing from the Kizildere geothermal field, in north-south direction. Taken into consideration this mentioned mixture model, the 14C isotope indicates a turnovertime of 31.000 years for R-1 geothermal well and 35.000 years for the нnatlм spring, located in the Tekkehamam geothermal field

  7. The conservation treatment of Canterbury Museum's blue whale skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 26.5-metre-long blue whale skeleton, retrieved in 1908 from the West Coast of New Zealand's South Island, has been exhibited at the Canterbury Museum for 80 years outdoors, under shelter. Environmental conditions have contributed to the gradual deterioration of the skeleton, its mount structure and previous repair materials. The skeleton's significance as one of the largest articulated animals in the world, and its unique history of local importance, has prompted the development of a major conservation treatment and rearticulation project. Following examination, research and testing, the skeleton was de-installed to stabilise it in preparation for a new exhibition. Analysis of skeletal material was undertaken prior to beginning treatment. Conservation treatment included superficial cleaning, consolidation of embrittled portions of bone, removal of the previous invasive mount and repair materials, pinning and adhesion of detached bone sections, and filling and inpainting the wide variety of voids resulting from the original mount design and repairs. The organic polymer selected for consolidation, adhesion, filling (mixed with glass micro-balloons) and in inpainting (mixed with dry pigments) was Paraloid B72 dissolved in acetone. Detached bone portions were pinned with carbon fibre tube. The skeleton is anticipated to be rearticulated for installation in a new atrium. (author). 14 refs., 35 figs

  8. Skeletonization of Deformed CAPTCHAs Using Pixel Depth Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsong Cui

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CAPTCHA is a standard security technology that presents test to tell computers and humans apart. Nowadays the most widely deployed CAPTCHAs are text-based schemes, which rely on sophisticated distortion of text images aimed at rendering them unrecognizable to the state of the art of pattern recognition methods. Generally, the skeletonization of character is acknowledged as one of the most significant parts in character recognition. The skeleton which keeps the topology information as well as reduces the computational complexity is an excellent and robust structural feature to noise and deformation. In this paper, a depth-based approach is proposed in order to locate the skeleton point. In order to strike the balance between efficiency and robustness against distortion, three fault tolerance techniques have been applied in the extraction process. Then in the amendment stage, we use noise patterns to filter redundant points. Experiments are conducted and positive results are achieved, which show that the depth-based skeletonization scheme is applicable to the widely used CAPTCHA images, and the skeleton is robust against rotated, distorted or conglutinated characters.

  9. Diseases of Old Age in Two Paintings by Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Weisz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two paintings of older men by Rembrandt (1609–1669 are examined to demonstrate that historical attitudes toward diseases of old age and the ageing person’s response to illness can be investigated in paintings. The works selected are of different genres and date from different stages of Rembrandt’s own life, one from his youth and one from his old age. Both paintings show figures who have joint pathologies typically associated with the ageing process, the first involving the subject’s foot and the second involving the subject’s hand. Despite the sometimes painful nature of these conditions, the subjects are shown accommodating their illnesses while maintaining both their intellectual and social engagement and their emotional composure. Although the seventeenth century offered older people very little effective medical treatment in comparison with what is presently available, these paintings nevertheless present a view of illness as a subsidiary rather than a dominant feature of old age.

  10. Hardening of aged duplex stainless steels by spinodal decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danoix, F; Auger, P; Blavette, D

    2004-06-01

    Mechanical properties, such as hardness and impact toughness, of ferrite-containing stainless steels are greatly affected by long-term aging at intermediate temperatures. It is known that the alpha-alpha' spinodal decomposition occurring in the iron-chromium-based ferrite is responsible for this aging susceptibility. This decomposition can be characterized unambiguously by atom probe analysis, allowing comparison both with the existing theories of spinodal decomposition and the evolution of some mechanical properties. It is then possible to predict the evolution of hardness of industrial components during service, based on the detailed knowledge of the involved aging process. PMID:15233853

  11. Determination of the standard values of the hand bone mineral density values in males according to ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Temiztürk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study we purposed to determine standardvalues of hand Bone Mineral Density (BMD accordingto ages by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXAin males who applied to our hospital, evaluate associationof hand BMD with lumbar and femur BMD and searchusefulness of hand BMD measurement by DXA.Methods: Totally, 239 male included, whose ages differbetween 27 to 87 years, had no disease associatedwith bone density were included. The cases, betweenthe ages 20 to 70 separated to age groups, comprisedof 5 years. Cases, whose age is 70 and older, included inthe same group. Average of dominant and nondominanthand BMD values of the chosen cases were computedaccording to age groups comprised of 5 years and theassociation with values of L2-L4 and femur neck BMD issearched separately.Results: There is significant association between dominanthand BMD scores with L2-L4 and femur neck BMDscores. Also there is significant association between nondominanthand BMD scores with L2-L4 and femur neckBMD scores. Also there is asignificant association betweenscores of hand BMD with hand grip strenght.Conclusion: In this study there is significant associationbetween BMD scores of dominant and nondominanthand with BMD scores of L2-L4 and femur neck in all agegroups. Rheumatological diseases, reflex sympatheticdystrophy, tendon and nerve lacerations of hand and forearm,fractures of upper extremity and hemiplegy, that cancauses local osteoporosis in the hand, measurement ofhand BMD can be done by DXA.Key words: Bone mineral density, dual energy X ray absorptiometry,osteoporosis

  12. Calibration and Assessment of the New Acropora 'Inter-Branch Skeleton' Palaeothermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, J.; Webb, G. E.; Zhao, J. X.; Nothdurft, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    Coral reefs provide an increasingly important archive of palaeoclimate data that can be used to constrain climate model simulations. Reconstructing past environments may also provide insights into the potential of reef systems to survive changes in the Earth's climate. Geochemically based climate reconstructions are predominately acquired from massive Porites colonies, yet there remain significant spatial and temporal gaps in our understanding of climate evolution where no suitable coralla have been recovered. Branching corals are commonly the dominant species in modern reef facies and their abundance suggests an untapped source for this missing information. The potential of 'inter-branch skeleton' in corymbose Acropora to act as a new palaeoclimate archive is significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy of inter-branch skeleton in Acropora from Heron Reef, southern Great Barrier Reef, reveals a lack of secondary thickening deposits that typically characterize Acropora branches and renders them unsuitable for geochemical archives. Annual density banding, similar to that used for chronological determination of geochemical sampling in massive corals, is also observed within Acropora inter-branch skeleton. Clear seasonal signals in Sr/Ca within the skeletal structure will be correlated against the network of in situ temperature recorders in Heron lagoon and on the southern reef slope to provide a new palaeotemperature transfer equation.

  13. A Skeleton Based Programming Paradigm for Mobile Multi-Agents on Distributed Systems and Its Realization within the MAGDA Mobile Agents Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aversa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel programming effort can be reduced by using high level constructs such as algorithmic skeletons. Within the MAGDA toolset, supporting programming and execution of mobile agent based distributed applications, we provide a skeleton-based parallel programming environment, based on specialization of Algorithmic Skeleton Java interfaces and classes. Their implementation include mobile agent features for execution on heterogeneous systems, such as clusters of WSs and PCs, and support reliability and dynamic workload balancing. The user can thus develop a parallel, mobile agent based application by simply specialising a given set of classes and methods and using a set of added functionalities.

  14. Orbit determination by range-only data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, N.; Winn, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    The determination of satellite orbits for use in geodesy using range-only data has been examined. A recently developed recursive algorithm for rectification of the nominal orbit after processing each observation has been tested. It is shown that when a synchronous satellite is tracked simultaneously with a subsynchronous geodetic target satellite, the orbits of each may be readily determined by processing the range information. Random data errors and satellite perturbations are included in the examples presented.

  15. A partial skeleton of a new lamniform mackerel shark from the Miocene of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Kriwet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cenozoic lamniform sharks are mostly represented by isolated teeth and vertebrae, whereas articulated skeletal remains are usually very scarce. Here, we describe a partial skeleton of an extinct lamniform shark consisting of 42 slightly disarticulated teeth, 49 vertebrae, and additional unidentifiable cranial and postcranial remains. The specimen originates from the Miocene mica-clay of Groß Pampau (North Germany, which is of late Langenfeldian age (= Serravallian-Tortonian boundary; middle–late Miocene. A total of 13 measurements of each tooth, as well as morphological features, were used to reconstruct the dentition of this specimen and to provide detailed taxonomic information. Additionally, the total body size and age at death were established using methodologies based on vertebral and tooth measurements and vertebral centra growth ring counts, respectively. The specimen undoubtedly represents the most complete individual of “Carcharodon (= Isurus escheri”, previously known only from a few isolated teeth. The dental pattern (e.g., marked dignathic and monognathic heterodonty patterns; only slightly labio-lingually compressed upper teeth; upper teeth slender with distally inclined or curved main cusps; massive, hook-like upper intermediate tooth; main cusps with crenulated cutting edges; lateral cusplets in teeth of all ontogenetic stages clearly separates this shark from all hitherto known Cenozoic and Recent lamnids and a new genus, Carcharomodus, consequently is introduced. Carcharomodus escheri comb. nov. is a characteristic element of late early Miocene to the Pliocene Western and Central European fish faunas. All previously identified Pacific occurrences represent a different taxon. We estimate that the specimen had a total body length of about 4 m and that it was older than 10 years and thus might have reached maturity before death, as indicated by all available evidence.

  16. [The approaches to the optimization of forensic medical methods employed for determining age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, A A; Savenkova, E N; Alekseev, Yu D

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the results of investigations performed at M.I. Raisky Department of Forensic Medicine, Saratov State Medical University, to elucidate the age-specific changes in the human soft tissues made it possible to distinguish several variants of reducing errors committed in association with the determination of the age of individual subjects with the help of forensic medical methods. At present, the chronological age is calculated with a different degree of accuracy from the data on the involution of aorta, skin, testicles, prostate and thyroid glands. In order to enhance the accuracy of newly developed diagnostic methods, it is proposed to take into account the necessity of fulfilling the following conditions: to increase the number of characteristics of the study object to be analysed, to use the complex of involution features of several organs belonging to a single body system, and to apply the rational approach to the choice of the methods for the mathematical analysis of the data being obtained. PMID:26710510

  17. Psychosocial determinants of contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in a rural area of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhas S, Sekhon H

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation reports that an estimated 94 per cent of the population of the world lives in countries with policies that favour family planning. Despite this, five of every six couples of reproductive age do not use adequate measures of fertility regulation. Gender inequalities in patriarchal societies ensure that men play a critical role in the decisions on family matters. The present study was undertaken to study the nature of acceptance of contraceptive practices and the psychosocial determinants. Methods: This was a community based cross sectional descriptive study. The anticipated prevalence of contraceptive practices among the 206 women in the age group of 15-49 years was 50%. Considering a margin of error of 10%, with finite correction and 10% of non-response and 95% CI, the sample size was calculated. 90 married women in the reproductive age group of 15-49 years residing at the village were studied after drawing the sample with simple random sampling method. Results: There were 55 (61.11% women who practised contraception. In case of 03 (3.33% couples, husbands used condoms, while in case of remaining 52 (57.78%, wife had undergone tubectomy. Conclusion: From the present study, it was concluded that the most common method of contraception practiced in the study population was tubectomy and a range of psychosocial factors played an important role in decision making.

  18. Effect of spaceflight on the non-weight-bearing bones of rat skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, D. J.; Russell, J. E.; Winter, F.; Tran Van, P.; Vignery, A.; Baron, R.; Rosenberg, G. D.; Walker, W. V.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of weightlessness on the integrated growth and remodeling of nonweight-bearing bones (the mandibles, teeth, and ribs) were studied. Rats prelabeled with tetracycline to mark the surfaces of bone and tooth formation were subjected to spaceflight conditions for 18.5 days, followed by further injections of tetracycline on days 6 and 29 postflight.Results show that spaceflight conditions did not alter the rate of periosteal bone formation in the ribs and regions of the mandibles covered by masticatory muscles, although bone formation-calcification rates were found to be impaired at those sites in the jaw that had no contiguous muscle (molar region). The remodeling activity on the alveolar bone around the buccal roots of the molar teeth was found to be significantly reduced. While total Ca, P, and hydroxyproline concentrations in the jaws, incisors, and ribs were normal after spaceflight, it was determined that weightless conditions caused a delay in the maturation of bone mineral and matrix in the jaws. These anomalies were found to be corrected by 29 days postflight. These results indicate that most of the nonweight-bearing bones of the rat skeleton are at risk to the effects of weightlessness.

  19. Justification of sexual reproduction by modified Penna model of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Martins, J. S.; Stauffer, D.

    2001-05-01

    We generalize the standard Penna bit-string model of biological ageing by assuming that each deleterious mutation diminishes the survival probability in every time interval by a small percentage. This effect is added to the usual lethal but age-dependent effect of the same mutation. We then find strong advantages or disadvantages of sexual reproduction (with males and females) compared to asexual cloning, depending on parameters.

  20. Canaliculi in the tessellated skeleton of cartilaginous fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, M.N.; Socha, J.J.; Hall, B.K.; Summers, A.P. (UCI); (Dalhousie U.); (VPI-SU)

    2010-08-04

    The endoskeletal elements of sharks and rays are comprised of an uncalcified, hyaline cartilage-like core overlain by a thin fibro-ceramic layer of mineralized hexagonal tiles (tesserae) adjoined by intertesseral fibers. The basic spatial relationships of the constituent tissues (unmineralized cartilage, mineralized cartilage, fibrous tissue) are well-known - endoskeletal tessellation is a long-recognized synapomorphy of elasmobranch fishes - but a high-resolution and three-dimensional (3D) understanding of their interactions has been hampered by difficulties in sample preparation and lack of technologies adequate for visualizing microstructure and microassociations. We used cryo-electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation tomography to investigate tessellated skeleton ultrastructure but without damage to the delicate relationships between constituent tissues or to the tesserae themselves. The combination of these techniques allowed visualization of never before appreciated internal structures, namely passages connecting the lacunar spaces within tesserae. These intratesseral 'canaliculi' link consecutive lacunar spaces into long lacunar strings, radiating outward from the center of tesserae. The continuity of extracellular matrix throughout the canalicular network may explain how chondrocytes in tesserae remain vital despite encasement in mineral. Extracellular fluid exchange may also permit transmission of nutrients, and mechanical and mineralization signals among chondrocytes, in a manner similar to the canalicular network in bone. These co-adapted mechanisms for the facilitated exchange of extracellular material suggest a level of parallelism in early chondrocyte and osteocyte evolution.

  1. Groundwater arsenic concentrations in Vietnam controlled by sediment age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Dieke; Larsen, Flemming; Thai, Nguyen Thi;

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater continues to threaten the health of millions of people in southeast Asia. The oxidation of organic carbon, coupled to the reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron oxides, is thought to control the release of sediment-bound arsenic into groundwater. However......-section of the arsenic-contaminated Red River floodplain in Vietnam to determine the origin of variations in groundwater arsenic concentrations. The burial age of the aquifer sediments, determined using optical stimulated luminescence, ranged from 460 years near the course of the present-day river to 5,900 years......, the cause of the high spatial variability in groundwater arsenic concentrations—which can range from 5 to 500 μg l−1 within distances of a few kilometres—has been uncertain. Here, we combine measurements of sediment age, organic-matter reactivity and water chemistry at four locations along a cross...

  2. Hollow silica-copper-carbon anodes using copper metal-organic frameworks as skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zixu; Xin, Fengxia; Cao, Can; Zhao, Chongchong; Shen, Cai; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Hollow silica-copper-carbon (H-SCC) nanocomposites are first synthesized using copper metal-organic frameworks as skeletons to form Cu-MOF@SiO2 and then subjected to heat treatment. In the composites, the hollow structure and the void space from the collapse of the MOF skeleton can accommodate the huge volume change, buffer the mechanical stress caused by lithium ion insertion/extraction and maintain the structural integrity of the electrode and a long cycling stability. The ultrafine copper with a uniform size of around 5 nm and carbon with homogeneous distribution from the decomposition of the MOF skeleton can not only enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite and preserve the structural and interfacial stabilization, but also suppress the aggregation of silica nanoparticles and cushion the volume change. In consequence, the resulting material as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) delivers a reversible capacity of 495 mA h g-1 after 400 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g-1. The synthetic method presented in this paper provides a facile and low-cost strategy for the large-scale production of hollow silica/copper/carbon nanocomposites as an anode in LIBs.Hollow silica-copper-carbon (H-SCC) nanocomposites are first synthesized using copper metal-organic frameworks as skeletons to form Cu-MOF@SiO2 and then subjected to heat treatment. In the composites, the hollow structure and the void space from the collapse of the MOF skeleton can accommodate the huge volume change, buffer the mechanical stress caused by lithium ion insertion/extraction and maintain the structural integrity of the electrode and a long cycling stability. The ultrafine copper with a uniform size of around 5 nm and carbon with homogeneous distribution from the decomposition of the MOF skeleton can not only enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite and preserve the structural and interfacial stabilization, but also suppress the aggregation of silica nanoparticles and

  3. Correlation of Condylar Guidance Determined by Panoramic Radiographs to One Determined by Conventional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godavarthi, A Sowjanya; Sajjan, M C Suresh; Raju, A V Rama; Rajeshkumar, P; Premalatha, Averneni; Chava, Narayana

    2015-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the feasibility of using panoramic radiographs as an alternative to an interocclusal recording method for determining the condylar guidance in dentate and edentulous conditions. Materials and Methods: 20 dentulous individuals with an age range of 20-30 years and 20 edentulous patients of 40-65 years were selected. An interocclusal bite registration was done in protrusive position for all the subjects. Orthopantomographs were made for all patients in open mouth position. Hanau articulator was modified to record the angulations to the accuracy of 1°. Tracing of glenoid fossa on radiograph was done to measure the condylar guidance angles. Readings were recorded and analyzed by Freidman’s test and t-test. Results: Condylar guidance values obtained by the interocclusal method and radiographic method in dentate individuals on the right side and left side 40.55°, and 37.1°, and 40.15°, and 34.75°, respectively. In the edentulous individuals, the values on the right side and left side was 36.7° and 36.1° and 35.95° and 33.6,° respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P = < 0.001) in dentate group and was not statistically significant (P = 0.6493) in edentulous group. Conclusion: Panoramic radiograph can be used as an alternative to interocclusal technique only in edentulous patients. Further studies comparing panoramic radiograph to jaw tracking devices would substantiate the results of this study. PMID:26464554

  4. A vanished history of skeletonization in Cambrian comb jellies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Qiang; Xiao, Shuhai; Han, Jian; Sun, Ge; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Zhifei; Shu, Degan

    2015-07-01

    Ctenophores are traditionally regarded as "lower" metazoans, sharing with cnidarians a diploblastic grade of organization. Unlike cnidarians, where skeletonization (biomineralization and sclerotization) evolved repeatedly among ecologically important taxa (for example, scleractinians and octocorals), living ctenophores are characteristically soft-bodied animals. We report six sclerotized and armored ctenophores from the early Cambrian period. They have diagnostic ctenophore features (for example, an octamerous symmetry, oral-aboral axis, aboral sense organ, and octaradially arranged ctene rows). Unlike most modern counterparts, however, they lack tentacles, have a sclerotized framework, and have eight pairs of ctene rows. They are resolved as a monophyletic group (Scleroctenophora new class) within the ctenophores. This clade reveals a cryptic history and sheds new light on the early evolution of this basal animal phylum. Skeletonization also occurs in some other Cambrian animal groups whose extant members are exclusively soft-bodied, suggesting the ecological importance of skeletonization in the Cambrian explosion. PMID:26601209

  5. Lunar basalt chronology, mantle differentiation and implications for determining the age of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Joshua F.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Bellucci, Jeremy J.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Tartèse, Romain; Barnes, Jessica J.; Anand, Mahesh; Crawford, Ian A.; Joy, Katherine H.

    2016-10-01

    Despite more than 40 years of studying Apollo samples, the age and early evolution of the Moon remain contentious. Following the formation of the Moon in the aftermath of a giant impact, the resulting Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) is predicted to have generated major geochemically distinct silicate reservoirs, including the sources of lunar basalts. Samples of these basalts, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to characterize these reservoirs. However, the precise timing and extent of geochemical fractionation is poorly constrained, not least due to the difficulty in determining accurate ages and initial Pb isotopic compositions of lunar basalts. Application of an in situ ion microprobe approach to Pb isotope analysis has allowed us to obtain precise crystallization ages from six lunar basalts, typically with an uncertainty of about ± 10 Ma, as well as constrain their initial Pb-isotopic compositions. This has enabled construction of a two-stage model for the Pb-isotopic evolution of lunar silicate reservoirs, which necessitates the prolonged existence of high-μ reservoirs in order to explain the very radiogenic compositions of the samples. Further, once firm constraints on U and Pb partitioning behaviour are established, this model has the potential to help distinguish between conflicting estimates for the age of the Moon. Nonetheless, we are able to constrain the timing of a lunar mantle reservoir differentiation event at 4376 ± 18 Ma, which is consistent with that derived from the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic systems, and is interpreted as an average estimate of the time at which the high-μ urKREEP reservoir was established and the Ferroan Anorthosite (FAN) suite was formed.

  6. Osteoporosis therapy: a novel insight from natural homeostatic system in the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, T; Kim, Y T; Oda, H

    2015-02-01

    The skeleton normally responds to mechanical environment to maintain the resulting elastic deformation (strain) of bone, while increased bone strength by an osteoporosis drug results in decreased bone strain. Thus, it can be hypothesized that the effect of osteoporosis therapy is limited by natural homeostatic system in the skeleton. This logic is consistent with the fact that there exists a powerful effect that returns bone mass to its pre-treatment level after the withdrawal of treatment with osteoporosis agents. The present hypothesis provides a new significant insight into the mechanisms by which osteoporosis drugs improve bone fragility. Here we briefly discuss the effects of teriparatide, romosozumab, and odanacatib on bones in animals and humans. PMID:25288445

  7. Ocean acidification causes structural deformities in juvenile coral skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Taryn; Falter, James L; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Clode, Peta L

    2016-02-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is causing the oceans to both warm and acidify, which could reduce the calcification rates of corals globally. Successful coral recruitment and high rates of juvenile calcification are critical to the replenishment and ultimate viability of coral reef ecosystems. Although elevated Pco2 (partial pressure of CO2) has been shown to reduce the skeletal weight of coral recruits, the structural changes caused by acidification during initial skeletal deposition are unknown. We show, using high-resolution three-dimensional x-ray microscopy, that ocean acidification (Pco2 ~900 μatm, pH ~7.7) not only causes reduced overall mineral deposition but also a deformed and porous skeletal structure in newly settled coral recruits. In contrast, elevated temperature (+3°C) had little effect on skeletal formation except to partially mitigate the effects of elevated Pco2. The striking structural deformities we observed show that new recruits are at significant risk, being unable to effectively build their skeletons in the Pco2 conditions predicted to occur for open ocean surface waters under a "business-as-usual" emissions scenario [RCP (representative concentration pathway) 8.5] by the year 2100.

  8. Ocean acidification causes structural deformities in juvenile coral skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Taryn; Falter, James L; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Clode, Peta L

    2016-02-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is causing the oceans to both warm and acidify, which could reduce the calcification rates of corals globally. Successful coral recruitment and high rates of juvenile calcification are critical to the replenishment and ultimate viability of coral reef ecosystems. Although elevated Pco2 (partial pressure of CO2) has been shown to reduce the skeletal weight of coral recruits, the structural changes caused by acidification during initial skeletal deposition are unknown. We show, using high-resolution three-dimensional x-ray microscopy, that ocean acidification (Pco2 ~900 μatm, pH ~7.7) not only causes reduced overall mineral deposition but also a deformed and porous skeletal structure in newly settled coral recruits. In contrast, elevated temperature (+3°C) had little effect on skeletal formation except to partially mitigate the effects of elevated Pco2. The striking structural deformities we observed show that new recruits are at significant risk, being unable to effectively build their skeletons in the Pco2 conditions predicted to occur for open ocean surface waters under a "business-as-usual" emissions scenario [RCP (representative concentration pathway) 8.5] by the year 2100. PMID:26989776

  9. Skeleton Graph Matching vs. Maximum Weight Cliques aorta registration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska, Joanna; Feinen, C; Grzegorzek, M; Raspe, M; Wickenhöfer, R

    2015-12-01

    Vascular diseases are one of the most challenging health problems in developed countries. Past as well as ongoing research activities often focus on efficient, robust and fast aorta segmentation, and registration techniques. According to this needs our study targets an abdominal aorta registration method. The investigated algorithms make it possible to efficiently segment and register abdominal aorta in pre- and post-operative Computed Tomography (CT) data. In more detail, a registration technique using the Path Similarity Skeleton Graph Matching (PSSGM), as well as Maximum Weight Cliques (MWCs) are employed to realise the matching based on Computed Tomography data. The presented approaches make it possible to match characteristic voxels belonging to the aorta from different Computed Tomography (CT) series. It is particularly useful in the assessment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment by visualising the correspondence between the pre- and post-operative CT data. The registration results have been tested on the database of 18 contrast-enhanced CT series, where the cross-registration analysis has been performed producing 153 matching examples. All the registration results achieved with our system have been verified by an expert. The carried out analysis has highlighted the advantage of the MWCs technique over the PSSGM method. The verification phase proves the efficiency of the MWCs approach and encourages to further develop this methods. PMID:26099640

  10. A Novel Bihomoflavanonol with an Unprecedented Skeleton from Pteridium aquilinum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Nai-dong; CHEN Nai-fu; CHEN Cun-wu; ZHANG Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective To seek the flavonoids with the unique structure and to investigate the chemical ingredients in the flavonoid-rich plant-Pteridium aquilinum.Methods The 80% EthOH extract from the degreased powder of P.aquilinum was partitioned by petroleum ether,CHCl3,EtOAc,n-butanol,and water,respectively.The EtOAc fraction was sequentially subjected to silica gel column,repeated Sephadex LH-20 column,and preparative TLC to give a new compound.The antitumor activity of the novel flavonoid was primarily evaluated by MTT.Results Compound 1,a biflavonoid with the unique structure named as pteridium Ⅲ with an unprecedented bihomoflavanonol skeleton,was isolated from P.aquilinum.Compound 1 showed the in vitro antitumor activity against lung cancer cell NCI-H46,melanoma cell A375,and glioma cell U-7MG corresponding to the IC50 values of 22.9,106.7,and 1540.5 μmol/L,respectively.No inhibition on gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 and prostatic carcinoma PC-3 was observed in the experiment.Conclusion A rare bihomoflavononol derivative,pteridium Ⅲ,is obtained from the plant,which could enrich our knowedge on the chemical structures of flavonoids and bioactive constituents in P.aquilinum.

  11. Determination of U(IV) by spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of uranium (IV) concentration in acid solutions in the presence of U (IV), Fe (II) and Ti (IV) by spectrophotometry is studied, aiming at controlling the solutions in the ion exchange columns, used for uranium enrichment by isotope exchange. (E.G.)

  12. Holotestoid: a computational model for testing hypotheses about echinoid skeleton form and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Maria; Stone, Jonathon Richard

    2011-09-21

    Regular echinoid skeletons, or tests, comprise plate patterns and overall shapes that have proven challenging to analyse solely on the basis of any one approach or process. Herein, we present a computational model, Holotestoid, that emulates four macrostructural ontogenic processes involved in test growth (plate growth, plate addition, plate interaction, and plate gapping). We devise a geometric representation for analysing tests and describe how we use analogies (bubble interactions and close-packing) to emulate the processes. In the computational model, the emulated processes are used to determine the plate size and plate shape and combined to simulate a growth zone. We simulated growth zones for Arbacia punctulata and for Strongylocentrotus franciscanus by changing the value for one parameter, the ambulacral column angle. We quantitatively compared morphological features for simulated forms to those for real specimens to test the computational model. Additionally, we simulated growth zones for A. punctulata, S. franciscanus, Eucidaris thouarsii, and Mellita quinquiesperforata by changing three parameters, ambulacral column angle, peristome radius to apical system radius ratio, and apical system radius to column length ratio. Holotestoid can be used to explain morphological disparity among echinoid tests. PMID:21756918

  13. Validation of anti-aging drugs by treating age-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2009-01-01

    Humans die from age-related diseases, which are deadly manifestations of the aging process. In order to extend life span, an anti-aging drug must delay age-related diseases. All together age-related diseases are the best biomarker of aging. Once a drug is used for treatment of any one chronic disease, its effect against other diseases (atherosclerosis, cancer, prostate enlargement, osteoporosis, insulin resistance, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, age-related macular degeneration) may be...

  14. Determination of reddening and age for ten Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters from integrated spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ahumada, Andrea V; Clariá, Juan J; Oddone, Mónica A; Palma, Tali

    2016-01-01

    We present flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the optical range (3700-6800 \\AA) obtained at Complejo Astron\\'omico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) for a sample of 10 concentrated star clusters belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). No previous data exist for two of these objects (SL 142 and SL 624), while most of the remaining clusters have been only poorly studied. We derive simultaneously foreground $E(B-V)$ reddening values and ages for the cluster sample by comparing their integrated spectra with template LMC cluster spectra and with two different sets of simple stellar population models. Cluster reddening values and ages are also derived from both available interstellar extinction maps and by using diagnostic diagrams involving the sum of equivalent widths of some selected spectral features and their calibrations with age, respectively. For the studied sample, we derive ages between 1 Myr and 240 Myr. In an effort to create a spectral library at the LMC metallicity level with several clusters ...

  15. Differential age-dependent import regulation by signal peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shan Teng

    Full Text Available Gene-specific, age-dependent regulations are common at the transcriptional and translational levels, while protein transport into organelles is generally thought to be constitutive. Here we report a new level of differential age-dependent regulation and show that chloroplast proteins are divided into three age-selective groups: group I proteins have a higher import efficiency into younger chloroplasts, import of group II proteins is nearly independent of chloroplast age, and group III proteins are preferentially imported into older chloroplasts. The age-selective signal is located within the transit peptide of each protein. A group III protein with its transit peptide replaced by a group I transit peptide failed to complement its own mutation. Two consecutive positive charges define the necessary motif in group III signals for older chloroplast preference. We further show that different members of a gene family often belong to different age-selective groups because of sequence differences in their transit peptides. These results indicate that organelle-targeting signal peptides are part of cells' differential age-dependent regulation networks. The sequence diversity of some organelle-targeting peptides is not a result of the lack of selection pressure but has evolved to mediate regulation.

  16. Scaphocephaly in a prehistoric skeleton from Harappa, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, K A; Lovell, N C; Lukacs, J R; Hemphill, B E

    1993-03-01

    Irregularities of cranial suture closure resulting in scaphocephaly are documented for a number of prehistoric and historic human populations of the eastern and western hemispheres, but what may be the first recorded case from southern Asia appeared during the 1987 archaeological field season at the Indus Valley Civilization site of Harappa, Pakistan. The female specimen with this condition also exhibits indicators of developmental abnormalities in the postcranial skeleton. These features are discussed in the context of assessing anatomical and ontogenetical relationships of craniostenostic eccentricities with abnormalities of facial, dental and postcranial regions of the skeletons of scaphocephalic individuals. PMID:8476271

  17. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  18. Sustained mutagenic effect in bone marrow cells induced bhy signal nuclide 134Cs retention in skeleton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuShou-Peng; XiaFen; 等

    1997-01-01

    The skeleton transference and the retention dynamics of i.v.134 cs are investigated.Results indicate that the retention percentage of 134Cs in skeleton could be characterized by R(t)=0.0029exp(-0.121t) with T1/2=5.73d;the chromosome aberration percentage of somatic bone marrow cells increases obviously,the relationship between injected dose(X in kBq/g) and the chromosome aberration percentage can be expressed as Y=0.561X0.427,It should be noted that sustained elevation of chromosomal aberration rates induced by 134Cs can be upto the 47th d.

  19. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future.

  20. Growth rates and ages of deep-sea corals impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Fisher, Charles R.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill on deep-sea coral communities in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is still under investigation, as is the potential for these communities to recover. Impacts from the spill include observation of corals covered with flocculent material, with bare skeleton, excessive mucous production, sloughing tissue, and subsequent colonization of damaged areas by hydrozoans. Information on growth rates and life spans of deep-sea corals is important for understanding the vulnerability of these ecosystems to both natural and anthropogenic perturbations, as well as the likely duration of any observed adverse impacts. We report radiocarbon ages and radial and linear growth rates based on octocorals (Paramuricea spp. and Chrysogorgia sp.) collected in 2010 and 2011 from areas of the DWH impact. The oldest coral radiocarbon ages were measured on specimens collected 11 km to the SW of the oil spill from the Mississippi Canyon (MC) 344 site: 599 and 55 cal yr BP, suggesting continuous life spans of over 600 years for Paramuricea biscaya, the dominant coral species in the region. Calculated radial growth rates, between 0.34 μm yr−1 and 14.20 μm yr−1, are consistent with previously reported proteinaceous corals from the GoM. Anomalously low radiocarbon (Δ14C) values for soft tissue from some corals indicate that these corals were feeding on particulate organic carbon derived from an admixture of modern surface carbon and a low 14C carbon source. Results from this work indicate fossil carbon could contribute 5–10% to the coral soft tissue Δ14C signal within the area of the spill impact. The influence of a low 14C carbon source (e.g., petro-carbon) on the particulate organic carbon pool was observed at all sites within 30 km of the spill site, with the exception of MC118, which may have been outside of the dominant northeast-southwest zone of impact. The quantitatively assessed extreme longevity and slow growth rates documented

  1. Applying the LLTM for the determination of children’s cognitive age-acceleration function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus D. Kubinger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper uses Item Response Theory (IRT for modeling and hypothesis testing children’s cogni-tive age-acceleration function – within calibration and standardization of some intelligence test. For this, basically Fischer’s Linear logistic test model (LLTM; Fischer, 1973, 2005 is applied. How-ever, instead of originally decomposing the item difficulty parameters of the Rasch model into certain hypothesized elementary parameters, we now suggest to decompose the person parameter alike. That is, there is a decomposition into a testee’s basic ability parameter and an age-leveled effect due to the developmental stage of the age-group in question. For convenience, we only inter-change testees and items in order to facilitate parameter estimation and model test – of course, the Rasch model is totally symmetric as concerns testees and items. By doing so, all findings in the context of LLTM apply; in particular, pertinent program packages are at our disposal. In order to examine the suggested approach’s feasibility, an empirical example is given. An Analogy test with eight items administered to more than 300 testees aged between 6 and 16, was analyzed. As a matter of fact, the logistic acceleration function proved to fit the data well and best.

  2. Mapping of Planetary Surface Age Based on Crater Statistics Obtained by AN Automatic Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, A. L.; Mühlbauer, M.; Grumpe, A.; Pasckert, J. H.; Wöhler, C.; Hiesinger, H.

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the impact crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) is a well-established approach to the determination of the age of planetary surfaces. Classically, estimation of the CSFD is achieved by manual crater counting and size determination in spacecraft images, which, however, becomes very time-consuming for large surface areas and/or high image resolution. With increasing availability of high-resolution (nearly) global image mosaics of planetary surfaces, a variety of automated methods for the detection of craters based on image data and/or topographic data have been developed. In this contribution a template-based crater detection algorithm is used which analyses image data acquired under known illumination conditions. Its results are used to establish the CSFD for the examined area, which is then used to estimate the absolute model age of the surface. The detection threshold of the automatic crater detection algorithm is calibrated based on a region with available manually determined CSFD such that the age inferred from the manual crater counts corresponds to the age inferred from the automatic crater detection results. With this detection threshold, the automatic crater detection algorithm can be applied to a much larger surface region around the calibration area. The proposed age estimation method is demonstrated for a Kaguya Terrain Camera image mosaic of 7.4 m per pixel resolution of the floor region of the lunar crater Tsiolkovsky, which consists of dark and flat mare basalt and has an area of nearly 10,000 km2. The region used for calibration, for which manual crater counts are available, has an area of 100 km2. In order to obtain a spatially resolved age map, CSFDs and surface ages are computed for overlapping quadratic regions of about 4.4 x 4.4 km2 size offset by a step width of 74 m. Our constructed surface age map of the floor of Tsiolkovsky shows age values of typically 3.2-3.3 Ga, while for small regions lower (down to 2.9 Ga) and higher

  3. Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6–59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhin Gebreegziabiher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6–59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to anemia. Result. The mean hemoglobin level was 11.48 g/dl and about 37.3% of children were anemic. Children who were aged 6–23 months [AOR = 1.89: 95% CI (1.3, 2.8], underweight [AOR = 2.05: 95% CI (1.3, 3.3], having MUAC less than 12 cm [AOR = 3.35: 95% CI (2.1, 5.3], and from households with annual income below 10,000 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 4.86: 95% CI (3.2, 7.3] were more likely to become anemic. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the children is found to be high. It was associated with annual household income, age, and nutritional status of the child. So, improving family income and increasing awareness of the mother/caregiver were important intervention.

  4. Age and gender as determinants of the bone quality of the greater tuberosity: A HR-pQCT cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchhoff Chlodwig

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-dependent trabecular changes of the humeral head might weaken the fixation of suture anchors used for rotator cuff (RC repair. This might lead to suture anchor loosening and thus compromise the integrity of the repair. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the trabecular microstructure within the RC footprint is influenced by age, gender or handedness. Methods Axial HR-pQCT scans (Scanco Medical of 64 freshly frozen cadaveric human humeral head specimens (age 72.3 ± 17.4 years were analyzed to determine the bone volume-to-total volume ratio (BV/TV, trabecular thickness (Trab Th, trabecular number (Trab N and connectivity density (Conn Dens. Within the RC footprint, 2 volumes of interest (VOI, posteromedial (PM and anterolateral (AL and one control VOI in the subarticular bone (SC were set. Results The highest BV/TV was found in SC: 0.22 ± 0.06% vs. PM: 0.04 ± 0.05% vs. AL: 0.02 ± 0.04%; p  Conclusions The presented microarchitectural data allow for future subtle biomechanical testing comprising knowledge on age- and sex-related changes of the tuberosities of the humeral head. Furthermore, the insights on the trabecular structure of the humeral head of the elderly may lead to the development of new fixation materials in bone with inferior bone quality.

  5. Modeling the morphodynamic galectin patterning network of the developing avian limb skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimm, T; Bhat, R; Newman, S A

    2014-04-01

    We present a mathematical model for the morphogenesis and patterning of the mesenchymal condensations that serve as primordia of the avian limb skeleton. The model is based on the experimentally established dynamics of a multiscale regulatory network consisting of two glycan-binding proteins expressed early in limb development: CG (chicken galectin)-1A, CG-8 and their counterreceptors that determine the formation, size, number and spacing of the "protocondensations" that give rise to the condensations and subsequently the cartilaginous elements that serve as the templates of the bones. The model, a system of partial differential and integro-differential equations containing a flux term to represent local adhesion gradients, is simulated in a "full" and a "reduced" form to confirm that the system has pattern-forming capabilities and to explore the nature of the patterning instability. The full model recapitulates qualitatively and quantitatively the experimental results of network perturbation and leads to new predictions, which are verified by further experimentation. The reduced model is used to demonstrate that the patterning process is inherently morphodynamic, with cell motility being intrinsic to it. Furthermore, subtle relationships between cell movement and the positive and negative interactions between the morphogens produce regular patterns without the requirement for activators and inhibitors with widely separated diffusion coefficients. The described mechanism thus represents an extension of the category of activator-inhibitor processes capable of generating biological patterns with repetitive elements beyond the morphostatic mechanisms of the Turing/Gierer-Meinhardt type. PMID:24355216

  6. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind.

  7. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind. PMID:25079218

  8. Asymmetric synthesis of pedamide using I2-induced heterocyclization to construct the skeleton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Gang Liu; Ji Jun Xue; Zhi Xiang Xie; Li Ping Wei; Hua Bing Zhang; Ying Li

    2009-01-01

    An alternative approach to synthesize pedamide, a key building block of pederin was described. Iodine-induced asymmetric heterocyclization was used as the key step to construct the skeleton, a tetrahydropyran ring with three chiral centers. Brown's asymmetric allylation and Lewis acid-mediated allylation were investigated to introduce chains and chiral alcohols. Sharpless dihydroxylation decorated the side chain. And high optically pure target was obtained by removing the epimers formed in these reactions on column chromatography.

  9. Ready Access to the Echinopines Skeleton via Gold(I)-Catalyzed Alkoxycyclizations of Enynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The [3,5,5,7] tetracyclic skeleton of echinopines has been stereoselectively accessed through a gold(I)-catalyzed alkoxycyclization of cyclopropyl-tethered 1,6-enynes. The key bicyclo[4.2.1]nonane core of the enyne precursors was readily assembled by means of a Co-catalyzed [6 + 2] cycloaddition. Furthermore, the attempted alkoxycyclization of 1,5-enyne substrates revealed an uncovered cyclopropyl rearrangement that gives rise to [3,6,5,7] tetracyclic structures. PMID:27529429

  10. Synthesis of Communicating Process Skeletons from Temporal-Spatial Logic Specifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1989-01-01

    Temporal-spatial logic is a propositional logic with temporal and spatial modalities asserting on a network.In this paper,a tableau-like decision procedure for network satisfiability in the logic is presented and used in the synthesis of communicating skeletons of CSP-like programs.By explicitly introducing communication network in the logic system,our approach has some advantages over the temporal one.

  11. Cloning Nacre's 3D Interlocking Skeleton in Engineering Composites to Achieve Exceptional Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hewei; Yue, Yonghai; Guo, Lin; Wu, Juntao; Zhang, Youwei; Li, Xiaodong; Mao, Shengcheng; Han, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic/polymer composite equipped with 3D interlocking skeleton (3D IL) is developed through a simple freeze-casting method, exhibiting exceptionally light weight, high strength, toughness, and shock resistance. Long-range crack energy dissipation enabled by 3D interlocking structure is considered as the primary reinforcing mechanism for such superior properties. The smart composite design strategy should hold a place in developing future structural engineering materials. PMID:27135462

  12. New evolutionary sequences for extremely low mass white dwarfs: Homogeneous mass and age determinations, and asteroseismic prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, Leandro G; Córsico, Alejandro H

    2013-01-01

    We provide a fine and homogeneous grid of evolutionary sequences for He-core white dwarfs with masses 0.15-0.45 Msun, including the mass range for ELM white dwarfs (<0.20Msun). The grid is appropriate for mass and age determination, and to study their pulsational properties. White dwarf sequences have been computed by performing full evolutionary calculations that consider the main energy sources and processes of chemical abundance changes during white dwarf evolution. Initial models for the evolving white dwarfs have been obtained by computing the non-conservative evolution of a binary system consisting of a Msun ZAMS star and a 1.4 Msun neutron star for various initial orbital periods. To derive cooling ages and masses for He-core white dwarf we perform a least square fitting of the M(Teff, g) and Age(Teff, g) relations provided by our sequences by using a scheme that takes into account the time spent by models in different regions of the Teff-g plane. This is useful when multiple solutions for cooling a...

  13. Determination of hormone parathyroid by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of bovine parathyroid hormone and its employment for the determination of seric PTH by radioimmunoanalysis is described. The specific activity of 131I PTH is 200-350mCi/mg and the damage 3-5%. The method used for radioimmunoanalysis was that of C.D. Arnaud and coworkers. (author)

  14. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  15. Mobile computation offloading architecture for mobile augmented reality, case study: Visualization of cetacean skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen G. Rodriguez-Santana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented Reality applications can serve as teach-ing tools in different contexts of use. Augmented reality appli-cation on mobile devices can help to provide tourist information on cities or to give information on visits to museums. For example, during visits to museums of natural history, applications of augmented reality on mobile devices can be used by some visitors to interact with the skeleton of a whale. However, making rendering heavy models can be computationally infeasible on devices with limited resources such as smart phones or tablets. One solution to this problem is to use techniques to Mobile Computation Offloading. This work proposes a mobile computation offloading architecture for mobile augmented reality. This solution would allow users to interact with a whale skeleton through an augmented reality application on mobile devices. Finally testing to assess the optimization of the resources of the mobile device when performing heavy render tests were made.

  16. Anatomo-radiographic description of the axial skeleton of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína D. Barisson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the axial skeleton of a wild Brazilian carnivorous, the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous. Five specimens of crab-eating fox were previously unfrozen for radiographic exams and their bones went through dissection and chemical maceration. This animal presents seven cervical vertebrae, and from the third on, they become shorter and wider than the other ones e the spinous process was makeable from the fifth cervical vertebrae on. There are thirteen thoracic vertebrae and the spinous process of the lumbar vertebrae, which are seven, decreases from the fifth on. The sacrum is formed by two vertebrae and there are twenty or twenty one caudal vertebrae. It can be concluded that the crab-eating fox axial skeleton is similar to that of the domestic dog.

  17. Autonomic management of multiple non-functional concerns in behavioural skeletons

    CERN Document Server

    Aldinucci, Marco; Kilpatrick, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We introduce and address the problem of concurrent autonomic management of different non-functional concerns in parallel applications build as a hierarchical composition of behavioural skeletons. We first define the problems arising when multiple concerns are dealt with by independent managers, then we propose a methodology supporting coordinated management, and finally we discuss how autonomic management of multiple concerns may be implemented in a typical use case. The paper concludes with an outline of the challenges involved in realizing the proposed methodology on distributed target architectures such as clusters and grids. Being based on the behavioural skeleton concept proposed in the CoreGRID GCM, it is anticipated that the methodology will be readily integrated into the current reference implementation of GCM based on Java ProActive and running on top of major grid middleware systems.

  18. Hybrid Compounds Strategy in the Synthesis of Oleanolic Acid Skeleton-NSAID Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pawełczyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the synthesis of several hybrid individuals combining a natural oleanolic acid skeleton and synthetic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug moieties (NSAIDs. It studied structural modifications of the oleanolic acid structure by use of the direct reactivity of hydroxyl or hydroxyimino groups at position C-3 of the triterpenoid skeleton with the carboxylic function of anti-inflammatory drugs leading to new perspective compounds with high potential pharmacological activities. Novel ester- and iminoester-type derivatives of oleanolic unit with the different NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, aspirin, naproxen, and ketoprofen, were obtained and characterized. Moreover, preliminary research of compounds obtaining structure stability under acidic conditions was examined and the PASS method of prediction of activity spectra for substances was used to estimate the potential biological activity of these compounds.

  19. Age-Dependent Reductions in Mitochondrial Respiration are Exacerbated by Calcium in the Female Rat Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, J. Craig; Machikas, Alexandra M.; Korzick, Donna H.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease mortality increases rapidly following menopause by poorly defined mechanisms. Since mitochondrial function and Ca2+ sensitivity are important regulators of cell death following myocardial ischemia, we sought to determine if aging and/or estrogen deficiency (ovx) increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity. Mitochondrial respiration was measured in ventricular mitochondria isolated from adult (6mo; n=26) and aged (24mo; n=25), intact or ovariectomized female rats using the ...

  20. Distribution of 241Am in the human body as determined by external counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for determining the distribution of 241Am within the body of a contaminated subject and their application to several cases under study at the Center for Human Radiobiology are described. In general, 241Am is found in the lungs even at long times after inhalation, and systemic 241Am is observed to deposit in the liver and to label the skeleton in a fairly uniform manner; similar findings have been reported in animal studies (L172). Further analysis of the skeletal distribution of 241Am indicates deposition on bone surfaces. In contrast, the distribution of injected 239Pu in an (abnormal) skeleton is rather non-uniform when compared to that of 241Am

  1. Geomagnetic Investigation of Sandstone Dikes of the Colorado Front Range, for Determination of Age and Mode of Emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, D.; Petronis, M. S.; Siddoway, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    In the Colorado Front Range, an array of sandstone dikes has intrigued geologists for over a century (Cross 1894,GSAB, 5, 525). Within their crystalline host, the dikes reach widths >7m and have a lateral extent of 70km along the Ute Pass Fault (UPF). The essential questions of sediment source, emplacement mode, and age of the dikes are unanswered. We present new paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) results used to determine the age and emplacement behavior of the dikes. The eleven dikes selected for magnetic studies have sharp, planar margins, and share the systematic geometry of the NW striking subvertical dike array. They exhibit little or no overprint by brittle fracturing/shear associated with the UPF. Our approach involved the use of paleomagnetic techniques to isolate the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), which we used to limit the age of the dikes' magnetization. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS),arising from alignment of detrital magnetite, serves as a proxy for the orientation of flow during dike emplacement. U-Pb detrital zircon ages, obtained previously, did not provide a useful constraint on emplacement age because the dominant age matches that of the prevalent host,1.03Ga Pikes Peak Granite. IRM acquisition experiments were performed to identify the principal magnetic phases as a mixture of Fe-Ti oxide phases, likely to be low-Ti magnetite and hematite. The sandstone consists of sub-rounded to rounded sand-sized quartz, angular feldspar (600°C. Some samples carry a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) of NW declination with shallow positive inclination, while others yield a characteristic remanent magnetization of SE declination with shallow inclination. By correlation with paleomagnetic results from the region, our findings indicate an age Permian or older. The NW directed ChRM may signify a magnetization of Neoproterozoic age, while the SE directed ChRM is more consistent with a

  2. Determination of scandium by atomic absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriege, O H; Welcher, G G

    1968-08-01

    A comprehensive study has been made of the determination of scandium by atomic absorption. In addition to the instrumental variables such as flame-height, slitwidth and lamp current, a number of solution variables have been studied including the effect of anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and fluoride), organic solvents, and other metals on the determination of scandium. Standard conditions have been established for the detection of minor amounts of scandium in a wide variety of materials including complex alloys of iron, nickel, aluminium, magnesium, and the rare earths. PMID:18960364

  3. Retention half times in the skeleton of plutonium and 90Sr from above-ground nuclear tests: a retrospective study of the Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidevaux, Pascal; Bochud, François; Haldimann, Max

    2010-07-01

    Plutonium and (90)Sr are considered to be among the most radiotoxic nuclides produced by the nuclear fission process. In spite of numerous studies on mammals and humans there is still no general agreement on the retention half time of both radionuclides in the skeleton in the general population. Here we determined plutonium and (90)Sr in human vertebrae in individuals deceased between 1960 and 2004 in Switzerland. Plutonium was measured by sensitive SF-ICP-MS techniques and (90)Sr by radiometric methods. We compared our results to the ones obtained for other environmental compartments to reveal the retention half time of NBT fallout (239)Pu and (90)Sr in trabecular bones of the Swiss population. Results show that plutonium has a retention half time of 40+/-14 years. In contrast (90)Sr has a shorter retention half time of 13.5+/-1.0 years. Moreover (90)Sr retention half time in vertebrae is shown to be linked to the retention half time in food and other environmental compartments. These findings demonstrate that the renewal of the vertebrae through calcium homeostatic control is faster for (90)Sr excretion than for plutonium excretion. The precise determination of the retention half time of plutonium in the skeleton will improve the biokinetic model of plutonium metabolism in humans.

  4. Reproductive biology and age determination of Garra rufa Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) in central Iran

    OpenAIRE

    ABEDI, Masoud; SHIVA, Amir Houshang; Mohammadi, Hamid; MALEKPOUR, Rokhsareh

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of the reproductive biology of Garra rufa Heckel, 1843, a native cyprinid fish species from the Armand stream in Chaharmahal-o-Bakhtiari province, central Iran, were investigated by regular monthly collections throughout 1 year. A significant relationship between length and weight and the isometric growth pattern were observed in this fish. There were no significant differences in the total number of male and female specimens. The population of this cyprinid fish had a narrow age...

  5. Evaluation of Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus Population by Age and Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JERINA KOLITARI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anchovy (Engraulis enchrasicholus, is a member of small pelagic fish group in the waters of the Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea with important economic value for all regional countries, including Albania. The purpose of this study was to define the age of Anchovy, as one of the important indicators for the assessment of fishing reserves. Age evaluation was based on sagital otoliths, found in the inner ear of the fish. The study was conducted at the Aquaculture and Fishery Laboratory in Durres, during the period January 2008 - December 2009. At this time, 863 fish were analysed. For each individual was kept records for weight and height then, otoliths were removed, and finally watched in stereomicroscope (40 X annual assessment circles around the otoliths opaque core. Age of fish is equal to the number of annual rings. The study showed that the average age was 2.22 year, and 70% were 2+ and 3+ years. The average length was 13.98 cm. About 58% of anchovy fish were with length 12.5 - 15 cm. This study will help determine the population dynamics of anchovy fish and more accurate predictions for the amount of fish to hunt in defined time periods.

  6. The challenges posed by climate change to successful ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanka, A; Arnberger, A; Allex, B; Eder, R; Hutter, H-P; Wallner, P

    2014-08-01

    Ever since the 2003 heat wave that caused 70,000 heat deaths, the dramatic consequences of climate change and rising temperatures in Europe have become an intensively researched topic. During heat waves, the older urban adult population is at highest risk. The STOPHOT project is the first investigation in Austria to establish a comprehensive knowledge base on heat perception, awareness of heat risks and adaptive/coping behaviours among older adults. The main research questions include: (1) Does climate change endanger the chances of successful ageing in urban areas? (2) How do age, social inequalities and the living environment intersect with environmental stressors in affecting successful ageing? (3) Which heat adaption strategies do older adults deploy and to what extent can they mediate heat stress in an effort to increase chances of successful ageing under the conditions of climate change? The results indicate that climate change and rising temperatures are in fact one important determinant of whether and how an older person can maintain well-being in later life. Older adults (> 65 years) with a low socio-economic status and poor health conditions, who tend to be socially isolated, are most at risk. However, no 'heat island effect' of the residential environment could be found. How much a person suffers from heat stress is highly dependent on the adaption strategies deployed. Adaption strategies of older urban residents mostly centred on body-related measures, such as drinking more or wearing lighter clothes, and indoor-centred measures, particularly avoiding the outdoors. PMID:25119703

  7. A New Predictor AMH (anti-müllerian hormone to Determining Ovarian Reserve and Menoposual Aging in the Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Sarýyýldýz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available       Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH, also termed Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS, is produced in ovary by granulose cells and known as a member of the TGF- β superfamily. The researchers imply that AMH is associated with the various growth factors in development and growth of ovarian follicles, furthermore  is exhibited the features of other TGF-β family members. AMH has a critical importance in reproductive age of women. Certain standardization has not yet been developed in determing the ovarian reserve. Recent findings reveal the importance of AMH in determining ovary function and, highlight the importance of AMH than FSH.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 86 - Experimentally Determining the R-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in § 86.1826-08(d)(4). 3. Plot emissions (or catalyst inefficiency) versus aging time for each.... Plot the natural log (ln) of the slope of each best-fit line (determined in step 4) along the...

  9. Older age and dietary folate are determinants of genomic and p16-specific DNA methylation in mouse colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder age and inadequate folate intake are strongly implicated as important risk factors for colon cancer, and each is associated with altered DNA methylation. This study was designed to determine the effect of aging and dietary folate on select features of DNA methylation in the colon that are rele...

  10. Identification through osteometric data on three radium-burdened skeletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The skeletal remains of four persons of uncertain identity were disinterred from a family grave. The weight and description morphological traits of each bone were recorded, as were the lengths of the long bones. Analyses of these data, combined with information obtained from medical records and disinterment reports, led to the specific identification of each skeleton

  11. A Skeleton for Distributed Work Pools in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Berthold, Jost; Loogen, Rita

    2010-01-01

    the worker processes. The latter are arranged in a ring topology and exchange additional channels to shortcut communication paths. The skeleton is suited for different types of algorithms, namely simple data parallel ones and standard tree search algorithms like backtracking, and using a global state...

  12. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

  13. Ocean acidification and warming scenarios increase microbioerosion of coral skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Nivia, Catalina; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Kline, David; Guldberg, Ove-Hoegh; Dove, Sophie

    2013-06-01

    Biological mediation of carbonate dissolution represents a fundamental component of the destructive forces acting on coral reef ecosystems. Whereas ocean acidification can increase dissolution of carbonate substrates, the combined impact of ocean acidification and warming on the microbioerosion of coral skeletons remains unknown. Here, we exposed skeletons of the reef-building corals, Porites cylindrica and Isopora cuneata, to present-day (Control: 400 μatm - 24 °C) and future pCO2 -temperature scenarios projected for the end of the century (Medium: +230 μatm - +2 °C; High: +610 μatm - +4 °C). Skeletons were also subjected to permanent darkness with initial sodium hypochlorite incubation, and natural light without sodium hypochlorite incubation to isolate the environmental effect of acidic seawater (i.e., Ωaragonite ocean acidification and warming will lead to increased rates of microbioerosion. However, the magnitude of bioerosion responses may depend on the structural properties of coral skeletons, with a range of implications for reef carbonate losses under warmer and more acidic oceans.

  14. Markov Skeleton Processes and Applications to Queueing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-ting Hou

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the backward equations of Markov skeleton processes to queueing systems.The transient distribution of the waiting time of a GI/G/1 queueing system, the transient distribution of the length of a GI/G/N queueing system and the transient distribution of the length of queueing networks are obtained.

  15. T-oxy Ⅲ Skeleton Chronograph腕表

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    提起Titanic,你是否会想起10年前的好莱坞经典之作,杰克与罗斯的邂逅,还有那颗见证他们爱情的海洋之心?T-oxy Ⅲ Skeleton Chronograph腕表身上流淌着Titanic的血液,

  16. A vanished history of skeletonization in Cambrian comb jellies

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Qiang; Xiao, Shuhai; Han, Jian; Sun, Ge; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Zhifei; Shu, Degan

    2015-01-01

    Ctenophores are traditionally regarded as “lower” metazoans, sharing with cnidarians a diploblastic grade of organization. Unlike cnidarians, where skeletonization (biomineralization and sclerotization) evolved repeatedly among ecologically important taxa (for example, scleractinians and octocorals), living ctenophores are characteristically soft-bodied animals. We report six sclerotized and armored ctenophores from the early Cambrian period. They have diagnostic ctenophore features (for exam...

  17. Determination of Gender and Age Based on Pattern of Human Motion Using AdaBoost Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handri, Santoso; Nomura, Shusaku; Nakamura, Kazuo

    Automated human identification by their walking behavior is a challenge attracting much interest among machine vision researchers. However, practical systems for such identification remain to be developed. In this study, a machine learning approach to understand human behavior based on motion imagery was proposed as the basis for developing pedestrian safety information systems. At the front end, image and video processing was performed to separate foreground from background images. Shape-width was then analyzed using 2D discrete wavelet transformation to extract human motion features. Finally, an adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) algorithm was performed to classify human gender and age into its class. The results demonstrated capability of the proposed systems to classify gender and age highly accurately.

  18. Microbial determination of Cumin by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumin is one of the valuable export items of Iran, and like most of the agricultural products it is contaminated by microorganisms. Due to importance of this product, the gamma irradiation method, which has applications in microbial decontamination, has been used for the improving its quality and increasing the shelf life-time. For this purpose pak ages of 10 gr of cumin were irradiated by 2,4,6 and 8 KGy from 60Co source. With each dose, four samples were irradiated and results were compared with controlled not irradiated samples. According to the standard limitation of bacteria and molds the total optimum doses are 7.5 and 5 KGy respectively

  19. Determination of Young's modulus by nanoindentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Dejun; Chung; Wo; Ong; LIU; Jianmin; HE; Jiawen

    2004-01-01

    A methodology for determining Young's modulus of materials by non-ideally sharp indentation has been developed. According to the principle of the same area-to-depth ratio, a non-ideally pyramidal indenter like a Berkovich one can be approximated by a non-ideally conical indenter with a spherical cap at the tip. By applying dimensional and finite element analysis to the non-ideally conical indentation, a set of approximate one-to-one relationships between the ratio of nominal hardness/reduced Young's modulus and the ratio of elastic work/total work, which correspond to different tip bluntness, have been revealed. The nominal hardness is defined as the maximum indentation load divided by the cross-section area of the conical indenter specified at the maximum indentation depth. As a consequence, Young's modulus can be determined from a nanoindentation test only using the maximum indentation load and depth, and the work done during loading and unloading processes. The new method for determining Young's modulus is referred to as "pure energy method". The validity of the method was examined by performing indentation tests on five materials. The experimental results and the standard reference values are in good agreement, indicating that the proposed pure energy method is a promising substitution for the most widely used analysis models at present.

  20. Cases of acute gastroenteritis due to calicivirus in outbreaks: clinical differences by age and aetiological agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, M R; Broner, S; Moreno, A; Arias, C; Godoy, P; Minguell, S; Martínez, A; Torner, N; Bartolomé, R; de Simón, M; Guix, S; Domínguez, A

    2014-08-01

    The Caliciviridae family includes norovirus and sapovirus, which both cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Currently, norovirus is the most common cause of AGE in all age groups in many countries. We analysed clinical differences in reported cases of acute gastroenteritis caused by caliciviruses (AGC) by age group and agent involved. We conducted a descriptive study of AGE outbreaks reported to the Public Health Agency of Catalonia (Spain) in 2010 and 2011. The odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association between clinical symptoms and age. Clinical differences between the clinical manifestations of sapovirus and norovirus infection in children aged cases caused by norovirus more frequently presented with vomiting and fever (p cases caused by sapovirus more frequently presented with diarrhoea (p 0.013). Determination of the clinical differences associated with cases in outbreaks according to the age of the majority of cases and the symptoms most frequently detected may aid decision making and guide aetiological investigations and the adoption of prevention and control measures.