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Sample records for age dependent emphysema

  1. Maximum volumes in excised human lungs: effects of age, emphysema, and formalin inflation.

    OpenAIRE

    Berend, N; Skoog, C; Waszkiewicz, L; Thurlbeck, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    The volume of air at a transpulmonary pressure (PL) of 25 cmH2O was measured in 28 emphysema-free and 39 emphysematous excised adult lungs and in the lungs of 53 infants and children. In the adult emphysema-free lungs, this volume (V25) was significantly correlated with body length in males but, corrected for body length, not significantly correlated with age in either males or females. V25 was on the average 20 per cent larger than predicted TLC in non-emphysematous lungs in vivo. The lungs ...

  2. A comparative study of computed tomographic techniques for the detection of emphysema in middle-aged and older patient populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helical-scan computed tomography (CT) is now widely utilized as a mass screening procedure for lung cancer. By adding 3 slices of high-resolution CT (HRCT) to the standard screening procedure, we were able to compare the efficacy of helical-scan CT and HRCT in detecting pulmonary emphysema. Additionally, the prevalence of emphysema detected by HRCT was examined as a function of patient age and smoking history. The subjects (106 men and 28 women) were all community-based middle-aged and older volunteers who participated in a mass lung cancer screening program. Based on visual assessments of the CT films, emphysema was detected in 29 subjects (22%) by HRCT, but in only 4 (3%) by helical-scan CT. Although the prevalence of emphysema was higher among subjects with a higher smoking index, no correlations with age were observed. We concluded that the efficacy of helical scan CT in detecting pulmonary emphysema can be significantly improved with the inclusion of 3 slices of HRCT, and confirmed that cigarette smoking is linked to the development of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  3. Quantitative computed tomography: emphysema and airway wall thickness by sex, age and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, T B; Dirksen, A; Coxson, H O;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how quantitative high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) vary with sex, age and smoking history. We included 463 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases and 431 controls. All included subjects were current or ex...... cases, respectively, and 0.71 (0.3-1.6) and 0.32 (0.1-0.8) in male and female controls, respectively. %LAA950 was higher in ex-smokers and increased with increasing age and with increasing number of pack-years. The mean+/-SD standardised AWT was 0.504+/-0.030 and 0.474+/-0.031 in male and female COPD...... varying sex, age and smoking groups of both control and COPD subjects....

  4. Lung injury-dependent oxidative status and chymotrypsin-like activity of skeletal muscles in hamsters with experimental emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonon Jair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral skeletal muscle is altered in patients suffering from emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Oxidative stress have been demonstrated to participate on skeletal muscle loss of several states, including disuse atrophy, mechanical ventilation, and chronic diseases. No evidences have demonstrated the occurance in a severity manner. Methods We evaluated body weight, muscle loss, oxidative stress, and chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of emphysemic hamsters. The experimental animals had 2 different severities of lung damage from experimental emphysema induced by 20 mg/mL (E20 and 40 mg/mL (E40 papain. Results The severity of emphysema increased significantly in E20 (60.52 ± 2.8, p Conclusions Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that muscle atrophy observed in this model of emphysema is mediated by increased muscle chymotrypsin-like activity, with possible involvement of oxidative stress in a severity-dependent manner.

  5. Airway mucus obstruction triggers macrophage activation and matrix metalloproteinase 12-dependent emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanek, Joanna B; Cobos-Correa, Amanda; Diemer, Stefanie; Kormann, Michael; Schubert, Susanne C; Zhou-Suckow, Zhe; Agrawal, Raman; Duerr, Julia; Wagner, Claudius J; Schatterny, Jolanthe; Hirtz, Stephanie; Sommerburg, Olaf; Hartl, Dominik; Schultz, Carsten; Mall, Marcus A

    2014-11-01

    Whereas cigarette smoking remains the main risk factor for emphysema, recent studies in β-epithelial Na(+) channel-transgenic (βENaC-Tg) mice demonstrated that airway surface dehydration, a key pathophysiological mechanism in cystic fibrosis (CF), caused emphysema in the absence of cigarette smoke exposure. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of emphysema formation triggered by airway surface dehydration. We therefore used expression profiling, genetic and pharmacological inhibition, Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based activity assays, and genetic association studies to identify and validate emphysema candidate genes in βENaC-Tg mice and patients with CF. We identified matrix metalloproteinase 12 (Mmp12) as a highly up-regulated gene in lungs from βENaC-Tg mice, and demonstrate that elevated Mmp12 expression was associated with progressive emphysema formation, which was reduced by genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of MMP12 in vivo. By using FRET reporters, we show that MMP12 activity was elevated on the surface of airway macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage from βENaC-Tg mice and patients with CF. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a functional polymorphism in MMP12 (rs2276109) was associated with severity of lung disease in CF. Our results suggest that MMP12 released by macrophages activated on dehydrated airway surfaces may play an important role in emphysema formation in the absence of cigarette smoke exposure, and may serve as a therapeutic target in CF and potentially other chronic lung diseases associated with airway mucus dehydration and obstruction. PMID:24828142

  6. Functional Characterization of a Porcine Emphysema Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Camilla Sichlau; Jensen, Louise Kruse; Leifsson, Páll Skuli;

    2013-01-01

    Lung emphysema is a central feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a frequent human disease worldwide. Cigarette smoking is the major cause of COPD, but genetic predisposition seems to be an important factor. Mutations in surfactant protein genes have been linked to COPD...... phenotypes in humans. Also, the catalytic activities of metalloproteinases (MMPs) are central in the pathogenesis of emphysema/COPD. Especially MMP9, but also MMP2, MMP7, and MMP12 seem to be involved in human emphysema. MMP12−/− mice are protected from smoke-induced emphysema. ITGB6−/− mice spontaneously...... develop age-related lung emphysema due to lack of ITGB6-TGF-β1 regulation of the MMP12 expression.A mutated pig phenotype characterized by age-related lung emphysema and resembling the ITGB6−/− mouse has been described previously. To investigate the emphysema pathogenesis in this pig model, we examined...

  7. Subcutaneous Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Woehrlen, Arthur E.

    1985-01-01

    This case describes the development of subcutaneous emphysema following restorative dentistry performed under general anesthesia. Initial treatment consisted of intravenous epinephrine and dexamethasone due to difficulty in breathing and laryngeal stridor. Dexamethasone and other adjunctive drugs were administered over the 4 days following surgery while the symptoms subsided. The author emphasizes the importance of early recognition and prompt management in managing this unusual complication.

  8. Pulmonary emphysema and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed the relation between PE and smoking in 1,563 cases (1,068 men and 495 women) who underwent CT scaring for suspicion of respiratory disease on chest radiograph or some respiratory complaints. PE was diagnosed by the existence of low attenuation areas in CT scan and not by pulmonary function tests. CT was performed with 10 mm collimation in a standard algorithm. There were 2 subtypes of pulmonary emphysema: centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema. PE, regardless of the grade, was seen: in 189 out of 348 (54.3%) cases in males smokers and in only 2 out of 63 (3.2%) cases in male non-smokers; and in 5 out of 25 (20.0%) in female smokers and in 4 out of 203 (2.0%) in female non-smokers. PE was observed in more than half of male smokers. High incidence of PE was also observed in even younger generation, and severity would progress with advancing age and smoking. Both types of emphysema progress with age and amount of cigarette smoking. (author)

  9. Imaging of emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphysema is defined as a condition of the lung characterized by abnormal, permanent enlargement of airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole accompanied by destruction of the alveolar walls and without obvious fibrosis. It is a very common disease with high morbidity and mortality. Histopathologically, there are two types of emphysema: panlobular emphysema, typically occurring in α1-antitrypsin deficiency, and centrilobular emphysema, which is strongly associated with cigarette smoking. Computed tomography (CT) allows detection of emphysema with higher sensitivity than conventional chest radiography and pulmonary function tests. CT also allows quantification of emphysema and depicts associated changes and complications. The differential diagnosis of emphysema, which is characterized by the absence of clearly definable walls on CT, includes cystic lung disease, bullae, lung laceration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis -which are all characterized by visible walls on CT. (orig.)

  10. Optimal electrocardiographic limb lead set for rapid emphysema screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajaj R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rishi Bajaj,1 Lovely Chhabra,1 Zainab Basheer,2 David H Spodick31Department of Internal Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Al Ameen Medical College, Karnataka, India; 3Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Vincent Hospital, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: Pulmonary emphysema of any etiology has been shown to be strongly and quasidiagnostically associated with a vertical frontal P wave axis. A vertical P wave axis (>60 degrees during sinus rhythm can be easily determined by a P wave in lead III greater than the P wave in lead I (bipolar lead set or a dominantly negative P wave in aVL (unipolar lead set. The purpose of this investigation was to determine which set of limb leads may be better for identifying the vertical P vector of emphysema in adults.Methods: Unselected consecutive electrocardiograms from 100 patients with a diagnosis of emphysema were analyzed to determine the P wave axis. Patients aged younger than 45 years, those not in sinus rhythm, and those with poor quality tracings were excluded. The electrocardiographic data were divided into three categories depending on the frontal P wave axis, ie, >60 degrees, 60 degrees, or <60 degrees, by each criterion (P amplitude lead III > lead I and a negative P wave in aVL.Results: Sixty-six percent of patients had a P wave axis > 60 degrees based on aVL, and 88% of patients had a P wave axis > 60 degrees based on the P wave in lead III being greater than in lead I.Conclusion: A P wave in lead III greater than that in lead I is a more sensitive marker than a negative P wave in aVL for diagnosing emphysema and is recommended for rapid routine screening.Keywords: electrocardiography, P wave axis, emphysema

  11. National Emphysema Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advice for COPD/Emphysema Patients from Dr. Petty Asthma Interstitial Lung Disease PREVENTION Smoking Pollution and the Environment Occupational Health Hazards Early Detection LIVING with COPD Therapeutic ...

  12. Mediastinal emphysema after thoracotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mediastinal emphysema was seen via X-ray film in 35 of 40 patients after opening of the mediastinum by longitudinal sternotomy. After about a week it was found in approximately every second patient; after 14 days it had been fully absorbed by all patients. Mediastinal emphysema could occur in conjunction with a cutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax, respectively. Occasionally a pneumopericardium is seen even in the recumbent patient. Safe diagnosis of mediastinal emphysema is possible in the anterior lower mediastinum projected on to the cardiac silhouette if the X-ray film is taken obliquely. (orig.)

  13. Paraseptal emphysema: Prevalence and distribution on CT and association with interstitial lung abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% (85/2633) in the Framingham Heart Study population, predominantly affects the upper lung zone, and contributes to slightly decreased pulmonary function. • There was significant association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities, which is a novel finding. • Prevalence of paraseptal emphysema and its impact on pulmonary function could have been underestimated in the previous reports. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate the prevalence and distribution of paraseptal emphysema on chest CT images in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) population, and assess its impact on pulmonary function. Also pursued was the association with interstitial lung abnormalities. Materials and methods: We assessed 2633 participants in the FHS for paraseptal emphysema on chest CT. Characteristics of the participants, including age, sex, smoking status, clinical symptoms, and results of pulmonary function tests, were compared between those with and without paraseptal emphysema. The association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities was investigated. Results: Of the 2633 participants, 86 (3%) had pure paraseptal emphysema (defined as paraseptal emphysema with no other subtypes of emphysema other than paraseptal emphysema or a very few centrilobular emphysema involved) in at least one lung zone. The upper zone of the lungs was almost always involved. Compared to the participants without paraseptal emphysema, those with pure paraseptal emphysema were significantly older, and were more frequently male and smokers (mean 64 years, 71% male, mean 36 pack-years, P < 0.001) and had significantly decreased FEV1/FVC% (P = 0.002), and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) (P = 0.002). There was a significant association between pure paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% in the FHS

  14. FT4 in serum depending on age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 413 healthy normals age dependence was investigated for the parameters: Total T4, free T4, T4/TBG ratio and fractional fT4 (fT4/T4). Total T4 did not show age related changes, but T4/TBG ratio, fT4 and fractional fT4 declined with increasing age. (orig.)

  15. CT scores of emphysema and oxygen desaturation during low-grade exercise in patients with emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We evaluated the usefulness of CT for assessing oxygen desaturation during walking in patients with emphysema. Material and methods: The study comprised 32 patients with emphysema (mean age 67±6 years). Serial CT images of 5 mm were obtained from the apex to the basal regions of the lung during deep inspiration. The severity of emphysema was scored by four physicians according to a visual method. A six-minute walking test and oxygen desaturation (pSO2) measurements were performed. Results and conclusion: The mean CT score of the four observers was significantly correlated with the nadir pSO2 and deltapSO2, but did not correlate with the total distance walked. These results suggest that CT may be used for the assessment of oxygen desaturation during low-grade exercise in patients with emphysema

  16. CT assessment of progression in pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the progression of pulmonary emphysema (PE) using CT. We reviewed the records of 25 cases (all male smokers and age range of 36-85 years) in whom progression of PE was recognized using CT scanning. PE was diagnosed by the presence of low attenuation areas on CT scan. PE was divided into 2 subtypes: centrilobular emphysema (CLE) and paraseptal emphysema (PSE). There were 8 younger cases less than 50s. With respect to smoking habit, 6 cases had 1 pack per day at maximum whereas the remaining 19 cases had more over than 1.5 packs per day. Interval periods of observation were from 8 months minimum to 10 years maximum. PE, of both CLE and PSE subtype, was recognized even in younger cases less than 40 years of age, and progressed with cigarette consumption even a minimum during 8 months periods of observation. (author)

  17. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenough, A; Dixon, A K; Roberton, N R

    1984-01-01

    Forty one of 210 preterm infants ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome in a three year period had radiological evidence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema. The development of this condition was significantly associated with malpositioning of the endotracheal tube in a main bronchus and the use of high peak pressure ventilation. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema was associated with a significant increase in the number of pneumothoraces, intraventricular haemorrhages, and the need for pr...

  18. Ecstasy induced retropharyngeal emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Onwudike, M

    1996-01-01

    This is the first reported case of isolated retropharyngeal emphysema caused by ingestion of the amphetamine derivatives "Ecstasy" and "Speed". The same complication has been reported with marihuana, cocaine, and heroin abuse. The condition resolved spontaneously and this seems to be the experience of others who have reported cases of cervical emphysema and pneumomediastinum associated with substance abuse. Because of the self limiting nature of this condition, extensive investigations may no...

  19. Early detection of emphysema progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Jacobs, Sander S A M; Lo, Pechin;

    2010-01-01

    more sensitive estimates of emphysema progression. The standard CT densitometric score of emphysema is the relative area of voxels below a threshold (RA). The RA score is a global measurement and reflects the overall emphysema progression. In this work, we propose a framework for estimation of local...

  20. Age-dependent dosimetry and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radionuclides into the environment following the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 created an urgent need for internationally acceptable dose coefficients for calculating the doses delivered to all members of the public, from conception to old age. Organ masses and the kinetics of distribution and retention of elements in humans generally vary with age and often not in simple linear relationship to body weight. Unless variations are considered calculated radiation doses to children may be seriously underestimated. The International Commission on Radiological Protection created in 1987 a Task Group on Age-dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides (AGDOS). The work of AGDOS and the general problems encountered in deriving age-dependent dose coefficients will be discussed in this paper. The first two AGDOS reports, ICRP Publication 56 Parts 1 and 2, provide dose coefficients for the ages 3 months, 1, 5, 10, 15 years and for adults for the 21 elements considered to be of most immediate importance for radiation protection. To develop these dose coefficients, the ICRP Publication 30 dosimetric and biokinetic models were reevaluated and extended. The basic dosimetric model is retained but equivalent dose is now integrated from age at intake to 70 years and the new ICRP Publication 60 tissue weighting factors are incorporated. The development of age-dependent biokinetic models is complicated by the lack of age-related human, or even animal data for the majority of the elements. Thus in formulating the models it has been necessary to use all the available information, biokinetic, physiological chemical and biochemical, and to adopt a number of new approaches including the development of generic biokinetic models for chemically related families of elements such as the actinides and the alkaline earth elements. (author)

  1. Congenital Tuberculosis Complicated by Interstitial Pulmonary Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Tarsem; Natt, Navreet Kaur; Sharma, Manu; Singh, Harmanjit

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of congenital tuberculosis, a rare entity itself; complicated by pulmonary interstitial emphysema, thus leading to air entrapment in lungs and prolonged oxygen dependence. The diagnosis of congenital tuberculosis is often missed and under-reported due to low index of suspicion and less sensitivity of diagnostic tools.

  2. Bax-induced apoptosis shortens the life span of DNA repair defect Ku70-knockout mice by inducing emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Shigemi; Palmer, James; Bates, Adam; Poventud-Fuentes, Izmarie; Wong, Kelvin; Ngo, Justine; Matsuyama, Mieko

    2016-06-01

    Cells with DNA damage undergo apoptosis or cellular senescence if the damage cannot be repaired. Recent studies highlight that cellular senescence plays a major role in aging. However, age-associated diseases, including emphysema and neurodegenerative disorders, are caused by apoptosis of lung alveolar epithelial cells and neurons, respectively. Therefore, enhanced apoptosis also promotes aging and shortens the life span depending on the cell type. Recently, we reported that ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(-) (/) (-) and ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(+/) (-) mice showed significantly extended life span in comparison with ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(+/+) mice. Ku70 is essential for non-homologous end joining pathway for DNA double strand break repair, and Bax plays an important role in apoptosis. Our study suggests that Bax-induced apoptosis has a significant impact on shortening the life span of ku70(-) (/) (-) mice, which are defective in one of DNA repair pathways. The lung alveolar space gradually enlarges during aging, both in mouse and human, and this age-dependent change results in the decrease of respiration capacity during aging that can lead to emphysema in more severe cases. We found that emphysema occurred in ku70(-) (/) (-) mice at the age of three-months old, and that Bax deficiency was able to suppress it. These results suggest that Bax-mediated apoptosis induces emphysema in ku70(-) (/) (-) mice. We also found that the number of cells, including bronchiolar epithelial cells and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells, shows a higher DNA double strand break damage response in ku70 KO mouse lung than in wild type. Recent studies suggest that non-homologous end joining activity decreases with increased age in mouse and rat model. Together, we hypothesize that the decline of Ku70-dependent DNA repair activity in lung alveolar epithelial cells is one of the causes of age-dependent decline of lung function resulting from excess Bax-mediated apoptosis of lung alveolar epithelial cells (and their

  3. Pneumoparotitis with subcutaneous emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Srinivas, S; Aparna, K R

    2008-01-01

    We report an adolescent with recurrent bilateral parotitis with pneumoparotitis and subcutaneous emphysema due to self pneumoinsufflation by a Valsalva like maneuver. Investigations for recurrent parotitis did not yield any clue. His la belle indifference, prolonged school absence and the presence of sibling rivalry helped us identify the psychological cause. PMID:18250510

  4. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: A distinct underrecognised entity

    OpenAIRE

    Cottin, V; Nunes, H.; Brillet, P.-Y.; Delaval, P.; Devouassaoux, G.; Tillie-Leblond, I.; Israel-Biet, D.; Court-Fortune, I.; Valeyre, D; Cordier, J.-F.; Carré, P.; Chabot, F.; Chatté, G.; Coëtmeur, D.; Crestani, B

    2005-01-01

    The syndrome resulting from combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema has not been comprehensively described. The current authors conducted a retrospective study of 61 patients with both emphysema of the upper zones and diffuse parenchymal lung disease with fibrosis of the lower zones of the lungs on chest computed tomography. Patients (all smokers) included 60 males and one female, with a mean age of 65 yrs. Dyspnoea on exertion was present in all patients. Basal crackles were found in 87% a...

  5. Paraseptal emphysema: Prevalence and distribution on CT and association with interstitial lung abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro, E-mail: taraki@partners.org [Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Radiology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki [Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Zazueta, Oscar E. [The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josée [Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Okajima, Yuka [Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Latourelle, Jeanne C. [Department of Medicine and Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Rosas, Ivan O. [The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Department of Radiology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O’Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Washko, George R.; Hunninghake, Gary M. [The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% (85/2633) in the Framingham Heart Study population, predominantly affects the upper lung zone, and contributes to slightly decreased pulmonary function. • There was significant association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities, which is a novel finding. • Prevalence of paraseptal emphysema and its impact on pulmonary function could have been underestimated in the previous reports. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate the prevalence and distribution of paraseptal emphysema on chest CT images in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) population, and assess its impact on pulmonary function. Also pursued was the association with interstitial lung abnormalities. Materials and methods: We assessed 2633 participants in the FHS for paraseptal emphysema on chest CT. Characteristics of the participants, including age, sex, smoking status, clinical symptoms, and results of pulmonary function tests, were compared between those with and without paraseptal emphysema. The association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities was investigated. Results: Of the 2633 participants, 86 (3%) had pure paraseptal emphysema (defined as paraseptal emphysema with no other subtypes of emphysema other than paraseptal emphysema or a very few centrilobular emphysema involved) in at least one lung zone. The upper zone of the lungs was almost always involved. Compared to the participants without paraseptal emphysema, those with pure paraseptal emphysema were significantly older, and were more frequently male and smokers (mean 64 years, 71% male, mean 36 pack-years, P < 0.001) and had significantly decreased FEV{sub 1}/FVC% (P = 0.002), and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) (P = 0.002). There was a significant association between pure paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% in the

  6. Up-regulation of alveolar macrophage matrix metalloproteinases in HIV1+ smokers with early emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Kaner, Robert J.; Santiago, Francisco; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2009-01-01

    HIV1+ smokers develop emphysema at an earlier age and with a higher incidence than HIV1– smokers. Since human alveolar macrophages (AMs) are capable of producing proteases that degrade extracellular matrix components, we hypothesized that up-regulation of AM matrix metalloproteinases may be associated with the emphysema of HIV1+ smokers. Microarray analysis was used to screen which matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) genes were expressed by AM of HIV1+ smokers with early emphysema. For each of t...

  7. Early detection of emphysema progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Jacobs, Sander S A M; Lo, Pechin; Dirksen, Asger; Nielsen, Mads; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza; de Bruijne, Marleen

    Emphysema is one of the most widespread diseases in subjects with smoking history. The gold standard method for estimating the severity of emphysema is a lung function test, such as forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). However, several clinical studies showed that chest CT scans offer...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...

  8. Emphysema Then and Now

    OpenAIRE

    Thurlbeck, William M.

    1994-01-01

    The present definition or emphysema has three components: enlargement of airspaces. destruction or their walls and lack of fibrosis. Enlargement can be recognized by measuring the intcralvcolar wall distance or by comparing the airspaces under cnnsiJcration with adjacent or distant normal lung. Most recently. destruction has been defined as disappearance or disturbance or the orderly appearance or the pulmonary acinus (gas exchanging tissue). Other authors have also suggested that destruction...

  9. Management of Subcutaneous Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Tokur

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous emphysema can develop spontaneously, traumatically or iatrogenically. In its treatment, either no surgical intervention may be followed or initiatives in removal of the hypodermic aberrant air may be combined with treatment that leads to etiological causes. Procedures such as placing a chest tube, massage of the tissue, inserting cutaneous intracath, wrapping the chest wall with elastic bandage, fasciotomy, mediastinotomy, Video As-sisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS and thoracotomy may be implemented.

  10. [Bronchoscopic treatment of emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2012-04-01

    Bronchoscopic techniques for the management of emphysema have evolved from the success of surgical treatment. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) involves the removal of 20% to 30% of each lung and targets the most emphysematous segments. Patients with heterogeneous upper lobe emphysema and a low baseline exercise capacity have been identified as a subgroup within COPD in whom mortality benefits can even be achieved, along with improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life. Increased short-term mortality of approximately 5% and postoperative morbidity are the main limitations of LVRS. The extremely restrictive selection criteria for LVRS coupled with the relatively high mortality/morbidity have been the impetus for developing less invasive endoscopic modalities. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) researchers have pursued various approaches using a range of modalities, such as blockers, stents, valves, sealants, and implants. BLVR appears to be safer than LVRS in terms of mortality and morbidity. This safety profile presents an attractive alternative for patients with COPD who are fragile physiologically because of the severity of their lung disease and the presence of co-morbid illnesses. The current report aims to describe the various minimally invasive modalities available for the treatment of emphysema. PMID:22616152

  11. Índice de enfisema pulmonar em coorte de pacientes sem doença pulmonar conhecida: influência da idade Emphysema index in a cohort of patients with no recognizable lung disease: influence of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da idade no enfisema pulmonar, com base nos valores do índice de enfisema (IE em uma coorte de pacientes que nunca fumou e que não possuía doença pulmonar conhecida. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados exames de TC, considerados normais, de 315 pacientes. Tabagismo, doenças cardiorrespiratórias e exposição a drogas que poderiam causar doença pulmonar foram critérios de exclusão. Dessa coorte, selecionamos 32 pacientes (16 homens e 16 mulheres, igualmente divididos em dois grupos (idade 50 anos, que foram pareados por gênero e índice de massa corpórea. Realizou-se a quantificação do enfisema utilizando um programa específico. O IE foi calculado com um limiar de -950 UH. O volume pulmonar total (VPT e a densidade pulmonar média (DPM também foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: As médias gerais de VPT, DPM e IE foram 5.027 mL, -827 UH e 2,54%, respectivamente. A comparação entre os mais velhos e os mais novos mostrou as seguintes médias: VPT, 5.229 mL vs. 4.824 mL (p > 0,05; DPM, -846 UH vs. -813 UH (p OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of age on pulmonary emphysema, based on the values of the emphysema index (EI in a cohort of patients who had never smoked and who had no recognizable lung disease. METHODS: We reviewed the CT scans, reported as normal, of 315 patients. Exclusion criteria were a history of smoking, cardiorespiratory disease, and exposure to drugs that could cause lung disease. From this cohort, we selected 32 patients (16 men and 16 women, matched for gender and body mass index, who were divided equally into two groups by age ( 50 years. We quantified emphysema using a computer program specific to that task. The EI was calculated with a threshold of -950 HU. We also evaluated total lung volume (TLV and mean lung density (MLD. RESULTS: The overall means for TLV, MLD, and EI were 5,027 mL, -827 HU, and 2.54%, respectively. Mean values in the older and younger groups, respectively, were as follows

  12. Congenital lobar emphysema. A rare cause of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural-Kara, Tuğçe; Özdemir, Halil; Çiftçi, Ergin; İnce, Erdal

    2016-07-01

    Congenital lobar emphysema is a rare disease, which is characterized by pulmoner hyperinflation. Depending on the degree of bronchial obstruction, the clinical presentation may be variable. We report a rare case with congenital lobar emphysema in a 38-days-old male infant who presented with severe respiratory distress and hypertension. Air trapping in the left upper lung and significant mediastinal shift to the right were observed on the chest x-ray. Emphysematous changes were detected on the thorax computed tomography and considered as congenital lobar emphysema. The upper left lobectomy was successfully performed by pediatric surgeons. On postoperative follow up, no sign of respiratory distress occured and the patient was normotensive. In this report, a case with congenital lobar emphysema, which is a rare cause of respiratory distress and hypertension is discussed. PMID:27381542

  13. Marijuana abuse and bullous emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Harsh Golwala

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana abuse has been on an increasing trend worldwide in the last decade. We hereby report a case of severe bullous emphysema resulting in pneumothorax in a patient with few years of marijuana abuse. We also review the major conditions in the differential diagnosis of bullous emphysema in adults.

  14. Early Detection of Emphysema Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, V.; Jacobs, S.S.A.M.; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau;

    2010-01-01

    Emphysema is one of the most widespread diseases in subjects with smoking history. The gold standard method for estimating the severity of emphysema is a lung function test, such as forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). However, several clinical studies showed that chest CT scans offer...

  15. Rare cause of subcutaneous emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prober, A.; Tverskoy, M.

    1986-12-01

    A rare cause of subcutaneous emphysema is described which developed in two patients after epidural anaesthesia. Only two case reports could be found in literature describing similar conditions. The anaesthesia is performed using the 'loss of resistance' technique with injection of air for the identification of the epidural space. Possible explanations for the development of the emphysema are discussed.

  16. Emphysema in heavy smokers with normal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the severity and extent of emphysema in heavy smokers by high-resolution CT (HRCT) and to correlate the findings with spirometric tests (STs) and symptomatology. Material and Methods: Fifty adult smokers with a mean age of 53 years with a smoking history of more than 30 pack years and normal chest radiographs underwent HRCT of the chest and ST (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR). Among these, 22 had symptoms of pulmonary disease and 28 were asymptomatic. Quantification of emphysema was done using a density mask program and the visual scoring method. The results were correlated with ST and symptomatology. Results: 58% (29 out of 50) of the subjects had significant emphysema on HRCT. Eleven out of 15 with normal ST showed emphysema on HRCT while 2 with airflow obstruction on ST showed normal CT scores. 14% (4 out of 28) asymptomatic subjects had severe emphysema compared to 64% of symptomatic subjects. Emphysematous changes were predominantly seen in upper lung zones in 48% of the patients while in 52% it was distributed equally in both upper and lower zones. The number of pack years of smoking showed a positive correlation with CT scores. The correlation between HRCT scores and ST was statistically significant. Conclusion: A significant number of asymptomatic and clinically undiagnosed smokers tend to have significant emphysema. HRCT helps in early detection of disease and thus helps implementation of preventive measures

  17. Emphysema in heavy smokers with normal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sashidhar, K.; Monga, S.; Suri, S. [Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Radiodiagnosis; Gulati, M.; Gupta, D. [Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Pulmonary Medicine

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the severity and extent of emphysema in heavy smokers by high-resolution CT (HRCT) and to correlate the findings with spirometric tests (STs) and symptomatology. Material and Methods: Fifty adult smokers with a mean age of 53 years with a smoking history of more than 30 pack years and normal chest radiographs underwent HRCT of the chest and ST (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR). Among these, 22 had symptoms of pulmonary disease and 28 were asymptomatic. Quantification of emphysema was done using a density mask program and the visual scoring method. The results were correlated with ST and symptomatology. Results: 58% (29 out of 50) of the subjects had significant emphysema on HRCT. Eleven out of 15 with normal ST showed emphysema on HRCT while 2 with airflow obstruction on ST showed normal CT scores. 14% (4 out of 28) asymptomatic subjects had severe emphysema compared to 64% of symptomatic subjects. Emphysematous changes were predominantly seen in upper lung zones in 48% of the patients while in 52% it was distributed equally in both upper and lower zones. The number of pack years of smoking showed a positive correlation with CT scores. The correlation between HRCT scores and ST was statistically significant. Conclusion: A significant number of asymptomatic and clinically undiagnosed smokers tend to have significant emphysema. HRCT helps in early detection of disease and thus helps implementation of preventive measures.

  18. [Spontaneous mediastinal emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedbrand, Charlotte; Lange, Peter; Nielsen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous mediastinal emphysema, also known as spontaneous pneumomediastinum, is defined as radiologically detected free air in the mediastinum, without preceding trauma. It is a rare condition, mainly affecting young adults. It can be caused by coughing, strenuous sports or cocaine inhalation, however, 40% are idiopatic. Common symptoms are chest pain and dyspnoea. 75-90% can be diagnosed with a chest X-ray, and 100% with a computed tomography. Treatment is symptomatic and complications are rare, however, pneumothorax and pneumorrachis have been reported. PMID:26750190

  19. Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Utility of Pulmonary Function Tests in Predicting Emphysema in Ever-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Kheradmand

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. We enrolled 224 ever-smokers (current or former over the age of 40. CT of thorax was used to quantify the low attenuation area (% emphysema, and to measure the standardized airway wall thickness. PFTs were used individually and in combination to predict their ability to discriminate radiographic emphysema. Significant emphysema (>7% was detected in 122 (54% subjects. Twenty six (21% emphysema subjects had no evidence of airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC ratio 23% emphysema showed airflow obstruction. The sensitivity and specificity of spirometry for detecting radiographic emphysema were 79% and 75%, respectively. Standardized airway wall thickness was increased in subjects with airflow obstruction, but did not correlate with emphysema severity. In this cohort of lifetime ever-smokers, PFTs alone were inadequate for diagnosing emphysema. Airway wall thickness quantified by CT morphometry was associated with airflow limitation, but not with emphysema indicating that the heterogeneous nature of lung disease in smokers may represent distinct phenotypes.

  20. Age Dependent Face Recognition using Eigenface

    OpenAIRE

    Hlaing Htake Khaung Tin

    2013-01-01

    Face recognition is the most successful form of human surveillance. Face recognition technology, is being used to improve human efficiency when recognition faces, is one of the fastest growing fields in the biometric industry. In the first stage, the age is classified into eleven categories which distinguish the person oldness in terms of age. In the second stage of the process is face recognition based on the predicted age. Age prediction has considerable potential applications in human comp...

  1. Imaging of pulmonary emphysema: A pictorial review

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Masashi; FUKUOKA, JUNYA; NITTA, NORIHISA; Takazakura, Ryutaro; NAGATANI, YUKIHIRO; Murakami, Yoko; OTANI, HIDEJI; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The term ‘emphysema’ is generally used in a morphological sense, and therefore imaging modalities have an important role in diagnosing this disease. In particular, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a reliable tool for demonstrating the pathology of emphysema, even in subtle changes within secondary pulmonary lobules. Generally, pulmonary emphysema is classified into three types related to the lobular anatomy: centrilobular emphysema, panlobular emphysema, and paraseptal emphysema....

  2. Towards exaggerated emphysema stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Sørensen, L.; Lauze, F.; Igel, C.; Loog, M.; Feragen, A.; de Bruijne, M.; Nielsen, M.

    2012-03-01

    Classification is widely used in the context of medical image analysis and in order to illustrate the mechanism of a classifier, we introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype based on training data and trained classifier. The stereotype of some image class of interest should emphasize/exaggerate the characteristic patterns in an image class and visualize the information the employed classifier relies on. This is useful for gaining insight into the classification and serves for comparison with the biological models of disease. In this work, we build exaggerated image stereotypes by optimizing an objective function which consists of a discriminative term based on the classification accuracy, and a generative term based on the class distributions. A gradient descent method based on iterated conditional modes (ICM) is employed for optimization. We use this idea with Fisher's linear discriminant rule and assume a multivariate normal distribution for samples within a class. The proposed framework is applied to computed tomography (CT) images of lung tissue with emphysema. The synthesized stereotypes illustrate the exaggerated patterns of lung tissue with emphysema, which is underpinned by three different quantitative evaluation methods.

  3. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoedo, Mauricio Kauark, E-mail: mauricioamoedo@gmail.com [Interventional Radiology, Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, Luciana Volpon Soares; Souza, Antonio Soares [Instituto de Radiodiagnostico Rio Preto (Ultra-X), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Famerp), SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity. (author)

  4. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Kauark Amoedo; Luciana Volpon Soares Souza; Antonio Soares Souza; Arthur Soares de Souza Junior; Edson Marchiori

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity.

  5. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity. (author)

  6. Congenital lobar emphysema in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sadaqat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE is a clinico-radiological diagnosis, seen usually by four-six weeks of age (50% of patients and rarely (<5% of patients after the age of six months. Here, we report a young male with gradual onset of mild exertional breathlessness and physical examination revealing the features of right sided pneumothorax. X-ray of chest, with subsequent CT of chest, leads to the diagnosis of CLE. The pulmonary function tests, bronchoscopic examination and a1 -antitrypsin level are normal. Patient is managed conservatively.

  7. Persistent diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema mimicking pulmonary emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Demura, Y; Ishizaki, T; Nakanishi, M; Ameshima, S; Itoh, H.

    2009-01-01

    A 69-year-old male non-smoker with a history of atopic asthma presented with symptoms suggestive of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and this appeared to be corroborated by lung function testing and a chest radiograph. However, a chest CT showed no evidence of pulmonary emphysema and instead demonstrated free air along the bronchovascular sheaths indicative of pulmonary interstistial emphysema, possibly caused by repeated prior exacerbations of asthma. His lung function tests and symptom...

  8. Age dependent systemic exposure to inhaled salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Jespersen, Jakob Jessing; Bisgaard, Hans

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the effect of age on systemic exposure to inhaled salbutamol in children. METHODS: Fifty-eight asthmatic children, aged 3-16 years, inhaled 400 microg of salbutamol from a pressurized metered dose inhaler with spacer. The 20 min serum profile was analyzed. RESULTS: Prescribing a...

  9. Age-dependent radiosensitivity of mouse oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C.

    1976-06-08

    It has been shown that there are three distinct phases of radiosensitivity in oocytes of prepubertal mice: a period of rapidly increasing sensitivity between 0 and 4 days of age; a period of consistent, high sensitivity between 5 and 18 days of age; and a period of decreasing sensitivity from 19 to at least 21 days of age. Two distinct phases have been demonstrated for the rate of population decline of the oocytes of primary follicles: an initial period of rapid loss from 0 to 4 days of age; and a period of much slower loss from 5 through 23 days of age. Correlations have been drawn between the first two phases of radiosensitivity and morphological changes in the oocyte, and between the third phase of radiosensitivity and endocrinological changes in the maturing animal. The reaction of oocytes to radiation has been separated into two categories: immediate death (within 24 hours); and delayed death (over the entire lifespan of the animal). (auth)

  10. Age-dependent radiosensitivity of mouse oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown that there are three distinct phases of radiosensitivity in oocytes of prepubertal mice: a period of rapidly increasing sensitivity between 0 and 4 days of age; a period of consistent, high sensitivity between 5 and 18 days of age; and a period of decreasing sensitivity from 19 to at least 21 days of age. Two distinct phases have been demonstrated for the rate of population decline of the oocytes of primary follicles: an initial period of rapid loss from 0 to 4 days of age; and a period of much slower loss from 5 through 23 days of age. Correlations have been drawn between the first two phases of radiosensitivity and morphological changes in the oocyte, and between the third phase of radiosensitivity and endocrinological changes in the maturing animal. The reaction of oocytes to radiation has been separated into two categories: immediate death (within 24 hours); and delayed death (over the entire lifespan of the animal)

  11. Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scan in Pulmonary Emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfusion and ventilation imagings of the lung are well established procedure for diagnosing pulmonary embolism, differentiation it from chronic obstructive lung disease, and making an early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease. To evaluate the usefulness of radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) in chronic obstructive lung disease, especially pulmonary emphysema, we analyzed RIIs of five normal adult non-smokers, five asymptomatic smokers (age 25-42 years with the mean 36), and 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema (age 59-78 years with the mean 67). Scintigrams were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a BARC nebuliser with 15 mCi of 99mTc-phytate. Scanning was performed in the anterior, posterior, and lateral projections after five to 10-minute inhalation of the radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analyzed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function studies and chest radiographs. Also lung perfusion scan with 99mTc-MAA was performed in 12 patients. In five patients, we performed follow-up scans for the evaluation of the effects of a bronchodilator. Based on the X-ray findings and clinical symptoms, pulmonary emphysema was classified into four types: centrilobular (3 patients), panlobular (4 patients), intermediate (10 patients), and combined (4 patients). RII findings were patternized according to the type, extent, and intensity of the aerosol deposition in the central bronchial and bronchopulmonary system and lung parenchyma. 10 controls, normal five non-smokers and three asymptomatic smokers revealed homogeneous parenchymal deposition in the entire lung fields without central bronchial deposition. The remaining two of asymptomatic smokers revealed mild central airway deposition. The great majority of the patients showed either central (9/21) or combined type (10/21) of bronchopulmonary deposition and the remaining two patients peripheral bronchopulmonary deposition. Parenchymal aerosol deposition in pulmonary emphysema was

  12. Age Dependent Face Recognition using Eigenface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaing Htake Khaung Tin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is the most successful form of human surveillance. Face recognition technology, is being used to improve human efficiency when recognition faces, is one of the fastest growing fields in the biometric industry. In the first stage, the age is classified into eleven categories which distinguish the person oldness in terms of age. In the second stage of the process is face recognition based on the predicted age. Age prediction has considerable potential applications in human computer interaction and multimedia communication. In this paper proposes an Eigen based age estimation algorithm for estimate an image from the database. Eigenface has proven to be a useful and robust cue for age prediction, age simulation, face recognition, localization and tracking. The scheme is based on an information theory approach that decomposes face images into a small set of characteristic feature images called eigenfaces, which may be thought of as the principal components of the initial training set of face images. The eigenface approach used in this scheme has advantages over other face recognition methods in its speed, simplicity, learning capability and robustness to small changes in the face image.

  13. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of a novel phenotype in pigs characterized by juvenile hairlessness and age dependent emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Camilla S.; Jørgensen, Claus B.; Bay, Lene; Cirera, Susanna; Jensen, Henrik E.; Leifsson, Pàll S.; Nielsen, Jens; Christensen, Knud; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    ß6-/- knockout phenotype seen in mice, the two genes encoding the two subunits of integrin avß6, i.e. ITGB6 and ITGAV, were considered candidate genes for this trait. Results: The mutated pig phenotype is characterized by hairlessness until puberty, thin skin with few hair follicles and absence of...... analysis with four microsatellite markers. Mapping of the porcine ITGB6 and ITGAV in the IMpRH radiation hybrid panel confirmed the comparative mapping information. Sequencing of the ITGB6 and ITGAV coding sequences from affected and normal pigs revealed no evidence of a causative mutation, but alternative...... resembling the integrin ß6-/- knockout phenotype seen in mice has been characterized in the pig. The candidate region on SSC15 has been confirmed by linkage analysis but molecular and functional analyses have excluded that the mutated phenotype is caused by structural mutations in or ablation of any of the...

  14. Computed tomography measurement of rib cage morphometry in emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Sverzellati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors determining the shape of the human rib cage are not completely understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of anthropometric and COPD-related changes to rib cage variability in adult cigarette smokers. METHODS: Rib cage diameters and areas (calculated from the inner surface of the rib cage in 816 smokers with or without COPD, were evaluated at three anatomical levels using computed tomography (CT. CTs were analyzed with software, which allows quantification of total emphysema (emphysema%. The relationship between rib cage measurements and anthropometric factors, lung function indices, and %emphysema were tested using linear regression models. RESULTS: A model that included gender, age, BMI, emphysema%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%, and forced vital capacity (FVC% fit best with the rib cage measurements (R(2 = 64% for the rib cage area variation at the lower anatomical level. Gender had the biggest impact on rib cage diameter and area (105.3 cm(2; 95% CI: 111.7 to 98.8 for male lower area. Emphysema% was responsible for an increase in size of upper and middle CT areas (up to 5.4 cm(2; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.8 for an emphysema increase of 5%. Lower rib cage areas decreased as FVC% decreased (5.1 cm(2; 95% CI: 2.5 to 7.6 for 10 percentage points of FVC variation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that simple CT measurements can predict rib cage morphometric variability and also highlight relationships between rib cage morphometry and emphysema.

  15. Obesity and extent of emphysema depicted at CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate the underlying relationship between obesity and the extent of emphysema depicted at CT. Methods and materials: A dataset of 477 CT examinations was retrospectively collected from a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The low attenuation areas (LAAs; ≤950 HU) of the lungs were identified. The extent of emphysema (denoted as %LAA) was defined as the percentage of LAA divided by the lung volume. The association between log-transformed %LAA and body mass index (BMI) adjusted for age, sex, the forced expiratory volume in one second as percent predicted value (FEV1% predicted), and smoking history (pack years) was assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: After adjusting for age, gender, smoking history, and FEV1% predicted, BMI was negatively associated with severe emphysema in patients with COPD. Specifically, one unit increase in BMI is associated with a 0.93-fold change (95% CI: 0.91–0.96, p < 0.001) in %LAA; the estimated %LAA for males was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.36–2.26, p < 0.001) times that of females; per 10% increase in FEV1% predicated is associated with a 0.72-fold change (95% CI: 0.69–0.76, p < 0.001) in %LAA. Conclusion: Increasing obesity is negatively associated with severity of emphysema independent of gender, age, and smoking history. - Highlights: • BMI is inversely associated with emphysema depicted on CT. • Emphysema severity in men was higher than that in women. • ∼50% of the subjects with COPD in our dataset were either overweight or obese. • Age and smoking status are not significantly associated with %LAA

  16. Towards Exaggerated Emphysema Stereotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Igel, Christian; Loog, Marco; Feragen, Aasa; de Bruijne, Marleen; Nielsen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype for some image class of interest, which emphasizes/exaggerates the characteristic patterns in an image class and visualizes what visual information the classication relies on. This is useful for gaining insight into the classi cation and...... serves for comparison with thebiological models of disease. We build the exaggerated image stereotypes by optimizing an objective function which consists of a discriminativeterm based on the classi cation accuracy, and a generative term based on the class distribution. Agradient descent method is...... employed for optimization. We use this idea with Fisher's Linear Discriminant rule,and assume a multivariate normal distribution for samples within a class. The proposed framework is appliedto computed tomography (CT) images of lung tissue with emphysema. The synthesized stereotypes illustratethe...

  17. Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Utility of Pulmonary Function Tests in Predicting Emphysema in Ever-Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Farrah Kheradmand; Natasha Krowchuk; Corry, David B.; Harvey Coxson; Mammen, Manoj J.; Pamela Smithwick; Nadia Barrow; Sarah Perusich; Schabath, Matthew B.; E. O’Brian Smith; Hesselbacher, Sean E.; Robert Ross

    2011-01-01

    Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. We enrolled 224 ever-smokers (current or former) over the age of 40. CT of thorax was used to quantify the low attenuation area (% emphysema), and to measure the standardized airway wall thickness. PFTs were ...

  18. Towards an Analytical Age-Dependent Model of Contrast Sensitivity Functions for an Ageing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulan, Karine; Brémond, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) describes how the visibility of a grating depends on the stimulus spatial frequency. Many published CSF data have demonstrated that contrast sensitivity declines with age. However, an age-dependent analytical model of the CSF is not available to date. In this paper, we propose such an analytical CSF model based on visual mechanisms, taking into account the age factor. To this end, we have extended an existing model from Barten (1999), taking into account the dependencies of this model's optical and physiological parameters on age. Age-dependent models of the cones and ganglion cells densities, the optical and neural MTF, and optical and neural noise are proposed, based on published data. The proposed age-dependent CSF is finally tested against available experimental data, with fair results. Such an age-dependent model may be beneficial when designing real-time age-dependent image coding and display applications. PMID:26078994

  19. Imaging Diagnosis of Interstitial Pneumonia with Emphysema (Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikazu Sakai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on clinical and radiological findings, Cottin defined combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE as pulmonary emphysema in the upper lungs and interstitial pneumonia in the lower lungs with various radiological patterns. Pathologic findings of CPFE probably corresponded with diffuse interstitial pneumonia with pulmonary emphysema, emphysema with fibrosis, and the combination of both. We described reported radiological findings of CPFE.

  20. Imaging Diagnosis of Interstitial Pneumonia with Emphysema (Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema)

    OpenAIRE

    Fumikazu Sakai; Junya Tominaga; Akiko Kaga; Yutaka Usui; Minoru Kanazawa; Takashi Ogura; Noriyo Yanagawa; Tamiko Takemura

    2012-01-01

    Based on clinical and radiological findings, Cottin defined combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) as pulmonary emphysema in the upper lungs and interstitial pneumonia in the lower lungs with various radiological patterns. Pathologic findings of CPFE probably corresponded with diffuse interstitial pneumonia with pulmonary emphysema, emphysema with fibrosis, and the combination of both. We described reported radiological findings of CPFE.

  1. Correlation of different types of emphysema in high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT) with the ILO-classification of coal workers pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The complaints of patients suffering from pneumoconiosis and the decrease in cardio-respiratory function tests are related to the major complications, emphysema or bronchitis, resp. to a lesser degree the complaints are directly influenced by the silicotic process itself. Up to now, no large study has analysed the correlation of different types and severity of emphysema with the ILO-classification of pneumoconiosis in miners. Material and Methods: In 104 miners the severity of pneumoconiosis was classified by ILO. By HR-CT the type and severity of emphysema was analysed using a 4-point-scale. The correlation of emphysema with the ILO-classification was tested with Pearson-correlation. Results: The centrolobular emphysema was the dominant type with 59%, but there was no dependence on the severity of pneumoconiosis. Only the paracicatricial emphysema had a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with the degree of large opacities. On the other hand, the paracicatricial emphysema was only detected in 32%; under quantitative aspects it was seen to be less common than the centrolobular, the parapleural and the paraseptal emphysema (46%). There was no significant correlation with the size and distribution of the small opacities and the different types of emphysema. Conclusions: Only the large opacities had a significant correlation with the appearance of paracicatricial emphysema. The other types of emphysema, especially, the dominant centrolobular type had no obvious association with pneumoconiosis. The multifactoral genesis of emphysema has to be taken into account. (orig.)

  2. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Karadağ, Demet; Doner, Egemen; Adapınar, Baki

    2011-01-01

    Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After pene...

  3. Stability analysis for a general age-dependent vaccination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination model is investigated when the fertility, mortality and removal rates depends on age. We give threshold criteria of the existence of equilibriums and perform stability analysis. Furthermore a critical vaccination coverage that is sufficient to eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 12 refs

  4. The Influence of the Brain on Overpopulation, Ageing and Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape, Ronald D. T.

    1989-01-01

    With time, an increasing number in the world population is becoming old, and changes in the aging brain mean that a significant proportion of the aged are likely to be dependent on others. The devotion of resources to research into the aging brain could bring benefits far outweighing the investment. (Author/CW)

  5. Computed tomography in pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the clinical significance of CT in patients with emphysema, we quantificated low attenuation area (LAA) of CT, which is seen in emphysema, by three visual methods and compared with pulmonary function test. Quantification by direct visual scoring method is not significantly different from by complex grid scoring method. Good correlation was obtained between LAA score and diffusing capacity (DLCO(%); r=-0.58), and also VO2 max (r=-0.70), ΔPaO2/ΔVO2 (r=0.62) during exercise. These results suggest that the quantification of LAA is useful, not only for diagnostic detection of anatomical change, but also for evaluation of clinical severity of emphysema. (author)

  6. Cervicofacial Surgical Emphysema following Tonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Yelnoorkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient who developed cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema following a routine tonsillectomy. An 18-year-old male with swallowing difficulties underwent a tonsillectomy and developed swelling of the right side of his neck and face 36 hours after surgery. A neck X-ray revealed subcutaneous emphysema. Unlike similar previously published cases, there were no postoperative issues of coughing, straining, or use of positive pressure ventilation. The complication also occurred after a considerable length of time. Further complications may include pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum and these should be excluded.

  7. Algorithm of pulmonary emphysema extraction using low dose thoracic 3D CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, S.; Kubo, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Omatsu, H.; Tominaga, K.; Eguchi, K.; Moriyama, N.

    2006-03-01

    Recently, due to aging and smoking, emphysema patients are increasing. The restoration of alveolus which was destroyed by emphysema is not possible, thus early detection of emphysema is desired. We describe a quantitative algorithm for extracting emphysematous lesions and quantitatively evaluate their distribution patterns using low dose thoracic 3-D CT images. The algorithm identified lung anatomies, and extracted low attenuation area (LAA) as emphysematous lesion candidates. Applying the algorithm to 100 thoracic 3-D CT images and then by follow-up 3-D CT images, we demonstrate its potential effectiveness to assist radiologists and physicians to quantitatively evaluate the emphysematous lesions distribution and their evolution in time interval changes.

  8. Algorithm of pulmonary emphysema extraction using thoracic 3D CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Shinsuke; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Nakano, Yasutaka; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Tominaga, Keigo; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2007-03-01

    Recently, due to aging and smoking, emphysema patients are increasing. The restoration of alveolus which was destroyed by emphysema is not possible, thus early detection of emphysema is desired. We describe a quantitative algorithm for extracting emphysematous lesions and quantitatively evaluate their distribution patterns using low dose thoracic 3-D CT images. The algorithm identified lung anatomies, and extracted low attenuation area (LAA) as emphysematous lesion candidates. Applying the algorithm to thoracic 3-D CT images and then by follow-up 3-D CT images, we demonstrate its potential effectiveness to assist radiologists and physicians to quantitatively evaluate the emphysematous lesions distribution and their evolution in time interval changes.

  9. Age dependencies in the modelling of radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerer, A.M. (Munich Univ. (Germany). Radiobiological Inst. GSF, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. for Radiation Protection); Barclay, D. (GSF, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. for Radiation Protection)

    1992-01-01

    Models for the dose and age dependence of radiation induced cancer have been based primarily on the follow-up of the atomic bomb survivors. Two different concepts have been deduced for leukaemias and for other cancers. The excess leukaemias appear in a distinct temporal wave with a maximum 5 to 10 years after radiation exposure; the distribution is more narrow for younger ages, but there is little dependence of the total attributable risk on age at exposure. For other cancers the latent periods are longer and, according to the current interpretation, the excess rates are then proportional to the age specific spontaneous rates, so that most excess cases would arise at old age. The factors of proportionality, and thus the attributable risks, are assumed to be markedly higher for young ages at exposure. It is argued here, that there is no firm support for this interpretation. (author).

  10. AGE-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN ACTIVITY OF MALLARD PLASMA CHOLINESTERASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity was measured repeatedly in 27 mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings between 7 and 85 days of age to determine age-dependent changes in enzyme activity. Plasma AChE, BChe, and total cholinesterase (ChE) a...

  11. Reframing Dependence in Old Age: A Positive Transition for Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motenko, Aluma Kopito; Greenberg, Sarah

    1995-01-01

    Reevaluates the role of dependence in late-life development using concepts drawn from psychology, sociology, social work, gerontology, and scholarship on women's development. Presents old age as a time of continued positive growth and change. Argues against prevailing notions that successful aging features independence and health until death. (RJM)

  12. Age Dependencies in the Modelling of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kellerer, Albrecht M.; Barclay, D

    1992-01-01

    Models for the dose and age dependence of radiation induced cancer have been based primarily on the follow-up of the atomic bomb survivors. Two different concepts have been deduced for leukaemias and for other cancers. The excess leukaemias appear in a distinct temporal wave with a maximum 5 to 10 years after radiation exposure; the distribution is more narrow for younger ages, but there is little dependence of the total attributable risk on age at exposure. For other cancers the latent perio...

  13. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cottin, V; Le Pavec, J.; Prévot, G.; H. Mal; Humbert, M.; Simonneau, G; Cordier, J.-F.; Berezné, A.; Coëtmeur, D.; Danner-Boucher, I.; Funke, D; Israel-Biet, D.; Marchand, Eric; Mouthon, L

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe the haemodynamic and survival characteristics of patients with pulmonary hypertension in the recently individualised syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. A retrospective multicentre study was conducted in 40 patients (38 males; age 68±9 yrs; 39 smokers) with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, and pulmonary hypertension at right heart catheterisation. Dyspnoea was functional class II in 15%, III in 55% and IV in 30%. 6-min walk distance was...

  14. CT-diagnosed emphysema and prognosis of chronic airflow obstruction: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Fukuda, Chiaki; Nakamoto, Keitaro; Takaku, Yotaro; Hijikata, Naoya; Hoshi, Toshiko; Kanauchi, Tetsu; Ueda, Miyuki; Takayanagi, Noboru; Sugita, Yutaka; Araki, Ryuichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective CT-diagnosed emphysema is associated with poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its clinical impacts on prognoses of asthma with chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) are not well known. We sought to compare mortalities and prognostic factors in COPD and asthma with CAO by the presence or absence of CT-diagnosed emphysema. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Referral centre hospital for respiratory disease. Participants 1272 patients aged over 40 years w...

  15. Assessing Pulmonary Perfusion in Emphysema Automated Quantification of Perfused Blood Volume in Dual-Energy CTPA

    OpenAIRE

    Meinel, Felix G.; Graef, Anita; Thieme, Sven F.; Bamberg, Fabian; Schwarz, Florian; Sommer, Wieland; Helck, Andreas D.; Neurohr, Claus; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Johnson, Thorsten R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether automated quantification of lung perfused blood volume (PBV) in dual-energy computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA) can be used to assess the severity and regional distribution of pulmonary hypoperfusion in emphysema. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 40 consecutive patients (mean age, 67 13] years) with pulmonary emphysema, who have no cardiopulmonary comorbidities, and a DE-CTPA negative for pulmo...

  16. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Elderly people, especially some old men, appear to have very large ears. This paper presents an investigation on the acoustic significance of the age dependent ear elongation. HRTFs and ear lengths were measured for two groups of young and old people. The older groups had larger ears on average......, corresponding to what is reported in the literature. For female ears, virtually no acoustical effect was found. For male ears directional dependent effects in the range up to 5 dB on average was found for certain directions and frequencies. Implications on age dependent hearing loss (presbycusis) and...

  17. A mathematical reason for FEV1/FVC dependence on age

    OpenAIRE

    Gólczewski Tomasz; Lubiński Wojciech; Chciałowski Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies have showed that FEV1/FVC describing correspondence between the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) depends significantly on age. However, the nature of this dependence is uncertain. The study aim is to analyze mathematically the relationship between FEV1 and FVC to find a cause of the FEV1/FVC dependence on age in healthy subjects. Methods The relationship was examined for 1,120 males and 1,625 females – Polish (Cau...

  18. The Relationship between Nicotine Dependence and Age among Current Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent study indicates that the incidence of smoking cessation varies with age. Although nicotine dependence (ND has been regarded as one of the most significant barriers of successful smoking cessation, few researches have focused on the relationship between nicotine dependence and age.A cross-sectional study (conducted in 2013 with 596 Chinese rural male current smokers was performed to study the relationship between ND and age. The ND level was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND scale. The univariate two-degree fractional polynomials (FPs regression was used to explore the relation of ND to age.The mean of FTND scores in the middle-aged group (45-64 yr old was higher than that in the younger (<45 yr old and older groups (≥65 yr old. The FPs regression showed an inverse U-shaped relationship between ND and age.The middle-aged current smokers had higher degree of ND than the younger and the older groups, which showed an inverse U-shaped relationship between ND and age. This finding needs to be confirmed by further researches.

  19. Age-dependent complex noise fluctuations in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the parameters of colored noise in EEG data of 17 722 professional drivers aged 18–70. The whole study is based upon experiments showing that biological neural networks may operate in the vicinity of the critical point and that the balance between excitation and inhibition in the human brain is important for the transfer of information. This paper is devoted to the study of EEG power spectrum which can be described best by a power function with 1/fλ distribution and colored noise corresponding to the critical point in the EEG signal has the value of λ = 1 (purple noise). The slow accumulation of energy and its quick release is a universal property of the 1/f distribution. The physiological mechanism causing energy dissipation in the brain seems to depend on the number and strength of the connections between clusters of neurons. With ageing, the number of connections between the neurons decreases. Learning ability and intellectual performance also decrease. Therefore, age-related changes in the λ coefficient can be anticipated. We found that absolute values of λ coefficients decrease significantly with increasing age. Deviations from this rule are related to age-dependent slowing of the dominant frequency in the alpha band. Age-dependent change in the parameter and colored noise may be indicative of age-related changes in the self-organization of brain activity. Results obtained include (i) the age-dependent decrease of the absolute values of the average λ coefficient with the regression coefficient 0.005 1/year, (ii) distribution of λ value changes related to EEG frequency bands and to localization of electrodes on the scalp, and (iii) relation of age-dependent changes of colored noise and EEG energy in separate frequency bands. (paper)

  20. ROLE OF HR C T IN EARLY DETECTION OF EMPHYSEMA IN SMOKERS WITH NORMAL CHEST RADIOGRAPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalamala Baskara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Emphysema is defined by the American Thoracic Society thr ough pathological criteria as "A bnormal permanent enlargement of airspaces distal to terminal bronchioles , accompanied by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis." In the present scenario there is no diagnostic tool to detect the susceptible smoker. Hence a noninvasive tool that can detect the pathologic al changes early will be of immense value to guide the physician to alter the risk factors in asymptomatic patients as emphysema has its roots decades before the onset of symptoms. Recently High Resolution Computed Tomography Scan (HRCT has established it self as a sensitive modality for the detection of early emphysema. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The study group consisted of 32 adult current smokers defined as those who have been smoking five or more cigarettes per day regularly for more than five years. The s tudy group was chosen from attendants/healthy volunteers who attended the outpatient department , Government Fever Hospital , Guntur between January 2014 to march 2015. RESULTS : All the 32 subjects included in the study were males. Overall normal spirometer was observed in all the subjects. 17 (53% out of 32 subjects had CT evidence of emphysema. 5 of these 17 subjects with emphysema showed evidence of air trapping on expiratory scans only with normal inspiratory HRCT scan. 15 subjects (47% had no evidence of emphysema on both inspiratory and expiratory HRCT scans. The incidence of emphysema increased with increasing age and pack years . CONCLUSIONS : The present study concludes that HRCT done in both inspiration and expiration is a good noninvasive modality to detect early emphysema in asymptomatic current smokers there by enabling the physician to implement preventive measures in susceptible subjects. The present study also emphasized the advantage of expiratory scan in detecting emphysema when inspiratory s can is normal. The HRCT of lung is also

  1. Quantification of Emphysema with a Three-Dimensional Chest CT Scan: Correlation with the Visual Emphysema Scoring on Chest CT, Pulmonary Function Tests and Dyspnea Severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jeong; Hwang, Jung Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to prospectively evaluate the correlation between the quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry with the visual emphysema score, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the dyspnea score in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Non-enhanced chest CT with 3D reconstruction was performed in 28 men with COPD (age 54-88 years). With histogram analysis, the total lung volume, mean lung density and proportion of low attenuation lung volume below predetermined thresholds were measured. The CT parameters were compared with the visual emphysema score, the PFT and the dyspnea score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was well correlated with the DLco and FEV{sub 1}/FVC. A Low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU and -930 HU was correlated with visual the emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the dyspnea score, although the correlations between the other CT parameters and the dyspnea score were not significant. Objective quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry was correlated with the visual emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the DLco, the FEV{sub 1}/FVC and the dyspnea score.

  2. Quantification of Emphysema with a Three-Dimensional Chest CT Scan: Correlation with the Visual Emphysema Scoring on Chest CT, Pulmonary Function Tests and Dyspnea Severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to prospectively evaluate the correlation between the quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry with the visual emphysema score, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the dyspnea score in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Non-enhanced chest CT with 3D reconstruction was performed in 28 men with COPD (age 54-88 years). With histogram analysis, the total lung volume, mean lung density and proportion of low attenuation lung volume below predetermined thresholds were measured. The CT parameters were compared with the visual emphysema score, the PFT and the dyspnea score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was well correlated with the DLco and FEV1/FVC. A Low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU and -930 HU was correlated with visual the emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the dyspnea score, although the correlations between the other CT parameters and the dyspnea score were not significant. Objective quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry was correlated with the visual emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the DLco, the FEV1/FVC and the dyspnea score.

  3. The impact of emphysema in pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Cottin

    2013-01-01

    Several groups have described a syndrome in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) coexists with pulmonary emphysema. This comes as no surprise since both diseases are associated with a history of exposure to cigarette smoke. The syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is characterised by upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. Physiological testing of these patients reveals preserved lung volume indices contrasted by markedly impaired diffusion capacity. The inc...

  4. Age-dependent protection quantities for external photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age-dependent conversion coefficients of the protection quantities, the equivalent dose and the effective dose defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), are obtained. A Monte Carlo computer code and the age-dependent hermaphrodite mathematical phantoms of six age groups: newborn, 1, 5, 10, 15 years old and adult are used for the evaluation. Twenty-three photon source energies from 10 keV to 10 MeV and six kinds of irradiation geometries: AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT, and ISO are chosen in the calculation. The evaluated conversion coefficients for the adult are compared with those in ICRP Publication 74 with good agreement. The conversion coefficients of the equivalent dose and the effective dose increase while the age of the phantom decreases, but with some exceptions for the AP irradiation geometry under certain conditions. (author)

  5. Quantitative computed tomography measurements of emphysema for diagnosing asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mengshuang Xie, Wei Wang, Shuang Dou, Liwei Cui, Wei Xiao Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Background: The diagnostic criteria of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS are controversial. Emphysema is characteristic of COPD and usually does not exist in typical asthma patients. Emphysema in patients with asthma suggests the coexistence of COPD. Quantitative computed tomography (CT allows repeated evaluation of emphysema noninvasively. We investigated the value of quantitative CT measurements of emphysema in the diagnosis of ACOS.Methods: This study included 404 participants; 151 asthma patients, 125 COPD patients, and 128 normal control subjects. All the participants underwent pulmonary function tests and a high-resolution CT scan. Emphysema measurements were taken with an Airway Inspector software. The asthma patients were divided into high and low emphysema index (EI groups based on the percentage of low attenuation areas less than −950 Hounsfield units. The characteristics of asthma patients with high EI were compared with those having low EI or COPD.Results: The normal value of percentage of low attenuation areas less than −950 Hounsfield units in Chinese aged >40 years was 2.79%±2.37%. COPD patients indicated more severe emphysema and more upper-zone-predominant distribution of emphysema than asthma patients or controls. Thirty-two (21.2% of the 151 asthma patients had high EI. Compared with asthma patients with low EI, those with high EI were significantly older, more likely to be male, had more pack-years of smoking, had more upper-zone-predominant distribution of emphysema, and had greater airflow limitation. There were no significant differences in sex ratios, pack-years of smoking, airflow limitation, or emphysema distribution between asthma patients with high EI and COPD patients. A greater number of acute exacerbations were seen in asthma patients with high

  6. Calcium signaling in cognition and aging-dependent cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana M M; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Calcium-dependent signals are key triggers of the molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis in the aging brain has been proposed to underlie aging-dependent cognitive decline. Mechanisms triggered by calcium in neurons include activity-dependent activation of transcription responsible for the synthesis of molecules underlying the long-term changes of neuronal function. Effectors of calcium signaling with a primordial role in transcription regulation are calcium signal-regulated transcription factors. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the contribution of key calcium signal-regulated transcription factors, namely CREB, NFAT, and DREAM, to memory formation. We further describe evidence for dysregulation of the activity of these factors during aging. PMID:21698696

  7. Assessment of pulmonary emphysema on CT teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study assessed the current wave of using CT for the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema using teleradiology. Thirty patients were examined. CT images were transmitted by Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) to an image viewer and displayed in 4-image and 1-image arrays for reading. Pulmonary emphysema was found in 7 of the 30 patients. On both displays, the same diagnosis was obtained in 5 cases. In the remaining 2 cases, the low attenuation areas (LAAs) of mild centrilobular emphysema could be recognized only on the 1-image display. The diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema can be made by CT examination using teleradiology even in cases with mild lesions. (author)

  8. Age-dependent forest carbon sink: Estimation via inverse modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Shi, Peijun; Jia, Gensuo; Dai, Yongjiu; Zhao, Xiang; Shangguan, Wei; Du, Ling; Wu, Hao; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-12-01

    Forests have been recognized to sequester a substantial amount of carbon (C) from the atmosphere. However, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the magnitude and time course of the C sink. Revealing the intrinsic relationship between forest age and C sink is crucial for reducing uncertainties in prediction of forest C sink potential. In this study, we developed a stepwise data assimilation approach to combine a process-based Terrestrial ECOsystem Regional model, observations from multiple sources, and stochastic sampling to inversely estimate carbon cycle parameters including carbon sink at different forest ages for evergreen needle-leaved forests in China. The new approach is effective to estimate age-dependent parameter of maximal light-use efficiency (R2 = 0.99) and, accordingly, can quantify a relationship between forest age and the vegetation and soil C sinks. The estimated ecosystem C sink increases rapidly with age, peaks at 0.451 kg C m-2 yr-1 at age 22 years (ranging from 0.421 to 0.465 kg C m-2 yr-1), and gradually decreases thereafter. The dynamic patterns of C sinks in vegetation and soil are significantly different. C sink in vegetation first increases rapidly with age and then decreases. C sink in soil, however, increases continuously with age; it acts as a C source when the age is less than 20 years, after which it acts as a sink. For the evergreen needle-leaved forest, the highest C sink efficiency (i.e., C sink per unit net primary productivity) is approximately 60%, with age between 11 and 43 years. Overall, the inverse estimation of carbon cycle parameters can make reasonable estimates of age-dependent C sequestration in forests.

  9. Cardiovascular Function in Pulmonary Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Visca; Marina Aiello; Alfredo Chetta

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, have a strong influence on each other, and systemic inflammation has been considered as the main linkage between them. On the other hand, airflow limitation may markedly affect lung mechanics in terms of static and dynamic hyperinflation, especially in pulmonary emphysema, and they can in turn influence cardiac performance as well...

  10. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point. PMID:25768548

  11. The own-age face recognition bias is task dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Valentina; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2015-08-01

    The own-age bias (OAB) in face recognition (more accurate recognition of own-age than other-age faces) is robust among young adults but not older adults. We investigated the OAB under two different task conditions. In Experiment 1 young and older adults (who reported more recent experience with own than other-age faces) completed a match-to-sample task with young and older adult faces; only young adults showed an OAB. In Experiment 2 young and older adults completed an identity detection task in which we manipulated the identity strength of target and distracter identities by morphing each face with an average face in 20% steps. Accuracy increased with identity strength and facial age influenced older adults' (but not younger adults') strategy, but there was no evidence of an OAB. Collectively, these results suggest that the OAB depends on task demands and may be absent when searching for one identity. PMID:25491773

  12. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K Saxena

    2007-12-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

  13. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K Saxena

    2007-09-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

  14. A comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the absence of age-specific biokinetic models, current retention models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) frequently are used as a point of departure for evaluation of exposures to the general population. These models were designed and intended for estimation of long-term integrated doses to the adult worker. Their format and empirical basis preclude incorporation of much valuable physiological information and physiologically reasonable assumptions that could be used in characterizing the age-specific behavior of radioelements in humans. In this paper we discuss a comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling in which consideration is given not only to changes with age in masses and relative geometries of body organs and tissues but also to best available physiological and radiobiological information relating to the age-specific biobehavior of radionuclides. This approach is useful in obtaining more accurate estimates of long-term dose commitments as a function of age at intake, but it may be particularly valuable in establishing more accurate estimates of dose rate as a function of age. Age-specific dose rates are needed for a proper analysis of the potential effects on estimates or risk of elevated dose rates per unit intake in certain stages of life, elevated response per unit dose received during some stages of life, and age-specific non-radiogenic competing risks

  15. Severe Exertional Dyspnea in a Patient with Localized Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Giustino

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a middle-aged, male smoker who presented with progressive severe dyspnea is described. The cause of the progressive severe dyspnea remained unexplained after a comprehensive history, physical examination, chest radiograph, electrocardiogram and spirometry. Subsequent investigations resulted in a diagnosis of localized pulmonary emphysema. Detailed exercise testing helped uncover the physiological basis of the patient’s extreme dyspnea.

  16. Intralobar pulmonary sequestration masquerading as congenital lobar emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Mirza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrapulmonary sequestrations are quite uncommon in pediatric age group. The preoperative diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration is not possible in most of the cases. A 2-year-old boy presented with recurrent episodes of chest infections and respiratory distress. A preoperative diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema was made on the basis of chest radiograph and computed tomography scan. At operation, an intralobar pulmonary sequestration was found. The sequestration cyst was excised with uneventful recovery.

  17. Intralobar pulmonary sequestration masquerading as congenital lobar emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Mirza; Afsheen Batool Raza; Iftikhar Ijaz; Lubna Ijaz; Farah Naz; Afzal Sheikh

    2011-01-01

    Intrapulmonary sequestrations are quite uncommon in pediatric age group. The preoperative diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration is not possible in most of the cases. A 2-year-old boy presented with recurrent episodes of chest infections and respiratory distress. A preoperative diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema was made on the basis of chest radiograph and computed tomography scan. At operation, an intralobar pulmonary sequestration was found. The sequestration cyst was excised with uneve...

  18. Nox2-dependent ROS signaling protects against skeletal ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone remodeling is age-dependently regulated and changes dramatically during the course of development. Progressive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals, has been suspected to be the leading cause of many inflammatory and degen...

  19. Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Laisuo; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Xie, Fengchao; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates path dependence of lithium ion cells that are stored under static and non-static conditions. In the static storage tests, the levels of temperature and state of charge (SOC) are kept constant. The results of 12 tests from a combination of three temperatures and four SOCs show that, as expected, the cell ages faster at higher temperature and higher SOC. However, the cell aging mode, while consistent for all the evaluated temperatures, is different at 95% SOC from that at lower SOCs. In the non-static storage tests, the levels of temperature and SOC vary with time during the test process. The effect of the sequence of stress levels on cell aging is studied statistically using the statistical method of analysis of variation (ANOVA). It is found that cell capacity fade is path independent of both SOC and temperature, while cell resistance increase is path dependent on SOC and path independent of temperature. Finally, rate-based empirical aging models are adopted to fit the cell aging in the static storage tests. The aging model for capacity fade is demonstrated to be applicable to the non-static tests with errors between -3% and +3% for all the tested conditions over 180 days.

  20. A rare cause of subcutaneous emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rare cause of subcutaneous emphysema is described which developed in two patients after epidural anaesthesia. Only two case reports could be found in literature describing similar conditions. The anaesthesia is performed using the 'loss of resistance' technique with injection of air for the identification of the epidural space. Possible explanations for the development of the emphysema are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Do bullae and emphysema increase risk of pneumothorax in silicosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salarilak Shaker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of occupational lung diseases is decreasing due to improvements in occupational health in recent years; however, silicosis and its complications remain important occupational health problems. We have studied the role of emphysema and bullae as predictive factors of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax in acute and accelerated silicosis. Methods This study was carried out using questionnaire items on occupational history and conventional computed tomography of lungs. Differences between two groups (silicosis with and without secondary spontaneous pneumothorax in terms of age, interval of exposure-diagnosis and therefore silica exposure duration were assessed by independent t-test. Fisher's exact test was used to determine the association between secondary spontaneous pneumothorax and both emphysema and bullae. Results We found a significant association between secondary spontaneous pneumothorax and bullae in acute and accelerated silicosis. Conclusion Pneumothorax in silicosis could be attributed to previous bullae.

  2. Do bullae and emphysema increase risk of pneumothorax in silicosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohebbi Iraj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of occupational lung diseases is decreasing due to improvements in occupational health in recent years; however, silicosis and its complications remain important occupational health problems. We have studied the role of emphysema and bullae as predictive factors of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax in acute and accelerated silicosis. Materials and Methods : This study was carried out using questionnaire items on occupational history and conventional computed tomography of lungs. Differences between two groups (silicosis with and without secondary spontaneous pneumothorax in terms of age, interval of exposure-diagnosis and therefore silica exposure duration were assessed by independent t -test. Fisher′s exact test was used to determine the association between secondary spontaneous pneumothorax and both emphysema and bullae. Results: We found a significant association between secondary spontaneous pneumothorax and bullae in acute and accelerated silicosis. Conclusion: Pneumothorax in silicosis could be attributed to previous bullae.

  3. CT assessment of subtypes of pulmonary emphysema in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed a retrospective study examining the prevalence and subtypes of pulmonary emphysema (PE) identified by computed tomography (CT) in females. We reviewed the records of 1,687 female subjects who had undergone CT. They were divided into the following 2 age groups: group A (<50 years) and group B (≥50 years). PE was diagnosed by the presence of low-attenuation areas using visual assessment (grades 0-3) on CT images. Two subtypes of PE were observed: centrilobular emphysema (CLE) and paraseptal emphysema (PSE). PE was divided into the following 3 categories: I (CLE or CLE-predominant); II (CLE and PSE of equal extent); and III (PSE or PSE-predominant). PE was found in 64 of 274 smokers (23.3%) and 54 of 1,413 non-smokers (3.8%). In smoking subjects, when grades 1 and 2 were grouped together as mild PE, the mean age for CT grade 3 (severe PE) was significantly higher than that for mild PE. In group A, category III predominated, whereas category I was more prevalent in group B, in both smoking and non-smoking subjects. A high incidence of PE was found in smoking subjects as compared with non-smoking subjects. PSE predominated in younger subjects, whereas CLE predominated in older subjects. (author)

  4. CT Assessment of Subtypes of Pulmonary Emphysema in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togami,Taro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed a retrospective study examining the prevalence and subtypes of pulmonary emphysema (PE identified by computed tomography (CT in females. We reviewed the records of 1,687 female subjects who had undergone CT. They were divided into the following 2 age groups:group A (<50 years and group B (>_50 years. PE was diagnosed by the presence of low-attenuation areas using visual assessment (grades 0-3 on CT images. Two subtypes of PE were observed:centrilobular emphysema (CLE and paraseptal emphysema (PSE. PE was divided into the following 3 categories:I (CLE or CLE-predominant;II (CLE and PSE of equal extent;and III (PSE or PSE-predominant. PE was found in 64 of 274 smokers (23.3% and 54 of 1,413 non-smokers (3.8%. In smoking subjects, when grades 1 and 2 were grouped together as mild PE, the mean age for CT grade 3 (severe PE was significantly higher than that for mild PE. In group A, category III predominated, whereas category I was more prevalent in group B, in both smoking and non-smoking subjects. A high incidence of PE was found in smoking subjects as compared with non-smoking subjects. PSE predominated in younger subjects, whereas CLE predominated in older subjects.

  5. Age-dependent change in urine proteome of healthy individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrokhotov, Igor; Liudmila Pastushkova, MRS.; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey

    It was analyzed the protein composition of urine samples obtained from twenty Russian cosmonauts and thirty-eight healthy volunteers, that have been selected for the experiments simulating the physiological effects of microgravity. The special sample preparation was performed, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the minor proteins was performed on a nano-HPLC Agilent 1100 system (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) in combination with a LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Germany). List of masses derived peptides and they fragments have used for search and identification of proteins by database IPI-human (international index of protein) using the program Mascot (MS version 2.0.04 , UK) according to the following criteria: 1 - enzyme-trypsin; 2 - peptide tol. ± 5 ppm; 3 - MS / MS tol. 0.5Da. From list of proteins obtained as a result Mascot-search it was selected only those proteins that were identified based on 2 or more peptides with the rating more than 24. Analysis of the list of proteins was performed using software developed in the laboratory of VA Ivanisenko (ICG SB RAS) Age of healthy individuals was ranged from 18 to 54 years. Depending on the age, the data were divided into three groups: those relating to the group of persons under 25 years (youth and mature age 1), 25-40 years (mature age 2) and 40-54 years (mature age 3) It was detected reliable changes in the number of proteins among groups depending of the age. It was found that the minimum number of different proteins were detected in the urine of the group of young patients (under 25 years old) , and the maximum - was observed in the group of middle-aged persons (25 to 40 years). When the proteins were compared according to their molecular mass it was revealed that in the older group (40-54 years ) there is noticeably smaller percentage of high molecular weight proteins than in groups of young and middle aged persons. Thus

  6. Evolution of emphysema in relation to smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have little knowledge about the evolution of emphysema, and relatively little is understood about its evolution in relation to smoking habits. This study aims to assess the evolution of emphysema in asymptomatic current and former smokers over 2 years and to investigate the association with subjects' characteristics. The study was approved by our Ethics Committee and all participants provided written informed consent. We measured emphysema by automatic low-dose computed tomography densitometry in 254 current and 282 former smokers enrolled in a lung-cancer screening. The measures were repeated after 2 years. The association between subjects' characteristics, smoking habits and emphysema were assessed by chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the risk of emphysema worsening according to subjects' characteristics. We assessed the trend of increasing risk of emphysema progression by smoking habits using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared test. The median percentage increase in emphysema over a 2-year period was significantly higher in current than in former smokers (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.6; p < 0.0001). The risk of worsening emphysema (by 30% in 2 years) in current smokers increased with smoking duration (p for trend <0.02). As emphysema is a known risk factor for lung cancer, its evaluation could be used as a potential factor for identification of a high-risk population. The evaluation of emphysema progression can be added to low-dose CT screening programmes to inform and incite participants to stop smoking. (orig.)

  7. Centrilobular emphysema combined with pulmonary fibrosis results in improved survival

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Nevins W; Jeudy Jean; Lavania Sachin; Franks Teri J; Galvin Jeffrey R; Deepak Janaki; Britt Edward J; Atamas Sergei P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We hypothesized that, in patients with pulmonary fibrosis combined with emphysema, clinical characteristics and outcomes may differ from patients with pulmonary fibrosis without emphysema. We identified 102 patients who met established criteria for pulmonary fibrosis. The amount of emphysema (numerical score) and type of emphysema (centrilobular, paraseptal, or mixed) were characterized in each patient. Clinical characteristics, pulmonary function tests and patient surviva...

  8. Age dependence of natural uranium and thorium concentrations in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Dominic; Packer, Ana Paula; Marro, Leonora; Li, Chunsheng; Chen, Jing; Cornett, R Jack

    2007-02-01

    The age dependence of the natural concentration of uranium and thorium in the skeleton was investigated using human vertebrae bone collected from two Canadian locations (Winnipeg, Manitoba, and Regina, Saskatchewan). The concentration of both radioelements in digested ashed bone samples was determined using sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The geometric means for uranium level in bones showed a significant statistical difference between the two locations studied. Similarly for thorium, a statistical difference was observed, although this difference was considered marginal. The thorium concentration differed only marginally with respect to age group, indicating that its behavior in the body could be age-independent. Conversely, the uranium level in bones was found to change for the age groups tested, an indication of age-specific deposition. The age profile for uranium was comparable to the calcium turn-over rate, indicating that uranium deposition is probably, in part, dictated by this metabolic process, showing the role of present uptake into the uranium concentration in bones for populations exposed to significant uranium intake. PMID:17220713

  9. Time-dependent fracture of early age concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2002-01-01

    fracture energy or the stress crack opening relationship as defined in the fictitious crack model by Hillerborg. The setup is designed in a way that eliminates self weight loading of the fracture process region and allows for determination of the time-dependent crack mouth opening displacement for a......An experimental method suitable for the determination of the time-dependent tension softening response of early age concrete is presented. The method is based on the wedge splitting test by Tschegg, which is well known to be suited for the determination of fracture mechanical parameters, i.e. the...

  10. The age dependence of the Vega phenomenon: Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Decin, G.; C. Dominik; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Waelkens, C.

    2003-01-01

    We study the time dependency of Vega-like excesses using infrared studies obtained with the imaging photopolarimeter ISOPHOT on board of ISO. We review the different studies published on this issue, and critically check and revise ages and fractional luminosities in the different samples. The conclusions of our study differ significantly from those obtained by other authors (e.g. Holland et al. 1998; Spangler et al. 2001) who suggested that there is a global power-law governing the amount of ...

  11. Effects of Age on Time-Dependent Cognitive Change

    OpenAIRE

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Interpretation of cognitive change has been complicated because different influences on change are not easily distinguished. In this study, longitudinal cognitive change was decomposed into a component related to the length of the interval between test occasions (i.e., time-dependent change) and a component unrelated to the test-retest interval (i.e., time-independent change). Influences of age on the two hypothesized components were investigated in a sample of more than 1,500 adults for whom...

  12. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model

    OpenAIRE

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tugrul, Murat; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age $\\tau$ as $\\tau^{-\\alpha}$. Depending on the exponent $\\alpha$, the scaling of tree depth with tree size $n$ displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition ($\\alpha=1$) tree depth grows as $(\\log n)^2$. This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus p...

  13. A SIRS epidemic model with infection-age dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Peng, Jigen

    2007-07-01

    Based on J. Mena-Lorca and H.W. Hethcote's epidemic model, a SIRS epidemic model with infection-age-dependent infectivity and general nonlinear contact rate is formulated. Under general conditions, the unique existence of its global positive solutions is obtained. Moreover, under more general assumptions than the existing, the existence and asymptotical stability of its equilibria are discussed. In the end, the condition on the stability of endemic equilibrium is verified by a special model.

  14. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model

    OpenAIRE

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tugrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age $\\tau$ as $\\tau^{-\\alpha}$. Depending on the exponent $\\alpha$, the scaling of tree depth with tree size $n$ displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition ($\\alpha=1$) tree depth grows as $(\\log n)^2$. This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus p...

  15. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal and Mediastinal Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Do-Yeon; Aaron, Geoffrey P; Shepard, Kimberly G

    2016-06-01

    A 14-year-old girl with no significant medical history presented at Emergency Department with sore throat and odynophagia after one episode of nonviolent coughing. She denied any respiratory distress, voice change, foreign body ingestion, retching, substance abuse, dental procedures, or trauma. She was afebrile with normal oxygen saturation and physical examination including the head and neck was unremarkable with the exception of bilateral neck crepitus without tenderness on palpation. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy revealed a patent laryngeal airway with normal vocal fold movement. Lateral neck X-ray demonstrated a linear air-column in the retropharyngeal space and computed tomography confirmed emphysema involving the retropharyngeal space and mediastinum with no evidence of fluid collection or abscess formation. Spontaneous retropharyngeal and mediastinal emphysema are clinical entities where free air is present within the confines of retropharyngeal space and mediastinum without obvious cause. It is benign and self-limited in nature and allows for conservative management. This case is presented with a review of literature. PMID:27090269

  16. Peripheral surgical wounding and age-dependent neuroinflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Xu

    Full Text Available Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Neuroinflammation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ have been reported to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in humans and cognitive impairment in animals. Our recent studies have established a pre-clinical model in mice, and have found that the peripheral surgical wounding without the influence of general anesthesia induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in mice. We therefore set out to assess the effects of peripheral surgical wounding, in the absence of general anesthesia, on neuroinflammation in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in 9 and 18 month-old mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, Iba1 positive cells (the marker of microglia activation, CD33, and cognitive function in mice were determined. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and Iba1 positive cells in the hippocampus of both 9 and 18 month-old mice, and age potentiated these effects. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of CD33 in the hippocampus of 18, but not 9, month-old mice. Finally, anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgical wounding could induce an age-dependent neuroinflammation and elevation of CD33 levels in the hippocampus of mice, which could lead to cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pending further studies, anti-inflammatory therapies may reduce the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.

  17. Calorie Restriction Suppresses Age-Dependent Hippocampal Transcriptional Signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa J Schafer

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR enhances longevity and mitigates aging phenotypes in numerous species. Physiological responses to CR are cell-type specific and variable throughout the lifespan. However, the mosaic of molecular changes responsible for CR benefits remains unclear, particularly in brain regions susceptible to deterioration during aging. We examined the influence of long-term CR on the CA1 hippocampal region, a key learning and memory brain area that is vulnerable to age-related pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD. Through mRNA sequencing and NanoString nCounter analysis, we demonstrate that one year of CR feeding suppresses age-dependent signatures of 882 genes functionally associated with synaptic transmission-related pathways, including calcium signaling, long-term potentiation (LTP, and Creb signaling in wild-type mice. By comparing the influence of CR on hippocampal CA1 region transcriptional profiles at younger-adult (5 months, 2.5 months of feeding and older-adult (15 months, 12.5 months of feeding timepoints, we identify conserved upregulation of proteome quality control and calcium buffering genes, including heat shock 70 kDa protein 1b (Hspa1b and heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 (Hspa5, protein disulfide isomerase family A member 4 (Pdia4 and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 6 (Pdia6, and calreticulin (Calr. Expression levels of putative neuroprotective factors, klotho (Kl and transthyretin (Ttr, are also elevated by CR in adulthood, although the global CR-specific expression profiles at younger and older timepoints are highly divergent. At a previously unachieved resolution, our results demonstrate conserved activation of neuroprotective gene signatures and broad CR-suppression of age-dependent hippocampal CA1 region expression changes, indicating that CR functionally maintains a more youthful transcriptional state within the hippocampal CA1 sector.

  18. Age-dependence and intersubject variability of tracheobronchial particle clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sturm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY.Background: The detailed study of tracheobronchial clearanceof inhaled particles represents one of the basic research questionsin lung medicine. The clearance efficiency varies in different agegroups and between males and females.The differences can bepartly clarified by the application of a well validated theoreticalapproach. This study applied a relevant model to children (1 year,5 years, 10 years, juveniles (15 years, and adults of different ages(18, 21, 25, 34, 50, and 60 years and to both sexes. Methods: Themathematical model used for clearance simulation is based on theconcept of a stochastic lung structure and considers both early fastmucociliary clearance and a later, slow clearance fraction, fs, effectedby particular uptake by tracheobronchial cells, e.g., macrophagesand epithelial cells. According to this model, the calculated mucusvelocities for each airway generation of the tracheobronchial compartmentare normalized to a respective tracheal mucus velocitythat is estimated for each of the age groups studied from an allometricfunction. Results: In general, tracheobronchial clearanceefficiency undergoes a significant increase from childhood to youngadulthood, reaching a maximum at 25-30 years and decreasingagain from about 30 years to 60 years. Conversely to the improvementof clearance, the continuous change of airway morphometrywith increasing age causes a decrease of the filtering effect in thetrachea and main bronchi, which is of marked importance in infants.The modelling results demonstrate differences in tracheobronchialclearance between males and females, generally in the range from0 to 5%, which are exclusively determined by the individual lunggeometry. Conclusions: Based on theoretical computations itcan be concluded that tracheobronchial clearance is a phenomenonthat depends on both age and sex. Biological studies are necessaryto determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlyingthe age-dependent development of

  19. Emphysema in silica- and asbestos-exposed workers seeking compensation. A CT scan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin, R; Filion, R; Ostiguy, G

    1995-09-01

    It has been established that coal pneumoconiosis and confluent silicosis are associated with emphysematous changes in the lungs. In the present study, we addressed the concept of emphysema in simple silicosis and asbestosis and in workers exposed to these minerals without the pneumoconiosis. The study was done on 207 consecutive workers evaluated for possible pneumoconiosis at Québec Workman Compensation Board, who had a radiographic reading of pneumoconiosis in the category 0 or 1 of the ILO scale, and in 5 control subjects. Emphysema was detected, typed, and graded on high-resolution CT scans by three independent experienced readers. Age, work experience and industry, smoking habits, and pulmonary function test results were analyzed for possible associations. The subjects were 59 +/- 1 years of age and had mineral dust exposure averaging 26 +/- 1 years; 31 were lifetime nonsmokers and the others were either ex- or current smokers. Ninety-six workers were from primary and 111 from secondary industries and did not differ in any parameter. The CT scan readings for emphysema yielded a 63% complete agreement. In lifetime non-smokers, emphysema was seen in 1 of 20 subjects without pneumoconiosis but in 8 of 11 patients with pneumoconioses. In smokers without pneumoconioses, emphysema was present in 55% of patients with silica exposure, but 29% of patients with asbestos exposure but comparable smoking (p = 0.04). Emphysema type was equally distributed among the groups except for more paracicatricial type in confluent silicosis. Regression analyses documented that age, smoking, exposure type, and presence of pneumoconiosis were significant contribution factors. In the workers without pneumoconiosis, age, smoking, and exposure type (silica) were significant. Emphysema related best with FEV1/FVC ratio, MMEF, and DCO reductions. The prevalence of abnormality of FEV1/FVC ratio was two to five times normal and that of reduced DCO two times normal. We conclude that, in our

  20. AGE-DEPENDENT FEATURES OF EVOLVING HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Toptygina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Age dynamics of humoral immunity was studied in healthy children, i.e., 11 newborns, 33 infants of 4 to 8 months, 32 children of 1 to 2 years old,, 17 children of 4 to 5 years old, 25 children of 6 to 8 years old, 15 children of 9 to 11 years old, and 28 adolescents of 14 to 16 years old. Evaluation of membrane receptors on B cells was performed by means of three-colour fluorescent label and allowed of characterizing B1 subpopulations (CD19+CD5+CD27-, naпve B2 cells (CD19+CD5-CD27-, and B2 memory cells (CD19+CD5-CD27+. B1 cells have been shown to dominate in blood of newborns and younger children (up to 5 years old. By the contrary, B2 memory cells were nearly undetectable in newborns, and exceeded 20% in adolescents (by 15 years old. Meanwhile, it has been revealed that the amounts of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses did progressively increase with age, whereas IgG2 remained decreased to 50% of adult values for a long time, and reached them by 11 years and later. We suggest that the age dynamics of IgG subclasses is connected with age-dependent changes in B cell subpopulations.

  1. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10-11 Sv Bq-1 for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10-11 Sv Bq-1 for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10-11 Sv Bq-11 compared to 4.6 x 10-11 Sv Bq-1 for Reference Man. (author)

  2. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -11} compared to 4.6 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. (author)

  3. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model

    OpenAIRE

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tugrul, Murat; Víctor M Eguíluz; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Physical Society. We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ-α. Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)2. This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus provid...

  4. Cervical surgical emphysema following routine tonsillectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al Omari, B

    2011-01-01

    Complications of tonsillectomy have been well documented. However spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema of the neck following tonsillectomy has rarely been described. We report a case of this complication in a young female patient.

  5. Selective bronchial intubation for pulmonary emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, A N; Zarfin, Y; Perlman, M

    1984-01-01

    Two neonates with respiratory distress syndrome developed unilateral pulmonary interstitial emphysema causing mediastinal shift and compressive atelectasis. Treatment with contralateral bronchial intubation for five days proved to be life saving.

  6. Emphysema distribution and annual changes in pulmonary function in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Naoya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD considerably varies among patients. Those with emphysema identified by quantitative computed tomography (CT are associated with the rapid progression assessed by forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1. However, whether the rate of the decline in lung function is independently affected by the regional distribution or the severity of emphysema in the whole lung is unclear. Methods We followed up 131 male patients with COPD for a median of 3.7 years. We measured wall area percent (WA% in right apical segmental bronchus, total lung volume, percent low attenuation volume (LAV%, and the standard deviation (SD of LAV% values from CT images of 10 isovolumetric partitions (SD-LAV as an index of cranial-caudal emphysema heterogeneity. Annual changes in FEV1 were then determined using a random coefficient model and relative contribution of baseline clinical parameters, pulmonary function, and CT indexes including LAV%, SD-LAV, and WA% to annual changes in FEV1 were examined. Results The mean (SD annual change in FEV1 was −44.4 (10.8 mL. Multivariate random coefficient model showed that higher baseline FEV1, higher LAV%, current smoking, and lower SD-LAV independently contributed to an excessive decline in FEV1, whereas ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity, ratio of diffusing capacity to alveolar ventilation, and WA% did not, after adjusting for age, height, weight, and ratio of CT-measured total lung volume to physiologically-measured total lung capacity. Conclusions A more homogeneous distribution of emphysema contributed to an accelerated decline in FEV1 independently of baseline pulmonary function, whole-lung emphysema severity, and smoking status. In addition to whole-lung analysis of emphysema, CT assessment of the cranial-caudal distribution of emphysema might be useful for predicting rapid, progressive disease and for developing a targeted

  7. Resolvin D1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kang-Hyun; Park, Tai Sun; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Sei Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Emphysema is an irreversible disease that is characterized by destruction of lung tissue as a result of inflammation caused by smoking. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), derived from docosahexaenoic acid, is a novel lipid that resolves inflammation. The present study tested whether RvD1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration. Materials and methods C57BL/6 mice, 8 weeks of age, were randomly divided into four groups: control, RvD1 only, smoking only, and smoking with RvD1 administration. Four different protocols were used to induce emphysema and administer RvD1: mice were exposed to smoking for 4 weeks with poly(I:C) or to smoking only for 24 weeks, and RvD1 was injected within the smoking exposure period to prevent regeneration or after completion of smoking exposure to assess regeneration. The mean linear intercept and inflammation scores were measured in the lung tissue, and inflammatory cells and cytokines were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Results Measurements of mean linear intercept showed that RvD1 significantly attenuated smoking-induced lung destruction in all emphysema models. RvD1 also reduced smoking-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, which causes the structural derangements observed in emphysema. In the 4-week prevention model, RvD1 reduced the smoking-induced increase in eosinophils and interleukin-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In the 24-week prevention model, RvD1 also reduced the increased neutrophils and total cell counts induced by smoking. Conclusion RvD1 attenuated smoking-induced emphysema in vivo by reducing inflammation and promoting tissue regeneration. This result suggests that RvD1 may be useful in the prevention and treatment of emphysema. PMID:27313451

  8. [ENDOSCOPIC LUNG VOLUME REDUCTION IN PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duysinx, B; Heinen, V; Louis, R; Corhay, J-L

    2015-12-01

    Emphysema is characterized by an irreversible alveolar destruction, a progressive lung hyperinflation and a dysfunction of respiratory muscles. It induces a respiratory functional limitation and a decrease of quality of life. Endoscopic lung volume reduction represents a potential alternative to surgical treatments for advanced heterogeneous emphysema without concomitant surgical morbidity. The different bronchoscopic systems for lung volume reduction currently under evaluation are presented. PMID:26867305

  9. Telomerase mutations in smokers with severe emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, Susan E.; Chen, Julian J. L.; Podlevsky, Joshua D.; Alder, Jonathan K; Hansel, Nadia N.; Rasika A Mathias; Qi, Xiaodong; Rafaels, Nicholas M.; Wise, Robert A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Kathleen C. Barnes; Armanios, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the essential telomerase genes TERT and TR cause familial pulmonary fibrosis; however, in telomerase-null mice, short telomeres predispose to emphysema after chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Here, we tested whether telomerase mutations are a risk factor for human emphysema by examining their frequency in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Across two independent cohorts, we found 3 of 292 severe COPD cases carried deleterious mutations in TERT (1%). This p...

  10. Elastase-induced emphysema in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary function changes measured in guinea pigs 4 to 5 wk following intratracheal instillation of crystalline porcine pancreatic elastase resembled comparable changes in humans with moderately severe pulmonary emphysema. Compared with saline-treated controls, elastase-treated animals had increased values for all divisions of lung volume, increased static compliance and prolonged time constants. Since humans with emphysema are especially sensitive to air pollutants, elastase-treated animals may be useful as sensitive animal models in inhalatio toxicology

  11. The age dependence of the Vega phenomenon: Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Decin, G; Waters, L B F M; Waelkens, C

    2003-01-01

    We study the time dependency of Vega-like excesses using infrared studies obtained with the imaging photopolarimeter ISOPHOT on board of ISO. We review the different studies published on this issue, and critically check and revise ages and fractional luminosities in the different samples. The conclusions of our study differ significantly from those obtained by other authors (e.g. Holland et al. 1998; Spangler et al. 2001) who suggested that there is a global power-law governing the amount of dust seen in debris disks as a function of time. Our investigations lead us to conclude that (i) for stars at most ages, a large spread in fractional luminosity occurs, but (ii) there are few very young stars with intermediate or small excesses; (iii) the maximum excess seen in stars of a given age is about a fractional luminosity of approximately 10^{-3}, independent of time; and (iv) Vega-like excess is more common in young stars than in old stars.

  12. Age dependence of the renal apparent diffusion coefficient in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion imaging has proved to be a powerful tool for diagnosing ischemic lesions in the brain, and the technique is now being applied to other organs, including the kidneys. For quantitative studies it is important to define the normal values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), given the important physiological changes that occur in the kidney during early childhood it is likely that the ADC changes markedly during this period. To evaluate the age dependent changes in the ADC of normal kidneys in the pediatric population. The whole kidney ADC was calculated for 62 pediatric patients on a 1.5-T system using a respiratory-triggered, single-shot diffusion tensor imaging sequence with b values of 50, 200, and 350 mm2/s. The ADC was found to increase with age with the largest increase being in the first year of life, the rate of change being described by a constant plus a power function, specifically 1349+{358.5*{age0.34}}, (P < 0.001). The renal ADC changes significantly during childhood. (orig.)

  13. Lung fibroblasts from patients with emphysema show markers of senescence in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakashima M

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The loss of alveolar walls is a hallmark of emphysema. As fibroblasts play an important role in the maintenance of alveolar structure, a change in fibroblast phenotype could be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. In a previous study we found a reduced in vitro proliferation rate and number of population doublings of parenchymal lung fibroblasts from patients with emphysema and we hypothesized that these findings could be related to a premature cellular aging of these cells. In this study, we therefore compared cellular senescence markers and expression of respective genes between lung fibroblasts from patients with emphysema and control patients without COPD. Methods Primary lung fibroblasts were obtained from 13 patients with moderate to severe lung emphysema (E and 15 controls (C undergoing surgery for lung tumor resection or volume reduction (n = 2. Fibroblasts (8E/9C were stained for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal. In independent cultures, DNA from lung fibroblasts (7E/8C was assessed for mean telomere length. Two exploratory 12 k cDNA microarrays were used to assess gene expression in pooled fibroblasts (3E/3C. Subsequently, expression of selected genes was evaluated by quantitative PCR (qPCR in fibroblasts of individual patients (10E/9C and protein concentration was analyzed in the cell culture supernatant. Results The median (quartiles percentage of fibroblasts positive for SA-β-Gal was 4.4 (3.2;4.7 % in controls and 16.0 (10.0;24.8 % in emphysema (p = 0.001, while telomere length was not different. Among the candidates for differentially expressed genes in the array (factor ≥ 3, 15 were upregulated and 121 downregulated in emphysema. qPCR confirmed the upregulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-rP1 (p = 0.029, p = 0.0002, while expression of IGFBP-5, -rP2 (CTGF, -rP4 (Cyr61, FOSL1, LOXL2, OAZ1 and CDK4 was not different between groups. In line with the

  14. [Results of surgical treatment of generalized emphysema of the lungs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaitskiĭ, N A; Varlamov, V V; Gorbunkov, S D; Akopov, A L; Chernyĭ, S M; Lukina, O V; Chermenskiĭ, A G; Gembitskaia, T E

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of examination and treatment results was made in 123 patients with generalized emphysema of the lungs and respiratory failure of II-III degree. The patients were divided into two groups according to the age: younger than 40 years old (group A - 9 patients),40 years old and older (group B - 114). A surgical reduction of lung volume was performed to correct the respiratory failure in 69 patients. The rate of postoperative complications consisted of 14.7% in group A and it was 42.2% in group B. PMID:25055526

  15. Nitric oxide prevents alveolar senescence and emphysema in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Boe

    Full Text Available Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME treatment induces arteriosclerosis and vascular senescence. Here, we report that the systemic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO production by L-NAME causes pulmonary emphysema. L-NAME-treated lungs exhibited both the structural (alveolar tissue destruction and functional (increased compliance and reduced elastance characteristics of emphysema development. Furthermore, we found that L-NAME-induced emphysema could be attenuated through both genetic deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Because PAI-1 is an important contributor to the development of senescence both in vitro and in vivo, we investigated whether L-NAME-induced senescence led to the observed emphysematous changes. We found that L-NAME treatment was associated with molecular and cellular evidence of premature senescence in mice, and that PAI-1 inhibition attenuated these increases. These findings indicate that NO serves to protect and defend lung tissue from physiological aging.

  16. SEECAL: Program to calculate age-dependent specific effective energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the computer program SEECAL, which calculates specific effective energies (SEE) to specified target regions for ages newborn, 1 y, 5 y, 10 y, 15 y, a 70-kg adult male, and a 58-kg adult female. The dosimetric methodology is that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and is generally consistent with the schema of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose committee of the US Society of Nuclear Medicine. Computation of SEEs is necessary in the computation of equivalent dose rate in a target region, for occupational or public exposure to radionuclides taken into the body. Program SEECAL replaces the program SEE that was previously used by the Dosimetry Research Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program SEE was used in the dosimetric calculations for occupational exposures for ICRP Publication 30 and is limited to adults. SEECAL was used to generate age-dependent SEEs for ICRP Publication 56, Part 1. SEECAL is also incorporated into DCAL, a radiation dose and risk calculational system being developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. Electronic copies of the program and data files and this report are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  17. Imaging of emphysema; Bildgebung des Lungenemphysems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, C.; Bankier, A. [Medizinische Universitaet, Institut fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2007-05-15

    Emphysema is defined as a condition of the lung characterized by abnormal, permanent enlargement of airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole accompanied by destruction of the alveolar walls and without obvious fibrosis. It is a very common disease with high morbidity and mortality. Histopathologically, there are two types of emphysema: panlobular emphysema, typically occurring in {alpha}1-antitrypsin deficiency, and centrilobular emphysema, which is strongly associated with cigarette smoking. Computed tomography (CT) allows detection of emphysema with higher sensitivity than conventional chest radiography and pulmonary function tests. CT also allows quantification of emphysema and depicts associated changes and complications. The differential diagnosis of emphysema, which is characterized by the absence of clearly definable walls on CT, includes cystic lung disease, bullae, lung laceration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis -which are all characterized by visible walls on CT. (orig.) [German] Das Lungenemphysem, histologisch definiert als eine abnorme permanente Erweiterung der Luftraeume distal der terminalen Bronchiolen, begleitet von Destruktionen der Alveolarwaende und ohne Zeichen einer wesentlichen Fibrose, ist eine ueberaus haeufige Erkrankung mit hoher Mortalitaet und Morbiditaet. Dem typischerweise beim angeborenen {alpha}1-Antitrypsinmangel angetroffenen panlobulaeren Emphysem steht das haeufigere durch Zigarettenrauchen induzierte zentrilobulaere Emphysem gegenueber. Die Computertomographie (CT) weist im Gegensatz zum konventionellen Roentgen und zu den Lungenfunktionstests eine hohe Sensitivitaet fuer die Detektion des Emphysems auf, ermoeglicht eine Bestimmung des Schweregrads, eine Quantifizierung der emphysematoesen Veraenderungen und weist assoziierte Veraenderungen und Komplikationen nach. Das bildgebend durch das Fehlen klar definierter Raender gekennzeichnete Emphysem ist differenzialdiagnostisch von zystischen

  18. The age-metallicity dependence for white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, A D; Kepler, S O

    2015-01-01

    We present a theoretical study on the metallicity dependence of the initial$-$to$-$final mass relation and its influence on white dwarf age determinations. We compute a grid of evolutionary sequences from the main sequence to $\\sim 3\\, 000$ K on the white dwarf cooling curve, passing through all intermediate stages. During the thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch no third dredge-up episodes are considered and thus the photospheric C/O ratio is below unity for sequences with metallicities larger than $Z=0.0001$. We consider initial metallicities from $Z=0.0001$ to $Z=0.04$, accounting for stellar populations in the galactic disk and halo, with initial masses below $\\sim 3M_{\\odot}$. We found a clear dependence of the shape of the initial$-$to$-$final mass relation with the progenitor metallicity, where metal rich progenitors result in less massive white dwarf remnants, due to an enhancement of the mass loss rates associated to high metallicity values. By comparing our theoretical computations with semi em...

  19. Pulmonary emphysema in a neonate with Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A premature infant with arachnodactyly and congential cyanotic heart disease had severe pulmonary emphysema, a little-known manifestation of Marfan syndrome. The possible etiologies of emphysema in this syndrome are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Pulmonary emphysema in a neonate with Marfan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D.L.; Burke, B.A.

    1986-09-01

    A premature infant with arachnodactyly and congential cyanotic heart disease had severe pulmonary emphysema, a little-known manifestation of Marfan syndrome. The possible etiologies of emphysema in this syndrome are discussed.

  1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... of adults who have ever been diagnosed with emphysema: 3.4 million Percent of adults who have ...

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema in a general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema and gender in a general population using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest. Materials and methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 924 patients (584 women, 340 men; mean age, 59.73 years; range, 37–89 years) who had received low-dose computed tomography scanning for health examination during the period January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2010. Computed tomographic images were evaluated for the presence of paratracheal air cysts. If paratracheal air cysts were identified, the lungs were reconstructed as a three-dimensional model on a commercial workstation. An emphysema index, an objective quantification of the extent of emphysematous changes on CT imaging, was defined as the percentage area of lung with attenuation values below −950 Hounsfield units. Results: A total of 60 patients with paratracheal air cysts were included in this study (estimated prevalence, 6.5%; 12 men, 48 women; mean age, 59.85; range 45–89 years). Emphysema index differed significantly between genders (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of paratracheal air cysts in men was significantly lower than that in women (P = 0.005); however, the emphysema index in patients of both genders showed no evidence of emphysema. The majority (95%) of paratracheal air cysts were at the level of the seventh cervical to the second thoracic vertebrae. Conclusion: The presence of paratracheal air cysts is a common condition in general populations and should not be misdiagnosed as abnormal paratracheal free air. Paratracheal air cysts are more common in woman than in man. In our study, there is no patient with paratracheal air cysts has CT evidence of emphysema

  3. Prothymosin α overexpression contributes to the development of pulmonary emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    SU, BH; Tseng, YL; Shieh, GS; Chen, YC; Shiang, YC; P. Wu; Li, KJ; Shiau, AL; Wu, CL

    2013-01-01

    Emphysema is one of the disease conditions that comprise chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prothymosin α transgenic mice exhibit an emphysema phenotype, but the pathophysiological role of prothymosin α in emphysema remains unclear. Here we show that prothymosin α contributes to the pathogenesis of emphysema by increasing acetylation of histones and nuclear factor-kappaB, particularly upon cigarette smoke exposure. We find a positive correlation between prothymosin α levels and the severi...

  4. Surgical treatment for pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarue, N C; Woolf, C R; Sanders, D E; Pearson, F G; Henderson, R D; Cooper, J D; Nelems, J M

    1977-05-01

    Three in-vivo observations stimulated interest in surgical treatment for emphysema: (a) the destructive changes are rarely generalized, (b) the central portions of the lungs are frequently less seriously affected, and (c) marginal folding produces obstructive change in the more normal lung tissue. If destroyed avascular space-occupying areas can be removed, the compressed lung tissue may be stretched to fill pleural space in a functionally effective fashion. Residual elastic tissue will them maintain patency of terminal bronchioles. Preoperatively the extent of the destructive change can be defined most accurately by pulmonary angiography, and zones of functioning capilary circulation can be identified. Forty-seven patients with multifocal space-occupying emphysematous change have been treated surgically. The postoperative mortality was 21% but worthwhile long-term improvement has been obtained in 45% of patients presenting with disabling dyspnea. In these patients, surgical treatment warrants consideration if significant space occupation accompanies the bullous disease, provided alveolar vascularization can be demonstrated in the compressed adjacent normal lung tissue. Limited resections that preserve all vascularized and potentially functioning lung tissue are preferable. It is essential that obliteration of the hemithorax be obtained promptly in view of the high incidence of postoperative complications requiring secondary operative procedures, if 'leaks' and residual spaces are allowed to persist. Postoperative care in a respiratory intensive care unit is mandatory. PMID:870155

  5. Total respiratory impedance and early emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, E; Demedts, M; Van de Woestijne, K P

    1993-09-01

    It can be postulated that patients in early stages of pulmonary emphysema have normal values of total respiratory resistance and reactance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pulmonary emphysema, detected functionally by a decrease of the single breath diffusing capacity (DLCO) by at least 25% of predicted, and an increase of the static lung compliance (CLst) by at least 50% of predicted, can be accompanied by normal values of respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs), measured between 2 and 24 Hz by the forced oscillation technique. In a prospective study, we determined CLst in 26 patients, who had been selected on the basis of normal values of Rrs and Xrs, and a DLCO of less than 75% of predicted. In 17 of these patients, CLst was more than 150% of predicted. Since there were only minor abnormalities on routine lung function tests and chest X-ray, it is likely that these patients presented early emphysema. In the nine other patients, CLst was within normal limits: four suffered from interstitial lung disease; the remaining five were probably in a preliminary stage of early emphysema. In conclusion, early emphysema should systematically be considered as the first diagnosis in patients with normal values of Rrs and Xrs, and a decrease of DLCO. Onset of interstitial lung disease is a possible alternative. PMID:8224134

  6. Mechanisms of mineral dust-induced emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churg, A.; Zay, K.; Li, K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Pathology

    1997-09-01

    Mineral dust exposure can result in emphysema and chronic airflow obstruction. It is postulated that dust-induced emphysema has a pathogenesis similar to that in cigarette smoke-induced emphysema, namely, excess release of proteolytic enzymes from dust-evoked inflammatory cells, and inactivation of alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) by dust-catalyzed formation of oxidants. To test this theory the authors examined the antiproteolytic activity of A1AT exposed to quartz in vitro and found that it was decreased in a dose-response fashion. Catalase prevented this effect, which suggested that it was mediated by quartz-generated hydrogen peroxide. A variety of dusts could oxidize methionine to methionine sulfoxide in vitro, using either pure amino acid or whole protein. The relative order of activity was coal {gt} quartz {gt} titanium dioxide. Lastly, a new high-performance liquid chromoatgraphy technique was used to demonstrate that quartz, coal, and titanium dioxide produced connective tissue breakdown in rat lungs, as determined by the appearance of desmosine and hydroxyproline in lavage fluid after dust instillation. On a particle-for-particle basis, the order of dust potency was similar to that for methionine oxidation. Connective tissue breakdown was associated with elevations of both polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages in lavage fluid, and it is unclear whether one or both of these types of inflammatory cell mediates this process. These observations support the theory that dust-induced emphysema and smoke-induced emphysema occur through similar mechanisms.

  7. Subcutaneous emphysema in cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis without pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dixit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-alveolar air in the form of subcutaneous tissue emphysema is observed in a variety of clinical settings. Spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum is very rare. We report a case of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema secondary to cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum.

  8. Subcutaneous emphysema in cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis without pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakant Dixit; Jacob George

    2012-01-01

    Extra-alveolar air in the form of subcutaneous tissue emphysema is observed in a variety of clinical settings. Spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum is very rare. We report a case of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema secondary to cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum.

  9. Comparison of 99mTc-Technegas SPECT with 133Xe dynamic SPECT in pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to compare axial images of 99mTc-Technegas SPECT (Technegas) with those of 133Xe gas dynamic SPECT in patients with pulmonary emphysema. There were 20 patients, 19 males and 1 female. All patients except one ex-smoker were heavy smokers with a mean age of 68.1 years. For Technegas scintigraphy, the patients inhaled 505 MBq 99mTc-Technegas in several tidal volume breaths in the supine position without breath holding. For 133Xe gas scintigraphy, the patients inhaled 370 MBq 133Xe gas. 133Xe gas dynamic SPECT was performed in the equilibrium phase for the last minute of the 3 minute inhalation in a closed circuit, and in the washout phase for 6 minutes of inhalation in a semi-closed circuit, by means of a gamma camera with dual detectors (Picker model Prism 2000). Abnormal findings included heterogeneity, defects and hot spots on Technegas images and on retention images taken 3 minutes after 133Xe gas washout. In 2 of 20 patients, the degree of abnormal findings on Technegas images depended on the area of 133Xe gas retention in the washout phase. In 3 patients, the degrees of abnormal findings on both Technegas SPECT and 133Xe gas dynamic SPECT images were equivalent. In the remaining 15 patients, more detailed findings and a greater area were shown by Technegas SPECT than 133Xe gas dynamic SPECT. We conclude that in patients with pulmonary emphysema Technegas SPECT can demonstrate ventilation impairment more easily than 133Xe gas dynamic SPECT. (author)

  10. Age-dependent branching processes in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We consider an age-dependent branching process in random environments. The environments are represented by a stationary and ergodic sequence ξ = (ξ0,ξ1,...) of random variables. Given an environment ξ, the process is a non-homogenous Galton-Watson process, whose particles in n-th generation have a life length distribution G(ξn) on R+, and reproduce independently new particles according to a probability law p(ξn) on N. Let Z(t) be the number of particles alive at time t. We first find a characterization of the conditional probability generating function of Z(t) (given the environment ξ) via a functional equation, and obtain a criterion for almost certain extinction of the process by comparing it with an embedded Galton-Watson process. We then get expressions of the conditional mean EξZ(t) and the global mean EZ(t), and show their exponential growth rates by studying a renewal equation in random environments.

  11. Matrix Remodeling in Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Tejaswini; O'Reilly, Philip; Antony, Veena B; Gaggar, Amit; Thannickal, Victor J

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema are chronic lung diseases characterized by a progressive decline in lung function, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A hallmark of these diseases is recurrent or persistent alveolar epithelial injury, typically caused by common environmental exposures such as cigarette smoke. We propose that critical determinants of the outcome of the injury-repair processes that result in fibrosis versus emphysema are mesenchymal cell fate and associated extracellular matrix dynamics. In this review, we explore the concept that regulation of mesenchymal cells under the influence of soluble factors, in particular transforming growth factor-β1, and the extracellular matrix determine the divergent tissue remodeling responses seen in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. PMID:26741177

  12. [Metabolic abnormalities as a basis for age-dependent diseases and aging? State of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshina, E V

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a number of certain criteria reflecting abnormalities in lipid and glucose metabolism. These abnormalities are considered to be a reason for atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus type 2. The prevalence of CVD among those with diabetes is 3-5 folds higher than without diabetes. MS demonstrates ethnic and gender variants, its frequency depends on the lifestyle and age. Attention to MS has been attracted in the last decades induced by the obesity epidemic in US. The adipose tissue and high triglyceride blood levels have been regarded as hallmark of MS. It has appeared that metabolic ways of cholesterol, fat and glucose were tightly connected and united in a system of energy expenditure and reproduction. The high prevalence of MS, heart attacks and diabetes in the elderly population makes the evidence of age to be an independent risk factor of the development of metabolic abnormalities. But this problem is still out of the field of interest in gerontology. There exist a number of unsolved questions concerning the function of visceral adipose tissue, the role of free fatty acids in the insulin resistance, mechanisms of inflammation in the old age and so on that can be an object of gerontology. So, a program of advanced researches in this field is discussed. PMID:19827683

  13. Precocious emphysema in intravenous drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, G L; Rahman, M; Chamberlain, D; Herman, S J

    1993-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that obstructive airway disease and early emphysema occur in some drug addicts who intravenously abuse drugs intended for oral use. We report four patients with such a history who had clinical, pathophysiologic, and radiologic evidence of severe obstructive airway disease with hyperinflation. Three patients had bullae. All had radiologic changes of intravenous talc granulomatosis. One patient had moderately severe emphysema at autopsy. The pathogenesis of this disease is uncertain but may involve synergism with cigarette smoke, direct toxic effects of the drug, or induced intravascular leukocyte sequestration causing proteolytic pulmonary injury. PMID:8320766

  14. Subcutaneous and periorbital emphysema following dental procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, David; Davis, Richard M; Lee, Lyndon B

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous emphysema following a dental procedure is a relatively uncommon phenomenon that may produce a dramatic clinical presentation. The advent of high-powered dental equipment that uses directed and highly pressurized air has increased the risk of this complication, but few cases have been described in the ophthalmic literature. The authors present a case of subcutaneous periorbital emphysema in a young woman following a dental procedure. Aside from a temporary ptosis, there were no other ophthalmic complications. An attempt to decompress the air produced minimal relief. The condition resolved spontaneously within 1 week. PMID:24614564

  15. Age-dependent morphological and compositional variations on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Extended smooth plains cover the interior of a number of craters on Ceres. Smooth plains appear on different topographic levels associated with pits and flow-like features that overrun crater rims. The material forming these plains also ponds in depressions and smaller craters and cover the pre-existing surface creating distinct geological boundaries. Ikapati crater shows smooth plains on different topographic levels associated with pits and flow-like features that overrun crater rims. The material forming these plains, ponds in depressions and smaller craters and cover the pre-existing surface creating a distinct geological boundary. The interior of Occator also exhibits extended plains of ponded material, multiple flows originating from the center overwhelming the mass wasting deposits from the rim, dome-like features, vents cracks and fissures. Furthermore, crater densities on Occator's floor are lower than those on the ejecta blanket indicating a post-impact formation age of the flows. The flows to the northeast appear to originate from the central region and move slightly uphill. This indicates either a feeding zone that pushes the flows forward by supplying low-viscosity material or a depression of the crater center, possibly after discharging a subsurface reservoir. The plains and flows as well as some areas surrounding the craters appear spectrally blue. Both plains and flow material are characterized in camera and spectrometer visible spectra by a slightly negative slope with a gradual drop off up to 10% in reflectance from 0.5μm to 1μm. Although the spectral variations in the visible are subtle, they are clearly expressed in the color ratio composite. The crater densities of 20 locations across the surface of Ceres with different spectral behavior were analyzed in order to investigate the age dependence of spectral surface features. The results indicate that bluish material is mainly associated with the youngest impact craters on Ceres ( 1 Ga

  16. Cytokine profiles in asthma families depend on age and phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Pukelsheim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating cytokine patterns may be relevant for the diagnosis of asthma, for the discrimination of certain phenotypes, and prognostic factors for exacerbation of disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigated serum samples from 944 individuals of 218 asthma-affected families by a multiplex, microsphere based system detecting at high sensitivity eleven asthma associated mediators: eotaxin (CCL11, granulocyte macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF, interferon gamma (IFNγ, interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 (p40, IL-13, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα. Single cytokine levels were largely similar between asthmatic and healthy individuals when analysing asthma as single disease entity. Regulatory differences between parental and pediatric asthma were reflected by six of the eleven mediators analyzed (eotaxin, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, TNFα. IL-12 (p40 and IL-5 were the best predictor for extrinsic asthma in children with an increased odds ratio of 2.85 and 1.96 per log pg/ml increase (IL-12 (p40: 1.2-6.8, p=0.019, and IL-5: 1.2-2.5, p=0.025. Frequent asthma attacks in children are associated with elevated IL-5 serum levels (p=0.013. Cytokine patterns seem to be individually balanced in both, healthy and diseased adults and children, with various cytokines correlating among each other (IL-17 and IFNγ (rs=0.67, IL-4 and IL-5 (rs=0.55, IFNγ and GM-CSF (rs=0.54. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data support mainly an age- but also an asthma phenotype-dependent systemic immune regulation.

  17. CT of pulmonary emphysema - current status, challenges, and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary emphysema is characterized by irreversible destruction of lung parenchyma. Emphysema is a major contributor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which by itself is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Computed tomography (CT) is an established method for the in-vivo analysis of emphysema. This review first details the pathological basis of emphysema and shows how the subtypes of emphysema can be characterized by CT. The review then shows how CT is used to quantify emphysema, and describes the requirements and foundations for quantification to be accurate. Finally, the review discusses new challenges and their potential solution, notably focused on multi-detector-row CT, and emphasizes the open questions that future research on CT of pulmonary emphysema will have to address. (orig.)

  18. Age-dependent small-animal internal radiation dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    XIE, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Rats at various ages were observed to present with different radiosensitivity and bioavailability for radiotracers commonly used in preclinical research. We evaluated the effect of age-induced changes in body weight on radiation dose calculations. A series of rat models at different age periods were constructed based on the realistic four-dimensional digital rat whole-body (ROBY) computational model. Particle transport was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Absorbed fractions (AFs) a...

  19. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE): an entity different from emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis alone

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Huijin; Jiang, Shanping

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP), with different radiological, pathological, functional and prognostic characteristics, have been regarded as separate entities for a long time. However, there is an increasing recognition of the coexistence of emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis in individuals. The association was first described as a syndrome by Cottin in 2005, named “combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE)”, which is characterize...

  20. Risk evaluations of aging: Procedures guide for an age-dependent PSA with emphasis on prioritization and sensitivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the previous work which has been performed in the project, a procedures guide is being developed for carrying out an age-dependent probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for evaluating the core damage frequency with aging effects explicitly treated. A PSA is basically a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The emphasis of the guide is on prioritization and sensitivity studies. Focus is also on active components although consideration of aging effects in passive components is also treated. The guide is intended to become a NUREG/CR and is the first of three volumes which are being developed. The following topics with demonstrations and applications are described in the presentation: (1) the age-dependent PSA versus the standard PSA; (2) component reliability models used in an age-dependent PSA; (3) approaches for transforming a PSA into an age-dependent PSA; (4) application of an age-dependent PSA; (5) using a PSA to evaluate the risk effects from aging passive components; (6) evaluation of the risk importance of passive components; (7) prioritizations of aging contributors; (8) evaluations of test and maintenance effectiveness; and (9) sensitivity studies and uncertainty analyses of aging effects

  1. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  2. Age-dependency of posture parameters in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Oliver; Mazet, Carola; Mazet, Dirk; Hammes, Annette; Schmitt, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Poor posture in children and adolescents is a well-known problem. Therefore, early detection of incorrect posture is important. Photometric posture analysis is a cost-efficient and easy method, but needs reliable reference values. As children’s posture changes as they grow, the assessment needs to be age-specific. This study aimed to investigate the development of both one-dimensional posture parameter (body inclination angle) and complex parameter (posture index) in different age groups (childhood to adolescence). [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 372 symptom-free children and adolescents (140 girls and 232 boys aged 6–17). Images of their habitual posture were obtained in the sagittal plane. High-contrast marker points and marker spheres were placed on anatomical landmarks. Based on the marker points, the body inclination angle (INC) and posture index (PI) were calculated using the Corpus concepts software. [Results] The INC angle significantly increased with age. The PI did not change significantly among the age groups. No significant differences between the corresponding age groups were found for PI and INC for both sexes. [Conclusion] When evaluating posture using the body inclination angle, the age of the subject needs to be considered. Posture assessment with an age-independent parameter may be more suitable.

  3. Towards local progression estimation of pulmonary emphysema using CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    linearity assumption relating lung volume change with density change was shown to hold (fitR2 = 0.94), and globalized versions of the local models are consistent with global results (R2 of 0.865 and 0.882 for the two adapted slope models, respectively). Conclusions: In conclusion, image matching and subsequent analysis of differences according to the proposed lung models (i) has good local registration accuracy on patient data, (ii) effectively eliminates a dependency on inspiration level at acquisition time, (iii) accurately predicts progression in phantom data, and (iv) is reasonably consistent with global results in patient data. It is therefore a potential future tool for assessing local emphysema progression in drug evaluation trials and in clinical practice

  4. Medical image of the week: panloubular emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 60 year old female, non-smoker with a past medical history of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps presented with an eight year history of productive cough and dyspnea. Previous treatment with inhaled corticosteroids, courses of systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics provided modest improvement in her symptoms. Pulmonary function testing revealed a severe obstructive ventilatory defect without significant bronchodilator response and reduced diffusing capacity (DLCO. Chest x-ray surprisingly revealed lower lobe predominant emphysematous changes (Figure 1. Alpha-1-antitrypsin level was within normal range at 137 mg/dL. Panlobular emphysema represents permanent destruction of the entire acinus distal to the respiratory bronchioles and is more likely to affect the lower lobes compared to centrilobular emphysema (1. Panlobular emphysema is associated with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, intravenous drug abuse specifically with methylphenidate and methadone, Swyer-James syndrome, and obliterative bronchiolitis. Whether this pattern is seen as part of normal senescence in non-smoking individuals remains controversial (2. Panlobular emphysema may ...

  5. Emphysema and COPD in a young woman

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Conroy; Graham Miller; Mark Shipley

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year old woman presented with a progressive cough and breathlessness. She had a family history of early onset COPD. Spirometry demonstrated airflow obstruction with no reversibility. An HRCT showed extensive centrolobular emphysema with an upper lobe predominance. Blood tests including an Alpha – 1 Antitrypsin level were normal.

  6. Emphysema. Imaging for endoscopic lung volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by two entities, the more airway-predominant type (''bronchitis'') on the one hand, and emphysema-predominant type on the other. Imaging via high-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in phenotyping COPD. For patients with advanced lung emphysema, new endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies (ELVR) have been developed. Proper selection of suitable patients requires thin-section reconstruction of volumetric CT image data sets also in coronal and sagittal orientation are required. In the current manuscript we will describe emphysema subtypes (centrilobular, paraseptal, panlobular), options for quantifying emphysema and this importance of regional distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous, target area) as this is crucial for patient selection. Analysis of the interlobular fissures is obligatory despite the lack of standardization, as incomplete fissures indicate collateral ventilation (CV) via parenchymal bridges, which is an important criterion in choosing endoscopic methods of LVR. Every radiologist should be familiar with modern LVR therapies such as valves and coils, and furthermore should know what a lung doctor expects from radiologic evaluation (before and after ELVR). Finally we present a checklist as a quick reference for all steps concerning imaging for ELVR.

  7. Age dependence and latency periods for lung cancer from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children are exposed as much, or even more, than adults to domestic radon. As children are supposed to be more sensitive to radiation, childhood exposure should cause more lung cancer than exposure at elderly ages. Assuming a latency period of 20 years, as found for lung cancer for miners, the lung cancer cases from radon should be expected to start in the age groups between 20-35 years. Even in high radon countries, as for example Sweden and the other Nordic countries, lung cancer is very rare in the age group of less than 35 years. Thus, either children do not seem to be very sensitive to radon or the latency period is longer. Assuming a latency period of 35 years, instead, the expected lung cancer cases from domestic radon to children should be expected in the age group 35-50 years. Although the lung cancer cases start rising in that age period, most of the lung cancer cases are at much higher ages. Most of the lung cancer cases occur among heavy smokers and smoking is considered the by far highest risk factor for lung cancer. Children are generally not smokers. Thus it should be of great value to study the relationship between lung cancer and domestic radon for this age group. The lack of lung cancer cases at younger ages makes such a study difficult. At elderly ages, the smoking habits make a study of the relationship between domestic radon and lung cancer difficult and inexact. It could be suggested that lung cancer starts about 20 years after smoking debut, both what concerns radon related and smoking related lung cancer

  8. Critical Age-Dependent Branching Markov Processes and their Scaling Limits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna B Athreya; Siva R Athreya; Srikanth K Iyer

    2010-06-01

    This paper studies: (i) the long-time behaviour of the empirical distribution of age and normalized position of an age-dependent critical branching Markov process conditioned on non-extinction; and (ii) the super-process limit of a sequence of age-dependent critical branching Brownian motions.

  9. Attention enhancing effects of methylphenidate are age-dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Shevon E.; Shumsky, Jed S.; Waterhouse, Barry D.

    2014-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®) is used to treat a variety of cognitive disorders. MPH is also popular among healthy individuals, including the elderly, for its ability to focus attention and improve concentration, but these effects have not been shown to be comparable between aged and adult subjects. Thus, we tested whether MPH would improve performance in sustained attention in both adult and aged rats. In addition, we tested the impact of visual distraction on performan...

  10. Institutional Regimes and Induced Dependency in Homes for the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Tim

    1986-01-01

    Reports effects of institutional regimes on levels of dependency among residents of public homes for the elderly in England. Differences in management practices and caring routines did not affect the creation or reduction of dependency among residents. Questions the rationale that informs some current notions of good practice in residential work.…

  11. Age-dependent structural and radiological changes in the larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To define radiological physiological changes in the larynx by establishing an age-related scale. Materials and methods: The present retrospective study used radiological records of patients that had undergone lateral cervical imaging. Three hundred patients were included. Thyroid cartilage was divided into anatomical regions. The hyoid bone was evaluated as the body and greater horns. Cases were compared by grouping by age and gender. Results: Thyroid tissue and cricoid cartilage only became visible after the second decade. Ossification in the thyroid cartilage began in the posterior inferior horn and progressed to the superior horn and central lamina. It also began in the posterior part of the cricoid cartilage and moved forward with age. In the first decade, the body and greater horn parts of the hyoid bone could be seen more distinctly, and after the third decade the hyoid bone appeared as a single bone. The hyoid bone was the only structure ossified in the laryngeal region below the age of 20 and formed an image on direct imaging. Conclusions: Age-related changes to the laryngeal tissues are evident on radiographs. Clinicians should bear this in mind when evaluating neck radiographs.

  12. Age dependency of base modification in rabbit liver DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, O.; Fuji, I.; Yoshida, T.; Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    Age-related modifications of DNA bases have been observed in the liver of the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a lagomorph with a median life span in captivity of 5-7 yr. The ages of the animals studied ranged from 6 wk to 9 yr. After the DNA had been extracted from the liver cell nuclei and hydrolyzed with acid, the bases were analyzed by column chromatography with Cellulofine gels (GC-15-m). Two peaks in the chromatogram, which eluted before the four DNA bases, contained modified bases. Those materials, which were obtained in relatively large amounts from old animals, were highly fluorescent, and were shown to be crosslinked base products by mass spectrometry. The yield of crosslinked products versus rabbit age (greater than 0.5 yr) can be fitted by an exponential function (correlation coefficient: 0.76 +/- 0.09).

  13. Gender-dependent effects of aging on the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Gava

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the kidney plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The normal aging process leads to changes in kidney morphology, hemodynamics and function, which increase the incidence of cardiovascular events in the elderly population. These disturbances are influenced by several factors, including gender. In general, females are protected by the effects of estrogens on the cardiorenal system. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of estrogens on renal function in the elderly; however, the relationships between androgens and kidney health during one’s lifetime are not well understood. Sex steroids have many complex actions, and the decline in their levels during aging clearly influences kidney function, decreases the renal reserve and facilitates the development of cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms by which sex hormones may influence renal function during the aging process.

  14. Stability analysis of nonlinear integro-differential equations arising in age-dependent epidemic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An age-structured epidemic model of an SI type that incorporate vertical transmission is investigated when the fertility and mortality rates depend on age. We determine the steady states and examine their stabilities. (author). 13 refs

  15. Lucid dreaming: an age-dependent brain dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Frenzel, Clemens; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Hobson, Allan

    2012-12-01

    The current study focused on the distribution of lucid dreams in school children and young adults. The survey was conducted on a large sample of students aged 6-19 years. Questions distinguished between past and current experience with lucid dreams. Results suggest that lucid dreaming is quite pronounced in young children, its incidence rate drops at about age 16 years. Increased lucidity was found in those attending higher level compared with lower level schools. Taking methodological issues into account, we feel confident to propose a link between the natural occurrence of lucid dreaming and brain maturation. PMID:22639960

  16. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Muscle Type-Dependent and Age-Dependent Protein Carbonylation in Rat Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Juan; Xie, Hongwei; Meany, Danni L.; Thompson, LaDora V.; Arriaga, Edgar A.; Griffin, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Carbonylation is a highly prevalent protein modification in skeletal muscle mitochondria, possibly contributing to its functional decline with age. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified mitochondrial proteins susceptible to carbonylation in a muscle type (slow- vs fast-twitch)-dependent and age-dependent manner from Fischer 344 rat skeletal muscle. Fast-twitch muscle contained twice as many carbonylated mitochondrial proteins than did slow-twitch muscle, with 22 proteins showing signif...

  17. Age-dependent lung dosimetry of radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two morphometric models differing in the tracheobronchial region, were compared in the present paper: Model 1 is based on the adult morphology of Weibel, assuming that all bronchial airways grow in equal proportion; while Model 2 adopts the adult structure proposed by Yeh and Schum, using measured airway dimensions in the right upper lobe as a function of age. Tidal volume and respiratory frequency also vary with age: while the breathing frequency decreases with rising age, tidal volume increases. Radiation doses in each bronchial airway generation were computed for the deep lying basal cells as well as for the more uniformly distributed serous (SMGS) cells, which are currently assumed to be the progenitor cells for bronchial carcinomas. Radiation doses to both target cells were significantly higher in the newborn than in the adult, for all simulated breathing patterns, showing the highest relative increase in upper bronchial airways. Comparing both tracheobronchial growth models, Model 1 predicts higher doses at early ages, but produced lower doses in the adult lung

  18. Age-dependent motor unit remodelling in human limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Mathew; Ireland, Alex; Jones, David A; McPhee, Jamie S

    2016-06-01

    Voluntary control of skeletal muscle enables humans to interact with and manipulate the environment. Lower muscle mass, weakness and poor coordination are common complaints in older age and reduce physical capabilities. Attention has focused on ways of maintaining muscle size and strength by exercise, diet or hormone replacement. Without appropriate neural innervation, however, muscle cannot function. Emerging evidence points to a neural basis of muscle loss. Motor unit number estimates indicate that by age around 71 years, healthy older people have around 40 % fewer motor units. The surviving low- and moderate-threshold motor units recruited for moderate intensity contractions are enlarged by around 50 % and show increased fibre density, presumably due to collateral reinnervation of denervated fibres. Motor unit potentials show increased complexity and the stability of neuromuscular junction transmissions is decreased. The available evidence is limited by a lack of longitudinal studies, relatively small sample sizes, a tendency to examine the small peripheral muscles and relatively few investigations into the consequences of motor unit remodelling for muscle size and control of movements in older age. Loss of motor neurons and remodelling of surviving motor units constitutes the major change in ageing muscles and probably contributes to muscle loss and functional impairments. The deterioration and remodelling of motor units likely imposes constraints on the way in which the central nervous system controls movements. PMID:26667009

  19. Assessment of regional progression of pulmonary emphysema with CT densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, M Els; Putter, Hein; Stolk, Jan;

    2008-01-01

    with general emphysema (general emphysema without phenotype PiZZ [non-PiZ] group) were scanned with CT at baseline and after 30 months. Densitometry was performed in 12 axial partitions of equal volumes. To indicate predominant location, craniocaudal locality was defined as the slope in the plot of densities......BACKGROUND: Lung densitometry is an effective method to assess overall progression of emphysema, but generally the location of the progression is not estimated. We hypothesized that progression of emphysema is the result of extension from affected areas toward less affected areas in the lung....... To test this hypothesis, a method was developed to assess emphysema severity at different levels in the lungs in order to estimate regional changes. METHODS: Fifty subjects with emphysema due to alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) [AATD deficiency of phenotype PiZZ (PiZ) group] and 16 subjects...

  20. Age-dependent alterations of decorin glycosaminoglycans in human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Li; Ying Liu; Wei Xia; Dan Lei; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Proteoglycans, a family of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) conjugated proteins, are important constituents of human skin connective tissue (dermis) and are essential for maintaining mechanical strength of the skin. Age-related alterations of dermal proteoglycans have not been fully elucidated. We quantified transcripts of 20 known interstitial proteoglycans in human skin and found that decorin was the most highly expressed. Decorin was predominantly produced by dermal fibroblasts. Decorin was localiz...

  1. Gender-dependent effects of aging on the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    A.L. Gava; F.P.S. Freitas; S.S. Meyrelles; Silva, I.V.; J.B. Graceli

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the kidney plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The normal aging process leads to changes in kidney morphology, hemodynamics and function, which increase the incidence of cardiovascular events in the elderly population. These disturbances are influenced by several factors, including gender. In general, females are protected by the effects of estrogens on the cardiorenal system. Several studies have demonstrated the b...

  2. Facial and cervical emphysema after oral surgery: a rare case

    OpenAIRE

    Olate, Sergio; Assis, Adriano; Freire, Simei; de Moraes, Márcio; de Albergaria-Barbosa, Jose Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose is to report extensive emphysema resulting from a common procedure in oral surgery. Surgical emphysema developed in a 23-year-old female after removal of a mandible third molar using a high-speed dental hand-piece. The patient was maintained in hospital room and submitted to a medical protocol with antibiotic treatment. Surgical emphysema is an uncommon but potentially serious complication of oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of su...

  3. Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema Syndrome: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowich, Matthew D.; Rounds, Sharon I. S.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing clinical, radiologic, and pathologic recognition of the coexistence of emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis in the same patient, resulting in a clinical syndrome known as combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) that is characterized by dyspnea, upper-lobe emphysema, lower-lobe fibrosis, and abnormalities of gas exchange. This syndrome frequently is complicated by pulmonary hypertension, acute lung injury, and lung cancer. The CPFE syndrome typically occurs in male smo...

  4. Retinoic acid fails to reverse emphysema in adult mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, M; Ye, Q.; Ouchi, H.; Nakashima, N; Hamada, N; Hagimoto, N; Kuwano, K.; Mason, R.; Nakanishi, Y

    2004-01-01

    Methods: The models used were an elastase induced emphysema model for acute alveolar destruction and a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α transgenic mouse which exhibits chronic air space enlargement, loss of elastic recoil, increased lung volume, and pulmonary hypertension comparable to human pulmonary emphysema. All-trans-retinoic acid (2 mg/kg) was injected for 12 successive days after the establishment of emphysema. The effects of treatment were evaluated using physiological and morphometric ...

  5. Role of computed tomography in quantitative assessment of emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Choromańska, Agnieszka; Macura, Katarzyna J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pulmonary emphysema, together with chronic bronchitis is a part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is one of the leading causes of death in the United States and worldwide. There are many methods to diagnose emphysema. Unfortunately many of them, for example pulmonary function tests (PFTs), clinical signs and conventional radiology are able to detect emphysema usually in its late stages when a great portion of lung parenchyma has been already destroyed by the disea...

  6. Cathepsin E Promotes Pulmonary Emphysema via Mitochondrial Fission

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xuchen; Shan, Peiying; Homer, Robert; Zhang, Yi; Petrache, Irina; Mannam, Praveen; Lee, Patty J.

    2014-01-01

    Emphysema is characterized by loss of lung elasticity and irreversible air space enlargement, usually in the later decades of life. The molecular mechanisms of emphysema remain poorly defined. We identified a role for a novel cathepsin, cathepsin E, in promoting emphysema by inducing mitochondrial fission. Unlike previously reported cysteine cathepsins, which have been implicated in cigarette smoke-induced lung disease, cathepsin E is a nonlysosomal intracellular aspartic protease whose funct...

  7. PPARγ in emphysema: blunts the damage and triggers repair?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Neil J.; Shapiro, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is the most common cause of pulmonary emphysema, which results in an irreversible loss of lung structure and function. Th1 and Th17 immune responses have been implicated in emphysema pathogenesis; however, the drivers of emphysema-associated immune dysfunction are not fully understood. In this issue of the JCI, Shan and colleagues found that peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is downregulated in APCs isolated from the lungs of emphysematous chronic smokers an...

  8. The Epithelial Cell in Lung Health and Emphysema Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mercer, Becky A; Lemaître, Vincent; Powell, Charles A.; D’Armiento, Jeanine

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of the irreversible lung disease emphysema. Historically, inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils have been studied for their role in emphysema pathology. However, recent studies indicate that the lung epithelium is an active participant in emphysema pathogenesis and plays a critical role in the lung’s response to cigarette smoke. Tobacco smoke increases protease production and alters cytokine expression in isolated epithelial cells, sugge...

  9. 38 CFR 3.204 - Evidence of dependents and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... statement of a claimant as proof of marriage, dissolution of a marriage, birth of a child, or death of a... name and relationship of the other person to the claimant; and, where the claimant's dependent child does not reside with the claimant, the name and address of the person who has custody of the child....

  10. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with coexisting emphysema : high-resolution CT and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings with smoking history and pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with or without coexisting emphsema. The study included 24 patients who had undergone HRCT and in whom IPF had been confirmed pathologically (n=7) and clinically (n=17). The patients included 19 men and 5 women aged between from 44 and 78(mean 59) years. HRCT findings were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for the presence and extent of emphysema (CT emphysema score;CES) and honeycombing (CT honeycombing score;CHS). CES and CHS were retrospectively correlated with smoking status and pulmonary function test. Evidence of emphysema was seen on HRCT in 20 fo 24 patients with IPF (83%). CES was 14.3 and CHS was 18.1 in smokers with IPF, as compared with 1.8 and 6.7 in nonsmokers (p<0.01). Pulmonary function tests showed lower percent predicted FEVI (69.3%), FVC (64.7%), TLC (73.7%), and RV (77.3%), a lower percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (58.2%), and normal FEVI/FVC (99.1%). The pulmonary function test in smokers showed higher TLC and RV than in nonsmokers. Eight of nine patients whose CES was higher than their CHS, an seen on HRCT, were smokers and had a smoking history of 33.1 pack-years. Seven of 15 whose CHS was higher than their CES were smokers and had a smoking history of 16.8 pack-years. In patients with a higher CES than CHS pulmonary function test results showed normal TLC(85%) and RV(100.7%); this contrasted with decreased TLC(72%) and RV (68%) in patients whose CHS was higher than their CES. Emphysema is a frequently associated finding in patients with IPF, as seen on HRCT, and emphysema is more frequent and extensive in smokers with IPF than non-smokers. HRCT is useful for detecting emphysema in patients with IPF, and the extent of emphysema on HRCT correlates with the results of the pulmonary function test and smoking status

  11. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with coexisting emphysema : high-resolution CT and clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Oh, Yu Whan; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Kyung Ho [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-01

    To correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings with smoking history and pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with or without coexisting emphsema. The study included 24 patients who had undergone HRCT and in whom IPF had been confirmed pathologically (n=7) and clinically (n=17). The patients included 19 men and 5 women aged between from 44 and 78(mean 59) years. HRCT findings were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for the presence and extent of emphysema (CT emphysema score;CES) and honeycombing (CT honeycombing score;CHS). CES and CHS were retrospectively correlated with smoking status and pulmonary function test. Evidence of emphysema was seen on HRCT in 20 fo 24 patients with IPF (83%). CES was 14.3 and CHS was 18.1 in smokers with IPF, as compared with 1.8 and 6.7 in nonsmokers (p<0.01). Pulmonary function tests showed lower percent predicted FEVI (69.3%), FVC (64.7%), TLC (73.7%), and RV (77.3%), a lower percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (58.2%), and normal FEVI/FVC (99.1%). The pulmonary function test in smokers showed higher TLC and RV than in nonsmokers. Eight of nine patients whose CES was higher than their CHS, an seen on HRCT, were smokers and had a smoking history of 33.1 pack-years. Seven of 15 whose CHS was higher than their CES were smokers and had a smoking history of 16.8 pack-years. In patients with a higher CES than CHS pulmonary function test results showed normal TLC(85%) and RV(100.7%); this contrasted with decreased TLC(72%) and RV (68%) in patients whose CHS was higher than their CES. Emphysema is a frequently associated finding in patients with IPF, as seen on HRCT, and emphysema is more frequent and extensive in smokers with IPF than non-smokers. HRCT is useful for detecting emphysema in patients with IPF, and the extent of emphysema on HRCT correlates with the results of the pulmonary function test and smoking status.

  12. The usefulness of computed tomography in distinguishing between asthma with irreversible air-flow limitation and pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic asthma may develop irreversible air-flow limitation and in this circumstance, it is clinically difficult to distinguish between asthma and pulmonary emphysema. Recently, it has been reported that computed tomography (CT) may assist in detecting changes in the lung specific for emphysema. We examined patients who suffered from asthma before the age of 45 which led to irreversible air-flow limitation (BA group; n = 17, mean age = 65.9) and patients with pulmonary emphysema (CPE group; n = 19, mean age = 69.8). Pulmonary function testing and CT were performed on all patients. In assessment of CT, areas of low attenuation and vascular disruption were considered to be suggestive of emphysema, and the Emphysema Score (ES) was calculated according to the method of Bergin et al. There was no significant difference in FEV1.0, % FEV1.0, % FEV1.0/FVC, % RV and RV/TLC between the BA group and the CPE group. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in the % DLco in CPE group compared with that of the BA group (p < 0.001). The ES in total lung was 54.9 ± 18.6 % in the CPE group and 7.8 ± 11.0 % in BA group (p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between the % DLco and the ES in the CPE group (p < 0.01). We conclude that the CT is useful in distinguishing between asthma with irreversible air-flow limitation and pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  13. Reproducibility of scoring emphysema by HRCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We evaluated the reproducibility of three visual scoring methods of emphysema and compared these methods with pulmonary function tests (VC, DLCO, FEV1 and FEV%) among farmer's lung patients and farmers. Material and Methods: Three radiologists examined high-resolution CT images of farmer's lung patients and their matched controls (n=70) for chronic interstitial lung diseases. Intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver variability were assessed for three methods: severity, Sanders' (extent) and Sakai. Pulmonary function tests as spirometry and diffusing capacity were measured. Results: Intraobserver -values for all three methods were good (0.51-0.74). Interobserver varied from 0.35 to 0.72. The Sanders' and the severity methods correlated strongly with pulmonary function tests, especially DLCO and FEV1. Conclusion: The Sanders' method proved to be reliable in evaluating emphysema, in terms of good consistency of interpretation and good correlation with pulmonary function tests

  14. Congenital lobar emphysema: Is surgery routinely necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulut Ismet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE is a rare congenital abnormality characterised by overinflation of a pulmonary lobe. Its aetiology is unknown. The management of CLE has traditionally been surgical. A newborn boy with a birthweight of 2.5 kg was delivered at full-term by caesarian section due to food delivery. There was no marked respiratory distress at birth, and little meconium stained liquor was seen on the skin. The initial diagnosis was meconium aspiration syndrome. After computed tomography of the thorax, CLE was diagnosed. The patient was observed throughout for a week and the CT of the thorax was repeated, which revealed that the emphysema had resolved. The nonoperative approach should be considered in asymptomatic patients with CLE.

  15. Massive surgical emphysema after perineal proctosigmoidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angehrn, Fiorenzo Valente Ernst Jakob; Däster, Silvio; Antonescu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An 83-year-old woman underwent an elective perineal proctosigmoidectomy (Altemeier procedure) for a rectal prolapse. On postoperative day 1, the patient presented with impressive subcutaneous emphysema involving the chest, neck and face without any other symptoms. A CT scan showed free air in the retroperitoneum, the intraperitoneal cavity, the mediastinum and a subcutaneous emphysema of the neck and the face. Air was also found around the coloanal anastomosis and an anastomotic leak was proven by rectal contrast agent. In this situation, a rectoscopy followed by a laparoscopy were immediately performed. The leak could not be visualised. Peritoneal lavage and drainage, followed by protective sigmoidostomy were carried out. After surgery, the follow-up was uneventful except a persistent but asymptomatic leak with a presacral cavity. The coloanal dehiscence was later proven in rectoscopy. Although sutured, it is still present and colostomy closure will eventually be possible in a few months. PMID:25293686

  16. Interstitial pulmonary emphysema in ventilated neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    106 (15.7%) of 675 artificially ventilated newborn developed interstitial pulmonary emphysema (PIE). Basic lung diseases were: IRDS, neonatal pneumonia, shock lung, meconium aspiration, hypoplasia of the lungs and other miscellaneous disorders of the chest. PIE developed in 68% of patients within 8 hours following artificial respiration. At the beginning of PIE both lungs were concerned in 41.5% of patients, one lobe of both lungs was affected in 32.1%. PIE was located in one lung in 8.5% and in only one lobe in 17.9%. Maximum of PIE was seen within 5 days after initiating respiration in 76.7% of the patients. Persistent PIE developed in 28.7% of the patients. Persistent PIE of both lungs was seen in 11 cases, PIE of one lung in 8 cases and persistent lobar emphysema in another 8. Pulmonary pseudocysts developed in 22 (20.8%) of the patients. (orig.)

  17. Reproducibility of scoring emphysema by HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, A.; Partanen, K.; Rytkoenen, H.; Vanninen, R. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen, R. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Pulmonary Diseases

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the reproducibility of three visual scoring methods of emphysema and compared these methods with pulmonary function tests (VC, DLCO, FEV1 and FEV%) among farmer's lung patients and farmers. Material and Methods: Three radiologists examined high-resolution CT images of farmer's lung patients and their matched controls (n=70) for chronic interstitial lung diseases. Intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver variability were assessed for three methods: severity, Sanders' (extent) and Sakai. Pulmonary function tests as spirometry and diffusing capacity were measured. Results: Intraobserver -values for all three methods were good (0.51-0.74). Interobserver varied from 0.35 to 0.72. The Sanders' and the severity methods correlated strongly with pulmonary function tests, especially DLCO and FEV1. Conclusion: The Sanders' method proved to be reliable in evaluating emphysema, in terms of good consistency of interpretation and good correlation with pulmonary function tests.

  18. A size-based emphysema severity index: robust to the breath-hold-level variations and correlated with clinical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeongeun; Lee, Minho; Lee, Sang Min; Oh, Sang Young; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the power-law exponents (D) of emphysema hole-size distributions as a competent emphysema index. Robustness to extreme breath-hold-level variations and correlations with clinical parameters for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were investigated and compared to a conventional emphysema index (EI%). Patients and methods A total of 100 patients with COPD (97 males and three females of mean age 67±7.9 years) underwent multidetector row computed tomography scanning at full inspiration and full expiration. The diameters of the emphysematous holes were estimated and quantified with a fully automated algorithm. Power-law exponents (D) of emphysematous hole-size distribution were evaluated. Results The diameters followed a power-law distribution in all cases, suggesting the scale-free nature of emphysema. D of inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography of patients showed intraclass correlation coefficients >0.8, indicating statistically absolute agreement of different breath-hold levels. By contrast, the EI% failed to agree. Bland–Altman analysis also revealed the superior robustness of D to EI%. D also significantly correlated with clinical parameters such as airflow limitation, diffusion capacity, exercise capacity, and quality of life. Conclusion The D of emphysematous hole-size distribution is robust to breath-hold-level variations and sensitive to the severity of emphysema. This measurement may help rule out the confounding effects of variations in breath-hold levels. PMID:27536095

  19. Computed tomography of post-traumatic orbito-palpebral emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, H.; Kohno, K. (Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1981-11-01

    Two cases of orbito-palpebral emphysema are described. Both having a history of recent facial trauma, emphysema occurred after blowing the nose. They were studied by computed tomography and plain x-ray film, including tomograms of the orbit. The emphysema was revealed by computed tomography and x-ray film, but more clearly by the former technique. The fracture lines of the orbit were revealed in only one case by x-ray film, but in both cases by computed tomography. The authors stress that computed tomography is the best technique for the study of orbital emphysema.

  20. Computed tomography of post-traumatic orbito-palpebral emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of orbito-palpebral emphysema are described. Both having a history of recent facial trauma, emphysema occurred after blowing the nose. They were studied by computed tomography and plain x-ray film, including tomograms of the orbit. The emphysema was revealed by computed tomography and x-ray film, but more clearly by the former technique. The fracture lines of the orbit were revealed in only one case by x-ray film, but in both cases by computed tomography. The authors stress that computed tomography is the best technique for the study of orbital emphysema. (author)

  1. Tracheal necrosis with surgical emphysema following thyroidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan A; Ganguly M; Saidha N; Gulia P

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis after thyroidectomy is an extremely rare event with only a few published reports. We present a case of a 65-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema of face and upper thorax on the seventh day following total thyroidectomy. Prompt surgical exploration of neck revealed a tracheal rent at the level of the second tracheal ring. This hole was then refashioned into a formal tracheostomy. Patient had an eventful recovery. Tracheostomy was closed by the 14...

  2. Congenital lobar emphysema associated with polysplenia syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Polysplenia, or left isomerism, is a rare heterotaxy syndrome characterized by bilateral bi-lobed lungs, bilateral pulmonary atria, a symmetrical midline liver, and multiple aberrant splenic nodules. We report a case of polysplenia associated with congenital lobar emphysema apart from other typical anomalies. Such an association has not been previously reported. The patient was a young male with progressive exertional breathlessness referred for high resolution CT of the lungs. CT, MRI and ec...

  3. Impact of Emphysema Heterogeneity on Pulmonary Function

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Jieyang; Li, Ruosha; Gu, Suicheng; Leader, Joseph K.; Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Yahong; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Shandong; Gur, David; Sciurba, Frank; Pu, Jiantao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between emphysema heterogeneity in spatial distribution, pulmonary function and disease severity. Methods and Materials We ascertained a dataset of anonymized Computed Tomography (CT) examinations acquired on 565 participants in a COPD study. Subjects with chronic bronchitis (CB) and/or bronchodilator response were excluded resulting in 190 cases without COPD and 160 cases with COPD. Low attenuations areas (LAAs) (≤950 Hounsfield Unit (HU)) were ident...

  4. Age Dependency of Trauma-Induced Neocortical Epileptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor eTimofeev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Trauma and brain infection are the primary sources of acquired epilepsy, which can occur at any age and may account for a high incidence of epilepsy in developing countries. We have explored the hypothesis that penetrating cortical wounds cause deafferentation of the neocortex, which triggers homeostatic plasticity and lead to epileptogenesis (Houweling et al., 2005. In partial deafferentation experiments of adult cats, acute seizures occurred in most preparations and chronic seizures occurred weeks to months after the operation in 65% of the animals (Nita et al., 2006; Nita and Timofeev, 2007; Nita et al., 2007. Similar deafferentation of young cats (age 8-12 months led to some acute seizures, but we never observed chronic seizure activity even though there was enhanced slow-wave activity in the partially deafferented hemisphere during quiet wakefulness. This suggests that despite a major trauma, the homeostatic plasticity in young animals was able to restore normal levels of cortical excitability, but in fully adult cats the mechanisms underlying homeostatic plasticity may lead to an unstable cortical state. To test this hypothesis we made an undercut in the cortex of an elderly cat. After several weeks this animal developed seizure activity. These observations may lead to an intervention after brain trauma that prevents epileptogenesis from occurring in adults.

  5. Panlobular emphysema in young intravenous Ritalin abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.A.; Glenny, R.W.; Godwin, J.D.; Hampson, N.B.; Cantino, M.E.; Reichenbach, D.D. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1991-03-01

    We studied a distinctive group of young intravenous Ritalin abusers with profound obstructive lung disease. Clinically, they seemed to have severe emphysema, but the pathologic basis of their symptoms had not been investigated previously. Seven patients have died and been autopsied: in four, the lungs were fixed, inflated, dried, and examined in detail radiologically, grossly, microscopically, and by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. All seven patients had severe panlobular (panacinar) emphysema that tended to be more severe in the lower lung zones and that was associated with microscopic talc granulomas. Vascular involvement by talc granulomas was variable, but significant interstitial fibrosis was not present. Five patients were tested for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and found to be normal, as were six similar living patients. These findings indicate that some intravenous drug abusers develop emphysema that clinically, radiologically, and pathologically resembles that caused by alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency but which must have a different pathogenesis. Talc from the Ritalin tablets may be important, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated.

  6. Panlobular emphysema in young intravenous Ritalin abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied a distinctive group of young intravenous Ritalin abusers with profound obstructive lung disease. Clinically, they seemed to have severe emphysema, but the pathologic basis of their symptoms had not been investigated previously. Seven patients have died and been autopsied: in four, the lungs were fixed, inflated, dried, and examined in detail radiologically, grossly, microscopically, and by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. All seven patients had severe panlobular (panacinar) emphysema that tended to be more severe in the lower lung zones and that was associated with microscopic talc granulomas. Vascular involvement by talc granulomas was variable, but significant interstitial fibrosis was not present. Five patients were tested for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and found to be normal, as were six similar living patients. These findings indicate that some intravenous drug abusers develop emphysema that clinically, radiologically, and pathologically resembles that caused by alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency but which must have a different pathogenesis. Talc from the Ritalin tablets may be important, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated

  7. Medical image of the week: bullous emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tey KR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 63-year-old gentleman, with a history of 90-pack-years of smoking and stage IV chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was receiving home oxygen at 2 L/min at baseline. He has had multiple prior hospital admissions for respiratory failure. Over the past 2 weeks he has had increased production of sputum, associated with worsening shortness of breath. He is on fluticasone-salmeterol inhaler, albuterol inhaler, and tiotropium as an outpatient. On examination, he was hemodynamically stable, SpO2 was 92% on 4L/min of oxygen. He was in obvious respiratory distress, in a tripod position with tachypnea and using respiratory accessory muscles. Lung examination revealed diffuse expiratory wheezing. Chest radiograph shows severe emphysema (Figure 1. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse centrilobular and bullous emphysema (Figure 2. He was treated as an acute severe exacerbation of COPD and was eventually discharged to follow-up with the pulmonary clinic. Emphysema is defined as alveolar destruction and airspace enlargement distal ...

  8. Stability analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model of a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination of a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the population is in steady state and the fertility, mortality and removal rates depends on age. We determine the steady states and examine their stabilities. (author). 24 refs

  9. Age-Dependent Changes in Pb Concentration in Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Agnieszka; Wiechuła, Danuta

    2016-09-01

    The result of exposure to Pb is its accumulation in mineralized tissues. In human body, they constitute a reservoir of approx. 90 % of the Pb reserve. The conducted research aimed at determining the accumulation of Pb in calcified tissues of permanent teeth. The concentration of Pb in 390 samples of teeth taken from a selected group of Polish people was determined using the AAS method. Average concentration of Pb in teeth amounted to 14.3 ± 8.18 μg/g, range of changes: 2.21-54.8 μgPb/g. Accumulation of Pb in human body was determined based on changes in Pb concentration in teeth of subjects aged 13-84 years. It was found that in calcified tissues of teeth, the increase in concentration of Pb that occurs with age is a statistically significant process (p = 0.02, the ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis test). It was determined that the annual increase in concentration of Pb in tissues of teeth is approx. 0.1 μg/g. Moreover, a different course of changes in Pb concentration in tissues of teeth in people born in different years was observed. The level of Pb concentration in teeth of the oldest subjects (>60 years) decreased for those born in the 1930s compared to those in the 1950s. Teeth from younger persons (<60 years) were characterized by an increasing level of Pb concentration. The analysis of changes of Pb indicates that for low exposure, a relatively greater accumulation of Pb concentration in calcified tissues of teeth can occur. PMID:26888348

  10. High incidence of subcutaneous emphysema in children in a Somali refugee cAMP during measles outbreak.

    OpenAIRE

    Moons, Peter; Thallinger, Monica

    2014-01-01

    During an outbreak of measles in a refugee camp in Ethiopia, 9 patients (age range 4 months to 18 years) were diagnosed with subcutaneous emphysema. Incidence of this rare complication of measles in this refugee camp was higher than previously reported. We hypothesize that the high incidence is most likely related to poor physical state of the refugee population with high rates of malnutrition.

  11. AGE AT ONSET TYPOLOGY IN OPIOID DEPENDENT MEN: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    De, Biswajit; Surendra K Mattoo; Basu, Debasish

    2002-01-01

    This study attempted to apply age at onset typology in ICD-10 diagnosed opioid dependence. The sample comprised 80 men seeking treatment at an addiction clinic. The measures included socio-demographic and clinical profile, Severity of Opioid Dependence Questionnaire, Modified Sensation Seeking Scale, Multiphasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and Family History Assessment Module. A cut-off age of 20/21 years for an early-onset late-onset typology of opioid dependence was obtained using two m...

  12. Analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model for a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination for a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the total population is time dependent, and fertility, mortality and removal rates depend on age. We establish the existence and the uniqueness of the solution and obtain the asymptotic behaviour for the solution. For the steady state solution a critical vaccination coverage which will eventually eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 18 refs

  13. Aging impairs hippocampus-dependent long-term memory for object location in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wimmer, Mathieu; Hernandez, Pepe; Blackwell, Jennifer; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The decline in cognitive function that accompanies normal aging has a negative impact on the quality of life of the elderly and their families. Studies in humans and rodents show that spatial navigation and other hippocampus-dependent functions are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of aging. However, reduced motor activity and alterations in the stress response that accompany normal aging can hinder the ability to study certain cognitive behaviors in aged animals. In an attem...

  14. Age-Dependent Modulation of Cortical Transcriptomes in Spinal Cord Injury and Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Jaerve, Anne; Kruse, Fabian; Malik, Katharina; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Müller, Hans Werner

    2012-01-01

    Both injury and aging of the central nervous system reportedly produce profound changes in gene expression. Therefore, aging may interfere with the success of therapeutic interventions which were tailored for young patients. Using genome-scale transcriptional profiling, we identified distinct age-dependent expression profiles in rat sensorimotor cortex during acute, subacute and chronic phases of spinal cord injury (SCI). Aging affects the cortical transcriptomes triggered by transection of t...

  15. HYSSOP COMPOSITION DEPENDING ON AGE AND PLANTS DEVELOPMENT PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kotyuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to research biochemical composition of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae in relation to plant age and phenological growth stage under conditions of Ukrainian Polissya, bin order to determine the optimal harvest dates of the herbal material and its application spheres. The raw material samples under analysis were cut at various growth stages: the vegetative, budding, blooming, ripening stages. To study the hyssop oil composition, areal parts of H. officinalis were used. The composition analysis was aimed at determining absolute dry matter (by drying samples at 105 °C up to the constant mass, “crude” cellulose, amounts of protein, fats, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, ascorbic acid, carotene, discernible sugars and tannins and essential oil. The present study has proved that in the plant ontogenesis the amount of essential oil, obtained from H. officinalis areal parts, does not markedly decrease: volatile oil yield in plants of the first, second and third years of life amounted to 1.007%, 0.75% and 0.71% respectively. The composition of volatile oil in the plants of the first year of life reveals 46 components, of which pinocampone (53.73%, isopinocampone (4.66% myrtenol (9.35% and camphor (3.86% prevailed. In H. officinalis volatile oil of the third year 30 components were identified, the prevailing of which were isopinocampone (44.43%, pinocampone (35.49%, myrtenol (5.26%, germacrene D (3.15%, pulegone (2.93% and bicyclogermacrene (1.35%. We could observe the change in the quantitative and qualitative composition of H. officinalis volatile oil throughout the entire vegetation period. Thus, in the phase of vegetative growth one can identify 25 compounds, the most predominant being elemol (33.25%, germacren D (21.59% and bicyclogermacrene (15.78%. In the phase of blossoming 30 components can be identified, a high amount of isopinocampone and pinocampone (44.43% and 35.49% and somewhat lover amount of myrtenol (5

  16. Comparison of efficacy of long-acting bronchodilators in emphysema dominant and emphysema nondominant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisaku Fujimoto1, Yoshiaki Kitaguchi2, Shintaro Kanda2, Kazuhisa Urushihata2, Masayuki Hanaoka2, Keishi Kubo21Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between morphological phenotypes according to the predominance of emphysema and efficacy of long-acting muscarinic antagonist and β2 agonist bronchodilators in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: Seventy-two patients with stable COPD treated with tiotropium (n = 41 or salmeterol (n = 31 were evaluated for pulmonary function, dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation, six-minute walking distance, and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ before and 2–3 months following treatment with tiotropium or salmeterol. They were then visually divided into an emphysema dominant phenotype (n = 25 in the tiotropium-treated group and n = 22 in the salmeterol-treated group and an emphysema nondominant phenotype on high-resolution computed tomography, and the efficacy of the two drugs in each phenotype was retrospectively analyzed.Results: Tiotropium significantly improved airflow limitation, oxygenation, and respiratory impedance in both the emphysema dominant and emphysema nondominant phenotypes, and improved dynamic hyperinflation, exercise capacity, and SGRQ in the emphysema dominant phenotype but not in the emphysema nondominant phenotype. Salmeterol significantly improved total score for SGRQ in the emphysema phenotype, but no significant effects on other parameters were found for either of the phenotypes.Conclusion: These findings suggest that tiotropium is more effective than salmeterol for airflow limitation regardless of emphysema dominance, and also can improve dynamic hyperinflation in the emphysema dominant phenotype, which results in further

  17. Plastic Bronchitis in a Child Presenting as Surgical Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Tripathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis (PB refers to the presence of inspissated Bronchial casts (BC is uncommon in children.Our case presented with subcutaneous emphysema as the dominant manifestation and was suspected to have foreign body in airway, but bronchoscopy revealed a bronchial cast. Subcutaneous emphysema as the initial/sole manifestation of plastic bronchitis is very rare in children.

  18. Bullae, Bronchiectasis and Nutritional Emphysema in Severe Anorexia Nervosa

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    Victoria J Cook

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary complications of anorexia nervosa are rarely documented. The case of a patient with anorexia nervosa and pulmonary disease is presented, a new quantitative computed tomography (CT method for the detection of emphysema is employed, the literature is reviewed and the concept of 'nutritional' emphysema is discussed.

  19. Male brain ages faster: the age and gender dependence of subcortical volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, András; Szabó, Nikoletta; Tóth, Eszter; Csete, Gergő; Faragó, Péter; Kocsis, Krisztián; Must, Anita; Vécsei, László; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás

    2016-09-01

    Effects of gender on grey matter (GM) volume differences in subcortical structures of the human brain have consistently been reported. Recent research evidence suggests that both gender and brain size influences volume distribution in subcortical areas independently. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of the interplay between brain size, gender and age contributing to volume differences of subcortical GM in the human brain. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 53 healthy males and 50 age-matched healthy females. Total GM volume was determined using voxel-based morphometry. We used model-based subcortical segmentation analysis to measure the volume of subcortical nuclei. Main effects of gender, brain volume and aging on subcortical structures were examined using multivariate analysis of variance. No significant difference was found in total brain volume between the two genders after correcting for total intracranial volume. Our analysis revealed significantly larger hippocampus volume for females. Additionally, GM volumes of the caudate nucleus, putamen and thalamus displayed a significant age-related decrease in males as compared to females. In contrast to this only the thalamic volume loss proved significant for females. Strikingly, GM volume decreases faster in males than in females emphasizing the interplay between aging and gender on subcortical structures. These findings might have important implications for the interpretation of the effects of unalterable factors (i.e. gender and age) in cross-sectional structural MRI studies. Furthermore, the volume distribution and changes of subcortical structures have been consistently related to several neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, etc.). Understanding these changes might yield further insight in the course and prognosis of these disorders. PMID:26572143

  20. Elimination of recently absorbed methyl mercury depends on age and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicokinetics of some toxic metals have been demonstrated to depend on the age of the exposed individuals. Most studies focused solely upon age-dependent differences in degree of absorption. The present study aimed at investigating possible age-dependent differences in elimination of CH3HgCl using 203Hg and repeated whole-body counting of live mice to quantitate the whole-body retention. With increasing age at the time of exposure to a single oral dose of CH3HgCl, the rate of elimination more than doubled in male mice. As intestinal absorption of CH3HgCl is almost complete, the findings must pertain either to an age-related increased excretion capacity or an age-dependent change in the excretion mechanism. To study whether saturation of the excretion mechanism could explain this observation, group at different age were supplemented with non-labeled CH3HgCl in the drinking water during a two weeks observation period after administration of a single dose of CH3203HgCl. Supplementation did not influence the rate of elimination of CH3HgCl in mature males. Accordingly, the mechanism causing the observed age-dependent change in elimination rate is not a matter of saturation but an age-dependent development of a more efficient mechanism for CH3HgCl elimination. Further, as elimination of mercury absorbed during a prolonged period of exposure through drinking water was not influenced by age, the critical step for the age-dependent mechanism for elimination of CH3HgCl seems to be the initial absorption and distributional phase after exposure and most likely involves the hepatic handling of methyl mercury. (au) 9 refs

  1. Expression profiling identifies genes involved in emphysema severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman Rayleen V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in emphysema severity in COPD patients. Gene expression profiling was performed on total RNA extracted from non-tumor lung tissue from 30 smokers with emphysema. Class comparison analysis based on gas transfer measurement was performed to identify differentially expressed genes. Genes were then selected for technical validation by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR if also represented on microarray platforms used in previously published emphysema studies. Genes technically validated advanced to tests of biological replication by qRT-PCR using an independent test set of 62 lung samples. Class comparison identified 98 differentially expressed genes (p p Gene expression profiling of lung from emphysema patients identified seven candidate genes associated with emphysema severity including COL6A3, SERPINF1, ZNHIT6, NEDD4, CDKN2A, NRN1 and GSTM3.

  2. Congenital lobar emphysema: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvany, James Jackson; Weatherall, Andrew; Charlton, Amanda; Selvadurai, Hiran

    2016-01-01

    Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE), a rare condition that usually presents in the neonatal period, can be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the treating clinician. If unrecognised, it is a significant risk at the time of anaesthetic induction. We describe a case of CLE in a 3-month-old boy who was initially treated for suspected aspiration pneumonia at the referring hospital. We highlight the importance of careful consideration of common childhood respiratory illness as well as pneumothorax in the differential diagnosis, and the significance of appropriate preoperative anaesthetic management. We also emphasise the importance of acknowledging a mother's concerns when taking a paediatric history. PMID:27335360

  3. Age before beauty? Relationships between fertilization success and age-dependent ornaments in barn swallows

    OpenAIRE

    Lifjeld, Jan T; Kleven, Oddmund; Jacobsen, Frode; McGraw, Kevin J.; Safran, Rebecca J.; Robertson, Raleigh J.

    2011-01-01

    When males become more ornamented and reproduce more successfully as they grow older, phenotypic correlations between ornament exaggeration and reproductive success can be confounded with age effects in cross-sectional studies, and thus say relatively little about sexual selection on these traits. This is exemplified here in a correlative study of male fertilization success in a large colony of American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). Previous studies of this species have indic...

  4. Influence of emphysema distribution on pulmonary function parameters in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Novais e Bastos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact that the distribution of emphysema has on clinical and functional severity in patients with COPD. METHODS: The distribution of the emphysema was analyzed in COPD patients, who were classified according to a 5-point visual classification system of lung CT findings. We assessed the influence of emphysema distribution type on the clinical and functional presentation of COPD. We also evaluated hypoxemia after the six-minute walk test (6MWT and determined the six-minute walk distance (6MWD. RESULTS: Eighty-six patients were included. The mean age was 65.2 ± 12.2 years, 91.9% were male, and all but one were smokers (mean smoking history, 62.7 ± 38.4 pack-years. The emphysema distribution was categorized as obviously upper lung-predominant (type 1, in 36.0% of the patients; slightly upper lung-predominant (type 2, in 25.6%; homogeneous between the upper and lower lung (type 3, in 16.3%; and slightly lower lung-predominant (type 4, in 22.1%. Type 2 emphysema distribution was associated with lower FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and DLCO. In comparison with the type 1 patients, the type 4 patients were more likely to have an FEV1 < 65% of the predicted value (OR = 6.91, 95% CI: 1.43-33.45; p = 0.016, a 6MWD < 350 m (OR = 6.36, 95% CI: 1.26-32.18; p = 0.025, and post-6MWT hypoxemia (OR = 32.66, 95% CI: 3.26-326.84; p = 0.003. The type 3 patients had a higher RV/TLC ratio, although the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COPD appears to be greater in type 4 patients, and type 3 patients tend to have greater hyperinflation. The distribution of emphysema could have a major impact on functional parameters and should be considered in the evaluation of COPD patients.

  5. Age-dependent dynamics of screening metabolic parameters in long-livers and its biophysical estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova Т.Р.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: to examine age-dependent dynamics of parameters of biochemical screening in long-livers. Material and methods. The study included 201 long-livers divided (Saratov into two groups: the main group (centenarians and the control group (90-99 y.o.. Basic parameters of biochemical screening were analyzed. Results. The suited sample of centenarians characterized by significantly lower levels of total cholesterol, triglycerids, glucose and creatinine. All studied parameters progrediently decreased from early long-livers age to centenarians. Maximal rates of age dependencies allowed us to confirm maximal weight of lipids in early longevity and glucose and creatinine in centenarians. Conclusion. All present results are most likely explained by the combined effects of genetic, environmental and "hundred years" factors leading to dynamic remodeling of control systems. Major result of such remodeling is age-dependent optimal level of metabolic factors as a mechanism of successive ageing.

  6. Intrinsic Age-Dependent Changes and Cell-Cell Contacts Regulate Nephron Progenitor Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven; Dexheimer, Phillip J; Salomonis, Nathan; Aronow, Bruce J; Hong, Christian I; Zhang, Tongli; Kopan, Raphael

    2015-10-12

    During fetal development, nephrons of the metanephric kidney form from a mesenchymal progenitor population that differentiates en masse before or shortly after birth. We explored intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms controlling progenitor lifespan in a transplantation assay that allowed us to compare engraftment of old and young progenitors into the same young niche. The progenitors displayed an age-dependent decrease in proliferation and concomitant increase in niche exit rates. Single-cell transcriptome profiling revealed progressive age-dependent changes, with heterogeneity increasing in older populations. Age-dependent elevation in mTor and reduction in Fgf20 could contribute to increased exit rates. Importantly, 30% of old progenitors remained in the niche for up to 1 week post engraftment, a net gain of 50% to their lifespan, but only if surrounded by young neighbors. We provide evidence in support of a model in which intrinsic age-dependent changes affect inter-progenitor interactions that drive cessation of nephrogenesis. PMID:26460946

  7. Towards local progression estimation of pulmonary emphysema using CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, M., E-mail: m.staring@lumc.nl; Bakker, M. E.; Shamonin, D. P.; Reiber, J. H. C.; Stoel, B. C. [Department of Radiology, Division of Image Processing, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Stolk, J. [Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    linearity assumption relating lung volume change with density change was shown to hold (fitR{sup 2} = 0.94), and globalized versions of the local models are consistent with global results (R{sup 2} of 0.865 and 0.882 for the two adapted slope models, respectively). Conclusions: In conclusion, image matching and subsequent analysis of differences according to the proposed lung models (i) has good local registration accuracy on patient data, (ii) effectively eliminates a dependency on inspiration level at acquisition time, (iii) accurately predicts progression in phantom data, and (iv) is reasonably consistent with global results in patient data. It is therefore a potential future tool for assessing local emphysema progression in drug evaluation trials and in clinical practice.

  8. Lyapunov functions and global stability for SIR and SEIR models with age-dependent susceptibility

    KAUST Repository

    Korobeinikov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We consider global asymptotic properties for the SIR and SEIR age structured models for infectious diseases where the susceptibility depends on the age. Using the direct Lyapunov method with Volterra type Lyapunov functions, we establish conditions for the global stability of a unique endemic steady state and the infection-free steady state.

  9. Age- and sex-dependent reference intervals for D-dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Christine; Joergensen, Maja; Ellervik, Christina; Joergensen, Mikala Klok; Bathum, Lise

    2013-01-01

    A low D-dimer is commonly used to exclude venous thromboembolism in low risk patients. However, the reference intervals are poorly defined and D-dimer has been shown to increase by patient age. We aimed to establish age- and sex-dependent D-dimer reference intervals and to test the consequence of...

  10. Oral sapropterin acutely augments reflex vasodilation in aged human skin through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Stanhewicz, Anna E.; Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Functional constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) are required for full reflex cutaneous vasodilation and are attenuated in primary aging. Acute, locally administered BH4 increases reflex vasodilation through NO-dependent mechanisms in aged skin. We hypothesized that oral sapropterin (Kuvan, shelf-stable pharmaceutical formulation of BH4) would augment reflex vasodilation in aged human skin during hyperthermia. Nine healthy human subjects (76 ± 1 y...

  11. The relationship between atherosclerosis and pulmonary emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučević Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis and subsequent pulmonary emphysema has not been fully elucidated. Experimental Studies Foam cells are of great importance in the development of these diseases. It is known that local cytokine secretion and modification of native lipoprotein particles, which are internalized by the vascular and alveolar macrophages via the scavenger receptors on the surfaces of these cells, lead to the formation of foam cells. Thus, the exacerbation of local inflammatory process in the vascular and lung tissue ensues due to a generation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in further lipoprotein modification and cytokine production. Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidants may facilitate the inflammatory response by impairing antiprotease function, directly attacking vascular and lung matrix proteins and by inactivating enzymes involved in elastin synthesis and vascular and lung repair. Clinical Studies Cigarette smoke is recognized as a rich source of oxidants. Nearly 90% of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are smokers. The process of atherogenesis is also influenced by tobacco smoke. Conclusion The role of vascular and alveolar macrophages has become increasingly important in understanding the development of atherosclerosis and resulting pulmonary emphysema.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175015

  12. Role of computed tomography in quantitative assessment of emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary emphysema, together with chronic bronchitis is a part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is one of the leading causes of death in the United States and worldwide. There are many methods to diagnose emphysema. Unfortunately many of them, for example pulmonary function tests (PFTs), clinical signs and conventional radiology are able to detect emphysema usually in its late stages when a great portion of lung parenchyma has been already destroyed by the disease. Computed tomography (CT) allows for early detection of emphysema. CT also makes it possible to quantify the total amount of emphysema in the lungs which is important in order to precisely estimate the severity of the disease. Those abilities of CT are important in monitoring the course of the disease and in attempts to prevent its further progression. In this review we discuss currently available methods for imaging emphysema with emphasis on the quantitative assessment of emphysema. To date, quantitative methods have not been widely used clinically, however, the initial results of several research studies regarding this subject are very encouraging

  13. Behavioral dependent dispersal in the invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus depends on population age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magnus THORLACIUS; Gustav HELLSTRÖM; Tomas BRODIN

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions cause major ecological and economic costs in invaded habitats. The round gobyNeogobius me-lanostomus is a successful invasive species and a major threat to the biodiversity and ecological function of the Baltic Sea. It is native to the Ponto-Caspian region and has, via ballast water transport of ships, invaded the Gulf of Gdansk in Poland. Since 1990, it has spread as far north as Raahe in Northern Finland (64°41´04”N, 24°28´44”E). Over the past decade, consistent indi-vidual differences of behavioral expressions have been shown to explain various ecological processes such as dispersal, survival or reproduction. We have previously shown that new and old populations differ in personality trait expression. Individuals in new populations are bolder, less sociable and more active than in old populations. Here we investigate if the behavioral differentiation can be explained by phenotype-dependent dispersal. This was investigated by measuring activity, boldness and sociability of in-dividually marked gobies, and subsequently allowing them to disperse in a system composed of five consecutive tanks connected by tubes. Individual dispersal tendency and distance was measured. Our results revealed that in newly established populations, more active individuals disperse sooner and that latency of a group to disperse depends on the mean sociability of the group. This indicates the presence of personality dependent dispersal in this species and that it is maintained at the invasion front but lost as the populations get older [Current Zoology 61 (3): 529–542, 2015].

  14. Comparison of 99mTc-technegas scintigraphy and high resolution CT in pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of technetium-99m technegas scintigraphy axial images (technegas) compared with high resolution CT (HRCT) in 12 patients with pulmonary emphysema. All patients were male adult and heavy smokers and their mean age was 65. All patients inhaled 505 MBq technegas in several tidal volume breaths in the supine position without breath holding. SPECT imaging was performed by a Picker model Prism 2000. HRCT was performed after technegas. The technegas images showed different degree of changes from areas of haterogeneity to hot spots or defects. In emphysema, HRCT images showed low attenuation areas varying in size and number. In 4 of 12 patients, the degree of abnormal findings on technegas increased according to the degree of abnormal findings on HRCT. In the remaining 8 patients, however, more detailed findings were shown by technegas than by HRCT. There was no patients in which HRCT showed a greater changes than on technegas. HRCT can demonstrate low attenuation areas, even less than 5 mm in diameter. Moreover previous reports showed that aerosol inhalation would also demonstrate the airway disease. Assessment of the degree of involvement revealed by both methods indicated the superiority of technegas over HRCT. We conclude that technegas can represent the ventilation involvement easily more than HRCT in pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  15. The role of heat shock protein 70 in mediating age-dependent mortality in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W; Fox, Amy C; Clark, Andrew T; Chang, Nai-Yuan Nicholas; Dominguez, Jessica A; Farris, Alton B; Buchman, Timothy G; Hunt, Clayton R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2011-03-15

    Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6- to 12-wk-old) and aged (16- to 17-mo-old) HSP70(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice to determine whether HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70(-/-) and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture, Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70(-/-) mice than aged WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (p = 0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared with WT mice, aged septic HSP70(-/-) mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70(-/-) mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1β compared with WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged, but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation. PMID:21296977

  16. The role of HSP70 in mediating age-dependent mortality in sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Fox, Amy C.; Clark, Andrew T.; Chang, Nai-Yuan Nicholas; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Farris, Alton B.; Buchman, Timothy G.; Hunt, Clayton R.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6–12week old) and aged (16–17 month old) HSP70−/− and wild type (WT) mice to determine if HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70−/− and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70−/− mice than aged WT mice subjected to CLP (p=0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared to WT mice, aged septic HSP70−/− mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70−/−mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β compared to WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation. PMID:21296977

  17. Functional Benefits of Bilateral Emphysema Reduction Surgery in an Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Valérie; Moreau de Bellaing, Anne; Filaire, Marc; Richard, Ruddy; Labbé, André

    2016-09-01

    Acquired emphysema is a rare pathology in pediatrics. We report the case of a patient born at term with a neonatal respiratory distress, which had required mechanical ventilation. She developed gradually chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with severe emphysematous lesions, respiratory failure and functional impairments. Bilateral emphysema resection, performed at 16 years old, allowed major functional benefits at rest and during exercise. We present the results of respiratory functional evaluations, walk tests and maximal exercise tests (including measure of dynamic hyperinflation) before and after surgery, which highlights that surgery is a successful option in the treatment of compressive emphysema in childhood. PMID:27549540

  18. Minimum intensity projection technique in the evaluation of pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinically diagnosed 30 pulmonary emphysema patients were evaluated with helical CT. From 10 mm thickness and 10 mm/sec table speed helical CT date set, minimum intensity projection (Min-IP) were generated. Min-IP coronal images were well demonstrated distribution and degree of emphysema. Compared to the high resolution CT images (2 mm thickness), Min-IP images were as same as well evaluated the disease. Min-IP technique seem to be useful for evaluate distribution and degree of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  19. Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema Alters Physiology but Has Similar Mortality to Pulmonary Fibrosis Without Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowich, Matthew D.; Rounds, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Studies have described individuals with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), with preserved lung volumes, significant reductions in gas exchange, and high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. While physiologic changes in CPFE are well documented, there is little mortality data in the CPFE population compared to appropriate controls. A study was performed to determine the features and outcomes of a group of individuals with imaging and/or pathologic evidence of CPFE to determine ...

  20. Age dependent sampling biases in tsetse flies (Glossina): Problems associated with estimating mortality from sample age distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a closed (island) population of G. morsitans morsitans Westwood, the probability per week of capturing females on ox fly rounds was about 0.3 in the first week of life, less than 0.2 for 27 to 35-d-old flies and greater than 0.4 for flies more than 80 d old. For open populations, the relative changes in capture probability were measured from the ovarian age distributions of trap and ox fly round samples. They were used (with island data) to show that the age dependent sampling bias of traps for female G. m. morsitans increased more than sixfold over the first 80 d of life. The age dependent bias for G. pallidipes Austen taken from odour baited traps is probably at least as serious as for G. m. morsitans. Estimates of daily mortality from the mark-recapture studies were always (up to 20 times) higher than estimates from ovarian age samples taken at the same times. The mortalities recalculated from samples adjusted for sampling biases were closer to, but still lower than, the mark-recapture estimates. Odour baited targets are successful in controlling tsetse populations, despite the relatively low probability of treating young females. If sterilants instead of insecticides were used on the targets, young females could be treated indirectly via treated males, which transfer the sterilant to virgin females during copulation. (author). 15 refs, 2 figs

  1. Practical applications of age-dependent reliability models and analysis of operational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the workshop was to present the experience of practical application of time-dependent reliability models. The program of the workshop comprises the following sessions: -) aging management and aging PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), -) modeling, -) operation experience, and -) accelerating aging tests. In order to introduce time aging effect of particular component to the PSA model, it has been proposed to use the constant unavailability values on the short period of time (one year for example) calculated on the basis of age-dependent reliability models. As for modeling, it appears that the problem of too detailed statistical models for application is the lack of data for required parameters. As for operating experience, several methods of operating experience analysis have been presented (algorithms for reliability data elaboration and statistical identification of aging trend). As for accelerated aging tests, it is demonstrated that a combination of operating experience analysis with the results of accelerated aging tests of naturally aged equipment could provide a good basis for continuous operation of instrumentation and control systems

  2. Practical applications of age-dependent reliability models and analysis of operational data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lannoy, A.; Nitoi, M.; Backstrom, O.; Burgazzi, L.; Couallier, V.; Nikulin, M.; Derode, A.; Rodionov, A.; Atwood, C.; Fradet, F.; Antonov, A.; Berezhnoy, A.; Choi, S.Y.; Starr, F.; Dawson, J.; Palmen, H.; Clerjaud, L

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to present the experience of practical application of time-dependent reliability models. The program of the workshop comprises the following sessions: -) aging management and aging PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), -) modeling, -) operation experience, and -) accelerating aging tests. In order to introduce time aging effect of particular component to the PSA model, it has been proposed to use the constant unavailability values on the short period of time (one year for example) calculated on the basis of age-dependent reliability models. As for modeling, it appears that the problem of too detailed statistical models for application is the lack of data for required parameters. As for operating experience, several methods of operating experience analysis have been presented (algorithms for reliability data elaboration and statistical identification of aging trend). As for accelerated aging tests, it is demonstrated that a combination of operating experience analysis with the results of accelerated aging tests of naturally aged equipment could provide a good basis for continuous operation of instrumentation and control systems.

  3. Evaluation of early and late complications in patients with congenital lobar emphysema: A 12 year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazem Masood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE is characterised by over distension of one lobe and pressure on the adjacent lobe and mediastinum. In this study, we review the pathological results of our paediatric patients with CLE, highlighting the early and late complications that occurred in these patients. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study from 1996 to 2008, we evaluated 30 patients with CLE diagnosis. Variables collected included sex, age at the time of diagnosis, radiological diagnostic method, type of treatment, pathological analysis, surgical findings and early postoperative complications. Parents were asked to refer to our clinic for follow-up and evaluation of late complications. Results: Thirty patients and males accounted for majority of the study population (n = 20, 67%. The mean age of male and female patients (at admission was 7.2 ± 2.3 and 4.7 ± 1.2 months respectively (P = not significant. The main diagnostic method was chest x-ray (CXR in all patients. Abnormal bronchial cartilage was found in 71% of patients. The most affected lobe was left upper lobe (50%. Associated anomalies were seen in four patients. Early postoperative periodhadtwo cases of pneumothoraces. At six month follow up, five (25% males and four females (40% had delayed weight gain. Permanent oxygen dependency was seen in two patients. Twenty- six patients underwent thoracotomy. Mortality rate was 13%. Base deficit at the time of admission was greater in those patients who eventually died, (-8.6 ± 1.2 versus -3.1 ± 0.4 (P = 0.0003. There were two deaths in the bilobar involvement group and two in the unilobar involvement group (P = 0.07, near significant. Conclusion: This study confirms that the number of affected lobes and base deficit at the time of admission were associated with significantly increased mortality.

  4. Vascular mTOR-dependent mechanisms linking the control of aging to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Veronica; Hart, Matthew J

    2016-05-01

    Aging is the strongest known risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). With the discovery of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) as a critical pathway controlling the rate of aging in mice, molecules at the interface between the regulation of aging and the mechanisms of specific age-associated diseases can be identified. We will review emerging evidence that mTOR-dependent brain vascular dysfunction, a universal feature of aging, may be one of the mechanisms linking the regulation of the rate of aging to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26639036

  5. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen-Jucht, Céline; Erguler, Kamil; Shek, Chee Yan; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Parham, Paul E

    2015-06-01

    Climate change and global warming are emerging as important threats to human health, particularly through the potential increase in vector- and water-borne diseases. Environmental variables are known to affect substantially the population dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors of disease, but the exact extent of this sensitivity is not well established. Focusing on malaria and its main vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, we present a set of novel mathematical models of climate-driven mosquito population dynamics motivated by experimental data suggesting that in An. gambiae, mortality is temperature and age dependent. We compared the performance of these models to that of a "standard" model ignoring age dependence. We used a longitudinal dataset of vector abundance over 36 months in sub-Saharan Africa for comparison between models that incorporate age dependence and one that does not, and observe that age-dependent models consistently fitted the data better than the reference model. This highlights that including age dependence in the vector component of mosquito-borne disease models may be important to predict more reliably disease transmission dynamics. Further data and studies are needed to enable improved fitting, leading to more accurate and informative model predictions for the An. gambiae malaria vector as well as for other disease vectors. PMID:26030468

  6. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen-Jucht, Céline; Erguler, Kamil; Shek, Chee Yan; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Parham, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and global warming are emerging as important threats to human health, particularly through the potential increase in vector- and water-borne diseases. Environmental variables are known to affect substantially the population dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors of disease, but the exact extent of this sensitivity is not well established. Focusing on malaria and its main vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, we present a set of novel mathematical models of climate-driven mosquito population dynamics motivated by experimental data suggesting that in An. gambiae, mortality is temperature and age dependent. We compared the performance of these models to that of a “standard” model ignoring age dependence. We used a longitudinal dataset of vector abundance over 36 months in sub-Saharan Africa for comparison between models that incorporate age dependence and one that does not, and observe that age-dependent models consistently fitted the data better than the reference model. This highlights that including age dependence in the vector component of mosquito-borne disease models may be important to predict more reliably disease transmission dynamics. Further data and studies are needed to enable improved fitting, leading to more accurate and informative model predictions for the An. gambiae malaria vector as well as for other disease vectors. PMID:26030468

  7. Pulmonary hyperinflation and emphysema in infants with the Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little recognition has been given to the pulmonary manifestations of the Marfan syndrome especially in infants. We report four cases of Marfan's syndrome presenting in infancy with respiratory abnormalities and a common radiographic picture of emphysema. (orig./MG)

  8. The extent of emphysema in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher Burhan; Stavngaard, Trine; Hestad, Marianne;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The global initiative for COPD (GOLD) adopted the degree of airway obstruction as a measure of the severity of the disease. The objective of this study was to apply CT to assess the extent of emphysema in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and relate...... this extent to the GOLD stage of airway obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 209 patients with COPD. COPD was defined as FEV(1)/FVC < 0.70 and no reversibility to beta(2)-agonists. All patients were current smokers with a smoking history of >or=20 pack-years. Patients were assessed by lung...... emphysema increases with increasing severity of COPD and most patients with COPD have emphysema. Tissue destruction by emphysema is therefore an important determinant of disease severity in COPD....

  9. Aspiration, atelektasis, emphysema with special regard to children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important factors of acute respiratory diseases in childhood are reported. Above all the characteristic features of airway obstructions in chest films are presented: In newborn suffering from aspiration we find diffuse patchy and illdefined densities combined with atelectasis. In patients with aspiration of foreign bodies a unilaterally localized complete or partial emphysema of the lung in in- and particulary in exspiration followed by mediastinal shifting is pathognomonic. Chest films in in- and exspiration are therefore mandatory. Atelectases are not uncommon in ventilated and operated patients. Emphysemata arise also in such patients; a particular emphysema is the so-called congenital lobar emphysema due to an upper lobe obstruction in most patients. Finally children suffering from spastic bronchitis and asthma present pulmonary emphysema. Generally chest films in different projections and not only in inspiration but also in exspiration allow to establish the correct diagnosis of the most important airway obstructions in children and to give rapid and sure informations for treatment. (orig.)

  10. Pneumomediastinum, simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema following burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum with subcutaneous emphysema following burn is unreported in the literature. We de-scribe such case in an 18-year-old male patient with possible mechanism of such presentation.

  11. Pulmonary hyperinflation and emphysema in infants with the Marfan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Weisgrau, R.A.; Santamaria, M.

    1987-07-01

    Little recognition has been given to the pulmonary manifestations of the Marfan syndrome especially in infants. We report four cases of Marfan's syndrome presenting in infancy with respiratory abnormalities and a common radiographic picture of emphysema.

  12. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: an increasingly recognized condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Meira Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE has been increasingly recognized in the literature. Patients with CPFE are usually heavy smokers or former smokers with concomitant lower lobe fibrosis and upper lobe emphysema on chest HRCT scans. They commonly present with severe breathlessness and low DLCO, despite spirometry showing relatively preserved lung volumes. Moderate to severe pulmonary arterial hypertension is common in such patients, who are also at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. Unfortunately, there is currently no effective treatment for CPFE. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and prognostic factors of CPFE. Given that most of the published data on CPFE are based on retrospective analysis, more studies are needed in order to address the role of emphysema and its subtypes; the progression of fibrosis/emphysema and its correlation with inflammation; treatment options; and prognosis.

  13. Reducing surgery of volume for the pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper includes aspects as selection approaches, functional evaluation, imagenologic evaluation, cardiovascular evaluation, technical aspects and results among other topics related with the reducing surgery of volume of the pulmonary emphysema

  14. Congenital lobar emphysema: Pitfalls in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinya, Abhishek; Pandey, Prince Raj; Sinha, Shandip Kumar; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is a rare but life-threatening congenital anomaly leading to respiratory distress in early childhood. Diagnosis requires a strong clinical suspicion. We report a case of a 31/2-month-old infant who was initially diagnosed with pneumonia requiring multiple hospital admissions. After computed tomography of the thorax, a diagnosis on CLE was made. The child was planned for surgery in the next available routine operation theatre. However, suddenly in the evening, she developed respiratory distress and needed emergency surgical intervention. The child improved dramatically after surgery, and the postoperative period was uneventful. Early diagnosis and treatment in such cases can lead to dramatic results. PMID:27185998

  15. Congenital lobar emphysema: Pitfalls in diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Chinya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE is a rare but life-threatening congenital anomaly leading to respiratory distress in early childhood. Diagnosis requires a strong clinical suspicion. We report a case of a 31/2-month-old infant who was initially diagnosed with pneumonia requiring multiple hospital admissions. After computed tomography of the thorax, a diagnosis on CLE was made. The child was planned for surgery in the next available routine operation theatre. However, suddenly in the evening, she developed respiratory distress and needed emergency surgical intervention. The child improved dramatically after surgery, and the postoperative period was uneventful. Early diagnosis and treatment in such cases can lead to dramatic results.

  16. Normal aging does not impair orbitofrontal-dependent reinforcer devaluation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teghpal eSingh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging is associated with deficits in cognitive flexibility thought to depend on prefrontal regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex. Here, we used Pavlovian reinforcer devaluation to test whether normal aging might also affect the ability to use outcome expectancies to guide appropriate behavioral responding, which is also known to depend on the orbitofrontal cortex. Both young and aged rats were trained to associate a 10 second conditioned stimulus (CS+ with delivery of a sucrose pellet. After training, half of the rats in each age group received the sucrose pellets paired with illness induced by LiCl injections; the remaining rats received sucrose and illness explicitly unpaired. Subsequently, responding to the CS+ was assessed in an extinction probe test. Although aged rats displayed lower responding levels overall, both young and aged rats conditioned to the CS+ and developed a conditioned taste aversion following reinforcer devaluation. Furthermore, during the extinction probe test, both young and aged rats spontaneously attenuated conditioned responding to the cue as a result of reinforcer devaluation. These data show that normal aging does not affect the ability to use expected outcome value to appropriately guide Pavlovian responding. This result indicates that deficits in cognitive flexibility are dissociable from other known functions of prefrontal - and particularly orbitofrontal - cortex. 

  17. Age-dependent changes in innate immune phenotype and function in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Asquith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aged individuals are more susceptible to infections due to a general decline in immune function broadly referred to as immune senescence. While age-related changes in the adaptive immune system are well documented, aging of the innate immune system remains less well understood, particularly in nonhuman primates. A more robust understanding of age-related changes in innate immune function would provide mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility of the elderly to infection. Rhesus macaques have proved a critical translational model for aging research, and present a unique opportunity to dissect age-dependent modulation of the innate immune system. We examined age-related changes in: (i innate immune cell frequencies; (ii expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and innate signaling molecules; (iii cytokine responses of monocytes and dendritic cells (DC following stimulation with PRR agonists; and (iv plasma cytokine levels in this model. We found marked changes in both the phenotype and function of innate immune cells. This included an age-associated increased frequency of myeloid DC (mDC. Moreover, we found toll-like receptor (TLR agonists lipopolysaccharide (TLR4, fibroblast stimulating ligand-1 (TLR2/6, and ODN2006 (TLR7/9 induced reduced cytokine responses in aged mDC. Interestingly, with the exception of the monocyte-derived TNFα response to LPS, which increased with age, TNFα, IL-6, and IFNα responses declined with age. We also found that TLR4, TLR5, and innate negative regulator, sterile alpha and TIR motif containing protein (SARM, were all expressed at lower levels in young animals. By contrast, absent in melanoma 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I expression was lowest in aged animals. Together, these observations indicate that several parameters of innate immunity are significantly modulated by age and contribute to differential immune function in aged macaques.

  18. Age-dependent changes in innate immune phenotype and function in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, Mark; Haberthur, Kristen; Brown, Monica; Engelmann, Flora; Murphy, Ashleigh; Al-Mahdi, Zainab; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2012-01-01

    Aged individuals are more susceptible to infections due to a general decline in immune function broadly referred to as immune senescence. While age-related changes in the adaptive immune system are well documented, aging of the innate immune system remains less well understood, particularly in nonhuman primates. A more robust understanding of age-related changes in innate immune function would provide mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility of the elderly to infection. Rhesus macaques have proved a critical translational model for aging research, and present a unique opportunity to dissect age-dependent modulation of the innate immune system. We examined age-related changes in: (i) innate immune cell frequencies; (ii) expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and innate signaling molecules; (iii) cytokine responses of monocytes and dendritic cells (DC) following stimulation with PRR agonists; and (iv) plasma cytokine levels in this model. We found marked changes in both the phenotype and function of innate immune cells. This included an age-associated increased frequency of myeloid DC (mDC). Moreover, we found toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), fibroblast stimulating ligand-1 (TLR2/6), and ODN2006 (TLR7/9) induced reduced cytokine responses in aged mDC. Interestingly, with the exception of the monocyte-derived TNFα response to LPS, which increased with age, TNFα, IL-6, and IFNα responses declined with age. We also found that TLR4, TLR5, and innate negative regulator, sterile alpha and TIR motif containing protein (SARM), were all expressed at lower levels in young animals. By contrast, absent in melanoma 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I expression was lowest in aged animals. Together, these observations indicate that several parameters of innate immunity are significantly modulated by age and contribute to differential immune function in aged macaques. PMID:22953039

  19. Subcutaneous Emphysema and Pneumomediastinum after Inhaling Pepper Spray

    OpenAIRE

    Woussen, Sofie; Lemmerling, Marc; Verstraeten, André

    2016-01-01

    A 25-year-old police officer presented to the emergency department with shortness of breath developed after multiple exposures to pepper spray during training exercises. Physical examination revealed crepitus on palpation and auscultation in the neck, face and thorax, consistent with subcutaneous emphysema. The patient was hemodynamically stable. Blood tests showed no abnormalities. The anteroposterior (AP) chest radiograph (Fig. A) demonstrated diffuse subcutaneous emphysema (solid white arr...

  20. Computer-aided recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiography.

    OpenAIRE

    Miniati, Massimo; Coppini, Giuseppe; Monti, Simonetta; Bottai, Matteo; Paterni, Marco; Ferdeghini, Ezio Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) is the benchmark for diagnosis emphysema, but is costly and imparts a substantial radiation burden to the patient. Objective To develop a computer-aided procedure that allows recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiography by using simple descriptors of the lung shape. The procedure was tested against CT. Methods Patients (N=225), who had undergone postero-anterior and lateral digital chest radiographs and CT for diagnostic purposes, were studied and ...

  1. A case of localized persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, M. H.; Kim, M. Y.; Shim, W. S.; OH, S. S.; Shin, B. K.; Cho, S J; Kim, H.K.

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial pulmonary emphysema is a well-documented complication of assisted mechanical ventilation in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Localized persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema (LPIPE) confined to a single lobe was incidentally presented in a 4-day-old female infant. This patient was a normal full-term baby with no respiratory distress symptom and no experience of assisted mechanical ventilation. Chest radiograph showed radiolucent area in right lower lobe ...

  2. Pulmonary Function and Emphysema in Williams-Beuren Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Emily S.; Pober, Barbara R; Washko, George; Raby, Benjamin A.; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2010-01-01

    Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) is caused by a submicroscopic deletion on chromosome 7q11.23 that encompasses the entire elastin (ELN) gene. Elastin, a key component of elastic fibers within the lung, is progressively destroyed in emphysema. Defects in the elastin gene have been associated with increased susceptibility towards developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema in both humans and mice. We postulate that hemizygosity at the elastin gene locus may increase susc...

  3. Apoptotic clearance in rabbits with experimental pulmonary emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Žunić-Božinovski Snežana; Žunić Svetlana; Mladenović-Đorđević Aleksandra; Ruždijić Sabera; Kanazir Selma

    2011-01-01

    In order to better understand pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, the model of experimentally induced pulmonary emphysema in Chinchilla rabbits was used for the estimation of apoptotic clearance of pulmonary tissue. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in three groups of animals: experimental group-E on hypercholesterolemic diet (4% edible oil solution of crystalline cholesterol), control group-C1 on standard diet for that animal species and animals on oil...

  4. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: an increasingly recognized condition

    OpenAIRE

    Olívia Meira Dias; Bruno Guedes Baldi; André Nathan Costa; Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) has been increasingly recognized in the literature. Patients with CPFE are usually heavy smokers or former smokers with concomitant lower lobe fibrosis and upper lobe emphysema on chest HRCT scans. They commonly present with severe breathlessness and low DLCO, despite spirometry showing relatively preserved lung volumes. Moderate to severe pulmonary arterial hypertension is common in such patients, who are also at an increased risk of developin...

  5. Management of extensive subcutaneous emphysema with a subcutaneous drain

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Peter; Chen, Hua Kiat; Wiseman, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a gentleman in his 70s with extensive subcutaneous emphysema. Usually self-limiting, subcutaneous emphysema around the thoracic inlet can rarely lead to airway and cardiovascular compromise by compression of structures in the neck. This patient presented with a large pneumothorax on a background of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This was initially treated with an intrapleural chest drain. However, after removal of this drain, the patient developed subcutane...

  6. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: an increasingly recognized condition* **

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Olívia Meira; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Costa, André Nathan; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) has been increasingly recognized in the literature. Patients with CPFE are usually heavy smokers or former smokers with concomitant lower lobe fibrosis and upper lobe emphysema on chest HRCT scans. They commonly present with severe breathlessness and low DLCO, despite spirometry showing relatively preserved lung volumes. Moderate to severe pulmonary arterial hypertension is common in such patients, who are also at an increased risk of developin...

  7. Bullae, Bronchiectasis and Nutritional Emphysema in Severe Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Victoria J; Coxson, Harvey O.; Mason, Andrew G; Tony R Bai

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary complications of anorexia nervosa are rarely documented. The case of a patient with anorexia nervosa and pulmonary disease is presented, a new quantitative computed tomography (CT) method for the detection of emphysema is employed, the literature is reviewed and the concept of 'nutritional' emphysema is discussed.RESULTS: The case of a 34-year-old, nonsmoking woman with long-standing severe anorexia nervosa who was evaluated for cough and progressive shortness of b...

  8. FEATURES OF ETIOLOGIC SPECTRUM OF ALERGIC RINITY FOR CHILDREN DEPENDING ON SEX AND AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asheulov OM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work there are presented the results of allergy testings of children suffering from alergic rinity. The aim of this study was the specification of casually significant allergen depending on sex and age. Results of testing are processed by a method of the mathematiical analysis, raised in nomograms according to which, considering the nosological entity of disease, sex and age of a patient, it is possible to define causally significant allergen.

  9. Computer-aided recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) is the benchmark for diagnosis emphysema, but is costly and imparts a substantial radiation burden to the patient. Objective: To develop a computer-aided procedure that allows recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiography by using simple descriptors of the lung shape. The procedure was tested against CT. Methods: Patients (N = 225), who had undergone postero-anterior and lateral digital chest radiographs and CT for diagnostic purposes, were studied and divided in a derivation (N = 118) and in a validation sample (N = 107). CT images were scored for emphysema using the picture-grading method. Simple descriptors that measure the bending characteristics of the lung profile on chest radiography were automatically extracted from the derivation sample, and applied to train a neural network to assign a probability of emphysema between 0 and 1. The diagnostic performance of the procedure was described by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: AUC was 0.985 (95% confidence interval, 0.965-0.998) in the derivation sample, and 0.975 (95% confidence interval, 0.936-0.998) in the validation sample. At a probability cutpoint of 0.55, the procedure yielded 92% sensitivity and 96% specificity in the derivation sample; 90% sensitivity and 97% specificity in the validation sample. False negatives on chest radiography had trace or mild emphysema on CT. Conclusions: The computer-aided procedure is simple and inexpensive, and permits quick recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiographs.

  10. Computer-aided recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miniati, Massimo, E-mail: Massimo.Miniati@unifi.it [Department of Medical and Surgical Critical Care, University of Florence, 50134 Florence (Italy); Coppini, Giuseppe; Monti, Simonetta [Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bottai, Matteo [Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Division of Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, 29208 Columbia, SC (United States); Paterni, Marco; Ferdeghini, Ezio Maria [Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) is the benchmark for diagnosis emphysema, but is costly and imparts a substantial radiation burden to the patient. Objective: To develop a computer-aided procedure that allows recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiography by using simple descriptors of the lung shape. The procedure was tested against CT. Methods: Patients (N = 225), who had undergone postero-anterior and lateral digital chest radiographs and CT for diagnostic purposes, were studied and divided in a derivation (N = 118) and in a validation sample (N = 107). CT images were scored for emphysema using the picture-grading method. Simple descriptors that measure the bending characteristics of the lung profile on chest radiography were automatically extracted from the derivation sample, and applied to train a neural network to assign a probability of emphysema between 0 and 1. The diagnostic performance of the procedure was described by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: AUC was 0.985 (95% confidence interval, 0.965-0.998) in the derivation sample, and 0.975 (95% confidence interval, 0.936-0.998) in the validation sample. At a probability cutpoint of 0.55, the procedure yielded 92% sensitivity and 96% specificity in the derivation sample; 90% sensitivity and 97% specificity in the validation sample. False negatives on chest radiography had trace or mild emphysema on CT. Conclusions: The computer-aided procedure is simple and inexpensive, and permits quick recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiographs.

  11. Dependence on age at intake of committed dose equivalents from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of committed dose equivalents on age at intake is needed to assess the significance of exposures of young persons among the general public resulting from inhaled or ingested radionuclides. The committed dose equivalents, evaluated using ICRP principles, depend on the body dimensions of the young person at the time of intake of a radionuclide and on subsequent body growth. Representation of growth by a series of exponential segments facilitates the derivation of general expressions for the age dependence of committed dose equivalents if metabolic models do not change with age. The additional assumption that intakes of radionuclides in air or food are proportional to a person's energy expenditure (implying age-independent dietary composition) enables the demonstration that the age of the most highly exposed 'critical groups' of the general public from these radionuclides is either about 1 year or 17 years. With the above assumptions the exposure of the critical group is less than three times the exposure of adult members of the general public. Approximate values of committed dose equivalents which avoid both underestimation and excessive overestimation are shown to be obtainable by simplified procedures. Modified procedures are suggested for use if metabolic models change with age. (author)

  12. Quantifying the Extent of Emphysema : Factors Associated with Radiologists' Estimations and Quantitative Indices of Emphysema Severity Using the ECLIPSE Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietema, Hester A.; Mueller, Nestor L.; Fauerbach, Paola V. Nasute; Sharma, Sanjay; Edwards, Lisa D.; Camp, Pat G.; Coxson, Harvey O.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: This study investigated what factors radiologists take into account when estimating emphysema severity and assessed quantitative computed tomography (CT) measurements of low attenuation areas. Materials and Methods: CT scans and spirometry were obtained on 1519 chronic obst

  13. Environmental dependence of galaxy age in the Main galaxy sample of SDSS DR10

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xin-Fa

    2014-01-01

    Using two volume-limited Main galaxy samples of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10), I investigate the environmental dependence of galaxy age, and get the same conclusions in two volume-limited Main galaxy samples: old galaxies exist preferentially in the densest regions of the universe, while young galaxies are located preferentially in low density regions. Such an age-density relation is likely a combination of a strong age-stellar mass relation and the stellar mass-den...

  14. Time-dependent Early-age Behaviors of Concrete under Restrained Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xinwei; CAO Lixin; R D Hooton; H Lam; NIU Changren

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the early-age behaviors of concrete under a restrained condition, a set of apparatus was developed. In this way, the tensile creep and other early-age properties can be investigated in depth. By measuring the modulus of elasticity of concrete, synchronous shrinkage of concrete and steel rings and free shrinkage of concrete, the deformations of concrete ring can be quantified respectively. The experimental results show the tensile stress in concrete is time-dependent, and the stress at cracking is much lower than the tensile strength at that age; the tensile creep plays an important role in relaxing the tensile stress and postponing the cracking of concrete.

  15. ADL ability characteristics of partially dependent older people: Gender and age differences in ADL ability

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Susumu; Demura, Shinichi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Kasuga, Kohsho; Kobayashi, Hidetsugu

    2001-01-01

    Age and gender differences in ADL ability were investigated using 568 Japanese partially dependent older people (PD, Mean age=82.2±7.76 years) living in welfare institutions. The subjects were asked about 17 ADL items representing 7 ADL domains by the professional staff working at subjects' institutions. Each item was assessed by a dichotomous scale of “possible” or “impossible”. Item proportions of “possible” response were calculated for gender and age groups (60s, 70s, 80s and 90s). Two-way...

  16. Diagnosis of chronic pulmonary emphysema with introduction of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early or slight chronic pulmonary emphysema (CPE) may be difficult to diagnose. Therefore, this study examined local and overall lung CT densities, pulmonary function, and clinical features in 15 patients with selective alveolo-bronchography-proven CPE and 9 healthy volunteers to establish the method for diagnosing CPE early. Selective alveolo-bronchography revealed a ring shadow of 900 μm or more in all patients. CT densities in the whole lung, and all of the upper, horizontal middle, lower, anterior, frontal middle, and posterior regions were significantly lower in the CPE group than the control group. Mean CT density in the upper region was significantly lower than in the lower region in the CPE group, although there was no difference in CT densities between the upper and lower regions in the control group. In the control group, mean CT density in the anterior region was significantly lower than in the posterior region. Mean values of FVC, %FVC, FFV1.0, FFV1.0%, PEF, and V50/V25 were significantly decreased in the CPE group. Mean lung CT densities were capable of detecting CPE in 12 patients. There was significant correlation between mean CT densities and both FEV1.0% and PEF. The discrepancy in CT density between the upper and lower regions showed a positive correlation to V50/V25. According to clinical features, patients having persistent cough and sputum had a larger diameter of ring shadow and a great difference in CT density between the upper and lower regions than those having dyspnea. The existence of both cough and sputum seemed to be associated with inhomogeneously destroyed alveoli. In conclusion, when FEV1.0% of 55%-80% and V50/V25 of 3.2 or more are seen in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cigarette smokers aged 40 years or over, and when CT reveals mean lung density of -912 H.U. or less or the difference of 23 H.U. or more in the upper and lower regions, emphysema can be diagnosed clinically. (N.K.)

  17. The Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Opiate Dependency in Adolescence and Middle Age

    OpenAIRE

    Naqavi, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi, Masood; Salari, Vahid; NAKHAEE, Nouzar

    2011-01-01

    Background Child maltreatment is a global phenomenon with possible serious long-term consequences. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between childhood maltreatment and opiate dependency in older age. Methods In this study, 212 opiate dependent individuals and 216 control subjects were selected consecutively. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire which consisted of background variables, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and Childhood Trauma Questionnair...

  18. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Cochard, Marie-Madeleine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Newman, Christopher J.; Hofer, Michael; Eigenmann, Philippe A.

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Wassenberg J, Cochard M-M, DunnGalvin A, Ballabeni P, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Newman CJ, Hofer M, Eigenmann PA. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 412419. Abstract Background: Food allergy in children

  19. An age-dependent population equation with diffusion and delayed birth process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fragnelli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new age-dependent population equation which takes into account not only a delay in the birth process, but also other events that may take place during the time between conception and birth. Using semigroup theory, we discuss the well posedness and the asymptotic behavior of the solution.

  20. Age-dependent attractivity of males’ sexual pheromones in Bombus terrestris (L.) [Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coppée, Audrey; Mathy, T.; Cammaerts, M.; Verheggen, F. J.; Terzo, M.; Iserbyt, S.; Valterová, Irena; Rasmont, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2011), s. 75-82. ISSN 0937-7409 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1446 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Bombus terrestris * sexual pheromones * age-dependent variation * behavioural tests Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2011

  1. Gray matters : Age-related differences in context-dependent idiom processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    la Roi, Amélie; Sprenger, Simone; Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background How does age-related cognitive decline affect context-dependent idiom processing? When people grow older, their cognitive functions decline. Compared to younger adults, elderly adults show impaired cognitive inhibitory skills (Hasher, Stoltzfus, Zacks, & Rypma, 1991) and reduced working m

  2. REMINDER EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR DEPENDENT CHILDREN AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2002/2003 school year) received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned yet, they are requested to do so WITHOUT DELAY. The deadline was 13 September.   Human Resources Division Tel. 72862-74474

  3. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2003/2004 school year) received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not yet been completed and returned, they are requested to do so without delay. The deadline was 12 September. Human Resources Division Tel. 72862-74474

  4. Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Social and Statutory conditions

    2004-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2004/2005 school year) have received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned yet, they are requested to do so WITHOUT DELAY. The deadline was 10 September. Social and Statutory conditions Human Resources Department Tel. 72862-74474

  5. FINAL REMINDER EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR A DEPENDENT CHILD AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2001/2002 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by December 11, 2001 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from September 1, 2001.

  6. FINAL REMINDER EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR A DEPENDENT CHILD AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Social and Statutory Conditions; Tel. 72862-74474

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2000/2001 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by November 28, 2000 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from September 1,2000.

  7. Optimal harvesting for an age-dependent n-dimensional food chain model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi-xue; DU Ming-yin

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with optimal harvesting policy for an age-dependent n-dimensional food chain model. The existence and uniqueness of non-negative solution of the system are proved using the fixed point theorem. By Mazur's theorem, the existence of optimal control strategy is demonstrated and optimality conditions derived by means of normal cone.

  8. OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEM FOR A PERIODIC PREDATOR-PREY MODEL WITH AGE-DEPENDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate optimal policy for periodic predator-prey system with age-dependence.Namely,we consider the model with periodic vital rates and initial distribution.The existence of optimal control strategy is discussed by Mazur's theorem and optimality condition is derived by means of normal cone.

  9. Age-dependent modulation of cortical transcriptomes in spinal cord injury and repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jaerve

    Full Text Available Both injury and aging of the central nervous system reportedly produce profound changes in gene expression. Therefore, aging may interfere with the success of therapeutic interventions which were tailored for young patients. Using genome-scale transcriptional profiling, we identified distinct age-dependent expression profiles in rat sensorimotor cortex during acute, subacute and chronic phases of spinal cord injury (SCI. Aging affects the cortical transcriptomes triggered by transection of the corticospinal tract as there was only a small overlap between the significantly lesion-regulated genes in both age groups. Over-representation analysis of the lesion-regulated genes revealed that, in addition to biological processes in common, such as lipid metabolism, others, such as activation of complement cascade, were specific for aged animals. When a recently developed treatment to suppress fibrotic scarring (anti-scarring treatment AST was applied to the injured spinal cord of aged (22 months and young (2 months rats, we found that the cortical gene expression in old rats was modulated to resemble regeneration-associated profiles of young animals including the up-regulation of known repair promoting growth and transcription factors at 35 dpo. In combination with recent immunohistochemical findings demonstrating regenerative axon growth upon AST in aged animals, the present investigation on the level of gene expression strongly supports the feasibility of a successful AST therapy in elderly patients.

  10. Age-Dependent Decline of Endogenous Pain Control: Exploring the Effect of Expectation and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grashorn, Wiebke; Sprenger, Christian; Forkmann, Katarina; Wrobel, Nathalie; Bingel, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Although chronic pain affects all age ranges, it is particularly common in the elderly. One potential explanation for the high prevalence of chronic pain in the older population is impaired functioning of the descending pain inhibitory system which can be studied in humans using conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigms. In this study we investigated (i) the influence of age on CPM and (ii) the role of expectations, depression and gender as potential modulating variables of an age-related change in CPM. 64 healthy volunteers of three different age groups (young = 20–40 years, middle-aged = 41–60 years, old = 61–80 years) were studied using a classical CPM paradigm that combined moderate heat pain stimuli to the right forearm as test stimuli (TS) and immersion of the contralateral foot into ice water as the conditioning stimulus (CS). The CPM response showed an age-dependent decline with strong CPM responses in young adults but no significant CPM responses in middle-aged and older adults. These age-related changes in CPM responses could not be explained by expectations of pain relief or depression. Furthermore, changes in CPM responses did not differ between men and women. Our results strongly support the notion of a genuine deterioration of descending pain inhibitory mechanisms with age. PMID:24086595

  11. Lung Growth and Airway Function after Lobectomy in Infancy for Congenital Lobar Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, John T.; Wohl, Mary Ellen B.; Strieder, Denise J.; Jackson, Andrew C.; Morton, John R.; Zwerdling, Robert G.; Griscom, N. Thorne; Treves, Salvador; Williams, Adrian J.; Schuster, Samuel

    1980-01-01

    To characterize the outcome of lobectomy in infancy and the low expiratory flows which persist after lobectomy for congenital lobar emphysema, 15 subjects with this history were studied at age 8-30 yr. Total lung capacity was normal in all, but higher values (P < 0.05) were observed in nine subjects with upper lobectomy than in five subjects with right middle lobectomy. Ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity was correlated (P < 0.05) with the amount of lung missing as estimated from ...

  12. Quantified pathology of emphysema, pneumoconiosis, and chronic bronchitis in coal workers

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, J; Outhred, K G; McKenzie, H. I.; Glick, M; Wiles, A N

    1983-01-01

    ABSTRACT From a continuous series of 886 postmortem examinations on coal mine workers in New South Wales, Australia, from 1949 to 1982 and their histories the following data were obtained: age at death (886 cases), percentage of emphysema in both lungs (Heard method) (870 cases), bronchial gland wall (G-W) ratio (Reid Index) (412 cases), chest radiograph within 10 years of death (792 cases), history of work at the coal face (844 cases), history of amount of tobacco smoked (606 cases), and FEV...

  13. Calculation of age-dependent effective doses for external exposure using the MCNP code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Tran Van [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, ThuDuc, HoChiMinh City (VT)

    2013-07-15

    Age-dependent effective dose for external exposure to photons uniformly distributed in air were calculated. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources with source energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years-old and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. From the calculated results, it is shown that the effective doses depend on the body size; the effective doses in younger phantoms are higher than those in the older phantoms, especially below 100 keV. (orig.)

  14. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for age-dependent unavailability model integrating test and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Application of analytical unavailability model integrating T and M, ageing, and test strategy. ► Ageing data uncertainty propagation on system level assessed via Monte Carlo simulation. ► Uncertainty impact is growing with the extension of the surveillance test interval. ► Calculated system unavailability dependence on two different sensitivity study ageing databases. ► System unavailability sensitivity insights regarding specific groups of BEs as test intervals extend. - Abstract: The interest in operational lifetime extension of the existing nuclear power plants is growing. Consequently, plants life management programs, considering safety components ageing, are being developed and employed. Ageing represents a gradual degradation of the physical properties and functional performance of different components consequently implying their reduced availability. Analyses, which are being made in the direction of nuclear power plants lifetime extension are based upon components ageing management programs. On the other side, the large uncertainties of the ageing parameters as well as the uncertainties associated with most of the reliability data collections are widely acknowledged. This paper addresses the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses conducted utilizing a previously developed age-dependent unavailability model, integrating effects of test and maintenance activities, for a selected stand-by safety system in a nuclear power plant. The most important problem is the lack of data concerning the effects of ageing as well as the relatively high uncertainty associated to these data, which would correspond to more detailed modelling of ageing. A standard Monte Carlo simulation was coded for the purpose of this paper and utilized in the process of assessment of the component ageing parameters uncertainty propagation on system level. The obtained results from the uncertainty analysis indicate the extent to which the uncertainty of the selected

  15. Basal serum pancreatic polypeptide is dependent on age and gender in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes Damholt, M; Rasmussen, B K; Hilsted, L; Jensen, R; Hilsted, Jannik

    1997-01-01

    This study is the first epidemiologically based study of basal levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide (s-PP). The basal level of serum PP has become a field of interest mainly due to the role of PP as an endocrine tumour marker, and as a marker of pancreatic neuroendocrine function after pancreas...... monospecific radioimmunoassay. Fasting serum pancreatic polypeptide depended on age and gender. The results demonstrated that fasting pancreatic polypeptide levels increase exponentially with age. Fitted separately for each sex, basal serum pancreatic polypeptide was found to increase by approximately 3% per...... reports on the fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide are most likely due to lack of adjustment for age and gender. Thus, variation due to age and gender should be considered in evaluating fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide. Whether similar considerations are important when evaluating...

  16. Genome-Wide Association Identifies Regulatory Loci Associated with Distinct Local Histogram Emphysema Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Castaldi, Peter J.; Cho, Michael H; San José Estépar, Raúl; McDonald, Merry-Lynn N.; Laird, Nan; Terri H Beaty; Washko, George; Crapo, James D.; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Emphysema is a heritable trait that occurs in smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Emphysema occurs in distinct pathologic patterns, but the genetic determinants of these patterns are unknown.

  17. Age- and sex-dependent model for estimating radioiodine dose to a normal thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the derivation of an age- and sex-dependent model of radioiodine dosimetry in the thyroid and the application of the model to estimating the thyroid dose for each of 4215 patients who were exposed to 131I in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The model was made to conform to these data requirements by the use of age-specific estimates of the biological half-time of iodine in the thyroid and an age- and sex-dependent representation of the mass of the thyroid. Also, it was assumed that the thyroid burden was maximum 24 hours after administration (the 131I dose is not critically sensitive to this assumption). The metabolic model is of the form A(t) = K[exp(-μ1t) - exp(-μ2t)] (μCi), where μ1 = lambda/sub r/ + lambda/sub i//sup b/ (i = 1, 2), lambda/sub r/ is the radiological decay-rate coefficient, and lambda/sub i//sup b/ are biological removal rate coefficients. The values of lambda/sub i//sup b/ are determined by solving a nonlinear equation that depends on assumptions about the time of maximum uptake and the eventual biological loss rate (through which age dependence enters). The value of K may then be calculated from knowledge of the uptake at a particular time. The dosimetric S-factor (rad/μCi-day) is based on specific absorbed fractions for photons of energy ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV for thyroid masses from 1.29 to 19.6 g; the functional form of the S-factor also involves the thyroid mass explicitly, through which the dependence on age and sex enters. An analysis of sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the thyroid mass and the biological removal rate for several age groups is reported. The model could prove useful in the dosimetry of very short-lived radioiodines. Tables of age- and sex-dependent coefficients are provided to enable readers to make their own calculations. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Prevalence and correlates of pulmonary emphysema in smokers and former smokers. A densitometric study of participants in the ITALUNG trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camiciottoli, Gianna [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento Area Critica, Firenze (Italy); Cavigli, Edoardo; Grassi, Luca; Orlandi, Ilaria; Picozzi, Giulia; Mascalchi, Mario [Universita di Firenze, Radiodiagnostica, Dipartimento Fisiopatologia Clinica, Firenze (Italy); Diciotti, Stefano [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Firenze (Italy); Zappa, Marco; Paci, Eugenio [Centro di Studio e Prevenzione Oncologica, Firenze (Italy); Pegna, Andrea Lopes [Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria di Careggi, Pneumologia, Firenze (Italy); Falaschi, Fabio [Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria Pisana, Radiodiagnostica II, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    We assessed with computed tomography (CT) densitometry the prevalence of emphysema in 266 (175 men and 91 women; mean age 64{+-}4 years) smokers and former smokers enrolled in the ITALUNG trial of lung cancer screening with low-dose thin-slice CT. Whole-lung volume and the relative area at -950 Hounsfield units (RA{sub 950}) and mean lung attenuation (MLA) in 1 of every 10 slices (mean, 24 slices per subject) were measured. Lung volume, MLA and RA950 significantly correlated each other and with age. Average RA950>6.8% qualifying for emphysema was present in 71(26.6%) of 266 subjects, with a higher prevalence in men than in women (30.3% vs 19.8%; p=0.003). Only in smokers was a weak (r=0.18; p=0.05) correlation between RA950 and packs/year observed. In multiple regression analysis, the variability of RA950 (R2=0.24) or MLA (R2=0.34) was significantly, but weakly explained by age, lung volume and packs/year. Other factors besides smoking may also have a significant role in the etiopathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. (orig.)

  19. Prevalence and correlates of pulmonary emphysema in smokers and former smokers. A densitometric study of participants in the ITALUNG trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed with computed tomography (CT) densitometry the prevalence of emphysema in 266 (175 men and 91 women; mean age 64±4 years) smokers and former smokers enrolled in the ITALUNG trial of lung cancer screening with low-dose thin-slice CT. Whole-lung volume and the relative area at -950 Hounsfield units (RA950) and mean lung attenuation (MLA) in 1 of every 10 slices (mean, 24 slices per subject) were measured. Lung volume, MLA and RA950 significantly correlated each other and with age. Average RA950>6.8% qualifying for emphysema was present in 71(26.6%) of 266 subjects, with a higher prevalence in men than in women (30.3% vs 19.8%; p=0.003). Only in smokers was a weak (r=0.18; p=0.05) correlation between RA950 and packs/year observed. In multiple regression analysis, the variability of RA950 (R2=0.24) or MLA (R2=0.34) was significantly, but weakly explained by age, lung volume and packs/year. Other factors besides smoking may also have a significant role in the etiopathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. (orig.)

  20. Age-Dependent Pancreatic Gene Regulation Reveals Mechanisms Governing Human β Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, H Efsun; Li, Lingyu; Tsai, Jennifer; Torre, Eduardo A; Rosli, Yenny; Peiris, Heshan; Spitale, Robert C; Dai, Chunhua; Gu, Xueying; Qu, Kun; Wang, Pei; Wang, Jing; Grompe, Markus; Scharfmann, Raphael; Snyder, Michael S; Bottino, Rita; Powers, Alvin C; Chang, Howard Y; Kim, Seung K

    2016-05-10

    Intensive efforts are focused on identifying regulators of human pancreatic islet cell growth and maturation to accelerate development of therapies for diabetes. After birth, islet cell growth and function are dynamically regulated; however, establishing these age-dependent changes in humans has been challenging. Here, we describe a multimodal strategy for isolating pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells from children and adults to identify age-dependent gene expression and chromatin changes on a genomic scale. These profiles revealed distinct proliferative and functional states of islet α cells or β cells and histone modifications underlying age-dependent gene expression changes. Expression of SIX2 and SIX3, transcription factors without prior known functions in the pancreas and linked to fasting hyperglycemia risk, increased with age specifically in human islet β cells. SIX2 and SIX3 were sufficient to enhance insulin content or secretion in immature β cells. Our work provides a unique resource to study human-specific regulators of islet cell maturation and function. PMID:27133132

  1. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kuehn, Sven; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Christopoulou, Maria [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 15780 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: christ@itis.ethz.ch

    2010-04-07

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  2. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  3. Experimental febrile seizures induce age-dependent structural plasticity and improve memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, K; Ichikawa, J; Matsuki, N; Ikegaya, Y; Koyama, R

    2016-03-24

    Population-based studies have demonstrated that children with a history of febrile seizure (FS) perform better than age-matched controls at hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Here, we report that FSs induce two distinct structural reorganizations in the hippocampus and bidirectionally modify future learning abilities in an age-dependent manner. Compared with age-matched controls, adult mice that had experienced experimental FSs induced by hyperthermia (HT) on postnatal day 14 (P14-HT) performed better in a cognitive task that requires dentate granule cells (DGCs). The enhanced memory performance correlated with an FS-induced persistent increase in the density of large mossy fiber terminals (LMTs) of the DGCs. The memory enhancement was not observed in mice that had experienced HT-induced seizures at P11 which exhibited abnormally located DGCs in addition to the increased LMT density. The ectopic DGCs of the P11-HT mice were abolished by the diuretic bumetanide, and this pharmacological treatment unveiled the masked memory enhancement. Thus, this work provides a novel basis for age-dependent structural plasticity in which FSs influence future brain function. PMID:26794590

  4. Quantitative computed tomography measurements of emphysema for diagnosing asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Mengshuang; Wang, Wei; Dou, Shuang; Cui, Liwei; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnostic criteria of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) are controversial. Emphysema is characteristic of COPD and usually does not exist in typical asthma patients. Emphysema in patients with asthma suggests the coexistence of COPD. Quantitative computed tomography (CT) allows repeated evaluation of emphysema noninvasively. We investigated the value of quantitative CT measurements of emphysema in the diagnosis of ACOS. Methods This study included 404 participants; 151 asthm...

  5. Age- and sex-dependent model for estimating radioiodine dose to a normal thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the derivation of an age- and sex-dependent model of radioiodine dosimetry in the thyroid and the application of the model to estimating the thyroid dose for each of 4215 patients who were exposed to 131I in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In most cases, the available data consisted of the patient's age at the time of administration, the patient's sex, the quantity of activity administered, the clinically-determined uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid, and the time after administration at which the uptake was determined. The metabolic model is of the form A(t) = K[exp(-μ1t) -exp(-μ2t)] (μCi), where μ1 = λ/sub r/ - λ/sub i//sup b/ (i = 1, 2), λ/sub r/ is the radiological decay-rate coefficient, and λ/sub i//sup b/ are biological removal rate coefficients. The values of λ/sub i//sup b/ are determined by solving a nonlinear equation that depends on assumptions about the time or maximum uptake an the eventual biological loss rate (through which age dependence enters). The value of K may then be calculated from knowledge of the uptakes at a particular time. The dosimetric S-factor (rad/μCi-day) is based on specific absorbed fractions for photons of energy ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV for thyroid masses from 1.29 to 19.6 g; the functional form of the S-factor also involves the thyroid mass explicitly, through which the dependence on age and sex enters. An analysis of sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the thyroid mass and the biological removal rate for several age groups is reported. 12 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  6. Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group). Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens (normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups). After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC ditribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC tranitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of the animals to be used.

  7. Mouse Strain- and Age-dependent Effects of Binge Methamphetamine on Dopaminergic Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Renee L.; Liang, Li-Ping; Patel, Manisha; Radcliffe, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    We have shown that a single “binge” dose of methamphetamine (Meth) in mice has long-lasting effects on open-field behavior dependent on mouse strain and age. Here we further investigated the impact of genotype and age on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) loss and dopamine (DA) metabolism due to a high binge dose of Meth (4 × 5 mg/kg × 2 hours × 2 days). Administration of high dose Meth or saline (Sal) to adolescent (PND 40) and adult (PND 80) C57BL/6 (B6), DBA/2 (DBA), and 129S6SvEv/Tac (129) mice wa...

  8. The work of the task group of committee 2 of ICRP on age-dependent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the accident at Chernobyl and developing concern in regard to the consequences of discharging radionuclides into the environment has come increasing awareness of the need to assess radiation doses to all age groups in the population. In 1987, ICRP set up a Task Group of Committee 2 on Age-dependent Dosimetry with the responsibility for calculating internationally agreed dose coefficients for members of the public. This covered the calculation and ingestion, as well as doses to the embryo and fetus from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. This paper reviews the programme of work.(authors). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  9. A preliminary approach to age-dependent deposition modeling for human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the respiratory tract model, presented by the ICRP Task Group on Lung Dynamics, is limited to adult workers for determining internal radiation exposure from inhaled radionuclides, the development of the model for estimating radiation doses in the general public, including all age groups, from environmental radioactive materials is required. This paper provides background information in developing the age-dependent respiratory tract model. A way of obtaining deposition probability through major mechanisms, such as impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion, in the respiratory airways is given. A computer program for estimating the percent deposition of inhaled monodisperse particles is described. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Fitting model of ABR age dependency in a clinical population of normal hearing children

    OpenAIRE

    Coenraad, Saskia; Immerzeel, Tabitha; Hoeve, Hans; Goedegebure, Andre

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to present a simple and powerful fitting model that describes age-dependent changes of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in a clinical population of normal hearing children. A total of 175 children (younger than 200 weeks postconceptional age) were referred for audiologic assessment with normal ABR results. ABR parameters of normal hearing children between 2003 and 2008 were included. The results of the right ears recorded at 90 dB nHL were analyzed....

  11. Age-dependent effective doses for radionuclides uniformly distributed in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Tran Van [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2014-06-15

    Age-dependent effective doses for external exposure to photons emitted by radionuclides uniformly distributed in air are reported. The calculations were performed for 160 radionuclides, which are important for safety assessment of nuclear facilities. The energies and intensities of photons emitted from radionuclides were taken from the decay data DECDC used for dose calculations. The results are tabulated in the form of effective dose per unit concentration and time (Sv per Bq s m{sup -3}) for 6 age groups: newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years-old and adult. The effective doses for the adult are also compared to values given in the literature.

  12. CT examinations to age and sex depended variations of intracranial structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper supplies proof of the age dependence of the physiological cerebral density and ventricle size. The studies are based on the evaluation of normal cerebral computer tomograms of a total of 1100 patients of both sexes. Mathematical statistical calculations yield accurate data on the age-conditioned physiological 'standard ranges' of cerebral density and ventricle width (3rd and 4th ventricle). By means of the graphic representations and calculation formulas it is possible to achieve rapid orientation provided the CT technique employed is the same. The results as communicated in this paper enable further quantification and objectivation of our CT data. (orig.)

  13. Role of α-1-antitrypsin and oxidative stress in emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M Raut, Suryakar AN, Smita D Mhaisekar, Dilip Mhaisekar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the lungs, deficiency of alpha-1antitrypsin can lead to the development of emphysema. Emphysema involves destruction of the lung’s air sacs (alveoli, where oxygen from the air is exchanged for carbon dioxide in the blood. Alpha 1-antitrypsin is a protein produced by the liver and that circulates in the blood. Among other functions, the protein protects the lungs so they can function properly. In people with the disorder, the liver produces too little or no alpha 1 -antitrypsin. Without enough alpha-1 antitrypsin, neutrophil elastase is free to destroy air sac tissue. 60 emphysema patients were included in the study. 100 healthy non-smokers’ were served as controls. Their baseline clinical examination, Alpha 1- antitrysin (AAT, malondialdehyde (MDA and vitamin E were measured. The mean levels of Alpha 1 antitrysin and vitamin E in the patients at baseline were lower (P< 0.001 than the controls. The malondialdehyde were high (P<0.001 in the emphysema patients compared to controls. We found decreased levels of Alpha 1- antitrysin and vitamin E and increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA. Thus the present study confirmed the existence of oxidative stress and altered levels of alpha 1- antitrypsin in emphysema patients.

  14. Automated lobar quantification of emphysema in patients with severe COPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated lobar quantification of emphysema has not yet been evaluated. Unenhanced 64-slice MDCT was performed in 47 patients evaluated before bronchoscopic lung-volume reduction. CT images reconstructed with a standard (B20) and high-frequency (B50) kernel were analyzed using a dedicated prototype software (MevisPULMO) allowing lobar quantification of emphysema extent. Lobar quantification was obtained following (a) a fully automatic delineation of the lobar limits by the software and (b) a semiautomatic delineation with manual correction of the lobar limits when necessary and was compared with the visual scoring of emphysema severity per lobe. No statistically significant difference existed between automated and semiautomated lobar quantification (p>0.05 in the five lobes), with differences ranging from 0.4 to 3.9%. The agreement between the two methods (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC) was excellent for left upper lobe (ICC=0.94), left lower lobe (ICC=0.98), and right lower lobe (ICC=0.80). The agreement was good for right upper lobe (ICC=0.68) and moderate for middle lobe (IC=0.53). The Bland and Altman plots confirmed these results. A good agreement was observed between the software and visually assessed lobar predominance of emphysema (kappa 0.78; 95% CI 0.64-0.92). Automated and semiautomated lobar quantifications of emphysema are concordant and show good agreement with visual scoring. (orig.)

  15. A case of endobronchial polyp mimicking congenital lobar emphysema in an infant

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrain, Rahele; Hadipur, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Congenital lobar emphysema, also called infantile lobar emphysema, is a respiratory disease that occurs in infants when air enters the lungs and cannot leave easily. It results from cartilage deficiency and bronchomalacia causing distal air trapping and respiratory distress. In this study, we present a case of endobronchial polyp mimicking congenital lobar emphysema.

  16. Involvement of surfactant protein D in emphysema revealed by genetic association study

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Takeo; Hagiwara, Koichi; Kamio, Koichiro; Ikeda, Shinobu; Arai, Tomio; Mieno, Makiko Naka; Kumasaka, Toshio; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Sawabe, Motoji; Gemma, Akihiko; Kida, Kozui

    2011-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SFTPD) induces emphysema in knockout mice, but the association of SFTPD with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema in humans is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association between genetic variations in SFTPD and susceptibility to COPD and emphysema.

  17. A Novel Antiapoptotic Role for α1-Antitrypsin in the Prevention of Pulmonary Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Petrache, Irina; Fijalkowska, Iwona; Zhen, Lijie; Medler, Terry R.; Brown, Emile; Cruz, Pedro; Choe, Kang-Hyeon; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute; Scerbavicius, Robertas; Shapiro, Lee; Zhang, Bing; Song, Sihong; Hicklin, Dan; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Flotte, Terence

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: There is growing evidence that alveolar cell apoptosis plays an important role in emphysema pathogenesis, a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by alveolar destruction. The association of α1-antitrypsin deficiency with the development of emphysema has supported the concept that protease/antiprotease imbalance mediates cigarette smoke–induced emphysema.

  18. Broncho pleuro subcutaneous fistula with subcutaneous emphysema: A rare presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Mukul; Shameem, Mohammad; Bhargava, Rakesh; Baneen, Ummul; Alam, Mohd Mazhar; Fatima, Nazish

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous tissue emphysema is observed in a several clinical settings but spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema in the absence of pneumothorax with broncho pleuro subcutaneous fistula is rare. We report a case of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema secondary to cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in the absence of pneumothorax.

  19. Local and systemic effects of angiotensin receptor blockade in an emphysema mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Raupach, Tobias; Lüthje, Lars; Kögler, Harald; de Duve, Christian; Schweda, Frank; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Andreas, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives COPD with emphysema causes marked neurohumoral activation. Angiotensin II receptors are highly expressed within the lung and interfere with mechanisms involved in the progression of emphysema. This study examined the effects of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) on pulmonary and systemic manifestations of emphysema in a mouse model. Methods Female NMRI mice received five intratracheal instillations of porcine pancreatic ela...

  20. Endophytic and epiphytic phyllosphere fungi of Camellia japonica: seasonal and leaf age-dependent variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osono, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and leaf age-dependent variations in the endophytic and epiphytic phyllosphere fungal assemblages of Camellia japonica were examined and compared. Live leaves of C. japonica were collected in four seasons (May, Aug, Nov, Feb), and fungi were isolated from healthy-looking leaves of 0, 1, 2 and 3 y old. The infection rate and total number of endophytic fungi increased May-Feb, and species richness of endophytes increased as leaves aged. In contrast the infection rate of epiphytic fungi was 100% for all leaf ages at every sampling date. The total number of epiphytic fungi isolated was greatest in May and lowest in Aug. The species richness of epiphytes did not differ significantly by season or leaf age. Eight fungal species were recorded as major phyllosphere fungi of C. japonica. Seasonal variations were detected for the frequencies of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, and epiphytes Pestalotiopsis sp.1, Aureobasidium pullulans, Phoma sp.1 and Ramichloridium sp., whereas the frequency of the endophyte Geniculosporium sp.1 varied with leaf age. The frequency of the epiphyte Cladosporium cladosporioides varied with both season and leaf age. PMID:18751546

  1. FINAL REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 to 25 (or reaching 18 during the 2006/2007 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE If we have not received this certificate by November 30, 2006 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from July 1, 2006. School fees service (33-1-017) Organization, Procedures and Services Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  2. Quality Saving Mechanisms of Mitochondria during Aging in a Fully Time-Dependent Computational Biophysical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellem, Daniel; Fischer, Frank; Jaspers, Sören; Wenck, Horst; Rübhausen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for the energy production of eukaryotic cells. During aging mitochondria run through various processes which change their quality in terms of activity, health and metabolic supply. In recent years, many of these processes such as fission and fusion of mitochondria, mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy consumption have been subject of research. Based on numerous experimental insights, it was possible to qualify mitochondrial behaviour in computational simulations. Here, we present a new biophysical model based on the approach of Figge et al. in 2012. We introduce exponential decay and growth laws for each mitochondrial process to derive its time-dependent probability during the aging of cells. All mitochondrial processes of the original model are mathematically and biophysically redefined and additional processes are implemented: Mitochondrial fission and fusion is separated into a metabolic outer-membrane part and a protein-related inner-membrane part, a quality-dependent threshold for mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is introduced and processes for activity-dependent internal oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial repair mechanisms are newly included. Our findings reveal a decrease of mitochondrial quality and a fragmentation of the mitochondrial network during aging. Additionally, the model discloses a quality increasing mechanism due to the interplay of the mitophagy and biogenesis cycle and the fission and fusion cycle of mitochondria. It is revealed that decreased mitochondrial repair can be a quality saving process in aged cells. Furthermore, the model finds strategies to sustain the quality of the mitochondrial network in cells with high production rates of reactive oxygen species due to large energy demands. Hence, the model adds new insights to biophysical mechanisms of mitochondrial aging and provides novel understandings of the interdependency of mitochondrial processes. PMID:26771181

  3. Quality Saving Mechanisms of Mitochondria during Aging in a Fully Time-Dependent Computational Biophysical Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mellem

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are essential for the energy production of eukaryotic cells. During aging mitochondria run through various processes which change their quality in terms of activity, health and metabolic supply. In recent years, many of these processes such as fission and fusion of mitochondria, mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy consumption have been subject of research. Based on numerous experimental insights, it was possible to qualify mitochondrial behaviour in computational simulations. Here, we present a new biophysical model based on the approach of Figge et al. in 2012. We introduce exponential decay and growth laws for each mitochondrial process to derive its time-dependent probability during the aging of cells. All mitochondrial processes of the original model are mathematically and biophysically redefined and additional processes are implemented: Mitochondrial fission and fusion is separated into a metabolic outer-membrane part and a protein-related inner-membrane part, a quality-dependent threshold for mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is introduced and processes for activity-dependent internal oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial repair mechanisms are newly included. Our findings reveal a decrease of mitochondrial quality and a fragmentation of the mitochondrial network during aging. Additionally, the model discloses a quality increasing mechanism due to the interplay of the mitophagy and biogenesis cycle and the fission and fusion cycle of mitochondria. It is revealed that decreased mitochondrial repair can be a quality saving process in aged cells. Furthermore, the model finds strategies to sustain the quality of the mitochondrial network in cells with high production rates of reactive oxygen species due to large energy demands. Hence, the model adds new insights to biophysical mechanisms of mitochondrial aging and provides novel understandings of the interdependency of mitochondrial processes.

  4. Age-dependent susceptibility to phenobarbital-resistant neonatal seizures: role of chloride co-transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Kyu Kang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia in the immature brain is an important cause of neonatal seizures. Temporal evolution of acquired neonatal seizures and their response to anticonvulsants are of great interest, given the unreliability of the clinical correlates and poor efficacy of first-line anti-seizure drugs. The expression and function of the electroneutral chloride co-transporters KCC2 and NKCC1 influence the anti-seizure efficacy of GABAA-agonists. To investigate ischemia-induced seizure susceptibility and efficacy of the GABAA-agonist phenobarbital (PB, with NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide (BTN as an adjunct treatment, we utilized permanent unilateral carotid-ligation to produce acute ischemic-seizures in postnatal day 7, 10 and 12 CD1 mice. Immediate post-ligation video-electroencephalograms (EEGs quantitatively evaluated baseline and post-treatment seizure burdens. Brains were examined for stroke-injury and western blot analyses to evaluate the expression of KCC2 and NKCC1. Severity of acute ischemic seizures post-ligation was highest at P7. PB was an efficacious anti-seizure agent at P10 and P12, but not at P7. BTN failed as an adjunct, at all ages tested and significantly blunted PB-efficacy at P10. Significant acute post-ischemic downregulation of KCC2 was detected at all ages. At P7, males displayed higher age-dependent seizure susceptibility, associated with a significant developmental lag in their KCC2 expression. This study established a novel neonatal mouse model of PB-resistant seizures that demonstrates age/sex-dependent susceptibility. The age-dependent profile of KCC2 expression and its post-insult downregulation may underlie the PB-resistance reported in this model. Blocking NKCC1 with low-dose BTN following PB treatment failed to improve PB-efficacy.

  5. Positive mutations and mutation-dependent Verhulst factor in Penna ageing model

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, S. Moss; Stauffer, D.; De Oliveira, P. M. C.; Martins, J. S. Sa

    2003-01-01

    We twice modify the Penna model for biological ageing. First we introduce back (good) mutations and a memory for them into the model. It allows us to observe an improvement of the species fitness over long time scales as well as punctuated equilibrium. Second we adopt a food/space competition factor that depends on the number of accumulated mutations in the individuals genomes, and get rid of the fixed limiting number of allowed mutations. Besides reproducing the main results of the standard ...

  6. The age-dependent influence of self-reported health and job characteristics on retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Mortelmans, Dimitri; Vannieuwenhuyze, Jorre T.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Social scientists and economists doubt the usefulness of self-reported health status as an indicator of overall health status. Self-reported health acts as a justification for retirement when this decision is in reality driven by other reasons. In this study, we looked at income, job satisfaction, and job status. Methods We introduce a survival model (Cox model) that simultaneously includes both health and job characteristics as independent variables. We also take the age-dependent...

  7. FINAL REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2004-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2004/2005 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by 3 December 2004 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from 1 September 2004. Human Resources Department Tel. 72862-74474

  8. FINAL REMINDER: EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR DEPENDENT CHILDREN AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2003/2004 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by November 21, 2003 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from September 1, 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 72862-74474

  9. EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR DEPENDENT CHILDREN AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    FINAL REMINDER Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2002/2003 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by November 29 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from September 1, 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 72862-74474

  10. Age-dependent effects of conditioning on cholinergic and vasopressin systems in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Biemans, BAM; Van der Zee, EA; Daan, S.

    2003-01-01

    Active shock avoidance was used to explore the impact of behavioural stimulation on the neurochemistry of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. We have found previously that the expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of young rats was significantly enhanced 24 hours after fear conditioning. Here, we investigated whether this observation is age-dependent. We used 26 month-old Wistar rats with a deteriorated circadian system, and compared them with young rats (4 ...

  11. Comparison between Numerical and Simulation Methods for Age-dependent Branching Models with Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, R.; Slavtchova-Bojkova, M.

    2005-01-01

    2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: primary: 60J80, 60J85, secondary: 62M09, 92D40 This work aims to provide and to compare numerical computation and simulation method to estimate the distribution of some relevant variables related to an age-dependent model allowing immigration at state zero. Specifically, we analyze the behaviour of the following variables: the extinction time and the waiting time for the beginning of the survival of population forever. They are strongly related to t...

  12. MITRAL VALVULAR INTERSTITIAL CELL RESPONSES TO SUBSTRATE STIFFNESS DEPEND ON AGE AND ANATOMIC REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Elizabeth H.; Durst, Christopher A.; West, Jennifer L.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2010-01-01

    The material properties of heart valves depend on subject age, disease state, and the complex valvular microarchitecture. Furthermore, valvular interstitial cells (VICs) are mechanosensitive, and their synthesis of extracellular matrix not only determines the valve's material properties but also provides an adhesive substrate for VICs. However, the interrelationship between substrate stiffness and VIC phenotype and synthetic properties is poorly understood. Given that the local mechanical env...

  13. Age-dependent changes in cat masseter nerve: an electrophysiological and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, M H; Engelhardt, J K; Adinolfi, A M; Chirwa, S S

    1992-07-24

    The present study was undertaken to determine the manner in which aging affects the function and structure of the masseter nerve in old cats. Electrophysiological data demonstrated a significant decrease in the conduction velocity of the action potential in old cats compared with that observed in adult cats. Light microscopic analyses revealed an age-dependent decrease in axon diameter. Electron microscopic observations of the masseter nerve in the aged cats revealed a disruption of the myelin sheaths and a pronounced increase in collagen fibers in the endoneurium and perineurium. These morphological changes are discussed and then related to the decrease in conduction velocity which was observed in the electrophysiological portion of this study. PMID:1521161

  14. Increased ADAMTS1 mediates SPARC-dependent collagen deposition in the aging myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Hiroe; de Castro Brás, Lisandra E; Baicu, Catalin F; Zile, Michael R; Lindsey, Merry L; Bradshaw, Amy D

    2016-06-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a collagen-binding matricellular protein highly expressed during fibrosis. Fibrosis is a prominent component of cardiac aging that reduces myocardial elasticity. Previously, we reported that SPARC deletion attenuated myocardial stiffness and collagen deposition in aged mice. To investigate the mechanisms by which SPARC promotes age-related cardiac fibrosis, we evaluated six groups of mice (n = 5-6/group): young (3-5 mo old), middle-aged (10-12 mo old), and old (18-29 mo old) C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and SPARC-null (Null) mice. Collagen content, determined by picrosirius red staining, increased in an age-dependent manner in WT but not in Null mice. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin-like motifs 1 (ADAMTS1) increased in middle-aged and old WT compared with young, whereas in Null mice only old animals showed increased ADAMTS1 expression. Versican, a substrate of ADAMTS1, decreased with age only in WT. To assess the mechanisms of SPARC-induced collagen deposition, we stimulated cardiac fibroblasts with SPARC. SPARC treatment increased secretion of collagen I and ADAMTS1 (both the 110-kDa latent and 87-kDa active forms) into the conditioned media as well as the cellular expression of transforming growth factor-β1-induced protein (Tgfbi) and phosphorylated Smad2. An ADAMTS1 blocking antibody suppressed the SPARC-induced collagen I secretion, indicating that SPARC promoted collagen production directly through ADAMTS1 interaction. In conclusion, ADAMTS1 is an important mediator of SPARC-regulated cardiac aging. PMID:27143554

  15. Assessment of technetium-99m technegas scintigraphy for ventilatory impairment in pulmonary emphysema. Comparison of planar and SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary emphysema can be diagnosed easily by X-ray CT (CT) as a low attenuation area. Recently Tc-99m-Technegas (Technegas) has been used for ventilation scintigraphy. The present study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of planar and SPECT images by using Technegas scintigraphy in patients with pulmonary emphysema. Technegas scintigraphy, CT and pulmonary function tests were performed in 20 patients (males, age 32-78 years). We classified the findings of Technegas images into 4 grades. Comparing planar and SPECT images of Technegas, more detailed findings were shown by SPECT than by planar images in mild cases (6 cases, 30%). In more severe cases, findings of SPECT and planar images were equivalent (14 cases, 70%). The degree of abnormal findings obtained by SPECT was equivalent to that obtained by CT in severe cases (6 cases, 30%). SPECT should be excluded in advanced stages as indicated by planar images. (author)

  16. Value of cardiac catheterization and cineangiography in infantile lobar emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, N.; Peleg, H.; Naveh, Y.; Riss, E.

    1980-01-01

    Lobar emphysema is an uncommon cause of respiratory distress in infancy. Congenital heart disease is seen in about 20% of the patients with infantile (congenital) lobar emphysema. We described six infants with lobar emphysema. In three of them a congenital heart disease was demonstrated by cardiac catheterization and cineangiography; two had a tetralogy of Fallot with right aortic arch and the third infant a ventricular septal defect. The pulmonary angiography showed stretching of the arteries with very poor filling of the peripheral arteries and a characteristic smaller pulmonary vein in the affected lobe. In all the six patients the pulmonary artery pressure was normal. All the patients underwent lobectomy with good results. We feel that a preoperative cardiac catheterization and cineangiography is of value in this very sick group of infants.

  17. Impact of radiobiological considerations on epidemiological inferences of age-dependent radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current epidemiological studies of the age-dependent risk of radiogenic carcinomas are based on populations still in the early stages of cancer expression. The result is a set of logical uncertainties concerning the manner in which inferences may be drawn from the existing data. These uncertainties may be formalized and examined through the application of various radiobiological principles developed from more fundamental experimental data. Chief amongst these considerations are the time course of tumor expression, the role of relative and absolute risk models, the distribution of effects between initiation and promotion, the age-dependent fraction of time a critical cell remains in radiosensitive stages and the combinatorics of the critical cellular subpopulations. Each of these and the combinatorics of the critical cellular subpopulations. Each of these principles are examined in light of their impact on the structuring of epidemiologic data and the drawing of inferences concerning age-dependent radiogenic risk. The data on atomic bomb survivors are employed as a relevant example

  18. Pregnane X receptor knockout mice display aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Azuma

    Full Text Available Steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR, are nuclear receptors that are expressed at high levels in the liver and the intestine where they function as xenobiotic sensors that induce expression of genes involved in detoxification and drug excretion. Recent evidence showed that SXR and PXR are also expressed in bone tissue where they mediate bone metabolism. Here we report that systemic deletion of PXR results in aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage of knee joints. Histomorphometrical analysis showed remarkable reduction of width and an enlarged gap between femoral and tibial articular cartilage in PXR knockout mice. We hypothesized that genes induced by SXR in chondrocytes have a protective effect on articular cartilage and identified Fam20a (family with sequence similarity 20a as an SXR-dependent gene induced by the known SXR ligands, rifampicin and vitamin K2. Lastly, we demonstrated the biological significance of Fam20a expression in chondrocytes by evaluating osteoarthritis-related gene expression of primary articular chondrocytes. Consistent with epidemiological findings, our results indicate that SXR/PXR protects against aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage and that ligands for SXR/PXR have potential role in preventing osteoarthritis caused by aging.

  19. Pregnane X receptor knockout mice display aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kotaro; Casey, Stephanie C; Urano, Tomohiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Blumberg, Bruce; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR), are nuclear receptors that are expressed at high levels in the liver and the intestine where they function as xenobiotic sensors that induce expression of genes involved in detoxification and drug excretion. Recent evidence showed that SXR and PXR are also expressed in bone tissue where they mediate bone metabolism. Here we report that systemic deletion of PXR results in aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage of knee joints. Histomorphometrical analysis showed remarkable reduction of width and an enlarged gap between femoral and tibial articular cartilage in PXR knockout mice. We hypothesized that genes induced by SXR in chondrocytes have a protective effect on articular cartilage and identified Fam20a (family with sequence similarity 20a) as an SXR-dependent gene induced by the known SXR ligands, rifampicin and vitamin K2. Lastly, we demonstrated the biological significance of Fam20a expression in chondrocytes by evaluating osteoarthritis-related gene expression of primary articular chondrocytes. Consistent with epidemiological findings, our results indicate that SXR/PXR protects against aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage and that ligands for SXR/PXR have potential role in preventing osteoarthritis caused by aging. PMID:25749104

  20. Physiological levels of thrombospondin-1 decrease NO-dependent vasodilation in coronary microvessels from aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevitt, Chris; McKenzie, Grant; Christian, Katelyn; Austin, Jeff; Hencke, Sarah; Hoying, James; LeBlanc, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    Aging and cardiovascular disease are associated with the loss of nitric oxide (NO) signaling and a decline in the ability to increase coronary blood flow reserve (CFR). Thrombospondin-1 (Thbs-1), through binding of CD47, has been shown to limit NO-dependent vasodilation in peripheral vascular beds via formation of superoxide (O2 (-)). The present study tests the hypothesis that, similar to the peripheral vasculature, blocking CD47 will improve NO-mediated vasoreactivity in coronary arterioles from aged individuals, resulting in improved CFR. Isolated coronary arterioles from young (4 mo) or old (24 mo) female Fischer 344 rats were challenged with the NO donor, DEA-NONO-ate (1 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-4) M), and vessel relaxation and O2 (-) production was measured before and after Thbs-1, αCD47, and/or Tempol and catalase exposure. In vivo CFR was determined in anesthetized rats (1-3% isoflurane-balance O2) via injected microspheres following control IgG or αCD47 treatment (45 min). Isolated coronary arterioles from young and old rats relax similarly to exogenous NO, but addition of 2.2 nM Thbs-1 inhibited NO-mediated vasodilation by 24% in old rats, whereas young vessels were unaffected. Thbs-1 increased O2 (-) production in coronary arterioles from rats of both ages, but this was exaggerated in old rats. The addition of CD47 blocking antibody completely restored NO-dependent vasodilation in isolated arterioles from aged rats and attenuated O2 (-) production. Furthermore, αCD47 treatment increased CFR from 9.6 ± 9.3 (IgG) to 84.0 ± 23% in the left ventricle in intact, aged animals. These findings suggest that the influence of Thbs-1 and CD47 on coronary perfusion increases with aging and may be therapeutically targeted to reverse coronary microvascular dysfunction. PMID:27199114

  1. Clinicopathological characteristics of patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics and the prognostic factors of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), which is defined as pulmonary emphysema associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Of 92 IPF patients admitted to our hospital during the past 6 years, 35 were diagnosed as CPFE (Group E) and 57 as IPF without emphysema (Group F). We retrospectively compared the clinical features between these 2 groups. Furthermore, we investigated the histopathological localization and characteristic background parenchymal architecture of lung cancer in 6 patients with CPFE who had undergone surgical lung resection for complications of lung cancer. Lastly, we compared the histopathological differences in background lung structures of the origins of the lung cancers in the following 3 groups: Group E, Group F, and pulmonary emphysema. The smoking index values and the incidence of lung cancer were higher in patients in Group E than in Group F, but the survival times were significantly lower in Group E patients. The prognostic factors included emphysema, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, increased composite physiological index, and acute exacerbation. Histopathologically, the localization of lung cancer in Group E patients was adjacent to emphysematous lesions with or without associated fibrosis, which showed a more marked architectural distortion with less significant fibroblastic foci, collapse of alveoli, and subpleural fibrosis than in Group F patients. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the incidence of lung cancer was extremely high in patients with CPFE. However, the prognosis was unfavorable regardless of the presence of lung cancer, with the chief adverse prognostic factor being complications of pulmonary emphysema. Emphysematous lesions with fibrosis in Group E that are different from those seen in Group F may be background lung structures characteristic of the carcinogenesis of lung

  2. Orthorexia Nervosa with Hyponatremia, Subcutaneous Emphysema, Pneumomediastimum, Pneumothorax, and Pancytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang Won; Kim, Jeong Yup; Go, Gang Ji; Jeon, Eun Sil; Pyo, Heui Jung; Kwon, Young Joo

    2011-01-01

    30-year-old male was admitted with general weakness and drowsy mental status. He had eaten only 3-4 spoons of brown rice and fresh vegetable without salt for 3 months to treat his tic disorder, and he had been in bed-ridden state. He has had weight loss of 14 kg in the last 3 months. We report a patient with orthorexia nervosa who developed hyponatremia, metabolic acidosis, subcutaneous emphysema, mediastinal emphysema, pneumothorax, and pancytopenia and we will review the literature. Also, w...

  3. Orthorexia nervosa with hyponatremia, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastimum, pneumothorax, and pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Won; Kim, Jeong Yup; Go, Gang Ji; Jeon, Eun Sil; Pyo, Heui Jung; Kwon, Young Joo

    2011-06-01

    30-year-old male was admitted with general weakness and drowsy mental status. He had eaten only 3-4 spoons of brown rice and fresh vegetable without salt for 3 months to treat his tic disorder, and he had been in bed-ridden state. He has had weight loss of 14 kg in the last 3 months. We report a patient with orthorexia nervosa who developed hyponatremia, metabolic acidosis, subcutaneous emphysema, mediastinal emphysema, pneumothorax, and pancytopenia and we will review the literature. Also, we mention to prevent refeeding syndrome, and to start and maintain feeding in malnourished patients. PMID:21998605

  4. New automated technique for assessing emphysema on histological sections.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillooly, M.; Lamb, D; Farrow, A S

    1991-01-01

    The assessment of emphysema in human lungs has traditionally been based on observations made on whole lung slices. These methods are inappropriate for the study of early emphysema, because as much as 75% of the alveolar wall surface area may have been lost by the time airspaces are visible to the naked eye. A new, automated image analysis system, the Fast Interval Processor (FIP), was used to measure airspace wall surface area per unit volume of lung tissue (AWUV). AWUV was measured on histol...

  5. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema in neonates -reporting of 11 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper relates the radiologic and clinical aspects of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in 11 infants submitted to assisted ventilation. The radiologic diagnosis was made using the classification of Boothroyd and Barson (levels I to III). A prevalence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema of levels II and III was observed in masculine premature infants with hyaline membrane disease and intrauterine pneumonia. Mortality was high and occurred in the infants with advanced levels of the disease. The authors emphasize the importance of early radiologic diagnosis of this condition during the treatment of premature infants submitted to assisted ventilation. (author)

  6. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2010/2011 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees Service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2010 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (work placement contract, evidence of sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2010/2011, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as membership of the health insurance scheme at the appropriate date, retroactively if necessary. Education Fees Service HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862 / 71421

  7. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2010/2011 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by October 31, 2010 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2010/2011, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary. Education fees service HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862 / 71421

  8. Final reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2007/2008 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School Fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by November 30, 2007 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2007/2008, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance scheme retroactively as of 1 July 2007. School Fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  9. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2008/2009 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School Fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October, 2008 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2008/2009, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance scheme retroactively as of1st July 2008. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  10. REMINDER - extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2008/2009 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2008 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2008/2009, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance retroactively as of 1 July 2008. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  11. Reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2009/2010 school year), for whom a dependent child’s allowance is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by October 31, 2009 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the 2009/2010 school year, we will be obliged to stop payment of the dependent child’s allowance as well as membership of the health insurance scheme at the appropriate date, retroactively if necessary. Education Fees service (33-1-017) HR Department - Tel. 72862

  12. Final reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2007/2008 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by November 30, 2007 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2007/2008, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance retroactively as of July 1, 2007. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  13. Reminder: extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2013/2014 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees service with a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE.   Unless we receive, by October 31, 2013 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2013/2014, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary.   Education fees service HR/CB-B Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel.: 72862 / 71421

  14. Reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2011/2012 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees Service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2011 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2011/2012, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary. Education Fees Service Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862 / 71421

  15. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2012/2013 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education fees service with a   SCHOOL CERTIFICATE.   Unless we receive, by October 31, 2012 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2012/2013, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary.   Education fees service HR/CB-B Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862 / 71421

  16. Death mode-dependent reduction in succinate dehydrogenase activity in hair cells of aging rat cochleae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei-ping; HU Bo-hua; SUN Jian-he; ZHAI Suo-qiang; Donald Henderson

    2010-01-01

    Background Our previous studies have shown that both apoptosis and necrosis are involved in hair cell (HC) pathogenesis in aging cochleae. To better understand the biological mechanisms responsible for the regulation of HC death, we examined the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme, in the HCs of aging cochleae.Methods The auditory brainstem response thresholds elicited by tone bursts at 4, 10 and 20 kHz were measured in both young (2-3 months) and aging (22-23 months) Wistar rats. SDH activity was evaluated with a colorimetric assay using nitroblue tetrazolium monosodium salt. The SDH-labeled organs of Corti were double stained with propidium iodide, a DNA intercalating fluorescent probe for illustration of HC nuclei. All the specimens were examined with fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy.Results Aging rats exhibited a significant elevation of ABR thresholds with threshold shifts being 34 dB at 20 kHz, 28 dB at 10 kHz, and 25 dB at 4 kHz. Consistent with the reduction in the cochlear function, aging cochleae exhibited the reduction of SDH staining intensity in the apical and the basal ends of the cochleae, where a large number of apoptotic, necrotic, and missing HCs were evident. The reduction in SDH staining appeared in a cell-death-mode dependent fashion. Specifically, SDH labeling remained in apoptotic HCs. In contrast, SDH staining was markedly reduced or absent in necrotic HCs.Conclusions In the aging cochlea, SDH activity is preserved in HCs undergoing apoptosis, but is substantially reduced in necrosis. These results suggest that mitochondrial energetic function is involved in the regulation of cell death pathways in the pathogenesis of aging cochleae.

  17. Age-Dependent Neuroimmune Modulation of IGF-1R in the Traumatic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-dependent neuroimmune modulation following traumatic stress is accompanied by discordant upregulation of Fyn signaling in the frontal cortex, but the mechanistic details of the potential cellular behavior regarding IGF-1R/Fyn have not been established. Methods Trans-synaptic IGF-1R signaling during the traumatic stress was comparably examined in wild type, Fyn (−/− and MOR (−/− mice. Techniques included primary neuron culture, in vitro kinase activity, immunoprecipitation, Western Blot, sucrose discontinuous centrifugation. Besides that, [3 H] incorporation was used to assay lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity. Results We demonstrate robust upregulation of synaptic Fyn activity following traumatic stress, with higher amplitude in 2-month mice than that in 1-year counterpart. We also established that the increased Fyn signaling is accompanied by its molecular connection with IGF-1R within the synaptic zone. Detained analysis using Fyn (−/− and MOR (−/− mice reveal that IGF-1R/Fyn signaling is governed to a large extent by mu opioid receptor (MOR, and with age-dependent manner; these signaling cascades played a central role in the modulation of lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity. Conclusions Our data argued for a pivotal role of synaptic IGF-1R/Fyn signaling controlled by MOR downstream signaling cascades were crucial for the age-dependent neuroimmune modulation following traumatic stress. The result here might present a new quality of synaptic cellular communication governing the stress like events and have significant potential for the development of therapeutic approaches designed to minimize the heightened vulnerability during aging.

  18. Age dependent association of endometrial polyps with increased risk of cancer involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martel Maritza

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometrial polyps (EMPs are commonly encountered in routine surgical pathology practice, but opinions differ on whether they are intrinsically a marker for concurrent or subsequent malignancy. The objectives of the present study are 1 to investigate the age-group in which EMP are most commonly encountered 2 to document the age-group in which EMP are most commonly associated with malignancies 3 To investigate whether the age of diagnosis of the various carcinoma subtypes in EMPs is congruent with published data on similar malignancies arising in non-polypoid endometrium and 4 To investigate whether the histologic subtype distribution of malignancies associated with EMPs are similar or different from the distribution of malignancies arising from non-polypoid endometrium based on published data. Patients and methods All cases of EMPs were retrieved from the files of Yale-New Haven Hospital for the period 1986–1995. The patients were divided into 5 age groups: Each group was further subclassified based on an association (or lack thereof of EMPs with endometrial carcinoma. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportion of malignancy associated EMPs between the age groups. Results We identified 513 EMPs, of which 209 (41% were from biopsy specimens and 304 (59% from hysterectomy specimens. Sixty six (13% of all EMPs were malignant. The 66 malignant EMPs included 58 endometrioid, 6 serous, 1 carcinosarcoma, and 1 clear cell carcinoma. In age group >35, only 1(2.5% of 40 EMPs was associated with endometrial malignancy. In contrast, 37(32% of 115 EMPs were associated with malignancy in the age group > 65. The frequency of malignant EMPs increased with age and reached statistical significance in the age group >65 (p Conclusions EMPs show statistically significant age dependent association with malignant tumor involvement. Careful search for malignancy, particularly in women with multiple risk factors is advised in daily practice

  19. The Impact of Age Pension Eligibility Age on Retirement and Program Dependence: Evidence from an Australian Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir Atalay; Garry F Barrett

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the effect of the financial incentives created by social security systems on the retirement behaviour of individuals requires exogenous variation in program parameters. In this paper we study the 1993 Australian Age Pension reform which increased the eligibility age for women to access the social security benefit. We find economically significant responses to the increase in the Age Pension eligibility age. An increase in the eligibility age of 1 year induced a decline in retireme...

  20. Study of serum malondialdehyde and whole blood reduced glutathione in emphysema patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj R.Shetkar, Anand Pyati, Rajesh CS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emphysema is associated with high incidence of morbidity and mortality. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Emphysema. Methods: A total number of 80 subjects comprising of 40 healthy controls and 40 Emphysema cases were studied. In all the subjects, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant whole blood reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated. Results: The level of whole blood reduced glutathione was significantly decreased in emphysema patients when compared to controls. Serum MDA was significantly increased in Emphysema patients when compared to controls. Conclusion: The presence of increased systemic oxidative stress in emphysema patients seems to be associated with current active smoking and systemic inflammation. The decrease in antioxidants levels appears to be mainly a consequence of increased oxidative stress. This suggests that oxidative stress is likely to be involved in pathogenesis of emphysema.

  1. Quantitative analysis of pulmonary emphysema using local binary patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Shaker, S.B.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    .2% classification accuracy was achieved on a set of 168 manually annotated ROIs, comprising the three classes: normal tissue, centrilobular emphysema, and paraseptal emphysema. The measured emphysema severity was in good agreement with a pulmonary function test (PFT) achieving correlation coefficients of up to |r......We aim at improving quantitative measures of emphysema in computed tomography (CT) images of the lungs. Current standard measures, such as the relative area of emphysema (RA), rely on a single intensity threshold on individual pixels, thus ignoring any interrelations between pixels. Texture...... analysis allows for a much richer representation that also takes the local structure around pixels into account. This paper presents a texture classification-based system for emphysema quantification in CT images. Measures of emphysema severity are obtained by fusing pixel posterior probabilities output by...

  2. Notch Fracture Toughness of Glasses: Dependence on Rate, Age, and Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasoya, Manish; Rycroft, Chris H.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the fracture toughness (resistance) of glasses is a fundamental problem of prime theoretical and practical importance. Here we theoretically study its dependence on the loading rate, the age (history) of the glass, and the notch radius ρ . Reduced-dimensionality analysis suggests that the notch fracture toughness results from a competition between the initial, age- and history-dependent, plastic relaxation time scale τ0pl and an effective loading time scale τext(K˙ I,ρ ) , where K˙ I is the tensile stress-intensity-factor rate. The toughness is predicted to scale with √{ρ } independently of ξ ≡τext/τ0pl for ξ ≪1 , to scale as T √{ρ }log (ξ ) for ξ ≫1 (related to thermal activation, where T is the temperature), and to feature a nonmonotonic behavior in the crossover region ξ ˜O (1 ) (related to plastic yielding dynamics). These predictions are verified using 2D computations, providing a unified picture of the notch fracture toughness of glasses. The theory highlights the importance of time-scale competition and far-from-steady-state elasto-viscoplastic dynamics for understanding the toughness and shows that the latter varies quite significantly with the glass age (history) and applied loading rate. Experimental support for bulk metallic glasses is presented, and possible implications for applications are discussed.

  3. Age-dependent difference in the computed tomography numbers of the normal parotid gland of Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine normal CT number range of parotid gland by analyzing the change by age increase and the difference among individuals and between both sexes in CT number of normal parotid gland. 134 subjects who took the CT scan between the period of Jan. 1996 and Dec. 1997 at Yonsei University, Dental Hospital were selected. Criteria for selection were that the patients must be within the normal range clinically and radiologically, and the entire parotid gland on the axial view must be shown. Among the axial views, the one showing the greatest parotid gland size was selected and its CT number was recorded. Also, CT numbers from both masseter muscle were recorded as its control. There was statistically significant correlation between CT number of right and left of parotid glands and masseter muscles. With the increase of age, there is a significant decrease in the CT number of parotid gland (p0.05). As age increases, CT number of parotid gland has a tendency to decrease, and there is no significant difference in the CT numbers between left and right parotid gland. Therefore in the CT scan of patients suspected of having an salivary gland disease of the parotid gland, to consider normal range of the age-dependent CT numbers of parotid gland and compare the CT numbers of the right and left parotid gland might be useful in diagnosing the disease.

  4. When does maternal age-dependent trisomy 21 arise relative to meiosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang-Jiang Zheng [National Inst. of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD (United States); Byers, B. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Polymorphic DNA markers have recently been used to estimate the fraction of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) cases that may be attributable to postzygotic nondisjunction - indicative of a loss in the fidelity of the first few cell divisions after fertilization. In these studies, a postzygotic nondisjunction is defined as a case in which two chromosomes of the trisomic set are homozygous for all informative markers (i.e., for those markers that were heterozygous in their parent of origin). These studies estimate that the postzygotic mutation mechanism accounts for 4.5% (11/238) and 3.5% (9/255) of their cases, respectively, but their estimates may actually be conservative, since all noninformative haplotypes (frequency not reported) are arbitrarily attributed to meiosis II-type nondisjunction. Nevertheless, even the conservative estimates would, if confirmed, constitute a new and nonnegligible source of chromosomal segregation errors leading to trisomy. These studies` conclusions are supported by the observation that the 20 reported {open_quotes}postzygotic{close_quotes} cases (5 paternal and 15 maternal) appear to be less dependent on maternal age (mean maternal age 28.4 years) than maternal meiosis I-type failures (mean maternal age 31.2 years). However, given the limited sample size involved, one should be cautious in positing the absence of a maternal age effect. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoori, Simon [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Breitenstein, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Surgery, Clinic for Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Winterthur (Switzerland); Doert, Aleksis [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Pozdniakova, Viktoria [Stavanger University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavanger (Norway); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Surrey, England (United Kingdom); Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  6. Treadmill exercise induces age and protocol-dependent epigenetic changes in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechinel, Laura Reck; Basso, Carla Giovana; Bertoldi, Karine; Schallenberger, Bruna; de Meireles, Louisiana Carolina Ferreira; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2016-10-15

    Some studies have linked age-related beneficial effects of exercise and epigenetic mechanisms. Although, the impact of treadmill exercise on histone acetylation, histone and DNA methylation marks in aged cortices yet remains poorly understood. Considering the role of frontal cortex on brain functions, we investigated the potential of different exercise protocols, single session and daily exercise, to modulate epigenetic marks, namely global H4 acetylation, histone methyltransferase activity (HMT H3K27) and levels of DNA methytransferase (DNMT1 and DNMT3b) in prefrontal cortices from 3 and 21-months aged Wistar rats. The animals were submitted to two treadmill exercise protocols, single session (20min) or daily moderate (20min/day during 14days). The daily exercise protocol induced an increased in histone H4 acetylation levels in prefrontal cortices of 21-months-old rats, without any effects in young adult group. DNMT3b levels were increased in aged cortices of animals submitted to single session of exercise. These results indicate that prefrontal cortex is susceptible to epigenetic changes in a protocol dependent-manner and that H4 acetylation levels and DNMT3b content changes might be linked at least in part to exercise-induced effects on brain functions. PMID:27418438

  7. Characterization of time-dependent component reliability and availability effects due to aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsmeier, Todd Andrew

    The time-dependent effects of reliability and unavailability that occur due to the component first failure density and due to the maintenance policy are important since: (i) they may substantially deviate from static or average values, (ii) when these time-dependent effects are incorporated into a system, deviations can superimpose creating even greater deviations from static. Characterization of component reliability and unavailability effects due to aging is important for all engineering systems and has not been investigated. A general surveillance/repair policy including its constraints and limitations is defined. Potential dynamic variables under this surveillance/repair policy are identified, and a methodology for determining the most useful of these dynamic variables under this surveillance/repair policy are also developed. Under periodic surveillance and perfect detection/repair, expressions for time-dependent unavailability, failure frequency, and renewal frequency are developed from the general methodology. Under periodic surveillance, time-dependent failure frequency, w(t), unavailability, q(t), and probability of failure within test interval, Wsb{n}(T), are determined for Weibull and linear failure rates with aging threshold time, and normal failure density. These failure densities model component aging in nuclear power plants. The time-dependent variables are plotted and some important features that describe their time-dependent behavior (characteristics) are defined and determined directly from the plots. Using these characteristics, criteria are established to demonstrate the significance of dynamic modeling under periodic surveillance. It is observed that w(t) and q(t) may oscillate to values exceeding 5 times the static values during plant life. Also, dynamic periods may be on the order of years; therefore, dynamic modeling of q(t) and w(t) under periodic surveillance may be necessary. Under periodic surveillance, a simple non-recursive expression

  8. A recalculation of the age dependent dose-effect-relationship of the life span study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis of the presented model is the multistage process of carcinogenesis as a biological effect. It provides simultaneously the age-dependent mortality of spontaneous and radiation induced solid tumors and dose-effect relationships at any age after exposure. The model has been used to describe the solid cancer mortality rates of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has characteristics of both relative and absolute risk projections depending on the age of exposure. (author)

  9. Assessment of 226Ra age-dependent dose from water intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of 226Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. 226Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L-1. The highest 226Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated 226Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 μSv yr-1). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 μSv yr-1 from water intake of 2 L day-1

  10. Age-Dependent Effects of Haptoglobin Deletion in Neurobehavioral and Anatomical Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakov, Alexander V.; Arias, Rodrigo A.; Tolosano, Emanuela; Doré, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhages are common features of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their presence is associated with chronic disabilities. Recent clinical and experimental evidence suggests that haptoglobin (Hp), an endogenous hemoglobin-binding protein most abundant in blood plasma, is involved in the intrinsic molecular defensive mechanism, though its role in TBI is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Hp deletion on the anatomical and behavioral outcomes in the controlled cortical impact model using wildtype (WT) C57BL/6 mice and genetically modified mice lacking the Hp gene (Hp−∕−) in two age cohorts [2–4 mo-old (young adult) and 7–8 mo-old (older adult)]. The data obtained suggest age-dependent significant effects on behavioral and anatomical TBI outcomes and recovery from injury. Moreover, in the adult cohort, neurological deficits in Hp−∕− mice at 24 h were significantly improved compared to WT, whereas there were no significant differences in brain pathology between these genotypes. In contrast, in the older adult cohort, Hp−∕− mice had significantly larger lesion volumes compared to WT, but neurological deficits were not significantly different. Immunohistochemistry for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed significant differences in microglial and astrocytic reactivity between Hp−∕− and WT in selected brain regions of the adult but not the older adult-aged cohort. In conclusion, the data obtained in the study provide clarification on the age-dependent aspects of the intrinsic defensive mechanisms involving Hp that might be involved in complex pathways differentially affecting acute brain trauma outcomes. PMID:27486583

  11. Is the metabolism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 age-dependent in dairy cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Mirja R; Cohrs, Imke; Lifschitz, Adrian L; Fraser, David R; Olszewski, Katharina; Schröder, Bernd; Breves, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that prepartum administered 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3) is a promising candidate to assist the maintenance of peripartal calcium homeostasis in dairy cows. Since the incidence of peripartal hypocalcemia and the reported beneficial effects of the treatment are both associated with the lactation number, we investigated pharmacokinetic aspects of 25-OHD3 related to the age of dairy cows. The daily oral administration of 3mg 25-OHD3 in rapeseed oil as well as a treatment with 4 and 6mg included in the feed during the last eight to ten days of gestation resulted in linear dosage- and age-dependent increases in plasma 25-OHD3. After parturition the administration was stopped and blood samples were taken to calculate the plasma half-life. Irrespective of the supplemented dosage, cows starting the 2nd lactation showed a significantly longer plasma half-life of 25-OHD3 than cows starting the 3rd or higher lactation. Age-dependent differences in the increase of plasma 25-OHD3 could already be found before parturition when calcium homeostasis was not yet significantly challenged. Additionally, no correlations between plasma half-life of 25-OHD3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, PTH or the bone resorption marker CrossLaps were observed after parturition. Thus we conclude that the influence of the lactation number on the pharmacokinetics of 25-OHD3 is related directly to the age of the cows. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:23220546

  12. Cadmium affects the episodic luteinizing hormone secretion in male rats: possible age-dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, A; Márquez, N; Piquero, S; Esquifino, A I

    1999-01-11

    Cadmium affects luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion through unknown mechanisms. The present study was undertaken to assess whether chronic exposure to low concentrations of cadmium may affect the episodic secretion of LH and if these effects are age-dependent. Male rats were given cadmium at a dose of 50 ppm in the drinking water, from day 30 to 60 or from day 60 to 90 of life. Age-matched rats with access to cadmium-free water were used as controls. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected every 7 min for 3 h, from 10:30 to 13.30 in conscious, freely moving rats. In control animals, mean serum LH levels and pulse duration increased with age (P < or = 0.001), and pulse frequency and the relative amplitude of LH pulses decreased (P < or = 0.001). Cadmium administration, from day 30 to 60 of life, decreased the pulse frequency and mean half-life of the hormone (P < or = 0.05, P < or = 0.01, respectively). However, no changes in any other parameters studied were observed as compared to the control group. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90, mean serum LH levels and the duration of LH pulses decreased (P < or = 0.05), whereas the pulse frequency increased (P < or = 0.05). The absolute and relative amplitude of the LH peaks and the mean half-life of the hormone were not changed after cadmium administration from day 60 to 90. These results indicate that low doses of cadmium change the pulsatile secretion of LH in male rats and that the effect of cadmium on episodic LH release was age-dependent. PMID:10048746

  13. Functional aging in the nervous system contributes to age-dependent motor activity decline in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Bi; Lei, Haoyun; Feng, Zhaoyang; Liu, Jianfeng; Hsu, Ao-Lin; X Z Shawn Xu

    2013-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive decline in multiple physiological functions (i.e. functional aging). As animals age, they exhibit a gradual loss in motor activity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we approach this question in C. elegans by functionally characterizing its aging nervous system and muscles. We find that motor neurons exhibit a progressive functional decline, beginning in early life. Surprisingly, body-wall muscles, which are previously thought to underg...

  14. Age-related impairments on one hippocampal-dependent task predict impairments on a subsequent hippocampal-dependent task

    OpenAIRE

    Curlik, Daniel M.; Weiss, Craig; Nicholson, Daniel A.; Disterhoft, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive impairments are particularly prevalent in forms of learning that require a functionally intact hippocampal formation, such as spatial learning and declarative memory. However, there is notable heterogeneity in the cognitive abilities of aged subjects. To date, few studies have determined whether age-related impairments on one learning task relate to impairments on different learning tasks that engage overlapping cognitive processes. Here, we hypothesized that aged animal...

  15. Ceramides: A potential therapeutic target in pulmonary emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tibboel (Jeroen); I.K.M. Reiss (Irwin); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); M.R. Post (Martin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The aim of this manuscript was to characterize airway ceramide profiles in a rodent model of elastase-induced emphysema and to examine the effect of pharmacological intervention directed towards ceramide metabolism.Methods: Adult mice were anesthetized and treated with an int

  16. Pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema complicating acute silicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakant Dixit; Manoj Meena; Patil, Chetan B

    2015-01-01

    A case of acute silicosis complicating as spontaneous pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema is described in a 35-year-old male engaged in stone crusher unit. Diagnosis was established on clinical and radiological assessment and supported by occupational history of the patient. This case is unique one as all these 3 complications at the same time are very uncommon in acute silicosis.

  17. Immunomodulatory strategies prevent the development of autoimmune emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraskauskiene Vita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of anti-endothelial cell antibodies and pathogenic T cells may reflect an autoimmune component in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Whether immune modulatory strategies can protect against the development of emphysema is not known. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were immunized with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC to induce autoimmune emphysema and treated with intrathymic HUVEC-injection and pristane. Measurements of alveolar airspace enlargement, cytokine levels, immuno histochemical, western blot analysis, and T cell repertoire of the lung tissue were performed. Results The immunomodulatory strategies protected lungs against cell death as demonstrated by reduced numbers of TUNEL and active caspase-3 positive cells and reduced levels of active caspase-3, when compared with lungs from HUVEC-immunized rats. Immunomodulatory strategies also suppressed anti-endothelial antibody production and preserved CNTF, IL-1alpha and VEGF levels. The immune deviation effects of the intrathymic HUVEC-injection were associated with an expansion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Pristane treatment decreased the proportion of T cells expressing receptor beta-chain, Vβ16.1 in the lung tissue. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that interventions classically employed to induce central T cell tolerance (thymic inoculation of antigen or to activate innate immune responses (pristane treatment can prevent the development of autoimmune emphysema.

  18. Surgical procedures in emphysema: any impact on dynamic hyperinflation?

    OpenAIRE

    Polkey, M. I.

    2006-01-01

    Bullectomy, lung volume reduction surgery and transplantation can palliate dyspnoea in emphysema. The available data suggest that their mode of action, at least with regard to pulmonary mechanics, includes beneficial effects on dynamic hyperinflation. In single lung transplant recipients, this may be asymmetric, causing native lung hyperinflation.

  19. Surgical procedures in emphysema: any impact on dynamic hyperinflation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullectomy, lung volume reduction surgery and transplantation can palliate dyspnoea in emphysema. The available data suggest that their mode of action, at least with regard to pulmonary mechanics, includes beneficial effects on dynamic hyperinflation. In single lung transplant recipients, this may be asymmetric, causing native lung hyperinflation.

  20. Emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, L.H.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Coal mining remains a major industry that has workers at risk for developing chronic lung disease. Aside from simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis, the development of emphysema and obstructive lung disease independent of smoking may be underappreciated. This article reviews more recent studies that may help rectify this faulty view. Cumulative exposure to coal dust is a significant risk factor for the development of emphysema and has an additive effect to smoking. Increased coal dust exposure is associated with increased risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In newly employed coal miners, bronchitic symptoms are associated with a rapid decline in lung function within 2 years after starting work. In evaluating impairment, the chest radiograph may be helpful as a marker of exposure but the diffusing capacity is most correlated with dyspnea, whereas the emphysema computed tomography score has good association with expiratory flow limitation. Latest studies further support the association of emphysema and COPD with coal dust exposure. Increased cumulative exposure may also increase risk of death from these diseases.

  1. Multi-slice CT pulmonary function evaluation in emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of evaluating the lung function by MSCT in emphysema. Methods: The MSCT scan and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were respectively performed in 147 receptors within one week. They were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A (120 receptors), including normal, mild, moderate and severe abnormal pulmonary function based on the PFT, for comparing the correlation between pulmonary quantitative indexes of MSCT pulmonary function and PFT and settingup the primary, grade criteria of abnormal pulmonary, function in emphysema, group B (27 receptors) for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy in group A. The total lung was respectively scanned at the full inspiration and full expiration with MSCT. The pulmonary quantitative indexes of MSCT were measured with Siemens Pulmo pulmonary quantitative software. Results: There was correlation between pulmonary quantitative indexes of MSCT and PFT. The Piex/in-910 showed best correlation with FEV1% (r= -0. 905, P-910 (χ20.267, P=0.966, accuracy 81.5%), and the primary criteria for abnormal pulmonary, function of emphysema was normal (0-9.9), mild (10.0-34.9), moderate (35.0-74.9) and severe (≥75.0). Conclusion: It is feasible to evaluate the abnormal lung function of emphysema with pulmonary quantitative indexes of CT. The Piex/in910 was the most effective one in various indexes. (authors)

  2. DOSE RESPONSE OF ELASTASE-INDUCED EMPHYSEMA IN HAMSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elastase-induced emhysema in hamsters was studied using pulmonary function tests in an effort to develop techniques for determining the effects of air pollutants on the progression of this disease. It appears that as little as 6 units of elastase produces mild emphysema in hamste...

  3. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema - a radiological and pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathology and radiology of 19 cases of histologically proven pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) were studied retrospectively. There was a good correlation between the pathological and radiological findings. Radiology therefore provides a useful indicator of early PIE which may allow more successful management and decreased morbidity and mortality. (orig.)

  4. Aspects of pulmonary emphysema on high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary emphysema is an entity characterized by enlargement of the air-space with bronchiolar walls destruction with-out evident fibrosis. It is classified according to anatomic distribution of the areas of lung destruction into these types: centrilobular, panlobular, paraseptal, and paracicatricial. TCAR is superior to chest radiographs and conventional CT is detecting these areas of pulmonary destruction. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs

  5. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in a tyre industry worker

    OpenAIRE

    Vinaya S Karkhanis; Joshi, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) with severe pulmonary hypertension in a 46-year-old man, nonsmoker, tyre industry worker. CPFE is commonly reported to be associated with tobacco smoking. This case highlights the possible role of environmental dust exposure (talc) in the pathogenesis of the disease and confirms the clinical characteristics of CPFE described in previous studies.

  6. Endobronchial Valves for Emphysema without Interlobar Collateral Ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H T; Hartman, Jorine E.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bronchoscopic lung-volume reduction with the use of one-way endobronchial valves is a potential treatment for patients with severe emphysema. To date, the benefits have been modest but have been hypothesized to be much larger in patients without interlobar collateral ventilation than in t

  7. Clinical evaluation of 99mTc-Technegas SPECT in thoracoscopic lung volume reduction surgery in patients with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc-Technegas (Tcgas) SPECT is useful for evaluating the patency of the airway and highly sensitive in detecting regional pulmonary function in pulmonary emphysema. The aim of this study is to evaluate regional ventilation impairment by this method pre and post thoracoscopic lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in patients with pulmonary emphysema. There were 11 patients with pulmonary emphysema. The mean age of patients was 64.1 years. All patients were males. LVRS was performed bilaterally in 8 patients and unilaterally in 3 patients. Post inhalation of Tcgas in the sitting position, the subjects were placed in the supine position and SPECT was performed. Distribution of Tcgas on axial images was classified into 4 types, homogeneous, inhomogeneous, hot spot, and defect. Three slices of axial SPECT images, the upper, middle and lower fields were selected, and changes in deposition patterns post LVRS were scored (Tcgas score). Post LVRS, dyspnea on exertion and pulmonary function tests were improved. Pre LVRS, inhomogeneous distribution, hot spots and defects were observed in all patients. Post LVRS, improvement in distribution was obtained not only in the surgical field and other fields, but also in the contralateral lung of unilaterally operated patients. In 5 patients some fields showed deterioration. The Tcgas score correlated with improvements in FEV1.0, FEV1.0% and %FEV1.0. Tcgas SPECT is useful for evaluating changes in regional pulmonary function post LVRS. (author)

  8. Anxiety is associated with diminished exercise performance and quality of life in severe emphysema: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise Robert A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with self-reported disability. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an association between anxiety and functional measures, quality of life and dyspnea. Methods Data from 1828 patients with moderate to severe emphysema enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT, collected prior to rehabilitation and randomization, were used in linear regression models to test the association between anxiety symptoms, measured by the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and: (a six-minute walk distance test (6 MWD, (b cycle ergometry peak workload, (c St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SRGQ, and (d UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ, after controlling for potential confounders including age, gender, FEV1 (% predicted, DLCO (% predicted, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Anxiety was significantly associated with worse functional capacity [6 MWD (B = -0.944, p Conclusion In clinically stable patients with moderate to severe emphysema, anxiety is associated with worse exercise performance, quality of life and shortness of breath, after accounting for the influence of demographic and physiologic factors known to affect these outcomes. Trail Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00000606

  9. Fluctuation limit theorems for age-dependent critical binary branching systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo-Salas Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider an age-dependent branching particle system in ℝd, where the particles are subject to α-stable migration (0 < α ≤ 2, critical binary branching, and general (non-arithmetic lifetimes distribution. The population starts off from a Poisson random field in ℝd with Lebesgue intensity. We prove functional central limit theorems and strong laws of large numbers under two rescalings: high particle density, and a space-time rescaling that preserves the migration distribution. Properties of the limit processes such as Markov property, almost sure continuity of paths and generalized Langevin equation, are also investigated.

  10. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2006/2007 school year) received an email in July inviting them to fill in a declaration of situation for dependent children in EDH. If this declaration has not yet been completed, you are requested to do so (one declaration for each child concerned) WITHOUT DELAY, by using the following link: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/ChildAllowance/ The deadline was September 30. If no declaration is sent to our service by October 13, 2006, the child allowance, as well as automatic health insurance membership, will cease on the first day of the month following the end of the last school year (according to the school certificate in our possession or, in the absence of precise information, on July 1, 2006). School fees Service Organization, Procedures and Services Human Resources Department Schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862

  11. [Surgical treatment of respiratory failure in young patients with diffuse lung emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunkov, S D; Chernyĭ, S M; Akopov, A L; Varlamov, V V; Lukina, O V; Kiriukhina, L D; Agishev, A S; Gembitskaia, T E

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of results of examination and treatment of 8 young patients (from 25 to 17 years of age) with generalized emphysema of the lungs, pulmonary failure of the II and III degrees was made. The functional examination of the patients before operation has revealed changed respiration by obstructive type. Symptoms of dysplasia of the connective tissue were found in 4 patients. Surgical reduction of the lung volume was performed in 5 patients for correction of respiratory failure. There were neither serious complications nor lethality. Dyspnea by MMRC scale decreased in all the patients at minimum by 1 point during the first months after operation. Three years later 4 out of the operated patients (80%) had retained positive effect of operation. In patients who had no operative treatment the frequency of infectious complications, level of dyspnea during three years of follow-up remained at the same level, while functional indices continued worsening. The surgical method of treatment of severe respiratory failure allowed tolerance of physical exercise to be increased and quality of life of patients with diffuse lung emphysema to be improved. PMID:23488258

  12. Clinical evaluation of lung rest/stress perfusion scintigraphy in patients with severe emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume lung reduction surgery (LVRS) improves lung function and physical tolerance for selected patients with severe pulmonary emphysema by making conditions for developing of the vital parenchyma so far compressed by the emphysema blisters. The aim of this study was to establish the comparative functional information obtained from REST/STRESS lung perfusion tomoscintigraphies for identification of non functional lung tissue. Eleven patients (8 males and 3 females at age 41-60) were examined by two lung perfusions SPECT scintigraphies after intravenous application of 222 MBq 99mTc-MAA: 1. after 30 min. lying rest and 2. 48 hours later after 6 min. walk test. Comparing the two scintigraphies the following changes in perfusion performance have been established at STRESS examination: increased at six patients (significant at three and slight also at three) and decreased at two. There was no difference between REST and STRESS examinations at 3 patients. Comparative REST/STRESS lung perfusion scintigraphy is important method for screening severe pulmonary patients for LVRS. (author)

  13. Influence of the distribution of emphysema on diaphragmatic motion in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated whether the distribution of emphysema on computed tomography (CT) images can affect chest wall motion in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). The subjects were 35 male patients with COPD (age, 69.7±6.2 years). The RA-950 (the ratio of lung volume under -950 hounsfield unit (HU) to total lung volume on CT) was measured separately for the upper and lower halves of the lung. We analyzed the flatness of the diaphragm (Kdome) and its motion (ΔLappo) using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Paradoxical motion (Mpr) represented the ratio of the paradoxical diaphragmatic movement (downward or upward) when the lung area decreased or increased, respectively, to he total diaphragm movement (expressed as a percent). These parameters were analyzed in correlation with pulmonary function tests and St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores. The RA-950 of the lower lung zone correlated significantly with the Kdome (P=0.033), ΔLappo (P=0.006), Mpr (%) (P=0.001), forced expiratory volume at 1 s (% predicted; P<0.001), and activity score of the SGRQ (p=0.017). The RA-950 of the upper lung zone did not correlate with these parameters. In COPD patients, the distribution of emphysema on CT correlates with airflow obstruction and abnormal diaphragmatic motion. (author)

  14. Assessment of peritrochanteric high T2 signal depending on the age and gender of the patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haliloglu, Nuray, E-mail: nurayunsal2@hotmail.co [Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Inceoglu, Deniz; Sahin, Gulden [Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of peritrochanteric high T2 signal (peritrochanteric edema, peritendinitis) on routine MR imaging studies and to determine whether reporting peritrochanteric edema is always clinically relevant depending on the age and gender of the patients. Materials and methods: We evaluated 79 consecutive bilateral hip MR images performed in our department between January 2006 and December 2006 (57 female, 22 male patients, mean age 49 years). Each study was evaluated for areas of T2 hyperintensity representing edema around the greater trochanter. Patients with a known fracture, tumor, history of radiation therapy, history of hip surgery and prothesis were excluded from the study. Patients with signal intensity alterations within the thickened gluteus medius/minimus tendons (tendinitis) or peritrochanteric bursal fluid accumulation (bursitis) were also excluded. All patients were scanned with our routine MR imaging protocol for hip imaging. Results: In 55 of the 79 patients (70%) peritrochanteric edema was detected on MR images and 52 of these 55 patients (95%) had these changes on both hips. The median age was 56 years for the patients with peritrochanteric edema and 35.5 years for the patients without peritrochanteric edema. There was statistical significance between the median ages of the patients and a significant increased risk of peritrochanteric edema was found over 40 years of age. There was no significant difference between male and female patients. Conclusion: Bilateral peritrochanteric high T2 signal may be a part of the degeneration process and we suggest that it may not be necessarily reported if the clinical findings do not support greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

  15. Assessment of peritrochanteric high T2 signal depending on the age and gender of the patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of peritrochanteric high T2 signal (peritrochanteric edema, peritendinitis) on routine MR imaging studies and to determine whether reporting peritrochanteric edema is always clinically relevant depending on the age and gender of the patients. Materials and methods: We evaluated 79 consecutive bilateral hip MR images performed in our department between January 2006 and December 2006 (57 female, 22 male patients, mean age 49 years). Each study was evaluated for areas of T2 hyperintensity representing edema around the greater trochanter. Patients with a known fracture, tumor, history of radiation therapy, history of hip surgery and prothesis were excluded from the study. Patients with signal intensity alterations within the thickened gluteus medius/minimus tendons (tendinitis) or peritrochanteric bursal fluid accumulation (bursitis) were also excluded. All patients were scanned with our routine MR imaging protocol for hip imaging. Results: In 55 of the 79 patients (70%) peritrochanteric edema was detected on MR images and 52 of these 55 patients (95%) had these changes on both hips. The median age was 56 years for the patients with peritrochanteric edema and 35.5 years for the patients without peritrochanteric edema. There was statistical significance between the median ages of the patients and a significant increased risk of peritrochanteric edema was found over 40 years of age. There was no significant difference between male and female patients. Conclusion: Bilateral peritrochanteric high T2 signal may be a part of the degeneration process and we suggest that it may not be necessarily reported if the clinical findings do not support greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

  16. Revisiting 'Respiratory Function in Emphysema in Relation to Prognosis'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V Bates

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 1956 paper by DV Bates, JMS Knott and RV Christie, "Respiratory function in emphysema in relation to prognosis" Quart J Med 1956;97:137-157 is largely reprinted with a commentary by the first author, Dr David Bates. Although the pathology of emphysema was well recognized at the time, the clinical diagnosis and assessment of its severity were known to be imprecise; physiological measurements assessing and following the clinical course had not been established. The study aimed to follow systematically a group of patients, selected by clinical criteria using standardized clinical and physiological techniques, over four years and correlate physiological and clinical changes in relation to prognosis and eventually to postmortem findings. Fifty-nine patients were recruited to an emphysema clinic at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, England. Inclusion criteria were dyspnea without other causes and no cor pulmonale present. Patients' symptoms were assessed by a standardized questionnaire, and measurements were taken of lung volumes, maximal ventilatory volume, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity at rest, exercise and oxygen saturation by oximetry.  During the four years of the study, 17 patients died (actuarial expected - four and 13 presented with signs of pulmonary heart failure. All postmortem examinations (n=9 showed advanced emphysema. A seasonal variation in dyspnea was established (the period included the infamous 1952 London smog. Four patients improved, and the remainder were unchanged or deteriorated. Close relationships were shown between dyspnea and function results, particularly for the diffusing capacity of lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO. A comparison among a group of patients with chronic bronchitis without dyspnea showed that the DLCO discriminated between them. A loss of the normal increase in DLCO during exercise was shown in emphysema.

  17. Infliximab protects against pulmonary emphysema in smoking rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang-yan; HAN Jing; ZHANG Cheng; SUN Qian-yun; LI Dan; LUO Rong-rong; WAN Zi-fen; YE Xian-wei; LIU Wei-jia; RAO Shan-shan

    2011-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-a) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of emphysema. This study aimed at investigating the protective effects of anti-TNF-α antibody, infliximab, in the development of emphysema induced by passive smoking in rats.Methods Thirty-nine rats were randomly divided into a normal control group (group 1), an emphysema group (group 2),and an infliximab-intervention group (group 3). Rat models of emphysema were established by exposure to cigarette smoking daily for 74 days. After 1 month, the infliximab intervention group was treated with infliximab via subcutaneous injection. The levels of TNF-α, iL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The number and classification of cells in the BALF were measured. Lung tissue sections stained by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) were observed, and mean linear intercept (MLI) and mean alveolar numbers (MAN) were measured. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) methods were used to examine the percentage of positive cells and distribution of apoptotic cells.Results The levels of TNF-α and IL-8 in BALF were higher in group 2 than in group 1 and group 3. The MLI was greater in group 2 than that in group 1 and group 3 while MAN was decreased. The concentration of VEGF in BALF of group 2 was significantly decreased as compared with group 1. The total cells and neutrophils number was significantly increased in group 2 as compared with group 1 and group 3, so was the percentage of neutrophils. The number of TUNEL positive cells in the alveolar septa was significantly increased in group 2 as compared with group 1 and group 3.Conclusion Infliximab protects against cigarette smoking-induced emphysema by reducing airway inflammation,attenuating alveolar septa cell apoptosis and improving pathological changes.

  18. Long-term dynamics of death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and improving air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Julia Kravchenko,1 Igor Akushevich,2 Amy P Abernethy,3 Sheila Holman,4 William G Ross Jr,5 H Kim Lyerly1,6 1Department of Surgery, 2Center for Population Health and Aging, 3Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, 4Division of Air Quality, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Raleigh, 5Nicholas School of the Environment, 6Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Background: The respiratory tract is a major target of exposure to air pollutants, and respiratory diseases are associated with both short- and long-term exposures. We hypothesized that improved air quality in North Carolina was associated with reduced rates of death from respiratory diseases in local populations. Materials and methods: We analyzed the trends of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia mortality and changes of the levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, carbon monoxide (CO, and particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10 using monthly data measurements from air-monitoring stations in North Carolina in 1993–2010. The log-linear model was used to evaluate associations between air-pollutant levels and age-adjusted death rates (per 100,000 of population calculated for 5-year age-groups and for standard 2000 North Carolina population. The studied associations were adjusted by age group-specific smoking prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of disease-specific respiratory deaths. Results: Decline in emphysema deaths was associated with decreasing levels of SO2 and CO in the air, decline in asthma deaths–with lower SO2, CO, and PM10 levels, and decline in pneumonia deaths–with lower levels of SO2. Sensitivity analyses were performed to study potential effects of the change from International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 to ICD-10 codes, the effects of air pollutants on mortality during summer and winter, the impact of approach when only

  19. Dependency of young population; 1 : 2 000 000; Dependency of aged population; 1 : 2 000 000; Economic dependency; 1 : 2 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dependency of young population of the Slovak Republic expresses the share (representation of the pre-productive categories compared to the productive category of population. This share decreased in the recent decades (from 48.6 % in 1970 to 42.3 % 1991) and to 30.3 % in 2001. The trend proves the decreasing pace of reproduction of population. Dependency of old population is expressed in similar way. This index changes much more slowly (it was 29.2 % in 1970, 29. 8 % in 1991) and in 2001 it reached the value of 28.9 %. Apart from the characteristics of the population age structure both of these indices also imply an important economic-social information. In case of the index of economic burden these data are even more eloquent. The economic burden decreases in this sense (value of the index was 77 % in 1970 and 72.1 % in 1991) and in the last census it was 59.2 %. Explanation of the cartographic representation is complicated from the demographic aspect as the index covers two population categories (pre- and post-productive). The economic and social explanation is more important. Districts with higher economic and population burden represented by the not-productive population is identified here. (authors)

  20. Age-Dependent Differences in Systemic and Cell-Autonomous Immunity to L. monocytogenes

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    Ashley M. Sherrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Host defense against infection can broadly be categorized into systemic immunity and cell-autonomous immunity. Systemic immunity is crucial for all multicellular organisms, increasing in importance with increasing cellular complexity of the host. The systemic immune response to Listeria monocytogenes has been studied extensively in murine models; however, the clinical applicability of these findings to the human newborn remains incompletely understood. Furthermore, the ability to control infection at the level of an individual cell, known as “cell-autonomous immunity,” appears most relevant following infection with L. monocytogenes; as the main target, the monocyte is centrally important to innate as well as adaptive systemic immunity to listeriosis. We thus suggest that the overall increased risk to suffer and die from L. monocytogenes infection in the newborn period is a direct consequence of age-dependent differences in cell-autonomous immunity of the monocyte to L. monocytogenes. We here review what is known about age-dependent differences in systemic innate and adaptive as well as cell-autonomous immunity to infection with Listeria monocytogenes.

  1. Behaviour of trace element concentration in human organs in dependence of age and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the behaviour of trace elements in dependence of age and environment, samples of skin, lung, heart, aorta, kidney, liver and brain were assayed for concentrations of Fe, Zn, Rb, Co, Cr, Se, Sc, Sb, Cs, Al and partly Eu. All samples were dried at 100 deg C for two days. Instrumental neutron-activation analysis was used to determine the element concentrations. The neutron flux was 5 x 1013 n cm-2 sec-1. After decay of the short lived radioisotopes, the Al-concentration was measured following a second irradiation of 1 minute and directly comparing with a standard sample. Nearly all element concentrations changed with processing age, but they showed no clear correlation to either parameter assessed. The non-essential elements Se, Sb and Sc were increasingly concentrated in all organs except the skin. Comparing lung samples of patients from highly industrialized regions with those of lesser industrialization, the elements Sc, Al, Sb, Eu and Co were accumulated by a factor of 10 to 100. Thus the concentrations of trace elements in human organism also depend on the degree of industrialization. (T.G.)

  2. Accommodating volume-constant age-dependent optical (AVOCADO) model of the crystalline GRIN lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Conor J; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce a new age-dependent model of the human lens with two GRIN power distributions (axial and radial) that allow decoupling of its refractive power and axial optical path length. The aspect ratio of the lens core can be held constant under accommodation, as well as the lens volume by varying the asphericity of the lens external surfaces. The spherical aberration calculated by exact raytracing is shown to be in line with experimental data. The proposed model is compared to previous GRIN models from the literature, and it is concluded that the features of the new model will be useful for GRIN reconstruction in future experimental studies; in particular, studies of the accommodation-dependent properties of the ageing human eye. A proposed logarithmic model of the lens core enables decoupling of three fundamental optical characteristics of the lens, namely axial optical path length, optical power and third-order spherical aberration, without changing the external shape of the lens. Conversely, the near-surface GRIN structure conforms to the external shape of the lens, which is necessary for accommodation modelling. PMID:27231637

  3. Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors in human lung emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchal Joëlle

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors are key growth factors in the process of alveolar repair. We hypothesized that excessive alveolar destruction observed in lung emphysema involves impaired expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors or their respective receptors, c-met and keratinocyte growth factor receptor. The aim of our study was to compare the expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors in lung samples from 3 groups of patients: emphysema; smokers without emphysema and non-smokers without emphysema. Methods Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factor proteins were analysed by immunoassay and western blot; mRNA expression was measured by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors, c-met and keratinocyte growth factor receptor mRNA levels were similar in emphysema and non-emphysema patients. Hepatocyte growth factor mRNA correlated negatively with FEV1 and the FEV1/FVC ratio both in emphysema patients and in smokers with or without emphysema. Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factor protein concentrations were similar in all patients' groups. Conclusion The expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors is preserved in patients with lung emphysema as compared to patients without emphysema. Hepatocyte growth factor mRNA correlates with the severity of airflow obstruction in smokers.

  4. Age-dependent radiation dose due to uranium in public drinking water in Hyderabad, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was done to evaluate the ingestion dose due to uranium in drinking water. The area of study is the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, India. The uranium concentration in water samples was analysed by laser-induced fluorimetry. The associated age-dependent radiation dose was estimated by taking the prescribed water intake values and dose conversion factors for different age groups. The concentration of uranium varies from below the detection limit (detection limit 0.20 μg.L-1) to 2.50 ± 0.18 μg.L-1, with a geometric mean of 0.67 μg.L-1 in tap water, whereas in groundwater the range is 0.60 ± 0.05 to 82 ± 7.1 μg.L-1 with a geometric mean of 10.07 μg.L-1. The annual ingestion dose by the drinking water pathway due to uranium in tap water for various age groups was found to vary from 0.23 to 6.35 μSv.y-1 with an average of 1.08 μSv.y-1. The ingestion dose due to uranium in tap water is 15 times lower than that of groundwater consumption. (authors)

  5. Age-Dependent Defects of Regulatory B Cells in Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Gene Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadafumi Yokoyama

    Full Text Available The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS is a rare X-linked primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections, thrombocytopenia, eczema, and high incidence of malignancy and autoimmunity. The cellular mechanisms underlying autoimmune complications in WAS have been extensively studied; however, they remain incompletely defined. We investigated the characteristics of IL-10-producing CD19+CD1dhighCD5+ B cells (CD1dhighCD5+ Breg obtained from Was gene knockout (WKO mice and found that their numbers were significantly lower in these mice compared to wild type (WT controls. Moreover, we found a significant age-dependent reduction of the percentage of IL-10-expressing cells in WKO CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells as compared to age-matched WT control mice. CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells from older WKO mice did not suppress the in vitro production of inflammatory cytokines from activated CD4+ T cells. Interestingly, CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells from older WKO mice displayed a basal activated phenotype which may prevent normal cellular responses, among which is the expression of IL-10. These defects may contribute to the susceptibility to autoimmunity with age in patients with WAS.

  6. Age-, sex-, and weight-dependent dose patterns due to inhaled natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of doses due to inhaled radionuclides are in general based on the lung model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group on Lung Dynamics. All its parameters, including the pathways to other organs, refer to an adult reference man and are also averaged for the differences in sex and weight. At first age-depent lung models were developed by using feasible theoretical considerations as well as experimental data for the postnatal growth of the respiratory tract. On the basis of these age-dependent models, the regional particle deposition for the short-lived decay products of 222Rn and 220Rn was then calculated since these radionuclides occur everywhere in the environment, outdoors as well as indoors. The mean doses for the various parts of the respiratory tract and for other organs show a maximum at the age of about six years. These doses are more than twice as high as for an adult for most of the organs and tissues. The half-life of the clearance time for the absorption of decay products from the alveolar region into the blood was found to be about 1 h, which is in contradiction to the ICRP retention model. Furthermore, it was shown that for precise dose calculations the differences in sex and weight have to be considered as well

  7. Collagene order of articular cartilage by clinical magnetic resonance images and its age dependency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, P.; Gruender, W. [Inst. of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The present papers describes a novel method to obtain information on the degree of order of the collagen network of the knee meniscal cartilage by means of a single clinical MRI. Images were obtained from 34 healthy volunteers aged between 6 and 76 years as well as from one patient with clinically-diagnosed arthrosis at the age of 32 and 37 years. A siemens vision (1.5 T) MRT with TR = 750 ms, TE = 50 ms, FoV = 160 mm, and Matrix 512 x 512 was used for this purpose. The MR signal intensities of the cartilage were read out along slices with constant height above the subchondral bone and plotted versus the actual angle to the external magnetic field. The obtained intensity curves were fitted by a model distribution, and the degree of order of the collagen fibers was calculated. For the knee meniscal cartilage, there was an age-dependency of the degree of order and a significant deviation of the volunteer with arthrosis from the normal curve. The results are discussed in view of the arcade model and of a possible use of non-invasive clinical MRT for the detection of early arthrotic changes of cartilage. (orig.)

  8. Collagene order of articular cartilage by clinical magnetic resonance images and its age dependency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present papers describes a novel method to obtain information on the degree of order of the collagen network of the knee meniscal cartilage by means of a single clinical MRI. Images were obtained from 34 healthy volunteers aged between 6 and 76 years as well as from one patient with clinically-diagnosed arthrosis at the age of 32 and 37 years. A siemens vision (1.5 T) MRT with TR = 750 ms, TE = 50 ms, FoV = 160 mm, and Matrix 512 x 512 was used for this purpose. The MR signal intensities of the cartilage were read out along slices with constant height above the subchondral bone and plotted versus the actual angle to the external magnetic field. The obtained intensity curves were fitted by a model distribution, and the degree of order of the collagen fibers was calculated. For the knee meniscal cartilage, there was an age-dependency of the degree of order and a significant deviation of the volunteer with arthrosis from the normal curve. The results are discussed in view of the arcade model and of a possible use of non-invasive clinical MRT for the detection of early arthrotic changes of cartilage. (orig.)

  9. Calculation of age-dependent dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides uniformly distributed in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Age-dependent dose conversion coefficients for external exposure to photons emitted by radionuclides uniformly distributed in air were calculated. The size of the source region in the calculation was assumed to be effectively semi-infinite in extent. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using MCNP code, a Monte Carlo transport code. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources of twelve energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. The calculated effective doses were used to interpolate the conversion coefficients of the effective doses for 160 radionuclides, which are important for dose assessment of nuclear facilities. In the calculation, energies and intensities of emitted photons from radionuclides were taken from DECDC, a recent compilation of decay data for radiation dosimetry developed at JAERI. The results are tabulated in the form of effective dose per unit concentration and time (Sv per Bq s m-3). (author)

  10. Steroidogenic Factor 1 in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Regulates Age-Dependent Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Ann W; Yang, Dong Joo; Chang, Inik; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is important for the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis and lesions in the VMH are reported to result in massive weight gain. The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a known VMH marker as it is exclusively expressed in the VMH region of the brain. SF-1 plays a critical role not only in the development of VMH but also in its physiological functions. In this study, we generated prenatal VMH-specific SF-1 KO mice and investigated age-dependent energy homeostasis regulation by SF-1. Deletion of SF-1 in the VMH resulted in dysregulated insulin and leptin homeostasis and late onset obesity due to increased food intake under normal chow and high fat diet conditions. In addition, SF-1 ablation was accompanied by a marked reduction in energy expenditure and physical activity and this effect was significantly pronounced in the aged mice. Taken together, our data indicates that SF-1 is a key component in the VMH-mediated regulation of energy homeostasis and implies that SF-1 plays a protective role against metabolic stressors including aging and high fat diet. PMID:27598259

  11. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products in COPD: relationship with emphysema and chronic cor pulmonale: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocci Franca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE is a multiligand signal transduction receptor that can initiate and perpetuate inflammation. Its soluble isoform (sRAGE acts as a decoy receptor for RAGE ligands, and is thought to afford protection against inflammation. With the present study, we aimed at determining whether circulating sRAGE is correlated with emphysema and chronic cor pulmonale in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods In 200 COPD patients and 201 age- and sex-matched controls, we measured lung function by spirometry, and sRAGE by ELISA method. We also measured the plasma levels of two RAGE ligands, N-epsilon-carboxymethyl lysine and S100A12, by ELISA method. In the COPD patients, we assessed the prevalence and severity of emphysema by computed tomography (CT, and the prevalence of chronic cor pulmonale by echocardiography. Multiple quantile regression was used to assess the effects of emphysema, chronic cor pulmonale, smoking history, and comorbid conditions on the three quartiles of sRAGE. Results sRAGE was significantly lower (p = 0.007 in COPD patients (median 652 pg/mL, interquartile range 484 to 1076 pg/mL than in controls (median 869 pg/mL, interquartile range 601 to 1240 pg/mL, and was correlated with the severity of emphysema (p Conclusions sRAGE is significantly lower in patients with COPD than in age- and sex-matched individuals without airflow obstruction. Emphysema and chronic cor pulmonale are independent predictors of reduced sRAGE in COPD.

  12. T1 maps and O2-enhanced MRT of the diseased lung. Emphysema, fibrosis, mucoviscidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas exchange is the primary function of the lung and the transport of oxygen plays a key role in pulmonary physiology and pathophysiology. Molecular oxygen is weakly paramagnetic, so that an increase in oxygen concentration results in shortening T1 relaxation time and thus increasing signal intensity in T1 weighted images. The calculation of parameter maps may allow deeper insights into relaxation mechanisms. T1 maps based on a snapshot FLASH sequence obtained during the inhalation of various oxygen concentrations allow the creation of an oxygen transfer function, providing a measurement of local oxygen transfer. T1 weighted single shot TSE sequences demonstrate the signal changing effects during inhalation of pure oxygen. The average of the mean T1 values over the entire lung during inspiration was 1,199±117 ms, the average of these values during expiration was 1,333±167 ms. T1 maps of patients with emphysema and lung fibrosis show fundamentally different values and respiratory dependence compared to healthy individuals. Oxygen enhanced MR has the potential to assess reduced diffusion capacity and decreased transport of oxygen in patients with emphysema and cystic fibrosis. Results published in the literature indicate that T1 mapping and oxygen enhanced MR are promising new methods in functional imaging of the lung. (orig.)

  13. Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2003-10-01

    The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards. PMID:14527839

  14. Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards. PMID:14527839

  15. Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barson, Nicola J; Aykanat, Tutku; Hindar, Kjetil; Baranski, Matthew; Bolstad, Geir H; Fiske, Peder; Jacq, Céleste; Jensen, Arne J; Johnston, Susan E; Karlsson, Sten; Kent, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Niemelä, Eero; Nome, Torfinn; Næsje, Tor F; Orell, Panu; Romakkaniemi, Atso; Sægrov, Harald; Urdal, Kurt; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Lien, Sigbjørn; Primmer, Craig R

    2015-12-17

    Males and females share many traits that have a common genetic basis; however, selection on these traits often differs between the sexes, leading to sexual conflict. Under such sexual antagonism, theory predicts the evolution of genetic architectures that resolve this sexual conflict. Yet, despite intense theoretical and empirical interest, the specific loci underlying sexually antagonistic phenotypes have rarely been identified, limiting our understanding of how sexual conflict impacts genome evolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity. Here we identify a large effect locus controlling age at maturity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), an important fitness trait in which selection favours earlier maturation in males than females, and show it is a clear example of sex-dependent dominance that reduces intralocus sexual conflict and maintains adaptive variation in wild populations. Using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data across 57 wild populations and whole genome re-sequencing, we find that the vestigial-like family member 3 gene (VGLL3) exhibits sex-dependent dominance in salmon, promoting earlier and later maturation in males and females, respectively. VGLL3, an adiposity regulator associated with size and age at maturity in humans, explained 39% of phenotypic variation, an unexpectedly large proportion for what is usually considered a highly polygenic trait. Such large effects are predicted under balancing selection from either sexually antagonistic or spatially varying selection. Our results provide the first empirical example of dominance reversal allowing greater optimization of phenotypes within each sex, contributing to the resolution of sexual conflict in a major and widespread evolutionary trade-off between age and size at maturity. They also provide key empirical evidence for how variation in reproductive strategies can be maintained over large geographical scales. We anticipate these findings will have a substantial impact on

  16. Incidence of tracheobronchomalacia associated with pulmonary emphysema. Detection with paired inspiratory-expiratory multidetector computed tomography using a low-dose technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) associated with pulmonary emphysema with paired inspiratory-expiratory multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) using a low-dose technique. This study included 56 consecutive patients (55 men, 1 woman; mean age 68.9 years) with pulmonary emphysema who had undergone paired inspiratory-expiratory CT scanning with a low-dose technique (40 mA). All images were retrospectively examined by two thoracic radiologists in a blinded fashion. The diagnosis of TBM was based on the standard criterion of >50% reduction in the cross-sectional area of the tracheobronchial lumen at the end-expiratory phase. A mild TBM criterion of >30% reduction was also reviewed. All patients underwent pulmonary function tests. The relation between the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0%) and TBM was statistically analyzed. Four (7.1%) and eight (14.3%) patients were diagnosed as TBM based on the standard and mild criteria, respectively. In four patients, the percentages of luminal narrowing were 63.4% and 51.2%, respectively for tracheomalacia and 59.2% and 62.0%, respectively, for bronchomalacia. The FEV1.0% values between patients with and without TBM showed no statistical difference. The incidence of TBM associated with pulmonary emphysema was 7.1% with the standard criterion. It is possible that TBM has been underdiagnosed in a number of patients with pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  17. Is Growth Differentiation Factor 11 a Realistic Therapeutic for Aging-Dependent Muscle Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shavonn C; Brack, Andrew; MacDonnell, Scott; Franti, Michael; Olwin, Bradley B; Bailey, Beth A; Rudnicki, Michael A; Houser, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    This "Controversies in Cardiovascular Research" article evaluates the evidence for and against the hypothesis that the circulating blood level of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) decreases in old age and that restoring normal GDF11 levels in old animals rejuvenates their skeletal muscle and reverses pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Studies supporting the original GDF11 hypothesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle have not been validated by several independent groups. These new studies have either found no effects of restoring normal GDF11 levels on cardiac structure and function or have shown that increasing GDF11 or its closely related family member growth differentiation factor 8 actually impairs skeletal muscle repair in old animals. One possible explanation for what seems to be mutually exclusive findings is that the original reagent used to measure GDF11 levels also detected many other molecules so that age-dependent changes in GDF11 are still not well known. The more important issue is whether increasing blood [GDF11] repairs old skeletal muscle and reverses age-related cardiac pathologies. There are substantial new and existing data showing that GDF8/11 can exacerbate rather than rejuvenate skeletal muscle injury in old animals. There is also new evidence disputing the idea that there is pathological hypertrophy in old C57bl6 mice and that GDF11 therapy can reverse cardiac pathologies. Finally, high [GDF11] causes reductions in body and heart weight in both young and old animals, suggestive of a cachexia effect. Our conclusion is that elevating blood levels of GDF11 in the aged might cause more harm than good. PMID:27034276

  18. Elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema: insights from experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Antunes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several distinct stimuli can be used to reproduce histological and functional features of human emphysema, a leading cause of disability and death. Since cigarette smoke is the main cause of emphysema in humans, experimental researches have attempted to reproduce this situation. However, this is an expensive and cumbersome method of emphysema induction, and simpler, more efficacious alternatives have been sought. Among these approaches, elastolytic enzymes have been widely used to reproduce some characteristics of human cigarette smoke-induced disease, such as: augmentation of airspaces, inflammatory cell influx into the lungs, and systemic inflammation. Nevertheless, the use of elastase-induced emphysema models is still controversial, since the disease pathways involved in elastase induction may differ from those occurring in smoke-induced emphysema. This indicates that the choice of an emphysema model may impact the results of new therapies or drugs being tested. The aim of this review is to compare the mechanisms of disease induction in smoke and elastase emphysema models, to describe the differences among various elastase models, and to establish the advantages and disadvantages of elastase-induced emphysema models. More studies are required to shed light on the mechanisms of elastase-induced emphysema.Diversos estímulos podem ser utilizados para reproduzir características histológicas e funcionais do enfisema humano, uma das principais causas de incapacidade e morte. Uma vez que a fumaça de cigarro é a principal causa de enfisema em humanos, estudos experimentais têm tentado reproduzir esta situação. No entanto, esse é um método dispendioso e complicado para a indução do enfisema e, alternativas mais simples e eficazes, têm sido pesquisadas. Entre essas abordagens, enzimas elastolíticas vêm sendo amplamente utilizadas para reproduzir algumas das características do enfisema humano, tais como: aumento dos espaços a

  19. Age and family relationship accentuate the risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in relatives of patients with IDDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantor, A.B.; Krischer, J.P.; Cuthbertson, D.D. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The international community of diabetologists is rapidly becomine involved in intervention trials aimed at preventing insulin-dependent diabetes in high risk relatives. Whereas age and relationship to a proband with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus interacting with detected islet cell autoantibodies (ICA) are risk factors, their independent contribution to that risk remains unclear. In a prospective study of 6851 nondiabetic relatives of 2742 probands conducted between 1979-1993, we found age, but not relationship, to be a dramatic risk variable in ICA-positive persons as estimated by the Cox regression model. The 5-yr risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was 66% for those found to have ICA detectable before age 10 yr, falling progressively to less than 16% for ICA-positive relatives over age 40 yr. In ICA-negative relatives, age and relationship are independent prognostic variables. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Large-image intensifier photofluorography and conventional radiography in pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-screen image intensifier (II) photofluorography was compared with full-size screen-film chest radiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in 84 patients. Photospot films and conventional radiographs were interpreted independently by three radiologists. Computed tomography (CT) was used as an independent reference technique, and diagnostic performance of chest radiography in various CT patterns of emphysema was evaluated. The difference in diagnostic sensitivity for emphysema in favor of conventional chest radiography over photofluorography (0.65 versus 0.56) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Specificity of the imaging modalities was equal: 0.78 in full-size films and 0.77 in photospot films. All CT patterns of emphysema had great false negative response rates in chest radiography, which is an inaccurate technique for the diagnosis of emphysema. CT is required for reliable radiologic evaluation of emphysema. (orig.)

  1. New EDH declaration form concerning dependent children aged 18 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of the ongoing simplification of procedures and rationalisation of administrative formalities, the HR and IT Departments have designed and developed a new EDH form for declaring the situation of dependent children aged 18 to 25. This new electronic form, which will be brought on line during the month of July, will make it easier for members of the personnel to enter and send data as well as allowing the HR Department to optimise its administrative follow-up. Members of the personnel required to complete a declaration will receive an individual e-mail notification containing a link to the EDH form and useful information on the procedure to be followed. Human Resources Department, Organisation, Procedures and Services Group, School Fees ServiceInformation Technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services)

  2. New EDH declaration form concerning dependent children aged 18 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of the ongoing simplification of procedures and rationalisation of administrative formalities, the HR and IT Departments have designed and developed a new EDH form for declaring the situation of dependent children aged 18 to 25. This new electronic form, which will be brought on line during the month of July, will make it easier for members of the personnel to enter and send data as well as allowing the HR Department to optimise its administrative follow-up. Members of the personnel required to complete a declaration form will receive an individual e-mail notification containing a link to the EDH form and useful information on the procedure to be followed. Human Resources Department, Organisation, Procedures and Services Group, School Fees Service Information Technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services)

  3. Liquid scintillation analysis of commercial drinking water in India and subsequent age dependent ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the probable impact of natural radioactivity present in drinking water, preliminary investigations were carried out on commercially available drinking waters in India using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) technique. Various brands of packaged and natural mineral drinking water samples were collected from highly populated areas in Maharashtra and other parts of India. The present study is aimed to evaluate the radioactive content of these water samples and their contribution to public exposure. Gross activities deduced by liquid scintillation counting were ranged from < 0.0193E-3 Bq/L to maximum 0.0946 Bq/L for alpha and 0.0280 Bq/L to 0.28 Bq/L for beta. The associated age-dependent annual dose along with lifetime dose from water ingestion route of intake is estimated. (author)

  4. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R Homberg

    Full Text Available The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI Prozac® (fluoxetine is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg at postnatal day (PND 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7-14 days after the last injection when (norfluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (norfluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT(1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential

  5. Assessment of {sup 226}Ra age-dependent dose from water intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porntepkasemsan, Boonsom [Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: boonsom@oaep.go.th; Srisuksawad, Kanitha [Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2008-11-15

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of {sup 226}Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. {sup 226}Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L{sup -1}. The highest {sup 226}Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated {sup 226}Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1}). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1} from water intake of 2 L day{sup -1}.

  6. Age-dependent postoperative cognitive impairment and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Dong, Yuanlin; Wang, Hui; Culley, Deborah J.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with increased cost of care, morbidity, and mortality. However, its pathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Specifically, it is unknown why elderly patients are more likely to develop POCD and whether POCD is dependent on general anesthesia. We therefore set out to investigate the effects of peripheral surgery on the cognition and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in the mice. The surgery induced post-operative elevation in brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old wild-type and 9 month-old Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice, but not the 9 month-old wild-type mice. The Aβ accumulation likely resulted from elevation of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme and phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α. γ-Secretase inhibitor compound E ameliorated the surgery-induced brain Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgery was able to induce cognitive impairment independent of general anesthesia, and that the combination of peripheral surgery with aging- or Alzheimer gene mutation-associated Aβ accumulation was needed for the POCD to occur. These findings would likely promote more research to investigate the pathogenesis of POCD.

  7. Time dependent diffusive shock acceleration and its application to middle aged supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Xiaping

    2016-01-01

    Recent gamma-ray observations show that middle aged supernova remnants (SNRs) interacting with molecular clouds (MCs) can be sources of both GeV and TeV emission. Based on the MC association, two scenarios have been proposed to explain the observed gamma-ray emission. In one, energetic cosmic ray (CR) particles escape from the SNR and then illuminate nearby MCs, producing gamma-ray emission, while the other involves direct interaction between the SNR and MC. In the direct interaction scenario, re-acceleration of pre-existing CRs in the ambient medium is investigated while particles injected from the thermal pool are neglected in view of the slow shock speeds in middle aged SNRs. However, standard diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) theory produces a steady state particle spectrum that is too flat compared to observations, which suggests that the high energy part of the observed spectrum has not yet reached a steady state. We derive a time dependent DSA solution in the test particle limit for re-acceleration of...

  8. Spatial and Age-Dependent Hair Cell Generation in the Postnatal Mammalian Utricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Kelly, Michael C; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao; Lin, Xi; Chi, Fang-Lu; Chen, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Loss of vestibular hair cells is a common cause of balance disorders. Current treatment options for bilateral vestibular dysfunction are limited. During development, atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) is sufficient and necessary for the formation of hair cells and provides a promising gene target to induce hair cell generation in the mammals. In this study, we used a transgenic mouse line to test the age and cell type specificity of hair cell induction in the postnatal utricle in mice. We found that forced Atoh1 expression in vivo can induce hair cell formation in the utricle from postnatal days 1 to 21, while the efficacy of hair cell induction is progressively reduced as the animals become older. In the utricle, the induction of hair cells occurs both within the sensory region and in cells in the transitional epithelium next to the sensory region. Within the sensory epithelium, the central region, known as the striola, is most subjective to the induction of hair cell formation. Furthermore, forced Atoh1 expression can promote proliferation in an age-dependent manner that mirrors the progressively reduced efficacy of hair cell induction in the postnatal utricle. These results suggest that targeting both cell proliferation and Atoh1 in the utricle striolar region may be explored to induce hair cell regeneration in mammals. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of the animal model that provides an in vivo Atoh1 induction model for vestibular regeneration studies. PMID:25666161

  9. Age-and gender-dependent obesity in individuals with 16p11.2 deletion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongguo Yu; Haitao Zhu; David T. Miller; James F. Gusella; Orah S. Platt; Bai-Lin Wu; Yiping Shen

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent genomic imbalances at 16p11.2 are genetic risk factors of variable penetrance for developmental delay and autism.Recently,16p11.2 (chr16:29.5 Mb-30.1 Mb) deletion has also been detected in individuals with early-onset severe obesity.The penetrance of 16p11.2deletion as a genetic risk factor for obesity is unknown.We evaluated the growth and body mass characteristics of 28 individuals with 16p11.2(chr16:29.5 Mb-30.1 Mb) deletion originally ascertained for their developmental disorders by reviewing their medical records.We found that nine individuals could be classilied as obese and six as overweight.These individuals generally had early feeding and growth difficulties,and started to gain excessive weight around 5-6 years of age.Thirteen out of the 18 deletion carriers aged 5 years and older (72%) were overweight or obese,whereas only two of 10 deletion carriers (20%) younger than five were overweight or obese.Males exhibited more severe obesity than females.Thus,the obesity phenotype of 16p11.2 deletion carriers is of juvenile onset,exhibited an age.and gender-dependent penetrance.16p11.2 deletion appears to predispose individuals to juvenile onset obesity and in this case are similar to the well-described Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS).Early detection of this deletion will provide opportunity to prevent obesity.

  10. Exercise intolerance and systemic manifestations of pulmonary emphysema in a mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Hasenfuss Gerd; Unsöld Bernhard; Michels Hellmuth; Raupach Tobias; Lüthje Lars; Kögler Harald; Andreas Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) significantly contribute to severity and mortality of the disease. We aimed to develop a COPD/emphysema model exhibiting systemic manifestations of the disease. Methods Female NMRI mice were treated 5 times intratracheally with porcine pancreatic elastase (emphysema) or phosphate-buffered saline (control). Emphysema severity was quantified histologically by mean linear intercept, exercise tolerance by treadmi...

  11. Radiological imaging of pulmonary emphysema : Preoperative evaluation of candidates for lung volume reduction surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Cederlund, Kerstin

    2002-01-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for pulmonary emphysema, first described by Brantigan in 1957, was re-introduced by Cooper et al in 1995. From a surgical point of view, information on the extent and distribution of emphysema is mandatory and also partly determines the outcome. No consensus exists on the best method for describing emphysema severity and heterogeneity in candidates for LVRS. The aims of this thesis were to define a suitable CT-technique for visual evaluat...

  12. Interferon γ Induction of Pulmonary Emphysema in the Adult Murine Lung

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhongde; Zheng, Tao; Zhu, Zhou; Homer, Robert J.; Riese, Richard J; Chapman, Harold A.; Shapiro, Steven D; Elias, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic inflammation containing CD8+ lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages, and pulmonary emphysema coexist in lungs from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although this inflammatory response is believed to cause the remodeling that is seen in these tissues, the mechanism(s) by which inflammation causes emphysema have not been defined. Here we demonstrate that interferon γ (IFN-γ), a prominent product of CD8+ cells, causes emphysema with alveolar enlargement, enhanced l...

  13. The Epidemiology of Vascular Dysfunction Relating to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, R Graham

    2011-01-01

    Cor pulmonale has long been described in very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. Cross-sectional results from population-based studies show that left ventricular filling and a variety of vascular measures in the systemic circulation are abnormal in preclinical COPD and emphysema and that a predominant vascular change in COPD and emphysema is endothelial and microvascular dysfunction. These findings suggest that pulmonary vascular changes may occur early in COPD...

  14. Spontaneous occurence of localized pulmonary interstitial and endolymphatic emphysema in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two infants are described with persistent pulmonary interstitial and endolymphatic emphysema of the localized, bullous type, occurring apparently spontaneously. Roentgenographically, the process simulated congenital lobar emphysema in the first patient and bilateral post-infectious pneumatoceles in the second. The histologic features of the lesion were identical to those seen in localized pulmonart interstitial emphysema caused by positive pressure ventilation in newborns with hyaline membrane disease. (orig.)

  15. Increased left ventricular stiffness impairs filling in dogs with pulmonary emphysema in respiratory failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, A; Mink, S

    1986-01-01

    In a chronic canine model of pulmonary emphysema, we studied the interaction between left ventricular (LV) mechanics and pulmonary disease during severe hypoxemia. The hypoxemia was similar to that which may occur during a severe exacerbation of chronic obstructive lung disease. In six dogs with papain-induced emphysema and in seven dogs without emphysema, LV mechanics were examined when a hypoxic gas mixture was inspired to reduce PO2 to about 35 mmHg (hypoxic study) and during nonhypoxic co...

  16. Physiological Modeling of Responses to Upper Versus Lower Lobe Lung Volume Reduction in Homogeneous Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    EdwardIngenito; ArschangValipour; MordechaiKramer; FranzStanzel; RalfEberhardt

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: In clinical trials, homogeneous emphysema patients have responded well to upper lobe volume reduction but not lower lobe volume reduction. Materials/Methods: To understand the physiological basis for this observation, a computer model was developed to simulate the effects of upper and lower lobe lung volume reduction on RV/TLC and lung recoil in homogeneous emphysema. Results: Patients with homogeneous emphysema received either upper or lower lobe volume reduction therap...

  17. Age dependency of central and peripheral systolic blood pressures: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in European populations

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Richart, Tom; Seidlerová, Jitka; Cwynar, Marcin; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Filipovský, Jan; Casiglia, Edoardo; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; O'Rourke, Michael; Staessen, Jan A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. As arteries become stiffer with ageing, reflected waves move faster and augment late systolic pressure. We investigated the age dependency of peripheral and central systolic pressure, pressure amplification (peripheral systolic blood pressure - central systolic blood pressure), and peripheral and central systolic augmentation (maximal systolic pressure minus the first peak of the pressure wave). Methods. We randomly recruited 1420 White Europeans (mean age, 41.7 years). p...

  18. Pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumorrhachis in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavita, L; Cuppari, C; Pizzino, M R; Sturiale, M; Mondello, B; Monaco, F; Barone, M; Salpietro, C

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum (PM), subcutaneous emphysema (SE) and pneumorrhachis (also known as epidural air (EDA) or epidural emphysema) are very rare findings in children. PM is defined as the passage of air from intra-alveolar space to interstitium and, later, to the mediastinum. From the mediastinum, the air may catch up subcutaneous tissue (usually of the neck) and/or epidural space via the cervical fascial planes and neural foramina, forming respectively SE and EDA. The PM can be divided in spontaneous (or idiopathic) and secondary PM. Only few studies have evaluated the exact incidence of PM and its complications in children, and to define the correct diagnostic work up, treatment and outpatient follow-up. We report the case of a 9-year-old child with undiagnosed asthma that, during severe asthmatic flare secondary to acute infection of high airway, developed PM, SE and EDA. PMID:27358152

  19. Accuracy of measurement of pulmonary emphysema with computed tomography: relevant points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochhegger, Bruno, E-mail: brunohochhegger@googlemail.co [Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Irion, Klaus L. [Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Oliveira, Hugo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Some technical aspects should be taken into consideration in order to guarantee the reliability of the assessment of pulmonary emphysema with lung computed tomography densitometry. Changes in lung density associated with variations in lungs inspiratory and expiratory levels, computed tomography slice thickness, reconstruction algorithm and type of computed tomography apparatus make tomographic comparisons more difficult in follow-up studies of pulmonary emphysema. Nevertheless, quantitative computed tomography has replaced the visual assessment competing with pulmonary function tests as a sensitive method to measure pulmonary emphysema. The present review discusses technical variables of lung computed tomography and their influence on measurements of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  20. Accuracy of measurement of pulmonary emphysema with computed tomography: relevant points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some technical aspects should be taken into consideration in order to guarantee the reliability of the assessment of pulmonary emphysema with lung computed tomography densitometry. Changes in lung density associated with variations in lungs inspiratory and expiratory levels, computed tomography slice thickness, reconstruction algorithm and type of computed tomography apparatus make tomographic comparisons more difficult in follow-up studies of pulmonary emphysema. Nevertheless, quantitative computed tomography has replaced the visual assessment competing with pulmonary function tests as a sensitive method to measure pulmonary emphysema. The present review discusses technical variables of lung computed tomography and their influence on measurements of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  1. Age dependent T2 changes of bone marrow in pediatric wrist MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabshin, Nogah [Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    Hyperintensity of the bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during childhood, even in the absence of bone pathology. They can be related to hematopoietic marrow, normal and abnormal bone remodeling. We sought to investigate whether hyper intensity of the bone marrow on MRI of the wrist is age-dependent and to evaluate if this signal follows a consistent age-related pattern. Thirty-one wrist 1.5 T MR images of children (7-18 years) without suspected bone pathology were evaluated for foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive coronal sequences using a scale of 1-3. Correlation of frequency, location and intensity of these foci with age was obtained. Results were analyzed for distribution in single bones and in the following regions: distal forearm, first/second carpal rows, and metacarpal bases. A total of 448 bones were evaluated. Eighty-eight out of 448 (21 out of 31 wrists) showed hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences. The distribution was: radius in 19, ulna in 19, first metacarpal base in 11, scaphoid in 9, lunate in 6, pisiform in 6, and fifth metacarpal base in 1. The involvement of the first and second carpal rows and the metacarpal bases was almost similar (13, 12, and 12 respectively). In the distal forearm, the intensity was similar to or higher than that in the wrist (2.2 vs. 2.0). Frequency decreased with age (100% at 7-9 and 25% at 16-18 years). Foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on MRI of the wrist during childhood even without apparent symptoms. It shows a consistent pattern with maturation: frequency and intensity decrease and there is distal-to-proximal resolution. This may be a normal finding that may represent normal bone remodeling or decreasing hematopoietic marrow and should not be confused with pathological bone marrow edema. (orig.)

  2. Spontaneous Pneumothorax With Subcutaneous Emphysema: A Rare Complication of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carmen; Almeida, Ana Filipe; Ferraz, Catarina; Nunes, Teresa; Guedes Vaz, Luisa

    2016-03-01

    Viral bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children under the age of 2. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the infecting agent in more than 50% of the cases. Usually the clinical course is uneventful and complications are uncommon. Secondary air leaks are a recognized rare complication of bronchiolitis, although the real incidence remains unknown. We report a case of a 21-month-old female that developed a spontaneous pneumothorax (PNO) with subcutaneous emphysema (SE) late in the course of RSV acute bronchiolitis. Additional investigation ruled out any underlying disease predisposing to spontaneous PNO. Physicians, especially those who work with small children, must be aware of this uncommon complication of bronchiolitis that may appear late in the course of the disease despite an initial clinical improvement. PMID:26858803

  3. Algorithm of pulmonary emphysema extraction using thoracic 3-D CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Shinsuke; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Nakano, Yasutaka; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Tominaga, Keigo; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2008-03-01

    Emphysema patients have the tendency to increase due to aging and smoking. Emphysematous disease destroys alveolus and to repair is impossible, thus early detection is essential. CT value of lung tissue decreases due to the destruction of lung structure. This CT value becomes lower than the normal lung- low density absorption region or referred to as Low Attenuation Area (LAA). So far, the conventional way of extracting LAA by simple thresholding has been proposed. However, the CT value of CT image fluctuates due to the measurement conditions, with various bias components such as inspiration, expiration and congestion. It is therefore necessary to consider these bias components in the extraction of LAA. We removed these bias components and we proposed LAA extraction algorithm. This algorithm has been applied to the phantom image. Then, by using the low dose CT(normal: 30 cases, obstructive lung disease: 26 cases), we extracted early stage LAA and quantitatively analyzed lung lobes using lung structure.

  4. Epithelial Cell Apoptosis Causes Acute Lung Injury Masquerading as Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Mouded, Majd; Egea, Eduardo E.; Brown, Matthew J.; Hanlon, Shane M.; Houghton, A. McGarry; Tsai, Larry W; Ingenito, Edward P.; Shapiro, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Theories of emphysema traditionally revolved around proteolytic destruction of extracellular matrix. Models have recently been developed that show airspace enlargement with the induction of pulmonary cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which a model of epithelial cell apoptosis caused airspace enlargement. Mice were treated with either intratracheal microcystin (MC) to induce apoptosis, intratracheal porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), or their respectiv...

  5. Pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema complicating acute silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Ramakant; Meena, Manoj; Patil, Chetan B

    2015-01-01

    A case of acute silicosis complicating as spontaneous pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema is described in a 35-year-old male engaged in stone crusher unit. Diagnosis was established on clinical and radiological assessment and supported by occupational history of the patient. This case is unique one as all these 3 complications at the same time are very uncommon in acute silicosis. PMID:26190738

  6. Pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema complicating acute silicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dixit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute silicosis complicating as spontaneous pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema is described in a 35-year-old male engaged in stone crusher unit. Diagnosis was established on clinical and radiological assessment and supported by occupational history of the patient. This case is unique one as all these 3 complications at the same time are very uncommon in acute silicosis.

  7. Effects of ipratropium bromide and fenoterol aerosols in pulmonary emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, J A; Tobin, M. J.; Bellamy, D; Hutchison, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    In patients with radiological evidence of pulmonary emphysema the bronchodilator drugs fenoterol and ipratropium bromide produced a considerable increase in vital capacity and reduction in residual volume. The response to fenoterol was virtually complete 15 minutes after administration, but after ipratropium bromide vital capacity was still increasing at 60 minutes. The change in vital capacity was slightly greater with a combination of the two drugs than with either used alone. Changes in FE...

  8. Extracranial epidural emphysema: pathway, aetiology, diagnosis and management

    OpenAIRE

    Cloran, F; Bui-Mansfield, L T

    2011-01-01

    Extracranial epidural emphysema is an uncommon phenomenon that refers to the presence of gas within the epidural space. As an isolated finding, it is typically benign, but it can be a secondary sign of more ominous disease processes, such as pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum and epidural abscess. Although the phenomenon has been cited in case reports, a comprehensive review of this topic is lacking in the radiology literature. The authors' aim is to report our experience with extracranial epidur...

  9. Emphysema mimicking interstitial lung disease: Two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Juhl, Kasper S.; Elisabeth Bendstrup; Finn Rasmussen; Ole Hilberg

    2014-01-01

    Honeycombing in general is a sign of severe end-stage fibrosis. Here we present two cases, where the combination of emphysema, acute inflammation and pulmonary embolism gave an appearance of honeycombing seen in pulmonary fibrosis. HRCT interpretation in the evaluation of acutely ill patients with pulmonary infection is a challenge. Our case reports emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, when it comes to patients with suspected complicated pulmonary diseases. At the same ti...

  10. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis and associated pulmonary emphysema: Breathtaking vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gadre, Shruti K.; Stoller, James K; Mehta, Atul C.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema occasionally occurs in the absence of smoking or noxious exposures. Other than through a known association with alpha-1 antitryspin deficiency, to our knowledge, no reports implicate granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) in causing airflow obstruction with small airway involvement and severe air trapping. To extend available experience, we report a 51-year-old male with biopsy-proven cytoplasmic-antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody proteinase 3 (ANCA PR3)-positive GPA wh...

  11. Microscopic polyangiitis preceded by combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoko Gocho; Keishi Sugino; Keita Sato; Chikako Hasegawa; Toshimasa Uekusa; Sakae Homma

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old male metalworker was admitted to our hospital with a 3-year history of progressive dry cough. Chest high-resolution computed tomography revealed emphysematous changes and reticular lesions, which is referred to as combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). Surgical lung biopsy specimens revealed unclassified interstitial pneumonia, including a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern and usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. Two years after his first admission he develo...

  12. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Chhabra, Lovely

    2013-01-01

    Swapnil S Lanjewar,1 Lovely Chhabra,1 Vinod K Chaubey,1 Saurabh Joshi,1 Ganesh Kulkarni,1 Chandrasekhar Kothagundla,1 Sudesh Kaul,1 David H Spodick21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Vincent Hospital, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for...

  13. Carbon monoxide and exercise tolerance in chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Calverley, P. M.; Leggett, R J; Flenley, D C

    1981-01-01

    The effects of carbon monoxide on exercise tolerance as assessed by the distance walked in 12 minutes were studied in 15 patients with severe chronic bronchitis and emphysema (mean forced expiratory volume in one second 0.56 1, mean forced vital capacity 1.54 1). Each subject walked breathing air and oxygen before and after exposure to sufficient carbon monoxide to raise their venous carboxyhaemoglobin concentration by 9%. There was a significant reduction in the walking distance when the pat...

  14. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in a tyre industry worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkhanis, Vinaya S; Joshi, J M

    2012-07-01

    We report a case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) with severe pulmonary hypertension in a 46-year-old man, nonsmoker, tyre industry worker. CPFE is commonly reported to be associated with tobacco smoking. This case highlights the possible role of environmental dust exposure (talc) in the pathogenesis of the disease and confirms the clinical characteristics of CPFE described in previous studies. PMID:22919169

  15. Emphysema: coiling up the lungs, trick or treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzi, M; Mondoni, M; Sorino, C; Solidoro, P

    2015-08-01

    Lung volume reduction coil (LVRC) treatment is a minimally-invasive technique planned to achieve an improvement of exercise capacity and pulmonary function in subjects with advanced emphysema and hyperinflation. It has been proposed together with other bronchoscopic lung volume reduction approaches to reduce lung hyperinflation in emphysema as less invasive alternatives to LVRS and are currently under clinical investigation. Following the successful early experiences in previous pilot trials, recent studies allow further investigation into the feasibility, safety and efficacy of LVR coil treatment in a multi-center setting in a larger group of patients. According to this studies we can state that LVR coil treatment results in significant clinical improvements in patients with severe emphysema, in multicenter analysis, with a good safety profile and sustained results for up to 1 year. The literature on endobronchial coils continues to look promising with an acceptable safety profile, and positive long-term follow-up data are certainly more and more available. However, further well-designed, blinded, placebo (or sham) controlled trials, and even randomized trials against LVRS (lung volume reduction surgery), are needed before routine clinical use can be recommended. This is true not only for endobronchial coils, but also for the whole field of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction. PMID:27427120

  16. Evaluation of chronic pulmonary emphysema ultrafast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared pulmonary ventilation dynamics between 41 patients with pulmonary emphysema and 11 healthy subjects with normal pulmonary function using ultrafast computed tomography (CT). Regions of interest (ROIs) for multislice scanning were selected from the anatomical levels of the carina in the right upper lung field. Several identical slices were selected from the inspiratory and expiratory scans. The average CT values in the ROIs (AvROI) were obtained during the inspiratory phase (inAvROI) and the expiratory phase (exAvROI. The ratio of change from inAvROI to exAvROI ((I-E)/E ratio) was also used for image analysis. Furthermore, possible correlations between the CT image parameters and pulmonary function test parameters were examined. The results showed that the exAvROI and inAvROI values and (I-E)/E ratio were lower in the emphysema group than in the normal pulmonary function group. Among the image data parameters, the exAvROI value correlated most closely with pulmonary function parameters, in particular, with the pulmonary diffusing capacity. These findings suggest that image data parameters of ventilation dynamics may be useful for evaluating the severity of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  17. Epithelial cell apoptosis causes acute lung injury masquerading as emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouded, Majd; Egea, Eduardo E; Brown, Matthew J; Hanlon, Shane M; Houghton, A McGarry; Tsai, Larry W; Ingenito, Edward P; Shapiro, Steven D

    2009-10-01

    Theories of emphysema traditionally revolved around proteolytic destruction of extracellular matrix. Models have recently been developed that show airspace enlargement with the induction of pulmonary cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which a model of epithelial cell apoptosis caused airspace enlargement. Mice were treated with either intratracheal microcystin (MC) to induce apoptosis, intratracheal porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), or their respective vehicles. Mice from all groups were inflated and morphometry was measured at various time points. Physiology measurements were performed for airway resistance, tissue elastance, and lung volumes. The groups were further analyzed by air-saline quasistatic measurements, surfactant staining, and surfactant functional studies. Mice treated with MC showed evidence of reversible airspace enlargement. In contrast, PPE-treated mice showed irreversible airspace enlargement. The airspace enlargement in MC-treated mice was associated with an increase in elastic recoil due to an increase in alveolar surface tension. PPE-treated mice showed a loss of lung elastic recoil and normal alveolar surface tension, a pattern more consistent with human emphysema. Airspace enlargement that occurs with the MC model of pulmonary epithelial cell apoptosis displays physiology distinct from human emphysema. Reversibility, restrictive physiology due to changes in surface tension, and alveolar enlargement associated with heterogeneous alveolar collapse are most consistent with a mild acute lung injury. Inflation near total lung capacity gives the appearance of enlarged alveoli as neighboring collapsed alveoli exert tethering forces. PMID:19188661

  18. MECHANISMS OF COUNTERACTING FLAP-VALVE BRONCHIAL OBSTRUCTION IN CASE OF OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Tetenev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to formulate and substantiate the hypothesis explaining support for an expiratory air flow in case of pulmonary emphysema. The research method consisted in comparing the mechanical properties of lungs in practically healthy individuals (37 individuals, mean age – (30.4 ± 1.7 y.o. and COPD patients with pronounced lung emphysema (30 patients, mean age – (52.1 ± 2.3 y.o. as well as those of isolated normal lungs (n = 14 and isolated lungs of patients who died of COPD (n = 5. Pulmo-nary mechanics was studied via the simultaneous measurement of transpulmonary pressure and lung ven-tilation volume. General lung hysteresis and elastic lung hysteresis were calculated. The mechanical properties of isolated lungs were studied using passive ventilation under the Donders bell. The air flow was interrupted in order to measure alveolar pressure and develop an elastic lung hysteresis curve. Pres-sure in the Donders bell was changed by means of a special pump in automatic and manual modes. The research has not revealed any fundamental differences between the mechanical properties of the normal and emphysematous lungs. A minimum increase in the pressure inside the Donders bell over atmospheric pressure used to stop air ejection in both normal and the emphysematous lungs as the result of flap-valve bronchial obstruction. In living beings, air is ejected from lungs with an increase in pressure under the conditions of forced expiration. Pressure increases up to (38.6 ± 2.71 cm H2O in healthy individuals and up to (20.5 ± 1.86 cm H2O in COPD patients. Probably, an expiratory air flow is supported by active expiratory bronchial dilatation that counteracts flap-valve bronchial obstruction. The hypothesis is based on the confirmed ability of the lungs to perform inspiratory actions (in addition to the action of respiratory muscles and the theory of mechanical lung activity.

  19. Comparison of efficacy of long-acting bronchodilators in emphysema dominant and emphysema nondominant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Keisaku; Kitaguchi, Yoshiaki; Kanda, Shintaro; Urushihata, Kazuhisa; Hanaoka, Masayuki; Kubo, Keishi

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between morphological phenotypes according to the predominance of emphysema and efficacy of long-acting muscarinic antagonist and β2 agonist bronchodilators in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Seventy-two patients with stable COPD treated with tiotropium (n = 41) or salmeterol (n = 31) were evaluated for pulmonary function, dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyper...

  20. Comparison of efficacy of long-acting bronchodilators in emphysema dominant and emphysema nondominant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto K.; Kitaguchi Y; Kanda S; Urushihata K; Hanaoka M; Kubo K

    2011-01-01

    Keisaku Fujimoto1, Yoshiaki Kitaguchi2, Shintaro Kanda2, Kazuhisa Urushihata2, Masayuki Hanaoka2, Keishi Kubo21Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between morphological phenotypes according to the predominance of emphysema and efficacy of long-acting muscarinic antagonist and β2 agonist bronchodilators in...

  1. Exercise induces age-dependent changes on epigenetic parameters in rat hippocampus: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Lovatel, Gisele Agustini; Moysés, Felipe; Bertoldi, Karine; Spindler, Christiano; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Muotri, Alysson; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Regular exercise improves learning and memory, including during aging process. Interestingly, the imbalance of epigenetic mechanisms has been linked to age-related cognitive deficits. However, studies about epigenetic alterations after exercise during the aging process are rare. In this preliminary study we investigated the effect of aging and exercise on DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3b) and H3-K9 methylation levels in hippocampus from 3 and 20-months aged Wistar rats. The animals we...

  2. Leaf age dependent changes in within-canopy variation in leaf functional traits: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo

    2016-05-01

    Within-canopy variation in leaf structural and photosynthetic characteristics is a major means by which whole canopy photosynthesis is maximized at given total canopy nitrogen. As key acclimatory modifications, leaf nitrogen content (N A) and photosynthetic capacity (A A) per unit area increase with increasing light availability in the canopy and these increases are associated with increases in leaf dry mass per unit area (M A) and/or nitrogen content per dry mass and/or allocation. However, leaf functional characteristics change with increasing leaf age during leaf development and aging, but the importance of these alterations for within-canopy trait gradients is unknown. I conducted a meta-analysis based on 71 canopies that were sampled at different time periods or, in evergreens, included measurements for different-aged leaves to understand how within-canopy variations in leaf traits (trait plasticity) depend on leaf age. The analysis demonstrated that in evergreen woody species, M A and N A plasticity decreased with increasing leaf age, but the change in A A plasticity was less suggesting a certain re-acclimation of A A to altered light. In deciduous woody species, M A and N A gradients in flush-type species increased during leaf development and were almost invariable through the rest of the season, while in continuously leaf-forming species, the trait gradients increased constantly with increasing leaf age. In forbs, N A plasticity increased, while in grasses, N A plasticity decreased with increasing leaf age, reflecting life form differences in age-dependent changes in light availability and in nitrogen resorption for growth of generative organs. Although more work is needed to improve the coverage of age-dependent plasticity changes in some plant life forms, I argue that the age-dependent variation in trait plasticity uncovered in this study is large enough to warrant incorporation in simulations of canopy photosynthesis through the growing period. PMID

  3. Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients with Homogeneous Emphysema : A Prospective Feasibility Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Franz, Ina; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: In patients with heterogeneous emphysema, surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (LVR) treatments are available. However, for patients with homogeneous emphysema these treatments are hardly investigated and seem less effective. Bronchoscopic LVR coil treatment has been shown to

  4. Structural neuroplasticity in expert pianists depends on the age of musical training onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Lucía; Hartmann, Karl; Ripollés, Pablo; Rojo, Nuria; Sierpowska, Joanna; François, Clément; Càmara, Estela; van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Mohammadi, Bahram; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2016-02-01

    In the last decade, several studies have investigated the neuroplastic changes induced by long-term musical training. Here we investigated structural brain differences in expert pianists compared to non-musician controls, as well as the effect of the age of onset (AoO) of piano playing. Differences with non-musicians and the effect of sensitive periods in musicians have been studied previously, but importantly, this is the first time in which the age of onset of music-training was assessed in a group of musicians playing the same instrument, while controlling for the amount of practice. We recruited a homogeneous group of expert pianists who differed in their AoO but not in their lifetime or present amount of training, and compared them to an age-matched group of non-musicians. A subset of the pianists also completed a scale-playing task in order to control for performance skill level differences. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was used to examine gray-matter differences at the whole-brain level. Pianists showed greater gray matter (GM) volume in bilateral putamen (extending also to hippocampus and amygdala), right thalamus, bilateral lingual gyri and left superior temporal gyrus, but a GM volume shrinkage in the right supramarginal, right superior temporal and right postcentral gyri, when compared to non-musician controls. These results reveal a complex pattern of plastic effects due to sustained musical training: a network involved in reinforcement learning showed increased GM volume, while areas related to sensorimotor control, auditory processing and score-reading presented a reduction in the volume of GM. Behaviorally, early-onset pianists showed higher temporal precision in their piano performance than late-onset pianists, especially in the left hand. Furthermore, early onset of piano playing was associated with smaller GM volume in the right putamen and better piano performance (mainly in the left hand). Our results, therefore, reveal for the first time in

  5. Comparison of captive lifespan, age-associated liver neoplasias and age-dependent gene expression between two annual fish species: Nothobranchius furzeri and Nothobranchius korthause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mario; Di Cicco, Emiliano; Rossi, Giacomo; Cellerino, Alessandro; Tozzini, Eva Terzibasi

    2015-02-01

    Nothobranchius is a genus of annual fish broadly distributed in South-Eastern Africa and found into temporary ponds generated during the rain seasons and their lifespan is limited by the duration of their habitats. Here we compared two Nothobranchius species from radically different environments: N. furzeri and N. korthausae. We found a large difference in life expectancy (29- against 71-weeks of median life span, 40- against 80-weeks of maximum lifespan, respectively), which correlates with a diverse timing in the onset of several age dependent processes: our data show that N. korthause longer lifespan is associated to retarded onset of age-dependent liver-neoplasia and slower down-regulation of collagen 1 alpha 2 (COL1A2) expression in the skin. On the other hand, the expression of cyclin B1 (CCNB1) in the brain was strongly age-regulated, but with similar profiles in N. furzeri and N. korthausae. In conclusion, our data suggest that the different ageing rate of two species of the same genus could be used as novel tool to investigate and better understand the genetic bases of some general mechanism leading to the complex ageing process, providing a strategy to unravel some of the genetic mechanisms regulating longevity and age-associate pathologies including neoplasias. PMID:25315356

  6. Evaluation of the effect of prednisolone on the inflammatory process and alveolar diameter in elastase- induced pulmonary emphysema in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Manchini, Martha T.; Boiati, Raphael F.; Sousa, Dannylo W.N.; Batista, Jorge G.; Malaguti, Carla; Silva Junior, José A.; Nascimento, Jorge W.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of prednisolone on acute lung inflammatory response, tissue damage and nitric oxide in elastase-induced emphysema in rats. A total of 32 male rats were divided into four groups: control and prednisolone groups received intratracheal instillation of saline; emphysema and emphysema + prednisolone groups received elastase. Prednisolone was administered in prednisolone and emphysema + prednisolone groups for 25 days by gavage. The results showed a significant incre...

  7. The comparison of recreative activities of 11-15 age group depending on different regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Pala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the recreative activities of 11-15 age group depending on different Regions. In this respect, 227 children from Southeastern part of Turkey and 262 children from Marmara region of Turkey participated in this study in a volunteered way.The questionnaire adapted from previous studies was implemented on these participants. Afterwards, the data were analyzed in terms of frequency, percentage and independent group of t-test statistics. Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS 15.0 and the significance rate was determined 0,05. Consequently, significantly different result were found (p0,05.According to the findings of this research, 37,9 % of the participant from Southeastern part of Turkey chose “sports” option of the item of “what they do in their leisure time”, 53,3 % of participant within same region chose “football” option of the item of “which recreative activities they regularly deal with”. 51,5 % of the participant from Marmara region chose “sports” option of the former question: Additionally , 25,6 % of item chose “football”, 21,5 % of them chose “badminton” and 12,8 % of them chose “basketball” options of the latter question.

  8. Tissue- and age-dependent expression of the bovine DEFB103 gene and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabzadeh-Ardakani, Ali; Solie, Jay; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Schmutz, Sheila M; Griebel, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Beta-defensin 103 (DEFB103) shares little homology with 8 other members of the bovine beta-defensin family and in other species DEFB103 protein has diverse functions, including antimicrobial activity, a chemoattractant for dendritic cells, enhancing epithelial wound repair and regulating hair colour. Expression of the bovine DEFB103 gene was surveyed in 27 tissues and transcript was most abundant in tissues with stratified squamous epithelium. Oral cavity epithelial tissues and nictitating membrane consistently expressed high levels of DEFB103 gene transcript. An age-dependent decrease (P internal organs such as lung, intestine and kidney. Affinity-purified rabbit antisera to bovine DEFB103 was used to identify cells expressing DEFB103 protein within tissues with stratified squamous epitheliums. DEFB103 protein was most abundant in basal epithelial cells and was present in these cells prior to birth. Beta-defensins have been identified as regulators of dendritic cell (DC) chemokine responses and we observed a close association between DCs and epithelial cells expressing DEFB103 in both the fetus and newborn calf. In conclusion, bovine DEFB103 gene expression is most abundant in stratified squamous epithelium with DEFB103 protein localised to basal epithelial cells. These observations are consistent with proposed roles for DEFB103 in DC recruitment and repair of stratified squamous epithelium. PMID:26299200

  9. LINC00507 Is Specifically Expressed in the Primate Cortex and Has Age-Dependent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James D; Ward, Melanie; Chen, Bei Jun; Iyer, Anand M; Aronica, Eleonora; Janitz, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the appreciation of the role of non-coding RNA in the development of organism phenotype. It is possible to divide the non-coding elements of the transcriptome into three categories: short non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs and long non-coding RNAs. Long non-coding RNAs are those transcripts that are greater than 200 nts in length and lack any significant open reading frames that produce proteins greater then 100 amino acids. Long intervening non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a subclass of long non-coding RNAs. In contrast to protein coding RNAs, lincRNAs are expressed in a more tissue- and species-specific manner. In particular, many lincRNAs are only conserved amongst higher primates. This coupled with the propensity of many lincRNAs to be expressed in the brain, suggests that they are in fact one of the major drivers of organism complexity. We analysed 39 lincRNAs that are expressed in the frontal cortex and identified LINC00507 as being expressed in a cortex-specific manner in non-human primates and humans. The expression patterns of LINC00507 appear to be age-dependent, suggesting it may be involved in brain development of higher primates. Moreover, the analysis of LINC00507 potential to bind ribosomes revealed that this previously identified non-coding transcript may harbour a micropeptide. PMID:27059230

  10. Mutant TDP-43 and FUS cause age-dependent paralysis and neurodegeneration in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaccaro

    Full Text Available Mutations in the DNA/RNA binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration. Intracellular accumulations of wild type TDP-43 and FUS are observed in a growing number of late-onset diseases suggesting that TDP-43 and FUS proteinopathies may contribute to multiple neurodegenerative diseases. To better understand the mechanisms of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity we have created transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains that express full-length, untagged human TDP-43 and FUS in the worm's GABAergic motor neurons. Transgenic worms expressing mutant TDP-43 and FUS display adult-onset, age-dependent loss of motility, progressive paralysis and neuronal degeneration that is distinct from wild type alleles. Additionally, mutant TDP-43 and FUS proteins are highly insoluble while wild type proteins remain soluble suggesting that protein misfolding may contribute to toxicity. Populations of mutant TDP-43 and FUS transgenics grown on solid media become paralyzed over 7 to 12 days. We have developed a liquid culture assay where the paralysis phenotype evolves over several hours. We introduce C. elegans transgenics for mutant TDP-43 and FUS motor neuron toxicity that may be used for rapid genetic and pharmacological suppressor screening.

  11. Microscale Mechanism of Age Dependent Wetting Properties of Prickly Pear Cacti (Opuntia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Jordan, Jacob S; Linder, Rubin; Woods, Erik T; Sun, Xiaoda; Kemme, Nicholas; Manning, Kenneth C; Cherry, Brian R; Yarger, Jeffery L; Majure, Lucas C

    2016-09-13

    Cacti thrive in xeric environments through specialized water storage and collection tactics such as a shallow, widespread root system that maximizes rainwater absorption and spines adapted for fog droplet collection. However, in many cacti, the epidermis, not the spines, dominates the exterior surface area. Yet, little attention has been dedicated to studying interactions of the cactus epidermis with water drops. Surprisingly, the epidermis of plants in the genus Opuntia, also known as prickly pear cacti, has water-repelling characteristics. In this work, we report that surface properties of cladodes of 25 taxa of Opuntia grown in an arid Sonoran climate switch from water-repelling to superwetting under water impact over the span of a single season. We show that the old cladode surfaces are not superhydrophilic, but have nearly vanishing receding contact angle. We study water drop interactions with, as well as nano/microscale topology and chemistry of, the new and old cladodes of two Opuntia species and use this information to uncover the microscopic mechanism underlying this phenomenon. We demonstrate that composition of extracted wax and its contact angle do not change significantly with time. Instead, we show that the reported age dependent wetting behavior primarily stems from pinning of the receding contact line along multilayer surface microcracks in the epicuticular wax that expose the underlying highly hydrophilic layers. PMID:27537082

  12. Age- and sex-dependent effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manila eLoi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology in genetically predisposed individuals. As it is hard to study how early life stress impacts human brain structure and function, various animal models have been developed to address this issue. The models discussed here reveal that perinatal stress in rodents exerts lasting effects on the stress system as well as on the structure and function of the brain. One of the structural parameters strongly affected by perinatal stress is adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Based on compiled literature data, we report that postnatal stress slightly enhances neurogenesis until the onset of puberty in male rats; when animals reach adulthood, neurogenesis is reduced as a consequence of perinatal stress. By contrast, female rats showed a prominent reduction in neurogenesis prior to the onset of puberty, but this effect subsides when animals reach young adulthood. We further present preliminary data that transient treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist can normalize cell proliferation in maternally deprived female rats, while the compound had no effect in non-deprived rats. Taken together, the data show that neurogenesis is affected by early life stress in an age-and sex-dependent manner and that normalization may be possible during critical stages of brain development.

  13. αβγ-Synuclein triple knockout mice reveal age-dependent neuronal dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greten-Harrison, Becket; Polydoro, Manuela; Morimoto-Tomita, Megumi; Diao, Ling; Williams, Andrew M.; Nie, Esther H.; Makani, Sachin; Tian, Ning; Castillo, Pablo E.; Buchman, Vladimir L.; Chandra, Sreeganga S.

    2010-01-01

    Synucleins are a vertebrate-specific family of abundant neuronal proteins. They comprise three closely related members, α-, β-, and γ-synuclein. α-Synuclein has been the focus of intense attention since mutations in it were identified as a cause for familial Parkinson's disease. Despite their disease relevance, the normal physiological function of synucleins has remained elusive. To address this, we generated and characterized αβγ-synuclein knockout mice, which lack all members of this protein family. Deletion of synucleins causes alterations in synaptic structure and transmission, age-dependent neuronal dysfunction, as well as diminished survival. Abrogation of synuclein expression decreased excitatory synapse size by ∼30% both in vivo and in vitro, revealing that synucleins are important determinants of presynaptic terminal size. Young synuclein null mice show improved basic transmission, whereas older mice show a pronounced decrement. The late onset phenotypes in synuclein null mice were not due to a loss of synapses or neurons but rather reflect specific changes in synaptic protein composition and axonal structure. Our results demonstrate that synucleins contribute importantly to the long-term operation of the nervous system and that alterations in their physiological function could contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease. PMID:20974939

  14. Estimating true age-dependence in survival when only adults can be observed: an example with Black-legged Kittiwakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederiksen, M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In long-lived birds, pre-breeders are often difficult or impossible to observe, and even though a proportion of marked adults may be of known age, the estimation of age-specific survival is complicated by the absence of observations during the first years of life. New developments in MARK now allow use of an updated individual covariate. We used this powerful approach to model age-dependence in survival of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla at a North Sea colony. Although only 69 marked breeders were of known age, there was strong evidence for a quadratic relationship between true age and survival. We believe that this simple but powerful approach could be implemented for many species and could provide improved estimates of how survival changes with age, a central theme in life history theory.

  15. Age-dependent changes in lipid peroxide levels in peripheral organs, but not in brain, in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugo, S; Kitagawa, T; Minami, S; Esashi, Y; Oomura, Y; Tokumaru, S; Kojo, S; Matsushima, K; Sasaki, K

    2000-01-01

    The tissue concentration of lipid peroxides was determined in the brain, heart, liver, lung and kidney of accelerated senescence-prone (SAMP-8) and -resistant (SAMR-1) mice at 3, 6 and 9 months of age by a method involving chemical derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography. The level of lipid peroxides in the brain did not show an age-dependent change, but at each age the brain level of lipid peroxides was significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1. In contrast, the lipid peroxide levels in the peripheral organs showed increases with aging in both strains, and they were significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1 at both 3 and 6 months of age (except at 3 months of age in the kidney). These results suggest that increased oxidative stress in the brain and peripheral organs is a cause of the senescence-related degeneration and impairments seen in SAMP-8. PMID:10643812

  16. Quantification of lung fibrosis and emphysema in mice using automated micro-computed tomography.

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    Ellen De Langhe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vivo high-resolution micro-computed tomography allows for longitudinal image-based measurements in animal models of lung disease. The combination of repetitive high resolution imaging with fully automated quantitative image analysis in mouse models of lung fibrosis lung benefits preclinical research. This study aimed to develop and validate such an automated micro-computed tomography analysis algorithm for quantification of aerated lung volume in mice; an indicator of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema severity. METHODOLOGY: Mice received an intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (n = 8, elastase (0.25 U elastase n = 9, 0.5 U elastase n = 8 or saline control (n = 6 for fibrosis, n = 5 for emphysema. A subset of mice was scanned without intervention, to evaluate potential radiation-induced toxicity (n = 4. Some bleomycin-instilled mice were treated with imatinib for proof of concept (n = 8. Mice were scanned weekly, until four weeks after induction, when they underwent pulmonary function testing, lung histology and collagen quantification. Aerated lung volumes were calculated with our automated algorithm. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our automated image-based aerated lung volume quantification method is reproducible with low intra-subject variability. Bleomycin-treated mice had significantly lower scan-derived aerated lung volumes, compared to controls. Aerated lung volume correlated with the histopathological fibrosis score and total lung collagen content. Inversely, a dose-dependent increase in lung volume was observed in elastase-treated mice. Serial scanning of individual mice is feasible and visualized dynamic disease progression. No radiation-induced toxicity was observed. Three-dimensional images provided critical topographical information. CONCLUSIONS: We report on a high resolution in vivo micro-computed tomography image analysis algorithm that runs fully automated and allows quantification of aerated lung volume in mice. This

  17. Age-dependent changes in innate immune phenotype and function in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Asquith, Mark; Haberthur, Kristen; Brown, Monica; Engelmann, Flora; Murphy, Ashleigh; Al-Mahdi, Zainab; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2012-01-01

    Aged individuals are more susceptible to infections due to a general decline in immune function broadly referred to as immune senescence. While age-related changes in the adaptive immune system are well documented, aging of the innate immune system remains less well understood, particularly in nonhuman primates. A more robust understanding of age-related changes in innate immune function would provide mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility of the elderly to infection. Rhesus ma...

  18. Aging Impacts Transcriptome but not Genome of Hormone-dependentBreast Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yau, Christina; Fedele, Vita; Roydasgupta, Ritu; Fridlyand, Jane; Hubbard, Alan; Gray, Joe W.; Chew, Karen; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Moore, DanH.; Schittulli, Francesco; Tommasi, Stefania; Paradiso, Angelo; Albertson, Donna G.; Benz, Christopher C.

    2007-10-09

    Age is one of the most important risk factors for human malignancies, including breast cancer; in addition, age-at-diagnosis has been shown to be an independent indicator of breast cancer prognosis. However, except for inherited forms of breast cancer, there is little genetic or epigenetic understanding of the biological basis linking aging with sporadic breast cancer incidence and its clinical behavior.

  19. The presence and progression of emphysema in COPD as determined by CT scanning and biomarker expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coxson, Harvey O; Dirksen, Asger; Edwards, Lisa D;

    2013-01-01

    Emphysema is a key contributor to airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and can be quantified using CT scanning. We investigated the change in CT lung density in a longitudinal, international cohort of patients with COPD. We also explored the potential relation between...... emphysema and patient characteristics, and investigated if certain circulating biomarkers were associated with decline in CT lung density....

  20. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum with pneumopericardium, surgical emphysema, pneumothorax, and epidural pneumotosis: A rare association

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Amandeep; Kaur, Haramritpal; Singh, Gurbax; Aggarwal, Simmi

    2014-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is usually associated with subcutaneous emphysema and pneumopericardium, but rarely associated with pneumothorax and epidural pneumotosis. We report extremely rare simultaneous occurrence of self-limiting pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, surgical emphysema, pneumothorax, and epidural pneumotosis in an 18-year-old gentleman in the absence of identifiable cause.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA INDUCED IN THE RAT BY INTRATRACHEALLY ADMINISTERED ELASTASE: MORPHOGENESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emphysema was produced experimentally in rats by administration of porcine pancreatic elastase at dose levels of 75, 100, 125, and 150 units elastase activity/100 g body wt. All doses studied were equally effective in producing emphysema. Dose levels of over 75 units activity/100...

  2. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies BICD1 as a Susceptibility Gene for Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Xiangyang; Cho, Michael H; Anderson, Wayne; Harvey O Coxson; Muller, Nestor; Washko, George; Eric A Hoffman; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Pillai, Sreekumar G.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by airflow limitation, is a disorder with high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Pulmonary emphysema is a major but variable component of COPD; familial data suggest that different components of COPD, such as emphysema, may be influenced by specific genetic factors.

  3. Persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Abbey; Mahender K Narula; Rama Anand; Jagdish Chandra

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 10-month-old boy with multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis showing thin-walled lung cysts along with computed tomography (CT) evidence of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PPIE), in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. Follow-up CT performed after 6 months demonstrated complete resolution of interstitial emphysema.

  4. Centrilobular emphysema combined with pulmonary fibrosis results in improved survival: a response

    OpenAIRE

    Cottin Vincent; Cordier Jean-François; Wells Athol U

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Better survival in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema than in lone pulmonary fibrosis: bias or reality? A response to Centrilobular emphysema combined with pulmonary fibrosis results in improved survival by Todd et al., Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair 2011, 4:6. Please see related letter http://fibrogenesis.com/content/4/1/17

  5. Pathological and radiological correlation in an autopsy case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Karata, Hiroki; Tanaka, Tomonori; Egashira, Ryoko; Tabata, Kazuhiro; Otani, Kyoko; Hayashi, Ryuji; Hori, Takashi; FUKUOKA, JUNYA

    2015-01-01

    We report an educational autopsy case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. Radiological patterns of the upper lung were considered as mostly emphysema, but pathological observation revealed significant interstitial fibrosis of usual interstitial pneumonia as a major pathology. The patient eventually developed acute exacerbation of background interstitial pneumonia. Careful radiological and pathological correlation of the current case indicates that regions with distal acinar emphysem...

  6. Persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Abbey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 10-month-old boy with multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis showing thin-walled lung cysts along with computed tomography (CT evidence of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PPIE, in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. Follow-up CT performed after 6 months demonstrated complete resolution of interstitial emphysema.

  7. Growth activity in human septal cartilage: age-dependent incorporation of labeled sulfate in different anatomic locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, U.; Pirsig, W.; Heinze, E.

    1983-02-01

    Growth activity in different areas of human septal cartilage was measured by the in vitro incorporation of /sup 35/S-labeled NaSO/sub 4/ into chondroitin sulfate. Septal cartilage without perichondrium was obtained during rhinoplasty from 36 patients aged 6 to 35 years. It could be shown that the anterior free end of the septum displays high growth activity in all age groups. The supra-premaxillary area displayed its highest growth activity during prepuberty, showing thereafter a continuous decline during puberty and adulthood. A similar age-dependent pattern in growth activity was found in the caudal prolongation of the septal cartilage. No age-dependent variations could be detected in the posterior area of the septal cartilage.

  8. Prophylactic Anti-inflammation Inhibits Cigarette Smoke-induced Emphysema in Guinea Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲农; 陶晓南; 谢建敏; 向敏; 付薇

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the effect of prophylactic anti-inflammation on the development of smokeinduced emphysema was investigated. Young male guinea-pigs aged 1.5 - 2 months (weighing 198.3±26.9 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A (cigarette smoke exposure only),group B (cigarette smoke exposure plus pentoxifylline-rich (PTX, 10 mg/d) forage feeding), group C (cigarette smoke exposure plus intermittent cortical steroid injection (Triamcinolone acetonide, 3mg, im, every three weeks) and control group (group D: animals with sham smoke exposure,raised under the same conditions). Animals in group A, B and C were exposed to smoke of cigarettes for 1 to 1.5 h twice a day, 5 days a week. All animals were killed at the 16th week and followed by morphometrical analysis of the midsagittal sectioned lung slices. Smoke exposure of 16 weeks resulted in visible emphysematous development in Group A but not in Group B and C. It was evidenced by the indicator of air-space size, mean linear intercept (Lm): 120.6±16.0 μm in Group A; 89.8±9.2 μm in Group B and 102.4±17.7 μm in Group C. The average Lm in either group B or group C was shorter than that in Group A (ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test, F=8.80, P=0.0002) but comparable to that (94.8±13.2 μm) in group D (P>0.05). It is concluded that longterm prophylactic anti-inflammation inhibits pulmonary emphysema induced by cigarette smoking in the guinea pigs.

  9. HARDNESS VERSUS TIME DEPENDENCY DURING ARTIFICIAL AGEING OF AlMgSi0.5 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    OpenAIRE

    Mimica, Ratko

    2015-01-01

    Al-Mg-Si aluminium alloy are characterized by excellent deformability, but mechanical properties are not significant in extruded state. Improvement of mechanical properties is achieved by heat treatment, a process which allows formation of metastable precipitates during subsequent ageing. In this work, hardness versus time dependency for artificially aged AlMgSi0.5 (EN AW-6060) aluminium alloy at 185°C is presented, along with qualitative and quantitative analysis of results.

  10. Truncated recombinant human SP-D attenuates emphysema and type II cell changes in SP-D deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlfeld Christian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein D (SP-D deficient mice develop emphysema-like pathology associated with focal accumulations of foamy alveolar macrophages, an excess of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolar space and both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells. These findings are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with a truncated recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D has been shown to decrease the lipidosis and alveolar macrophage accumulation as well as production of proinflammatory chemokines. The aim of this study was to investigate if rfhSP-D treatment reduces the structural abnormalities in parenchymal architecture and type II cells characteristic of SP-D deficiency. Methods SP-D knock-out mice, aged 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks were treated with rfhSP-D for 9, 6 and 3 weeks, respectively. All mice were sacrificed at age 12 weeks and compared to both PBS treated SP-D deficient and wild-type groups. Lung structure was quantified by design-based stereology at the light and electron microscopic level. Emphasis was put on quantification of emphysema, type II cell changes and intracellular surfactant. Data were analysed with two sided non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Main Results After 3 weeks of treatment, alveolar number was higher and mean alveolar size was smaller compared to saline-treated SP-D knock-out controls. There was no significant difference concerning these indices of pulmonary emphysema within rfhSP-D treated groups. Type II cell number and size were smaller as a consequence of treatment. The total volume of lamellar bodies per type II cell and per lung was smaller after 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusion Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with rfhSP-D leads to a reduction in the degree of emphysema and a correction of type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. This supports the concept that rfhSP-D might become a therapeutic option in diseases that are

  11. A case report of severe ulcerative colitis with mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Kei; Okuyama, Yusuke; Ueda, Tomohiro; Matsuyama, Kiichi; Urata, Yoji; Yoshida, Norimasa

    2016-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy developed prominent mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema while receiving treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and oral corticosteroids for severe ulcerative colitis. We ruled out infection and initiated oral administration of tacrolimus, after which both the underlying disease and mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema improved. However, he continued to experience repeated bouts of ulcerative colitis, so we ultimately opted for surgical intervention. Although mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema is rare, it is one of the known extra-intestinal complications and can be particularly concerning. In this patient, mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema might have been caused by the vulnerability of pulmonary alveolar walls to steroid medication and the increase of pulmonary alveolar pressure with abdominal pain and breath holding. Here, we report a case of inflammatory bowel disease with mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema, along with a review of the literature. PMID:26947047

  12. Aging-dependent changes in rat heart mitochondrial glutaredoxins—Implications for redox regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Huang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and animal studies have documented that hearts of the elderly are more susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion damage compared to young adults. Recently we found that aging-dependent increase in susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to apoptosis was attributable to decrease in cytosolic glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1 and concomitant decrease in NF-κB-mediated expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Besides primary localization in the cytosol, Grx1 also exists in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS. In contrast, Grx2 is confined to the mitochondrial matrix. Here we report that Grx1 is decreased by 50–60% in the IMS, but Grx2 is increased by 1.4–2.6 fold in the matrix of heart mitochondria from elderly rats. Determination of in situ activities of the Grx isozymes from both subsarcolemmal (SSM and interfibrillar (IFM mitochondria revealed that Grx1 was fully active in the IMS. However, Grx2 was mostly in an inactive form in the matrix, consistent with reversible sequestration of the active-site cysteines of two Grx2 molecules in complex with an iron–sulfur cluster. Our quantitative evaluations of the active/inactive ratio for Grx2 suggest that levels of dimeric Grx2 complex with iron–sulfur clusters are increased in SSM and IFM in the hearts of elderly rats. We found that the inactive Grx2 can be fully reactivated by sodium dithionite or exogenous superoxide production mediated by xanthine oxidase. However, treatment with rotenone, which generates intramitochondrial superoxide through inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I, did not lead to Grx2 activation. These findings suggest that insufficient ROS accumulates in the vicinity of dimeric Grx2 to activate it in situ.

  13. The comparison of recreative activities of 11-15 age group depending on different regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Pala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the recreative activities of 11-15 age group depending on different Regions. In this respect, 227 children from Southeastern part of Turkey and 262 children from Marmara region of Turkey participated in this study in a volunteered way. The questionnaire adapted from previous studies was implemented on these participants. Afterwards, the data were analyzed in terms of frequency, percentage and independent group of t-test statistics. Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS 15.0 and the significance rate was determined 0,05. Consequently, significantly different result were found (p<0,05 among participant from different regions, in their responses to the questions of “what they do in their leisure time, which recreative activities they regularly deal with, and which social and cultural activities they have joined in the past six months”. While the results found by the questions of “where they go to spend their spare time out of their school life and how many hour they allocate to recreative activities including sport” were completely insignificant (p>0,05. According to the findings of this research, 37,9 % of the participant from Southeastern part of Turkey chose “sports” option of the item of “what they do in their leisure time”, 53,3 % of participant within same region chose “football” option of the item of “which recreative activities they regularly deal with”. 51,5 % of the participant from Marmara region chose “sports” option of the former question: Additionally , 25,6 % of item chose “football”, 21,5 % of them chose “badminton” and 12,8 % of them chose “basketball”  options of the latter question.

  14. Suppressing an anti-inflammatory cytokine reveals a strong age-dependent survival cost in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Belloni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The central paradigm of ecological immunology postulates that selection acts on immunity as to minimize its cost/benefit ratio. Costs of immunity may arise because the energetic requirements of the immune response divert resources that are no longer available for other vital functions. In addition to these resource-based costs, mis-directed or over-reacting immune responses can be particularly harmful for the host. In spite of the potential importance of immunopathology, most studies dealing with the evolution of the immune response have neglected such non resource-based costs. To keep the immune response under control, hosts have evolved regulatory pathways that should be considered when studying the target of the selection pressures acting on immunity. Indeed, variation in regulation may strongly modulate the negative outcome of immune activation, with potentially important fitness consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we experimentally assessed the survival costs of reduced immune regulation by inhibiting an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 with anti-IL-10 receptor antibodies (anti-IL-10R in mice that were either exposed to a mild inflammation or kept as control. The experiment was performed on young (3 months and old (15 months individuals, as to further assess the age-dependent cost of suppressing immune regulation. IL-10 inhibition induced high mortality in old mice exposed to the mild inflammatory insult, whereas no mortality was observed in young mice. However, young mice experienced a transitory lost in body mass when injected with the anti-IL-10R antibodies, showing that the treatment was to a lesser extent also costly for young individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a major role of immune regulation that deserves attention when investigating the evolution of immunity, and indicate that the capacity to down-regulate the inflammatory response is crucial for late survival and longevity.

  15. Inhaler use in adolescents and adults with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema in the city of Pelotas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Duarte de Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics of users of inhalers and the prevalence of inhaler use among adolescents and adults with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema. METHODS: A population-based study conducted in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, involving 3,670 subjects ≥ 10 years of age, evaluated with a questionnaire. RESULTS: Approximately 10% of the sample reported at least one of the respiratory diseases studied. Among those individuals, 59% reported respiratory symptoms in the last year, and, of those, only half reported using inhalers. The use of inhalers differed significantly by socioeconomic status (39% and 61% for the lowest and the highest, respectively, p = 0.01. The frequency of inhaler use did not differ by gender or age. Among the individuals reporting emphysema and inhaler use, the use of the bronchodilator-corticosteroid combination was more common than was that of a bronchodilator alone. Only among the individuals reporting physician-diagnosed asthma and current symptoms was the proportion of inhaler users higher than 50%. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, inhalers were underutilized, and the type of medication used by the individuals who reported emphysema does not seem to be in accordance with the consensus recommendations.

  16. Age-dependent change in executive function and gamma 40 Hz phase synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Robert H; Clark, C Richard; Lawrence, Jeffrey; Goldberg, Elkhonon; Williams, Leanne M; Cooper, Nicholas; Cohen, Ronald A; Brickman, Adam M; Gordon, Evian

    2005-03-01

    Decline in cognitive function is well recognized, yet few neurophysiological correlates of age-related cognitive decline have been identified. In this study we examined the impact of age on neurocognitive function and Gamma phase synchrony among 550 normal subjects (aged 11-70). Gamma phase synchrony was acquired to targets in the auditory oddball paradigm. The two tasks of executive function were switching of attention and an electronic maze. Subjects were divided into four age groups, which were balanced for sex. We hypothesized that reduced cognitive performance among older healthy individuals would be associated with age-related changes in gamma phase synchrony. Results showed a significant decrease in executive function in the oldest (51-70 years) age group. ANOVAs of age-by-frontal Gamma synchrony also showed a significant effect of age on Gamma phase synchrony in the left frontal region that corresponded modestly to the age effect found on executive task performance, with reduced performance associated with increased gamma synchrony. The results indicate that age-related changes in cognitive function evident among elderly individuals may in part be related to decreased ability to integrate information and this may be reflected as a compensatory increase in gamma synchrony in frontal regions of the brain. PMID:16035141

  17. Quantification of pulmonary emphysema in multislice-CT using different software tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: the data records of thin-section MSCT of the lung with approx. 300 images are difficult to use in manual evaluation. A computer-assisted pre-diagnosis can help with reporting. Furthermore, post-processing techniques, for instance, for quantification of emphysema on the basis of three-dimensional anatomical information might be improved and the workflow might be further automated. Materials and methods: the results of 4 programs (Pulmo registered, Volume registered, YACTA and PulmoFUNC) for the quantitative analysis of emphysema (lung and emphysema volume, mean lung density and emphysema index) of 30 consecutive thin-section MSCT datasets with different emphysema severity levels were compared. The classification result of the YACTA program for different types of emphysema was also analyzed. Results: Pulmo registered and Volume registered have a median operating time of 105 and 59 minutes respectively due to the necessity for extensive manual correction of the lung segmentation. The programs PulmoFUNC and YACTA, which are automated to a large extent, have a median runtime of 26 and 16 minutes, respectively. The evaluation with Pulmo registered and Volume registered using 2 different datasets resulted in implausible values. PulmoFUNC crashed with 2 other datasets in a reproducible manner. Only with YACTA could all graphic datasets be evaluated. The lung volume, emphysema volume, emphysema index and mean lung density determined by YACTA and PulmoFUNC are significantly larger than the corresponding values of Volume registered and Pulmo registered (differences: Volume registered: 119 cm3/65 cm3/1%/17 HU, Pulmo registered: 60 cm3/96 cm3/1 %/37 HU). Classification of the emphysema type was in agreement with that of the radiologist in 26 panlobular cases, in 22 paraseptalen cases and in 15 centrilobular emphysema cases. (orig.)

  18. Diagnostic Values For Club Cell Secretory Protein (CC16) in Serum of Patients of Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokuho, Nariaki; Ishii, Takeo; Kamio, Koichiro; Hayashi, Hiroki; Kurahara, Misuzu; Hattori, Kumiko; Motegi, Takashi; Azuma, Arata; Gemma, Akihiko; Kida, Kozui

    2015-08-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is an under-recognized syndrome for which the diagnostic use of serum biomarkers is an attractive possibility. We hypothesized that CC16 and/or TGF-β1 or combinations with other biomarkers are useful for diagnosing CPFE. Patients with respiratory symptoms and a smoking history, with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, were divided into the following three groups according to findings of high-resolution computed tomography of the chest: controls without either emphysema or fibrosis, patients with emphysema alone, and patients compatible with the diagnosis of CPFE. Serum concentrations of CC16, TGF-β1, SP-D, and KL-6 were measured in patients whose condition was stable for at least 3 months. To investigate changes in biomarkers of lung fibrosis in patients with a life-long smoking history, additional measurements were performed on the patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) of smoking history. The mean age of the first three groups was 68.0 years, whereas that of the IPF group was 71.8 years, and the groups contained 36, 115, 27, and 10 individuals, respectively. The serum concentration of CC16 in the four groups was 5.67 ± 0.42, 5.66 ± 0.35, 9.38 ± 1.04 and 22.15 ± 4.64 ng/ml, respectively, indicating that those patients with lung fibrosis had a significantly higher concentration. The combined use of CC16, SP-D, and KL-6 provided supportive diagnosis in conjunction with radiological imaging in diagnosis of CPFE. We conclude that a combination of biomarkers including CC16 could provide useful information to screen and predict the possible diagnosis of CPFE. PMID:25244495

  19. Unilateral Lobe Resection by Video-Assisted Thoracoscopy Leads to the Most Optimal Functional Improvement in Severe Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Frank; Lange, Nadine; Koryllos, Aris; Picchioni, Fabrizio; Windisch, Wolfram; Stoelben, Erich

    2016-06-01

    Background Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) is a well-established treatment option for pulmonary emphysema, but the most advantageous technical approach remains debatable. Methods Short- and long-term outcomes were comparably assessed in pulmonary emphysema patients who underwent unilateral LVRS with either lobe or sublobe (segment or wedge) resection. Patients were consecutively enrolled in the study after careful conventional and computer-based definition of the target region. Results A total of 36 patients with a mean age of 62.1 ± 8.9 years (range, 41-79 years) were recruited. Video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) was performed in 33 patients, while 3 patients with additional early-stage lung cancer received anterolateral thoracotomy. Surgery duration was longer for lobectomy (median 93 minutes, range 44-168 minutes) as compared with sublobe resection (median 52 minutes, range 25-131 minutes; p = 0.0007), but complication rates were similar. After 90 days postsurgery, mortality was zero and lung function improved to a similar degree in both the groups. After 1 year, total lung capacity (TLC) was still reduced by 17.2 ± 20.6% predicted as compared with the baseline values for lobe resection, while TLC was increased by 12.1 ± 14.5% predicted for sublobe resection. In addition, the 6-minute walking distance improved following LVRS, with slightly better results in lobe resection patients. Conclusions By careful definition of the target region, unilateral VATS-LVRS with lobe resection in severely affected pulmonary emphysema patients is a safe procedure that is superior to unilateral sublobe VATS resection in terms of improving long-term 1-year lung hyperinflation. Therefore, unilateral VATS lobe resection is a promising treatment approach that should be further evaluated by randomized controlled trials. PMID:25535772

  20. Age-dependent effects of carotid endarterectomy or stenting on cognitive performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wasser, Katrin; Hildebrandt, Helmut; Gröschel, Sonja; Stojanovic, Tomislav; Schmidt, Holger; Gröschel, Klaus; Pilgram-Pastor, Sara M.; Knauth, Michael; Kastrup, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Although evidence is accumulating that age modifies the risk of carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) versus endarterectomy (CEA) for patients with significant carotid stenosis, the impact of age on cognition after either CEA or CAS remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the effects of age on cognitive performance after either CEA or CAS using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery with parallel test forms and a control group to exclude a learning effect. The neuropsychological...