WorldWideScience

Sample records for age cross-link breaker

  1. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aging assessment of Westinghouse DS-series low-voltage air circuit breakers was performed as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The objectives of this study are to characterize age-related degradation within the breaker assembly and to identify maintenance practices to mitigate their effect. Since this study has been promulgated by the failures of the reactor trip breakers at the McGuire Nuclear Station in July 1987, results relating to the welds in the breaker pole lever welds are also discussed. The design and operation of DS-206 and DS-416 breakers were reviewed. Failure data from various national data bases were analyzed to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and mechanisms. Additional operating experiences from one nuclear station and two industrial breaker-service companies were obtained to develop aging trends of various subcomponents. The responses of the utilities to the NRC Bulletin 88-01, which discusses the center pole lever welds, were analyzed to assess the final resolution of failures of welds in the reactor trips. Maintenance recommendations, made by the manufacturer to mitigate age-related degradation were reviewed, and recommendations for improving the monitoring of age-related degradation are discussed. As described in Volume 2 of this NUREG, the results from a test program to assess degradation in breaker parts through mechanical cycling are also included. The testing has characterized the cracking of center-pole lever welds, identified monitoring techniques to determine aging in breakers, and provided information to augment existing maintenance programs. Recommendations to improve breaker reliability using effective maintenance, testing, and inspection programs are suggested. 13 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Mature Enzymatic Collagen Cross-Links, Hydroxylysylpyridinoline and Lysylpyridinoline, in the Aging Human Vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsioen, Theodorus L.; van Deemter, Marielle; Bank, Rudolf A.; Snabel, Johanna M.; Zijlstra, Gerrit S.; van der Worp, Roelofje J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE. The vitreous body of the human eye undergoes progressive morphologic changes with aging. Since the enzymatic collagen cross-links hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP) are known to be important for the integrity of the collagen matrix, the presence in the vitreous on agin

  3. Mature enzymatic collagen cross-links, hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline, in the aging human vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L. Ponsioen; M. van Deemter; R.A. Bank; J.M. Snabel; G.S. Zijlstra; R.J. van der Worp; J.M.M. Hooymans; L.I. Los

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The vitreous body of the human eye undergoes progressive morphologic changes with aging. Since the enzymatic collagen cross-links hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP) are known to be important for the integrity of the collagen matrix, the presence in the vitreous on agin

  4. Collagen cross-linking in sun-exposed and unexposed sites of aged human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, M.; Prisayanh, P.; Haque, Z.; Woodley, D. T.

    1991-01-01

    A recently described nonreducible, acid-heat stable compound, histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL), is a collagen cross-link isolated from mature skin tissue. Its abundance is related to chronologic aging of skin. The present communication describes the quantity of HHL from aged human skin of the same individuals in sun-exposed (wrist) and unexposed (buttock) sites. Punch biopsies were obtained from these sites from nine people of age 60 or older. HHL contents (moles/mole of collagen) at these sites were for wrist 0.13 +/- 0.07 and for buttock 0.69 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.001). In addition, it was found that acute irradiation of the cross-linked peptides with UVA (up to 250 J/cm2) and UVB (up to 1 J/cm2) had no effect on HHL structure. The same treatment significantly degraded another nonreducible, stable collagen cross-link, pyridinoline. The results suggest that chronic sunlight exposure may be associated with an impediment to normal maturation of human dermal collagen resulting in tenuous amount of HHL. Thus, the process of photoaging in dermal collagen is different from that of chronologic aging in human skin.

  5. Contributions of DNA interstrand cross-links to aging of cells and organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Grillari, Johannes; Katinger, Hermann; Voglauer, Regina

    2007-01-01

    Impaired DNA damage repair, especially deficient transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair, leads to segmental progeroid syndromes in human patients as well as in rodent models. Furthermore, DNA double-strand break signalling has been pinpointed as a key inducer of cellular senescence. Several recent findings suggest that another DNA repair pathway, interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair, might also contribute to cell and organism aging. Therefore, we summarize and discuss here that (i) s...

  6. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the McGuire event in 1987 relating to failure of the center pole weld in one of its reactor trip breakers, activities were initiated by the NRC to investigate the probable causes. A review of operating experience suggested that the burning of coils, jamming of the operating mechanism, and deterioration of the contacts dominated the breakers failures. Although failures of the pole shaft weld were not included as one of the generic problems, the NRC augmented inspection team had suspected that these welds were substandard which led them to crack prematurely. A DS-416 low voltage air circuit breaker manufactured by Westinghouse was mechanically cycled to identify age-related degradations. This accelerated aging test was conducted for over 36,000 cycles during nine months. Three separate pole shafts, one with a 60 degree weld, one with a 120 degree and one with a 180 degree were used to characterize the cracking in the pole level welds. In addition, three different operating mechanisms and several other parts were replaced as they became inoperable. The testing yielded many useful results. The burning of the closing coils was found to be the effect of binding in the linkages that are connected to this device. Among the seven welds on the pole shaft, number-sign 1 and number-sign 3 were the critical ones which cracked first to cause misalignment of the pole levers, which, in turn, had led to many problems with the operating mechanism including the burning of coils, excessive wear in certain parts, and overstressed linkages. Based on these findings, a maintenance program is suggested to alleviate the age-related degradations that occur due to mechanical cycling of this type of breaker. 3 refs., 39 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Chelation: A Fundamental Mechanism of Action of AGE Inhibitors, AGE Breakers, and Other Inhibitors of Diabetes Complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Rhoji; Murray, David B.; Metz, Thomas O.; Baynes, John

    2012-03-01

    Advanced glycation or glycoxidation end-products (AGE) increase in tissue proteins with age, and their rate of accumulation is increased in diabetes, nephropathy and inflammatory diseases. AGE inhibitors include a range of compounds that are proposed to act by trapping carbonyl and dicarbonyl intermediates in AGE formation. However, some among the newer generation of AGE inhibitors lack reactive functional groups that would trap reaction intermediates, indicating an alternative mechanism of action. We propose that AGE inhibitors function primarily as chelators, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions. The AGE-inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers is also consistent with their chelating activity. Finally, compounds described as AGE breakers, or their hydrolysis products, also have strong chelating activity, suggesting that these compounds also act through their chelating activity. We conclude that chelation is the common, and perhaps the primary, mechanism of action of AGE inhibitors and breakers, and that chronic, mild chelation therapy should prove useful in treatment of diabetes and age-related diseases characterized by oxidative stress, inflammation and increased chemical modification of tissue proteins by advanced glycoxidation and lipoxidation end-products.

  8. Chelation: a fundamental mechanism of action of AGE inhibitors, AGE breakers, and other inhibitors of diabetes complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoji; Murray, David B; Metz, Thomas O; Baynes, John W

    2012-03-01

    This article outlines evidence that advanced glycation end product (AGE) inhibitors and breakers act primarily as chelators, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions that catalyze AGE formation. We then present evidence that chelation is the most likely mechanism by which ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldose reductase inhibitors inhibit AGE formation in diabetes. Finally, we note several recent studies demonstrating therapeutic benefits of chelators for diabetic cardiovascular and renal disease. We conclude that chronic, low-dose chelation therapy deserves serious consideration as a clinical tool for prevention and treatment of diabetes complications.

  9. Urinary excretion of type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptides, bone mass and related lifestyle in middle-aged women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatomi C

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between past and present lifestyle and urinary excretion of type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx was studied in 61 Japanese females aged 34-59, with a view toward using NTx excretion rates as a predictor of future osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine, the speed of sound (SOS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA of the os calcis, urinary NTx, serum osteocalcin (BGP and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP were measured. Stiffness index (stiffness was calculated from SOS and BUA. The subjects were asked whether they took regular exercise in their childhood and teen years (in elementary, junior-high, senior-high school and college, the past (20-40 years of age and present adulthood. Regular calcium intake, smoking habits, alcohol and other beverage consumption and milk consumption were also covered in the questionnaire. The mean NTx values of premenopausal and postmenopausal group were 22.2 and 56.0 nM bone collagen equivalents (BCE/mM urinary creatinine (Cr, respectively. The group which did not exercise regularly between the ages of 20 and 40 had a higher mean NTx value (40.9 nMBCE/mMCr than the group which did exercise regularly (22.7 nMBCE/mMCr. In multiple regression analyses, age, stiffness and exercise in past adulthood could explain 43.5% of the NTx variance. For prevention of bone metabolic increases around menopause, habitual exercise in early adulthood seems to be effective.

  10. Collagen cross linking: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas K Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is a common ectatic disorder occurring in more than 1 in 1,000 individuals. The condition typically starts in adolescence and early adulthood. It is a disease with an uncertain cause and its progression is unpredictable, but in extreme cases, vision deteriorates and can require corneal transplant surgery. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CCL with riboflavin (C3R is a recent treatment option that can enhance the rigidity of the cornea and prevent disease progression. Since its inception, the procedure has evolved with newer instrumentation, surgical techniques, and is also now performed for expanded indications other than keratoconus. With increasing experience, newer guidelines regarding optimization of patient selection, the spectrum of complications and their management, and combination procedures are being described. This article in conjunction with the others in this issue, will try and explore the uses of collagen cross-linking (CXL in its current form.

  11. Electrospinning formaldehyde cross-linked zein solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to develop zein fibers with improved physical properties and solvent resistance, formaldehyde was used as the cross-linking reagent before spinning. The cross-linking reaction was carried out in either acetic acid or ethanolic-HCl where the amount of cross-linking reagent was between 1 and...

  12. Wear performance of neat and vitamin E blended highly cross-linked PE under severe conditions: The combined effect of accelerated ageing and third body particles during wear test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affatato, Saverio; De Mattia, Jonathan Salvatore; Bracco, Pierangiola; Pavoni, Eleonora; Taddei, Paola

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of third-body particles on the in vitro wear behaviour of three different sets of polyethylene acetabular cups after prolonged testing in a hip simulator and accelerated ageing. Vitamin E-blended, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE_VE), cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and conventional polyethylene (STD_PE) acetabular cups were simulator tested for two million cycles under severe conditions (i.e. by adding third-body particles to the bovine calf serum lubricant). Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopic analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, and crosslink density measurements were used to characterize the samples at a molecular level. The STD_PE cups had twice mass loss than the XLPE_VE components and four times than the XLPE samples; statistically significant differences were found between the mass losses of the three sets of cups. The observed wear trend was justified on the basis of the differences in cross-link density among the samples (XLPE>XLPE_VE>STD_PE). FTIR crystallinity profiles, bulk DSC crystallinity and surface micro-Raman crystallinity seemed to have a similar behaviour upon testing: all of them (as well as the all-trans and ortho-trans contents) revealed the most significant changes in XLPE and XLPE_VE samples. The more severe third-body wear testing conditions determined more noticeable changes in all spectroscopic markers with respect to previous tests. Unexpectedly, traces of bulk oxidation were found in both STD_PE (unirradiated) and XLPE (remelting-stabilized), which were expected to be stable to oxidation; on the contrary, XLPE_VE demonstrated a high oxidative stability in the present, highly demanding conditions.

  13. Spectroscopic characterization of collagen cross-links in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, E. P.; Verdelis, K.; Doty, S. B.; Boskey, A. L.; Mendelsohn, R.; Yamauchi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein of the organic matrix in mineralizing tissues. One of its most critical properties is its cross-linking pattern. The intermolecular cross-linking provides the fibrillar matrices with mechanical properties such as tensile strength and viscoelasticity. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and FTIR imaging (FTIRI) analyses were performed in a series of biochemically characterized samples including purified collagen cross-linked peptides, demineralized bovine bone collagen from animals of different ages, collagen from vitamin B6-deficient chick homogenized bone and their age- and sex-matched controls, and histologically stained thin sections from normal human iliac crest biopsy specimens. One region of the FTIR spectrum of particular interest (the amide I spectral region) was resolved into its underlying components. Of these components, the relative percent area ratio of two subbands at approximately 1660 cm(-1) and approximately 1690 cm(-1) was related to collagen cross-links that are abundant in mineralized tissues (i.e., pyridinoline [Pyr] and dehydrodihydroxylysinonorleucine [deH-DHLNL]). This study shows that it is feasible to monitor Pyr and DHLNL collagen cross-links spatial distribution in mineralized tissues. The spectroscopic parameter established in this study may be used in FTIRI analyses, thus enabling the calculation of relative Pyr/DHLNL amounts in thin (approximately 5 microm) calcified tissue sections with a spatial resolution of approximately 7 microm.

  14. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which...

  15. Collagen cross-linking of skin in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, S.; Yamauchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Collagen cross-links of skin tissue (left upper arm) from 11 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 9 age-matched control subjects were quantified. It was found that patients with ALS had a significant reduction in the content of an age-related, stable cross-link, histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine, that was negatively correlated with the duration of illness. The contents of sodium borohydride-reducible labile cross-links, dehydro-hydroxylysinonorleucine and dehydro-histidinohydroxymerodesmosine, were significantly increased and were positively associated with the duration of illness (r = 0.703, p less than 0.05 and r = 0.684, p less than 0.05, respectively). The results clearly indicate that during the course of ALS, the cross-linking pathway of skin collagen runs counter to its normal aging, resulting in a "rejuvenation" phenomenon of skin collagen. Thus, cross-linking of skin collagen is affected in ALS.

  16. Cross-linking chemistry of squid beak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J Herbert

    2010-12-01

    In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of the sclerotization chemistry and describe additional cross-links from D. gigas beak. All cross-links presented in this report share common building blocks, a family of di-, tri-, and tetra-histidine-catecholic adducts, that were separated by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by tandem mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The data provide additional insights into the unusually high cross-link density found in mature beaks. Furthermore, we propose both a low molecular weight catechol, and peptidyl-dopa, to be sclerotization agents of squid beak. This appears to represent a new strategy for forming hard tissue in animals. The interplay between covalent cross-linking and dehydration on the graded properties of the beaks is discussed. PMID:20870720

  17. Cross-linking Chemistry of Squid Beak*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J. Herbert

    2010-01-01

    In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of the sclerotization chemistry and describe additional cross-links from D. gigas beak. All cross-links presented in this report share common building blocks, a family of di-, tri-, and tetra-histidine-catecholic adducts, that were separated by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by tandem mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The data provide additional insights into the unusually high cross-link density found in mature beaks. Furthermore, we propose both a low molecular weight catechol, and peptidyl-dopa, to be sclerotization agents of squid beak. This appears to represent a new strategy for forming hard tissue in animals. The interplay between covalent cross-linking and dehydration on the graded properties of the beaks is discussed. PMID:20870720

  18. Macromolecular Flexibility and Aggregation Tendency of Non-Cross-Linked and Cross-Linked Cationic Polysoaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Guang-Jia; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.

    1998-01-01

    The aggregation tendency of non-cross-linked and cross-linked poly(alkylmethyl-diallylammonium halides) bearing n-dodecyl and n-decyl side chains ((CL)-CopolC1-12-Cl, (CL)-CopolC1-12-Br and (CL)-CopolC1-10-Br, respectively) in aqueous solution has been evaluated by measuring their critical aggregate

  19. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, Danielle S., E-mail: dsb@seas.upenn.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Sage Center for the Study of the Mind, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T. [Department of Psychology and UCSB Brain Imaging Center, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Porter, Mason A. [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Mucha, Peter J. [Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks.

  20. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks

  1. Method of preparing cross-linked enzyme particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo, C.; Van Langen, L.M.; Van Rantwijk, F.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of preparing cross-linked enzyme particles using a cross-linking agent. According to the invention, the enzyme particles are formed and subsequently cross-linked using a cross-linking agent having at least n reactive groups where N>=3 and a molecular weight of >2,00

  2. Targeted AGEs and AGEs cross-link in drug discovery: preventing and reversing arterial sclerosis in aging and diabetes%AGEs交联结构:研究防治血管硬化药物的新靶标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟武; 王莉莉; 崔浩; 李松

    2005-01-01

    晚期糖基化终产物(advanced glycation end products,AGEs)是随着增龄、糖尿病发展在组织和细胞中不断形成和积蓄的结构和种类具有多样性的分子。近年来,许多研究表明AGEs与糖尿病和机体老化的许多并发症密切相关,如肾功能减退、神经系统疾病、中风、阿尔茨海默症,皮肤老化、视网膜病变、白内障、心血管疾病和动脉硬化等。

  3. The cross linking of EPDM and NBR rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžija-Jovanović Suzana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of macromolecule cross linking, the choice of type and quantity of the components and the experimental conditions are important to obtain the new cross linked materials with better mechanical and chemical characteristics. The cross linking method depends on the rubber type and structure. Intermolecular cross linking results in the formation elastomer network. The basis of the cross linking process, between ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, is a chemical reaction. Fillers and other additives are present in different mass ratios in the material. The exploitation properties of the cross linked materials depend on the quantity of additive in the cross linked systems.

  4. Cross-linking Chemistry of Squid Beak*

    OpenAIRE

    Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J. Herbert

    2010-01-01

    In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of th...

  5. Thermal Analyse sof Cross-Linked Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Polansky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes results obtained during the structural analyses measurements (Differential Scanning Calorimetry DSC, Thermogravimetry TG, Thermomechanical analysis TMA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR. The samples of cross-linked polyethylene cable insulation were tested via these analyses. The DSC and TG were carried out using simultaneous thermal analyzer TA Instruments SDT Q600 with connection of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer Nicolet 380. Thermomechanical analysis was carried out by TMA Q400EM TA Instruments apparatus.

  6. Collagen cross-linking in thin corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL has become the standard of care for progressive keratoconus, after numerous clinical studies have established its efficacy and safety in suitably selected eyes. The standard protocol is applicable in eyes which have a minimum corneal thickness of 400 μm after epithelial debridement. This prerequisite was stipulated to protect the corneal endothelium and intraocular tissues from the deleterious effect of ultraviolet-A (UVA radiation. However, patients with keratoconus often present with corneal thickness of less than 400 μm and could have otherwise benefited from this procedure. A few modifications of the standard procedure have been suggested to benefit these patients without a compromise in safety. Transepithelial cross-linking, pachymetry-guided epithelial debridement before cross-linking, and the use of hypoosmolar riboflavin are some of the techniques that have been attempted. Although clinical data is limited at the present time, these techniques are worth considering in patients with thin corneas. Further studies are needed to scientifically establish their efficacy and safety.

  7. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  8. Cross-linking for microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh Vazirani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of collagen cross-linking as a clinical modality to modify the clinical course in keratoconus seems to have fueled the search for alternative applications for this treatment. Current clinical data on its efficacy is limited and laboratory data seems to indicate that it performs poorly against resistant strains of bacteria and against slow growing organisms. However, the biological plausibility of crosslinking and the lack of effective strategies in managing infections with these organisms continue to focus attention on this potential treatment. Well-conducted experimental and clinical studies with controls are required to answer the questions of its efficacy in future.

  9. Characterization of Cross-Linked Lipase Aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhavathi Devi, Bethala Lakshmi Anu; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available microbial lipases from different sources were immobilized as cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) using different precipitants and glutaraldehyde as cross-linkers. These CLEAs were assayed based on esterification between lauric acid and n-propanol in solvent-free systems....... Precipitants were found to have a profound influence on both specific activities and total activity recovery of CLEAs, as exemplified by Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB). Among the CLEAs of CALB studied, those obtained using PEG600, ammonium sulfate, PEG200 and acetone as precipitants were observed to attain...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1211 - Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... polyacrylate copolymers consist of: (1) The grafted copolymer of cross-linked sodium polyacrylate identified as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers. 177.1211... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1211 Cross-linked...

  11. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF BREAKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Farhadzade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakers relate to Electric Power Systems’ equipment, the reliability of which influence, to a great extend, on reliability of Power Plants. In particular, the breakers determine structural reliability of switchgear circuit of Power Stations and network substations. Failure in short-circuit switching off by breaker with further failure of reservation unit or system of long-distance protection lead quite often to system emergency.The problem of breakers’ reliability improvement and the reduction of maintenance expenses is becoming ever more urgent in conditions of systematic increasing of maintenance cost and repair expenses of oil circuit and air-break circuit breakers. The main direction of this problem solution is the improvement of diagnostic control methods and organization of on-condition maintenance. But this demands to use a great amount of statistic information about nameplate data of breakers and their operating conditions, about their failures, testing and repairing, advanced developments (software of computer technologies and specific automated information system (AIS.The new AIS with AISV logo was developed at the department: “Reliability of power equipment” of AzRDSI of Energy. The main features of AISV are:· to provide the security and data base accuracy;· to carry out systematic control of breakers conformity with operating conditions;· to make the estimation of individual  reliability’s value and characteristics of its changing for given combination of characteristics variety;· to provide personnel, who is responsible for technical maintenance of breakers, not only with information but also with methodological support, including recommendations for the given problem solving  and advanced methods for its realization.

  12. Riboflavin for corneal cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brart, D P S

    2016-06-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation is the first therapeutic modality that appears to arrest the progression of keratoconus and other corneal ectasias. Riboflavin is central to the process, acting as a photosensitizer for the production of oxygen singlets and riboflavin triplets. These free radicals drive the CXL process within the proteins of the corneal stroma, altering its biomechanical properties. Riboflavin also absorbs the majority of the UVA radiation, which is potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic, within the anterior stroma, preventing damage to internal ocular structures, such as the corneal endothelium, lens and retina. Clinical studies report cessation of ectatic progression in over 90% of cases and the majority document significant improvements in visual, keratometric and topographic parameters. Clinical follow-up is limited to 5-10 years, but suggests sustained stability and enhancement in corneal shape. Sight-threatening complications are rare. The optimal stromal riboflavin dosage for CXL is as yet undetermined. PMID:27458610

  13. The Cross - linking reaction of HEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG; Jian

    2001-01-01

    Cellulose ethers are important components for light industries such as food and papermaking industries. Its modification research is a frontline science to widen their uses and realize their industrialization. The target of modification is to make high production value, low input and meet the needs better in industries.  O-(2-hydroxyethl) cellulose (HEC) is one of the best-known cellulose ether derivatives. It is mainly used as thickeners, dispersants, adhesives, extenders, and films because of its water solubility and gel-forming properties. The present research,by means of cross-linking, we study the influence on HEC about rheological behavior.This will provide a feasible scheme for cellulose ethers modification.……

  14. [Riboflavin UVA cross-linking for keratoconus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, P; Reinhard, T

    2013-09-01

    Keratoconus is a progressive, ectatic disease of the cornea leading to thinning and highly irregular astigmatism. Until recently all treatment options, such as prescription of glasses or contact lenses were symptomatic and neither keratoplasty nor the implantation of intracorneal rings can heal the disease. Riboflavin ultraviolet A (UVA) collagen cross-linking (CXL) cannot heal keratoconus either but promises to halt the progression. The therapeutic principle is a photochemical reaction of riboflavin and UVA light leading to free oxygen radicals in the corneal stroma that induce covalent linking of the collagen fibrils. This stiffening effect should stop the progression. After the first reports at the end of the 1990s the treatment was widely used and many case series show that CXL can be effective in stopping disease progression in some patients. However, randomized, controlled multicenter trials showing high evidence of the treatment effectiveness are rare. This report includes a review of the literature regarding treatment effectiveness, indications and new developments. PMID:23760423

  15. Cross-link guided molecular modeling with ROSETTA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Kahraman

    Full Text Available Chemical cross-links identified by mass spectrometry generate distance restraints that reveal low-resolution structural information on proteins and protein complexes. The technology to reliably generate such data has become mature and robust enough to shift the focus to the question of how these distance restraints can be best integrated into molecular modeling calculations. Here, we introduce three workflows for incorporating distance restraints generated by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry into ROSETTA protocols for comparative and de novo modeling and protein-protein docking. We demonstrate that the cross-link validation and visualization software Xwalk facilitates successful cross-link data integration. Besides the protocols we introduce XLdb, a database of chemical cross-links from 14 different publications with 506 intra-protein and 62 inter-protein cross-links, where each cross-link can be mapped on an experimental structure from the Protein Data Bank. Finally, we demonstrate on a protein-protein docking reference data set the impact of virtual cross-links on protein docking calculations and show that an inter-protein cross-link can reduce on average the RMSD of a docking prediction by 5.0 Å. The methods and results presented here provide guidelines for the effective integration of chemical cross-link data in molecular modeling calculations and should advance the structural analysis of particularly large and transient protein complexes via hybrid structural biology methods.

  16. Nonlinear elasticity of cross-linked networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Karin; Caillerie, Denis; Peyla, Philippe; Raoult, Annie; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2013-04-01

    Cross-linked semiflexible polymer networks are omnipresent in living cells. Typical examples are actin networks in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, which play an essential role in cell motility, and the spectrin network, a key element in maintaining the integrity of erythrocytes in the blood circulatory system. We introduce a simple mechanical network model at the length scale of the typical mesh size and derive a continuous constitutive law relating the stress to deformation. The continuous constitutive law is found to be generically nonlinear even if the microscopic law at the scale of the mesh size is linear. The nonlinear bulk mechanical properties are in good agreement with the experimental data for semiflexible polymer networks, i.e., the network stiffens and exhibits a negative normal stress in response to a volume-conserving shear deformation, whereby the normal stress is of the same order as the shear stress. Furthermore, it shows a strain localization behavior in response to an uniaxial compression. Within the same model we find a hierarchy of constitutive laws depending on the degree of nonlinearities retained in the final equation. The presented theory provides a basis for the continuum description of polymer networks such as actin or spectrin in complex geometries and it can be easily coupled to growth problems, as they occur, for example, in modeling actin-driven motility.

  17. Industrial applications of different methods of cross-linking polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature limits for the continuous and temporary overload operation of cables insulated with low density polyethylene are increased very significantly if the polymer is cross-linked. Two free-radical cross-linking processes, one based on high temperature peroxide vulcanisation and the other on the low temperature cure of an alkoxy silane condensation, are described and compared with radiation induced cross-linking in cable manufacture. (author)

  18. Conventional Versus Cross-Linked Polyethylene for Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surace, Michele F; Monestier, Luca; Vulcano, Ettore; Harwin, Steven F; Cherubino, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    The clinical and radiographic outcomes of 88 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty with either conventional polyethylene or cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) from the same manufacturer were compared. There were no significant differences between the 2 subpopulations regarding average age, gender, side affected, or prosthetic stem and cup size. The average follow-up was 104 months (range, 55 to 131 months). To the authors' knowledge, this is the longest follow-up for this particular insert. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and then annually. Results showed that XLPE has a significantly greater wear reduction than that of standard polyethylene in primary total hip arthroplasty. At the longest available follow-up for these specific inserts, XLPE proved to be effective in reducing wear. PMID:26375527

  19. 3H-collagen turnover in non-cross-linked and aldehyde-cross-linked dermal collagen grafts.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, R. F.; Barker, H; Cooke, A.; L. Stephen

    1982-01-01

    Using trypsin-purified rat dermal collagen labelled with tritiated hydroxyproline and proline, a study has been made of hydroxyproline turnover in non-cross-linked and glutaraldehyde- and formaldehyde-cross-linked collagen when implanted s.c. in unlabelled isogenic rats. Grafts cross-linked with 0.01% glutaraldehyde maintained their collagen mass over a 22-week period, loss of original collagen being balanced by the gain in new collagen (22% at 22 weeks). Cross-linking with 5% formaldehyde te...

  20. X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Cross Linked Chitosan With Different Cross Linking Agents For Waste Water Treatment Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Akil, Hazizan Md

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide derived from N-deacetylation of chitin and receiving increased attention as metal ion absorbent in wastewater treatment application. To improve the performance of chitosan as an absorbent, the cross linking approach was applied. Introduction of cross-linking agent would break the crystal zone in chitosan system, making it less crystal and consequently enhanced the absorption area. Therefore, in this study, cross-linked chitosan were prepared using different of cross-linking agents. The chitosan powder was weighed, dissolved in acetic acid (0.1 M), and dropped slowly into absolute N-methyl pyyrolidone solvent containing cross-linking agent. The cross linking reaction was carried out in N2 environment at 150° C for 6 hours. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was applied to characterize the crystallinity of native and cross linked chitosan. Generally, the XRD patterns of all types of chitosan show two crystalline peaks approximately at 10° and 20° (2θ). However, the cross linked chitosan with longer length of cross linking agents show lower and broader crystalline peaks as compare to those with shorter length. Similarly, the calculated crystalline index (Cr I) also showed this decreasing tendency.

  1. Radiation cross-linked polyolefin-insulated wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, K.; Ishitani, H.

    Because radiation cross-linked polyolefin has excellent mechanical heat resistance, its application limit can be expanded extremely by improving the resistance against heat oxidation and flame. This paper is concerning a halogen free radiation cross-linked polyolefin-insulated wire having excellent heat resistance and flameretardant property, which is used for appliances.

  2. Tissue-specific effects of aldose reductase inhibition on fluorescence and cross-linking of extracellular matrix in chronic galactosemia. Relationship to pentosidine cross-links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S; Tamas, C; Sell, D R; Monnier, V M

    1991-08-01

    Chronic experimental hyperglycemia mediated by galactose has been shown to induce browning and cross-linking of rat tail tendon collagen that could be duplicated in vitro by nonenzymatic galactosylation. To investigate the nature of these changes, Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a 33% galactose diet without and with sorbinil for 6 and 12 mo. Collagen-linked fluorescence and pentosidine cross-links increased with age and galactosemia in tail tendons (P less than 0.001) and skin but were essentially unresponsive to aldose reductase inhibition (ARI). In contrast, tendon breaking time in urea, a likely parameter of cross-linking, was markedly improved (P less than 0.001) by ARI. Fluorescence that was inhibited by sorbinil treatment was increased in pepsin and proteinase K digest of aortic tissue from galactosemic rats (P less than 0.001), but impaired enzymatic digestibility was not observed. Systolic blood pressure as potential consequence of aortic stiffening was not increased in galactosemia. These data suggest that fluorescence in skin and tendon might be in part due to advanced glycosylation and pentosidine formation because these were not decreased by ARI. However, they also suggest that nonfluorescent cross-links may also be forming because, in contrast to fluorescence, tail tendon breaking time was partly corrected by ARI. Thus, it appears that extracellular matrix changes in chronic galactosemia are complex, being partly attributable to advanced glycosylation and partly to polyol-pathway activation.

  3. Research Progress in Corneal Cross-linking Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Li; Xiujun Peng; Zhengjun Fan

    2014-01-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking with UVA-riboflavin is cur-rently the only method for preventing the progression of kera-toconus from the pathological perspective. Topical application of a direct cross-linking agent is now attracting widespread at-tention in clinical settings..This article reviews the research progress in the application of indirect or direct cross-linking agents (e.g., riboflavin, glucose, ribose, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde,.glyceraldehyde,.short chain aliphatic β-nitro alcohol, and genipin) in the treatment of corneal diseases and analyzes the cross-linking efficacy,.toxicity,.and merits and disadvantages of each cross-linking agent,.providing clinical information for further studies.

  4. Physical and mechanical properties of gamma radiation cross-linked polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granulated LDPE 2003 polyethylene was extruded and irradiated under nitrogen with 150, 200 and 300 kGy gamma rays doses to produce cross-linking. The study of the physical and mechanical properties shows that the product has a high degree of molecular cross-linking, can be heated up to 200 C for 2 hours without deformation and that the mechanical properties improve. Preliminary aging tests indicate that after heating at 60 C for 4 weeks no physical or mechanical deterioration can be observed. (author)

  5. Elasticity of cross-linked semiflexible biopolymers under tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Heydt, Alice; Wilkin, Daniel; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2013-09-01

    Aiming at the mechanical properties of cross-linked biopolymers, we set up and analyze a model of two weakly bending wormlike chains subjected to a tensile force, with regularly spaced inter-chain bonds (cross-links) represented by harmonic springs. Within this model, we compute the force-extension curve and the differential stiffness exactly and discuss several limiting cases. Cross-links effectively stiffen the chain pair by reducing thermal fluctuations transverse to the force and alignment direction. The extra alignment due to cross-links increases both with growing number and with growing strength of the cross-links, and is most prominent for small force f. For large f, the additional, cross-link-induced extension is subdominant except for the case of linking the chains rigidly and continuously along their contour. In this combined limit, we recover asymptotically the elasticity of a weakly bending wormlike chain without constraints, stiffened by a factor of 4. The increase in differential stiffness can be as large as 100% for small f or large numbers of cross-links.

  6. Current status of accelerated corneal cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mrochen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal cross-linking with riboflavin is a technique to stabilize or reduce corneal ectasia, in diseases such as keratoconus and post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK ectasia. There is an interest by patient as well as clinicians to reduce the overall treatment time. Especially, the introduction of corneal cross-linking in combination with corneal laser surgery demands a shorter treatment time to assure a sufficient patient flow. The principles and techniques of accelerated corneal cross-linking is discussed.

  7. Surface cross-linked humic acid - polysodium acrylate superabsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, M.; Zhu, S.; Li, H.; Huang, Z.; Zhang, X. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2005-03-01

    A novel composite super-absorbent of humic acid-polysodium acrylate was invented by surface cross-linking reaction of lignite humic acid and poly. Humic acid was abstracted from leonardite and poly was synthesized by solution polymerization. Water absorbing mechanism of composite superabsorbent was explored based on FTIR and SEM. The effect of surface cross-linking reaction conditions, such as the ratio of methanol to water, cross-linking agent concentration, and the amount of humic acid on water absorbing were investigated. Experiments show that the water absorbency of superabsorbent can be greatly improved by humic acid. When the mass fraction of humic acid is 10%, the ratio of cross-linking agent to PSA is 0.2%, and the ratio of methanol to water is 1.8, the water absorbency is the best: 750 g/g for deionied water and 260 g/g for running. water. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. 21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... propylene oxide). Propylene glycol. Sorbitol. Trimethylol ethane. Trimethylol propane. 2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,3... with good manufacturing practice, finished articles containing the cross-linked polyester resins...

  9. Photochemical Patterning of Ionically Cross-Linked Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Bruchet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron(III cross-linked alginate hydrogel incorporating sodium lactate undergoes photoinduced degradation, thus serving as a biocompatible positive photoresist suitable for photochemical patterning. Alternatively, surface etching of iron(III cross-linked hydrogel contacting lactic acid solution can be used for controlling the thickness of the photochemical pattering. Due to biocompatibility, both of these approaches appear potentially useful for advanced manipulation with cell cultures including growing cells on the surface or entrapping them within the hydrogel.

  10. Elasticity of cross-linked semiflexible biopolymers under tension

    CERN Document Server

    von der Heydt, Alice; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the mechanical properties of cross-linked biopolymers, we set up and analyze a model of two weakly bending wormlike chains subjected to a tensile force, with regularly spaced inter-chain bonds (cross-links) represented by harmonic springs. Within this model, we compute the force-extension curve and the differential stiffness exactly and discuss several limiting cases. Cross-links effectively stiffen the chain pair by reducing thermal fluctuations transverse to the force and alignment direction. The extra alignment due to cross-links increases both with growing number and with growing strength of the cross-links, and is most prominent for small force f. For large f, the additional, cross-link-induced extension is subdominant except for the case of linking the chains rigidly and continuously along their contour. In this combined limit, we recover asymptotically the elasticity of a weakly bending wormlike chain without constraints, stiffened by a factor four. The increase in differential stiffness can ...

  11. Collagen/elastin hydrogels cross-linked by squaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopinska-Wisniewska, J; Kuderko, J; Bajek, A; Maj, M; Sionkowska, A; Ziegler-Borowska, M

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogels based on collagen and elastin are very valuable materials for medicine and tissue engineering. They are biocompatible; however their mechanical properties and resistance for enzymatic degradation need to be improved by cross-linking. Up to this point many reagents have been tested but more secure reactants are still sought. Squaric acid (SqAc), 3,4-dihydroxy 3-cyclobutene 1,2-dione, is a strong, cyclic acid, which reacts easily with amine groups. The properties of hydrogels based on collagen/elastin mixtures (95/5, 90/10) containing 5%, 10% and 20% of SqAc and neutralized via dialysis against deionized water were tested. Cross-linked, 3-D, transparent hydrogels were created. The cross-linked materials are stiffer and more resistant to enzymatic degradation than those that are unmodified. The pore size, swelling ability and surface polarity are reduced due to 5% and 10% of SqAc addition. At the same time, the cellular response is not significantly affected by the cross-linking. Therefore, squaric acid would be regarded as a safe, effective cross-linking agent.

  12. Extreme dryness and DNA-protein cross-links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieger-Dose, A.; Dose, K.; Meffert, R.; Mehler, M.; Risi, S.

    Exposure of fungal conidia (Aspergillus ochraceus) or spores of Bacillus subtilis to extreme dryness or vacuum induces DNA lesions, including strand breaks and the formation of DNA-protein cross-links. In wet cells only a small amount of protein is bound to DNA, but exposure to conditions of lowered water activity results in an increasing number of cross-links between DNA and proteins. In fungal conidia these cross-links are detected after selective iodination (125J) of the DNA-bound proteins followed by gel electrophoresis and subsequent autoradiography. Another approach is the labelling of DNA with 32p by means of nick translation and the detection of differences in the electrophoretic mobility of DNA before and after digestion with proteinase K of proteins bound to DNA.

  13. Advanced Corneal Cross-Linking System with Fluorescence Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc D. Friedman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper describes an advanced system that combines corneal cross-linking with riboflavin with fluorescence dosimetry, the ability to measure riboflavin diffusion within the cornea both before and during UVA treatment. Methods and Results. A corneal cross-linking system utilizing a digital micromirror device (DMD was assembled and used to measure diffusion coefficients of 0.1% riboflavin in 20% dextran in porcine eyes. A value of (3.3±0.2×10−7 cm2/s was obtained for the stroma. Diffusion coefficients for the transepithelial formulation of 0.1% riboflavin in 0.44% saline and 0.02% BAK were also measured to be 4.7±0.3×10−8 cm2/s for epithelium only and (4.6±0.4×10−7 cm2/s for stroma only. Riboflavin consumption during a UVA treatment was also demonstrated. Conclusion. A new advanced corneal cross-linking system with fluorescence dosimetry of riboflavin has been demonstrated. It is hoped that this method may play a significant role in determining the underlying mechanisms of corneal cross-linking and assist with the development of additional riboflavin formulations. Moreover, dosimetry may prove valuable in providing a method to account for the biological differences between individuals, potentially informing cornea-specific UVA treatment doses in real time.

  14. The Database of Ribosomal Cross-links: an update.

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov, P. V.; Kubarenko, A V; Gurvich, O L; Shamolina, T A; Brimacombe, R

    1999-01-01

    The Database of Ribosomal Cross-links (DRC) was created in 1997. Here we describe new data incorporated into this database and several new features of the DRC. The DRC is freely available via World Wide Web at http://visitweb.com/database/ or http://www. mpimg-berlin-dahlem.mpg.de/ approximately ag_ribo/ag_brimacombe/drc/

  15. Load transfer mechanisms in cross-linked DWNT fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filleter, T.; Naraghi, M.; Moravsky, A.; Bernal, R.; Loutfy, R. O.; Espinosa, H. D.

    2011-03-01

    The application of carbon nanotubes (CNT) to macroscopic composite fibers has been limited by weak shear interfaces between adjacent CNT shells and composite matrix elements. A fundamental understanding of load transfer at multiple length-scales is needed to identify how the exceptional mechanical properties of CNTs can be scaled to produce high-performance fibers. Through in-situ electron microscopy tensile testing we have elucidated load transfer mechanisms across multiple scales of cross-linked double-walled nanotube (DWNT) fibers. A low density of polymer cross-links is found to increase the total energy dissipated at failure and ductility of fibers by 5 and 10X, respectively, without reducing strength. This mutiscale approach has identified a need to enhance shear interactions between individual DWNTs within the hierarchical DWNT fiber structures. Through in-situ TEM electron irradiation studies we have shown that load can be effectively transferred to inner DWNTs within bundles by covalently cross-linking the interfaces of adjacent DWNTs and shells. We have observed order of magnitude increases in strength and modulus and identified their dependence on irradiation dose. In future a combined approach of irradiation induced covalent and polymer cross-linking may lead to high-performance DWNT-based fibers and composites with tunable mechanical properties.

  16. Polyimide Aerogels with Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for creating a three dimensional cross-linked polyimide structure includes dissolving a diamine, a dianhydride, and a triamine in a solvent, imidizing a polyamic acid gel by heating the gel, extracting the gel in a second solvent, supercritically drying the gel, and removing the solvent to create a polyimide aerogel.

  17. Femtosecond laser collagen cross-linking without traditional photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yizang; Wang, Chao; Celi, Nicola; Vukelic, Sinisa

    2015-03-01

    Collagen cross-linking in cornea has the capability of enhancing its mechanical properties and thereby providing an alternative treatment for eye diseases such as keratoconus. Currently, riboflavin assisted UVA light irradiation is a method of choice for cross-link induction in eyes. However, ultrafast pulsed laser interactions may be a powerful alternative enabling in-depth treatment while simultaneously diminishing harmful side effects such as, keratocyte apoptosis. In this study, femtosecond laser is utilized for treatment of bovine cornea slices. It is hypothesized that nonlinear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses plays a major role in the maturation of immature cross-links and the promotion of their growth. Targeted irradiation with tightly focused laser pulses allows for the absence of a photosensitizing agent. Inflation test was conducted on half treated porcine cornea to identify the changes of mechanical properties due to laser treatment. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to study subtle changes in the chemical composition of treated cornea. The effects of treatment are analyzed by observing shifts in Amide I and Amide III bands, which suggest deformation of the collagen structure in cornea due to presence of newly formed cross-links.

  18. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs): stable and recyclable biocatalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheldon, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The key to obtaining an optimum performance of an enzyme is often a question of devising an effective method for its immobilization. In the present review, we describe a novel, versatile and effective methodology for enzyme immobilization as CLEAs (cross-linked enzyme aggregates). The method is exqu

  19. Hyper-cross-linked, hybrid membranes via interfacial polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, M.J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-cross-linked, hybrid membranes consist of covalent networks of alternating organic and inorganic, or biological groups. This thesis reports on the preparation of such hybrid networks via interfacial polymerization. The structure-property relationships of the hybrid networks depend strongly on

  20. Mechanical properties and collagen cross-linking of the patellar tendon in old and young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, C; Hansen, P; Kongsgaard, M;

    2009-01-01

    years, 81 +/- 8 kg) with a similar physical activity level (OM 5 +/- 6 h/wk, YM 5 +/- 2 h/wk) were examined. MRI was used to assess whole tendon dimensions. Tendon mechanical properties were assessed with the use of simultaneous force and ultrasonographic measurements during ramped isometric......Age-related loss in muscle mass and strength impairs daily life function in the elderly. However, it remains unknown whether tendon properties also deteriorate with age. Cross-linking of collagen molecules provides structural integrity to the tendon fibrils and has been shown to change with age...

  1. Hydration and swelling of amorphous cross-linked starch microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtasz, Joanna; Carlstedt, Jonas; Fyhr, Peter; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Hydration of cross-linked starch microspheres, commercially available as a medical device, was investigated using a multi-method approach. We found that the uptake of water is accompanied by substantial swelling and changes of the polymer structure. Sorption calorimetry provided information about thermodynamics of water sorption, revealed presence of isothermal glass transition and absence of hydration-induced crystallization, observed in non-cross linked starch material. The changes in the surface and bulk properties of microspheres at different water-starch concentrations were investigated using synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering and analyzed using concept of fractals. The obtained information, combined with the results of differential scanning calorimetry, was used to construct a phase diagram of the studied material. Finally, hydration induced evolution of polymer structure revealed by the X-ray scattering was linked to the changes observed during swelling with optical microscopy. PMID:26453872

  2. Transient Anisocoria after Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Kymionis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case with transient anisocoria after corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL. Methods. Case report. Results. A 24-year-old male underwent corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL in his right eye for keratoconus. At the end of the procedure, the pupil of the treated eye was irregular and dilated, while the pupil of the fellow eye was round, regular, and reactive (anisocoria. The following day, pupils were round, regular, and reactive in both eyes. Conclusion. Anisocoria may be a transient and innocuous complication after CXL. A possible cause for this complication might be the anesthetic drops used before and during the surgical procedure or/and the ultraviolet A irradiation during the treatment.

  3. [Cross-linking and intrastromal corneal ring segment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renesto, Adimara da Candelaria; Sartori, Marta; Campos, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Corneal cross-linking is a procedure used for stabilizing the cornea in patients with progressive keratoconus by increasing corneal rigidity, and it is also used in corneal inflammatory melting process. The intrastromal corneal ring segments act by flattening the center of the cornea. Originally designed for the correction of mild myopia, the segments are now being used for reduction of keratoconus in order to improve the uncorrected visual acuity, the best spectacle corrected visual acuity, to allow good tolerance to the use of contact lenses and delay the need for corneal grafting procedures. The present text presents a review of corneal cross-linking and insertion of intrastromal corneal ring segments, emphasizing their indications, results and complications related until now. PMID:21670914

  4. The beginning of a beautiful friendship: Cross-linking/mass spectrometry and modelling of proteins and multi-protein complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappsilber, Juri

    2011-01-01

    After more than a decade of method development, cross-linking in combination with mass spectrometry and bioinformatics is finally coming of age. This technology now provides improved opportunities for modelling by mapping structural details of functional complexes in solution. The structure of proteins or protein complexes is ascertained by identifying amino acid pairs that are positioned in close proximity to each other. The validity of this technique has recently been benchmarked for large multi-protein complexes, by comparing cross-link data with that from a crystal structure of RNA polymerase II. Here, the specific nature of this cross-linking data will be discussed to assess the technical challenges and opportunities for model building. We believe that once remaining technological challenges of cross-linking/mass spectrometry have been addressed and cross-linking/mass spectrometry data has been incorporated into modelling algorithms it will quickly become an indispensable companion of protein and protein complex modelling and a corner-stone of integrated structural biology. PMID:21029779

  5. Plasma cross linked fibrin degradation products in pulmonary embolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowbotham, B J; Egerton-Vernon, J; Whitaker, A. N.; Elms, M J; Bunce, I H

    1990-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of cross linked fibrin degradation products, a marker of intravascular thrombosis and fibrinolysis, were measured in 495 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism referred for ventilation-perfusion lung scanning to determine whether concentrations are increased in pulmonary embolism and their potential use in diagnosis. Lung scans were described as normal (n = 66) or as showing a low (n = 292), indeterminate (n = 58), or high probability (n = 79) of pulmonary embolism. ...

  6. Optimized Fragmentation Regime for Diazirine Photo-Cross-Linked Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Sven H; Belsom, Adam; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-08-16

    Cross-linking/mass spectrometry has evolved into a robust technology that reveals structural insights into proteins and protein complexes. We leverage a new tribrid instrument with improved fragmentation capacities in a systematic comparison to identify which fragmentation method would be best for the identification of cross-linked peptides. Specifically, we explored three fragmentation methods and two combinations: collision-induced dissociation (CID), beam-type CID (HCD), electron-transfer dissociation (ETD), ETciD, and EThcD. Trypsin-digested, SDA-cross-linked human serum albumin (HSA) served as a test sample, yielding over all methods and in triplicate analysis in total 2602 matched PSMs and 1390 linked residue pairs at 5% false discovery rate, as confirmed by the crystal structure. HCD wins in number of matched peptide-spectrum-matches (958 PSMs) and identified links (446). CID is most complementary, increasing the number of identified links by 13% (58 links). HCD wins together with EThcD in cross-link site calling precision, with approximately 62% of sites having adjacent backbone cleavages that unambiguously locate the link in both peptides, without assuming any cross-linker preference for amino acids. Overall quality of spectra, as judged by sequence coverage of both peptides, is best for EThcD for the majority of peptides. Sequence coverage might be of particular importance for complex samples, for which we propose a data dependent decision tree, else HCD is the method of choice. The mass spectrometric raw data has been deposited in PRIDE (PXD003737). PMID:27454319

  7. Method of enzymatically cross-linking proteins and phenolic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Oudgenoeg, G.; Piersma, S.; Boeriu, C.; Gruppen, H.; Hessing, M.; Voragen, A. G. J.; Laane, N.C.M.; Hilhorst, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of cross-linking a protein or peptide and a phenolic polymer or oligomer having substituents derived from carboxylic acids containing hydroxyl substituted phenyl groups by means of an enzyme and an oxidizing agent suitable for the enzyme in a solvent, which method comprises reacting a mixture of protein or peptide, oxidizing agent, enzyme and polymer or oligomer in the solvent, wherein the method is controlled such that in the mixture the ratio of tar...

  8. Method of enzymatically cross-linking proteins and phenolic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Oudgenoeg, G.; Boeriu, C.G.; Hilhorst, H.M.; Gruppen, H.; Laane, N.C.M.; Voragen, A. G. J.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of cross-linking a protein or peptide and a phenolic polymer or oligomer having substituents derived from carboxylic acids containing hydroxyl substituted phenyl groups by means of an enzyme and an oxidizing agent suitable for the enzyme in a solvent, which method comprises reacting a mixture of protein or peptide, oxidizing agent, enzyme and polymer or oligomer in the solvent, wherein the method is controlled such that in the mixture the ratio of tar...

  9. Fiber optic immunosensor for cross-linked fibrin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Samuel E.

    2000-08-01

    Working with calcium ions in the blood, platelets produce thromboplastin which transforms prothrombin into thrombin. Removing peptides, thrombin changes fibrinogen into fibrin. Cross-linked insoluble fibrin polymers are solubilized by enzyme plasmin found in blood plasma. Resulting D-dimers are elevated in patients with intravascular coagulation, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, multiple trauma, cancer, impaired renal and liver functions, and sepsis. Consisting principally of a NIR 780 nm GaAlAs laser diode and a 800 nm avalanche photodiode (APD), the fiber-optic immunosensor can determined D-dimer concentration to levels <0.1 ng/ml. A capture monoclonal antibody to the antigen soluble cross-linked fibrin is employed. Immobilized at the tip of an optical fiber by avidin-biotin, the captured antigen is detected by a second antibody which is labeled with NN 382 fluorescent dye. An evanescent wave traveling on an excitation optical fiber excites the antibody-antigen fluorophore complex. Concentration of cross-linked fibrin is directly proportional to the APD measured intensity of fluorescence. NIR fluorescence has advantages of low background interference, short fluorescence lifetime, and large difference between excitation and emission peaks. Competitive ELISA test for D-dimer concentration requires trained personnel performing a time consuming operation.

  10. Electrochemical Characterization of Ultrathin Cross-Linked Metal Nanoparticle Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chu; Percival, Stephen J; Zhang, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Here we report the preparation, characterization, and electrochemical study of conductive, ultrathin films of cross-linked metal nanoparticles (NPs). Nanoporous films ranging from 40 to 200 nm in thickness composed of gold and platinum NPs of ∼5 nm were fabricated via a powerful layer-by-layer spin coating process. This process allows preparation of uniform NP films as large as 2 × 2 cm(2) with precise control over thickness, structure, and electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties. Gold, platinum, and bimetallic NP films were fabricated and characterized using cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, and conductance measurements. Their electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was investigated. Our results show that the electrochemical activity of such NP films is initially hindered by the presence of dense thiolate cross-linking ligands. Both electrochemical cycling and oxygen plasma cleaning are effective means in restoring their electrochemical activity. Gold NP films have higher electric conductivity than platinum possibly due to more uniform film structure and closer particle-particle distance. The electrochemical and electrocatalytic performance of platinum NP films can be greatly enhanced by the incorporation of gold NPs. This work focuses on electrochemical characterization of cross-linked NP films and demonstrates several unique properties. These include quick and easy preparation, ultrathin and uniform film thickness, tunable structure and composition, and transferability to many other substrates.

  11. Fan1 deficiency results in DNA interstrand cross-link repair defects, enhanced tissue karyomegaly, and organ dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Thongthip, Supawat; Bellani, Marina; Gregg, Siobhan Q.; Sridhar, Sunandini; Conti, Brooke A.; Chen, Yanglu; Seidman, Michael M.; Smogorzewska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Thongthip et al. describe a FANCD2/FANCI-associated nuclease 1 (Fan1)-deficient mouse and show that FAN1 is required for cellular and organismal resistance to DNA interstrand cross-links. Karyomegaly becomes prominent in the kidneys and livers of Fan1-deficient mice with age, and mice develop liver dysfunction.

  12. Surface-gradient cross-linked polyethylene acetabular cups: oxidation resistance and wear against smooth and rough femoral balls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fu-Wen; McKellop, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Two methods were developed and evaluated for cross-linking the bearing surface of a polyethylene acetabular cup to a limited depth, in order to improve its resistance to wear without degrading the mechanical properties of the bulk of the component. In the first method, low-energy electron beams were used to cross-link only the bearing surface of the cups to a maximum depth of about 2 mm. The cups then were annealed at 100 degrees C in vacuum for 3 or 6 days to reduce the residual free radicals, and the resultant resistance to oxidation was compared by artificially aging the cups at 80 degrees C in air. Chemically cross-linked surface layers were produced by coating the bearing surfaces of the cups with a thin layer of polyethylene powder mixed with 1% weight peroxide, and compressing them at 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and 170 degrees C. This resulted in a cross-linked surface layer that extended about 3 mm deep, with a gradual transition to conventional (noncross-linked) polyethylene in the bulk of the implant. In hip simulator wear tests with highly polished (implant quality) femoral balls, both types of surface cross-linking were found to improve markedly the wear resistance of the acetabular cups. In tests with roughened femoral balls, the wear rates were much higher and were comparable to those obtained with similarly roughened balls against noncross-linked polyethylene cups in a previous study, indicating that the full benefit of cross-linking may not be realized under conditions of severe third-body abrasion. Nevertheless, these results show a promising approach for optimizing the wear resistance and the bulk mechanical properties of polyethylene components in total joint arthroplasty.

  13. Newer protocols and future in collagen cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B Cummings

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal Cross-Linking (CXL is an established surgical procedure for the treatment of corneal disorders such as corneal ectasia and keratoconus. This method of treatment stabilises the corneal structure and increases rigidity, reducing the requirement for corneal transplantation. Since its development, many scientific studies have been conducted to investigate ways of improving the procedure. Biomechanical stability of the cornea after exposure to UV-A light, and the effect of shortening procedure time has been some of the many topics explored

  14. LET dependence of DNA-protein cross-links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have preliminary data indicating a fluence-dependent yield of particle-induced protein cross-links (DPC's) with a dependency on LET and particle residual energy. Our data indicate that the DPC yield for hamster fibroblasts in vitro irradiated at 32 keV/μm is similar to that reported for hamster cells irradiated with cobalt-60 gamma rays. At 100-120 keV/μm there is some evidence for an enhanced DPC yield with increasing particle fluence, but there are differences in the yields that are dependent on particle track structure

  15. Cross-linked comb-shaped anion exchange membranes with high base stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, NW; Wang, LZ; Hickner, M

    2014-01-01

    A unique one-step cross-linking strategy that connects quaternary ammonium centers using Grubbs II-catalyzed olefin metathesis was developed. The cross-linked anion exchange membranes showed swelling ratios of less than 10% and hydroxide conductivities of 18 to 40 mS cm(- 1). Cross-linking improved the membranes' stability to hydroxide degradation compared to their non-cross-linked analogues.

  16. Collagen Cross-Linking: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Hovakimyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL using UVA light and riboflavin (vitamin B2 was introduced as a clinical application to stabilize the cornea by inducing cross-links within and between collagen fibers. CXL has been investigated extensively and has been shown clinically to arrest the progression of keratoconic or post-LASIK ectasia. With its minimal cost, simplicity, and proven positive clinical outcome, CXL can be regarded as a useful approach to reduce the number of penetrating keratoplasties performed. Small case series have also indicated that CXL is beneficial in corneal edema by reducing stromal swelling behavior and in keratitis by inhibiting pathogen growth. Despite these encouraging results, CXL remains a relatively new method that is potentially associated with complications. Aspects such as side effects and recurrence rates have still to be elucidated. In light of the growing interest in CXL, our paper summarizes present knowledge about this promising approach. We have intentionally endeavored to include the more relevant studies from the recent literature to provide an overview of the current status of CXL.

  17. Optimization model for UV-Riboflavin corneal cross-linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, S.; Wernli, J.; Scherrer, S.; Bueehler, M.; Seiler, T.; Mrochen, M.

    2011-03-01

    Nowadays UV-cross-linking is an established method for the treatment of keraectasia. Currently a standardized protocol is used for the cross-linking treatment. We will now present a theoretical model which predicts the number of induced crosslinks in the corneal tissue, in dependence of the Riboflavin concentration, the radiation intensity, the pre-treatment time and the treatment time. The model is developed by merging the difussion equation, the equation for the light distribution in dependence on the absorbers in the tissue and a rate equation for the polymerization process. A higher concentration of Riboflavin solution as well as a higher irradiation intensity will increase the number of induced crosslinks. However, performed stress-strain experiments which support the model showed that higher Riboflavin concentrations (> 0.125%) do not result in a further increase in stability of the corneal tissue. This is caused by the inhomogeneous distribution of induced crosslinks throughout the cornea due to the uneven absorption of the UV-light. The new model offers the possibility to optimize the treatment individually for every patient depending on their corneal thickness in terms of efficiency, saftey and treatment time.

  18. Microbial Keratitis After Collagen Cross-linking Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Torun Acar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old woman presented with pain, redness, and diminution of vision that occurred 2 days after collagen cross-linking had been performed for keratoconus in the right eye. Culture results from the patient's contact lens and corneal scrapings were positive for Staphylococcus epidermidis. According to the results of antibiotic susceptibility testing, the patient was treated with hourly topical fortified vancomycin and exocin. Before collagen cross-linking, the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 4/10, the manifest refraction was -7.00 -1.755 3°. Four months after the procedure, the BCVA was 4/10, the manifest refraction was -5.50 -1.75 10°. Slit-lamp examination revealed a mild residual haze in the upper midperipheral cornea, and stromal opacities had disappeared. Collagen crosslinking is less invasive compared to other methods for treatment of keratoconus, but epithelial debridement and bandage contact lens wearing may lead to the development of bacterial keratitis. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 300-2

  19. Covalently Cross-Linked Arabinoxylans Films for Debaryomyces hansenii Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsés González-Estrada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, wheat water extractable arabinoxylans (WEAX were isolated and characterized, and their capability to form covalently cross-linked films in presence of Debaryomyces hansenii was evaluated. WEAX presented an arabinose to xylose ratio of 0.60, a ferulic acid and diferulic acid content of 2.1 and 0.04 µg∙mg−1 WEAX, respectively and a Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR spectrum typical of WEAX. The intrinsic viscosity and viscosimetric molecular weight values for WEAX were 3.6 dL∙g−1 and 440 kDa, respectively. The gelation of WEAX (1% w/v with and without D. hansenii (1 × 107 CFU∙cm−2 was rheologically investigated by small amplitude oscillatory shear. The entrapment of D. hansenii decreased gel elasticity from 1.4 to 0.3 Pa, probably by affecting the physical interactions between WEAX chains. Covalently cross-linked WEAX films containing D. hansenii were prepared by casting. Scanning electron microscopy images show that WEAX films containing D. hansenii were porous and consisted of granular-like and fibre microstructures. Average tensile strength, elongation at break and Young’s modulus values dropped when D. hansenii was present in the film. Covalently cross-lined WEAX containing D. hansenii could be a suitable as a functional entrapping film.

  20. One-step electrospinning of cross-linked chitosan fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Jessica D; Schauer, Caroline L

    2007-09-01

    Chitin is a nitrogen-rich polysaccharide that is abundant in crustaceans, mollusks, insects, and fungi and is the second most abundant organic material found in nature next to cellulose. Chitosan, the N-deacetylated derivative of chitin, is environmentally friendly, nontoxic, biodegradable, and antibacterial. Fibrous mats are typically used in industries for filter media, catalysis, and sensors. Decreasing fiber diameters within these mats causes many beneficial effects such as increased specific surface area to volume ratios. When the intrinsically beneficial effects of chitosan are combined with the enhanced properties of nanofibrous mats, applications arise in a wide range of fields, including medical, packaging, agricultural, and automotive. This is particularly important as innovative technologies that focus around bio-based materials are currently of high urgency, as they can decrease dependencies on fossil fuels. We have demonstrated that Schiff base cross-linked chitosan fibrous mats can be produced utilizing a one-step electrospinning process that is 25 times faster and, therefore, more economical than a previously reported two-step vapor-cross-linking method. These fibrous mats are insoluble in acidic, basic, and aqueous solutions for 72 h. Additionally, this improved production method results in a decreased average fiber diameter, which measures 128 +/- 40 nm. Chemical and structural analyses were conducted utilizing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solubility studies, and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:17696400

  1. Tea derived galloylated polyphenols cross-link purified gastrointestinal mucins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Georgiades

    Full Text Available Polyphenols derived from tea are thought to be important for human health. We show using a combination of particle tracking microrheology and small-angle neutron scattering that polyphenols acts as cross-linkers for purified gastrointestinal mucin, derived from the stomach and the duodenum. Both naturally derived purified polyphenols, and green and black tea extracts are shown to act as cross-linkers. The main active cross-linking component is found to be the galloylated forms of catechins. The viscosity, elasticity and relaxation time of the mucin solutions experience an order of magnitude change in value upon addition of the polyphenol cross-linkers. Similarly small-angle neutron scattering experiments demonstrate a sol-gel transition with the addition of polyphenols, with a large increase in the scattering at low angles, which is attributed to the formation of large scale (>10 nm heterogeneities during gelation. Cross-linking of mucins by polyphenols is thus expected to have an impact on the physicochemical environment of both the stomach and duodenum; polyphenols are expected to modulate the barrier properties of mucus, nutrient absorption through mucus and the viscoelastic microenvironments of intestinal bacteria.

  2. Effects of processing conditions on the reliability of cross-linked polyethylene cable insulation. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, P.J.

    1981-03-01

    Crystallization and morphology were investigated in cross-linked PE. /sup 13/C NMR was used to quantify the cross-links. Production of cable is being studied. Dielectric constant and loss of cross-linked PE are being measured. (DLC)

  3. CrossWork: Software-assisted identification of cross-linked peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Refsgaard, Jan; Peng, Li;

    2011-01-01

    Work searches batches of tandem mass-spectrometric data, and identifies cross-linked and non-cross-linked peptides using a standard PC. We tested CrossWork by searching mass-spectrometric datasets of cross-linked complement factor C3 against small (1 protein) and large (1000 proteins) search spaces, and show...

  4. Analysis of protein-nucleic acid interactions by photochemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Hanno; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2002-01-01

    Photochemical cross-linking is a commonly used method for studying the molecular details of protein-nucleic acid interactions. Photochemical cross-linking aids in defining nucleic acid binding sites of proteins via subsequent identification of cross-linked protein domains and amino acid residues....

  5. Biocatalytic cross-linking of pectic polysaccharides for designed food functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz Abang; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated how cross-linking of pectic polysaccharides to obtain gel formation can be promoted by enzymatic catalysis reactions, and provide opportunities for functional upgrading of pectic polysaccharides present in agro-industrial sidestreams. This review highlights...... the mechanisms of formation of functional pectic polysaccharide cross-links, including covalent cross-links (notably phenolic esters and uronyl ester linkages) and non-covalent, ionic cross-links (which involve calcium and borate ester links). The treatise examines how such cross-links can be designed via...

  6. Synthesis and Catalytic Properties of Non-Cross-Linked and Cross-Linked Poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromides) Having Decyl, Octyl, and Hexyl Side Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.J; Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    1995-01-01

    A family of non-cross-linked and cross-linked copolymers containing decyl, octyl, and hexyl groups as side chains ((CL)-CopolC1-10, (CL)-CopolC1-8, and (CL)-CopolC1-6, respectively) were synthesized by radical-initiated cyclocopolymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers without and

  7. Encapsulation of cobalt nanoparticles in cross-linked-polymer cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamie, Shadie [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Ding, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 7, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Kale, S.N. [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India)], E-mail: sangeetakale2004@gmail.com

    2009-07-15

    Nanoparticles embedded in polymeric cages give rise to interesting applications ranging from nanocatalysis to drug-delivery systems. In this context, we report on synthesis of cobalt (Co) nanoparticles trapped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to yield self-supporting magnetic films in PVA slime. A 20 nm, Co formed in FCC geometry encapsulated with a weak citrate coat when caged in PVA matrix exhibited persistence of magnetism and good radio-frequency response. Cross-linking of PVA chains to form cage-like structures to arrest Co nanoparticles therein, is believed to be the reason for oxide-free nature of Co, promising applications in biomedicine as well as in radio-frequency shielding.

  8. Stiffening of semiflexible biopolymers and cross-linked networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dillen, T; Van der Giessen, E

    2006-01-01

    We study the mechanical stiffening behavior in two-dimensional (2D) cross-linked networks of semiflexible biopolymer filaments under simple shear. Filamental constituents immersed in a fluid undergo thermally excited bending motions. Pulling out these undulations results in an increase in the axial stiffness. We analyze this stiffening behavior of 2D semiflexible filaments in detail: we first investigate the average, {static} force-extension relation by considering the initially present undulated configuration that is pulled straight under a tensile force, and compare this result with the average response in which undulation dynamics is allowed during pulling, as derived earlier by MacKintosh and coworkers. We will show that the resulting mechanical behavior is rather similar, but with the axial stiffness being a factor 2 to 4 larger in the dynamic model. Furthermore, we study the stretching contribution in case of extensible filaments and show that, for 2D filaments, the mechanical response is dominated by {...

  9. The cross-linking of polyethylene irradiated in multilayer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polyethylene films characterized by different thickness and cross-linking efficiency were irradiated with 1.5 MeV electrons at average current density of 0.016 mA cm-2. The samples were in the form of film stacks with or without distance supports between polymer layers. Some of the samples were irradiated in nitrogen atmosphere. The absorbed dose in a given polymer layer was estimated from the gel content. From the dose-gel dependence estimated for every polymer layer and dose-depth dependence based on the literature data, the gel-depth and dose-depth curves were plotted. From the comparison of those curves with experimental data it was concluded that the absorbed dose depends on the polymer film thickness and the presence or absence of the gas phase between polymer layers. (author)

  10. Studies on N-vinylformamide cross-linked copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świder, Joanna; Tąta, Agnieszka; Sokołowska, Katarzyna; Witek, Ewa; Proniewicz, Edyta

    2015-12-01

    Copolymers of N-vinylformamide (NVF) cross-linked with three multifunctional monomers, including divinylbenzene (DVB), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and N,N‧-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) were synthetized by a three-dimensional free radical polymerization in inverse suspension using 2,2‧-azobis(2-methylpropionamide) dihydrochloride (AIBA) as an initiator. Methyl silicon oil was used as the continuous phase during the polymerization processes. Fourier-transform adsorption infrared (FT-IR) spectra revealed the presence of silicone oil traces and suggested that silicone oil strongly interacted with the copolymers surface. Purification procedure allowed to completely remove the silicon oil traces from P(NVF-co-DVB) only. The morphology and the structure of the investigated copolymers were examined by optical microscopy, FT-IR, and FT-Raman (Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy) methods.

  11. Photo-cross-linking of amniotic membranes for limbal epithelial cell cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we developed photo-cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) as a limbal stem cell niche. After ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for varying time periods, the biological tissues were studied by determinations of cross-linking structure, degradability, and nutrient permeation ability. Our results showed that the number of cross-links per unit mass of AM significantly increased with increasing illumination time from 5 to 50 min. However, the cross-link formation was inhibited by longer irradiation time (i.e., 150 min), probably due to the scission of tissue collagen chains through irradiation. The biological stability and matrix permeability of photo-cross-linked AM materials strongly depended on their cross-linking densities affected by the UV irradiation. In vitro biocompatibility studies including cell viability and pro-inflammatory gene expression analyses demonstrated that, irrespective of the irradiation time employed, the physically cross-linked biological tissues exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and similar interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels. The data clearly indicate that these AM matrices do not cause potential harm to the corneal epithelial cells. After the growth of limbal epithelial cells (LECs) on AM substrates, Western blot analyses were conducted to examine the expression of ABCG2. It was found that the ability of UV-irradiated AM to maintain the undifferentiated precursor cell phenotype was significantly enhanced with increasing extent of photo-cross-linking. In summary, the UV irradiation time may have a profound influence on the fabrication of photo-cross-linked AM matrices for LEC cultivation. - Highlights: • We report the development of photo-cross-linked AM as a limbal stem cell niche. • Cross-linked structure of tissue materials was controlled by UV irradiation time. • Biostability and matrix permeability of AM depended on cross-linking density. • All the studied photo-cross-linked AM showed good in vitro biocompatibility.

  12. Wear Measurement of Highly Cross-linked UHMWPE using a 7Be Tracer Implantation Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, Markus A. [Rush Uniiv. Medical Center; Laurent, Michael P. [Rush Univ. Medical Center; Dwivedi, Yasha [Rush Univ. Medical Center; Gallardo, Luis A. [Rush Univ. Medical Center; Chipps, K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Blackmon, Jeffery C [Louisiana State University; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Gross, Carl J [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; Erikson, Luke [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Patel, Nidhi [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Rehm, Karl E. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ahmad, Irshad [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Greene, John P. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Greife, Uwe [Colorado School of Mines, Golden

    2013-01-01

    The very low wear rates achieved with the current highly cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPE) used in joint prostheses have proven to be difficult to measure accurately by gravimetry. Tracer methods are there- fore being explored. The purpose of this study was to perform a proof-of-concept experiment on the use of the radioactive tracer beryllium-7 (7Be) for the determination of in vitro wear in a highly cross-linked orthopedic UHMWPE. Three cross-linked and four conventional UHMWPE pins made from compression- molded GUR 1050, were activated with 109 to 1010 7Be nuclei using a new implantation setup that produced a homogenous distribution of implanted nuclei up to 8.5 lm below the surface. The pins were tested for wear in a six-station pin-on-flat appara- tus for up to 7.1 million cycles (178 km). A Germanium gamma detector was employed to determine activity loss of the UHMWPE pins at preset intervals during the wear test. The wear of the cross-linked UHMWPE pins was readily detected and esti- mated to be 17 6 3 lg per million cycles. The conventional-to- cross-linked ratio of the wear rates was 13.1 6 0.8, in the expected range for these materials. Oxidative degradation dam- age from implantation was negligible; however, a weak depend- ence of wear on implantation dose was observed limiting the number of radioactive tracer atoms that can be introduced. Future applications of this tracer technology may include the analysis of location-specific wear, such as loss of material in the post or backside of a tibial insert.

  13. Tuning nanoscale viscoelasticity of polyelectrolyte complexes with multiple types of cross-links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianzhu; Han, Biao; Lee, Daeyeon; Han, Lin

    Mechanical properties of hydrogels are manifestation of cross-link type and density, fixed charges and water-polymer interactions. In this study, we revealed how different types of cross-links regulate the nanoscale viscoelasticity of polyelectrolyte networks. Ionically cross-linked PAH/PAA layer-by-layer complexes were modified to include covalent cross-links using EDC. AFM-nanoindentation and force relaxation were performed at various ionic strength (0.01-1M) and pH (1.5-5.5). As-assembled networks, held only by ionic cross-links, underwent >95% relaxation, dominated by cross-link breaking and re-formation. Addition of covalent cross-links increased the instantaneous modulus by 1.6-fold and attenuated relaxation to ~80% of net neutral states (pH >=3.5), as covalent cross-links provide additional elastic components. The network remained stabilized when all ionic cross-links were dissociated at pH poroelasticity. Taken together, this study demonstrates the potential of using multiple cross-linking types to tune the viscoelastic mechanisms in polyelectrolyte complexes.

  14. Characterization of Interstrand DNA-DNA Cross-Links Using the α-Hemolysin Protein Nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Price, Nathan E; Fang, Xi; Yang, Zhiyu; Gu, Li-Qun; Gates, Kent S

    2015-12-22

    Nanopore-based sensors have been studied extensively as potential tools for DNA sequencing, characterization of epigenetic modifications such as 5-methylcytosine, and detection of microRNA biomarkers. In the studies described here, the α-hemolysin protein nanopore embedded in a lipid bilayer was used for the detection and characterization of interstrand cross-links in duplex DNA. Interstrand cross-links are important lesions in medicinal chemistry and toxicology because they prevent the strand separation that is required for read-out of genetic information from DNA in cells. In addition, interstrand cross-links are used for the stabilization of duplex DNA in structural biology and materials science. Cross-linked DNA fragments produced unmistakable current signatures in the nanopore experiment. Some cross-linked substrates gave irreversible current blocks of >10 min, while others produced long current blocks (10-100 s) before the double-stranded DNA cross-link translocated through the α-hemolysin channel in a voltage-driven manner. The duration of the current block for the different cross-linked substrates examined here may be dictated by the stability of the duplex region left in the vestibule of the nanopore following partial unzipping of the cross-linked DNA. Construction of calibration curves measuring the frequency of cross-link blocking events (1/τon) as a function of cross-link concentration enabled quantitative determination of the amounts of cross-linked DNA present in samples. The unique current signatures generated by cross-linked DNA in the α-HL nanopore may enable the detection and characterization of DNA cross-links that are important in toxicology, medicine, and materials science.

  15. Cross-linked polyethylenimine–tripolyphosphate nanoparticles for gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang XZ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Xianzhang Huang,1 Sujing Shen,2 Zhanfeng Zhang,1 Junhua Zhuang1 1Department of Laboratory Science, Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, 2Department of Laboratory Science, Guangdong Second Provincial Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The high transfection efficiency of polyethylenimine (PEI makes it an attractive potential nonviral genetic vector for gene delivery and therapy. However, the highly positive charge of PEI leads to cytotoxicity and limits its application. To reduce the cytotoxicity of PEI, we prepared anion-enriched nanoparticles that combined PEI with tripolyphosphate (TPP. We then characterized the PEI-TPP nanoparticles in terms of size, zeta potential, and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectra, and assessed their transfection efficiency, cytotoxicity, and ability to resist deoxyribonuclease (DNase I digestion. The cellular uptake of PEI-TPP with phosphorylated internal ribosome entry site–enhanced green fluorescent protein C1 or FAM (fluorouracil, Adriamycin [doxorubicin] and mitomycin-labeled small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs was monitored by fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser microscopy. The efficiency of transfected delivery of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA and siRNA in vitro was 1.11- to 4.20-fold higher with the PEI-TPP particles (7.6% cross-linked than with the PEI, at all N:P ratios (nitrogen in PEI to phosphorus in DNA tested. The cell viability of different cell lines was more than 90% at the chosen N:P ratios of PEI-TPP/DNA complexes. Moreover, PEI-TPP nanoparticles resisted digestion by DNase I for more than 2 hours. The time-dependent absorption experiment showed that 7.6% of cross-linked PEI-TPP particles were internalized by 293T cells within 1 hour. In summary, PEI-TPP nanoparticles effectively transfected cells while conferring little or no toxicity, and thus have potential application in gene

  16. Riboflavin-ultraviolet a corneal cross-linking for keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Raggal Tamer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the safety, efficacy of riboflavin-ultraviolet A irradiation (UVA corneal cross-linking and present refractive changes induced by the treatment in cases of keratoconus. Materials and Methods: The study includes 15 eyes of 9 patients with keratoconus with an average keratometric (K reading less than 54 D and minimal corneal thickness greater than 420 microns. The corneal epithelium was removed manually within the central 8.5 mm diameter area and the cornea was soaked with riboflavin eye drops (0.1% in 20% dextran t-500 for 30 minutes followed by exposure to UVA radiation (365 nm, 3 mW/cm 2 for 30 minutes. During the follow-up period, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, manifest refraction, slit lamp examination and topographic changes were recorded at the first week, first month, 3 and 6 months. Results: There was statistically significant improvement of UCVA from a preoperative mean of 0.11 ± 0.07 (range 0.05-0.3 to a postoperative mean of 0.15 ± 0.06 (range 0.1-0.3 (P < 0.05. None of the eyes lost lines of preoperative UCVA but 1 eye lost 1 line of preoperative BSCVA. The preoperative mean K of 49.97 ± 2.81 D (range 47.20-51.75 changed to 48.34 ± 2.64 D (range 45.75-50.40. This decrease in K readings was statistically significant (P < 0.05. All eyes developed minimal faint stromal haze that cleared in 14 eyes within 1 month. In only 1 eye, this resulted in a very faint corneal scar. Other sight threatening complications were not encountered in this series. Progression of the original disease was not seen in any of the treated eyes within 6 months of follow-up. Conclusion: Riboflavin-UVA corneal cross-linking is a safe and promising method for keratoconus. Larger studies with longer follow up are recommended.

  17. Energy harvesting from vibration with cross-linked polypropylene piezoelectrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectret films are prepared by modification of the microstructure of polypropylene foam sheets cross-linked by electronic irradiation (IXPP, followed by proper corona charging. Young’s modulus, relative permittivity, and electromechanical coupling coefficient of the fabricated films, determined by dielectric resonance spectra, are about 0.7 MPa, 1.6, and 0.08, respectively. Dynamic piezoelectric d33 coefficients up to 650 pC/N at 200 Hz are achieved. The figure of merit (FOM, d33 ⋅ g33 for a more typical d33 value of 400 pC/N is about 11.2 GPa−1. Vibration-based energy harvesting with one-layer and two-layer stacks of these films is investigated at various frequencies and load resistances. At an optimum load resistance of 9 MΩ and a resonance frequency of 800 Hz, a maximum output power of 120 μW, referred to the acceleration g due to gravity, is obtained for an energy harvester consisting of a one-layer IXPP film with an area of 3.14 cm2 and a seismic mass of 33.7 g. The output power can be further improved by using two-layer stacks of IXPP films in electric series. IXPP energy harvesters could be used to energize low-power electronic devices, such as wireless sensors and LED lights.

  18. Energy harvesting from vibration with cross-linked polypropylene piezoelectrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wu, Liming; Sessler, Gerhard M.

    2015-07-01

    Piezoelectret films are prepared by modification of the microstructure of polypropylene foam sheets cross-linked by electronic irradiation (IXPP), followed by proper corona charging. Young's modulus, relative permittivity, and electromechanical coupling coefficient of the fabricated films, determined by dielectric resonance spectra, are about 0.7 MPa, 1.6, and 0.08, respectively. Dynamic piezoelectric d33 coefficients up to 650 pC/N at 200 Hz are achieved. The figure of merit (FOM, d33 ṡ g33) for a more typical d33 value of 400 pC/N is about 11.2 GPa-1. Vibration-based energy harvesting with one-layer and two-layer stacks of these films is investigated at various frequencies and load resistances. At an optimum load resistance of 9 MΩ and a resonance frequency of 800 Hz, a maximum output power of 120 μW, referred to the acceleration g due to gravity, is obtained for an energy harvester consisting of a one-layer IXPP film with an area of 3.14 cm2 and a seismic mass of 33.7 g. The output power can be further improved by using two-layer stacks of IXPP films in electric series. IXPP energy harvesters could be used to energize low-power electronic devices, such as wireless sensors and LED lights.

  19. Energy harvesting from vibration with cross-linked polypropylene piezoelectrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology & School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute for Telecommunications Technology, Merckstrasse 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany); Wu, Liming [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology & School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sessler, Gerhard M., E-mail: g.sessler@nt.tu-darmstadt.de [Institute for Telecommunications Technology, Merckstrasse 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Piezoelectret films are prepared by modification of the microstructure of polypropylene foam sheets cross-linked by electronic irradiation (IXPP), followed by proper corona charging. Young’s modulus, relative permittivity, and electromechanical coupling coefficient of the fabricated films, determined by dielectric resonance spectra, are about 0.7 MPa, 1.6, and 0.08, respectively. Dynamic piezoelectric d{sub 33} coefficients up to 650 pC/N at 200 Hz are achieved. The figure of merit (FOM, d{sub 33} ⋅ g{sub 33}) for a more typical d{sub 33} value of 400 pC/N is about 11.2 GPa{sup −1}. Vibration-based energy harvesting with one-layer and two-layer stacks of these films is investigated at various frequencies and load resistances. At an optimum load resistance of 9 MΩ and a resonance frequency of 800 Hz, a maximum output power of 120 μW, referred to the acceleration g due to gravity, is obtained for an energy harvester consisting of a one-layer IXPP film with an area of 3.14 cm{sup 2} and a seismic mass of 33.7 g. The output power can be further improved by using two-layer stacks of IXPP films in electric series. IXPP energy harvesters could be used to energize low-power electronic devices, such as wireless sensors and LED lights.

  20. Pyridinium cross-links in heritable disorders of collagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquali, M.; Still, M.J.; Dembure, P.P. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of collagen that is characterized by skin fragility, skin hyperextensibility, and joint hypermobility. EDS type VI is caused by impaired collagen lysyl hydroxylase (procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase; E.C.1.14.11.4), the ascorbate-dependent enzyme that hydroxylates lysyl residues on collagen neopeptides. Different alterations in the gene for collagen lysyl hydroxylase have been reported in families with EDS type VI. In EDS type VI, impairment of collagen lysyl hydroxylase results in a low hydroxylysine content in mature collagen. Hydroxylysine is a precursor of the stable, covalent, intermolecular cross-links of collagen, pyridinoline (Pyr), and deoxypyridinoline (Dpyr). Elsewhere we reported in preliminary form that patients with EDS type VI had a distinctive alteration in the urinary excretion of Pyr and Dpyr. In the present study, we confirm that the increased Dpyr/Pyr ratio is specific for EDS type VI and is not observed in other inherited or acquired collagen disorders. In addition, we find that skin from patients with EDS type VI has reduced Pyr and increased Dpyr, which could account for the organ pathology. 19 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Solvent Composition is Critical for Carbodiimide Cross-Linking of Hyaluronic Acid as an Ophthalmic Biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Yang Lai

    2012-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is one of the most important ophthalmic biomaterials, while also being used for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Although chemical cross-linking is an effective way to improve the material performance, it may as a consequence be detrimental to the living cells/tissues. Given that the cross-linking efficiency is mediated by the solvent composition during the chemical modification, this study aims to explore the stability and biocompatibility of carbodiimide cross-link...

  2. Chemically cross-linked silk fibroin hydrogel with enhanced elastic properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Won Ho

    2016-01-01

    Min Hee Kim, Won Ho Park Department of Advanced Organic Materials and Textile Engineering System, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea Abstract: In this study, the synthesis of silk fibroin (SF) hydrogel via chemical cross-linking reactions of SF due to gamma-ray (γ-ray) irradiation was investigated, as were the resultant hydrogel’s properties. Two different hydrogels were investigated: physically cross-linked SF hydrogel and chemically cross-linked SF hydrogel i...

  3. Interstrand Cross-Link Formation in Duplex and Triplex DNA by Modified Pyrimidines

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xiaohua; Hong, In Seok; Li, Hong; Seidman, Michael M.; Greenberg, Marc M.

    2008-01-01

    DNA interstrand cross-links have important biological consequences and are useful biotechnology tools. Phenylselenyl substituted derivatives of thymidine (1) and 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine (5) produce interstrand cross-links in duplex DNA when oxidized by NaIO4. The mechanism involves a [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of the respective selenoxides to the corresponding methide type intermediates, which ultimately produce the interstrand cross-links. Determination of the rate constants for the s...

  4. Tailoring the properties of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix using carbodiimide cross-linking.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Modulation of properties of extracellular matrix (ECM) based scaffolds is key for their application in the clinical setting. In the present study, cross-linking was used as a tool for tailoring the properties of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM). CEM was cross-linked with varying cross-linking concentrations of N,N-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-N\\'-ethyl carbodiimide (EDC) in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Shrink temperature measurements and ATR-FT-IR spectra were used to determine the degree of cross-linking. The effect of cross-linking on degradation was tested using the collagenase assay. Uniaxial tensile properties and the ability to support fibroblasts were also evaluated as a function of cross-linking. Shrink temperature increased from 59 degrees C for non-cross-linked CEM to 78 degrees C for the highest EDC cross-linking concentration, while IR peak area ratios for the free -NH(2) group at 3290 cm(-1) to that of the amide I band at 1635 cm(-1) decreased with increasing EDC cross-linking concentration. Collagenase assay demonstrated that degradation rates for CEM can be tailored. EDC concentrations 0 to 0.0033 mmol\\/mg CEM were the cross-linking concentration range in which CEM showed varied susceptibility to collagenase degradation. Furthermore, cross-linking concentrations up to 0.1 mmol EDC\\/mg CEM did not have statistically significant effect on the uniaxial tensile strength, as well as morphology, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts on CEM. In conclusion, the degradation rates of CEM can be tailored using EDC-cross-linking, while maintaining the mechanical properties and the ability of CEM to support cells.

  5. Cross-Linked Slurry Cast Composite Modified Double Base Propellants : Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bhat

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linking of NC by TDI in slurry cast CMDB propellant enhanced TS by about 100 per cent. Coated AP with resorcinol, phloroglucinol, hexanetriol or silicone oil etc. along with cross-linking of NC raised TS from 18 - 30 kg/cm2. Inclusion of phloroglucinol and silicone oil gave increased burning rates. The probable mechanism of action of cross-linking and improvement of mechanical properties by coating of AP has been discussed.

  6. Mass spectrometric analysis of a UV-cross-linked protein-DNA complex: tryptophans 54 and 88 of E. coli SSB cross-link to DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, H; Petersen, J; Mann, M;

    2001-01-01

    . Enzymatic degradation of protein and oligonucleotide was combined with miniaturized sample preparation methods for enrichment and desalting of cross-linked peptide-nucleic acid heteroconjugates from complex mixtures prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Detailed characterization of the peptidic component...

  7. Covalent cross-links in polyampholytic chitosan fibers enhances bone regeneration in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Paulomi; Rameshbabu, Arun Prabhu; Das, Dipankar; Francis, Nimmy K; Pawar, Harpreet Singh; Subramanian, Bhuvaneshwaran; Pal, Sagar; Dhara, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan fibers were prepared in citric acid bath, pH 7.4 and NaOH solution at pH 13, to form ionotropically cross-linked and uncross-linked fibers, respectively. The fibers formed in citric acid bath were further cross-linked via carbodiimide chemistry; wherein the pendant carboxyl moieties of citric acid were used for new amide bond formation. Moreover, upon covalent cross-linking in the ionically gelled citrate-chitosan fibers, incomplete conversion of the ion pairs to amide linkages took place resulting in the formation of a dual network structure. The dual cross-linked fibers displayed improved mechanical property, higher stability against enzymatic degradation, hydrophobicity and superior bio-mineralization compared to the uncross-linked and native citrate cross-linked fibers. Additionally, upon cyclic loading, the ion pairs in the dual cross-linked fibers dissociated by dissipating energy and reformed during the relaxation period. The twin property of elasticity and energy dissipation mechanism makes the dual cross-linked fiber unique under dynamic mechanical conditions. The differences in the physico-chemical characteristics were reflected in protein adsorption, which in turn influenced the cellular activities on the fibers. Compared to the uncross-linked and ionotropically cross-linked fibers, the dual cross-linked fibers demonstrated higher proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of the MSCs in vitro as well as better osseous tissue regeneration in a rabbit model. PMID:25483844

  8. Effect of Cross-Linking and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Composite Modification on the Properties of Rice Starches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Qiang Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Native rice starch lacks the versatility necessary to function adequately under rigorous industrial processing, so modified starches are needed to meet the functional properties required in food products. This work investigated the impact of enzymatic hydrolysis and cross-linking composite modification on the properties of rice starches. Rice starch was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (EPI with different concentrations (0.5%, 0.7%, 0.9% w/w, on a dry starch basis, affording cross-linked rice starches with the three different levels of cross-linking that were named R1, R2, and R3, respectively. The cross-linked rice starches were hydrolyzed by α-amylase and native, hydrolyzed, and hydrolyzed cross-linked rice starches were comparatively studied. It was found that hydrolyzed cross-linked rice starches showed a lower the degree of amylase hydrolysis compared with hydrolyzed rice starch. The higher the degree of cross-linking, the higher the capacity to resist enzyme hydrolysis. Hydrolyzed cross-linked rice starches further increased the adsorptive capacities of starches for liquids and decreased the trend of retrogradation, and it also strengthened the capacity to resist shear compared to native and hydrolyzed rice starches.

  9. Synthesis of Cross-Linked DNA Containing Oxidized Abasic Site Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    DNA interstrand cross-links are an important family of DNA damage that block replication and transcription. Recently, it was discovered that oxidized abasic sites react with the opposing strand of DNA to produce interstrand cross-links. Some of the cross-links between 2′-deoxyadenosine and the oxidized abasic sites, 5′-(2-phosphoryl-1,4-dioxobutane) (DOB) and the C4-hydroxylated abasic site (C4-AP), are formed reversibly. Chemical instability hinders biochemical, structural, and physicochemical characterization of these cross-linked duplexes. To overcome these limitations, we developed methods for preparing stabilized analogues of DOB and C4-AP cross-links via solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis. Oligonucleotides of any sequence are attainable by synthesizing phosphoramidites in which the hydroxyl groups of the cross-linked product were orthogonally protected using photochemically labile and hydrazine labile groups. Selective unmasking of a single hydroxyl group precedes solid-phase synthesis of one arm of the cross-linked DNA. The method is compatible with commercially available phosphoramidites and other oligonucleotide synthesis reagents. Cross-linked duplexes containing as many as 54 nt were synthesized on solid-phase supports. Subsequent enzyme ligation of one cross-link product provided a 60 bp duplex, which is suitable for nucleotide excision repair studies. PMID:24949656

  10. Peculiarities of the structure and properties of highly cross-linked polymer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the structure and properties of highly cross-linked polymer networks in which the distance between cross-link points is several repeating units or even less than one unit, up to the networks consisting of nothing but cross-link points containing no linear fragments, are generalised. The dependences of a number of physical properties (the glass transition temperature, the modulus of elasticity, etc.) on the degree of cross-linking and the influence of various defects (branchings, dangled chains, etc.) on the properties of highly cross-linked networks are analysed. It is shown that the passage from sparse networks to highly cross-linked networks is accompanied by fundamental changes in their properties and that these properties can be described quantitatively taking into account the chemical structure of the network. The influence of the chemical structure of a cross-link point of the network on the properties is analysed; it is shown that the distances between the cross-link points in such networks can be estimated by nontraditional methods. Particular attention is paid to the cross-linked systems that are the basis for gradient-modulus materials in which the modulus of elasticity, the refractive index, and other properties vary over a wide range. The bibliography includes 93 references.

  11. Use of cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose for soft-tissue augmentation: preliminary clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Leonardis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Leonardis1, Andrea Palange2, Rodrigo FV Dornelles3, Felipe Hund41Department of Plastic Surgery, Salvator Mundi International Hospital, Roma, Italy; 2Department of Aesthetic Medicine, Fisiobios, Roma, Italy; 3Department of Plastic Surgery, Núcleo de Plástica Avançada, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 4Department of Plastic Surgery, Consultorio de Cirurgia Plastica, Criciuma, SC, BrazilPurpose: The continual search for new products for soft-tissue augmentation has in recent years led to the introduction of long lasting alternatives to hyaluronic acids and collagen that are composed of other polymers able to improve clinical persistence over time. This is the first report in which sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC has been chemically treated by the cross-linking process and thus used as a hydrogel for soft-tissue augmentation through injection with thin needles. The study evaluates, from a clinical point of view, the behavior of cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel used in the aesthetic field and its side effects so as to check the safety and performance of the polymer following intradermal injections.Patients and methods: This work shows the preliminary results of an ongoing clinical study conducted between 2006 and 2009, performed on 84 healthy volunteers (62 females, 22 males aged between 18 and 72 years, for the treatment of 168 nasolabial folds, 45 perioral wrinkles, and 39 lip volume.Results: Study results show an excellent correction of facial defects. Tolerance and aesthetic quality of the correction obtained indicate considerable safety features and absence of side effects. From a clinical point of view, hydrogel is gradually absorbed into the injection site without migration issues.Conclusion: Cross-linked CMC hydrogel proves to be an ideal agent for soft tissue augmentation with regard to safety and ease of application. It did not cause infection, extrusion, migration, or adverse reactions in the patients who have been

  12. Acute Corneal Hydrops 3 Years after Intra-corneal Ring Segments and Corneal Collagen Cross-linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonios, Rafic; Dirani, Ali; Fadlallah, Ali; Chelala, Elias; Hamadeh, Adib; Jarade, Elias

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a 15-year-old male with allergic conjunctivitis and keratoconus, who underwent uneventful intra-corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation and corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in the right eye. During the follow-up periods, the patient was noted to have several episodes of allergic conjunctivitis that were treated accordingly. At the 2 years postoperatively, he presented with another episode of allergic conjunctivitis and progression of keratoconus was suspected on topography. However, the patient was lost to follow-up, until he presented with acute hydrops at 3 years postoperatively. There are no reported cases of acute corneal hydrops in cross-linked corneas. We suspect the young age, allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing may be a risk factors associated with possible progression of keratoconus after CXL. Prolonged follow-up and aggressive control of the allergy might be necessary in similar cases. PMID:26957859

  13. Flammability of radiation cross-linked low density polyethylene as an insulating material for wire and cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basfar, A. A.

    2002-03-01

    Various formulations of low-density polyethylene blended with ethylene vinyl acetate were prepared to improve the flame retardancy for wire and cable applications. The prepared formulations were cross-linked by γ-rays to 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy in the presence of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). The effect of thermal aging on mechanical properties of these formulations were investigated. In addition, the influence of various combinations of aluminum trihydroxide and zinc borate as flame retardant fillers on the flammability was explored. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and average extent of burning were used to characterize the flammability of investigated formulations. An improved flame retardancy of low density polyethylene was achieved by various combinations of flame ratardant fillers and cross-linking by gamma radiation.

  14. Alkaline battery containing a separator of a cross-linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol and unsaturated carboxylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, L. C.; Philipp, W. H.; Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A battery separator for an alkaline battery is described. The separator comprises a cross linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol units and unsaturated carboxylic acid units. The cross linked copolymer is insoluble in water, has excellent zincate diffusion and oxygen gas barrier properties and a low electrical resistivity. Cross linking with a polyaldehyde cross linking agent is preferred.

  15. Once Annealed Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Exhibits Low Wear at 9 to 15 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, James; Capello, William N; Ramakrishnan, Rama

    2016-05-01

    A once annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) was introduced in 1998. Concerns regarding its long-term performance and oxidative resistance exist because of the presence of retained free radicals. The authors studied 48 patients with 50 hip implants having an average age of 62 years. They were followed for 9 to 15 years. The purpose of this study was to determine linear wear rate and the incidence of osteolysis and/or mechanical failure. At an average follow-up of 12.2 years, the annual linear wear rate was 0.018 mm (SD, 0.024 mm). No mechanical failures or osteolysis have been found to date. The clinical performance of this HXLPE continues to meet expectations despite the presence of free radicals. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e565-e571.]. PMID:27088350

  16. ROLE OF CORNEAL COLLAGEN CROSS LINKING IN KERATOCONUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the outcome of collagen cross linkage using riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet A radiation of a wavelength 370nm . PURPOSE : To determine the effect of collagen cross linking for keratoconus on pachymetry , corneal topography, uncorrected visual acuity, specular count, IOP at 1, 3, 6 months . METHODS : The current study was designed as a prospective interventional trial of corneal collagen cross - linking in subjects with progressive keratoconus between a period of J anuary 2013 to J uly 2014 including 50 eyes of 30 patients. This study rece ived approval from Ethics committee. Informed written consent was obtained from all patients prior to treatment. RESULTS: Mean follow up period of 6 months. There was statistically significant decline in effective k readings from mean pre op (51.7D to pos t op value (49.65D . Pachymetry showed initial increase post operatively followed by reduction in corneal thickness in 3 month s follow up , followed by gradual increase in thickness over a period of 6 months though it was not equivalent to pre - operative values. paired t test p value was 0.00 1 in 1 n 3 month and 0. 043 in 6 month, concluding significant reduction in early post op period with im provement over time . Specular count reduced from pre - op (2673.80 levels to post - op (2654.60 levels ,the reduction in specular count was not statistically significant P value (0.014 The uncorrected visual acuity showed decrease in refractive error with in crease in visual acuity gradually over 6 months, log MAR scale visual acuity was used for statistical analysis with P value (0.001 which was statistically significant .visual acuity improved by 1.5 lines in snellens equivalence or from 0.5 to 0.4 in log MA R char y ± 20cells/mm 3 , P value(0. 001 . IOP statically show ed no significant change in pre - operative and post operatively , paired t test p value was 0. 44 showing it was not significant . CONCLUSIONS : 1. Visual acuity improved in

  17. Encapsulation of volatiles by homogenized partially-cross linked alginates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguva, Pavan K; Ooi, Shing Ming; Desai, Parind M; Heng, Paul W S

    2015-12-30

    Cross-linked calcium alginate gels are too viscous to be efficaciously incorporated into spray dried formulations. Thus, viscosity reduction is essential to ensure the processability of calcium alginate gels to be sprayed. Viscosity reduction by high pressure homogenization can open new formulation possibilities. Presently, testing of microcapsule integrity is also limited because either single particle tests neglect collective particle behaviours in bulk or bulk testing methods are often associated with single compressions which may not fully characterize individual particle strengths. The aim of this study was sub-divided into three objectives. First objective was to evaluate the impact of high pressure homogenization on gel viscosity. Second objective was to explore the use of the homogenized gels with modified starch for microencapsulation by spray drying. The final objective was to develop a stamping system as microcapsule strength tester that can assess microcapsules in bulk and evaluate the impact of multiple compressions. Collectively, this study would lead towards developing a pressure-activated patch of microcapsules with encapsulated volatiles and the method to assess the patch efficacy. The alginate gels largely experienced an exponential decay in viscosity when homogenized. Furthermore, the homogenized gels were successfully incorporated in spray drying formulations for microencapsulation. The custom-designed microcapsule strength tester was successfully used and shown to possess the required sensitivity to discern batches of microcapsules containing volatiles to have different release profiles. Addition of homogenized gels strengthened the microcapsules only at high wall to core ratios with low mass-load alginate gels. High mass-load gels weaken the microcapsules, exhibiting a higher release at low stamping pressures and wrinkling on the microcapsules surface. PMID:26581772

  18. The theory and art of corneal cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca McQuaid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Before the discovery of corneal cross-linking (CXL, patients with keratoconus would have had to undergo corneal transplantation, or wear rigid gas permeable lenses (RGPs that would temporarily flatten the cone, thereby improving the vision. The RGP contact lens (CL would not however alter the corneal stability and if the keratoconus was progressive, the continued steepening of the cone would occur under the RGP CL. To date, the Siena Eye has been the largest study to investigate long term effects of standard CXL. Three hundred and sixty-three eyes were treated and monitored over 4 years, producing reliable long-term results proving long-term stability of the cornea by halting the progression of keratoconus, and proving the safety of the procedure. Traditionally, CXL requires epithelial removal prior to corneal soakage of a dextran-based 0.1% riboflavin solution, followed by exposure of ultraviolet-A (UV-A light for 30 min with an intensity of 3 mW/cm2. A series of in vitro investigations on human and porcine corneas examined the best treatment parameters for standard CXL, such as riboflavin concentration, intensity, wavelength of UV-A light, and duration of treatment. Photochemically, CXL is achieved by the generation of chemical bonds within the corneal stroma through localized photopolymerization, strengthening the cornea whilst minimizing exposure to the surrounding structures of the eye. In vitro studies have shown that CXL has an effect on the biomechanical properties of the cornea, with an increased corneal rigidity of approximately 70%. This is a result of the creation of new chemical bonds within the stroma.

  19. The theory and art of corneal cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Rebecca; Cummings, Arthur B; Mrochen, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Before the discovery of corneal cross-linking (CXL), patients with keratoconus would have had to undergo corneal transplantation, or wear rigid gas permeable lenses (RGPs) that would temporarily flatten the cone, thereby improving the vision. The RGP contact lens (CL) would not however alter the corneal stability and if the keratoconus was progressive, the continued steepening of the cone would occur under the RGP CL. To date, the Siena Eye has been the largest study to investigate long term effects of standard CXL. Three hundred and sixty-three eyes were treated and monitored over 4 years, producing reliable long-term results proving long-term stability of the cornea by halting the progression of keratoconus, and proving the safety of the procedure. Traditionally, CXL requires epithelial removal prior to corneal soakage of a dextran-based 0.1% riboflavin solution, followed by exposure of ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light for 30 min with an intensity of 3 mW/cm2. A series of in vitro investigations on human and porcine corneas examined the best treatment parameters for standard CXL, such as riboflavin concentration, intensity, wavelength of UV-A light, and duration of treatment. Photochemically, CXL is achieved by the generation of chemical bonds within the corneal stroma through localized photopolymerization, strengthening the cornea whilst minimizing exposure to the surrounding structures of the eye. In vitro studies have shown that CXL has an effect on the biomechanical properties of the cornea, with an increased corneal rigidity of approximately 70%. This is a result of the creation of new chemical bonds within the stroma. PMID:23925326

  20. Synthesis of borate cross-linked rhamnogalacturonan II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakawa, Hiroya; Miwa, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    In the present review, we describe current knowledge about synthesis of borate crosslinked rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) and it physiological roles. RG-II is a portion of pectic polysaccharide with high complexity, present in primary cell wall. It is composed of homogalacturonan backbone and four distinct side chains (A-D). Borate forms ester bonds with the apiosyl residues of side chain A of two RG-II monomers to generate borate dimerized RG-II, contributing for the formation of networks of pectic polysaccharides. In plant cell walls, more than 90% of RG-II are dimerized by borate under boron (B) sufficient conditions. Borate crosslinking of RG-II in primary cell walls, to our knowledge, is the only experimentally proven molecular function of B, an essential trace-element. Although abundance of RG-II and B is quite small in cell wall polysaccharides, increasing evidence supports that RG-II and its borate crosslinking are critical for plant growth and development. Significant advancement was made recently on the location and the mechanisms of RG-II synthesis and borate cross-linking. Molecular genetic studies have successfully identified key enzymes for RG-II synthesis and regulators including B transporters required for efficient formation of RG-II crosslinking and consequent normal plant growth. The present article focuses recent advances on (i) RG-II polysaccharide synthesis, (ii) occurrence of borate crosslinking and (iii) B transport for borate supply to RG-II. Molecular mechanisms underlying formation of borate RG-II crosslinking and the physiological impacts are discussed. PMID:25954281

  1. Synthesis of borate cross-linked rhamnogalacturonan II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya eFunakawa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we describe current knowledge about synthesis of borate crosslinked rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II and it physiological roles. RG-II is a portion of pectic polysaccharide with high complexity, present in primary cell wall. It is composed of homogalacturonan backbone and four distinct side chains (A-D. Borate forms ester bonds with the apiosyl residues of side chain A of two RG-II monomers to generate borate dimerized RG-II, contributing for the formation of networks of pectic polysaccharides. In plant cell walls, more than 90% of RG-II are dimerized by borate under B sufficient conditions. Borate crosslinking of RG-II in primary cell walls, to our knowledge, is the only experimentally proven molecular function of boron (B, an essential trace-element. Although abundance of RG-II and B is quite small in cell wall polysaccharides, increasing evidence supports that RG-II and its borate crosslinking are critical for plant growth and development. Significant advancement was made recently on the location and the mechanisms of RG-II synthesis and borate cross-linking. Molecular genetic studies have successfully identified key enzymes for RG-II synthesis and regulators including B transporters required for efficient formation of RG-II crosslinking and consequent normal plant growth. The present article focuses recent advances on (i RG-II polysaccharide synthesis, (ii occurrence of borate crosslinking and (iii B transport for borate supply to RG-II. Molecular mechanisms underlying formation of borate RG-II crosslinking and the physiological impacts are discussed.

  2. Matching cross-linked peptide spectra: only as good as the worse identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Michael J; Baker, Peter R; Robinson, Philip J J; Burlingame, A L; Chalkley, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    Chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry identifies interacting surfaces within a protein assembly through labeling with bifunctional reagents and identifying the covalently modified peptides. These yield distance constraints that provide a powerful means to model the three-dimensional structure of the assembly. Bioinformatic analysis of cross-linked data resulting from large protein assemblies is challenging because each cross-linked product contains two covalently linked peptides, each of which must be correctly identified from a complex matrix of potential confounders. Protein Prospector addresses these issues through a complementary mass modification strategy in which each peptide is searched and identified separately. We demonstrate this strategy with an analysis of RNA polymerase II. False discovery rates (FDRs) are assessed via comparison of cross-linking data to crystal structure, as well as by using a decoy database strategy. Parameters that are most useful for positive identification of cross-linked spectra are explored. We find that fragmentation spectra generally contain more product ions from one of the two peptides constituting the cross-link. Hence, metrics reflecting the quality of the spectral match to the less confident peptide provide the most discriminatory power between correct and incorrect matches. A support vector machine model was built to further improve classification of cross-linked peptide hits. Furthermore, the frequency with which peptides cross-linked via common acylating reagents fragment to produce diagnostic, cross-linker-specific ions is assessed. The threshold for successful identification of the cross-linked peptide product depends upon the complexity of the sample under investigation. Protein Prospector, by focusing the reliability assessment on the least confident peptide, is better able to control the FDR for results as larger complexes and databases are analyzed. In addition, when FDR thresholds are calculated separately

  3. Feruloylated Arabinoxylans Are Oxidatively Cross-Linked by Extracellular Maize Peroxidase but Not by Horseradish Peroxidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sally J. Burr; Stephen C. Fry

    2009-01-01

    Covalent cross-linking of soluble extraceUular arabinoxylans in living maize cultures, which models the cross-linking of wall-bound arabinoxylans, is due to oxidation of feruloyl esters to oligoferuloyl esters and ethers. The oxidizing system responsible could be H_2O_2/peroxidase, O_2/laccase, or reactive oxygen species acting non-enzymically. To distinguish these possibilities, we studied arabinoxylan cross-linking in vivo and in vitro. In living cultures, exogenous, soluble, extra-cellular, feruloylated [pentosyl-~3H]arabinoxylans underwent cross-linking, beginning abruptly 8 d after sub-culture. Cross-linking was suppressed by iodide, an H_2O_2 scavenger, indicating dependence on endogenous H2O2. However, exogenous H_2O_2 did not cause precocious cross-linking, despite the constant presence of endogenous peroxidases, suggesting that younger cultures contained natural cross-linking inhibitors. Dialysed culture-filtrates cross-linked [~3H]arabinoxylans in vitro only if H_20_2 was also added, indicating a peroxiclase requirement. This cross-linking was highly ionic-strength-dependent. The peroxidases responsible were heat-labile, although relatively heat-stable peroxidases (assayed on o-dianisidine) were also present, Surprisingly, added horseradish peroxidase, even after heat-denaturation, blocked the arabinoxylan-cross-linking action of maize peroxidases, suggesting that the horseradish protein was a competing substrate for [~3H]arabino-xylan coupling. In conclusion, we show for the first time that cross-linking of extracellular arabinoxylan in living maize cultures is an action of apoplastic peroxidases, some of whose unusual properties we report.

  4. Reliability centered maintenance of power transformers and circuit breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purucker, S.L.; Goeltz, R.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hemmelman, K.; Price, R. [Bonneville Power Administration, Van Couver, WA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    At the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), we have historically maintained high voltage equipment. Including transformers and power circuit breakers, on a time driven basis. While this has served our needs in the past, newer methods are needed to effectively maintain the power system in future years. Today aging equipment, maintenance backlogs, and budget constraints are a reality. BPA has initiated a research and development project to examine reliability centered maintenance (RCM) as an alternative to time based maintenance on high voltage equipment. Under RCM, the performance of each place of equipment is to be monitored by observing many operating parameters. For example, with circuit breakers we will observe (measure) the trip time, accumulated contact wear using I{sup 2}T, timing of the mechanism, plus several other parameters. Equipment performing below a predetermined level, or equipment having accumulated a large amount of ``usage`` will receive maintenance. The maintenance will restore full performance and preserve an acceptable service life for that piece of equipment. To develop and evaluate RCM concepts, BPA is installing a prototype system at our Alvey Substation on 4 transformers and 25 breakers.

  5. Arc modelling in SF6 circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the work done by an operator, EDF and two manufacturers to improve the physical models and numerical methods used to simulate the behavior of the plasma and cold gas around it in a breaking chamber of the HV SF6 circuit breaker, during the high-current phase. This work concerns flow phenomena, in particular incorporating compressibility and the study of turbulence, the coupling between these flow phenomena and electromagnetic phenomena, and finally, radiation - which plays an essential role in energy transfer during the high-current phase. For this latter aspect, emission but also absorption were proven to play a major role, and the two were introduced into the models. The paper presents the models developed and the results obtained with them for simulation of two circuit breaker mock-ups (a double-pressure circuit breaker mock-up and a self-expanding and rotating arc circuit breaker mock-up). (author)

  6. Experience with the Alpine Breaker Line Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habnicht, H.; Halbmayer, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Alpine Breaker Line Support is new, mechanised support equipment for stabilising the caving edge during depillaring operations. A short discussion is presented of some panel geometry variations used, and of performance data achieved. 5 figs.

  7. Effects of Supercritical CO 2 Conditioning on Cross-Linked Polyimide Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kratochvil, Adam M.

    2010-05-25

    The effects of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditioning on high-performance cross-linked polyimide membranes is examined through gas permeation and sorption experiments. Under supercritical conditions, the cross-linked polymers do not exhibit a structural reorganization of the polymer matrix that was observed in the non-cross-linkable, free acid polymer. Pure gas permeation isotherms and mixed gas permeabilities and selectivities show the cross-linked polymers to be much more stable to scCO2 conditioning than the free acid polymer. In fact, following scCO2 conditioning, the mixed gas CO2 permeabilities of the cross-linked polymers increased while the CO2/CH4 separation factors remained relatively unchanged. This response highlights the stability and high performance of these cross-linked membranes in aggressive environments. In addition, this response reveals the potential for the preconditioning of cross-linked polymer membranes to enhance productivity without sacrificing efficiency in practical applications which, in effect, provides another tool to \\'tune\\' membrane properties for a given separation. Finally, the dual mode model accurately describes the sorption and dilation characteristics of the cross-linked polymers. The changes in the dual mode sorption model parameters before and after the scCO2 exposure also provide insights into the alterations in the different glassy samples due to the cross-linking and scCO2 exposure. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Lamb and Cow Performance when Fed Corn Silage that has Reduced Ferulate Cross Linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferulate-mediated lignin/hemicellulose cross linking in grasses reduces in vitro NDF digestibility (IVNDFD). Impact of ferulate cross linking on animal performance was examined in lamb digestibility and dairy cow performance trials using the seedling ferulate ester (sfe) corn mutant that reduces cro...

  9. New insight into enzymatic cross-linking of globular proteins: from nanostructure to functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sariçay, Y.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In last two decades, enzymatic cross-linking of proteins has a growing interest in food technology for better tailoring protein functionality. However, the relation between physical and functional properties of enzymatically cross-linked proteins has been hardly addressed s

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Polymer Networks Undergoing Sequential Cross-Linking and Scission Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottach, Dana R.; Curro, John G.; Budzien, Joanne;

    2007-01-01

    , a fraction (quantified by the stress transfer function gif" border="0">) of the second-stage cross-links contribute to the effective first-stage cross-link density. The stress transfer functions extracted from the MD simulations of the reacting networks are found to be in very...

  11. SYNTHESIS AND CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF CROSS-LINKED HYDROPHOBICALLY ASSOCIATING POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WANG, GJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1994-01-01

    Cross-linked, hydrophobically associating homo- and copolymers were synthesized by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers with a small amount of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in aqueous solution using ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The cross-linked h

  12. PREPARATION OF NOVEL METALLIC AND BIMETALLIC CROSS-LINKED POLY (VINYL ALCOHOL) NANOCOMPOSITES UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A facile method utilizing microwave irradiation is described that accomplishes the cross-linking reaction of PVA with metallic and bimetallic systems. Nanocomposites of PVA-cross-linked metallic systems such as Pt, Cu, and In and bimetallic systems such as Pt-In, Ag-Pt, Pt-Fe, Cu...

  13. NOVEL METALLIC AND BIMETALLIC CROSS-LINKED POLY (VINYL ALCOHOL) NANOCOMPOSITES PREPARED UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A facile microwave irradiation approach that results in a cross-linking reaction of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with metallic and bimetallic systems is described. Nanocomposites of PVA cross-linked metallic systems such as Pt, Cu, and In and bimetallic systems such as Pt-In, Ag-P...

  14. Persulfate initiated ultra-low cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels possess an unusual inverted cross-linking structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, O L J; Mourran, A; Pinard, P T; Richtering, W

    2016-05-01

    Cross-linking density and distribution are decisive for the mechanical and other properties of stimuli-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels. Here we investigate the structure of ultra-low cross-linked microgels by static light scattering and scanning force microscopy, and show that they have an inverted cross-linking structure with respect to conventional microgels, contrary to what has been assumed previously. The conventional microgels have the largest polymer volume fraction in the core from where the particle density decays radially outwards, whereas ultra-low cross-linked particles have the highest polymer volume fraction close to the surface. On a solid substrate these particles form buckled shapes at high surface coverage, as shown by scanning force micrographs. The special structure of ultra-low cross-linked microgels is attributed to cross-linking of the particle surface, which is exposed to hydrogen abstraction by radicals generated from persulfate initiators during and after polymerization. The particle core, which is less accessible to the diffusion of radicals, has consequently a lower polymer volume fraction in the swollen state. By systematic variation of the cross-linker concentration it is shown that the cross-linking contribution from peroxide under typical synthesis conditions is weaker than that from the use of 1 mol% N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. Soft deformable hydrogel particles are of interest because they emulate biological tissues, and understanding the underlying synthesis principle enables tailoring the microgel structure for biomimetic applications. Deformability of microgels is usually controlled by the amount of added cross-linker; here we however highlight an alternative approach through structural softness. PMID:27033731

  15. Hydroxyl radical induced cross-linking between phenylalanine and 2-deoxyribose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, M.; Simic, M.G.

    1988-06-28

    Hydroxy radicals induce cross-linking between phenylalanine (Phe) and 2-deoxyribose (dR) via formation of corresponding free radical intermediates. The cross-linked products were separated and identified by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. When phenylalanine and 2-deoxyribose radicals were generated in a 1:1 ratio, the predominant interaction was between Phe and dR radicals while the Phe-Phe and dR-dR cross-links were less abundant. The newly discovered cross-linked between 2-deoxyribose and phenylalanine may serve as a model for radiation or free radical induced cross-linking between DNA and proteins and in general between sugar moieties and amino acids.

  16. Covalently Cross-Linked Sulfone Polybenzimidazole Membranes with Poly(Vinylbenzyl Chloride) for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Aili, David; Li, Qingfeng;

    2013-01-01

    Covalently cross-linked polymer membranes were fabricated from poly(aryl sulfone benzimidazole) (SO(2) PBI) and poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (PVBCl) as electrolytes for high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. The cross-linking imparted organo insolubility and chemical stability against...... radical attack to the otherwise flexible SO(2) PBI membranes. Steady phosphoric acid doping of the cross-linked membranes was achieved at elevated temperatures with little swelling. The acid-doped membranes exhibited increased mechanical strength compared to both pristine SO(2) PBI and poly[2,2'-(m......-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole] (mPBI). The superior characteristics of the cross-linked SO(2) PBI membranes allowed higher acid doping levels and, therefore, higher proton conductivity. Fuel-cell tests with the cross-linked membranes demonstrated a high open circuit voltage and improved power performance...

  17. Characteristic of hyaluronic acid derivative films cross-linked by polyethylene glycol of low water content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jinghua; Chen Jingtao; Xu Zheng; Gu Qisheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To test the characteristics of byaluronic acid (HA) derivative cross-linked by polyethylene glycol films of low water content. Methods: The cross-linked HA film with 200 μm thickness was got at atmospheric pressure at 25℃ for 5 d. After dried, cross-linked films of 10 mm×10 mm were weighed and immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS pH 7.45) at 37℃ for 24 h. Then the solution fraction and water content were estimated. Meanwhile, cross-linked HA derivative films were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS: pH 7.45) at 37℃ for determined time and then implanted subcutaneously in the back of white rats to test in vitro or in vivo degradation characteristic. Results and Conclusion: HA hydrogel cross-linked by polyethylene glycol with water content is as low as 60% and this kind of HA derivative has a slow degradation rate.

  18. Disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked hemoglobin as a novel red blood cell substitute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Xiuling; ZHENG; Chunyang; XU; Yuhong; SU; Zhiguo

    2005-01-01

    Disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS) intramolecularly cross-linked hemoglobin (Hb) was developed as a novel red blood cell substitute. A multi-angle laser light scattering detector coupled with size exclusion HPLC was applied to determine the molecular weight of the modified Hb. SDS-PAGE was also used as a complement. It was proved that 83.8% of the product was intramolecularly cross-linked Hb with weight-average molecular weights (Mw) of 67.5 kD, 12% was dimeric Hb with Mw of 146.6 kD, and 4.2% was trimeric Hb with Mw of 306.4 kD. The tetramer structure of the cross-linked Hb was stable as shown in size-exclusion chromatography using a mobile phase containing 1 mol/L MgCl2. Analysis by LC-MS demonstrated that the reaction of DSS with Hb mainly took place between the twoα subunits within a Hb molecule, resulting in stabilization of the tetramer structure. However, the cross-linking was not site-specific. The P50 of the cross-linked Hb decreased from 21.8 mmHg to 14.3 mmHg, and the Hill coefficient decreased from 2.22 to 1.41. Result of isoelectric focusing showed that the pI of DSS cross-linked Hb was in the range of 4.6-5.2, similar to that of serum albumin. The safety of DSS cross-linked Hb was favored by animal tests on rats and guinea pigs. Exchange transfusion experiment with DSS cross-linked Hb using rats as a model indicated no pressor effect or other significant side effects. The characteristics and properties of DSS cross-linked Hb were also compared with that of diaspirin cross-linked Hb reported in the literature.

  19. Characterization of the bombesin receptor on mouse pancreatic acini by chemical cross-linking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.C.; Yu, D.H.; Wank, S.A.; Gardner, J.D.; Jensen, R.T. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Bombesin (BN), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and GRP(18-27) (neuromedin C) were equipotent and 30-fold more potent than neuromedin B (NMB) in inhibiting binding of {sup 125}I-GRP to and in stimulating amylase release from mouse pancreatic acini. In the present study we used {sup 125}I-GRP and chemical cross-linking techniques to characterize the mouse pancreatic BN receptor. After binding of {sup 125}I-GRP to membranes, and incubation with various chemical cross-linking agents, cross-linked radioactivity was analyzed by SDS-PAG electrophoresis and autoradiography. With each of 4 different chemical cross-linking agents, there was a single broad polypeptide band of Mr 80,000. Cross-linking did not occur in the absence of the cross-linking agent. Cross-linking was inhibited only by peptides that interact with the BN receptor such as GRP, NMB, GRP(18-27) or BN. Dose-inhibition curves for the ability of BN or NMB to inhibit binding of {sup 125}I-GRP to membranes or cross-linking to the 80,000 polypeptide demonstrated for both that BN was 15-fold more potent than NMB. The apparent molecular weight of the cross-linked polypeptide was unchanged by adding dithiothreitol. N-Glycanase treatment reduced the molecular weight of the cross-linked peptide to 40,000. The present results indicate that the BN receptor on mouse pancreatic acinar cell membranes resembles that recently described on various tumor cells in being a single glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 76,000. Because dithiothreitol had no effect, this glycoprotein is not a subunit of a larger disulfide-linked structure.

  20. Corneal changes following collagen cross linking and simultaneous topography guided photoablation with collagen cross linking for keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Padmanabhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the outcome of Collagen cross-linking (CXL with that following topography-guided customized ablation treatment (T-CAT with simultaneous CXL in eyes with progressive keratoconus. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, non-randomized single centre study of 66 eyes with progressive keratoconus. Of these, 40 eyes underwent CXL and 26 eyes underwent T-CAT + CXL. The refractive, topographic, tomographic and aberrometric changes measured at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months post-operatively were compared between both groups. Results: After a mean follow-up of 7.7 ± 1.3 months, the mean retinoscopic cylinder decreased by 1.02 ± 3.16 D in the CXL group ( P = 0.1 and 2.87 ± 3.22 D in the T-CAT + CXL group ( P = 0.04. The Best corrected visual acuity increased by 2 lines or more in 10% of eyes in the CXL group and in 23.3% of eyes in the T-CAT + CXL group. The mean steepest-K reduced by 0.40 ± 3.71 D ( P = 0.77 in the CXL group and by 2.91 ± 2.01D ( P = 0.03 in the T-CAT + CXL group. The sag factor and surface asymmetry index showed no significant change in the CXL group but reduced by 3.59 ± 5.94 D ( P = 0.01 and 0.72 ± 1.18 ( P = 0.02 respectively in the T-CAT + CXL group. There was a significant increase in the highest posterior corneal elevation in both groups (9.57 ± 14.93 μ in the CXL group and 7.85 ± 9.25 μ in the T-CAT + CXL group, P ≤ 0.001 for both. There was significantly greater reduction of mean coma ( P < 0.001 and mean higher-order aberrations ( P = 0.01 following T-CAT + CXL compared to CXL. Conclusions: CAT + CXL is an effective approach to confer biomechanical stability and to improve the corneal contour in eyes with keratoconus and results in better refractive, topographic and aberrometric outcomes than CXL alone.

  1. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture

  2. Novel antimicrobial superporous cross-linked chitosan/pyromellitimide benzoyl thiourea hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nadia A; Abd El-Ghany, Nahed A; Fahmy, Mona M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, chitosan (CS) was cross-linked with different amounts of pyromellitimide benzoyl thiourea moieties. The structure of the cross-linked CS was confirmed by elemental analyses, FTIR and (1)H- NMR spectroscopy. The cross-linking process proceeds via reacting of the amino groups of CS with the isothiocyanate groups of the N,N'-bis [4-(isothiocyanate carbonyl)phenyl] pyromellitimide cross-linker. The amount of the cross-linker was varied with respect to CS to produce four new pyromellitimide benzoyl thiourea cross-linked CS (PIBTU-CS) hydrogels designated as PIBTU-CS-1, PIBTU-CS-2, PIBTU-CS-3, and PIBTU-CS-4 of increasing cross-linking degree percent of 11, 22, 44 and 88%, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy observation indicates the extremely porous structure of the hydrogels. XRD results showed that the crystallinity of CS was decreased upon cross-linking. The four hydrogels exhibit a higher antibacterial activity on Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae as Gram positive bacteria and against Escherichia coli as Gram negative bacteria and higher antifungal activity on Aspergillus fumigatus, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Geotricum candidum than that of the parent CS as shown from their higher inhibition zone diameters and their lower MIC values. The swell ability of the hydrogel as well as their antimicrobial activity increased with increasing cross-linking density.

  3. Composition of cross-linked 125I-follitropin-receptor complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both of the alpha and beta subunits of intact human follitropin (FSH) were radioiodinated with 125I-sodium iodide and chloramine-T and could be resolved on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Radioiodinated FSH was affinity-cross-linked with a cleavable (nondisulfide) homobifunctional reagent to its membrane receptor on the porcine granulosa cell surface as well as to a Triton X-100-solubilized form of the receptor. Cross-linked samples revealed three additional bands of slower electrophoretic mobility, corresponding to 65, 83, and 117 kDa, in addition to the hormone bands. The hormone alpha beta dimer band corresponded to 43 kDa. Formation of the three bands requires the 125I-hormone to bind specifically to the receptor with subsequent cross-linking. Binding was prevented by an excess of the native hormone but not by other hormones. A monofunctional analog of the cross-linking reagent failed to produce the three bands. Reagent concentration-dependent cross-linking revealed that their formation was sequential; smaller complexes formed first and then larger ones. When gels of cross-linked complexes were treated to cleave covalent cross-links and then electrophoresed in a second dimension, 18-, 22-, and 34-kDa components were released, in addition to the alpha and beta subunits of the hormone

  4. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Cinthya, Kuriakose [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Jayakrishnan, A. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Anilkumar, P.R., E-mail: anilkumarpr@sctimst.ac.in [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); James, Nirmala Rachel, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2014-10-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture.

  5. Genipin cross-linked nanocomposite films for the immobilization of antimicrobial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Avik; Salmieri, Stéphane; Fraschini, Carole; Bouchard, Jean; Riedl, Bernard; Lacroix, Monique

    2014-09-10

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) reinforced chitosan based antimicrobial films were prepared by immobilizing nisin on the surface of the films. Nanocomposite films containing 18.65 μg/cm(2) of nisin reduced the count of L. monocytogenes by 6.73 log CFU/g, compared to the control meat samples (8.54 log CFU/g) during storage at 4 °C in a Ready-To-Eat (RTE) meat system. Film formulations containing 9.33 μg/cm(2) of nisin increased the lag phase of L. monocytogenes on meat by more than 21 days, whereas formulations with 18.65 μg/cm(2) completely inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes during storage. Genipin was used to cross-link and protect the activity of nisin during storage. Nanocomposite films cross-linked with 0.05% w/v genipin exhibited the highest bioactivity (10.89 μg/cm(2)) during the storage experiment, as compared to that of the un-cross-linked films (7.23 μg/cm(2)). Genipin cross-linked films were able to reduce the growth rate of L. monocytogenes on ham samples by 21% as compared to the un-cross-linked films. Spectroscopic analysis confirmed the formation of genipin-nisin-chitosan heterocyclic cross-linked network. Genipin cross-linked films also improved the swelling, water solubility, and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films. PMID:25140839

  6. A Comparative Study of the Characteristics of Cross-Linked, Oxidized and Dual-Modified Rice Starches

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Hua-Xi; Lin, Qin-Lu; Liu, Gao-Qiang; Yu, Feng-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Rice starch was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (0.3%, w/w, on a dry starch basis) and oxidized with sodium hypochlorite (2.5% w/w), respectively. Two dual-modified rice starch samples (oxidized cross-linked rice starch and cross-linked oxidized rice starch) were obtained by the oxidation of cross-linked rice starch and the cross-linking of oxidized rice starch at the same level of reagents. The physicochemical properties of native rice starch, cross-linked rice starch and oxidized rice sta...

  7. Permanent Set of Cross-Linking Networks: Comparison of Theory with Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottach, Dana R.; Curro, John G.; Budzien, Joanne;

    2006-01-01

    is found from the strain of the network after it returns to the state-of-ease where the stress is zero. The permanent set simulations are compared with theory using the independent network hypothesis, together with the various theoretical rubber elasticity theories: affine, phantom, constrained junction......The permanent set of cross-linking networks is studied by molecular dynamics. The uniaxial stress for a bead-spring polymer network is investigated as a function of strain and cross-link density history, where cross-links are introduced in unstrained and strained networks. The permanent set...

  8. Grafted, cross-linked carbon black as a double-layer capacitor electrode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richner, R.; Mueller, S.; Wokaun, A.

    2001-03-01

    Isocyanate prepolymers readily react with oxidic functional groups on carbon black. On carbon black grafted with diisocyanates, reactive isocyanate groups are available for cross-linking to a polyurethane system. This cross-linked carbon black was considered as a new active material for electrochemical electrodes. Active material for electric double-layer capacitor electrodes was produced which had values of specific capacitance of up to 200 F/g. Cross-linking efficiencies of up to 58 % of the polymers utilised were achieved. (author)

  9. An Investigation on Rheology of Peroxide Cross-linking of Low Density Polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Ismaeil; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Szabo, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important post-reactor modifications of polyethylene is cross-linking. It improves some properties of polyethylene such as environmental stress cracking resistance, chemical and abrasion resistance, and service temperature. In this study, the effect of peroxide cross-linking on th......One of the most important post-reactor modifications of polyethylene is cross-linking. It improves some properties of polyethylene such as environmental stress cracking resistance, chemical and abrasion resistance, and service temperature. In this study, the effect of peroxide cross...

  10. Characterization of solid UV cross-linked PEGDA for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2013-10-20

    This paper reports on solid UV cross-linked Poly(ethylene)-glycol-diacrylate (PEGDA) as a material for microfluidic devices for biological applications. We have evaluated biocompatibility of PEGDA through two separate means: 1) by examining cell viability and attachment on cross-linked PEGDA surfaces for cell culture applications, and 2) by determining if cross-linked PEGDA inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) processes for on-chip PCR. Through these studies a correlation has been found between degree of curing and cell viability, attachment, as well as on PCR outcome.

  11. Repair of giant omphalocele in a premature neonate with non-cross-linked porcine acellular dermal matrix (Strattice Tissue Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Engstrand Lilja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of giant omphalocele (GO is a major challenge in pediatric surgery and there are many different surgical strategies described. Here we report a complicated case in which the abdominal wall in a premature neonate (gestational age 33 + 2 weeks and 1700 g with GO was reconstructed with a non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix (Strattice™ combined with vacuum therapy. This strategy can be an alternative method in the repair of GO in premature neonates with high risk of infection, underdeveloped abdominal cavity and insufficient native tissue.

  12. A threshold for the Maker-Breaker clique game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Tobias; Stojakovic, Milos

    2014-01-01

    We study the Maker-Breaker k-clique game played on the edge set of the random graph G(n, p). In this game, two players, Maker and Breaker, alternately claim unclaimed edges of G(n, p), until all the edges are claimed. Maker wins if he claims all the edges of a k-clique; Breaker wins otherwise. We de

  13. 30 CFR 75.904 - Identification of circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of circuit breakers. 75.904 Section 75.904 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... Alternating Current Circuits § 75.904 Identification of circuit breakers. Circuit breakers shall be marked...

  14. 30 CFR 77.904 - Identification of circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of circuit breakers. 77.904... COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.904 Identification of circuit breakers. Circuit breakers shall be labeled to show which circuits they control unless identification...

  15. Vapor deposition of cross-linked fluoropolymer barrier coatings onto pre-assembled microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riche, Carson T; Marin, Brandon C; Malmstadt, Noah; Gupta, Malancha

    2011-09-21

    The interior surfaces of pre-assembled poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices were modified with a cross-linked fluoropolymer barrier coating that significantly increased the chemical compatibility of the devices. PMID:21850298

  16. A Review of Collagen Cross-Linking in Cornea and Sclera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin/UVA cross-linking is a technique introduced in the past decades for the treatment of keratoconus, keratectasia, and infectious keratitis. Its efficacy and safety have been investigated with clinical and laboratory studies since its first clinical application by Wollensak for the treatment of keratoconus. Although its complications are encountered during clinical practice, such as infection inducing risk, minimal invasion merits a further investigation on its future application in clinical practice. Recently, collagen cross-linking in sclera shows a promising prospect. In present study, we summarized the representative studies describing the clinical and laboratory application of collagen cross-linking published in past decades and provided our opinion on the positive and negative results of cross-linking in the treatment of ophthalmic disorders.

  17. Stabilized sulfonated aromatic polymers by in situ solvothermal cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa eDi Vona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The cross-link reaction via sulfone bridges of sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK by thermal treatment at 180 °C in presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO is discussed. The modifications of properties subsequent to the cross-linking are presented. The mechanical strength as well as the hydrolytic stability increased with the thermal treatment time, i.e., with the degree of cross-linking. The proton conductivity was determined as function of temperature, IEC, degree of cross-linking and hydration number. The memory effect, which is the membrane ability to remember the water uptake reached at high temperature also at lower temperature, is exploited in order to achieve high values of conductivity. Membranes swelled at 110 °C can reach a conductivity of 0.14 S/cm at 80°C with a hydration number ( of 73.

  18. Anomalous cross-linking by mechlorethamine of DNA duplexes containing C-C mismatch pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, R M; Mitas, M; Haworth, I S

    1999-03-23

    Nitrogen mustards such as mechlorethamine have previously been shown to covalently cross-link DNA through the N7 position of the two guanine bases of a d[GXC].d[GYC] duplex sequence, a so-called 1,3 G-G-cross-link, when X-Y = C-G or T-A. Here, we report the formation of a new mechlorethamine cross-link with the d[GXC].d[GYC] fragment when X-Y is a C-C mismatch pair. Mechlorethamine cross-links this fragment preferentially between the two mismatched cytosine bases, rather than between the guanine bases. The cross-link also forms when one or both of the guanine bases of the d[GCC].d[GCC] fragment are replaced by N7-deazaguanine, and, more generally, forms with any C-C mismatch, regardless of the flanking base pairs. Piperidine cleavage of the cross-link species containing the d[GCC].d[GCC] sequence gives DNA fragments consistent with alkylation at the mismatched cytosine bases. We also provide evidence that the cross-link reaction occurs between the N3 atoms of the two cytosine bases by showing that the formation of the C-C cross-link is pH dependent for both mechlorethamine and chlorambucil. Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) probing of the cross-linked d[GCC].d[GCC] fragment showed that the major groove of the guanine adjacent to the C-C mismatch is still accessible to DMS. In contrast, the known minor groove binder Hoechst 33258 inhibits the cross-link formation with a C-C mismatch pair flanked by A-T base pairs. These results suggest that the C-C mismatch is cross-linked by mechlorethamine in the minor groove. Since C-C pairs may be involved in unusual secondary structures formed by the trinucleotide repeat sequence d[CCG]n, and associated with triplet repeat expansion diseases, mechlorethamine may serve as a useful probe for these structures. PMID:10090751

  19. The level of cross-linking and the structure of anisotropic magnetorheological elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borin, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry.borin@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01062 (Germany); Guenther, David [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01062 (Germany); Hintze, Christian; Heinrich, Gert [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research, Dresden 01069 (Germany); Odenbach, Stefan [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01062 (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The influence of the concentration of the magnetic powder on the level of cross-linking of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) has been studied. Afterwards the structural characterisation of manufactured MREs has been performed by using non-destructive method, specifically the computed tomography. The correlation between internal structures of MREs and the developing of its cross-linking level during the curing was found. It was shown that changes in the concentration of the powder significantly affect morphologies of the sample.

  20. Rheological Characterization of Cataplasm Bases Composed of Cross-Linked Partially Neutralized Polyacrylate Hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hongqin; An, Dianyun; Yu, Jian; Li, Wei; Shen, Teng; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Viscoelasticity is a useful parameter for characterizing the intrinsic properties of the cross-linked polyacrylate hydrogel used in cataplasm bases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various formulation parameters on the rheological characteristics of polyacrylate hydrogel. The hydrogel layers were formed using a partially neutralized polyacrylate (Viscomate™), which contained acrylic acid and sodium acrylate in different copolymerization ratios, as the cross-linked gel ...

  1. Mechanical Strength Improvements of Carbon Nanotube Threads through Epoxy Cross-Linking

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyue Yu; Noe T. Alvarez; Peter Miller; Rachit Malik; Mark R. Haase; Mark Schulz; Vesselin Shanov; Xinbao Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Individual Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have a great mechanical strength that needs to be transferred into macroscopic fiber assemblies. One approach to improve the mechanical strength of the CNT assemblies is by creating covalent bonding among their individual CNT building blocks. Chemical cross-linking of multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs) within the fiber has significantly improved the strength of MWCNT thread. Results reported in this work show that the cross-linked thread had a tensile strength six time...

  2. Phase diagram of selectively cross-linked block copolymers shows chemically microstructured gel

    OpenAIRE

    von der Heydt, Alice; Zippelius, Annette

    2014-01-01

    We study analytically the intricate phase behavior of cross-linked $AB$ diblock copolymer melts, which can undergo two main phase transitions due to quenched random constraints: Gelation, i.e., spatially random localization of polymers forming a system-spanning cluster, is driven by increasing the number parameter $\\mu$ of irreversible, type-selective cross-links between random pairs of $A$ blocks. Self-assembly into a periodic pattern of $A$/$B$-rich microdomains (microphase separation) is c...

  3. Fibromodulin Interacts with Collagen Cross-linking Sites and Activates Lysyl Oxidase*

    OpenAIRE

    Kalamajski, Sebastian; Bihan, Dominique; Bonna, Arkadiusz; Rubin, Kristofer; Farndale, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of fibrotic disorders is a highly cross-linked and dense collagen matrix, a property driven by the oxidative action of lysyl oxidase. Other fibrosis-associated proteins also contribute to the final collagen matrix properties, one of which is fibromodulin. Its interactions with collagen affect collagen cross-linking, packing, and fibril diameter. We investigated the possibility that a specific relationship exists between fibromodulin and lysyl oxidase, potentially imparting a spec...

  4. Measurement of cross linked fibrin derivatives in plasma: an immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, A. N.; Elms, M J; Masci, P P; Bundesen, P G; Rylatt, D B; Webber, A J; Bunce, I H

    1984-01-01

    Fibrinogen degradation, fibrin polymerisation, and the insertion of cross links into fibrin by fibrin stabilising factor lead to the appearance of new antigenic determinants. Antibodies against these antigenic sites may react specifically with the derivatives but not with the parent molecules. We have utilised a monoclonal antibody, which interacts with the cross linked fragment D dimer and related high molecular weight fibrin derivatives, to develop an enzyme immunoassay which measures cross...

  5. Novel thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs based on silicone rubber and polyamide exploring peroxide cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naskar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs based on silicone rubber (PDMS and polyamide (PA12 have been prepared by dynamic vulcanization process. The effect of dynamic vulcanization and influence of various types of peroxides as cross-linking agents were studied in detail. All the TPVs were prepared at a ratio of 50/50 wt% of silicone rubber and polyamide. Three structurally different peroxides, namely dicumyl peroxide (DCP, 3,3,5,7,7-pentamethyl 1,2,4-trioxepane (PMTO and cumyl hydroperoxide (CHP were taken for investigation. Though DCP was the best option for curing the silicone rubber, at high temperature it suffers from scorch safety. An inhibitor 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxyl (TEMPO was added with DCP to stabilize the radicals in order to increase the scorch time. Though CHP (hydroperoxide had higher half life time than DCP at higher temperature, it has no significant effect on cross-linking of silicone rubber. PMTO showed prolonged scorch safety and better cross-linking efficiency rather than the other two. TPVs of DCP and PMTO were made up to 11 minutes of mixing. Increased values of tensile strength and elongation at break of PMTO cross-linked TPV indicate the superiority of PMTO. Scanning electron micrographs correlate with mechanical properties of the TPVs. High storage modulus (E' and lower loss tangent value of the PMTO cross-linked TPV indicate the higher degree of cross-linking which is also well supported by the overall cross-link density value. Thus PMTO was found to be the superior peroxide for cross-linking of silicone rubber at high temperature.

  6. Porphyrin-induced photodynamic cross-linking of hepatic heme-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S H; Holeman, B; Cully, B C; Muller-Eberhard, U

    1986-01-27

    Three types of hepatic proteins, a heme-binding Z protein, a mixture of the glutathione S-transferases and a cytochrome P450 isozyme, were shown to be susceptible to photodynamic cross-linking and loss in antigenicity by naturally occurring porphyrins. At 50 microM, uroporphyrin caused the most and protoporphyrin the least photodecomposition. Hemopexin, a specific serum heme carrier, was photodecomposed but no cross-linking was detected. Heme and scavengers of singlet oxygen partially prevented protein photodecomposition.

  7. DNA Interstrand Cross-Linking Activity of (1-Chloroethenyl)oxirane, a Metabolite of β-chloroprene

    OpenAIRE

    Wadugu, Brian A.; Ng, Christopher; Bartley, Bethany L.; Rowe, Rebecca J.; Millard, Julie T.

    2010-01-01

    With the goal of elucidating the molecular and cellular mechanisms of chloroprene toxicity, we examined the potential DNA cross-linking of the bifunctional chloroprene metabolite, (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane (CEO). We used denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to monitor possible formation of interstrand cross-links by CEO within synthetic DNA duplexes. Our data suggest interstrand cross-linking at deoxyguanosine residues within 5′-GC and 5′-GGC sites, with the rate of cross-linking depe...

  8. Study of the effect of mixing approach on cross-linking efficiency of hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel cross-linked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sibani, Mohammed; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2016-08-25

    Regardless of various strategies reported for cross-linking hyaluronic acid (HA) with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE), seeking new strategies that enhance cross-linking efficiency with a low level of cross-linker is essential. In this work, we studied the influence of mixing approach on two cross-linked BDDE-HA hydrogels prepared by two different mixing approaches; the large-batch mixing approach in which the hydrogel quantities were all mixed as a single lump in one container (hydrogel 1), and the small-batches mixing approach in which the hydrogel quantities were divided into smaller batches, mixed separately at various HA/BDDE ratios then combined in one reaction mixture (hydrogel 2). The result showed that the cross-linking reaction was mixing process-dependent. Degradation tests proved that, in relation to hydrogel 1, hydrogel 2 was more stable, and exhibited a higher resistance towards hyaluronidase activity. The swelling ratio of hydrogel 1 was significantly higher than that of hydrogel 2 in distilled water; however, in phosphate buffer saline, both hydrogels showed no significant difference. SEM images demonstrated that hydrogel 2 composite showed a denser network structure and smaller pore-size than hydrogel 1. In comparison to native HA, the occurrence of chemical modification in the cross-linked hydrogels was confirmed by FTIR and NMR distinctive peaks. These peaks also provided evidence that hydrogel 2 exhibited a higher degree of modification than hydrogel 1. In conclusion, the small-batches mixing approach proved to be more effective than large-batch mixing in promoting HA-HA entanglement and increasing the probability of BDDE molecules for binding with HA chains. PMID:27312477

  9. Curcumin cross-linked collagen aerogels with controlled anti-proteolytic and pro-angiogenic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharunya, G; Duraipandy, N; Lakra, Rachita; Korapatti, Purna Sai; Jayavel, R; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala

    2016-01-01

    This paper elucidates the development of a curcumin cross-linked collagen aerogel system with controlled anti-proteolytic activity and pro-angiogenic efficacy. The results of this study showed that in situ cross-linking of curcumin with collagen leads to the development of aerogels with enhanced physical and mechanical properties. The integrity of collagen after cross-linking with curcumin was studied via FTIR spectroscopy. The results confirmed that the cross-linking with curcumin did not induce any structural changes in the collagen. The curcumin cross-linked collagen aerogels exhibited potent anti-proteolytic and anti-microbial activity. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopic analysis of curcumin cross-linked collagen aerogels showed a 3D microstructure that enhanced the adhesion and proliferation of cells. The highly organized geometry of collagen-curcumin aerogels enhanced the permeability and water-retaining ability required for the diffusion of nutrients that aid cellular growth. The pro-angiogenic properties of collagen-curcumin aerogels were ascribed to the cumulative effect of the nutraceutical and the collagen molecule, which augmented the restoration of damaged tissue. Further, these aerogels exhibited controlled anti-proteolytic activity, which makes them suitable 3D scaffolds for biomedical applications. This study provides scope for the development of biocompatible and bioresorbable collagen aerogel systems that use a nutraceutical as a cross-linker for biomedical applications. PMID:27509047

  10. Synthesis of a duplex oligonucleotide containing a nitrogen mustard interstrand DNA-DNA cross-link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang, J O; Grueneberg, D A; Loechler, E L

    1989-12-01

    Many cancer chemotherapeutic agents react with DNA and give adducts that block DNA replication, which is thought to result in cytotoxicity, especially in rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells. One class of these agents is bifunctionally reactive (e.g., the nitrogen mustards) and forms DNA-DNA cross-links. It is unknown whether inter- or intrastrand cross-links are more effective at blocking DNA replication. To evaluate this, a DNA shuttle vector is being constructed with an interstrand cross-link at a unique site. In the first step of this project, a duplex oligonucleotide containing an interstrand cross-link is isolated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from the reaction of nitrogen mustard with two partially complementary oligodeoxynucleotides. The purified oligonucleotide product is characterized and shown to be cross-linked in a 5'-GAC-3' 3'-CTG-5' sequence by a nitrogen mustard moiety that is bound at the N(7)-position of the guanines in the opposing strands; the glycosylic bonds of these guanine adducts are stabilized in their corresponding imidazole ring-opened form. Nitrogen mustard is shown to react with a variety of oligonucleotides and, based upon these results, its preferred targets for interstrand cross-linking are 5'-GXC-3' sequences, where X can be any of the four deoxyribonucleotide bases. PMID:2819709

  11. Triple shape memory effects of cross-linked polyethylene/polypropylene blends with cocontinuous architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Chen, Min; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhenwen; Dang, Zhi-Min; Ma, Lan; Hu, Guo-Hua; Chen, Fenghua

    2013-06-26

    In this paper, the triple shape memory effects (SMEs) observed in chemically cross-linked polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) blends with cocontinuous architecture are systematically investigated. The cocontinuous window of typical immiscible PE/PP blends is the volume fraction of PE (v(PE)) of ca. 30-70 vol %. This architecture can be stabilized by chemical cross-linking. Different initiators, 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di(tert-butylperoxy)-hexane (DHBP), dicumylperoxide (DCP) coupled with divinylbenzene (DVB) (DCP-DVB), and their mixture (DHBP/DCP-DVB), are used for the cross-linking. According to the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements and gel fraction calculations, DHBP produces the best cross-linking and DCP-DVB the worst, and the mixture, DHBP/DCP-DVB, is in between. The chemical cross-linking causes lower melting temperature (Tm) and smaller melting enthalpy (ΔHm). The prepared triple shape memory polymers (SMPs) by cocontinuous immiscible PE/PP blends with v(PE) of 50 vol % show pronounced triple SMEs in the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and visual observation. This new strategy of chemically cross-linked immiscible blends with cocontinuous architecture can be used to design and prepare new SMPs with triple SMEs. PMID:23713446

  12. Optical mechanical refinement of human amniotic membrane by dehydration and cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuji; Kubota, Akira; Yokokura, Shunji; Uematsu, Masafumi; Shi, Dong; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Quantock, Andrew J; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for refining the optical and mechanical properties of human amniotic membrane (AM) to provide ophthalmic transparent implants for use during severe donor cornea shortages. AM was allowed to gradually dehydrate at 4-8 °C with and without chemical cross-linking. To improve the transparency of AM, a simple dehydration process using a refrigerator at 4-8 °C overnight was examined. For further improvements, dehydrated AM was then cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxy-succimide before rehydration. Light transmittance and tensile strength of individual specimens were evaluated. Light transmittance of AM improved from 50.9-77.7% at 550 nm by this simple low temperature dehydration process. Its high light transmittance was partially maintained at 70.1%, even after rehydration with normal saline. Interestingly, chemically cross-linked AM showed a significantly greater light transmittance of 81.5% under wet conditions. In addition, tensile strength was significantly increased after cross-linking from 2.32 N/mm(2) (native tissue) to 11.78 N/mm(2) (cross-linked specimens). Light transmittance and tensile strength were successfully improved by these approaches, including low temperature dehydration with and without chemical cross-linking. The use of refined AM could be feasible for use in current and future ophthalmic treatments. PMID:22489071

  13. Chemically cross-linked silk fibroin hydrogel with enhanced elastic properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim MH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Min Hee Kim, Won Ho Park Department of Advanced Organic Materials and Textile Engineering System, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea Abstract: In this study, the synthesis of silk fibroin (SF hydrogel via chemical cross-linking reactions of SF due to gamma-ray (γ-ray irradiation was investigated, as were the resultant hydrogel’s properties. Two different hydrogels were investigated: physically cross-linked SF hydrogel and chemically cross-linked SF hydrogel irradiated at different doses of γ-rays. The effects of the irradiation dose and SF concentration on the hydrogelation of SF were examined. The chemically cross-linked SF hydrogel was compared with the physically cross-linked one with regard to secondary structure and gel strength. Furthermore, the swelling behavior, crystallinity, and biodegradation of the SF hydrogels were characterized. To assay cell proliferation, the cell viability of human mesenchymal stem cells on the lyophilized SF hydrogel scaffolds was evaluated, and no significant cytotoxicity against human mesenchymal stem cells was observed. Keywords: silk fibroin, hydrogels, biodegradation rate, gamma irradiation, cross-linking

  14. Dual-Cross-Linked Methacrylated Alginate Sub-Microspheres for Intracellular Chemotherapeutic Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Spencer L; Miao, Tianxin; Scherrer, Ryan M; Oldinski, Rachael A

    2016-07-20

    Intracellular delivery vehicles comprised of methacrylated alginate (Alg-MA) were developed for the internalization and release of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). Alg-MA was synthesized via an anhydrous reaction, and a mixture of Alg-MA and DOX was formed into sub-microspheres using a water/oil emulsion. Covalently cross-linked sub-microspheres were formed via exposure to green light, in order to investigate effects of cross-linking on drug release and cell internalization, compared to traditional techniques, such as ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. Cross-linking was performed using light exposure alone or in combination with ionic cross-linking using calcium chloride (CaCl2). Alg-MA sub-microsphere diameters were between 88 and 617 nm, and ζ-potentials were between -20 and -37 mV. Using human lung epithelial carcinoma cells (A549) as a model, cellular internalization was confirmed using flow cytometry; different sub-microsphere formulations varied the efficiency of internalization, with UV-cross-linked sub-microspheres achieving the highest internalization percentages. While blank (nonloaded) Alg-MA submicrospheres were noncytotoxic to A549 cells, DOX-loaded sub-microspheres significantly reduced mitochondrial activity after 5 days of culture. Photo-cross-linked Alg-MA sub-microspheres may be a potential chemotherapeutic delivery system for cancer treatment. PMID:27378419

  15. Digestibility of β-lactoglobulin following cross-linking by Trametes versicolor laccase and apple polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGANA STANIĆ-VUČINIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available β-Lactoglobulin (BLG is an important nutrient of dairy products and an important allergen in cow’s milk allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of laccase to cross-link BLG in the presence of an apple phenolic extract (APE and to characterize the obtained products for their digestibility by pepsin and pancreatin. The composition of the apple phenolics used for cross-linking was determined by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS. The apple phenolic extract contained significant amounts of quercetin glycosides, catechins and chlorogenic acid. The laccase cross-linked BLG in the presence of apple phenolics. The polymerization rendered the protein insoluble in the reaction mixture. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis of the cross-linking reaction mixture revealed a heterogeneous mixture of high molecular masses (cross-linked BLG, with a fraction of the BLG remaining monomeric. Enzymatic processing of BLG by laccase and apple polyphenols as mediators can decrease the biphasal pepsin–pancreatin digestibility of the monomeric and cross-linked protein, thus decreasing its nutritional value. In addition, reduced BLG digestibility can decrease its allergenic potential. Apple polyphenols can find usage in the creation of new, more functional food products, designed to prevent obesity and hypersensitivity-related disorders.

  16. Synchrotron Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study of Cross-Linked Polymeric Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Lee, Se Guen; Kim, Eunjoo; Lee, Sung Jun; Jeong, Sang Won; Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Kwang-Woo

    2016-06-01

    Polymeric micelles of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide) containing lysine units (mPEG-PLA-Lys4) were cross-linked by reacting of lysine moieties with a bifunctional bis(N-hydroxy-succinimide ester). The micelles were characterized in aqueous solution using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering. The mPEG-PLA-Lys4 was synthesized through the ring-opening polymerization of N6-carbobenzyloxy-L-lysine N-carboxyanhydride with amine-terminated mPEG-PLA and subsequent deprotection. The polymeric micelles showed enhanced micelle stability after cross-linking, which was confirmed by adding sodium dodecyl sulfate as a destabilizing agent. The average diameters measured via dynamic light scattering were 19.1 nm and 29.2 nm for non-cross-linked polymeric micelles (NCPMs) and cross-linked polymeric micelles (CPMs), respectively. The transmission electron microscopy images showed that the size of the polymeric micelles increased slightly due to cross-linking, which was in good agreement with the DLS measurements. The overall structures and internal structural changes of NCPMs and CPMs in aqueous solution were studied in detail using synchrotron X-ray scattering method. According to the structural parameters of X-ray scattering analysis, CPMs with a more densely packed core structure were formed by reacting bifunctional cross-linking agents with lysine amino groups located in the innermost core of the polymeric micelles. PMID:27427731

  17. Diaphragm Repair with a Novel Cross-Linked Collagen Biomaterial in a Growing Rabbit Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Mayer

    Full Text Available Neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and large defects often require patch closure. Acellular collagen matrices (ACM have been suggested as an alternative to synthetic durable patches as they are remodeled by the host or could also be used for tissue engineering purposes.2.0x1.0 cm diaphragmatic defects were created in 6-weeks old New-Zealand white rabbits. We compared reconstruction with a purpose-designed cross-linked ACM (Matricel to 4-layer non-cross-linked small intestinal submucosa (SIS and a 1-layer synthetic Dual Mesh (Gore-Tex. Unoperated animals or animals undergoing primary closure (4/0 polyglecaprone served as age-matched controls. 60 (n = 25 resp. 90 (n = 17 days later, animals underwent chest x-ray and obduction for gross examination of explants, scoring of adhesion and inflammatory response. Also, uniaxial tensiometry was done, comparing explants to contralateral native diaphragmatic tissue.Overall weight nearly doubled from 1,554±242 g at surgery to 2,837±265 g at obduction (+84%. X-rays did show rare elevation of the left diaphragm (SIS = 1, Gore-Tex = 1, unoperated control = 1, but no herniation of abdominal organs. 56% of SIS and 10% of Matricel patches degraded with visceral bulging in four (SIS = 3, Matricel = 1. Adhesion scores were limited: 0.5 (Matricel to 1 (SIS, Gore-Tex to the left lung (p = 0.008 and 2.5 (Gore-Tex, 3 (SIS and 4 (Matricel to the liver (p<0.0001. Tensiometry revealed a reduced bursting strength but normal compliance for SIS. Compliance was reduced in Matricel and Gore-Tex (p<0.01. Inflammatory response was characterized by a more polymorphonuclear cell (SIS resp. macrophage (Matricel type of infiltrate (p<0.05. Fibrosis was similar for all groups, except there was less mature collagen deposited to Gore-Tex implants (p<0.05.Matricel induced a macrophage-dominated inflammatory response, more adhesions, had appropriate strength but a lesser compliance compared to native tissue. The herein

  18. Changes in corneal sensitivity following cross-linking for progressive early-stage keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise de Medeiros Lago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate changes in corneal sensitivity following corneal cross-linking (CXL in patients with progressive earlier stage keratoconus. Methods: Thirty-eight eyes of 19 patients (11 women, 8 men were included in a prospective, nonrandomized clinical study. The mean patient age was 22 years (range, 18-26 years. Inclusion criteria were early stage bilateral progressive keratoconus, a transparent cornea, and a thickness of ≥440 µm in the thinnest area of the cornea. Using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, central corneal sensitivity was measured before surgery, 7 days after surgery, and once a month thereafter until recovery of baseline preoperative levels. Central corneal sensitivity >40 mm was considered normal. Results: Corneal sensitivity gradually returned to preoperative levels in all treated eyes. The mean central corneal sensitivity was 52.2, 24.0, 38.2, 42.5, 50.0, and 52.5 mm before surgery, 7 days after surgery, and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 months after surgery, respectively. Normal levels of corneal sensation, but not baseline (preoperative levels, were observed 2 months after surgery. The preoperative levels were observed 3 months after surgery. Conclusions: Our results suggest that central corneal sensitivity can be decreased for as long as 3 months after CXL for progressive earlier stage keratoconus.

  19. Interstrand cross-link formation in duplex and triplex DNA by modified pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaohua; Hong, In Seok; Li, Hong; Seidman, Michael M; Greenberg, Marc M

    2008-08-01

    DNA interstrand cross-links have important biological consequences and are useful biotechnology tools. Phenylselenyl substituted derivatives of thymidine (1) and 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5) produce interstrand cross-links in duplex DNA when oxidized by NaIO4. The mechanism involves a [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of the respective selenoxides to the corresponding methide type intermediates, which ultimately produce the interstrand cross-links. Determination of the rate constants for the selenoxide rearrangements indicates that the rate-determining step for cross-linking is after methide formation. Cross-linking by the thymidine derivative in duplex DNA shows a modest kinetic preference when flanked by pyrimidines as opposed to purines. In contrast, the rate constant for cross-link formation from 5 opposite dG in duplex DNA is strongly dependent upon the flanking sequence and, in general, is at least an order of magnitude slower than that for 1 in an otherwise identical sequence. Introduction of mispairs at the base pairs flanking 5 or substitution of the opposing dG by dI significantly increases the rate constant and yield for cross-linking, indicating that stronger hydrogen bonding between the methide derived from it and dG compared to dA and the respective electrophile derived from 1 limits reaction by increasing the barrier to rotation into the required syn-conformation. Incorporation of 1 or 5 in triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) that utilize Hoogsteen base pairing also yields interstrand cross-links. The dC derivative produces ICLs approximately 10x faster than the thymidine derivative when incorporated at the 5'-termini of the TFOs and higher yields when incorporated at internal sites. The slower, less efficient ICL formation emanating from 1 is attributed to reaction at N1-dA, which requires local melting of the duplex. In contrast, 5 produces cross-links by reacting with N7-dG. The cross-linking reactions of 1 and 5 illustrate the versatility and

  20. 46 CFR 169.670 - Circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit breakers. 169.670 Section 169.670 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and... for— (a) Inverse time delay; (b) Instantaneous short circuit protection; and (c) Repeated opening...

  1. Vitamin E-diffused highly cross-linked UHMWPE particles induce less osteolysis compared to highly cross-linked virgin UHMWPE particles in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichara, David A; Malchau, Erik; Sillesen, Nanna H; Cakmak, Selami; Nielsen, G Petur; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2014-09-01

    Recent in vitro findings suggest that UHMWPE wear particles containing vitamin E (VE) may have reduced biologic activity and decreased osteolytic potential. We hypothesized that particles from VE-stabilized, radiation cross-linked UHMWPE would cause less osteolysis in a murine calvarial bone model when compared to virgin gamma irradiated cross-linked UHMWPE. Groups received equal amount of particulate debris overlaying the calvarium for 10 days. Calvarial bone was examined using high resolution micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses. There was a statistically significant difference between virgin (12.2%±8%) and VE-UHMWPE (3%±1.4%) groups in regards to bone resorption (P=0.005) and inflammatory fibrous tissue overlaying the calvaria (0.48 vs. 0.20, PUHMWPE particles have reduced osteolytic potential in vivo when compared to virgin UHMWPE.

  2. Protein structure prediction guided by cross-linking restraints - A systematic evaluation of the impact of the cross-linking spacer length

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Tommy; Meiler, Jens; Kalkhof, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Recent development of high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) instruments enables chemical cross-linking (XL) to become a high-throughput method for obtaining structural information about proteins. Restraints derived from XL-MS experiments have been used successfully for structure refinement and protein-protein docking. However, one formidable question is under which circumstances XL-MS data might be sufficient to determine a protein's tertiary structure de novo? Answering this question will not only include understanding the impact of XL-MS data on sampling and scoring within a de novo protein structure prediction algorithm, it must also determine an optimal cross-linker type and length for protein structure determination. While a longer cross-linker will yield more restraints, the value of each restraint for protein structure prediction decreases as the restraint is consistent with a larger conformational space. In this study, the number of cross-links and their discriminative power was systematically analyz...

  3. Vitamin E-diffused highly cross-linked UHMWPE particles induce less osteolysis compared to highly cross-linked virgin UHMWPE particles in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bichara, David A; Malchau, Erik; Sillesen, Nanna H;

    2014-01-01

    when compared to virgin gamma irradiated cross-linked UHMWPE. Groups received equal amount of particulate debris overlaying the calvarium for 10 days. Calvarial bone was examined using high resolution micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses. There was a statistically significant difference between...... virgin (12.2%±8%) and VE-UHMWPE (3%±1.4%) groups in regards to bone resorption (P=0.005) and inflammatory fibrous tissue overlaying the calvaria (0.48 vs. 0.20, P

  4. Lipid Cross-Linking of Nanolipoprotein Particles Substantially Enhances Serum Stability and Cellular Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Sean F; Blanchette, Craig D; Scharadin, Tiffany M; Hura, Greg L; Rasley, Amy; Corzett, Michele; Pan, Chong-Xian; Fischer, Nicholas O; Henderson, Paul T

    2016-08-17

    Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) consist of a discoidal phospholipid lipid bilayer confined by an apolipoprotein belt. NLPs are a promising platform for a variety of biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, size, definable composition, and amphipathic characteristics. However, poor serum stability hampers the use of NLPs for in vivo applications such as drug formulation. In this study, NLP stability was enhanced upon the incorporation and subsequent UV-mediated intermolecular cross-linking of photoactive DiynePC phospholipids in the lipid bilayer, forming cross-linked nanoparticles (X-NLPs). Both the concentration of DiynePC in the bilayer and UV exposure time significantly affected the resulting X-NLP stability in 100% serum, as assessed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of fluorescently labeled particles. Cross-linking did not significantly impact the size of X-NLPs as determined by dynamic light scattering and SEC. X-NLPs had essentially no degradation over 48 h in 100% serum, which is a drastic improvement compared to non-cross-linked NLPs (50% degradation by ∼10 min). X-NLPs had greater uptake into the human ATCC 5637 bladder cancer cell line compared to non-cross-linked particles, indicating their potential utility for targeted drug delivery. X-NLPs also exhibited enhanced stability following intravenous administration in mice. These results collectively support the potential utility of X-NLPs for a variety of in vivo applications. PMID:27411034

  5. Preparation of cross-linked hen-egg white lysozyme crystals free of cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Er-Kai; Lu, Qin-Qin; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Liu, Ya-Li; He, Jin; Chen, Da; Wang, Bo; Zhou, Ren-Bin; Wu, Ping; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Cross-linked protein crystals (CLPCs) are very useful materials in applications such as biosensors, catalysis, and X-ray crystallography. Hence, preparation of CLPCs is an important research direction. During the preparation of CLPCs, an often encountered problem is that cracks may appear in the crystals, which may finally lead to shattering of the crystals into small pieces and cause problem in practical applications. To avoid cross-link induced cracking, it is necessary to study the cracking phenomenon in the preparation process. In this paper, we present an investigation on how to avoid cracking during preparation of CLPCs. An orthogonal experiment was designed to study the phenomenon of cross-link induced cracking of hen-egg white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals against five parameters (temperature, solution pH, crystal growth time, glutaraldehyde concentration, and cross-linking time). The experimental results showed that, the solution pH and crystal growth time can significantly affect cross-link induced cracking. The possible mechanism was studied, and optimized conditions for obtaining crack-free CLPCs were obtained and experimentally verified. PMID:27703210

  6. Effects of partial hydrolysis and subsequent cross-linking on wheat gluten physicochemical properties and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiqiang; Luo, Shuizhong; Cai, Jing; Sun, Qiaoqiao; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhong, Xiyang; Jiang, Shaotong; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-04-15

    The rheological behavior and thermal properties of wheat gluten following partial hydrolysis using Alcalase and subsequent microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) cross-linking were investigated. The wheat gluten storage modulus (G') and thermal denaturation temperature (Tg) were significantly increased from 2.26 kPa and 54.43°C to 7.76 kPa and 57.69°C, respectively, by the combined action of partial hydrolysis (DH 0.187%) and cross-linking. The free SH content, surface hydrophobicity, and secondary structure analysis suggested that an appropriate degree of Alcalase-based hydrolysis allowed the compact wheat gluten structure to unfold, increasing the β-sheet content and surface hydrophobicity. This improved its molecular flexibility and exposed additional glutamine sites for MTGase cross-linking. SEM images showed that a compact 3D network formed, while SDS-PAGE profiles revealed that excessive hydrolysis resulted in high-molecular-weight subunits degrading to smaller peptides, unsuitable for cross-linking. It was also demonstrated that the combination of Alcalase-based partial hydrolysis with MTGase cross-linking might be an effective method for modifying wheat gluten rheological behavior and thermal properties. PMID:26616937

  7. Physico-chemical/biological properties of tripolyphosphate cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Soumi Dey [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Farrugia, Brooke L.; Dargaville, Tim R. [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Groove, Queensland-4059 (Australia); Dhara, Santanu, E-mail: sdhara@smst.iitkgp.ernet.in [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India)

    2013-04-01

    In this study, chitosan-PEO blend, prepared in a 15 M acetic acid, was electrospun into nanofibers (∼ 78 nm diameter) with bead free morphology. While investigating physico-chemical parameters of blend solutions, effect of yield stress on chitosan based nanofiber fabrication was clearly evidenced. Architectural stability of nanofiber mat in aqueous medium was achieved by ionotropic cross-linking of chitosan by tripolyphosphate (TPP) ions. The TPP cross-linked nanofiber mat showed swelling up to ∼ 300% in 1 h and ∼ 40% degradation during 30 day study period. 3T3 fibroblast cells showed good attachment, proliferation and viability on TPP treated chitosan based nanofiber mats. The results indicate non-toxic nature of TPP cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers and their potential to be explored as a tissue engineering matrix. - Highlights: ► Chitosan based nanofiber fabrication through electrospinning. ► Roles of solution viscosity and yield stress on spinnability of chitosan evidenced. ► Tripolyphosphate (TPP) cross-linking rendered structural stability to nanofibers. ► TPP cross-linking also improved cellular response on chitosan based nanofibers. ► Thus, chitosan based nanofibers are suitable for tissue engineering application.

  8. Physical properties of pectin-high amylose starch mixtures cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M; de Castro, Ana Dóris; Cury, Beatriz S F; Magalhães, Alviclér; Evangelista, Raul C

    2012-02-28

    Pectin-high amylose starch mixtures (1:4; 1:1; 4:1) were cross-linked at different degrees and characterized by rheological, thermal, X-ray diffraction and NMR analyses. For comparison, samples without cross-linker addition were also prepared and characterized. Although all samples behaved as gels, the results evidenced that the phosphorylation reaction promotes the network strengthening, resulting in covalent gels (highest critical stress, G' and recovery %). Likewise, cross-linked samples presented the highest thermal stability. However, alkaline treatment without cross-linker allowed a structural reorganization of samples, as they also behaved as covalent gels, but weaker than those gels from cross-linked samples, and presented higher thermal stability than the physical mixtures. X-ray diffractograms also evidenced the occurrence of physical and chemical modifications due to the cross-linking process and indicated that samples without cross-linker underwent some structural reorganization, resulting in a decrease of crystallinity. The chemical shift of resonance signals corroborates the occurrence of structural modifications by both alkaline treatment and cross-linking reaction. PMID:22178896

  9. Studies on Cross-linking of succinic acid with chitosan/collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study summarizes the cross-linking property of succinic acid with chitosan /collagen. In detail, the chemistry behind the cross-linking and the improvement in mechanical and thermal properties of the cross-linked material were discussed with suitable instruments and bioinformatics tools. The concentration of succinic acid with reference to the chosen polymers was optimized. A 3D scaffold prepared using an optimized concentration of succinic acid (0.2% (w/v with chitosan (1.0% (w/v and similarly with collagen (0.5% (w/v, was subjected to surface morphology, FT-IR analysis, tensile strength assessment, thermal stability and biocompatibility. Results revealed, cross-linking with succinic acid impart appreciable mechanical strength to the scaffold material. In silico analysis suggested the prevalence of non-covalent interactions, which played a crucial role in improving the mechanical and thermal properties of the cross-linked scaffold. The resultant 3D scaffold may find application as wound dressing material, as an implant in clinical applications and as a tissue engineering material.

  10. Mechanical and biocompatible characterization of a cross-linked collagen-hyaluronic acid wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, James F; Ritter, Gregg; Finger, Isaac; Sankar, Dhyana; Reddy, Joseph D; Talton, James D; Nataraj, Chandra; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Cobb, Ronald R

    2013-01-01

    Collagen scaffolds have been widely employed as a dermal equivalent to induce fibroblast infiltrations and dermal regeneration in the treatment of chronic wounds and diabetic foot ulcers. Cross-linking methods have been developed to address the disadvantages of the rapid degradation associated with collagen-based scaffolds. To eliminate the potential drawbacks associated with glutaraldehyde cross-linking, methods using a water soluble carbodiimide have been developed. In the present study, the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) hyaluronic acid (HA), was covalently attached to an equine tendon derived collagen scaffold using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) to create ntSPONGE The HA was shown to be homogeneously distributed throughout the collagen matrix. In vitro analyses of the scaffold indicated that the cross-linking enhanced the biological stability by decreasing the enzymatic degradation and increasing the thermal denaturation temperature. The material was shown to support the attachment and proliferation of mouse L929 fibroblast cells. In addition, the cross-linking decreased the resorption rate of the collagen as measured in an intramuscular implant model in rabbits. The material was also shown to be biocompatible in a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays. These results indicate that this cross-linked collagen-HA scaffold, ntSPONGE has the potential for use in chronic wound healing.

  11. Cross-Linking Poly(lactic acid) Film Surface by Neutral Hyperthermal Hydrogen Molecule Bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wangli; Shao, Hong; He, Zhoukun; Tang, Changyu; Liu, Yu; Shen, Tao; Zhu, Yan; Lau, Woon-ming; Hui, David

    2015-12-16

    Constructing a dense cross-linking layer on a polymer film surface is a good way to improve the water resistance of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). However, conventional plasma treatments have failed to achieve the aim as a result of the unavoidable surface damage arising from the charged species caused by the uncontrolled high energy coming from colliding ions and electrons. In this work, we report a modified plasma method called hyperthermal hydrogen-induced cross-linking (HHIC) technology to construct a dense cross-linking layer on PLA film surfaces. This method produces energy-controlled neutral hyperthermal hydrogen, which selectively cleaves C-H bonds by molecule collision from the PLA film without breaking other bonds (e.g., C-C bonds in the polymer backbone), and results in subsequent cross-linking of the carbon radicals generated from the organic molecules. The formation of a dense cross-linking layer can serve as a barrier layer to significantly improve both the hydrophobicity and water vapor barrier property of the PLA film. Because of the advantage of selective cleavage of C-H bonds by HHIC treatment, the original physical properties (e.g., mechanical strength and light transmittance) of the PLA films are well-preserved.

  12. Effects of alginate hydrogel cross-linking density on mechanical and biological behaviors for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jinah; Seol, Young-Joon; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Kundu, Joydip; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2014-09-01

    An effective cross-linking of alginate gel was made through reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3). We used human chondrocytes as a model cell to study the effects of cross-linking density. Three different pore size ranges of cross-linked alginate hydrogels were fabricated. The morphological, mechanical, and rheological properties of various alginate hydrogels were characterized and responses of biosynthesis of cells encapsulated in each gel to the variation in cross-linking density were investigated. Desired outer shape of structure was maintained when the alginate solution was cross-linked with the applied method. The properties of alginate hydrogel could be tailored through applying various concentrations of CaCO3. The rate of synthesized GAGs and collagens was significantly higher in human chondrocytes encapsulated in the smaller pore structure than that in the larger pore structure. The expression of chondrogenic markers, including collagen type II and aggrecan, was enhanced in the smaller pore structure. It was found that proper structural morphology is a critical factor to enhance the performance and tissue regeneration.

  13. DNA interstrand cross-link induced by estrogens as well as their complete and synergic carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The estrogens show negative activity in Ames test, but estrodiol and diethylstilbestrol in estrogens both are carcinogens based upon animal experiments and epidemiological investigation. It is concluded from the di-region theory, a mechanism conception put forward by one of the present authors, that the carcinogenesis of estrogens is switched on by the covalent cross-link between complementary DNA bases induced by them. We verified for the first time by the DNA alkaline elution method that both estrodiol and diethylstilbestrol cause covalent cross-link between DNA-protein and DNA interstrands after metabolic activation with dosage correlation, but neither the non-carcinogens cholesterol nor pyrene can lead to these sorts of cross-link in the same condition. It has been known that there is a synergetic effect between estrogen and pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Although non-carcinogenic pyrene alone cannot induce cross-link, its addition with equal molar quantity to estrodiol culture causes synergically the total and DNA interstrand cross-link ratios to be respectively four and three times more than the ones in the cultivation with estrodiol only. It is shown that not only the estrodiol set off the formation of pyrene bi-radicals, but also the pyrene radicals arouse conversely the production of estrodiol bi-radicals.

  14. Physico-chemical/biological properties of tripolyphosphate cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, chitosan-PEO blend, prepared in a 15 M acetic acid, was electrospun into nanofibers (∼ 78 nm diameter) with bead free morphology. While investigating physico-chemical parameters of blend solutions, effect of yield stress on chitosan based nanofiber fabrication was clearly evidenced. Architectural stability of nanofiber mat in aqueous medium was achieved by ionotropic cross-linking of chitosan by tripolyphosphate (TPP) ions. The TPP cross-linked nanofiber mat showed swelling up to ∼ 300% in 1 h and ∼ 40% degradation during 30 day study period. 3T3 fibroblast cells showed good attachment, proliferation and viability on TPP treated chitosan based nanofiber mats. The results indicate non-toxic nature of TPP cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers and their potential to be explored as a tissue engineering matrix. - Highlights: ► Chitosan based nanofiber fabrication through electrospinning. ► Roles of solution viscosity and yield stress on spinnability of chitosan evidenced. ► Tripolyphosphate (TPP) cross-linking rendered structural stability to nanofibers. ► TPP cross-linking also improved cellular response on chitosan based nanofibers. ► Thus, chitosan based nanofibers are suitable for tissue engineering application

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Activity of Cross-Linked Chitosan-Glutaraldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Biao Guo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This present study deals with synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde. Results from this study indicated that cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde markedly inhibited the growth of antibiotic-resistant Burkholderia cepacia complex regardless of bacterial species and incubation time while bacterial growth was unaffected by solid chitosan. Furthermore, high temperature treated cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde showed strong antibacterial activity against the selected strain 0901 although the inhibitory effects varied with different temperatures. In addition, physical-chemical and structural characterization revealed that the cross-linking of chitosan with glutaraldehyde resulted in a rougher surface morphology, a characteristic Fourier transform infrared (FTIR band at 1559 cm−1, a specific X-ray diffraction peak centered at 2θ = 15°, a lower contents of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, and a higher stability of glucose units compared to chitosan based on scanning electron microscopic observation, FTIR spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern, as well as elemental and thermo gravimetric analysis. Overall, this study indicated that cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde is promising to be developed as a new antibacterial drug.

  16. Isocyanate Cross-Linked Silica: Structurally Strong Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular-level synergism between the silica nanoparticles of pre-formed monoliths and molecular cross-linkers inverts the relative host-guest roles in glass-polymer composites, leading to new strong low-density materials. Attempts to load gels with variable amounts of polyurethane precursors such as di-ISO and diol end-capped polybutylene adipate followed by heat treatment, washing, and supercritical drying led to opaque materials, somewhat stronger than silica but still quite brittle and much inferior to the materials described above. Direct mixing of a diisocyanate and an alcohol-free sol has been attempted recently by Yim et al. Reportedly, that procedure leads to week-long gelation times and requires an at least equally long aging period. In our attempt to add various amounts of di-ISO in a base-catalyzed sol in PC, we also noticed a week-long gelation time. The resulting aerogels were translucent but no less brittle than native silica. According to more recent studies, if propylene carbonate is replaced with acetone, it leads not only to shorter processing times, but also to much stronger gels that can tolerate loads in excess of 40 kg in the arrangement presented. We attribute that behavior to the lower viscosity of acetone, that allows faster diffusion of the di-ISO solution within the pores before di-ISO has time to react with the surface of silica. Further studies are underway to vary the chemical identity of the diisocyanate, as well as the composition and density of silica.

  17. Effects of UV-Light and Silane Cross-Linking on the Properties of Polyethylene Cable Materials%紫外光与硅烷交联对聚乙烯电缆材料性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宝红; 鲍文波; 姜国发; 高广刚

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the cross-linking insulation cable materials based on linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) resin was prepared by UV-light and silane cross-linking methods respectively.The effects of two kinds of cross-linking methods on properties were investigated.The experimental results demonstrated that the UV-light cross-linking method was more effective than the silane cross-linking method.The UV-light cross-linking polyethylene materials showed better properties,such as gel content,thermal contraction,ageing resistance and electric properties.%以线型低密度聚乙烯(LLDPE)为基体树脂,分别制备出紫外光交联与硅烷交联电缆用绝缘料.讨论了两种交联方法对聚乙烯绝缘材料性能的影响.结果表明:对于无色母填充的聚乙烯材料,紫外光交联后的样品在凝胶含量、热收缩、耐老化及电性能等方面均明显优于硅烷交联聚乙烯材料.

  18. Fan1 deficiency results in DNA interstrand cross-link repair defects, enhanced tissue karyomegaly, and organ dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongthip, Supawat; Bellani, Marina; Gregg, Siobhan Q; Sridhar, Sunandini; Conti, Brooke A; Chen, Yanglu; Seidman, Michael M; Smogorzewska, Agata

    2016-03-15

    Deficiency of FANCD2/FANCI-associated nuclease 1 (FAN1) in humans leads to karyomegalic interstitial nephritis (KIN), a rare hereditary kidney disease characterized by chronic renal fibrosis, tubular degeneration, and characteristic polyploid nuclei in multiple tissues. The mechanism of how FAN1 protects cells is largely unknown but is thought to involve FAN1's function in DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair. Here, we describe a Fan1-deficient mouse and show that FAN1 is required for cellular and organismal resistance to ICLs. We show that the ubiquitin-binding zinc finger (UBZ) domain of FAN1, which is needed for interaction with FANCD2, is not required for the initial rapid recruitment of FAN1 to ICLs or for its role in DNA ICL resistance. Epistasis analyses reveal that FAN1 has cross-link repair activities that are independent of the Fanconi anemia proteins and that this activity is redundant with the 5'-3' exonuclease SNM1A. Karyomegaly becomes prominent in kidneys and livers of Fan1-deficient mice with age, and mice develop liver dysfunction. Treatment of Fan1-deficient mice with ICL-inducing agents results in pronounced thymic and bone marrow hypocellularity and the disappearance of c-kit(+) cells. Our results provide insight into the mechanism of FAN1 in ICL repair and demonstrate that the Fan1 mouse model effectively recapitulates the pathological features of human FAN1 deficiency.

  19. Long-Term Sustained Release from a Biodegradable Photo-Cross-Linked Network for Intraocular Corticosteroid Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsden, Brian G; Marecak, Dale

    2016-09-01

    Intravitreal sustained delivery of corticosteroids such as dexamethasone is an effective means of treating a number of ocular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, uveitis, and age-related or diabetic macular edema. There are currently marketed devices for this purpose, yet only one, Ozurdex, is degradable. In vitro release of dexamethasone from the Ozurdex device is limited to approximately 30 days, however. It was the objective of this study to examine the potential for prolonged and sustained release of a corticosteroid in vitro from a degradable polymer prepared from terminally acrylated star co- and ter-prepolymers composed of d,l-lactide, ε-caprolactone, and trimethylene carbonate co-photo-cross-linked with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate. Through manipulation of the network polymer glass transition temperature and degradation rate, a sustained release of triamcinolone was achieved, with an estimated release duration greater than twice that of the Ozurdex system. Moreover, a period of nearly constant release was obtained using a network prepared from 5000 Da star-poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-d,l-lactide) triacrylate (3:1 trimethylene carbonate:d,l-lactide) co-cross-linked with 700 Da poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate). These formulations show promise as implantable, intravitreal corticosteroid delivery devices. PMID:27323900

  20. Cross-linked PAN-based thin-film composite membranes for non-aqueous nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Pérez-Manríquez, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    A new approach on the development of cross-linked PAN based thin film composite (TFC) membranes for non-aqueous application is presented in this work. Polypropylene backed neat PAN membranes fabricated by phase inversion process were cross-linked with hydrazine to get excellent solvent stability toward dimethylformamide (DMF). By interfacial polymerization a selective polyamide active layer was coated over the cross-linked PAN using N,N′-diamino piperazine (DAP) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) as monomers. Permeation and molecular weight cut off (MWCO) experiments using various dyes were done to evaluate the performance of the membranes. Membranes developed by such method show excellent solvent stability toward DMF with a permeance of 1.7 L/m2 h bar and a molecular weight cut-off of less than 600 Da.

  1. Genipin Cross-Linked Polymeric Alginate-Chitosan Microcapsules for Oral Delivery: In-Vitro Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported the preparation of the genipin cross-linked alginate-chitosan (GCAC microcapsules composed of an alginate core with a genipin cross-linked chitosan membrane. This paper is the further investigation on their structural and physical characteristics. Results showed that the GCAC microcapsules had a smooth and dense surface and a networked interior. Cross-linking by genipin substantially reduced swelling and physical disintegration of microcapsules induced by nongelling ions and calcium sequestrants. Strong resistance to mechanical shear forces and enzymatic degradation was observed. Furthermore, the GCAC membranes were permeable to bovine serum albumin and maintained a molecular weight cutoff at 70 KD, analogous to the widely studied alginate-chitosan, and alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules. The release features and the tolerance of the GCAC microcapsules in the stimulated gastrointestinal environment were also investigated. This GCAC microcapsule formulation offers significant potential as a delivery vehicle for many biomedical applications.

  2. Designing of superporous cross-linked hydrogels containing acrylic-based polymer network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Debajyoti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable cross-linked polymer, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid was synthesized by free radical polymerization technique using N,N"-methylene-bis-acrylamide as cross-linker and benzoyl peroxide as reaction initiator. FT-IR, 1 H-NMR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA studies of the copolymer along with homopolymers were carried out. FT-IR studies showed no interactions on copolymerization. SEM studies of the copolymer were carried out and mean particle size was found to be 50 µm. TGA analysis indicated an increase in thermal stability by cross-linking the polymer network. Swelling behavior of the copolymer showed more swelling by increasing pH of the medum and the prepared polymer was found to be biodegradable. The prepared cross-linked polymer system holds good for further drug delivery studies in connection to its super swelling and biodegradability.

  3. Comparison of Wear and Oxidation in Retrieved Conventional and Highly Cross-Linked UHMWPE Tibial Inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Barbara H; Currier, John H; Franklin, Katherine J; Mayor, Michael B; Reinitz, Steven D; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2015-12-01

    Two groups of retrieved tibial inserts from one manufacturer's knee system were analyzed to evaluate the effect of a highly cross-linked bearing surface on wear and in vivo oxidation. The two groups ((1) conventional gamma-inert sterilized and (2) highly cross-linked, coupled with the same rough (Ra=0.25) Ti-6Al-4V tray) were matched with statistically similar in vivo duration and patient variables. The retrieved inserts were analyzed for ketone oxidation and wear in the form of dimensional change. The difference in oxidation rate between highly cross-linked and conventional gamma-inert sterilized inserts did not reach statistical significance. Observations suggest that the majority of wear can be accounted for by the backside interface with the rough Ti-6Al-4V tray; however, wear measured by thickness-change rate was statistically indistinguishable between the two bearing materials.

  4. Cheese whey protein recovery by ultrafiltration through transglutaminase (TG) catalysis whey protein cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Qiong, Wang; Lan-Wei, Zhang; Xue, Han; Yi, Lu

    2017-01-15

    In whey ultrafiltration (UF) production, two main problems are whey protein recovery and membrane fouling. In this study, membrane coupling protein transglutaminase (TG) catalysis protein cross-linking was investigated under different conditions to find out the best treatment. We found that the optimal conditions for protein recovery involved catalyzing whey protein cross-linking with TG (40U/g whey proteins) at 40°C for 60min at pH 5.0. Under these conditions, the recovery rate was increased 15-20%, lactose rejection rate was decreased by 10%, and relative permeate flux was increase 30-40% compared to the sample without enzyme treatment (control). It was noticeable that the total resistance and cake resistance were decreased after enzyme catalysis. This was mainly due to the increased particle size and decreased zeta potential. Therefore, membrane coupling enzyme catalysis protein cross-linking is a potential means for further use. PMID:27542447

  5. Study on Chemical Cross-linking Modification of Hyaluronan and the Biocompatibility of its Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-ying; LIU Xin; GU Han-qing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Prepare cross-linked HA gels with higher mechanical stability,lower degradation velocity and desirable biocompatibility,so as to extend the usage of HA.Method: 1.Test molecular weight of HA (MrHA) by viscosimetry;2.Prepare cross-linked HA gels by DVS,GTA,DEC;3.Discuss the cross-linking and degradation procedure;4,evaluate the biocompatibility of the best HA gels.Results: The mechanical stability and durability to degradation of HA-DVS gels are superior to those of other gels,and when HA :DVS = 40:1 (g/g),at 35℃ and in 0.2M NaOH solution,the HA-DVS gel shows the best mechanical stability,and its cytotoxicity reaches class I,hemolysis ratio is lower than 5 %.Conclusion:Our HADVS gel can be used to prepare biologic scaffolds.

  6. Synthesis of acrylic and allylic bifunctional cross-linking monomers derived from PET waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Aguilar, A.; Herrera-González, A. M.; Vázquez-García, R. A.; Navarro-Rodríguez, D.; Coreño, J.

    2013-06-01

    An acrylic and two novel allylic monomers synthesized from bis (hydroxyethyl) terephthalate, BHET, are reported. This was obtained by glycolysis of post-consumer PET with boiling ethylene glycol. The bifunctional monomer bis(2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl) terephthalate was obtained from acryloyl chloride, while the allylic monomers 2-(((allyloxi)carbonyl)oxy) ethyl (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate and bis(2-(((allyloxi)carbonyl)oxy)ethyl) terephthalate, from allyl chloroformate. Cross-linking was studied in bulk polymerization using two different thermal initiators. Monomers were analyzed by means of 1H NMR and the cross-linked polymers by infrared spectroscopy. Gel content higher than 90% was obtained for the acrylic monomer. In the case of the mixture of the allylic monomers, the cross-linked polymer was 80 % using BPO initiator, being this mixture 24 times less reactive than the acrylic monomer.

  7. Grafted Cross-Linked Polyolefin Substrates for Peptide Synthesis and Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    PCT No. PCT/DK94/00245 Sec. 371 Date Dec. 18, 1995 Sec. 102(e) Date Dec. 18, 1995 PCT Filed Jun. 20, 1994 PCT Pub. No. WO95/00533 PCT Pub. Date Jan. 5, 1995A solid support for the solid-phase synthesis of peptides or proteins in high yield and in high purity, suited both to the synthesis...... of a single peptide or protein and to the parallel and substantially simultaneous synthesis of a plurality thereof, is based on a cross-linked polyolefin, especially polyethylene, substrate, the cross-linking having been obtained by irradiation with high energy electrons or gamma radiation or treatment...... suited for use in solid-phase biosystems, notably bioassays, such as immunoassays, DNA hybridization assays or PCR amplification. The grafted chains may bear substituents which are such that the polymer-grafted cross-linked polyolefin substrate is swellable by water or aqueous media, in other words...

  8. Chloroacetamide-Linked Nucleotides and DNA for Cross-Linking with Peptides and Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Agata; Pohl, Radek; Brázdová, Marie; Fojta, Miroslav; Hocek, Michal

    2016-09-21

    Nucleotides, 2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), and DNA probes bearing reactive chloroacetamido group linked to nucleobase (cytosine or 7-deazadaenine) through a propargyl tether were prepared and tested in cross-linking with cysteine- or histidine-containing peptides and proteins. The chloroacetamide-modifed dNTPs proved to be good substrates for DNA polymerases in the enzymatic synthesis of modified DNA probes. Modified nucleotides and DNA reacted efficiently with cysteine and cysteine-containing peptides, whereas the reaction with histidine was sluggish and low yielding. The modified DNA efficiently cross-linked with p53 protein through alkylation of cysteine and showed potential for cross-linking with histidine (in C277H mutant of p53).

  9. Controlled swollen and drug release from urea-cross-linked polyether/siloxane hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a simple synthesis method we produced transparent ureasil cross-linked polyether (poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, or poly (propylene oxide), PPO) networks, whose designed inter cross-linking distance and tunable swell ability was assessed by small angle X-ray scattering on the D11A-SAXS1 beamline of the LNLS, we demonstrated that the controlled drug release from swell able hydrophilic ureasil-PEO materials can be sustained during some days, while from the unswell able ureasil-PPO ones, during some weeks. This outstanding feature conjugated with the bio medically safe formulation of the ureasil cross-linked polyether/siloxane hybrid widen their scope of application to include the domain of soft and implantable drug delivery devices. (author)

  10. In vitro calcification and in vivo biocompatibility of the cross-linked polypentapeptide of elastin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vitro calcifiability and molecular weight dependence of calcification of the polypentapeptide, (L X Val1-L X Pro2-Gly3-L X Val4-Gly5)n, which had been gamma-irradiation cross-linked have been determined when exposed to dialyzates of normal, nonaugmented fetal bovine serum. The material was found to calcify: calcifiability was found to be highly molecular weight dependent and to be most favored when the highest molecular weight polymers (n approximately equal to 240) had been used for cross-linking. The in vivo biocompatibility, biodegradability, and calcifiability of the gamma-irradiation cross-linked polypentapeptide were examined in rabbits in both soft and hard tissue sites. The material was found to be biocompatible irrespective of its physical form and to be biodegradable but with n of 200 or less it was not shown to calcify or ossify in the rabbit tibial nonunion model

  11. Solution processed organic light-emitting diodes using the plasma cross-linking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kongduo; Liu, Yang; Gong, Junyi; Zeng, Pan; Kong, Xun; Yang, Xilu; Yang, Cheng; Yu, Yan; Liang, Rongqing; Ou, Qiongrong

    2016-09-01

    Solution processed multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) present challenges, especially regarding dissolution of the first layer during deposition of a second layer. In this work, we first demonstrated a plasma cross-linking technology to produce a solution processed OLED. The surfaces of organic films can be cross-linked after mixed acetylene and Ar plasma treatment for several tens of seconds and resist corrosion of organic solvent. The film thickness and surface morphology of emissive layers (EMLs) with plasma treatment and subsequently spin-rinsed with chlorobenzene are nearly unchanged. The solution processed triple-layer OLED is successfully fabricated and the current efficiency increases 50% than that of the double-layer OLED. Fluorescent characteristics of EMLs are also observed to investigate factors influencing the efficiency of the triple-layer OLED. Plasma cross-linking technology may open up a new pathway towards fabrication of all-solution processed multilayer OLEDs and other soft electronic devices.

  12. Carbon Nanofiber Incorporated Silica Based Aerogels with Di-Isocyanate Cross-Linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivod, Stephanie L.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Capadona, Lynn A.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Clark, Nicholas; McCorkle, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Lightweight materials with excellent thermal insulating properties are highly sought after for a variety of aerospace and aeronautic applications. (1) Silica based aerogels with their high surface area and low relative densities are ideal for applications in extreme environments such as insulators for the Mars Rover battery. (2) However, the fragile nature of aerogel monoliths prevents their widespread use in more down to earth applications. We have shown that the fragile aerogel network can be cross-linked with a di-isocyanate via amine decorated surfaces to form a conformal coating. (3) This coating reinforces the neck regions between secondary silica particles and significantly strengthens the aerogels with only a small effect on density or porosity. Scheme 1 depicts the cross-linking reaction with the di-isocyanate and exhibits the stages that result in polymer cross-linked aerogel monoliths.

  13. Solvent Composition is Critical for Carbodiimide Cross-Linking of Hyaluronic Acid as an Ophthalmic Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yang Lai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA is one of the most important ophthalmic biomaterials, while also being used for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Although chemical cross-linking is an effective way to improve the material performance, it may as a consequence be detrimental to the living cells/tissues. Given that the cross-linking efficiency is mediated by the solvent composition during the chemical modification, this study aims to explore the stability and biocompatibility of carbodiimide cross-linked HA in relation to material processing conditions by varying the acetone/water volume ratio (from 70:30 to 95:5 at a constant 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC concentration of 100 mM. Our results indicated that after the EDC treatment in the presence of an acetone/water mixture (85:15, v/v, the HA hydrogel membranes have the lowest equilibrium water content, the highest stress at break and the greatest resistance to hyaluronidase digestion. Live/Dead assays and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression analyses showed that the cross-linked HA hydrogel membranes, irrespective of the solvent composition, are compatible with human RPE cell lines without causing toxicity and inflammation. However, it should be noted that the test samples prepared by the cross-linking in the presence of acetone/water mixtures containing 70, 75, and 95 vol % of acetone slightly inhibit the metabolic activity of viable ARPE-19 cultures, probably due to the alteration in the ionic interaction between the medium nutrients and polysaccharide biomaterials. In summary, the water content, mechanical strength and RPE cell proliferative capacity strongly depends on the solvent composition for carbodiimide cross-linking of HA materials.

  14. Collagen telopeptides (cross-linking sites) play a role in collagen gel lattice contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, D. T.; Yamauchi, M.; Wynn, K. C.; Mechanic, G.; Briggaman, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Solubilized interstitial collagens will form a fibrillar, gel-like lattice when brought to physiologic conditions. In the presence of human dermal fibroblasts the collagen lattice will contract. The rate of contraction can be determined by computer-assisted planemetry. The mechanisms involved in contraction are as yet unknown. Using this system it was found that the rate of contraction was markedly decreased when collagen lacking telopeptides was substituted for native collagen. Histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL) is a major stable trifunctional collagen cross-link in mature skin that involves a carboxyl terminal, telopeptide site 16c, the sixteenth amino acid residue from the carboxy terminal of the telopeptide region of alpha 1 (I) in type I collagen. Little, if any, HHL was present in native, purified, reconstituted, soluble collagen fibrils from 1% acetic acid-extracted 2-year-old bovine skin. In contrast, HHL cross-links were present (0.22 moles of cross-link per mole of collagen) in lattices of the same collagen contracted by fibroblasts. However, rat tail tendon does not contain HHL cross-links, and collagen lattices made of rat tail tendon collagen are capable of contraction. This suggests that telopeptide sites, and not mature HHL cross-links per se, are essential for fibroblasts to contract collagen lattices. Beta-aminopropionitrile fumarate (BAPN), a potent lathyrogen that perturbs collagen cross-linking by inhibition of lysyl oxidase, also inhibited the rate of lattice cell contraction in lattices composed of native collagen. However, the concentrations of BAPN that were necessary to inhibit the contraction of collagen lattices also inhibited fibroblast growth suggestive of cellular toxicity. In accordance with other studies, we found no inhibition of the rate of lattice contraction when fibronectin-depleted serum was used. Electron microscopy of contracted gels revealed typical collagen fibers with a characteristic axial periodicity. The data

  15. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Guhathakurta, Soma [Departmet of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen [Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Verma, Rama Shanker, E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2013-04-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  16. Chemical and structural characterization of interstrand cross-links formed between abasic sites and adenine residues in duplex DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Nathan E.; Catalano, Michael J.; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S.

    2015-01-01

    A new type of interstrand DNA–DNA cross-link between abasic (Ap) sites and 2′-deoxyadenosine (dA) residues was recently reported, but the chemical structure and properties of this lesion were not rigorously established. Here we characterized the nucleoside cross-link remnant released by enzymatic digestion of duplex DNA containing the dA-Ap cross-link. A synthetic standard was prepared for the putative nucleoside cross-link remnant 6 in which the anomeric carbon of the 2-deoxyribose residue was connected to the exocyclic N6-amino group of dA. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis showed that the synthetic material 6 matched the authentic cross-link remnant released by enzymatic digestion of cross-linked DNA. These findings establish the chemical structure of the dA-Ap cross-link released from duplex DNA and may provide methods for the detection of this lesion in cellular DNA. Both the nucleoside cross-link remnant 6 and the cross-link in duplex DNA were quite stable at pH 7 and 37°C, suggesting that the dA-Ap cross-link could be a persistent lesion with the potential to block the action of various DNA processing enzymes. PMID:25779045

  17. In Situ Cross-Linking of Stimuli-Responsive Hemicellulose Microgels during Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Weifeng; Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N.; Odelius, Karin; Edlund, Ulrica; Zhao, Changsheng; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking during spray drying offers the potential for green fabrication of microgels with a rapid stimuli response and good blood compatibility and provides a platform for stimuli-responsive hemicellulose microgels (SRHMGs). The cross-linking reaction occurs rapidly in situ at elevated temperature during spray drying, enabling the production of microgels in a large scale within a few minutes. The SRHMGs with an average size range of ∼1–4 μm contain O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan as...

  18. The Fanconi anemia pathway and DNA interstrand cross-link repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyu Su; Jun Huang

    2011-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal or X-linked recessive disorder characterized by chromosomal instability,bone marrow failure,cancer susceptibility,and a profound sensitivity to agents that produce DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL).To date,15 genes have been identified that,when mutated,result in FA or an FA-like syndrome.It is believed that cellular resistance to DNA interstrand cross-linking agents requires all 15 FA or FA-like proteins.Here,we review our current understanding of how these FA proteins participate in ICL repair and discuss the molecular mechanisms that regulate the FA pathway to maintain genome stability.

  19. Digestibility of β-lactoglobulin following cross-linking by Trametes versicolor laccase and apple polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGANA STANIĆ-VUČINIĆ; TANJA ĆIRKOVIĆ VELIČKOVIĆ; RATKO M. JANKOV; JANA OGNJENOVIĆ; BOJANA KRAVIĆ; ZIYAD TANTOUSH; LUKA MIHAJLOVIĆ

    2011-01-01

    β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) is an important nutrient of dairy products and an important allergen in cow’s milk allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of laccase to cross-link BLG in the presence of an apple phenolic extract (APE) and to characterize the obtained products for their digestibility by pepsin and pancreatin. The composition of the apple phenolics used for cross-linking was determined by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS)....

  20. Grafted Cross-Linked Polyolefin Substrates for Peptide Synthesis and Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Winther, Lars; Almdal, Kristoffer; Berg, Rolf Henrik

    1999-01-01

    PCT No. PCT/DK94/00245 Sec. 371 Date Dec. 18, 1995 Sec. 102(e) Date Dec. 18, 1995 PCT Filed Jun. 20, 1994 PCT Pub. No. WO95/00533 PCT Pub. Date Jan. 5, 1995A solid support for the solid-phase synthesis of peptides or proteins in high yield and in high purity, suited both to the synthesis of a single peptide or protein and to the parallel and substantially simultaneous synthesis of a plurality thereof, is based on a cross-linked polyolefin, especially polyethylene, substrate, the cross-linking...

  1. Increasing Thermal Stability of Gelatin by UV-Induced Cross-Linking with Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan M. Masutani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ultraviolet (254 nm radiation on a hydrated gelatin-glucose matrix were investigated for the development of a physiologically thermostable substrate for potential use in cell scaffold production. Experiments conducted with a differential scanning calorimeter indicate that ultraviolet irradiation of gelatin-glucose hydrogels dramatically increases thermal stability such that no melting is observed at temperatures of at least 90°C. The addition of glucose significantly increases the yield of cross-linked product, suggesting that glucose has a role in cross-link formation. Comparisons of lyophilized samples using scanning electron microscopy show that irradiated materials have visibly different densities.

  2. 1,3-Diphenylethenylcarbazolyl-Based Monomer for Cross-Linked Hole Transporting Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryte Daskeviciene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new cross-linkable monomer containing 1,3-diphenylethenylcarbazolyl-based hole-transporting moieties and four reactive epoxy groups, was prepared by a multistep synthesis route from 1,3-bis(2,2-diphenylethenyl-9H-carbazol-2-ol and its application for the in situ formation of cross-linked hole transporting layers was investigated. A high concentration of flexible aliphatic epoxy chains ensures good solubility and makes this compound an attractive cross-linking agent. The synthesized compounds were characterized by various techniques, including differential scanning calorimetry, xerographic time of flight, and electron photoemission in air methods.

  3. Kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed cross-linking of feruloylated arabinan from sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Arnous, Anis; Holck, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    the kinetics of HRP catalyzed cross-linking of FA esterified to α-(1,5)-linked arabinans are affected by the length of the arabinan chains carrying the feruloyl substitutions. The kinetics of the HRP-catalyzed cross-linking of four sets of arabinan samples from sugar beet pulp, having different molecular...... weights and hence different degrees of polymerization, were monitored by the disappearance of FA absorbance at 316 nm. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis confirmed that the sugar beet arabinans were feruloyl-substituted, and HPLC analysis verified that the amounts of diFAs increased when FA levels decreased...

  4. Use of proteinase K nonspecific digestion for selective and comprehensive identification of interpeptide cross-links: application to prion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V; Serpa, Jason J; Hardie, Darryl B; Berjanskii, Mark; Suriyamongkol, Bow P; Wishart, David S; Borchers, Christoph H

    2012-07-01

    Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry is a rapidly developing technique for structural proteomics. Cross-linked proteins are usually digested with trypsin to generate cross-linked peptides, which are then analyzed by mass spectrometry. The most informative cross-links, the interpeptide cross-links, are often large in size, because they consist of two peptides that are connected by a cross-linker. In addition, trypsin targets the same residues as amino-reactive cross-linkers, and cleavage will not occur at these cross-linker-modified residues. This produces high molecular weight cross-linked peptides, which complicates their mass spectrometric analysis and identification. In this paper, we examine a nonspecific protease, proteinase K, as an alternative to trypsin for cross-linking studies. Initial tests on a model peptide that was digested by proteinase K resulted in a "family" of related cross-linked peptides, all of which contained the same cross-linking sites, thus providing additional verification of the cross-linking results, as was previously noted for other post-translational modification studies. The procedure was next applied to the native (PrP(C)) and oligomeric form of prion protein (PrPβ). Using proteinase K, the affinity-purifiable CID-cleavable and isotopically coded cross-linker cyanurbiotindipropionylsuccinimide and MALDI-MS cross-links were found for all of the possible cross-linking sites. After digestion with proteinase K, we obtained a mass distribution of the cross-linked peptides that is very suitable for MALDI-MS analysis. Using this new method, we were able to detect over 60 interpeptide cross-links in the native PrP(C) and PrPβ prion protein. The set of cross-links for the native form was used as distance constraints in developing a model of the native prion protein structure, which includes the 90-124-amino acid N-terminal portion of the protein. Several cross-links were unique to each form of the prion protein, including

  5. Video auditing techniques for breaker reject

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Corke, P.I.; O`Brien, G.D.; Waugh, J.M. [CSIRO (Australia). Division of Minerals

    1998-12-31

    Rotary breakers are used by many Australian coal mines to reduce the topsize of run of mine (ROM) coal to a size that can be handled by the processing plant. Coal that does not break to the designated topsize therefore passes out with the rock as breaker rejects. The degree of coal loss can be assessed manually by stop belt auditing of the reject belt, but this method is impractical for long-term monitoring of breaker rejects and breaker performance. Case studies of several open cut coal mines in the Bowen Basin of Central Queensland were made to determine the extent of the problem. The results indicated instances where significant losses did occur, but it was not possible to make an accurate estimate of the total value of the losses. This paper covers work undertaken to develop new auditing techniques for qualitative, quantitative and continuous monitoring of reject belt material which uses relatively low-cost equipment and mature technology. Initial work has concentrated on developing video surveillance techniques suitable for the range of environmental conditions typically encountered in the field. Multi-media methods are being developed for qualitative data presentation, and image analysis techniques are being investigated to extract basic quantitative information from video sequences, such as particle size and shape. Future work includes development of automatic methods using machine vision for 100% on-line inspection. The main attraction of the methodology being adopted is the potential to easily adapt the techniques to diagnostic and control functions. In situations where significant losses occur, this approach could open up many possibilities for reducing coal rejection or allowing its recovery from the rejects stream to improve productivity. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Short- circuit tests of circuit breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Chorovský, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with short-circuit tests of low voltage electrical devices. In the first part of this paper, there are described basic types of short- circuit tests and their principles. Direct and indirect (synthetic) tests with more details are described in the second part. Each test and principles are explained separately. Oscilogram is obtained from short-circuit tests of circuit breakers at laboratory. The aim of this research work is to propose a test circuit for performing indirect test.

  7. The Effect of Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linking on the Enzyme Activity of Immobilized &beta-Galactosidase on Chitosan Bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of glutaraldehyde solution concentration, cross-linking time, cross-linking pH and cross-linking temperature on the enzyme activity of the immobilized &beta-galactosidase on Chitosan beads were studied. The enzyme activity was measured after immobilized by detecting the absorbance value at 420 nm.The results were as follows: the immobilized enzyme activity reached the maximum when the concentration of glutaraldehyde solution was 0.3%.The immobilized enzyme had optimal cross-linking time of 3h, optimal cross-linking pH of 6.5, optimal cross-linking temperature of 25°C, under these conditions, the immobilized enzyme activity reached 101, 96, 90 U/g, respectively.

  8. In-vitro fermentability of cell walls as influenced by lignin composition and cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed how diverse modifications in lignin composition and reductions in ferulate-lignin cross-linking influence the degradability of cell walls. Cell walls from nonlignified maize cell suspensions were artificially lignified with varying ratios of normal monolignols (coniferyl and sinapyl alco...

  9. A minimal model for stabilization of biomolecules by hydrocarbon cross-linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, K.; Hübsch, A.; McCammon, J. A.

    2006-04-01

    Programmed cell death regulating protein motifs play an essential role in the development of an organism, its immune response, and disease-related cellular mechanisms. Among those motifs the BH3 domain of the BCL-2 family is found to be of crucial importance. Recent experiments showed how the isolated, otherwise unstructured BH3 peptide can be modified by a hydrocarbon linkage to regain function. We parametrized a reduced, dynamic model for the stability effects of such covalent cross-linking and confirmed that the model reproduces the reinforcement of the structural stability of the BH3 motif by cross-linking. We show that an analytically solvable model for thermostability around the native state is not capable of reproducing the stabilization effect. This points to the crucial importance of the peptide dynamics and the fluctuations neglected in the analytic model for the cross-linking system to function properly. This conclusion is supported by a thorough analysis of a simulated Gō model. The resulting model is suitable for rational design of generic cross-linking systems in silicio.

  10. Green Synthesis, Thermal Analysis and Degradation Kinetics of Cross-Linked Potato Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Succinylation of starch was carried out with succinic anhydride homogeneously using N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) at 70 degree C for 24 h. Starch succinates (SS) were then cross-linked using 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI). This green method for cross-linking of SS using CDI is being reported for the first time. The SS and cross-linked starch succinate (CLSS) were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The CLSS was found thermally more stable than SS as degradation maxima (Tdm) of CLSS (311 Degree C) was 70 Degree C higher than Tdm of SS (241 Degree C) noted for first and major step of degradation. Additionally, initial (Tdi) and final (Tdf) degradation temperatures of CLSS were higher than SS which is indicative of extra thermal stability imparted after cross-linking of starch via succinylation. Thermal degradation kinetics were calculated using Friedman, Broido and Chang methods. Energy of activation (Ea) was calculated for each step of degradation for SS and CLSS. Order of reaction (n) was calculated from Chang model and it was found that degradation in first step follows first order kinetics in SS and CLSS. (author)

  11. Temperature dependence of creep compliance of highly cross-linked epoxy: A molecular simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabaz, Fardin, E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu; Khare, Ketan S., E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu; Khare, Rajesh, E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect of temperature on the creep compliance of neat cross-linked epoxy. Experimental studies of mechanical behavior of cross-linked epoxy in literature commonly report creep compliance values, whereas molecular simulations of these systems have primarily focused on the Young’s modulus. In this work, in order to obtain a more direct comparison between experiments and simulations, atomistically detailed models of the cross-linked epoxy are used to study their creep compliance as a function of temperature using MD simulations. The creep tests are performed by applying a constant tensile stress and monitoring the resulting strain in the system. Our results show that simulated values of creep compliance increase with an increase in both time and temperature. We believe that such calculations of the creep compliance, along with the use of time temperature superposition, hold great promise in connecting the molecular insight obtained from molecular simulation at small length- and time-scales with the experimental behavior of such materials. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first reported effort that investigates the creep compliance behavior of cross-linked epoxy using MD simulations.

  12. Cross-linked aromatic cationic polymer electrolytes with enhanced stability for high temperature fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Wenjia; Zhao, Chengji; Yang, Jingshuai;

    2012-01-01

    anchoring of the molecule. Combining the excellent thermal stability, the addition of a small amount of diamines enhanced both the chemical and mechanical stability and the phosphoric acid doping (PA) ability of membranes. Fuel cell performance based on impregnated cross-linked membranes have been...

  13. Pickering emulsions stabilized by whey protein nanoparticles prepared by thermal cross-linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jiande; Shi, Mengxuan; Li, Wei; Zhao, Luhai; Wang, Ze; Yan, Xinzhong; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    A Pickering (o/w) emulsion was formed and stabilized by whey protein isolate nanoparticles (WPI NPs). Those WPI NPs were prepared by thermal cross-linking of denatured WPI proteins within w/o emulsion droplets at 80. °C for 15. min. During heating of w/o emulsions containing 10% (w/v) WPI protein

  14. Ionically cross-linked hyaluronic acid: wetting, lubrication, and viscoelasticity of a modified adhesion barrier gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Vorvolakos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Vorvolakos1, Irada S Isayeva1, Hoan-My Do Luu1, Dinesh V Patwardhan1, Steven K Pollack21Division of Chemistry and Material Science, 2Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USAAbstract: Hyaluronic acid (HA, in linear or cross-linked form, is a common component of cosmetics, personal care products, combination medical products, and medical devices. In all cases, the ability of the HA solution or gel to wet surfaces and/or disrupt and lubricate interfaces is a limiting feature of its mechanism of action. We synthesized ferric ion–cross-linked networks of HA based on an adhesion barrier, varied the degree of cross-linking, and performed wetting goniometry, viscometry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. As cross-linking increases, so do contact angle, viscosity, storage modulus, and loss modulus; thus, wetting and lubrication are compromised. These findings have implications in medical device materials, such as adhesion barriers and mucosal drug delivery vehicles.Keywords: hyaluron, adhesion barrier, wetting, contact angle, viscosity, lubrication, elasticity, viscoelastic, hydrogel, ferric

  15. Substituent distribution within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch and potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin Zhengyu,; Buwalda, P.L.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the substituents distribution within starch can help to understand the changes of starch properties after modification. The distribution of substituents over cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated and compared with modified potato starch. The starches were

  16. Formation and Distribution of Space-Charge in Cross-Linked Polyethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冶文; 李吉晓; 郑飞虎; 彭宗仁; 吴长顺; 夏钟福

    2002-01-01

    The formation and distribution of space-charge in a cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) sample are investigated by means of pressure wave propagation, infrared spectroscopy and electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). The related mechanism of space-charge distribution and the structure of XLPE are discussed. The EFM images show that quite large quantitative space-charges locate at the surface of spherulites.

  17. Design of phosphated cross-linked microspheres of bael fruit gum as a biodegradable carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahammed, Nawaz; Gowda, D V; Deshpande, Rohan D; Thirumaleshwar, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    Present work was aimed at designing of phosphated cross-linked microspheres of bael fruit gum (BFG) by emulsification method using sodium-tri-meta phosphate as a cross-linking agent for treatment of colon cancer using 5-fluorouracil as model drug. Stirring speed was found to be 1,000 rpm for about 5 h to be optimal to obtain reproducible microspheres. It was found that there is an increase in particle size as polymer concentration is increased whereas a reduction in particle size was observed as there is increase in stirring speed. Cross-linked BFG microspheres were successfully prepared by emulsification method. Optimum surfactant concentration was found to be 2 % w/w. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the drug-loaded microspheres were non-aggregated and in spherical shape. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy studies showed that drug and excipients are compatible. Release studies showed that drug release was more profound in cecal medium induced with enzymes causing degradation of the cross linked BFG than that of the release showed in simulated intestinal fluid. Stability studies showed that there were no significant changes in the drug content and physical appearance of microspheres.

  18. ROMP-based thermosetting polymers from modified castor oil with various cross-linking agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui

    Polymers derived from bio-renewable resources are finding an increase in global demand. In addition, polymers with distinctive functionalities are required in certain advanced fields, such as aerospace and civil engineering. In an attempt to meet both these needs, the goal of this work aims to develop a range of bio-based thermosetting matrix polymers for potential applications in multifunctional composites. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), which recently has been explored as a powerful method in polymer chemistry, was employed as a unique pathway to polymerize agricultural oil-based reactants. Specifically, a novel norbornyl-functionalized castor oil alcohol (NCA) was investigated to polymerize different cross-linking agents using ROMP. The effects of incorporating dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and a norbornene-based crosslinker (CL) were systematically evaluated with respect to curing behavior and thermal mechanical properties of the polymers. Isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the conversion during cure. Dynamic DSC scans at multiple heating rates revealed conversion-dependent activation energy by Ozawa-Flynn-Wall analysis. The glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and loss modulus for NCA/DCPD and NCA/CL copolymers with different cross-linking agent loading were compared using dynamic mechanical analysis. Cross-link density was examined to explain the very different dynamic mechanical behavior. Mechanical stress-strain curves were developed through tensile test, and thermal stability of the cross-linked polymers was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis to further investigate the structure-property relationships in these systems.

  19. Phase diagram of selectively cross-linked block copolymers shows chemically microstructured gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Heydt, Alice; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-02-01

    We study analytically the intricate phase behavior of cross-linked AB diblock copolymer melts, which can undergo two main phase transitions due to quenched random constraints. Gelation, i.e., spatially random localisation of polymers forming a system-spanning cluster, is driven by increasing the number parameter μ of irreversible, type-selective cross-links between random pairs of A blocks. Self-assembly into a periodic pattern of A/B-rich microdomains (microphase separation) is controlled by the AB incompatibility χ inversely proportional to temperature. Our model aims to capture the system's essential microscopic features, including an ensemble of random networks that reflects spatial correlations at the instant of cross-linking. We identify suitable order parameters and derive a free-energy functional in the spirit of Landau theory that allows us to trace a phase diagram in the plane of μ and χ. Selective cross-links promote microphase separation at higher critical temperatures than in uncross-linked diblock copolymer melts. Microphase separation in the liquid state facilitates gelation, giving rise to a novel gel state whose chemical composition density mirrors the periodic AB pattern.

  20. Core-cross-linked polymeric micelles: a versatile nanomedicine platform with broad applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Qizhi

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the broad applicability of the nanomedicine platform core-cross-linked polymeric micelles (CCL-PMs) composed of thermosensitive mPEG-b-pHPMAmLacn block copolymers. In Chapter 1, a general introduction to nanomedicines is provided, with a particular focus on polymeric nano

  1. Cross-Linking of P.V.A. by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action of gamma rays on aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol was observed by determination of the viscosity, sedimentation constant and acetylation rate. There was a very definite critical concentration, 0.28%, below which a B gel could not be formed by any dose. Above the critical concentration, the chief reaction was apparently intermolecular cross-linking which increased with dosage. Below the critical concentration the reactions were much more complex. At small doses there was probably some competition between inter- and intra- molecular cross-linking and the formation of more symmetrical molecular clusters. At higher doses the aggregates and the molecular clusters were subject to more and more internal and external cross-linking, leading finally to the formation of micro-gel particles. At decreasing concentrations (0.2 - 0.6%) intra-molecular cross-linking apparently became increasingly important. The effects of radiation were thought to depend upon the initial concentration of the polyvinyl alcohol solutions. (author)

  2. Is dialdehyde starch a valuable cross-linking agent for collagen/elastin based materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopinska-Wisniewska, J; Wegrzynowska-Drzymalska, K; Bajek, A; Maj, M; Sionkowska, A

    2016-04-01

    Collagen and elastin are the main structural proteins in mammal bodies. They provide mechanical support, strength, and elasticity to various organs and tissues, e.g. skin, tendons, arteries, and bones. They are readily available, biodegradable, biocompatible and they stimulate cell growth. The physicochemical properties of collagen and elastin-based materials can be modified by cross-linking. Glutaraldehyde is one of the most efficient cross-linking agents. However, the unreacted molecules can be released from the material and cause cytotoxic reactions. Thus, the aim of our work was to investigate the influence of a safer, macromolecular cross-linking agent--dialdehyde starch (DAS). The properties of hydrogels based on collagen/elastin mixtures (95/5, 90/10) containing 5 and 10% of DAS and neutralized via dialysis against deionized water were tested. The homogenous, transparent, stiff hydrogels were obtained. The DAS addition causes the formation of intermolecular cross-linking bonds but does not affect the secondary structure of the proteins. As a result, the thermal stability, mechanical strength, and, surprisingly, swelling ability increased. At the same time, the surface properties test and in vitro study show that the materials are attractive for 3T3 cells. Moreover, the materials containing 10% of DAS are more resistant to enzymatic degradation. PMID:26886815

  3. Standard and hypoosmolar corneal cross-linking in various pachymetry groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, Nienke; Tahzib, Nayyirih G

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of corneal thickness on the outcome of corneal cross-linking (CXL) for progressive keratoconus. METHODS: In this cohort study, 72 unilateral eyes were treated by CXL and divided into three groups according to central corneal thickness (CCT) measured by ultrasoun

  4. Proteomics reveals dynamic assembly of repair complexes during bypass of DNA cross-links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räschle, Markus; Smeenk, Godelieve; Hansen, Rebecca K;

    2015-01-01

    DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) block replication fork progression by inhibiting DNA strand separation. Repair of ICLs requires sequential incisions, translesion DNA synthesis, and homologous recombination, but the full set of factors involved in these transactions remains unknown. We devised ...

  5. Baking Performance of Phosphorylated Cross-Linked Resistant Starch in Low-Moisture Bakery Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorylated cross-linked resistant starch (RS) is a type 4 RS, which can be used for enhancing the benefits of dietary fiber. The baking performance of the RS was explored using wire-cut cookie baking and benchtop chemically-leavened cracker baking methods to produce low-moisture baked goods (coo...

  6. Is dialdehyde starch a valuable cross-linking agent for collagen/elastin based materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopinska-Wisniewska, J; Wegrzynowska-Drzymalska, K; Bajek, A; Maj, M; Sionkowska, A

    2016-04-01

    Collagen and elastin are the main structural proteins in mammal bodies. They provide mechanical support, strength, and elasticity to various organs and tissues, e.g. skin, tendons, arteries, and bones. They are readily available, biodegradable, biocompatible and they stimulate cell growth. The physicochemical properties of collagen and elastin-based materials can be modified by cross-linking. Glutaraldehyde is one of the most efficient cross-linking agents. However, the unreacted molecules can be released from the material and cause cytotoxic reactions. Thus, the aim of our work was to investigate the influence of a safer, macromolecular cross-linking agent--dialdehyde starch (DAS). The properties of hydrogels based on collagen/elastin mixtures (95/5, 90/10) containing 5 and 10% of DAS and neutralized via dialysis against deionized water were tested. The homogenous, transparent, stiff hydrogels were obtained. The DAS addition causes the formation of intermolecular cross-linking bonds but does not affect the secondary structure of the proteins. As a result, the thermal stability, mechanical strength, and, surprisingly, swelling ability increased. At the same time, the surface properties test and in vitro study show that the materials are attractive for 3T3 cells. Moreover, the materials containing 10% of DAS are more resistant to enzymatic degradation.

  7. Design and Preparation of Cross-Linked Polystyrene Nanoparticles for Elastomer Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked polystyrene (PS particles in a latex form were synthesized by free radical emulsion polymerization. The nano-PS-filled elastomer composites were prepared by the energy-saving latex compounding method. Results showed that the PS particles took a spherical shape in the size of 40–60 nm with a narrow size distribution, and the glass-transition temperature of the PS nanoparticles increased with the cross-linking density. The outcomes from the mechanical properties demonstrated that when filled into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR, and natural rubber (NR, the cross-linked PS nano-particles exhibited excellent reinforcing capabilities in all the three matrices, and the best in the SBR matrix. In comparison with that of the carbon black filled composites, another distinguished advantage of the cross-linked PS particles filled elastomer composites was found to be light weight in density, which could help to save tremendous amount of energy when put into end products.

  8. Cross-linking methods of electrospun fibrinogen scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, Scott A; Garg, Koyal; McClure, Michael J; Bowlin, Gary L [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284-3067 (United States); Francis, Michael P [Department of Pathology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0709 (United States); Simpson, David G [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0709 (United States)], E-mail: glbowlin@vcu.edu

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the mechanical properties and slow the degradation of an electrospun fibrinogen scaffold, while maintaining the scaffold's high level of bioactivity. Three different cross-linkers were used to achieve this goal: glutaraldehyde vapour, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) in ethanol and genipin in ethanol. Scaffolds with a fibrinogen concentration of 120 mg ml{sup -1} were electrospun and cross-linked with one of the aforementioned cross-linkers. Mechanical properties were determined through uniaxial tensile testing performed on scaffolds incubated under standard culture conditions for 1 day, 7 days and 14 days. Cross-linked scaffolds were seeded with human foreskin fibroblasts (BJ-GFP-hTERT) and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days, with histology and scanning electron microscopy performed upon completion of the time course. Mechanical testing revealed significantly increased peak stress and modulus values for the EDC and genipin cross-linked scaffolds, with significantly slowed degradation. However, cross-linking with EDC and genipin was shown to have some negative effect on the bioactivity of the scaffolds as cell migration throughout the thickness of the scaffold was slowed.

  9. Radiation-chemical cross-linking of saturated elastomers with polymer peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents investigation of radiation-chemical cross-linking of saturated elastomers by using the sol-gel analysis, also by physical and chemical methods for the study of the spectral measurement of molecular structure of HNBR with showed organic compounds

  10. Phase diagram of selectively cross-linked block copolymers shows chemically microstructured gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Heydt, Alice; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-02-01

    We study analytically the intricate phase behavior of cross-linked AB diblock copolymer melts, which can undergo two main phase transitions due to quenched random constraints. Gelation, i.e., spatially random localisation of polymers forming a system-spanning cluster, is driven by increasing the number parameter μ of irreversible, type-selective cross-links between random pairs of A blocks. Self-assembly into a periodic pattern of A/B-rich microdomains (microphase separation) is controlled by the AB incompatibility χ inversely proportional to temperature. Our model aims to capture the system's essential microscopic features, including an ensemble of random networks that reflects spatial correlations at the instant of cross-linking. We identify suitable order parameters and derive a free-energy functional in the spirit of Landau theory that allows us to trace a phase diagram in the plane of μ and χ. Selective cross-links promote microphase separation at higher critical temperatures than in uncross-linked diblock copolymer melts. Microphase separation in the liquid state facilitates gelation, giving rise to a novel gel state whose chemical composition density mirrors the periodic AB pattern. PMID:25662662

  11. Effect of dual modification with hydroxypropylation and cross-linking on physicochemical properties of taro starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Bidyut Jyoti; Sit, Nandan

    2016-04-20

    Dual modification of taro starch by hydroxypropylation and cross-linking was carried out and the properties of the modified starches were investigated. Two different levels of hydroxypropylation (5 and 10%) and cross-linking (0.05 and 0.10%) were used in different sequences. The amylose contents of the starch decreased due to single and dual modification. For the dual-modified starches, the swelling, solubility and clarity was found to increase with level of hydroxypropylation and decrease with level of cross-linking. The freeze-thaw stability of the dual-modified starches was also affected by the sequence of modification. The viscosities of the cross-linked and dual-modified starches were more than native and hydroxypropylated starches. The firmness of the dual-modified starches was also higher than native and single modified starches. The dual-modified starches have benefits of both type of modifications and could be used for specific purposes e.g. food products requiring high viscosity as well as freeze-thaw stability.

  12. Isolation and removal of proteolytic enzymes with magnetic cross-linked erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Mirka

    2001-01-01

    New magnetic adsorbents for batch isolation and removal of various proteolytic enzymes were prepared by glutaraldehyde cross-linking of bovine, porcine and human erythrocytes in the presence of fine magnetic particles. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, alkaline bacterial protease and proteases present in various commercial enzyme preparations were efficiently adsorbed on these adsorbents; on the contrary, proteins without proteolytic activity were not adsorbed.

  13. XLPM: efficient algorithm for the analysis of protein-protein contacts using chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Mihir; Crabtree, Nathaniel Mark; Bauer, Michael A; Hall, Roger; Raney, Kevin D.; Boris L Zybailov

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemical cross-linking is used for protein-protein contacts mapping and for structural analysis. One of the difficulties in cross-linking studies is the analysis of mass-spectrometry data and the assignment of the site of cross-link incorporation. The difficulties are due to higher charges of fragment ions, and to the overall low-abundance of cross-link species in the background of linear peptides. Cross-linkers non-specific at one end, such as photo-inducible diazirines, may compl...

  14. Wear measurement of highly cross-linked UHMWPE using a 7Be tracer implantation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Markus A; Laurent, Michel P; Dwiwedi, Yasha; Gallardo, Luis A; Chipps, Kelly A; Blackmon, Jeffery C; Kozub, Raymond L; Bardayan, Daniel W; Gross, Carl J; Stracener, Daniel W; Smith, Michael S; Nesaraja, Caroline D; Erikson, Luke; Patel, Nidhi; Rehm, Karl E; Ahmad, Irshad; Greene, John P; Greife, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    The very low wear rates achieved with the current highly cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPE) used in joint prostheses have proven to be difficult to measure accurately by gravimetry. Tracer methods are therefore being explored. The purpose of this study was to perform a proof-of-concept experiment on the use of the radioactive tracer beryllium-7 ((7)Be) for the determination of in vitro wear in a highly cross-linked orthopedic UHMWPE. Three cross-linked and four conventional UHMWPE pins made from compression-molded GUR 1050, were activated with 10(9) to 10(10) (7)Be nuclei using a new implantation setup that produced a homogenous distribution of implanted nuclei up to 8.5 μm below the surface. The pins were tested for wear in a six-station pin-on-flat apparatus for up to 7.1 million cycles (178 km). A Germanium gamma detector was employed to determine activity loss of the UHMWPE pins at preset intervals during the wear test. The wear of the cross-linked UHMWPE pins was readily detected and estimated to be 17 ± 3 μg per million cycles. The conventional-to-cross-linked ratio of the wear rates was 13.1 ± 0.8, in the expected range for these materials. Oxidative degradation damage from implantation was negligible; however, a weak dependence of wear on implantation dose was observed limiting the number of radioactive tracer atoms that can be introduced. Future applications of this tracer technology may include the analysis of location-specific wear, such as loss of material in the post or backside of a tibial insert.

  15. Proton conductivity and methanol transport behavior of cross-linked PVA/PAA/silica hybrid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Ho Bum; Lee, Young Moo [National Research Laboratory for Membranes, School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Ji Won [Department of Chemical Engineering Hannam University, 133 Ojung-Dong, Daeduk-Gu, Daejon 306-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-01-14

    Cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/silica hybrid membranes were prepared to evaluate the possibility of use as a proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). A chemical cross-linking agent having sulfonic acid group (-SO{sub 3}H) was used to increase proton conductivity, and simultaneously to prevent methanol transport through the cross-linked membranes. In addition, silica particles were dispersed into polymer matrices via sol-gel reaction under acidic conditions, expecting the barrier to the methanol transport. The proton and the methanol transport were investigated in terms of PVA/PAA compositions and cross-linker (sulfosuccinic acid, SSA) concentration. It was found that the compositions of PVA/PAA and the cross-linker concentration affected the transport properties of the membranes. Particularly, the concentration of cross-linker markedly affected the proton and the methanol transport because SSA was used not only as a chemical cross-linker but also as a donor of fixed anionic group (-SO{sub 3}{sup -}H{sup +}). The proton conductivities of the hybrid membrane were in the range of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} S/cm, and the methanol permeabilities ranged between 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s. Noticeably, the methanol permeabilities were reduced by cross-linking between PVA, PAA and SSA chains without a large sacrifice of proton conductivity. Moreover, the silica particles embedded in the cross-linked polymer membranes acted as a reducing material for fraction of free water as well as a methanol barrier to hinder pathway from penetrating methanol molecules.

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of excimer laser ablation of cross-linked porcine cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combination of riboflavin/UVA cross-linking (CXL and excimer laser ablation is a promising therapy for treating corneal ectasia. The cornea is strengthened by cross-linking, while the irregular astigmatism is reduced by laser ablation. This study aims to compare the efficacy of excimer laser ablation on porcine corneas with and without cross-linking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The porcine cornea was de-epithelialized and treated with 0.1% riboflavin solution for 30 minutes. A half of the cornea was exposed to UVA-radiation for another 30 minutes while the controlled half of the cornea was protected from the UVA using a metal shield. Photo therapeutic keratectomy (PTK was then performed on the central cornea. Corneal thickness of 5 paired locations on the horizontal line, ± 0.5, ± 1.0, ± 1.5, ± 2.0, and ± 2.5 mm from the central spot, were measured using optical coherence tomography prior to and after PTK. The ablation depth was then determined by the corneal thickness. There was a 9% difference (P<0.001 in the overall ablation depth between the CXL-half corneas (158 ± 22 µm and the control-half corneas (174 ± 26 µm. The ablation depths of all 5 correspondent locations on the CXL-half were significantly smaller (P<0.001. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of the laser ablation seems to be lower in cross-linked cornea. Current ablation algorithms may need to be modified for cross-linked corneas.

  17. Protein Cross-Linking Capillary Electrophoresis for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Claire M; Shao, Hao; Rauch, Jennifer N; Dawod, Mohamed; Nordhues, Bryce; Dickey, Chad A; Gestwicki, Jason E; Kennedy, Robert T

    2016-08-16

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been identified as a useful platform for detecting, quantifying, and screening for modulators of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). In this method, one protein binding partner is labeled with a fluorophore, the protein binding partners are mixed, and then, the complex is separated from free protein to allow direct determination of bound to free ratios. Although it possesses many advantages for PPI studies, the method is limited by the need to have separation conditions that both prevent protein adsorption to capillary and maintain protein interactions during the separation. In this work, we use protein cross-linking capillary electrophoresis (PXCE) to overcome this limitation. In PXCE, the proteins are cross-linked under binding conditions and then separated. This approach eliminates the need to maintain noncovalent interactions during electrophoresis and facilitates method development. We report PXCE methods for an antibody-antigen interaction and heterodimer and homodimer heat shock protein complexes. Complexes are cross-linked by short treatments with formaldehyde after reaching binding equilibrium. Cross-linked complexes are separated by electrophoretic mobility using free solution CE or by size using sieving electrophoresis of SDS complexes. The method gives good quantitative results; e.g., a lysozyme-antibody interaction was found to have Kd = 24 ± 3 nM by PXCE and Kd = 17 ± 2 nM using isothermal calorimetry (ITC). Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in complex with bcl2 associated athanogene 3 (Bag3) was found to have Kd = 25 ± 5 nM by PXCE which agrees with Kd values reported without cross-linking. Hsp70-Bag3 binding site mutants and small molecule inhibitors of Hsp70-Bag3 were characterized by PXCE with good agreement to inhibitory constants and IC50 values obtained by a bead-based flow cytometry protein interaction assay (FCPIA). PXCE allows rapid method development for quantitative analysis of PPIs. PMID:27434096

  18. Influence of 1,2-PB matrix cross-linking on structure and properties of selectively etched 1,2-PB-b-PDMS block copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Vigild, Martin Etchells;

    2007-01-01

    cross-linked samples in toluene was converted into a degree of cross-linking following the Flory scheme; a simple relation between the Flory cross-linking degree and the fraction of consumed double bonds during the cross-linking reaction followed. The structure of the block copolymer at different stages...

  19. 型式试验对挤塑绝缘高压直流电缆老化状态的影响研究%Influence of Type Test on Ageing Status of Extruded Cross-linked Polyethylene (XLPE) High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑琦; 朱永华; 罗兵; 廖一凡; 吴建东; 尹毅

    2015-01-01

    The influence of type test on cable insulation was analyzed by testing the space charge, iso-thermal relaxation current (IRC), and thermal properties of 200 kV home-made extruded XLPE HVDC cables. The degassed samples from the central section of main insulation had distinct heteropolar space charge distribution on the surface before and after type test, while the accumulation of space charge changed little, and the status factor, enthalpy, and crosslinking degree had little change also, which indicated that the influence of type test on the ageing degree of central insulation of cables was small. After degassing treatment, the accumulation of heteropolar space charge and the average charge density reduced significantly, this indicated that the space charge behavior was influenced by crosslinking byprod-ucts. The test results of IRC and DSC show good relevance and can effectively reflect the change of age-ing status, which means that they are suitable to evaluate the insulation status of extruded XLPE HVDC cables.%通过对国内自行研制的200 kV挤塑绝缘交联聚乙烯电缆的空间电荷、松弛电流和热性能进行测试,分析了型式试验对电缆绝缘的影响。型式试验前后,主绝缘中部切片试样在表面区域均存在明显的异极性空间电荷分布,且电荷积累量变化不大,状态因子、熔融热焓、结晶热焓和交联度变化亦不明显,表明型式试验对电缆中部绝缘的老化程度影响较小。切片脱气处理后,试样表面区域的异极性空间电荷积累和短路时空间电荷平均单位体积密度显著降低,表明空间电荷行为受制造过程中残留的交联副产物影响很大。空间电荷、等温松弛电流和差示扫描量热的测试结果的关联性较好,均能有效反映老化状态的变化,可用于挤塑绝缘直流电缆的绝缘状态评估。

  20. ProXL (Protein Cross-Linking Database): A Platform for Analysis, Visualization, and Sharing of Protein Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ProXL is a Web application and accompanying database designed for sharing, visualizing, and analyzing bottom-up protein cross-linking mass spectrometry data with an emphasis on structural analysis and quality control. ProXL is designed to be independent of any particular software pipeline. The import process is simplified by the use of the ProXL XML data format, which shields developers of data importers from the relative complexity of the relational database schema. The database and Web interfaces function equally well for any software pipeline and allow data from disparate pipelines to be merged and contrasted. ProXL includes robust public and private data sharing capabilities, including a project-based interface designed to ensure security and facilitate collaboration among multiple researchers. ProXL provides multiple interactive and highly dynamic data visualizations that facilitate structural-based analysis of the observed cross-links as well as quality control. ProXL is open-source, well-documented, and freely available at https://github.com/yeastrc/proxl-web-app. PMID:27302480

  1. ProXL (Protein Cross-Linking Database): A Platform for Analysis, Visualization, and Sharing of Protein Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffle, Michael; Jaschob, Daniel; Zelter, Alex; Davis, Trisha N

    2016-08-01

    ProXL is a Web application and accompanying database designed for sharing, visualizing, and analyzing bottom-up protein cross-linking mass spectrometry data with an emphasis on structural analysis and quality control. ProXL is designed to be independent of any particular software pipeline. The import process is simplified by the use of the ProXL XML data format, which shields developers of data importers from the relative complexity of the relational database schema. The database and Web interfaces function equally well for any software pipeline and allow data from disparate pipelines to be merged and contrasted. ProXL includes robust public and private data sharing capabilities, including a project-based interface designed to ensure security and facilitate collaboration among multiple researchers. ProXL provides multiple interactive and highly dynamic data visualizations that facilitate structural-based analysis of the observed cross-links as well as quality control. ProXL is open-source, well-documented, and freely available at https://github.com/yeastrc/proxl-web-app . PMID:27302480

  2. Static and dynamic properties of model elastomer with various cross-linking densities: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Cao, Dapeng; Zhang, Liqun

    2009-07-01

    The effects of the cross-linking density on the static and dynamic properties of polymer networks are examined by using a molecular dynamics simulation based on a simple elastomer model. Simulation results indicate that the introduced cross-linking junctions show almost no effect on the static structure factor. The glass transition temperature Tg increases slightly with the cross-linking density. By analyzing the mean square displacement of the monomers, the chain diffusion, and the incoherent intermediate dynamic structure factor ϕqs(t) at the chain and segmental length scales, it is found that the mobilities of the monomers and chains are retarded and the relaxation behavior is hindered by the cross linking of polymers. Furthermore, the spatial localization of the monomers is also observed at a long time period for a highly cross-linked system. For the cross-linked system, the time-temperature superposition principle is valid at the segmental length scale but breaks down at the chain length scale. The effect of the cross-linking density on the terminal relaxation is investigated by the end-to-end vector correlation, which is well fitted to the Kohlrauch-William-Watts (KWW) or modified KWW functions. The characteristic relaxation time shows an approximately linear relationship with the cross-linking density. It is demonstrated that the relaxation behavior tends to broaden, attributed to the stronger intermolecular coupling or cooperativity induced by the cross linking, suggesting that the system with a higher cross-linking degree becomes more fragile. For the dynamic properties, the bond orientation and the end-to-end distance along the deformed direction, which is an indicator of the entropic change, and the nonbonded energy are examined during the deformation and relaxation processes, respectively. The results explore the molecular mechanism accounting for the residual stress in the stress relaxation of cross-linked elastomer networks.

  3. Oxidation and Free Radical Decay in Vitamin E-stabilized, Radiation Cross-linked UHMWPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel a-tocopherol (vitamin E, α-T)-stabilized, cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) (αTPE) was developed for total joint arthroplasty as a bearing surface with low wear and improved mechanical properties. Accelerated aging showed α-T protects irradiated UHMWPE against oxidation. However, accelerated aging may not truly reflect in vivo and shelf oxidation. We used real-time aging to monitor the evolution of oxidation and free radical signals of α-T to determine the mechanism of oxidative stability. UHMWPE blocks (30x30x10 mm) were machined and γ-irradiated (85 kGy) in argon. The blocks were doped in α-T for 5 hours at 120 degree and homogenized for 64 hours at 120 degree in argon, packaged in vacuum and γ-sterilized (25 kGy). Samples were aged in air at room temperature, in air at 40 degree and in water at 40 degree. Measurements were at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 months. Sections cut from the aged blocks (150μm) were boiled in hexane overnight to extract free species and evaluated by FTIR. Oxidation indices were calculated by taking the area under the carbonyl peak and normalizing it to a skeletal peak. ESR was used to determine the content and type of free radicals. Control was 100-kGy irradiated, unstabilized UHMWPE. αTPE showed a small amount of oxidation, which stabilized after 2 months. This indicated that the decay of the hydroperoxides formed by the reaction of the residual free radicals with oxygen was exhausted by α-T due to its ability to scavenge free radicals. In contrast, control UHMWPE continued to oxidize because the residual free radicals likely continued to form hydroperoxides and additional free radicals, furthering the oxidation reactions. There was a shift in the free radical signature of both αTPE and control from the sextet alkyl/allyl radicals to a sharp singlet during aging. Most likely, trapped free radicals move along the crystal stems until they react with another free radical or until they reach the crystal

  4. Gas breakers for tokamak OHMIC-heating duty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current interrupting capacity of air blast and SF6 breakers is reviewed for application in tokamak ohmic-heating circuits. Particular attention is paid to generator breakers for their large current interrupting capacity and suitability for ohmic-heating circuits

  5. Automatic Speed Breaker on Time Demand Using Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchit Vashistha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of this research work is to have an automatic speed breaker on time demand according to the requirements. Means when there is no need of the speed breaker on the road, it disappears from the road and the road becomes flat and when there is a need then the breaker comes on the road from ground and it starts its working of slowing speed of the vehicles. In implementation of this concept, we use an iron made hemi-cylindrical speed breaker which is capable of rotating itself using control circuitry of embedded systems. So when needed, it comes on the road by rotating itself from flat position and when not needed, it rotates itself again and gets flat and combines with flat road. In the system, real time clock is used to mention the required time for having the speed breaker on road. When time gets started, breaker comes on the road and remains until the countdown gets zero. In the Embedded system’s clock any time and date can be stored on which the speed breaker is required on the road. So this type of speed breaker is useful before any building for which the time is specified for coming in the building and going out from it e.g. schools, any organization etc.

  6. The effect of an advanced glycation end-product crosslink breaker and exercise training on vascular function in older individuals: a randomized factorial design trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudegeest-Sander, M.H.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Smits, P.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Levine, B.D.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aging leads to accumulation of irreversible advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), contributing to vascular stiffening and endothelial dysfunction. When combined with the AGE-crosslink breaker Alagebrium, exercise training reverses cardiovascular aging in experimental animals. This study is the fir

  7. Polymer-additive extraction via pressurized fluids and organic solvents of variously cross-linked poly(methylmethacrylates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazem, N; Taylor, L T

    2002-04-01

    Variously cross-linked poly(methylmethacrylates) (PMMAs) are synthesized with three additives incorporated at theoretically 1000 microg of the additive per gram of prepared polymer. The additives are Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076, and Irgafos 168. The in-house" synthesized polyacrylates are then subjected to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to determine if additive recovery is a function of percent cross-linking. Although considerable work in this regard has been performed with non-cross-linked polyolefins, the literature is lacking regarding polyacrylates. Some additive degradation apparently occurs during the synthesis, as judged by the increased complexity of the extract high-performance liquid chromatographic trace and the low percent recoveries observed especially for the Irganoxes. For low polymer cross-linking (1%), it appears that both PMMA synthetic reproducibility and readily observed polymer swelling during SFE are serious issues that adversely affect additive percent recovery and precision of results. Higher percent cross-linking yields more consistent analytical data than low percent cross-linking, even though the amount of additive extracted in all PMMA samples (regardless of cross-linking percentage) is essentially the same whether the extraction is via SFE or liquid-solid extraction with methylene chloride. Results for comparably cross-linked poly(ethylmethacrylate) and poly(butylmethacrylate) are similar to PMMA. PMID:12004935

  8. Quantitative Cross-linking/Mass Spectrometry Using Isotope-labeled Cross-linkers and MaxQuant*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The conceptually simple step from cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CLMS) to quantitative cross-linking/mass spectrometry (QCLMS) is compounded by technical challenges. Currently, quantitative proteomics software is tightly integrated with the protein identification workflow. This prevents automatically quantifying other m/z features in a targeted manner including those associated with cross-linked peptides. Here we present a new release of MaxQuant that permits starting the quantification process from an m/z feature list. Comparing the automated quantification to a carefully manually curated test set of cross-linked peptides obtained by cross-linking C3 and C3b with BS3 and isotope-labeled BS3-d4 revealed a number of observations: (1) Fully automated process using MaxQuant can quantify cross-links in our reference data set with 68% recall rate and 88% accuracy. (2) Hidden quantification errors can be converted into exposed failures by label-swap replica, which makes label-swap replica an essential part of QCLMS. (3) Cross-links that failed during automated quantification can be recovered by semi-automated re-quantification. The integrated workflow of MaxQuant and semi-automated assessment provides the maximum of quantified cross-links. In contrast, work on larger data sets or by less experienced users will benefit from full automation in MaxQuant. PMID:27302889

  9. Photo-induced Alignment Behavior of Azobenzene-containing Polymer Films with Different Cross-linking Degree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Shen; Jin-tang Huang; Yan-hua Luo; Qi-jin Zhang; Ke-yi Wang

    2008-01-01

    Three series of amorphous copolymers containing azobenzene groups with various substituents and certain amounts of crosslinkable acrylic groups were prepared. The cross-linked polymer films were obtained by thermal polymerization of the acrylic groups in the copolymers, during which, by controlling the time of cross-linking reaction, the films can be made with different cross-linking degree (from 0 to 32%, which was monitored by FT-IR spectra measurement). Photo-induced alignment process of the films was performed under irradiation with linearly polarized light at 442 nm, and the effect of cross-linking degree on the photo-induced alignment rate was investigated. The dynamics of the photo-induced alignment was analyzed with biexponential curve fitting. The photo-induced alignment rate and the maximum transmittance of the films decreased because of the cross-linking. Furthermore, for the cross-linked samples, it was found that their saturated value of transmittances keep constant after repeated "writing" and "erasing" cycles. The findings reveal that the cross-linking of the film can effectively restrain the phototactic mass transport of azopolymer during irradiation by polarized light. The relationship between the cross-linking degree and the photo-induced alignment behavior of azopolymer is discussed in detail.

  10. Wheat gluten films cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-demethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tropini, V.; Lens, J.P.; Mulder, W.J.; Silvestre, F.

    2004-01-01

    Wheat gluten films were cast from aqueous dispersions containing 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as cross-linking reagents and glycerol as a plasticizer. Cross-linking was carried out to improve film properties such as water sensitivity and tensile

  11. Comparative studies of photochemical cross-linking methods for stabilizing the bulk hetero-junction morphology in polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Andreasen, Birgitta; Tromholt, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    We are here presenting a comparative study between four different types of functionalities for cross-linking. With relatively simple means bromine, azide, vinyl and oxetane could be incorporated into the side chains of the low band-gap polymer TQ1. Cross-linking of the polymers was achieved by UV...

  12. Level and position of substituents in cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starches using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Chen, Z.; Jin, Z.; Waard, de P.; Buwalda, Piet; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato starch was cross-linked using sodium trimetaphosphate and hydroxypropylated using propylene oxide. The level and position of phosphorus and hydroxypropyl groups within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated by phosphorus and proton nuclear magnetic reson

  13. Dually cross-linked single network poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels with superior mechanical properties and water absorbency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming; Liu, Yi-Tao; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Shi, Fu-Kuan; Zhang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Mei-Fang; Xie, Xu-Ming

    2016-06-28

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogels with superior mechanical properties, based on a single network structure with dual cross-linking, are prepared by one-pot free radical polymerization. The network structure of the PAA hydrogels is composed of dual cross-linking: a dynamic and reversible ionic cross-linking among the PAA chains enabled by Fe(3+) ions, and a sparse covalent cross-linking enabled by a covalent cross-linker (Bis). Under deformation, the covalently cross-linked PAA chains remain intact to maintain their original configuration, while the Fe(3+)-enabled ionic cross-linking among the PAA chains is broken to dissipate energy and then recombined. It is found that the mechanical properties of the PAA hydrogels are significantly influenced by the contents of covalent cross-linkers, Fe(3+) ions and water, which can be adjusted within a substantial range and thus broaden the applications of the hydrogels. Meanwhile, the PAA hydrogels have excellent recoverability based on the dynamic and reversible ionic cross-linking enabled by Fe(3+) ions. Moreover, the swelling capacity of the PAA hydrogels is as high as 1800 times in deionized water due to the synergistic effects of ionic and covalent cross-linkings. The combination of balanced mechanical properties, efficient recoverability, high swelling capacity and facile preparation provides a new method to obtain high-performance hydrogels. PMID:27230478

  14. Insights into the swelling process and drug release mechanisms from cross-linked pectin/high amylose starch matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. Carbinatto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked pectin/high amylose mixtures were evaluated as a new excipient for matrix tablets formulations, since the mixing of polymers and cross-linking reaction represent rational tools to reach materials with modulated and specific properties that meet specific therapeutic needs. Objective: In this work the influence of polymer ratio and cross-linking process on the swelling and the mechanism driving the drug release from swellable matrix tablets prepared with this excipient was investigated. Methods: Cross-linked samples were characterized by their micromeritic properties (size and shape, density, angle of repose and flow rate and liquid uptake ability. Matrix tablets were evaluated according their physical properties and the drug release rates and mechanisms were also investigated. Results: Cross-linked samples demonstrated size homogeneity and irregular shape, with liquid uptake ability insensible to pH. Cross-linking process of samples allowed the control of drug release rates and the drug release mechanism was influenced by both polymer ratio and cross-linking process. The drug release of samples with minor proportion of pectin was driven by an anomalous transport and the increase of the pectin proportion contributed to the erosion of the matrix. Conclusion: The cross-linked mixtures of high amylose and pectin showed a suitable excipient for slowing the drug release rates.

  15. Identification and characterization of a pituitary corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein by chemical cross-linking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimura, E; Billestrup, Nils; Perrin, M;

    1987-01-01

    A corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) binding protein has been identified based on the chemical cross-linking of ovine [Nle21,m-125I-Tyr32]CRF (125I-oCRF) to bovine anterior pituitary membranes using disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). The apparent molecular weight of the cross-linked complex...

  16. Dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotrope through alginate-DNA membranes cross-linked with metal ions by pervaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uragami, Tadashi; Banno, Masashi; Miyata, Takashi

    2015-12-10

    To obtain high dehydration membranes for an ethanol/water azeotrope, dried blend membranes prepared from mixtures of sodium alginate (Alg-Na) and sodium deoxyribonucleate (DNA-Na) were cross-linked by immersing in a methanol solution of CaCl2 or MaCl2. In the dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotropic mixture by pervaporation, the effects of immersion time in methanol solution of CaCl2 or MaCl2 on the permeation rate and water/ethanol selectivity through Alg-DNA/Ca(2+) and Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes were investigated. Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membrane immersed for 12h in methanol solution of MaCl2 exhibited the highest water/ethanol selectivity. This results from depressed swelling of the membranes by formation of a cross-linked structure. However, excess immersion in solution containing cross-linker led to an increase in the hydrophobicity of cross-linked membrane. Therefore, the water/ethanol selectivity of Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes with an excess immersion in cross-linking solution was lowered. The relationship between the structure of Alg-DNA/Ca(2+) and Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes and their permeation and separation characteristics during pervaporation of an ethanol/water azeotropic mixture is discussed in detail.

  17. Feline chronic kidney disease is associated with upregulation of transglutaminase 2: a collagen cross-linking enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lara, A C; Elliott, J; Syme, H M; Brown, C A; Haylor, J L

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cats. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a calcium-dependent enzyme proposed to mediate tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidney by cross-linking collagen fibrils. Postmortem kidney tissue was obtained from primary renal azotemic (n = 10) and nonazotemic (n = 5) cats (14 domestic short hair, 1 Burmese; aged 9-23.7 years). Extracellular matrix protein deposition was determined by Masson's trichrome staining and collagen immunofluorescence. Total kidney transglutaminase (TG) enzyme activity and TG2 protein were measured in tissue homogenates by putrescine incorporation and Western blotting. Extracellular TG enzyme activity and TG2 protein were determined in situ by immunofluorescence, quantified by multiphase image analysis. Results were compared using the unpaired Student's t-test with Welch's correction. Elevated plasma creatinine, urea, and phosphate concentrations were associated with tubulointerstitial fibrosis but not glomerular fibrosis. Kidney homogenates from azotemic cats showed a 3-fold higher total TG enzyme activity and TG2 protein compared with kidneys from nonazotemic cats. Immunofluorescent studies performed in situ confirmed a 3-fold higher extracellular TG enzyme activity and TG2 protein in cats with azotemia. Tubulointerstitial TG2 showed a positive linear correlation with both renal function and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, for cats with azotemia, both filtration failure and tubulointerstitial fibrosis were associated with the upregulation of TG2, a collagen cross-linking enzyme and the major isoform of transglutaminase in the kidney. TG2 may provide a new therapeutic target for drugs designed to slow the progression of feline chronic kidney disease. PMID:25047228

  18. Polymeric Nanocapsule from Silica Nanoparticle@Cross-linked Polymer Nanoparticles via One-Pot Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Ruoping

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A facile strategy was developed here to prepare cross-linked polymeric nanocapsules (CP nanocapsules with silica nanoparticles as templates. The silica nanoparticle@cross-linked polymer nanoparticles were prepared by the encapsulation of the silica nanoparticles by the one-pot approach via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of hydroxyethyl acrylate in the presence ofN,N′-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linker from the initiator-modified silica nanoparticles. After the silica nanoparticle templates were etched with hydrofluoric acid, the CP nanocapsules with particle size of about 100 nm were obtained. The strategy developed was confirmed with Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis and transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Anisotropic nanoparticles with controllable morphologies from non-cross-linked seeded emulsion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qun; Pan, Mingwang; Yuan, Jinfeng; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xiaomei; Yu, Haifeng

    2013-09-01

    A simple and elegant approach to fabricate anisotropic P(VC-co-AAEM)/PS nanoparticles with controllable morphologies via emulsifier-free seeded emulsion polymerization is presented. Non-cross-linked P(VC-co-AAEM) seeds with hydrophilic surface are first synthesized through copolymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) and acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate (AAEM), which are used to prepare P(VC-co-AAEM)/PS NPs with multiple bulges by SEP of styrene. Electron microscopy observation indicates that the content of AAEM in seeds is crucial to control the phase separation and morphology of the composite NPs. Moreover, the thermodynamic immiscibility between PVC and PS is the driving force for the formation of PS bulges onto the P(VC-co-AAEM) seeds. The resultant anisotropic NPs with non-cross-linked feature may promisingly serve as compatibilizers for further polymer processing. PMID:23901006

  20. Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linked Chitosan Nanofibers: Preparation, Characterization and Application in Adsorption of Cu (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianhua; Li, Dongzho; Liang, Weihua; Wang, Yakun; Wul, Dayong

    2016-03-01

    Chitosan nanofibers were prepared via electrospinning and cross-linked by a treatment with glutaraldehyde (GA) in order to obtain insoluble adsorbents in aqueous acidic and basic solutions. Then, the prepared nanofiber was investigated for its adsorption of Cu (II) in aqueous solution. The effects of the viscosity, conductivity of chitosan-TFA spinning solution and the properties of the nanofibers related to the molecular weight of chitosan were studied. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images demonstrated a smooth and inter-connected morphology comprising fibers with diameters between 70 nm and 350 nm. An amount of 72 mg/g of Cu (II) adsorption was achieved and its mechanism was elucidated. After removing the adsorbed Cu (II), the cross-linked chitosan nanofibers were regenerated and could be reused. PMID:27455735

  1. Transmembrane Signaling Characterized in Bacterial Chemoreceptors by Using Sulfhydryl Cross-Linking in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geoffrey F.; Lebert, Michael R.; Lilly, Angela A.; Hazelbauer, Gerald L.

    1995-04-01

    Transmembrane signaling by bacterial chemoreceptors is thought to involve conformational changes within a stable homodimer. We investigated the functional consequences of constraining movement between pairs of helices in the four-helix structure of the transmembrane domain of chemoreceptor Trg. Using a family of cysteine-containing receptors, we identified oxidation treatments for intact cells that catalyzed essentially complete sulfhydryl cross-linking at selected positions and yet left flagellar and sensory functions largely unperturbed. Constraining movement by cross-links between subunits had little effect on tactic response, but constraining movement between transmembrane segments of the monomer drastically reduced function. We deduce that transmembrane signaling requires substantial movement between transmembrane helices of a monomer but not between interacting helices across the interface between subunits.

  2. The cross-linking influence of electromagnetic radiation on water-soluble polyacrylan compositions with biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of examinations of the cross-linking influence of electromagnetic radiation - in a microwave range – on polyacrylancompositions with biopolymers, are presented in the hereby paper. The cross-linking process of the tested compositions was determined on the basis of the FT-IR spectroscopic methods. It was shown that microwave operations can lead to the formation of new cross-linkedstructures with strong covalent bonds. The adsorption process and formation of active centres in polymer molecules as well as in highsilica sand were found due to microwave radiations. In this process hydroxyl groups (-OH - present in a polymer - and silane groups (Si- O-H - present in a matrix - are mainly taking part. Spectroscopic and strength tests performed for the system: biopolymer binding agent – matrix indicate that the microwave radiation can be applied for hardening moulding sands with biopolymer binders.

  3. Metal cation cross-linked nanocellulose hydrogels as tissue engineering substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Nicole E; Dong, Hong; Steele, Joshua; Grant, John T

    2014-01-01

    The use of cellulose materials for biomedical applications is attractive due to their low cost, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Specific processing of cellulose to yield nanofibrils further improves mechanical properties and suitability as a tissue engineering substrate due to the similarity to the fibrous structure, porosity, and size-scale of the native extracellular matrix. In order to generate the substrate, nanocellulose hydrogels were fabricated from carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils via hydrogelation using metal salts. Hydrogels cross-linked with Ca(2+) and Fe(3+) were investigated as tissue culture substrates for C3H10T1/2 fibroblast cells. Control substrates as well as those with physically adsorbed and covalently attached fibronectin protein were evaluated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Significantly more cells were attached to surfaces modified with protein, with the highest number of cells adhered to the calcium cross-linked hydrogels with covalently attached protein.

  4. Synthesis of Cross-Linked Polymeric Micelle pH Nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar; Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    at the micelle shell using CuAAC results in a stabilized micelle pH nanosensor. Compared to the postmicelle modification strategy, the mixed-micellization approach increases the control of the overall composition of the nanosensors.Both approaches provide stable nanosensors with similar pKa profiles and thereby......The design flexibility that polymeric micelles offer in the fabrication of optical nanosensors for ratiometric pH measurements is investigated. pH nanosensors based on polymeric micelles are synthesized either by a mixed-micellization approach or by a postmicelle modification strategy. In the mixed......-micellization approach, self-assembly of functionalized unimers followed by shell cross-linking by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) results in stabilized cRGD-functionalized micelle pH nanosensors. In the postmicelle modification strategy, simultaneous cross-linking and fluorophore conjugation...

  5. Stabilisation of self-assembled DNA crystals by triplex-directed photo-cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Hatem O; Ohayon, Yoel P; Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard; Sha, Ruojie; Fox, Keith R; Brown, Tom; Rusling, David A; Mao, Chengde; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2016-06-28

    The tensegrity triangle is a robust DNA motif that can self-assemble to generate macroscopic three-dimensional crystals. However, the stability of these crystals is dependent on the high ionic conditions used for crystal growth. Here we demonstrate that a triplex-forming oligonucleotide can be used to direct the specific intercalation, and subsequent photo-cross-linking, of 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen to single or multiple loci within or between the tiles of the crystal. Cross-linking between the tiles of the crystal improves their thermal stability. Such an approach is likely to facilitate the removal of crystals from their mother liquor and may prove useful for applications that require greater crystal stability. PMID:27265774

  6. Development and Evaluation of Dual Cross-Linked Pulsatile Beads for Chronotherapy of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abanesh kumar Bansal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, pulsatile release beads were prepared by ionic gelation technique. Lornoxicam dual cross-linked beads were prepared by dropping dispersed phase of lornoxicam, pectin, and sodium alginate into the dispersion phase of different concentrations of calcium chloride solution followed by aluminium chloride solution. The formulated beads were further coated by Eudragit L & S 100 in the ratio 1 : 2 w/w in order to achieve desired lag time. In vitro release study showed lag time of 5–8 h before release of lornoxicam from the formulated beads. Thus, formulated dual cross-linked beads when administered at bed time may release lornoxicam when needed most for chronotherapeutics of early morning rheumatoid arthritis attacks in chronic patients.

  7. Cross-linking of glycoprotein oligomers during herpes simplex virus type 1 entry.

    OpenAIRE

    Handler, C G; Cohen, G H; Eisenberg, R J

    1996-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has 10 glycoproteins in its envelope. Glycoprotein B (gB), gC, gD, gH, and gL have been implicated in virus entry. We previously used chemical cross-linking to show that these five glycoproteins were close enough to each other to be cross-linked into homodimeric and hetero-oligomeric forms; hetero-oligomers of gB-gC, gC-gD, gD-gB, gH-gL, gC-gL and gD-gL were found in purified virions. To better understand the roles of these glycoproteins in viral entry, we have modi...

  8. The process of EDC-NHS cross-linking of reconstituted collagen fibres increases collagen fibrillar order and alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, D. V.; Shepherd, J. H.; Ghose, S.; Kew, S. J.; Cameron, R. E.; Best, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the production of collagen fibre bundles through a multi-strand, semi-continuous extrusion process. Cross-linking using an EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide), NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) combination was considered. Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman spectroscopy focused on how cross-linking affected the collagen fibrillar structure. In the cross-linked fibres, a clear fibrillar structure comparable to native collagen was observed which was not observed in the non-cross-linked fibre. The amide III doublet in the Raman spectra provided additional evidence of alignment in the cross-linked fibres. Raman spectroscopy also indicated no residual polyethylene glycol (from the fibre forming buffer) or water in any of the fibres.

  9. The process of EDC-NHS cross-linking of reconstituted collagen fibres increases collagen fibrillar order and alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the production of collagen fibre bundles through a multi-strand, semi-continuous extrusion process. Cross-linking using an EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide), NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) combination was considered. Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman spectroscopy focused on how cross-linking affected the collagen fibrillar structure. In the cross-linked fibres, a clear fibrillar structure comparable to native collagen was observed which was not observed in the non-cross-linked fibre. The amide III doublet in the Raman spectra provided additional evidence of alignment in the cross-linked fibres. Raman spectroscopy also indicated no residual polyethylene glycol (from the fibre forming buffer) or water in any of the fibres

  10. Molecular contacts for chlorosome envelope proteins revealed by cross-linking studies with chlorosomes from Chlorobium tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hui; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A

    2006-01-01

    type and mutants lacking a single chlorosome protein were cross-linked with the zero-length cross-linker 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC) and analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Similar cross-linking products were observed when the time and temperature were varied or when EDC...... was replaced with glutaraldehyde. Specific interactions between chlorosome proteins in cross-linked products were identified by immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies raised against recombinant chlorosome proteins. We confirmed these interactions by demonstrating that these products were missing...... in appropriate mutants. Confirming the location of CsmA in the paracrystalline baseplate, cross-linking showed that CsmA forms dimers, trimers, and homomultimers as large as dodecamers and that CsmA directly interacts with the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein. Cross-linking further suggests that the precursor form...

  11. EDC/NHS cross-linked collagen foams as scaffolds for artificial corneal stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrana, N E; Builles, N; Kocak, H; Gulay, P; Justin, V; Malbouyres, M; Ruggiero, F; Damour, O; Hasirci, V

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a highly porous collagen-based biodegradable scaffold was developed as an alternative to synthetic, non-degradable corneal implants. The developed method involved lyophilization and subsequent stabilization through N-ethyl-N'-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS) cross-linking to yield longer lasting, porous scaffolds with a thickness similar to that of native cornea (500 microm). For collagen-based scaffolds, cross-linking is essential; however, it has direct effects on physical characteristics crucial for optimum cell behavior. Hence, the effect of cross-linking was studied by examining the influence of cross-linking on pore size distribution, bulk porosity and average pore size. After seeding the foam with human corneal keratocytes, cell proliferation, cell penetration into the scaffold and ECM production within the scaffold were studied. After a month of culture microscopical and immunohistochemical examinations showed that the foam structure did not undergo any significant loss of integrity, and the human corneal keratocytes populated the scaffold with cells migrating both longitudinally and laterally, and secreted some of the main constituents of the corneal ECM, namely collagen types I, V and VI. The foams had a layer of lower porosity (skin layer) both at the top and the bottom. Foams had an optimal porosity (93.6%), average pore size (67.7 microm), and chemistry for cell attachment and proliferation. They also had a sufficiently rapid degradation rate (73.6+/-1.1% in 4 weeks) and could be produced at a thickness close to that of the natural corneal stroma. Cells were seeded at the top surface of the foams and their numbers there was higher than the rest, basically due to the presence of the skin layer. This is considered to be an advantage when epithelial cells need to be seeded for the construction of hemi or full thickness cornea. PMID:17988518

  12. Covalent DNA-Protein Cross-Linking by Phosphoramide Mustard and Nornitrogen Mustard in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groehler, Arnold; Villalta, Peter W; Campbell, Colin; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2016-02-15

    N,N-Bis-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphorodiamidic acid (phosphoramide mustard, PM) and N,N-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-amine (nornitrogen mustard, NOR) are the two biologically active metabolites of cyclophosphamide, a DNA alkylating drug commonly used to treat lymphomas, breast cancer, certain brain cancers, and autoimmune diseases. PM and NOR are reactive bis-electrophiles capable of cross-linking cellular biomolecules to form covalent DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach was employed to characterize PM- and NOR-mediated DNA-protein cross-linking in human cells. Following treatment of human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) with cytotoxic concentrations of PM, over 130 proteins were found to be covalently trapped to DNA, including those involved in transcriptional regulation, RNA splicing/processing, chromatin organization, and protein transport. HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis of proteolytic digests of DPC-containing DNA from NOR-treated cells revealed a concentration-dependent formation of N-[2-[cysteinyl]ethyl]-N-[2-(guan-7-yl)ethyl]amine (Cys-NOR-N7G) conjugates, confirming that it cross-links cysteine thiols of proteins to the N7 position of guanines in DNA. Cys-NOR-N7G adduct numbers were higher in NER-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cells (XPA) as compared with repair proficient cells. Furthermore, both XPA and FANCD2 deficient cells were sensitized to PM treatment as compared to that of wild type cells, suggesting that Fanconi anemia and nucleotide excision repair pathways are involved in the removal of cyclophosphamide-induced DNA damage. PMID:26692166

  13. Fabrication and properties of irradiation-cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)/clay aerogel composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Bing; Liu, Bo; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Zeng, Guang; Wu, Wen-Hao; Schiraldi, David A

    2014-09-24

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)/clay aerogel composites were fabricated by an environmentally friendly freeze-drying of the aqueous precursor suspensions, followed by cross-linking induced by gamma irradiation without chemical additives. The influences of cross-linking conditions, i.e., absorbed dose and polymer loading as well as density on the aerogel structure and properties, were investigated. The absorbed dose of 30 kGy was found to be the optimum dose for fabricating strong PVOH composites; the compressive modulus of an aerogel prepared from an aqueous suspension containing 2 wt % PVOH/8 wt % clay increased 10-fold, and that containing 1 wt % PVOH/9 wt % clay increased 12 times upon cross-linking with a dose of 30 kGy. Increasing the solids concentration led to an increase in the mechanical strength, in accordance with the changes in microstructure from layered structure to network structure. The increase of absorbed dose also led to decreased porous size of the network structure. Cross-linking and the increase of the PVOH lead to decreased thermal stability. The strengthened PVOH/clay aerogels possess very low flammability, as measured by cone calorimetry, with heat, smoke, and volatile products release value decreasing as increasing clay content. The mechanism of flame retardation in these materials was investigated with weight loss, FTIR, WAXD, and SEM of the burned residues. The proposed mechanism is that with decreasing fuel content (increasing clay content), increased heat and mass transport barriers are developed; simultaneously low levels of thermal conductivity are maintained during the burning.

  14. Cross-linked polyacrylates in post-mining substrates: persistence and effects on plant growth

    OpenAIRE

    Rodionov, A.; S. Nii-Annang; Fischer, T.; Gattinger, A.; Bens, O.; Raab, T.; R. F. Hüttl

    2014-01-01

    Application of hydrophilic polymers composed of cross-linked polyacrylate can improve soil water-holding capacity and accelerate the restoration of post-mining substrates. In this work, we studied the persistence of a polyacrylate polymer incorporated into a soil and its impact on plant nutrients at a reclamation site of former lignite mining in Lusatia (Germany). In contrast to autumn application, the incorporation of the polymer enhanced the sequestration of plant-derived carbon in the soil...

  15. Blind testing of cross-linking/mass spectrometry hybrid methods in CASP11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Belsom, Adam; Rappsilber, Juri; Brock, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid approaches combine computational methods with experimental data. The information contained in the experimental data can be leveraged to probe the structure of proteins otherwise elusive to computational methods. Compared with computational methods, the structures produced by hybrid methods exhibit some degree of experimental validation. In spite of these advantages, most hybrid methods have not yet been validated in blind tests, hampering their development. Here, we describe the first blind test of a specific cross-link based hybrid method in CASP. This blind test was coordinated by the CASP organizers and utilized a novel, high-density cross-linking/mass-spectrometry (CLMS) approach that is able to collect high-density CLMS data in a matter of days. This experimental protocol was developed in the Rappsilber laboratory. This approach exploits the chemistry of a highly reactive, photoactivatable cross-linker to produce an order of magnitude more cross-links than homobifunctional cross-linkers. The Rappsilber laboratory generated experimental CLMS data based on this protocol, submitted the data to the CASP organizers which then released this data to the CASP11 prediction groups in a separate, CLMS assisted modeling experiment. We did not observe a clear improvement of assisted models, presumably because the properties of the CLMS data-uncertainty in cross-link identification and residue-residue assignment, and uneven distribution over the protein-were largely unknown to the prediction groups and their approaches were not yet tailored to this kind of data. We also suggest modifications to the CLMS-CASP experiment and discuss the importance of rigorous blind testing in the development of hybrid methods. Proteins 2016; 84(Suppl 1):152-163. © 2016 The Authors Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cross-linking patterns and their images in swollen and deformed gels

    OpenAIRE

    Panyukov, Sergey; Rabin, Yitzhak

    2015-01-01

    Using the theory of elasticity of polymer gels we show that large-scale cross-link density patterns written into the structure of the network in the melt state, can be revealed upon swelling by monitoring the monomer density patterns. We find that while isotropic deformations in good solvent yield magnified images of the original pattern, anisotropic deformations distort the image (both types of deformation yield affinely stretched images in $\\theta$ solvents). We show that in ordinary solids...

  17. Collagen Cross-linking in Keratoconus Patients with Thin Corneas: Short-Term Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Çağıl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To study the effectiveness and safety of corneal collagen cross-linking with hypoosmolar riboflavin solution applied to keratoconus patients with thin corneas. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this retrospective study, medical records of keratoconus patients planned for cross-linking surgery and having thinnest corneal thickness (TCT less than 400 μm after corneal epithelial removal were reviewed. There were 12 patients and 16 eyes in the study cohort. After the epithelium was removed, hypoosmolar solution was applied for 30 minutes and pachymetric measurements were taken. If corneal thickness became more than 400 μm, the cross-linking procedure was started; if not, hypoosmolar solution was continued until corneal thickness reached 400 μm. Maximum keratometry values (K Max, pachymetric measurements, uncorrected distance visual acuities (UDVA, and corrected distance visual acuities (CDVA were recorded. Comparison between preoperative measurements and measurements taken in sixth postoperative month were performed. Re sults: The mean TCT was 422.75±26.98 μm preoperatively (max: 450, min: 360. The mean TCT was reduced to 373.63±22.41 μm after epithelium was removed (max: 398, min: 325. There was a statistically significant difference between preoperative K max (62.62±5.09 and postoperative K max (61.55±5.80, (p=0.03. On the other hand, the difference between preoperative-postoperative UDVA (p=0.29 and preoperative-postoperative CDVA was not significant (p=058. There were no cases with significant corneal opacity or with any other complication. Dis cus si on: Corneal collagen cross-linking with hypoosmolar riboflavin solution in keratoconus patients with thin corneas is an effective procedure and can be considered as safe regarding preservation of visual acuities and absence of significant corneal opacity. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 316-20

  18. Characterization and effects of cross-linked potassium polyacrylate as soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Gómez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Falta palabras clave Cross-linked potassium polyacrylate (Luquasorb®1280R) is a granular anionic superabsorbent polymer with the ability to absorb large amounts of water. The objectives of this study were the physicochemical characterization of the material and its effects when used as soil amendment together with the evaluation of the impact on agronomical parameters when it was applied to processing varieties of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown under Mediterranean climate condit...

  19. Robust cross-links in molluscan adhesive gels: Testing for contributions from hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, A. M.; Robinson, T.M.; Salt, M. D.; Hamilton, K. S.; Silvia, B. E.; Blasiak, R.

    2008-01-01

    The cross-linking interactions that provide cohesive strength to molluscan adhesive gels were investigated. Metal-based interactions have been shown to play an important role in the glue of the slug Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud), but other types of interactions may also contribute to the glue's strength and their role has not been investigated. This study shows that treatments that normally disrupt hydrophobic or electrostatic interactions have little to no effect on the slug glue. High salt c...

  20. Influence of ethanol concentration on softening tests for cross-link density evaluation of dental composites

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Ratto de Moraes; Luis Felipe Jochims Schneider; Lourenço Correr-Sobrinho; Simonides Consani; Mário Alexandre Coelho Sinhoreti

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of ethanol concentration on softening tests for cross-link density evaluation (microhardness) of dental composites. Specimens of Filtek Z100 (3M ESPE) were light-activated by standard or pulse-delay methods. After initial Knoop hardness readings (KHN1), half of specimens (n = 10) for each irradiation method was stored in 100% ethanol, and half in 75% ethanol, during 24 hours, and hardness was determined anew. Hardness deterioration (DKHN) was recorded as ...

  1. Starch-chitosan hydrogels prepared by reductive alkylation cross-linking

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, E. T.; Mano, J. F.; Reis, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Starch–chitosan hydrogels were produced by oxidation of soluble starch to produce polyaldehyde and subsequently cross-linked with chitosan via reductive alkylation. The swelling ratio of starch–chitosan membranes was increased gradually with increasing starch ratio, but it was always lower than the native chitosan. In dry state, starch–chitosan membranes with low starch ratio (0.16, 0.38) showed similar tensile strength values to those of native chitosan while these values decreased with incr...

  2. Modulation of UvrD helicase activity by covalent DNA-protein cross-links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anuradha; Minko, Irina G; Smith, Rebecca L; Lloyd, R Stephen; McCullough, Amanda K

    2010-07-01

    UvrD (DNA helicase II) has been implicated in DNA replication, DNA recombination, nucleotide excision repair, and methyl-directed mismatch repair. The enzymatic function of UvrD is to translocate along a DNA strand in a 3' to 5' direction and unwind duplex DNA utilizing a DNA-dependent ATPase activity. In addition, UvrD interacts with many other proteins involved in the above processes and is hypothesized to facilitate protein turnover, thus promoting further DNA processing. Although UvrD interactions with proteins bound to DNA have significant biological implications, the effects of covalent DNA-protein cross-links on UvrD helicase activity have not been characterized. Herein, we demonstrate that UvrD-catalyzed strand separation was inhibited on a DNA strand to which a 16-kDa protein was covalently bound. Our sequestration studies suggest that the inhibition of UvrD activity is most likely due to a translocation block and not helicase sequestration on the cross-link-containing DNA substrate. In contrast, no inhibition of UvrD-catalyzed strand separation was apparent when the protein was linked to the complementary strand. The latter result is surprising given the earlier observations that the DNA in this covalent complex is severely bent ( approximately 70 degrees ), with both DNA strands making multiple contacts with the cross-linked protein. In addition, UvrD was shown to be required for replication of plasmid DNAs containing covalent DNA-protein complexes. Combined, these data suggest a critical role for UvrD in the processing of DNA-protein cross-links. PMID:20444702

  3. Histological response to injected gluteraldehyde cross-linked bovine collagen based implant in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cağlar Melda

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of present study is to investigate the short and long term histopathological alterations caused by submucosal injection of gluteraldehyde cross-linked bovine collagen based on an experimental rat model. Methods Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into two groups as group I and II each containing 30 rats. 0.1 ml of saline solution and 0.1 ml of gluteraldehyde cross-linked bovine collagen were injected into the submucosa of bladder of first (control and second groups, respectively. Both group I and II were further subdivided into 3 other groups as Group IA, IB, IC and Group IIA, IIB, IIC according to the sacrification period. Group IA and IIA, IB and IIB, IC and IIC rats (10 rats for each group were sacrificed 3, 6, and 12 months after surgical procedure, respectively. Two slides prepared from injection site of the bladder were evaluated completely for each rat by being unaware of the groups and at random by two independent senior pathologists to determine the fibroblast invasion, collagen formation, capillary ingrowth and inflammatory reaction. Additionally, randomized brain sections from each rat were also examined to detect migration of the injection material. The measurements were made using an ocular micrometer at ×10 magnification. The results were assessed using t-tests for paired and independent samples, with p Results Migration to the brain was not detected in any group. Significant histopathological changes in the gluteraldehyde cross-linked bovine collagen injected groups were fibroblast invasion in 93.3%, collagen formation in 73.3%, capillary ingrowth in 46.6%, inflamatory reaction in 20%. Conclusion We emphasize that the usage of gluteraldehyde cross-linked bovine collagen in children appears to be safe for endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux.

  4. Fluorescence imaging of tryptophan and collagen cross-links to evaluate wound closure ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Ortega-Martinez, Antonio; Farinelli, Bill; Anderson, R. R.; Franco, Walfre

    2016-02-01

    Wound size is a key parameter in monitoring healing. Current methods to measure wound size are often subjective, time-consuming and marginally invasive. Recently, we developed a non-invasive, non-contact, fast and simple but robust fluorescence imaging (u-FEI) method to monitor the healing of skin wounds. This method exploits the fluorescence of native molecules to tissue as functional and structural markers. The objective of the present study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using variations in the fluorescence intensity of tryptophan and cross-links of collagen to evaluate proliferation of keratinocyte cells and quantitate size of wound during healing, respectively. Circular dermal wounds were created in ex vivo human skin and cultured in different media. Two serial fluorescence images of tryptophan and collagen cross-links were acquired every two days. Histology and immunohistology were used to validate correlation between fluorescence and epithelialization. Images of collagen cross-links show fluorescence of the exposed dermis and, hence, are a measure of wound area. Images of tryptophan show higher fluorescence intensity of proliferating keratinocytes forming new epithelium, as compared to surrounding keratinocytes not involved in epithelialization. These images are complementary since collagen cross-links report on structure while tryptophan reports on function. HE and immunohistology show that tryptophan fluorescence correlates with newly formed epidermis. We have established a fluorescence imaging method for studying epithelialization processes during wound healing in a skin organ culture model, our approach has the potential to provide a non-invasive, non-contact, quick, objective and direct method for quantitative measurements in wound healing in vivo.

  5. Characterizing RNA-protein interaction using cross-linking and metabolite supplemented nuclear RNA-immunoprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Phil Chi Khang; Helliwell, Chris; Wang, Ming-Bo

    2014-05-01

    RNA-immunoprecipitation (RNA-IP) is a method used to isolate and identify RNA molecules specifically associated with an RNA-binding protein. Non-coding RNAs are emerging as key regulators of many biological and developmental pathways and RNA-IP has become an important tool in studying their function(s). While RNA-IP is successfully used to determine protein-RNA interaction, specific details regarding the level of this association and the metabolic requirement of this interaction which can influence the success of RNA-IP remain unclear. Here, we investigate the conditions required for efficient nuclear RNA-IP using Arabidopsis AGO4 (Argonaute 4) and siRNA binding as the study model. We showed that formaldehyde cross-linking, but not UV cross-linking, allowed for efficient pull-down of 24-nt siRNAs, suggesting that AGO4-siRNA interaction involves other protein(s). We also showed that, while formaldehyde cross-linking could also be performed on purified nuclei, ATP supplementation to the nuclei isolation buffer was needed to efficiently pull down 24-nt siRNAs. This result indicates that ATP is required for efficient siRNA loading onto AGO4. As most of the known RNA-mediated regulatory processes occur in the nucleus, our findings on cross-linking conditions and metabolite requirement for successful AGO4 nuclear RNA-IP provide a valuable insight and future consideration when studying the function of protein-RNA interactions in plants.

  6. Long-term results of cornea collagen cross-linking with riboflavin for keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin and UVA light (CXL is the only method designed to arrest the progression of keratoconus. Visual improvement generally starts 3 months after treatment. Reduction is coma seen on aberrometry in early postoperative phase is also responsible for the improvement in visual acuity. In the light of currently available data we can thus say that CXL is a safe procedure that is successful in arresting keratoconus.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Dendron Cross-linked PEG Hydrogels as Corneal Adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Oelker, Abigail M.; Berlin, Jason A.; Wathier, Michel; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    In pursuit of a wound-specific corneal adhesive, hydrogels formed by the reaction of propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, or 2-oxoethyl succinate-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with a peptide-based dendritic cross-linker (Lys3Cys4) were characterized. These macromers react within minutes of mixing to form transparent and elastic hydrogels with in vitro degradation times that range from hours to months based on the type of bonds formed during the cross-linking reaction – either thiazoli...

  8. The mechanical strength of phosphates under friction-induced cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pawlak

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study, we consider mechanical properties of phosphate glasses under high temperature-induced and under friction-induced cross-linking, which enhance the modulus of elasticity.Design/methodology/approach: Two nanomechanical properties are evaluated, the first parameter is the modulus of elasticity (E (or Young’s modulus and the second parameter is the hardness (H. Zinc meta-, pyro - and orthophosphates were recognized as amorphous-colloidal nanoparticles were synthesized under laboratory conditions and showed antiwear properties in engine oil.Findings: Young’s modulus of the phosphate glasses formed under high temperature was in the 60-89 GPa range. For phosphate tribofilm formed under friction hardness and the Young’s modulus were in the range of 2-10 GPa and 40-215 GPa, respectively. The degree of cross-linking during friction is provided by internal pressure of about 600 MPa and temperature close to 1000°C enhancing mechanical properties by factor of 3 (see Fig 1.Research limitations/implications: The addition of iron or aluminum ions to phosphate glasses under high temperature - and friction-induced amorphization of zinc metaphosphate and pyrophosphate tends to provide more cross-linking and mechanically stronger structures. Iron and aluminum (FeO4 or AlO4 units, incorporated into phosphate structure as network formers, contribute to the anion network bonding by converting the P=O bonds into bridging oxygen. Future work should consider on development of new of materials prepared by sol-gel processes, eg., zinc (II-silicic acid.Originality/value: This paper analyses the friction pressure-induced and temperature–induced the two factors lead phosphate tribofilm glasses to chemically advanced glass structures, which may enhance the wear inhibition. Adding the coordinating ions alters the pressure at which cross-linking occurs and increases the antiwear properties of the surface material significantly

  9. Comparative study between novel self cross-linking and conventional fluorinated acrylic latex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun Chen

    2011-01-01

    Novel self cross-linking fluorinated acrylic latex (SCLFAL) has been successfully prepared via starved seeded semi-batch emulsion polymerization. The resultant SCLFAL is characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTTR) spectrometry. Contact angle (CA) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the film are investigated. Results show that CA and Tg of the film can be improved when the moderate amount of HPMA is introduced into the mixed monomers.

  10. Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates of Naringinase: Novel Biocatalysts for Naringin Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Maria H. L.; Marco Rabaça

    2011-01-01

    Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have emerged as interesting biocatalyst design for immobilization. These new generation enzyme biocatalysts, CLEAs, in addition to exhibiting good mechanical stability, can be highly active, since they do not include large amounts of foreign particulate nonenzymatic material and may have increased stability. Naringinase (NGase) is an enzyme complex with high potential in pharmaceutical and food industries. In fact, NGase can be used in the biotransformat...

  11. Synthesis and Properties of Lactic Acid-based Cross-linked Poly(ester-amide)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Ying HE; Cong Ming XIAO

    2006-01-01

    A novel lactic acid-based cross-linked poly(ester-amide) (LCPEA) was synthesized. The gel fraction of the LCPEA could be modulated by the reaction conditions and it affected the mechanical and thermal properties of the LCPEA. The tensile strength, elastic modulus and bend strength of the LCPEA of 65% gel fraction were 4.65, 136.55 and 39.63 MPa, respectively. The thermal decomposition temperature (50 wt%) of the LCPEA was around 410 ℃.

  12. Mechanically Stiff, Zinc Cross-Linked Nanocomposite Scaffolds with Improved Osteostimulation and Antibacterial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Rekha R; Carvalho, Edmund; Banerjee, Rinti

    2016-06-01

    Nanocomposite scaffolds are studied widely due to their resemblance with the natural extracellular matrix of bone; but their use as a bone tissue engineered scaffold is clinically hampered due to low mechanical stiffness, inadequate osteoconduction, and graft associated infections. The purpose of the current study was the development of a mechanically stiff nanocomposite scaffold using biodegradable gellan and xanthan polymers reinforced with bioglass nanoparticles (nB) (Size: 20-120 nm). These nanocomposite scaffolds were cross-linked with zinc sulfate ions to improve their osteoconduction and antibacterial properties for the regeneration of a functional bone. The compressive strength and modulus of the optimized nanocomposite scaffold (1% w/v polymer reinforced with 4%w/v nB nanoparticles, cross-linked with 1.5 mM zinc sulfate) was 1.91 ± 0.31 MPa and 20.36 ± 1.08 MPa, respectively, which was comparable to the trabecular bone and very high compared to nanocomposite scaffolds reported in earlier studies. Further, in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) study suggested deposition of biomimetic apatite on the surface of zinc cross-linked nanocomposite scaffolds confirming their bioactivity. MG 63 osteoblast-like cells cultured with the nanocomposite scaffolds responded to matrix stiffness with better adhesion, spreading and cellular interconnections compared to the polymeric gellan and xanthan scaffolds. Incorporation of bioglass nanoparticles and zinc cross-linker in nanocomposite scaffolds demonstrated 62% increment in expression of alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and 150% increment in calcium deposition of MG 63 osteoblast-like cells compared to just gellan and xanthan polymeric scaffolds. Furthermore, zinc cross-linked nanocomposite scaffolds significantly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (70% reduction) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (81% reduction) bacteria. This study demonstrated a facile approach to tune the mechanical stiffness

  13. Corneal Biomechanical and Anterior Chamber Parameters Variations after 1-year of Transepithelial Corneal Collagen Cross-linking in Eyes of Children with Keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Abdelrahman Gaber

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the changes in corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) 1-year following transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) treatment in eyes of children with keratoconus. Methods: This case series was conducted in 22 eyes of 22 children. Children aged 0.05). Conclusion: Transepithelial CXL in keratoconus in pediatric age group seems to have good stability in corneal biomechanical parameters after 1-year. Further studies with a larger sample and better study design are recommended to confirm our findings. PMID:26957852

  14. Azide-based cross-linking of polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) for condensable gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Naiying

    2011-03-11

    Cross-linked polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM)s for gas separation membranes, were prepared by a nitrene reaction from a representative PIM in the presence of two different diazide cross-linkers. The reaction temperature was optimized using TGA. The homogenous membranes were cast from THF solutions of different ratios of PIM to azides. The resulting cross-linked structures of the PIMs membranes were formed at 175 °C after 7.5 h and confirmed by TGA, XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy and gel content analysis. These resulting cross-linked polymeric membranes showed excellent gas separation performance and can be used for O 2/N 2 and CO 2/N 2 gas pairs, as well as for condensable gases, such as CO 2/CH 4, propylene/propane separation. Most importantly, and differently from typical gas separation membranes derived from glassy polymers, the crosslinked PIMs showed no obvious CO 2 plasticization up to 20 atm pressure of pure CO 2 and CO 2/CH 4 mixtures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Capacity of cognitive radio under imperfect secondary and cross link channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of secondary user channel in a spectrum sharing scenario in which the secondary transmitter is instantaneously aware of estimated versions of the cross link (between the secondary transmitter and the primary receiver) and the secondary link Channel State Information (CSI). The secondary link optimal power profile along with the ergodic capacity are derived for a class of fading channels, under an average power constraint and an instantaneous interference outage constraint. We also show that our framework is rather general as it encompasses several previously studied spectrum sharing settings as special cases. In order to gain some insights on the capacity behavior, numerical results are shown for independent Rayleigh fading channels where it is found for instance, that at low SNR regime, only the secondary channel estimation matters and that the cross link CSI has no effect on the ergodic capacity; whereas at high SNR regime, the capacity is rather driven by the cross link CSI. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Oxidation increases mucin polymer cross-links to stiffen airway mucus gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shaopeng; Hollinger, Martin; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E; Kerr, Sheena C; Dunican, Eleanor M; Daniel, Brian M; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Erzurum, Serpel C; Willard, Belinda; Hazen, Stanley L; Huang, Xiaozhu; Carrington, Stephen D; Oscarson, Stefan; Fahy, John V

    2015-02-25

    Airway mucus in cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly elastic, but the mechanism behind this pathology is unclear. We hypothesized that the biophysical properties of CF mucus are altered because of neutrophilic oxidative stress. Using confocal imaging, rheology, and biochemical measures of inflammation and oxidation, we found that CF airway mucus gels have a molecular architecture characterized by a core of mucin covered by a web of DNA and a rheological profile characterized by high elasticity that can be normalized by chemical reduction. We also found that high levels of reactive oxygen species in CF mucus correlated positively and significantly with high concentrations of the oxidized products of cysteine (disulfide cross-links). To directly determine whether oxidation can cross-link mucins to increase mucus elasticity, we exposed induced sputum from healthy subjects to oxidizing stimuli and found a marked and thiol-dependent increase in sputum elasticity. Targeting mucin disulfide cross-links using current thiol-amino structures such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) requires high drug concentrations to have mucolytic effects. We therefore synthesized a thiol-carbohydrate structure (methyl 6-thio-6-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside) and found that it had stronger reducing activity than NAC and more potent and fast-acting mucolytic activity in CF sputum. Thus, oxidation arising from airway inflammation or environmental exposure contributes to pathologic mucus gel formation in the lung, which suggests that it can be targeted by thiol-modified carbohydrates.

  17. Core Cross-linked Star Polymers for Temperature/pH Controlled Delivery of 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sánchez-Bustos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RAFT polymerization with cross-linking was used to prepare core cross-linked star polymers bearing temperature sensitive arms. The arms consisted of a diblock copolymer containing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm and 4-methacryloyloxy benzoic acid (4MBA in the temperature sensitive block and poly(hexyl acrylate forming the second hydrophobic block, while ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate was used to form the core. The acid comonomer provides pH sensitivity to the arms and also increases the transition temperature of polyNIPAAm to values in the range of 40 to 46°C. Light scattering and atomic force microscopy studies suggest that loose core star polymers were obtained. The star polymers were loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, an anticancer agent, in values of up to 30 w/w%. In vitro release experiments were performed at different temperatures and pH values, as well as with heating and cooling temperature cycles. Faster drug release was obtained at 42°C or pH 6, compared to normal physiological conditions (37°C, pH 7.4. The drug carriers prepared acted as nanopumps changing the release kinetics of 5-FU when temperatures cycles were applied, in contrast with release rates at a constant temperature. The prepared core cross-linked star polymers represent advanced drug delivery vehicles optimized for 5-FU with potential application in cancer treatment.

  18. Crosslink density, oxidation and chain scission in retrieved, highly cross-linked UHMWPE tibial bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Steven D; Currier, Barbara H; Levine, Rayna A; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2014-05-01

    Irradiated, thermally stabilized, highly cross-linked UHMWPE bearings have demonstrated superior wear performance and improved in vitro oxidation resistance compared with terminally gamma-sterilized bearings, yet retrieval analysis reveals unanticipated in vivo oxidation in these materials despite fewer or no measurable free radicals. There has been little evidence to date that the oxidation mechanism in thermally stabilized materials is the same as that in conventional materials, and so it is unknown whether oxidation in these materials is leading to chain scission and a degradation of mechanical properties, molecular weight, and crosslink density. The aim of this study was to determine whether measured in vivo oxidation in retrieved, highly cross-linked tibial bearings corresponds with a decreasing crosslink density. Analysis of three tibial bearing materials revealed that crosslink density decreased following in vivo duration, and that the change in crosslink density was strongly correlated with oxidation. The results suggest that oxidation in highly cross-linked materials is causing chain scissions that may, in time, impact the material properties. If in vivo oxidation continues over longer durations, there is potential for a clinically significant degradation of mechanical properties.

  19. Efficient immobilization of glucose oxidase by in situ photo-cross-linking for glucose biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guanglei; Dai, Zhifei

    2012-08-15

    A glucose biosensor was fabricated based on electrostatic self-assembly in combination with in situ photo-cross-linking of glucose oxidase (GOx) and diazoresin-chitosan (DAR-CS) on Prussian blue deposited multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PB-MWNTs) backbone. It was demonstrated that GOx was initially ionically deposited and subsequently covalently photo-cross-linked onto the PB-MWNTs backbone using photosensitive DAR-CS as the assembly interlayer. The modified electrode exhibited good electrical conductivity and effective electron transfer mediation toward H(2)O(2) reduction due to the employment of PB-MWNTs as the fabrication backbone. The biosensor showed high sensitivity of 77.9 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) to glucose in the linear concentration range from 1.0×10(-5) to 1.1×10(-3) M with fast response time of 10s, detection limit of 3.1×10(-6) M, and good anti-interference ability. More importantly, the biosensor exhibited greatly improved biosensing stability in comparison with the non-photo-cross-linked biosensor attributed to the conversion of weak ionic bonds to strong covalent ones for enzyme immobilization by the proposed strategy. The results for glucose determination in real serum samples with the biosensor were found to be in good agreement with those obtained by the conventional clinical procedure. PMID:22841105

  20. Self-Healing and Thermoresponsive Dual-Cross-Linked Alginate Hydrogels Based on Supramolecular Inclusion Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Tianxin; Fenn, Spencer L; Charron, Patrick N; Oldinski, Rachael A

    2015-12-14

    β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD), with a lipophilic inner cavity and hydrophilic outer surface, interacts with a large variety of nonpolar guest molecules to form noncovalent inclusion complexes. Conjugation of β-CD onto biomacromolecules can form physically cross-linked hydrogel networks upon mixing with a guest molecule. Herein, the development and characterization of self-healing, thermoresponsive hydrogels, based on host-guest inclusion complexes between alginate-graft-β-CD and Pluronic F108 (poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)), are described. The mechanics, flow characteristics, and thermal response were contingent on the polymer concentration and the host-guest molar ratio. Transient and reversible physical cross-linking between host and guest polymers governed self-assembly, allowing flow to occur under shear stress and facilitating complete recovery of the material's properties within a few seconds of unloading. The mechanical properties of the dual-cross-linked, multi-stimuli-responsive hydrogels were tuned as high as 30 kPa at body temperature and are advantageous for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and cell transplantation. PMID:26509214

  1. Application of cross-linked and hydrolyzed arabinoxylans in baking of model rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafał

    2016-02-01

    The role of water extractable arabinoxylan with varying molar mass and structure (cross-linked vs. hydrolyzed) in the structure formation of rye bread was examined using a model bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, arabinoxylan and protein, which were isolated from rye wholemeal. It was observed that the applied mixes of these constituents result in a product closely resembling typical rye bread, even if arabinoxylan was modified (by cross-linking or hydrolysis). The levels of arabinoxylan required for bread preparation depended on its modification and mix composition. At 3% protein, the maximum applicable level of poorly soluble cross-linked arabinoxylan was 3%, as higher amounts of this preparation resulted in an extensively viscous dough and diminished bread volume. On the other hand highly soluble, hydrolyzed arabinoxylan could be used at a higher level (6%) together with larger amounts of rye protein (3% or 6%). Further addition of arabinoxylan leads to excessive water absorption, resulting in a decreased viscosity of the dough during baking and insufficient gas retention. PMID:26304439

  2. Preparation and Characterization of a pH-Responsive Core Cross-linked Polymer Micelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kousaka, Shouta; Sugahara, Makoto; Endo, Tatsuya; Yusa, Shin-ichi, E-mail: yusa@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(2-(diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate-co-2-cinnamoyl-oxyethyl acrylate) (PEG-b-P(DEA/CEA)) was prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) controlled radical polymerization. pH-responsive association behaviour of PEG-b-P(DEA/CEA) in 0.1 M NaCl was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS). As solution pH is increased from an acidic pH, the hydrodynamic radius (R{sub h}) increases, indicative of the polymer micelle formation. The formation of a micelle was also supported by static light scattering (SLS) data. The cinnamoyl groups in the core of the polymer micelle undergo photodimerization, yielding cross-links between polymer chains. The core of the polymer micelle was fixed, which was confirmed by DLS, SLS, and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. When pH is decreased to 3, R{sub h} of the core cross-linked (CCL) polymer micelle slightly increases due to the protonation of the DEA unit in the cross-linked core. The reversible pH-induced swelling and shrinking behaviour can be observed.

  3. Rheological characterization of cataplasm bases composed of cross-linked partially neutralized polyacrylate hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hongqin; An, Dianyun; Yu, Jian; Li, Wei; Shen, Teng; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-10-01

    Viscoelasticity is a useful parameter for characterizing the intrinsic properties of the cross-linked polyacrylate hydrogel used in cataplasm bases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various formulation parameters on the rheological characteristics of polyacrylate hydrogel. The hydrogel layers were formed using a partially neutralized polyacrylate (Viscomate(™)), which contained acrylic acid and sodium acrylate in different copolymerization ratios, as the cross-linked gel framework. Dihydroxyaluminum aminoacetate (DAAA), which produces aluminum ions, was used as the cross-linking agent. Rheological analyses were performed using a "stress amplitude sweep" and a "frequency sweep". The results showed that greater amounts of acrylic acid in the structure of Viscomate as well as higher concentrations of DAAA and Viscomate led to an increase in the elastic modulus (G'). However, greater amounts of acrylic acid in the structure of Viscomate and higher concentrations of DAAA had an opposite on the viscous modulus (G″); this might be owing to higher steric hindrance. The results of this study can serve as guidelines for the optimization of formulations for cataplasms. PMID:24865937

  4. Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates of Naringinase: Novel Biocatalysts for Naringin Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria H. L. Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs have emerged as interesting biocatalyst design for immobilization. These new generation enzyme biocatalysts, CLEAs, in addition to exhibiting good mechanical stability, can be highly active, since they do not include large amounts of foreign particulate nonenzymatic material and may have increased stability. Naringinase (NGase is an enzyme complex with high potential in pharmaceutical and food industries. In fact, NGase can be used in the biotransformation of steroids, of antibiotics and mainly on glycosides hydrolysis. In this paper, the formation of CLEAs was tried using ammonium sulphate, polyethylene glycol 6000 and tert-butyl alcohol as precipitant agents and glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent, at different pH, time, and temperature conditions. However, among the precipitant agents tested, only tert-butyl alcohol cross-linked with glutaraldehyde allowed the formation of CLEAs, at pH 4.0 and at temperature between 7 and 10∘C. Different enzyme loadings were tested. The NGase-CLEAs were highly effective in naringin hydrolysis. The operational stability of the NGase-CLEAs aggregates was studied through six successive reutilizations.

  5. Light-harvesting cross-linked polymers for efficient heterogeneous photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Xie, Zhigang; deKrafft, Kathryn E; Lin, Wenbin

    2012-04-01

    Nonporous, phosphorescent cross-linked polymers (Ru-CP and Ir-CP) were synthesized via Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions between tetra(p-ethynylphenyl)methane and dibrominated Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) or Ir(ppy)(2)(bpy)(+), respectively. The resultant particulate cross-linked polymer (CP) materials have very high catalyst loadings (76.3 wt % for Ru-CP and 71.6 wt % for Ir-CP), and are nonporous with negligibly small surface areas (2.9 m(2)/g for Ru-CP and 2.7 m(2)/g for Ir-CP). Despite their nonporous nature, the insoluble CP materials serve as highly active and recyclable heterogeneous photocatalysts for a range of organic transformations such as aza-Henry reaction, aerobic amine coupling, and dehalogenation of benzyl bromoacetate. An efficient light-harvesting mechanism, which involves collection of photons by exciting the (3)MLCT states of the phosphors and migration of the excited states to the particle surface, is proposed to account for the very high catalytic activities of these nonporous CPs. Steady-state and time-resolved emission data, as well as the reduced catalytic activity of Os(bpy)(3)(2+)-doped Ru-CPs supports efficient excited state migration for the CP frameworks. This work uncovers a new strategy in designing highly efficient photocatalysts based on light-harvesting cross-linked polymers.

  6. Two-photon induced collagen cross-linking in bioartificial cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuetemeyer, Kai; Kensah, George; Heidrich, Marko; Meyer, Heiko; Martin, Ulrich; Gruh, Ina; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising strategy for regenerative therapies to overcome the shortage of donor organs for transplantation. Besides contractile function, the stiffness of tissue engineered constructs is crucial to generate transplantable tissue surrogates with sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the high pressure present in the heart. Although several collagen cross-linking techniques have proven to be efficient in stabilizing biomaterials, they cannot be applied to cardiac tissue engineering, as cell death occurs in the treated area. Here, we present a novel method using femtosecond (fs) laser pulses to increase the stiffness of collagen-based tissue constructs without impairing cell viability. Raster scanning of the fs laser beam over riboflavin-treated tissue induced collagen cross-linking by two-photon photosensitized singlet oxygen production. One day post-irradiation, stress-strain measurements revealed increased tissue stiffness by around 40% being dependent on the fibroblast content in the tissue. At the same time, cells remained viable and fully functional as demonstrated by fluorescence imaging of cardiomyocyte mitochondrial activity and preservation of active contraction force. Our results indicate that two-photon induced collagen cross-linking has great potential for studying and improving artificially engineered tissue for regenerative therapies.

  7. Collagen cross-link excretion during space flight and bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Nillen, J. L.; Leblanc, A.; Lipton, A.; Demers, L. M.; Lane, H. W.; Leach, C. S.; LeBlanc, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Extended exposure to weightlessness results in bone loss. However, little information exists as to the precise nature or time course of this bone loss. Bone resorption results in the release of collagen breakdown products, including N-telopeptide and the pyridinium (PYD) cross-links, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. Urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline are known to increase during bed rest. We assessed excretion of PYD cross-links and N-telopeptide before, during, and after long (28-day, 59-day, and 84-day) Skylab missions, as well as during short (14-day) and long (119-day) bed-rest studies. During space flight, the urinary cross-link excretion level was twice those observed before flight. Urinary excretion levels of the collagen breakdown products were also 40-50% higher, during short and long bed rest, than before. These results clearly show that the changes in bone metabolism associated with space flight involve increased resorption. The rate of response (i.e. within days to weeks) suggests that alterations in bone metabolism are an early effect of weightlessness. These studies are important for a better understanding of bone metabolism in space crews and in those who are bedridden.

  8. Thermal diffusivity of hexagonal boron nitride composites based on cross-linked liquid crystalline polyimides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Yu; Higashihara, Tomoya; Tokita, Masatoshi; Morikawa, Junko; Watanabe, Junji; Ueda, Mitsuru

    2013-04-24

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) composites with the oriented cross-linked liquid crystalline (LC) polyimide have been developed as high thermally conductive materials. Well-dispersed h-BN composite films were obtained, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of the composite films was further investigated in detail by the wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The obtained composite films based on the cross-linked LC polyimide showed that the polymer chains vertically aligned in the direction parallel to the films, while those based on the amorphous polyimide showed an isotropic nature. Moreover, the alignment of the cross-linked LC polyimides was maintained, even after increasing the volume fraction of h-BN. This alignment plays an important role in the effective phonon conduction between h-BN and the matrices. Indeed, the thermal diffusivity in the thickness direction of the composite films based on the LC polyimide measured by a temperature wave analysis method was increased to 0.679 mm(2) s(-1) at a 30 vol % h-BN loading, which was higher than that based on the amorphous polyimide. PMID:23506319

  9. Cross-links in carbon nanotube assembly introduced by using polyacrylonitrile as precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanbin; Zhang, Mei

    2013-08-28

    Individual carbon nanotube (CNT) exhibits extraordinary mechanics. However, the properties of the macroscopic CNT-based structure, such as CNT fibers and films, are far lower than that of individual CNT. One of the main reasons is the weak interaction between tubes and bundles in the CNT assemblies. It is understood that the cross-links in CNT assembly play a key role to improve the performance of CNT-based structure. Different approaches have been taken to create CNT joints. Most of these approaches focus on connecting CNTs by generating new covalent bonding between tubes. In this work, we intend to reinforce the CNT network by locking the contacted CNTs. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was used as precursor because PAN can form graphitic structures after carbonization. The freestanding superthin CNT sheet and CNT yarn were used to evaluate the effects of the PAN precursor to form cross-links between CNTs. The tensile strength of CNT yarn is improved when the yarn is partially infiltrated with PAN and consequently carbonated. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation of the sheets shows that graphite structures are formed and cross-link CNTs in CNT assembly. PMID:23901778

  10. Wood Sawdust/Natural Rubber Ecocomposites Cross-Linked by Electron Beam Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Manaila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The obtaining and characterization of some polymeric eco-composites based on wood sawdust and natural rubber is presented. The natural rubber was cross-linked using the electron beam irradiation. The irradiation doses were of 75, 150, 300 and 600 kGy and the concentrations of wood sawdust were of 10 and 20 phr, respectively. As a result of wood sawdust adding, the physical and mechanical properties such as hardness, modulus at 100% elongation and tensile strength, showed significant improvements. The presence of wood sawdust fibers has a reinforcing effect on natural rubber, similar or better than of mineral fillers. An increase in the irradiation dose leads to the increasing of cross-link density, which is reflected in the improvement of hardness, modulus at 100% elongation and tensile strength of blends. The cross-linking rates, appreciated using the Flory-Rehner equation, have increased with the amount of wood sawdust in blends and with the irradiation dose. Even if the gel fraction values have varied irregularly with the amount of wood sawdust and irradiation dose it was over 90% for all blends, except for the samples without wood sawdust irradiated with 75 kGy. The water uptake increased with increasing of fiber content and decreased with the irradiation dose.

  11. EGDMA-cross-linked polystyrene resin: An efficient support for gel phase peptide synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Ajikumar; K S Devaky

    2000-08-01

    This article illustrates the application of a 2% ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate-cross-linked polystyrene support (EGDMA-PS) in manual solid phase peptide synthesis. This copolymer has been characterised and optimised for peptide synthesis by performing the synthesis of a few model peptides and two biologically important peptides. EGDMA-cross-linked polystyrene support was prepared by the suspension polymerisation of the monomers EGDMA and styrene. EGDMA-PS resin undergoes facile swelling in a variety of solvents, both polar and nonpolar, used in peptide synthesis. The polymer was functionalised by Friedel-Crafts chloromethylation reaction. Peptides were assembled on a 2% cross-linked chloromethyl polymer support of capacity 1.63 mmol Cl/g. The biological peptides synthesised are an 11-residue peptide ATP binding site of the CDC2 kinase and a difficult sequence-a nineresidue peptide 34-42 corresponding to a portion of the hydrophobic terminus of the-amyloid protein 1-42. After synthesis, the peptides were cleaved from the support by treating with neat TFA. Purity of the peptides obtained in good yield was checked by TLC and HPLC methods and found to be fairly high.

  12. Oxidation increases mucin polymer cross-links to stiffen airway mucus gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shaopeng; Hollinger, Martin; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E; Kerr, Sheena C; Dunican, Eleanor M; Daniel, Brian M; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Erzurum, Serpel C; Willard, Belinda; Hazen, Stanley L; Huang, Xiaozhu; Carrington, Stephen D; Oscarson, Stefan; Fahy, John V

    2015-02-25

    Airway mucus in cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly elastic, but the mechanism behind this pathology is unclear. We hypothesized that the biophysical properties of CF mucus are altered because of neutrophilic oxidative stress. Using confocal imaging, rheology, and biochemical measures of inflammation and oxidation, we found that CF airway mucus gels have a molecular architecture characterized by a core of mucin covered by a web of DNA and a rheological profile characterized by high elasticity that can be normalized by chemical reduction. We also found that high levels of reactive oxygen species in CF mucus correlated positively and significantly with high concentrations of the oxidized products of cysteine (disulfide cross-links). To directly determine whether oxidation can cross-link mucins to increase mucus elasticity, we exposed induced sputum from healthy subjects to oxidizing stimuli and found a marked and thiol-dependent increase in sputum elasticity. Targeting mucin disulfide cross-links using current thiol-amino structures such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) requires high drug concentrations to have mucolytic effects. We therefore synthesized a thiol-carbohydrate structure (methyl 6-thio-6-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside) and found that it had stronger reducing activity than NAC and more potent and fast-acting mucolytic activity in CF sputum. Thus, oxidation arising from airway inflammation or environmental exposure contributes to pathologic mucus gel formation in the lung, which suggests that it can be targeted by thiol-modified carbohydrates. PMID:25717100

  13. Stretchable Self-Healing Polymeric Dielectrics Cross-Linked Through Metal-Ligand Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ying-Li; Chortos, Alex; Pfattner, Raphael; Lissel, Franziska; Chiu, Yu-Cheng; Feig, Vivian; Xu, Jie; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Gu, Xiaodan; Wang, Chao; He, Mingqian; Chung, Jong Won; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-05-11

    A self-healing dielectric elastomer is achieved by the incorporation of metal-ligand coordination as cross-linking sites in nonpolar polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers. The ligand is 2,2'-bipyridine-5,5'-dicarboxylic amide, while the metal salts investigated here are Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) with various counteranions. The kinetically labile coordination between Zn(2+) and bipyridine endows the polymer fast self-healing ability at ambient condition. When integrated into organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as gate dielectrics, transistors with FeCl2 and ZnCl2 salts cross-linked PDMS exhibited increased dielectric constants compared to PDMS and demonstrated hysteresis-free transfer characteristics, owing to the low ion conductivity in PDMS and the strong columbic interaction between metal cations and the small Cl(-) anions which can prevent mobile anions drifting under gate bias. Fully stretchable transistors with FeCl2-PDMS dielectrics were fabricated and exhibited ideal transfer characteristics. The gate leakage current remained low even after 1000 cycles at 100% strain. The mechanical robustness and stable electrical performance proved its suitability for applications in stretchable electronics. On the other hand, transistors with gate dielectrics containing large-sized anions (BF4(-), ClO4(-), CF3SO3(-)) displayed prominent hysteresis due to mobile anions drifting under gate bias voltage. This work provides insights on future design of self-healing stretchable dielectric materials based on metal-ligand cross-linked polymers. PMID:27099162

  14. A Single Molecular Diels-Alder Crosslinker for Achieving Recyclable Cross-Linked Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengli; Wang, Fenfen; Peng, Yongjin; Chen, Tiehong; Wu, Qiang; Sun, Pingchuan

    2015-09-01

    A triol-functional crosslinker combining the thermoreversible properties of Diels-Alder (DA) adducts in one molecule is designed, synthesized, and used as an ideal substitute of a traditional crosslinker to prepare thermal recyclable cross-linked polyurethanes with excellent mechanical properties and recyclability in a very simple and efficient way. The recycle property of these materials achieved by the DA/retro-DA reaction at a suitable temperature is verified by differential scanning calorimetry and in situ variable temperature solid-state NMR experiments during the cyclic heating and cooling processes. The thermal recyclability and remending ability of the bulk polyurethanes is demonstrated by three polymer processing methods, including hot-press molding, injection molding, and solution casting. It is notable that all the recycled cross-linked polymers display nearly invariable elongation/stress at break compared to the as-synthesized samples. Further end-group functionalization of this single molecular DA crosslinker provides the potential in preparing a wide range of recyclable cross-linked polymers. PMID:26248230

  15. Application of cross-linked and hydrolyzed arabinoxylans in baking of model rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafał

    2016-02-01

    The role of water extractable arabinoxylan with varying molar mass and structure (cross-linked vs. hydrolyzed) in the structure formation of rye bread was examined using a model bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, arabinoxylan and protein, which were isolated from rye wholemeal. It was observed that the applied mixes of these constituents result in a product closely resembling typical rye bread, even if arabinoxylan was modified (by cross-linking or hydrolysis). The levels of arabinoxylan required for bread preparation depended on its modification and mix composition. At 3% protein, the maximum applicable level of poorly soluble cross-linked arabinoxylan was 3%, as higher amounts of this preparation resulted in an extensively viscous dough and diminished bread volume. On the other hand highly soluble, hydrolyzed arabinoxylan could be used at a higher level (6%) together with larger amounts of rye protein (3% or 6%). Further addition of arabinoxylan leads to excessive water absorption, resulting in a decreased viscosity of the dough during baking and insufficient gas retention.

  16. Single-molecule dynamics of lysozyme processing distinguishes linear and cross-linked peptidoglycan substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongki; Moody, Issa S; Sims, Patrick C; Hunt, Steven R; Corso, Brad L; Seitz, David E; Blaszczak, Larry C; Blaszcazk, Larry C; Collins, Philip G; Weiss, Gregory A

    2012-02-01

    The dynamic processivity of individual T4 lysozyme molecules was monitored in the presence of either linear or cross-linked peptidoglycan substrates. Single-molecule monitoring was accomplished using a novel electronic technique in which lysozyme molecules were tethered to single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors through pyrene linker molecules. The substrate-driven hinge-bending motions of lysozyme induced dynamic electronic signals in the underlying transistor, allowing long-term monitoring of the same molecule without the limitations of optical quenching or bleaching. For both substrates, lysozyme exhibited processive low turnover rates of 20-50 s(-1) and rapid (200-400 s(-1)) nonproductive motions. The latter nonproductive binding events occupied 43% of the enzyme's time in the presence of the cross-linked peptidoglycan but only 7% with the linear substrate. Furthermore, lysozyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds to the end of the linear substrate but appeared to sidestep the peptide cross-links to zigzag through the wild-type substrate.

  17. Graft copolymerization onto polybutadiene: Cross-linking and thermal degradation of vinyl polymers and copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dayue (David)

    This work consists of three parts. In Part I, the graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, methacylic acid and acrylic acid onto polybutadiene and its copolymers by benzoyl peroxide, BPO, or 2, 2'azobis(2-methylpropionitrile), AIBN, initiation were explored. The results show that these monomers can be grafted onto butadiene region of butadiene-containing polymers. The extent of both graft copolymerization and homopolymerization are dependent on the time and temperature of the reaction and the concentration of all of the reactants. One must specify the monomer, initiator and solvent for the efficient graft copolymerization. The methyl methacrylate adds directly to the radical sites which are formed on the backbone by the interaction of the polymer and the primary radical form the initiator, while for the other three monomers, the graft copolymerization occurs by addition of macro-radical to the double bonds. In Part II, the cross-linking of polybutadiene, butadiene-styrene copolymers, and polystyrene by irradiation, thermal and chemical processes, and Friedel-Crafts chemistry and the effect of cross-linking on the thermal stability were investigated. The proof of cross-linking of the polymer comes from the insolubility of the product after the cross-linking reaction and is characterized by gel content and swelling ratio. The results show that the thermal stability of the polymer can be improved by cross-linking. In Part III, the thermal degradation of three vinyl polymers, poly(vinylsulfonic acid) and its sodium salt and poly(vinylphosphonic acid) were studied by combination technique: TGA/FTIR. The results show that TGA/FTIR combined with analysis of residues provides an excellent opportunity to understand the degradation pathway of the compounds. The observation of foaming indicates that the char which is formed contains carbon as well as the inorganic salts which have been observed. The carbon is in a partially graphitized form. The salts

  18. Polyanionic collagen membranes for guided tissue regeneration: Effect of progressive glutaraldehyde cross-linking on biocompatibility and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, D M; Leitão, R F C; Ribeiro, R A; Figueiró, S D; Sombra, A S B; Góes, J C; Brito, G A C

    2010-10-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to control periodontal tissue inflammation and to produce predictable regeneration of that part of the periodontium which has been lost as a result of periodontal disease. In guided tissue regeneration membranes function as mechanical barriers, excluding the epithelium and gingival corium from the root surface and allowing regeneration by periodontal ligament cells. This report aims to study the effect of glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking on mineralized polyanionic collagen (PAC) membranes by conducting a histological evaluation of the tissue response (biocompatibility) and by assessing the biodegradation of subcutaneous membrane implants in rats. We studied six different samples: a PAC, a PAC mineralized by alternate soaking processes for either 25 or 75 cycles (PAC 25 and PAC 75, respectively) and these films cross-linked by GA. Inflammatory infiltrate, cytokine dosage, fibrosis capsule thickness, metalloproteinase immunohistochemistry and membrane biodegradation after 1, 7, 15 and 30 days were measured. The inflammatory response was found to be more intense in membranes without cross-linking, while the fibrosis capsules became thicker in cross-linked membranes after 30 days. The membranes without cross-linking suffered intense biodegradation, while the membranes with cross-linking remained intact after 30 days. The cross-linking with GA reduced the inflammatory response and prevented degradation of the membranes over the entire course of the observation period. These membranes are thus an attractive option when the production of new bone depends on the prolonged presence of a mechanical barrier.

  19. The Preparation and Properties of Thermo-reversibly Cross-linked Rubber Via Diels-Alder Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, Lorenzo Massimo; van Duin, Martin; Picchioni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A method for using Diels Alder thermo-reversible chemistry as cross-linking tool for rubber products is demonstrated. In this work, a commercial ethylene-propylene rubber, grafted with maleic anhydride, is thermo-reversibly cross-linked in two steps. The pending anhydride moieties are first modified with furfurylamine to graft furan groups to the rubber backbone. These pendant furan groups are then cross-linked with a bis-maleimide via a Diels-Alder coupling reaction. Both reactions can be performed under a broad range of experimental conditions and can easily be applied on a large scale. The material properties of the resulting Diels-Alder cross-linked rubbers are similar to a peroxide-cured ethylene/propylene/diene rubber (EPDM) reference. The cross-links break at elevated temperatures (> 150 °C) via the retro-Diels-Alder reaction and can be reformed by thermal annealing at lower temperatures (50-70 °C). Reversibility of the system was proven with infrared spectroscopy, solubility tests and mechanical properties. Recyclability of the material was also shown in a practical way, i.e., by cutting a cross-linked sample into small parts and compression molding them into new samples displaying comparable mechanical properties, which is not possible for conventionally cross-linked rubbers. PMID:27583665

  20. Optimization of Formaldehyde Cross-Linking for Protein Interaction Analysis of Non-Tagged Integrin β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula Klockenbusch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde cross-linking of protein complexes combined with immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis is a promising technique for analysing protein-protein interactions, including those of transient nature. Here we used integrin β1 as a model to describe the application of formaldehyde cross-linking in detail, particularly focusing on the optimal parameters for cross-linking, the detection of formaldehyde cross-linked complexes, the utility of antibodies, and the identification of binding partners. Integrin β1 was found in a high molecular weight complex after formaldehyde cross-linking. Eight different anti-integrin β1 antibodies were used for pull-down experiments and no loss in precipitation efficiency after cross-linking was observed. However, two of the antibodies could not precipitate the complex, probably due to hidden epitopes. Formaldehyde cross-linked complexes, precipitated from Jurkat cells or human platelets and analyzed by mass spectrometry, were found to be composed of integrin β1, α4 and α6 or β1, α6, α2, and α5, respectively.

  1. Sub- T g Cross-Linking of a Polyimide Membrane for Enhanced CO 2 Plasticization Resistance for Natural Gas Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Wulin

    2011-08-09

    Decarboxylation-induced thermal cross-linking occurs at elevated temperatures (∼15 °C above glass transition temperature) for 6FDA-DAM:DABA polyimides, which can stabilize membranes against swelling and plasticization in aggressive feed streams. Despite this advantage, such a high temperature might result in collapse of substructure and transition layers in the asymmetric structure of a hollow fibers based on such a material. In this work, the thermal cross-linking of the 6FDA-DAM:DABA at temperatures much below the glass transition temperature (∼387 °C by DSC) was demonstrated. This sub-Tg cross-linking capability enables extension to asymmetric structures useful for large scale membranes. The resulting polymer membranes were characterized by swelling in known solvents for the un-cross-linked materials, TGA analysis, and permeation tests of aggressive gas feed stream at higher pressure. The annealing temperature and time clearly influence the degree of cross-linking of the membranes, and results in a slight difference in selectivity for membranes under various cross-linking conditions. Results indicate that the sub-Tg thermal cross-linking of 6FDA-DAM:DABA dense film membrane can be carried out completely even at a temperature as low as 330 °C. Permeabilities were tested for the polyimide membranes using both pure gases (He, O2, N2, CH4, CO2) and mixed gases (CO2/CH4). The selectivity of the cross-linked membrane can be maintained even under very aggressive CO2 operating conditions that are not possible without cross-linking. Moreover, the plasticization resistance was demonstrated up to 700 psia for pure CO 2 gas or 1000 psia for 50% CO2 mixed gas feeds. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Higher number of pentosidine cross-links induced by ribose does not alter tissue stiffness of cancellous bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of mature collagen cross-links, pentosidine (Pen) cross-links in particular, in the micromechanical properties of cancellous bone is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine nonenzymatic glycation effects on tissue stiffness of demineralized and non-demineralized cancellous bone. A total of 60 bone samples were derived from mandibular condyles of six pigs, and assigned to either control or experimental groups. Experimental handling included incubation in phosphate buffered saline alone or with 0.2 M ribose at 37 °C for 15 days and, in some of the samples, subsequent complete demineralization of the sample surface using 8% EDTA. Before and after experimental handling, bone microarchitecture and tissue mineral density were examined by means of microcomputed tomography. After experimental handling, the collagen content and the number of Pen, hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), and lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-links were estimated using HPLC, and tissue stiffness was assessed by means of nanoindentation. Ribose treatment caused an up to 300-fold increase in the number of Pen cross-links compared to nonribose-incubated controls, but did not affect the number of HP and LP cross-links. This increase in the number of Pen cross-links had no influence on tissue stiffness of both demineralized and nondemineralized bone samples. These findings suggest that Pen cross-links do not play a significant role in bone tissue stiffness. - Highlights: • The assessment of effects of glycation in bone using HPLC, microCT, and nanoindentation • Ribose incubation: 300‐fold increase in the number of pentosidine cross-links • 300‐fold increase in the number of pentosidine cross-links: no changes in bone tissue stiffness

  3. Cross-linking to an interrupted polypurine sequence with a platinum-modified triplex-forming oligonucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Meghan A; Miller, Paul S

    2009-08-01

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) can bind specifically to polypurine sequences in double-stranded DNA. A single interruption of this polypurine tract can greatly destabilize triplex formation. The stability of triplexes can be significantly enhanced by covalently linking the TFO to its DNA target with reactive functional groups conjugated to the TFO. Covalently cross-linked TFOs are effective inhibitors of transcription of the target DNA sequence. We have designed a TFO with a platinum-modified base that can interact with and cross-link to a cytosine interruption in the polypurine tract of a target DNA duplex. The TFO contains an N(4)-(aminoalkyl)cytosine derivatized with cis-diamminediaquaplatinum(II) or trans-diamminediaquaplatinum(II). When bound to its target, the tethered platinum of the TFO can reach across the major groove and form an adduct with the guanine N7 of the interrupting C.G base pair. The optimal tether length is five methylene groups, and cross-linking is most efficient when the tether is modified with trans-diamminediaquaplatinum(II). Cross-linking requires that the TFO is bound to its designated DNA target. Addition of cyanide to the cross-linked TFO product reversed the cross-link, behavior that is consistent with the presence of a platinum-guanine adduct. The kinetics of the cross-linking reaction were studied and the half-life of the cross-linking reaction was approximately 3 h. Our results demonstrate that platinum-conjugated TFOs can be designed to cross-link with DNA targets that contain a single pyrimidine interruption. Modifications of this type may prove useful for expanding the DNA sequences that can be targeted by TFOs and increasing the stability of the resulting triplexes. PMID:19350290

  4. Higher number of pentosidine cross-links induced by ribose does not alter tissue stiffness of cancellous bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, Nop M.B.K., E-mail: n.willems@acta.nl [Dept. of Orthodontics, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dept. of Oral Cell Biology and Functional Anatomy, MOVE Research Institute, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam (Netherlands); Langenbach, Geerling E.J. [Dept. of Oral Cell Biology and Functional Anatomy, MOVE Research Institute, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoop, Reinout [Dept. of Metabolic Health Research, TNO, P.O. Box 2215, 2301 CE Leiden (Netherlands); Toonder, Jaap M.J. den [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mulder, Lars [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Zentner, Andrej [Dept. of Orthodontics, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam (Netherlands); Everts, Vincent [Dept. of Oral Cell Biology and Functional Anatomy, MOVE Research Institute, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01

    The role of mature collagen cross-links, pentosidine (Pen) cross-links in particular, in the micromechanical properties of cancellous bone is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine nonenzymatic glycation effects on tissue stiffness of demineralized and non-demineralized cancellous bone. A total of 60 bone samples were derived from mandibular condyles of six pigs, and assigned to either control or experimental groups. Experimental handling included incubation in phosphate buffered saline alone or with 0.2 M ribose at 37 °C for 15 days and, in some of the samples, subsequent complete demineralization of the sample surface using 8% EDTA. Before and after experimental handling, bone microarchitecture and tissue mineral density were examined by means of microcomputed tomography. After experimental handling, the collagen content and the number of Pen, hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), and lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-links were estimated using HPLC, and tissue stiffness was assessed by means of nanoindentation. Ribose treatment caused an up to 300-fold increase in the number of Pen cross-links compared to nonribose-incubated controls, but did not affect the number of HP and LP cross-links. This increase in the number of Pen cross-links had no influence on tissue stiffness of both demineralized and nondemineralized bone samples. These findings suggest that Pen cross-links do not play a significant role in bone tissue stiffness. - Highlights: • The assessment of effects of glycation in bone using HPLC, microCT, and nanoindentation • Ribose incubation: 300‐fold increase in the number of pentosidine cross-links • 300‐fold increase in the number of pentosidine cross-links: no changes in bone tissue stiffness.

  5. A novel advanced glycation endproducts breaker restores cardiovascular dysfunctions in experimental diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GangCHENG; Li-liWANG; Hong-yingLIU; HaoCUI; Ying-linCAO; SongLI

    2005-01-01

    AIM The formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) on connective tissue and matrix components leads to increases in collagen crosslinkingthat contributes to aortic and myocardial stiffness in normal aging and which occurs at an accelerated rate in diabetes. In this study, we examined the effects of a novel AGEs breaker, C36, on cardiovascular dysfunctions in experimental diabetic rats. METHODS and RESULTS Male Wiatar rats were made diabetic by i.p. injection of 70mg/kg streptozotocin. After 12 weeks of diabetes, the animals were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=8-11),

  6. Preparation and characterization of free films of high amylose/pectin mixtures cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezotti, Fabíola Garavello; Meneguin, Andréia Bagliotti; Evangelista, Raul Cesar; Cury, Beatriz Stringhetti Ferreira

    2012-11-01

    High amylose and pectin were mixed at 1:1 mass ratio and cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) in alkaline medium. Films were prepared from aqueous dispersions of these cross-linked polymer blend at three different concentrations (3, 4 and 5%), by solvent casting method. Characterization of the films included thickness, surface morphology, water uptake, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength measurements and enzymatic digestion. The cross-linking allowed to obtain films with improved mechanical properties and reduced WVP. The high resistance to enzymatic digestion exhibited by these films represents a promising approach to their application in the development of colon drug delivery systems. PMID:22251099

  7. Gassing and change of thickening properties of infrequently-cross-linked carboxyvinyl polyelectrolytes during γ-radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of 60Co j-radiation on polyacrylic acid (PAA) and infrequently-cross-linked carboxyvinyl polyelectrolytes (ICP) obtained on the basis of acrylic acid is studied. Irradiation was carried out at room temperature up to 1.4-350 kGr, the dose rate being 6.4 Gr/s. It is stated that carbon oxides are the main gaseous products of PAA and ICP radiolysis. Along with decarbonization during radiolysis radiation-chemical processes of cross-linking and destruction of initial joints in infrequently-cross-linked polyelectrolytes take place, that decreases their thickening properties. In air these processes are intensified

  8. Cross-linking in the silks of bees, ants and hornets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter M; Trueman, Holly E; Zhang, Qiang; Kojima, Katsura; Kameda, Tsunenori; Sutherland, Tara D

    2014-05-01

    Silk production is integral to the construction of nests or cocoons for many Aculeata, stinging Hymenopterans such as ants, bees and wasps. Here we report the sequences of new aculeate silk proteins and compare cross-linking among nine native silks from three bee species (Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Megachile rotundata), three ant species (Myrmecia forficata, Oecophylla smaragdina and Harpegnathos saltator) and three hornets (Vespa analis, Vespa simillima and Vespa mandarinia). The well studied silks of spiders and silkworms are comprised of large proteins that are cross-linked and stabilized predominantly by intra and intermolecular beta sheet structure. In contrast, the aculeate silks are comprised of relatively small proteins that contain central coiled coil domains and comparatively reduced amounts of beta sheet structure. The hornet silks, which have the most beta sheet structure and the greatest amount of amino acid sequence outside the coiled-coil domains, dissolve in concentrated LiBr solution and appear to be stabilized predominantly by beta sheet structure like the classic silks. In contrast, the ant and bee silks, which have less beta sheet and less sequence outside the coiled-coil domains, could not be dissolved in LiBr and appear to be predominantly stabilized by covalent cross-linking. The iso-peptide cross-linker, ε-(γ-glutamyl)-lysine that is produced by transglutaminase enzymes, was demonstrated to be present in all silks by mass spectrometry, but at greater levels in silks of ants and bees. The bee silks and ant cocoons, but not the Oecophylla nest silks, appeared to be further stabilized by tanning reactions. PMID:24607851

  9. Analysis of growth hormone and lactogenic binding sites cross-linked to iodinated human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GH (GHR) and lactogenic receptors were analyzed after use of the cross-linking reagent ethylene glycol bis-(succinimidyl succinate) to attach covalently iodinated human GH (hGH) to binding proteins 1) on intact IM-9 lymphocytes, 2) in a partially purified GHR preparation from rabbit liver, and 3) in crude microsomal fractions from rabbit liver, rabbit mammary gland, and rat liver. The latter two microsomal preparations contain primarily lactogenic receptors, whereas in IM-9 lymphocytes and the rabbit liver preparations, GHR predominate. Cross-linked [125I]hGH-receptor complexes were solubilized, reduced, and separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of proteins cross-linked to [125I]hGH in the microsomal fraction from rabbit liver showed a specifically labeled complex with an estimated molecular weight (mol wt) of 75K. A slightly lower mol wt (71K) was determined for the complex labeled in the purified GHR preparation. In contrast to the relatively low mol wt complexes in rabbit liver, a complex that migrated with an apparent mol wt of 130K was identified in IM-9 lymphocytes. Labeled complexes were identified at 66K from rat liver and 61K from rabbit mammary gland. If it is assumed that hGH contributes 21K to the mol wt of the radiolabeled complexes, then the approximate mol wts of hGH-binding sites are 50-54K from rabbit liver, 109K from IM-9 lymphocytes, 45K from rat liver, and 40K from rabbit mammary gland

  10. Novel chemically cross-linked solid state electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Xiong; Tan Weiwei; Xiang Wangchun [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Lin Yuan, E-mail: Linyuan@iccas.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang Jingbo, E-mail: jbzhang@iccas.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xiao Xurui; Li Xueping; Zhou Xiaowen; Fang Shibi [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-08-01

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (P(VP-co-MEOMA)) and {alpha},{omega}-diiodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) (I[(EO){sub 0.8}-co-(PO){sub 0.2}]{sub y}I) were synthesized and used as chemically cross-linked precursors of the electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells. Meanwhile, {alpha}-iodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) methyl ether (CH{sub 3}O[(EO){sub 0.8}-co-(PO){sub 0.2}]{sub x}I) was synthesized and added into the electrolyte as an internal plasticizer. Novel polymer electrolyte resulting from chemically cross-linked precursors was obtained by the quaterisation at 90 {sup o}C for 30 min. The characteristics for this kind of electrolyte were investigated by means of ionic conductivity, thermogravimetric and photocurrent-voltage. The ambient ionic conductivity was significantly enhanced to 2.3 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} after introducing plasticizer, modified-ionic liquid. The weight loss of the solid state electrolyte at 200 {sup o}C was 1.8%, and its decomposition temperature was 287 {sup o}C. Solid state dye-sensitized solar cell based on chemically cross-linked electrolyte presented an overall conversion efficiency of 2.35% under AM1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm{sup -2}). The as-fabricated device maintained 88% of its initial performance at room temperature even without sealing for 30 days, showing a good stability.

  11. Cisplatin-loaded core cross-linked micelles: comparative pharmacokinetics, antitumor activity, and toxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberoi HS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hardeep S Oberoi,1 Natalia V Nukolova,1,2 Frederic C Laquer,3 Larisa Y Poluektova,4 Jiangeng Huang,1 Yazen Alnouti,1 Masanao Yokohira,5 Lora L Arnold,5 Alexander V Kabanov,1,2 Samuel M Cohen,5 Tatiana K Bronich,1,21Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Center for Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 2Department of Chemistry, MV Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, Russia; 3Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 4Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 5Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Polymer micelles with cross-linked ionic cores are shown here to improve the therapeutic performance of the platinum-containing anticancer compound cisplatin. Biodistribution, antitumor efficacy, and toxicity of cisplatin-loaded core cross-linked micelles of poly(ethylene glycol-b-poly(methacrylic acid were evaluated in a mouse ovarian cancer xenograft model. Cisplatin-loaded micelles demonstrated prolonged blood circulation, increased tumor accumulation, and reduced renal exposure. Improved antitumor response relative to free drug was seen in a mouse model. Toxicity studies with cisplatin-loaded micelles indicate a significantly improved safety profile and lack of renal abnormalities typical of free cisplatin treatment. Overall, the study supports the fundamental possibility of improving the potential of platinum therapy using polymer micelle-based drug delivery.Keywords: cross-linked micelle, cisplatin, ovarian cancer, block ionomer complex, drug delivery

  12. Evaluation of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes and concerns on osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chenyu; Deng, Jia; Xiang, Lin; Wu, Yingying; Wei, Xiawei; Qu, Yili; Man, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Collagen membranes have ideal biological and mechanical properties for supporting infiltration and proliferation of osteoblasts and play a vital role in guided bone regeneration (GBR). However, pure collagen can lead to inflammation, resulting in progressive bone resorption. Therefore, a method for regulating the level of inflammatory cytokines at surgical sites is paramount for the healing process. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a component extracted from green tea with numerous biological activities including an anti-inflammatory effect. Herein, we present a novel cross-linked collagen membrane containing different concentrations of EGCG (0.0064%, 0.064%, and 0.64%) to regulate the level of inflammatory factors secreted by pre-osteoblast cells; improve cell proliferation; and increase the tensile strength, wettability, and thermal stability of collagen membranes. Scanning electron microscope images show that the surfaces of collagen membranes became smoother and the collagen fiber diameters became larger with EGCG treatment. Measurement of the water contact angle demonstrated that introducing EGCG improved membrane wettability. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses indicated that the backbone of collagen was intact, and the thermal stability was significant improved in differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical properties of 0.064% and 0.64% EGCG-treated collagen membranes were 1.5-fold greater than those of the control. The extent of cross-linking was significantly increased, as determined by a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid solution assay. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and live/dead assays revealed that collagen membrane cross-linked by 0.0064% EGCG induced greater cell proliferation than pure collagen membranes. Additionally, real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that EGCG significantly affected the production of inflammatory factors secreted by MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, our

  13. Hyaluronic acid and alginate covalent nanogels by template cross-linking in polyion complex micelle nanoreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Serena; Diociaiuti, Marco; Cametti, Cesare; Masci, Giancarlo

    2014-01-30

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) and alginate (AL) covalent nanogels cross-linked with l-lysine ethyl ester were prepared by template chemical cross-linking of the polysaccharide in polyion complex micelle (PIC) nanoreactors. By using this method we were able to prepare HA and AL nanogels without organic solvents. PICs were prepared by using poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly[(3-acrylamidopropyl)-trimethylammonium chloride] (PEO-b-PAMPTMA) or poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)-block-PAMPTMA] (PNIPAAM-b-PAMPTMA). Only PNIPAAM-b-PAMPTMA block copolymers allowed to prepare PIC with small and controlled size. Short polysaccharide chains (Xn=50 and 63 for AL and HA, respectively, where Xn is the number of monosaccharidic units present in the polysaccharide) where used to optimize PIC formation. The remarkable difference in charge density and rigidity of HA and AL did not have a significant influence on the formation of PICs. PICs with small size (diameter of about 50-80 nm) and low polydispersity were obtained up to 5mg/mL of polymer. After cross-linking with l-lysine ethyl ester, the nanoreactors were dissociated by adding NaCl. The nanogels were easily purified and isolated by dialysis. The dissociation of the nanoreactors and the formation of the nanogels were confirmed by (1)H NMR, DLS, TEM and ζ-potential measurements. The size of the smallest nanogels in solution in the swollen state was 50-70 nm in presence of salt and 80-100 nm in water. PMID:24299754

  14. Porous chitosan scaffold cross-linked by chemical and natural procedure applied to investigate cell regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Polymeric scaffolds, made from chitosan-based films fixed by chemical (citrate) or natural method (genipin), were developed. ► Nano-indentation with a constant harmonic frequency was applied on porous scaffolds to explore their surface mechanics. ► The relationship between surface mechanical property and cell-surface interactions of scaffold materials was demonstrated. ► Porous scaffolds cross-linked by genipin showed adequate cell affinity, non-toxicity, and suitable mechanical properties. - Abstract: Porous chitosan scaffold is used for tissue engineering and drug delivery, but is limited as a scaffold material due to its mechanical weakness, which restrains cell adhesion on the surface. In this study, a chemical reagent (citrate) and a natural reagent (genipin) are used as cross-linkers for the formation of chitosan-based films. Nanoindentation technique with a continuous stiffness measurement system is particularly applied on the porous scaffold surface to examine the characteristic modulus and nanohardness of a porous scaffold surface. The characteristic modulus of a genipin-cross-linked chitosan surface is ≈2.325 GPa, which is significantly higher than that of an uncross-linked one (≈1.292 GPa). The cell-scaffold surface interaction is assessed. The cell morphology and results of an MTS assay of 3T3-fibroblast cells of a genipin-cross-linked chitosan surface indicate that the enhancement of mechanical properties induced cell adhesion and proliferation on the modified porous scaffold surface. The pore size and mechanical properties of porous chitosan film can be tuned for specific applications such as tissue regeneration.

  15. Transient Ablation Regime in Circuit Breakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandre MARTIN; Jean-Yves TREPANIER; Marcelo REGGIO; GUO Xue-yan

    2007-01-01

    Nozzle wall ablation caused by high temperature electric arcs is studied in the context of high voltage SF6 circuit breakers.The simplified ablation model used in litterature has been updated to take into account the unsteady state of ablation.Ablation rate and velocity are now calculated by a kinetic model using two layers of transition,between the bulk plasma and the ablating wall.The first layer (Knudsen layer),right by the wall,is a kinetic layer of a few mean-free path of thickness.The second layer is collision dominated and makes the transition between the kinetic layer and the plasma bulk.With this new coupled algorithm,it is now possible to calculate the temperature distribution inside the wall,as well as more accurate ablation rates.

  16. NOVEL HYBRID GENE VECTOR STABILIZED BY CROSS-LINKING WITH GOLD NANOPARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-xiang Wang; Ying Zhu; Jia-cong Shen

    2008-01-01

    Enhanced stability of polyplexes in physiological condition was an important prerequisite for successful systemic gene delivery. Herein novel method was reported to develop stable gene vector by nanotechnology. Thiolated polyplexes were constructed and then cross-linked with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by gold-thiol interactions. TEM pictures showed that AuNPs were attached to the shell of spherical polyplexes. The hybrid gene vector was stable enough in physiological condition and maintained efficient transfection, which showed great potential in gene delivery research and application.

  17. Self-assembling Behavior of Amphiphilic Copolymer Containing Cross-linked Hydrophilic Block in Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The self-assembly behavior of the amphiphilic block copolymer poly( methyl methacrylate)-block-poly( lead dimethacrylate) (PMMA-b-PLDMA) with cross-linked hydrophilic block (PLDMA) in ethanol was investigated. The results show that the size and morphology of the resulting micelle or micellar aggregates are ascribed to the content of ethanol and the nature of the solvent mixture. PbS nanoparticles were formed in the micelle by in situ reaction with H2S gas. The morphology and size of the self-assembly objects were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  18. The industrialization development prospects of radiation cross-linked heat shrinkable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation cross-linked heat shrinkable materials (RCHS) are widely used in electrical engineering, electric power, communication, petroleum, construction, electrical household appliances, and military project. And it's an indispensable protective material in modern industry. Set 9th, 2010, State Council executive meeting approved a new industries decision and seven industries are involved which RCHS are urgent needed. The middle and high end RCHS products market is monopolized by foreign large enterprises and domestic enterprises just occupy small part of the market limited by the technology level. RCHS has great developing space and economic benefit. By analyzing the bottleneck of RCHS, the method of rapid developing RCHS is found. (authors)

  19. Temperature Dependence of Free Volume in Cross-linked Polyurethane Studied by Positrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春清; 戴益群; 王波; 王少阶; 王贵友; 胡春圃

    2001-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy has been used to study the free volume properties of the cross-linked polyurethane network as a function of temperature in the range from 15K to 300K. The glass transition of polyurethane was observed and the thermal expansion coefficient of the free volume was calculated. Analysis of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime distribution shows that the distribution of the free volume in polyurethane is slightly broadened with the increasing temperature in the glassy state, and then significantly broadened with the increasing temperature above the glass transition.

  20. Laser-induced corneal cross-linking upon photorefractive ablation with riboflavin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornilovskiy IM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Igor M Kornilovskiy,1 Elmar M Kasimov,2 Ayten I Sultanova,2 Alexander A Burtsev1 1Department of Eye Diseases, Federal State Budgetary Institution “National Pirogov Medical Surgical Centre”, Ministry of Health, Moscow, Russia; 2Department of Eye Diseases, Zarifa Aliyeva National Ophthalmology Center, Ministry of Health, Baku, Azerbaijan Aim: To estimate the biomechanical effect of the laser-induced cross-linking resulting from photorefractive ablation of the cornea with riboflavin.Methods: Excimer laser ablation studies were performed ex vivo (32 eyes of 16 rabbits by phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK and in vivo (24 eyes of 12 rabbits by transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK, with and without riboflavin saturation of the stroma. Then, we performed corneal optical coherence tomography on 36 eyes of 18 patients with varying degrees of myopia at different times after the TransPRK was performed with riboflavin saturation of the stroma.Results: Biomechanical testing of corneal samples saturated with riboflavin revealed cross-linking effect accompanied by the increase in tensile strength and maximum strength. PTK showed increase in tensile strength from 5.1±1.4 to 7.2±1.6 MPa (P=0.001, while TransPRK showed increase in tensile strength from 8.8±0.9 to 12.8±1.3 MPa (P=0.0004. Maximum strength increased from 8.7±2.5 to 12.0±2.8 N (P=0.005 in PTK and from 12.8±1.6 to 18.3±1.2 N (P=0.0004 in TransPRK. Clinical optical coherence tomography studies of the biomicroscopic transparent cornea at different times after TransPRK showed increased density in the surface layers of the stroma and membrane-like structure beneath the epithelium.Conclusion: Photorefractive ablation of the preliminary corneal stroma saturation with riboflavin causes the effect of laser-induced cross-linking, which is attended with an increase in corneal tensile strength, maximum strength, increased density in the surface layers of the stroma, and formation of

  1. Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems From Rigid Polymer Networks to Elastomers

    CERN Document Server

    Broer, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    With rapidly expanding interest in liquid crystalline polymers and elastomers among the liquid crystal community, researchers are currently exploring the wide range of possible application areas for these unique materials, including optical elements on displays, tunable lasers, strain gauges, micro-structures, and artificial muscles. Written by respected scientists from academia and industry around the world, who are not only active in the field but also well-known in more traditional areas of research, "Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems: From Rigid Polymer Networks to Elastomers&qu

  2. Disulphide cross linked pullulan based cationic polymer for improved gene delivery and efflux pump inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Priya S; R, Rekha M

    2016-10-01

    Multidrug resistance is a hurdle to successful cancer chemotherapy. Over expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a prime contributing factor for drug resistance. In this study, a disulphide cross-linked pullulan-based cationic polymer (PPSS) was synthesized to act simultaneously as gene delivery vehicle and efflux pump inhibitor. The PPSS nanoplexes were of size p53/PPSS/DOX nanoplexes was attributed to the synergistic effect of P-gp inhibition and p53 transfection efficiency. Therefore, this multifunctional polymeric system may have significant promise for therapeutic application against cancer drug resistance. PMID:27459414

  3. Electronic structure and self-assembly of cross-linked semiconductor nanocrystal arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the electronic level structure of assemblies of InAs quantum dots and CdSe nanorods cross-linked by 1,4-phenylenediamine molecules using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We found that the bandgap in these arrays is reduced with respect to the corresponding ligand-capped nanocrystal arrays. In addition, a pronounced sub-gap spectral structure commonly appeared which can be attributed to unpassivated nanocrystal surface states or associated with linker-molecule-related levels. The exchange of the ligands by the linker molecules also affected the structural array properties. Most significantly, clusters of close-packed standing CdSe nanorods were formed

  4. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by barium ion cross-linked alginate beads

    OpenAIRE

    Uzaşçı Sesil; Tezcan Filiz; Bedia Erim F.

    2014-01-01

    Barium ion cross-linked alginate beads have shown great affinity to toxic hexavalent chromium ions in aqueous solution, contrary to the traditional calcium alginate beads. The adsorption experiments were carried out by the batch contact method. The optimal pH for removal was found to be pH 4. The equilibrium was established in 4 h and the removal efficiency of chromium (VI) was found as 95%. The adsorption data fit well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum chromium (VI) adsorpt...

  5. Phosphoric acid doped polysulfone membranes with aminopyridine pendant groups and imidazole cross-links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hink, Steffen; Elsøe, Katrine; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen;

    2015-01-01

    % PA) ranges between 90 wt% and 452 wt% depending on the ratio of 4-aminopyridine and imidazole and the membranes show good proton conductivity of up to 65 mS cm-1 at 160 °C under non-humidified conditions. The applicability of these materials as a polymer electrolyte membrane was proven by single cell......Udel polysulfone based membranes with 4-aminopyridine pendant groups and cross-linking imidazole units are synthesized in a simple two step reaction. The ratio of 4-aminopyridine and imidazole is varied and the materials are extensively characterized. The average phosphoric acid uptake (in 85 wt...

  6. UV induced DNA-protein cross links in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review was not intended to cover all the past year's literature in this field; only selective material published in 1974 and 1975 has been surveyed. Covalent linkage of DNA and RNA to proteins induced by UV is considered, but DNA-membrade attachment, amino acids covalently bound to DNA as functions of growth conditions and protein non-covalently bound to DNA involved in cell regulation are excluded. Studies of DNA-protein cross-links upon UV irradiation in chemical model systems, bacteria and tissue culture systems, and an in vivo mammalian system are all surveyed. (U.K.)

  7. Evaluation of cross-linked chitosan microparticles containing acyclovir obtained by spray-drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stulzer, Hellen Karine [Laboratorio Quitech, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratorio de Controle de Qualidade, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratorio de Controle de Qualidade, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (Brazil)], E-mail: hellen.stulzer@gmail.com; Tagliari, Monika Piazzon [Laboratorio de Controle de Qualidade, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Parize, Alexandre Luis [Laboratorio Quitech, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Silva, Marcos Antonio Segatto [Laboratorio de Controle de Qualidade, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laranjeira, Mauro Cesar Marghetti [Laboratorio Quitech, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain microparticles containing acyclovir (ACV) and chitosan cross-linked with tripolyphosphate using the spray-drying technique. The resultant system was evaluated through loading efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in vitro release and stability studies. The results obtained indicated that the polymer/ACV ratio influenced the final properties of the microparticles, with higher ratios giving the best encapsulation efficiency, dissolution profiles and stability. The DSC and XRPD analyses indicated that the ACV was transformed into amorphous form during the spray-drying process.

  8. Enzymatic cross-linking of α-lactalbumin to produce nanoparticles with increased foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayal, Surender K; Delahaije, Roy J B M; de Vries, Renko J; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter A

    2015-10-28

    Hard colloidal nanoparticles (e.g. partly hydrophobised silica), are known to make foams with very high foam-stability. Nanoparticles can also be produced from proteins by enzymatic cross-linking. Such protein based particles are more suitable for food applications, but it is not known if they provide Pickering foam stabilisation to the same extent as hard colloidal particles. α-Lactalbumin (α-LA) was cross-linked with either microbial transglutaminase (mTG) or horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to produce α-LA/mTG and α-LA/HRP nanoparticles. With both enzymes a range of nanoparticles were produced with hydrodynamic radii ranging from 20-100 nm. The adsorption of nanoparticles to the air-water interface was probed by increase in surface pressure (Π) with time. In the beginning of the Π versus time curves, there was a lag time of 10-200 s, for nanoparticles with Rh of 30-100 nm, respectively. A faster increase of Π with time was observed by increasing the ionic strength (I = 0-125 mM). The foam-ability of the nanoparticles was also found to increase with increasing ionic strength. At a fixed I, the foam-ability of the nanoparticles decreased with increasing size while their foam-stability increased. Foams produced by low-shear whipping were found to be 2 to 6 times more stable for nanoparticles than for monomeric α-LA (Rh≈ 2 nm). At an ionic strength of 125 mM ionic strength and protein concentration ≥ 10 g L(-1), the foam-stability of α-LA/mTG nanoparticles (Rh = 100 nm, ρapp = 21.6 kg m(-3)) was 2-4 times higher than α-LA/HRP nanoparticles (Rh = 90 nm, ρapp = 10.6 kg m(-3)). This indicated that foam-stablity of nanoparticles is determined not only by size but also by differences in mesoscale structure. So, indeed enzymatic cross-linking of proteins to make nanoparticles is moving a step towards particle like behavior e.g. slower adsorption and higher foam stability. However, the cross-link density should be further increased to obtain hard particle

  9. Moisture influence on the electrical properties of cross-linked polyethylene/silica nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Le

    During the last twenty years, nanodielectrics have emerged as an important dielectric material system to provide advanced dielectric properties for power equipment applications, among which, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE)/silica nanocomposites are regarded as a promising candidate for power cables in the future. Despite the various improvements achieved in XLPE/silica nanocomposites compared to XLPE base resin, the influence of moisture has not been fully explored. For cable insulation materials, water treeing is of particular interest. Therefore, this thesis focuses on the influence of moisture on the electrical properties of XLPE/silica nanocomposites to reveal the facts and mechanisms related to the moisture diffusion and aging phenomena in XLPE/silica nanocomposites in a humid environment. First, moisture diffusion was monitored in different humid environments. XLPE/silica nanocomposites were found to have an increased moisture uptake compared to XLPE base polymer due to the inclusion of silica particles. Water shells, which have a higher water weight percent than that in XLPE matrix, are believed to form around silica particles/aggregates. Second, electrical characterization techniques such as dielectric spectroscopy, pulseelectro- acoustic analysis, 60 Hz AC breakdown as well as water treeing were utilized to investigate the influence of moisture on the electrical properties of XLPE/silica nanocomposites. Water shells and the change of the inter-particle/cluster distances due to loading levels and dispersion state are believed to be the two major factors that govern the dielectric behavior in wet XLPE/silica nanocomposites. At a high loading level of 12.5 wt%, percolation of water shells drastically changed the dielectric performance of the composites including increased permittivity, conduction and reduced dielectric strength. However, 5 wt% nanocomposites, even with elevated moisture content, perform comparably to XLPE. At the same time, water treeing was

  10. Anti-rebound Cushion Device for Hydraulic Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hongqiang

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of rebound impact and its negative influence on the present hydraulic breaker. To get over its shortcomings, a new anti-rebound cushion device has been designed to prevent the phenomenon of rebound impact. A hydraulic cushion is used to absorb the rebound impact energy, which can be released for the next stroke of the hydraulic breaker. Thus, there is little loss of energy, and the efficiency of the impact system can be increased by 5 %. The absorption effect of the hydraulic anti-rebound cushion increases the service life of breaker components by up to twice as long as in the current breaker. A dynamic model and a motion equation of the anti-rebound cushion device are presented, and the optimum frequency and damping ratio are obtained, providing optimum design parameters for the anti-rebound cushion device.

  11. Arc modelling in SF{sub 6} circuit breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verite, J.C. [Electricite de France, Clamart (France). Derection des Etudes et Recherches; Boucher, T.; Comte, A. [Electricite de France, Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Delalondre, C. [Electricite de France, Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Robin-Jouan, P.; Serres, E.; Texier, V. [GEC Alsthom, Villeurbanne (France). Direction Technique Haute et Moyenne Tension; Barrault, M.; Chevrier, P.; Fievet, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (France). Merlin Gerin

    1995-06-01

    The paper presents the work done by an operator, EDF and two manufacturers to improve the physical models and numerical methods used to simulate the behavior of the plasma and cold gas around it in a breaking chamber of the HV SF6 circuit breaker, during the high-current phase. This work concerns flow phenomena, in particular incorporating compressibility and the study of turbulence, the coupling between these flow phenomena and electromagnetic phenomena, and finally, radiation - which plays an essential role in energy transfer during the high-current phase. For this latter aspect, emission but also absorption were proven to play a major role, and the two were introduced into the models. The paper presents the models developed and the results obtained with them for simulation of two circuit breaker mock-ups (a double-pressure circuit breaker mock-up and a self-expanding and rotating arc circuit breaker mock-up). (author) 10 refs.

  12. Structure and kinetics of chemically cross-linked protein gels from small-angle X-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kaieda, Shuji; Halle, Bertil

    2014-01-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GA) reacts with amino groups in proteins, forming intermolecular cross-links that, at sufficiently high protein concentration, can transform a protein solution into a gel. Although GA has been used as a cross-linking reagent for decades, neither the cross-linking chemistry nor the microstructure of the resulting protein gel have been clearly established. Here we use small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to characterise the microstructure and structural kinetics of gels formed by cross-linking of pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, myoglobin or intestinal fatty acid-binding protein. By comparing the scattering from gels and dilute solutions, we extract the structure factor and the pair correlation function of the gel. The protein gels are spatially heterogeneous, with dense clusters linked by sparse networks. Within the clusters, adjacent protein molecules are almost in contact, but the protein concentration in the cluster is much lower than in a crystal. At the $\\sim$ 1 nm SAXS resolution, the native ...

  13. The effects of riboflavin/ultraviolet: A corneal cross-linking on the signs and symptoms of bullous keratopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gharaee

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : The outcomes of this study indicate corneal cross-linking is not an effective treatment for bullous keratopathy with respect to VA and CCT, although it can improve irritation and discomfort.

  14. Cross-linked supramolecular polymer metallogels constructed via a self-sorting strategy and their multiple stimulus-response behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Qing; Wang, Wei; Yin, Guang-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Xuan; Zhang, Chang-Wei; Shi, Jia-Meng; Yu, Yihua; Yang, Hai-Bo

    2015-12-01

    Novel cross-linked supramolecular polymer metallogels were successfully constructed from four components via a self-sorting strategy, and feature interesting multiple stimulus-response behaviors under various external stimuli, including halide, base, and competitive guests.

  15. Evaluation of generator circuit breaker applications / J.F. Fourie.

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, Johannes Frederick

    2010-01-01

    The use of generator circuit breakers in power stations was investigated and evaluated. A feasibility study to determine if the additional capital cost required, when using a generator circuit breaker in a power station could be justified by the advantages it provides. The background to the study is provided through a technology and literature survey. Included in the technology review and the literature study is information on interruption mediums, the historic developments ...

  16. Role for DNA Polymerase κ in the Processing of N2-N2-Guanine Interstrand Cross-links*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Minko, Irina G.; Harbut, Michael B.; Kozekov, Ivan D.; Kozekova, Albena; Jakobs, Petra M.; Olson, Susan B; Moses, Robb E.; Harris, Thomas M.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Lloyd, R. Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Although there exists compelling genetic evidence for a homologous recombination-independent pathway for repair of interstrand cross-links (ICLs) involving translesion synthesis (TLS), biochemical support for this model is lacking. To identify DNA polymerases that may function in TLS past ICLs, oligodeoxynucleotides were synthesized containing site-specific ICLs in which the linkage was between N2-guanines, similar to cross-links formed by mitomycin C and enals. Here, ...

  17. The effect of pH on hydrolysis, cross-linking and barrier properties of starch barriers containing citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Erik; Menzel, Carolin; Johansson, Caisa; Andersson, Roger; Koch, Kristine; Järnström, Lars

    2013-11-01

    Citric acid cross-linking of starch for e.g. food packaging applications has been intensely studied during the last decade as a method of producing water-insensitive renewable barrier coatings. We managed to improve a starch formulation containing citric acid as cross-linking agent for industrial paper coating applications by adjusting the pH of the starch solution. The described starch formulations exhibited both cross-linking of starch by citric acid as well as satisfactory barrier properties, e.g. fairly low OTR values at 50% RH that are comparable with EVOH. Furthermore, it has been shown that barrier properties of coated papers with different solution pH were correlated to molecular changes in starch showing both hydrolysis and cross-linking of starch molecules in the presence of citric acid. Hydrolysis was shown to be almost completely hindered at solution pH≥4 at curing temperatures≤105 °C and at pH≥5 at curing temperatures≤150 °C, whereas cross-linking still occurred to some extent at pH≤6.5 and drying temperatures as low as 70 °C. Coated papers showed a minimum in water vapor transmission rate at pH 4 of the starch coating solution, corresponding to the point where hydrolysis was effectively hindered but where a significant degree of cross-linking still occurred.

  18. Cross-linking of soybean protein isolate-chitosan coacervate with transglutaminase utilizing capsanthin as the model core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G Q; Xiao, J X; Qiu, H W; Yang, J

    2014-01-01

    Transglutaminase (TG) is an alternative coacervate cross-linking agent to aldehydes due to its safety. In this work, the cross-linking conditions of soybean protein isolate (SPI)-chitosan coacervates with TG-utilizing capsanthin as the model core were optimized and its cross-linking effectiveness was compared with that of glutaraldehyde. Results indicated that the optimum capsanthin microcapsule cross-linking conditions were as follows: a suspension pH of 6.0, an incubation duration of 3 h, a TG concentration of 18.75 U/g SPI and a reaction temperature of 45 °C. Under these conditions, TG provided a cross-linking effectiveness comparable with that of glutaraldehyde in regards to microcapsule stability against swelling in 80 °C water and heating at 150 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis revealed that TG cross-linking increased the integrity of the microcapsule walls. It was concluded that the SPI-chitosan coacervation pair has potential applications in the food industry in terms of cross-linker safety and effectiveness.

  19. Neomycin and pentagalloyl glucose enhanced cross-linking for elastin and glycosaminoglycans preservation in bioprosthetic heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripi, Daniel R; Vyavahare, Naren R

    2014-01-01

    Glutaraldehyde cross-linked bioprosthetic heart valves fail within 12-15 years of implantation due to limited durability. Glutaraldehyde does not adequately stabilize extracellular matrix components such as glycosaminoglycans and elastin, and loss of these components could be a major cause of degeneration of valve after implantation. We have shown earlier that neomycin-based cross-linking stabilizes glycosaminoglycans in the tissue but fails to stabilize elastin component. Here, we report a new treatment where neomycin and pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) were incorporated into glutaraldehyde cross-linking neomycin-PGG-Glutaraldehyde (NPG) to stabilize both glycosaminoglycans and elastin in porcine aortic valves. In vitro studies demonstrated a marked increase in extracellular matrix stability against enzymatic degradation after cross-linking and 10 month storage in NPG group when compared to glutaraldehyde controls. Tensile properties showed increased lower elastic modulus in both radial and circumferential directions in NPG group as compared to glutaraldehyde, probably due to increased elastin stabilization with no changes in upper elastic modulus and extensibility. The enhanced extracellular matrix stability was further maintained in NPG-treated tissues after rat subdermal implantation for three weeks. NPG group also showed reduced calcification when compared to glutaraldehyde controls. We conclude that NPG cross-linking would be an excellent alternative to glutaraldehyde cross-linking of bioprosthetic heart valves to improve its durability.

  20. Adsorption properties and mechanism of U(Ⅵ) onto β-cyclodextrin cross-linked magnetic chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A β-cyclodextrin cross-linked magnetic chitosan, prepared by the method of graft copolymer, was used to adsorb U(Ⅵ) from aqueous solution. The effects of initial solution pH, adsorption time, temperature and other factors on U(Ⅵ) removal rate by p-cyclodextrin cross-linked magnetic chitosan were studied. The adsorption experimental results show that the adsorption equilibrium time of U(Ⅵ) onto β-cyclodextrin cross linked magnetic chitosan is 60 min, and low temperature and high adsorbent dosage are beneficial for the adsorption. The optimum pH for the adsorption ranges from 3.0 to 6.0. The desorption experimental results show that the U(Ⅵ) adsorption removal rate is reduced by only 7.41% after desorption of U(Ⅵ) in the β-cyclodextrin cross-linked magnetic chitosan for 5 times. SEM results show that the surface of β-cyclodextrin cross-linked magnetic chitosan is rough. Furthermore, the IR analysis shows that the -OH and -NH2 are the main binding sites on surface of β-cyclodextrin cross-linked magnetic chitosan, and its original structure has no significant change after adsorption of U(Ⅵ). (authors)

  1. Viability, Apoptosis, Proliferation, Activation, and Cytokine Secretion of Human Keratoconus Keratocytes after Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC keratocytes, in vitro. Methods. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham’s F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm2 during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P0.06. Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P=0.037; however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P>0.12. Conclusions. Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours, normalizing after 24 hours.

  2. Swelling Studies of Chitosan-Gelatin Films Cross-Linked by Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ling; Yu Zu-yu; Yang Chao; Zhu Hua-yue; Du Yu-min

    2004-01-01

    Swelling properties of chitosan-gelatin films cross-linked by sulfate were investigated. Sulfate cross-linked chitosan-gelatin films (SCG) were prepared simply by dipping chitosan-gelatin films into sodium sulfate solution. The swelling behavior of SCG was investigated as a function of pH and ionic strength. Under acidic conditions pH less than 4, SCG swelled less than 120%, while under the conditions pH larger than 7.4, SCG swelled very significantly, the swelling ratio was over 350%. Sodium chloride weakened the electrostatic interaction between sulfate and amine ions of chitosan and gelatin, therefore facilitated the film swelling. The swelling ratio increased with increasing sodium chloride concentration, the SCG dissociated in the sodium chloride concentration of 0.20 mol·L-1. The parameters of film preparation such as sulfate concentration, dipping time, sulfate solution pH, influenced the film swelling behavior. The lower concentration and the higher pH of sulfate solution resulted in a larger swelling ratio.

  3. Biosorption of uranium by cross-linked and alginate immobilized residual biomass from distillery spent wash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual biomass from a whiskey distillery was examined for its ability to function as a biosorbent for uranium. Biomass recovered and lyophilised exhibited a maximum biosorption capacity of 165-170 mg uranium/g dry weight biomass at 15 C. With a view towards the development of continuous or semi-continuous flow biosorption processes it was decided to immobilize the material by (1) cross-linking with formaldehyde and (2) introducing that material into alginate matrices. Cross-linking the recovered biomass resulted in the formation of a biosorbent preparation with a maximum biosorption capacity of 185-190 mg/g dry weight biomass at 15 C. Following immobilization of biomass in alginate matrices it was found that the total amount of uranium bound to the matrix did not change with increasing amounts of biomass immobilized. It was found however, that the proportion of uranium bound to the biomass within the alginate-biomass matrix increased with increasing biomass concentration. Further analysis of these preparations demonstrated that the alginate-biomass matrix had a maximum biosorption capacity of 220 mg uranium/g dry weight of the matrix, even at low concentrations of biomass. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Oxidized pectin cross-linked carboxymethyl chitosan: a new class of hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lihong; Sun, Yi; Xie, Weiguo; Zheng, Hua; Liu, Shuhua

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation of pectin was performed with sodium periodate to prepare pectin dialdehyde (PD). In this study we used the cross-linking reaction of the active aldehyde of PD and the amino of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) to prepare the hydrogels. By controlling the proportion of pectin dialdehyde and CMC we made different kinds of hydrogels. We systematically studied the characters of the hydrogels using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of the pectin dialdehyde, CMC and the hydrogels, and also X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy analysis of the instrument of the hydrogels. Equilibrium swelling showed that the gels retained about 88-93% water. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and the evaporation of water from gels showed that such hydrogels were optimal for maintaining a moist environment conducive for wound healing. Examination of the hemolytic potential showed that the hydrogels were nonhemolytic in nature. The hydrogels were non-toxic and blood-compatible. This hydrogel prepared from oxidized pectin and CMC without employing any extraneous cross-linking agents is expected to have potential as wound-dressing material.

  5. Removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution by functional ionic liquid cross-linked polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hejun [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Jinan 250100 (China); Chemical Synthesis and Pollution Control Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637000 (China); Kan, Taotao [CNOOC Energy Technology and Services-oilfield Technology Services Co., Tanggu, Tianjin 300452 (China); Zhao, Siyuan; Qian, Yixia; Cheng, Xiyuan; Wu, Wenli [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Xiaodong [Shandong Provincial Analysis and Test Center, Jinan 250100 (China); Zheng, Liqiang, E-mail: lqzheng@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic of adsorption of dyes onto PDVB-IL was investigated. • PDVB-IL has a high adsorption capacity to treat dyes solution. • Higher adsorption capacity is due to the functional groups of PDVB-IL. • Molecular structure of dyes influences the adsorption capacity. -- Abstract: A novel functional ionic liquid based cross-linked polymer (PDVB-IL) was synthesized from 1-aminoethyl-3-vinylimidazolium chloride and divinylbenzene for use as an adsorbent. The physicochemical properties of PDVB-IL were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorptive capacity was investigated using anionic azo dyes of orange II, sunset yellow FCF, and amaranth as adsorbates. The maximum adsorption capacity could reach 925.09, 734.62, and 547.17 mg/g for orange II, sunset yellow FCF and amaranth at 25 °C, respectively, which are much better than most of the other adsorbents reported earlier. The effect of pH value was investigated in the range of 1–8. The result shows that a low pH value is found to favor the adsorption of those anionic azo dyes. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a pseudo second-order model and Langmuir model, respectively. The adsorption process is found to be dominated by physisorption. The introduction of functional ionic liquid moieties into cross-linked poly(divinylbenzene) polymer constitutes a new and efficient kind of adsorbent.

  6. In vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of native, hydroxypropylated and cross-linked wheat starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, A R; Razavi, Seyed M A; Norouzy, Abdolreza

    2015-09-01

    The digestibility and estimated glycemic indices (GI) of native (NWS), cross-linked (CLWS) and hydroxypropylated wheat starches (HPWS) were obtained by in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis. The resistant starch (RS) content and GI were found to be 6.59 and 93.13 for NWS, 7.57 and 92.20 for CLWS, and 13.15 and 89.04 for HPWS, respectively. The amounts of glucose release for CLWS were approximately 6-11%, and for HPWS were 16-19%, lower than that for NWS after digestion under simulated intestinal conditions (SIC). The linear and two-term exponential models were fitted well to the experimental glucose release data under simulated gastric conditions (SGC) and SIC, respectively (R(2) = 0.858-0.991). After digestion under SIC, the consistency coefficient (k) values drastically decreased (73.02-90.27%), while the flow behavior index (n) increased (155.56-363.64%). Therefore, the amounts of glucose release can be controlled by manipulating the structure of native starches using chemical modifications such as cross-linking and hydroxypropylation. PMID:26220451

  7. Evaluation of Epithelial Integrity with Various Transepithelial Corneal Cross-Linking Protocols for Treatment of Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphi Taneri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL has been demonstrated to stiffen cornea and halt progression of ectasia. The original protocol requires debridement of central corneal epithelium to facilitate diffusion of a riboflavin solution to stroma. Recently, transepithelial CXL has been proposed to reduce risk of complications associated with epithelial removal. Aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of various transepithelial riboflavin delivery protocols on corneal epithelium in regard to pain and epithelial integrity in the early postoperative period. Methods. One hundred and sixty six eyes of 104 subjects affected by progressive keratoconus underwent transepithelial CXL using 6 different riboflavin application protocols. Postoperatively, epithelial integrity was evaluated at slit lamp and patients were queried regarding their ocular pain level. Results. One eye had a corneal infection associated with an epithelial defect. No other adverse event including endothelial decompensation or endothelial damage was observed, except for epithelial damages. Incidence of epithelial defects varied from 0 to 63%. Incidence of reported pain varied from 0 to 83%. Conclusion. Different transepithelial cross-linking protocols have varying impacts on epithelial integrity. At present, it seems impossible to have sufficient riboflavin penetration without any epithelial disruption. A compromise between efficacy and epithelial integrity has to be found.

  8. Abacavir forms novel cross-linking abacavir protein adducts in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaoli; Lawrenson, Alexandre S; Berry, Neil G; Maggs, James L; French, Neil S; Back, David J; Khoo, Saye H; Naisbitt, Dean J; Park, B Kevin

    2014-04-21

    Abacavir (ABC), a nucleoside-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is associated with severe hypersensitivity reactions that are thought to involve the activation of CD8+ T cells in a HLA-B*57:01-restricted manner. Recent studies have claimed that noncovalent interactions of ABC with HLA-B*57:01 are responsible for the immunological reactions associated with ABC. However, the formation of hemoglobin-ABC aldehyde (ABCA) adducts in patients exposed to ABC suggests that protein conjugation might represent a pathway for antigen formation. To further characterize protein conjugation reactions, we used mass spectrometric methods to define ABCA modifications in patients receiving ABC therapy. ABCA formed a novel intramolecular cross-linking adduct on human serum albumin (HSA) in patients and in vitro via Michael addition, followed by nucleophilic adduction of the aldehyde with a neighboring protein nucleophile. Adducts were detected on Lys159, Lys190, His146, and Cys34 residues in the subdomain IB of HSA. Only a cysteine adduct and a putative cross-linking adduct were detected on glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP). These findings reveal that ABC forms novel types of antigens in all patients taking the drug. It is therefore vital that the immunological consequences of such pathways of haptenation are explored in the in vitro models that have been used by various groups to define new mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity exemplified by ABC. PMID:24571427

  9. Effects of Composition of Iron-Cross-Linked Alginate Hydrogels for Cultivation of Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Machida-Sano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the suitability of ferric-ion-cross-linked alginates (Fe-alginate with various proportions of L-guluronic acid (G and D-mannuronic acid (M residues as a culture substrate for human dermal fibroblasts. High-G and high-M Fe-alginate gels showed comparable efficacy in promoting initial cell adhesion and similar protein adsorption capacities, but superior cell proliferation was observed on high-G than on high-M Fe-alginate as culture time progressed. During immersion in culture medium, high-G Fe-alginate showed little change in gel properties in terms of swelling and polymer content, but the properties of high-M Fe-alginate gel were altered due to loss of ion cross-linking. However, the degree of cell proliferation on high-M Fe-alginate gel was improved after it had been stabilized by immersion in culture medium until no further changes occurred. These results suggest that the mode of cross-linkage between ferric ions and alginate differs depending on alginate composition and that the major factor giving rise to differences in cell growth on the two types of Fe-alginate films is gel stability during culture, rather than swelling of the original gel, polymer content, or protein adsorption ability. Our findings may be useful for extending the application of Fe-alginate to diverse biomedical fields.

  10. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel cross-linked chitosan hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nadia Ahmed; Fahmy, Mona Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Four novel hydrogels based on chitosan were synthesized via a cross-linking reaction of chitosan with different concentrations of oxalyl bis 4-(2,5-dioxo-2H-pyrrol- 1(5H)-yl)benzamide. Their structures were confirmed by fourier transform infrared X-ray (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. The antimicrobial activities of the hydrogels against two crop-threatening pathogenic fungi namely: Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus, RCMBA 06002), and Aspergillus niger (A. niger, RCMBA 06106), and five bacterial species namely: Bacillis subtilis (B. subtilis, RCMBA 6005), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, RCMBA 2004), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumonia, RCMB 000101) as Gram positive bacteria, and Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium, RCMB 000104), and Escherichia coli (E. coli, RCMBA 5003) as Gram negative bacteria have been investigated. The prepared hydrogels showed much higher antimicrobial activities than that of the parent chitosan. The hydrogels were more potent in case of Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. Increasing the degree of cross-linking in the hydrogels resulted in a weaker antimicrobial activity.

  11. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Cross-Linked Chitosan Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Fahmy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Four novel hydrogels based on chitosan were synthesized via a cross-linking reaction of chitosan with different concentrations of oxalyl bis 4-(2,5-dioxo-2H-pyrrol-1(5H-ylbenzamide. Their structures were confirmed by fourier transform infrared X-ray (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction. The antimicrobial activities of the hydrogels against two crop-threatening pathogenic fungi namely: Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus, RCMBA 06002, and Aspergillus niger (A. niger, RCMBA 06106, and five bacterial species namely: Bacillis subtilis (B. subtilis, RCMBA 6005, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, RCMBA 2004, Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumonia, RCMB 000101 as Gram positive bacteria, and Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium, RCMB 000104, and Escherichia coli (E. coli, RCMBA 5003 as Gram negative bacteria have been investigated. The prepared hydrogels showed much higher antimicrobial activities than that of the parent chitosan. The hydrogels were more potent in case of Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. Increasing the degree of cross-linking in the hydrogels resulted in a weaker antimicrobial activity.

  12. Removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution by functional ionic liquid cross-linked polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic of adsorption of dyes onto PDVB-IL was investigated. • PDVB-IL has a high adsorption capacity to treat dyes solution. • Higher adsorption capacity is due to the functional groups of PDVB-IL. • Molecular structure of dyes influences the adsorption capacity. -- Abstract: A novel functional ionic liquid based cross-linked polymer (PDVB-IL) was synthesized from 1-aminoethyl-3-vinylimidazolium chloride and divinylbenzene for use as an adsorbent. The physicochemical properties of PDVB-IL were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorptive capacity was investigated using anionic azo dyes of orange II, sunset yellow FCF, and amaranth as adsorbates. The maximum adsorption capacity could reach 925.09, 734.62, and 547.17 mg/g for orange II, sunset yellow FCF and amaranth at 25 °C, respectively, which are much better than most of the other adsorbents reported earlier. The effect of pH value was investigated in the range of 1–8. The result shows that a low pH value is found to favor the adsorption of those anionic azo dyes. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a pseudo second-order model and Langmuir model, respectively. The adsorption process is found to be dominated by physisorption. The introduction of functional ionic liquid moieties into cross-linked poly(divinylbenzene) polymer constitutes a new and efficient kind of adsorbent

  13. Cross-linking of Ordered Pluronic/Ionic Liquid Blends for Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Daniel; Versek, Craig; Tuominen, Mark; Watkins, James; Russell, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Ion gels were fabricated by cross-linking PPO-PEO-PPO triblock copolymers swollen in a room temperature ionic liquid (IL). The copolymers are modified by esterification to replace the terminal hydroxyl endgroups with methacrylate endgroups. This allows the copolymer/IL blends to be cross-linked by a UV cure, forming a gel. The strong interaction of the IL with the PEO block suppresses PEO crystallization which is necessary for good ion conduction. In addition, the interaction between the IL and PEO is strongly selective for PEO, strengthening microphase separation. Despite this, the low molecular weight copolymers remain disordered in the melt even when blended with the IL. However, high molecular weight copolymers are capable of microphase separating into highly ordered block copolymer morphologies. This difference allows the effect of microphase separation on ion transport to be studied. The effect of block copolymer composition is also studied, by varying the PEO fraction of the copolymer. The resultant gels show high ionic conductivity and solid-like behavior, indicating that these materials may be effective as solid polymer electrolytes.

  14. Thermally Reversible Physically Cross-Linked Hybrid Network Hydrogels Formed by Thermosensitive Hairy Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Roger A E; Henn, Daniel M; Zhao, Bin

    2016-08-18

    This Article reports on thermally induced reversible formation of physically cross-linked, three-dimensional network hydrogels from aqueous dispersions of thermosensitive diblock copolymer brush-grafted silica nanoparticles (hairy NPs). The hairy NPs consisted of a silica core, a water-soluble polyelectrolyte inner block of poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium iodide), and a thermosensitive poly(methoxydi(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (PDEGMMA) outer block synthesized by sequential surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerizations and postpolymerization quaternization of tertiary amine moieties. Moderately concentrated dispersions of these hairy nanoparticles in water underwent thermally induced reversible transitions between flowing liquids to self-supporting gels upon heating. The gelation was driven by the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) transition of the PDEGMMA outer block, which upon heating self-associated into hydrophobic domains acting as physical cross-linking points for the gel network. Rheological studies showed that the sol-gel transition temperature decreased with increasing hairy NP concentration, and the gelation was achieved at concentrations as low as 3 wt %. PMID:27455167

  15. Entrapment of cross-linked cellulase colloids in alginate beads for hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Le Truc; Lau, Yun Song; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Entrapment of enzymes in calcium alginate beads is a popular enzyme immobilization method. However, leaching of immobilized enzymes from the alginate beads is a common problem because enzyme molecules are much smaller than the pore size of alginate beads (∼200nm). To address this issue, we employ a millifluidic reactor to prepare cross-linked cellulase aggregate (XCA) colloids with a uniform size (∼300nm). Subsequently, these colloids are immobilized in calcium alginate beads as biocatalysts to hydrolyze cellulose substrates. By using fluorescent microscopy, we conclude that the immobilized XCA colloids distribute uniformly inside the beads and do not leach out from the beads after long-term incubation. Meanwhile, the pore size of the alginate beads is big enough for the cellulose substrates and fibers to diffuse into the beads for hydrolysis. For example, palm oil fiber and microcrystalline cellulose can be hydrolyzed within 48h and release reducing sugar concentrations up to 2.48±0.08g/l and 4.99±0.09g/l, respectively. Moreover, after 10 cycles of hydrolysis, 96.4% of the XCA colloids remain inside the alginate beads and retain 67% of the original activity. In contrast, free cellulase immobilized in the alginate beads loses its activity completely after 10 cycles. The strategy can also be used to prepare other types of cross-linked enzyme aggregates with high uniformity. PMID:27318817

  16. Covalent Immobilization of Catalase onto Regenerated Silk Fibroins via Tyrosinase-Catalyzed Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Qi, Chenglong; Yu, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Jiugang; Cui, Li; Tang, Gengtie; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Xuerong

    2015-09-01

    Regenerated silk fibroins could be used as medical scaffolds and carrier materials for enzyme immobilization. In the present work, tyrosinase enzyme was used for enzymatic oxidation of silk fibroins, followed by immobilization of catalase onto the fibroin surfaces through physical adsorption and covalent cross-linking as well. Spectrophotometry, SDS-PAGE, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to examine the efficiency of enzymatic oxidation and catalase immobilization, respectively. The results indicate that tyrosine residues in silk fibroins could be oxidized and converted to the active o-quinones. Incubating silk fibroins with catalase and tyrosinase led to a noticeable change of molecular weight distribution, indicating the occurrence of the cross-links between silk fibroins and catalase molecules. Two different pathways were proposed for the catalase immobilizations, and the method based on grafting of catalase onto the freeze-dried fibroin membrane is more acceptable. The residual enzyme activity for the immobilized catalase exhibited higher than that of the control after repeated washing cycles. Meanwhile, the thermal stability and alkali resistance were also slightly improved as compared to free catalase. The mechanisms of enzymatic immobilization are also concerned.

  17. The pro-angiogenic characteristics of a cross-linked gelatin matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreesmann, Lars; Ahlers, Michael; Schlosshauer, Burkhard

    2007-12-01

    To overcome limitations on regeneration in the nervous system and other organs caused by insufficient blood supply, we have developed a gelatin sponge material which stimulates blood vessel formation, i.e. angiogenesis. Controlled chemical cross-linking was employed to slow down enzymatic degradation of the gelatin matrix. Four different in vitro assays using L929 fibroblasts and purified endothelial cells indicated that the sponge material did not release toxic components, but provided a permissive substratum for cell attachment, cell migration and pronounced cell proliferation, all of which are crucial for the formation of vasculature. Two in vivo models were employed to directly monitor the pro-angiogenic impact of the sponge material. Implantation of gelatin sponges onto the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs induced robust attraction of endothelial cells and formation of blood vessels. Angiogenesis inside gelatin implants occurred more than 200 times faster than in a commercial collagen sponge. Similarly, after subcutaneous implantation of tube-like sponges into mice, an increasing immigration of cells and subsequent formation of functional vasculature became evident. Immunocytochemistry revealed no fibronection accumulation and no scarring. In summary, our matrix based on cross-linked gelatin promises to be a valuable component of future implants, improving neuronal and non-neuronal regeneration by concomitant pro-angiogenic stimulation. PMID:17889331

  18. Probing Rubber Cross-Linking Generation of Industrial Polymer Networks at Nanometer Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielle, Brice; Gomez, Emmanuel; Korb, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-23

    We present improved analyses of rheometric torque measurements as well as (1)H double-quantum (DQ) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) buildup data on polymer networks of industrial compounds. This latter DQ NMR analysis allows finding the distribution of an orientation order parameter (Dres) resulting from the noncomplete averaging of proton dipole-dipole couplings within the cross-linked polymer chains. We investigate the influence of the formulation (filler and vulcanization systems) as well as the process (curing temperature) ending to the final polymer network. We show that DQ NMR follows the generation of the polymer network during the vulcanization process from a heterogeneous network to a very homogeneous one. The time variations of microscopic Dres and macroscopic rheometric torques present power-law behaviors above a threshold time scale with characteristic exponents of the percolation theory. We observe also a very good linear correlation between the kinetics of Dres and rheometric data routinely performed in industry. All these observations confirm the description of the polymer network generation as a critical phenomenon. On the basis of all these results, we believe that DQ NMR could become a valuable tool for investigating in situ the cross-linking of industrial polymer networks at the nanometer scale. PMID:27254797

  19. Dual Cross-Linked Carboxymethyl Sago Pulp-Gelatine Complex Coacervates for Sustained Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Muniyandy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we report for the first time the complex coacervation of carboxymethyl sago pulp (CMSP with gelatine for sustained drug delivery. Toluene saturated with glutaraldehyde and aqueous aluminum chloride was employed as cross-linkers. Measurements of zeta potential confirm neutralization of two oppositely charged colloids due to complexation, which was further supported by infrared spectroscopy. The coacervates encapsulated a model drug ibuprofen and formed microcapsules with a loading of 29%–56% w/w and an entrapment efficiency of 85%–93% w/w. Fresh coacervates loaded with drug had an average diameter of 10.8 ± 1.93 µm (n = 3 ± s.d.. The coacervates could encapsulate only the micronized form of ibuprofen in the absence of surfactant. Analysis through an optical microscope evidenced the encapsulation of the drug in wet spherical coacervates. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the non-spherical geometry and surface roughness of dried drug-loaded microcapsules. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis confirmed intact and crystalline ibuprofen in the coacervates. Gas chromatography indicated the absence of residual glutaraldehyde in the microcapsules. Dual cross-linked microcapsules exhibited a slower release than mono-cross-linked microcapsules and could sustain the drug release over the period of 6 h following Fickian diffusion.

  20. Enzymatic cross-linking of soy proteins within non-fat set yogurt gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanpuori, Rana; Madadlou, Ashkan; Zeynali, Fariba; Khosrowshahi, Asghar

    2014-08-01

    Soy proteins as the health-promoting ingredients and candidate fat substitutes in dairy products are good substrates for the cross-linking action of the enzyme transglutaminase. Non-fat set yogurt samples were prepared from the milks enriched with soy protein isolate (SPI) and/or treated with the enzyme transglutaminase. The highest titrable acidity was recorded for the yogurt enriched with SPI and treated with the enzyme throughout the cold storage for 21 d. SPI-enrichment of yogurt milk increased the water holding capacity. Although enrichment with SPI did not influence the count of Streptococcus themophilus, increased that of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ∼3 log cycles. The enzymatic treatment of SPI-enriched milk however, suppressed the bacteria growth-promoting influence of SPI due probably to making the soy proteins inaccessible for Lactobacillus. SPI-enrichment and enzymatic treatment of milk decreased the various organic acids content in yoghurt samples; influence of the former was more significant. The cross-linking of milk proteins to soy proteins was confirmed with the gel electrophoresis results.

  1. Effects of PMMA and Cross-Linked Dextran Filler for Soft Tissue Augmentation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jung-Bo; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Soyun; Lee, So-Hyoun; Shim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Se Eun; Kang, Seong Soo; Jeong, Chang-Mo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted for evaluation of the ability to maintain efficacy and biocompatibility of cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (DiHM) and cross-linked dextran mixed with PMMA in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (PDiHM), compared with hyaluronic acid (HA) filler. Saline and HA solution was administered in the negative and positive control groups, and DiHM and PDiHM were administered in the test groups (n = 10 in each group). The site of cranial subcutaneous injection was the mid-point of the interpupillary line, and the site of intraoral submucosal injection was the ridge crest 2 mm below the cervical line of the mandibular left incisor. Before and immediately after filler injection, intraoral photos and lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for analysis and comparison of the effect of the filler on the injection sites. The filler injected areas were converted into sequential size changes (%) of the baseline. Histomorphologic examination was performed after 12 weeks. The smallest value in the filler injected area was observed during the experimental period in the normal saline group (p filler materials with injection system provide an excellent alternative surgical method for use in oral and craniofacial fields. PMID:26633376

  2. Alkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, YJ; Wang, LZ; Hickner, MA; Wang, CY

    2015-01-10

    Improving cell performance and durability through both new materials and membrane electrode processing optimization is needed for the commercialization of alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) technologies. In this work, we adopted an in-situ cross-linking strategy of an anion-conducting block copolymer to prepare durable ionomers for use in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Our goal was to use new ionomers and binders with an aim at improving long-term stability of AMFCs, especially at high operation temperatures. At 80 degrees C, AMFCs with in-situ cross-linked ionomers showed promising stability with an operating life time of more than 350 hours at 100 mA/cm(2). We found that the optimized electrode fabrication process and operating conditions can significantly improve the durability performance of AMFCs. For example, a suitable electrode binder in addition to the ion-conducting ionomer can greatly enhance the durability performance of AMFCs. Operating fuel cells under a cathode over-humification condition can also enhance the long-term stability of AMFCs. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mono-dispersed cross-linked polystyrene micro-spheres prepared by seed swelling polymerization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongsha WANG; Yanjun LIU

    2008-01-01

    A two-step swelling procedure was adopted to synthesize mono-dispersed and highly cross-linked poly (St-divinylbenzene) particles with PSt micro-spheres (1.80 μmin diameter). The PSt micro-spheres were prepared by a dispersion polymerization method and used as seeds. The effects of monomer concentration, ratio of ethanol to water, swelling reagents, crosslinking reagents, swelling temper-ature and agitation speed on particle size were investigated in detail. The morphologies and size distributions of these micro-spheres were examined by SEM and particle size analysis (PSA). The Tg of the micro-spheres was measured by DSC. The results indicate that the particles (6.20 μm in diameter) exhibit excellent mono dispersed property and high crosslinking degree when the concentration of the swelling reagent was 25%, the concentration of the cross-linking reagents was 23%, the swelling temperature was 30℃ and the stirring speed was 150 r/min.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Force-Stiffness Response of Cross-Linked Actin Networks Using Tensegrity Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional tensegrity structure is used as a computational model for cross-linked actin networks. The postbuckling behavior of the members under compression is considered and the constitutive relation of the postbuckling members is modeled as a second-order polynomial. A numerical scheme incorporating the equivalent constitution of the postbuckling members is used to predict the structural response of the tensegrity model under compression loads. The numerical simulation shows that the stiffness of the tensegrity structure nonlinearly increases before member buckling and abruptly decreases to a lower level as soon as members buckle. This result qualitatively mimics the experimentally observed stiffness to compression stress response of cross-linked actin networks. In order to take member length variety into account, a large number of simulations with the length of buckling members varying in the given range are also carried out. It is found that the mean response of the simulations using different buckling member length exhibits more resemblance to the experimental observation.

  5. Analysis of ligand-receptor cross-linked fragments by mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, C.D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sargsyan, H. [City University of New York (CUNY); Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Naider, F. [City University of New York (CUNY); Becker, J.M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2005-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a class of integral membrane receptor proteins that are characterized by a signature seven-transmembrane (7-TM) configuration. The a-factor receptor (Ste2p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a GPCR that, upon binding of a peptide ligand, transduces a signal to initiate a cascade of events leading to the mating of haploid yeast cells. This study summarizes the application of affinity purification and of matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) experiments using biotinylated photoactivatable a-factor analogs. Affinity purification and enrichment of biotinylated peptides by monomeric avidin beads resulted in mass spectrometric detection of specific signals corresponding to crosslinked fragments of Ste2p. Data obtained from cyanogen bromide (CNBr) fragments of receptor cross-linked to an a-factor analog with the photoaffinity group p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine on position 1 were in agreement with the previous results reported by our laboratory suggesting the cross-linking between position 1 of a-factor and a region of Ste2p covering residues 251 294.

  6. Genipin-cross-linked fucose-chitosan/heparin nanoparticles for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsin; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lee, Che-Hsin; He, Zih Sian; Tseng, Guan-Chin

    2013-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a significant human pathogen that recognizes specific carbohydrate receptors, such as the fucose receptor, and produces the vacuolating cytotoxin, which induces inflammatory responses and modulates the cell-cell junction integrity of the gastric epithelium. The clinical applicability of topical antimicrobial agents was needed to complete the eradication of H. pylori in the infected fundal area. In the present study, we combined fucose-conjugated chitosan and genipin-cross-linking technologies in preparing multifunctional genipin-cross-linked fucose-chitosan/heparin nanoparticles to encapsulate amoxicillin of targeting and directly make contact with the region of microorganism on the gastric epithelium. The results show that the nanoparticles effectively reduced drug release at gastric acids and then released amoxicillin in an H. pylori survival situation to inhibit H. pylori growth and reduce disruption of the cell-cell junction protein in areas of H. pylori infection. Furthermore, with amoxicillin-loaded nanoparticles, a more complete H. pylori clearance effect was observed, and H. pylori-associated gastric inflammation in an infected animal model was effectively reduced.

  7. Preliminary characterization of dexamethasone-loaded cross-linked hyaluronic acid films for topical ocular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calles, J A; López-García, A; Vallés, E M; Palma, S D; Diebold, Y

    2016-07-25

    The aim of this work was to design and characterize cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA)-itaconic acid (IT) films loaded with dexamethasone sodium phosphate salt (DEX) for topical therapy of inflammatory ocular surface diseases. Films were chemically cross-linked with polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDE), then physical and mechanical characterization by stress-strain, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and swelling assays was conducted. A sequential in vitro therapeutic efficacy model was designed to assess changes in interleukin (IL)-6 production in an inflamed human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell line after film exposure. Changes in cell proliferation after film exposure were assessed using the alamarBlue(®) proliferation assay. Experimental findings showed desirable mechanical properties and in vitro efficacy to reduce cell inflammation. A moderately decreased proliferation rate was induced in HCE cells by DEX-loaded films, compared to commercial DEX eye drops. These results suggest that DEX and HA have opposite effects. The sequential in vitro therapeutic efficacy model arises as an efficient tool to study drug release from delivery systems by indirect measurement of a biological response. PMID:27242313

  8. A covalently cross-linked gel derived from the epidermis of the pilot whale Globicephala melas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, C; Fleischer, L-G; Roessner, D; Meyer, W; Siebers, D

    2002-01-01

    The rheological properties of the stratum corneum of the pilot whale (Globicephala melas) were investigated with emphasis on their significance to the self-cleaning abilities of the skin surface smoothed by a jelly material enriched with various hydrolytic enzymes. The gel formation of the collected fluid was monitored by applying periodic-harmonic oscillating loads using a stress-controlled rheometer. In the mechanical spectrum of the gel, the plateau region of the storage modulus G' (120 Pa) were independent of frequency (omega = 43.98 to 0.13 rad x s(-1), tau = 15 Pa, T = 20 degrees C), indicating high elastic performance of a covalently cross-linked viscoelastic solid. In addition, multi-angle laser light scattering experiments (MALLS) were performed to analyse the potential time-dependent changes in the weight-average molar mass of the samples. The observed increase showed that the gel formation is based on the assembly of covalently cross-linked aggregates. The viscoelastic properties and the shear resistance of the gel assure that the enzyme-containing jelly material smoothing the skin surface is not removed from the stratum corneum by shear regimes during dolphin jumping. The even skin surface is considered to be most important for the self-cleaning abilities of the dolphin skin against biofouling. PMID:12454437

  9. Preparation and adsorption property of aminated cross linking microbeads of GMA/EGDMA for bilirubin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhiping Chen; Baojiao Gao; Xiaofeng Yang

    2009-11-01

    Cross linking microbeads with a controllable diameter were synthesized by suspension copolymerization of the monomer glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and the cross linking agent ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA). By the ring-opening reaction of the epoxy groups, the microbeads GMA/EGDMA were modified with different aminating agents and resulting in the aminated microbeads. The morphology of the microbeads was characterized by SEM. The adsorption property of aminated microbeads for bilirubin was investigated, and the effects of various factors, such as the chemical structures of the aminating agents, pH values of the medium and the presence of bovine serum albumin in the adsorption medium, on the adsorption property were examined. The experimental results show that the aminated microbeads have strong adsorption ability for bilirubin, and the isotherm adsorption behaviour is fitted to Freundlich equation satisfactorily. The adsorption ability of the aminated microbeads modified with hexanediamine is stronger than that of others, and the longer the molecule of multi-ethylene multiamine, the weaker the adsorption ability for bilirubin. The pH value of the medium affects the adsorption ability greatly, as pH = 6, the adsorption ability is strongest. In the presence of BSA, the microbeads still have a higher adsorption capacity towards bilirubin.

  10. Robust Self-Healing Hydrogels Assisted by Cross-Linked Nanofiber Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Wang, Cai-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Shao, Huan; Chen, Su

    2013-01-01

    Given increasing environmental and energy issues, mimicking nature to confer synthetic materials with self-healing property to expand their lifespan is highly desirable. Just like human skin recovers itself upon damage with the aid of nutrient-laden blood vascularization, designing smart materials with microvascular network to accelerate self-healing is workable but continues to be a challenge. Here we report a new strategy to prepare robust self-healing hydrogels assisted by a healing layer composed of electrospun cross-linked nanofiber networks containing redox agents. The hydrogels process high healing rate ranging from seconds to days and great mechanical strengths with storage modulus up to 0.1 MPa. More interestingly, when the healing layer is embedded into the crack of the hydrogel, accelerated self-healing is observed and the healing efficiency is about 80%. The healing layer encourages molecular diffusion as well as further cross-linking in the crack region of the hydrogel, responsible for enhanced healing efficiency. PMID:24091865

  11. Study for HDR cross-link for formation flight satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinaga, Nozomu; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Takashi; Ogawa, Yasuo; Kubooka, Toshihiro; Umehara, Hiroaki

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we studied about optical and millimeter radio wave cross-link for formation flight communication satellite system in a geostationary orbit. In formation flight system, since the distance among the satellites becomes short compared with the conventional inter satellite comunication link, the size and the weight of the communication system can be reduced. If the high data rate cross-link among the satellites which is equal to the whole transponder bandwidth can be established, the functionally distributed communications satellite system can be constructed. Then, by exchanging a part of the satellite system without the physical contact, in other words, by exchange some old satellites and new ones, the fully reconfigurable and long lifetime (from the point of the function) satellite communication system which can follow the paradigm shift in the terrestrial communications technology can be realize. On the other hand, however, since the maximum of relative angle error among two satellites is enlarged, the tracking becomes difficult. In this study, it turns the electric power which is gotten from the shortening the distance to making beam width large. Here, we examine communication among two satellites (10Km distance) where the data rate is 1Gbps.

  12. Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid from Biodegradable Cross-Linked Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Queeny; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a family of cross-linked poly(xylitol adipate salicylate)s with a wide range of tunable release properties for delivering pharmacologically active salicylic acid. The synthesis parameters and release conditions were varied to modulate polyester properties and to understand the mechanism of release. Varying release rates were obtained upon longer curing (35% in the noncured polymer to 10% in the cured polymer in 7 days). Differential salicylic acid loading led to the synthesis of polymers with variable cross-linking and the release could be tuned (100% release for the lowest loading to 30% in the highest loading). Controlled release was monitored by changing various factors, and the release profiles were dependent on the stoichiometric composition, pH, curing time, and presence of enzyme. The polymer released a combination of salicylic acid and disalicylic acid, and the released products were found to be nontoxic. Minimal hemolysis and platelet activation indicated good blood compatibility. These polymers qualify as "bioactive" and "resorbable" and can, therefore, find applications as immunomodulatory resorbable biomaterials with tunable release properties.

  13. DNA-Protein Cross-Links: Formation, Structural Identities, and Biological Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakova, Natalia Y; Groehler, Arnold; Ji, Shaofei

    2015-06-16

    Noncovalent DNA-protein interactions are at the heart of normal cell function. In eukaryotic cells, genomic DNA is wrapped around histone octamers to allow for chromosomal packaging in the nucleus. Binding of regulatory protein factors to DNA directs replication, controls transcription, and mediates cellular responses to DNA damage. Because of their fundamental significance in all cellular processes involving DNA, dynamic DNA-protein interactions are required for cell survival, and their disruption is likely to have serious biological consequences. DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) form when cellular proteins become covalently trapped on DNA strands upon exposure to various endogenous, environmental and chemotherapeutic agents. DPCs progressively accumulate in the brain and heart tissues as a result of endogenous exposure to reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation products, as well as normal cellular metabolism. A range of structurally diverse DPCs are found following treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs, transition metal ions, and metabolically activated carcinogens. Because of their considerable size and their helix-distorting nature, DPCs interfere with the progression of replication and transcription machineries and hence hamper the faithful expression of genetic information, potentially contributing to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Mass spectrometry-based studies have identified hundreds of proteins that can become cross-linked to nuclear DNA in the presence of reactive oxygen species, carcinogen metabolites, and antitumor drugs. While many of these proteins including histones, transcription factors, and repair proteins are known DNA binding partners, other gene products with no documented affinity for DNA also participate in DPC formation. Furthermore, multiple sites within DNA can be targeted for cross-linking including the N7 of guanine, the C-5 methyl group of thymine, and the exocyclic amino groups of guanine, cytosine, and adenine. This structural

  14. Effects of extra irradiation on surface and bulk properties of PMPC-grafted cross-linked polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Shihori; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Watanabe, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Masami; Takatori, Yoshio; Tanaka, Sakae; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Sterilization using high-energy irradiation is an important aspect of implementing an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular liner in total hip arthroplasty (THA). In this study, we evaluate the effects of extra irradiations such as gamma-ray or plasma irradiation during sterilization of the poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine [MPC]) (PMPC) surface and cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) substrate of a PMPC-grafted CLPE acetabular liner. The PMPC-grafted surface yielded high wettability and low friction properties regardless of the extra irradiations as compared with untreated CLPE. During a hip simulator test, wear resistance of the PMPC-grafted CLPE liner was maintained after extra irradiation, which is due to the high wettability characteristics of the PMPC surface. In particular, the PMPC-grafted CLPE liner treated with plasma irradiation showed greater wettability and wear resistance than that with gamma-ray irradiation. However, we could not clearly observe the changes in chemical properties and morphology of the PMPC surface after both extra irradiations. The physical and mechanical properties attributed to CLPE substrate performance were also unchanged. In contrast, PMPC-grafted CLPE treated with plasma irradiation showed improved oxidation resistance as compared to that treated with gamma-ray irradiation after accelerated aging. Thus, we conclude that PMPC-grafted CLPE with plasma irradiation has promise as a lifelong solution for bearing in THA. PMID:26148654

  15. Long-term Results of a First-Generation Annealed Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Young, Active Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranawat, Chitranjan S; Ranawat, Amar S; Ramteke, Alankar A; Nawabi, Danyal; Meftah, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    The survivorship of total hip arthroplasty in younger patients is dependent on the wear characteristics of the bearing surfaces. Long-term results with conventional polyethylene in young patients show a high failure rate. This study assessed the long-term results of a first-generation annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene (HCLPE) in uncemented total hip arthroplasty in young, active patients. Between 1999 and 2003, 112 total hip arthroplasty procedures performed in 91 patients with an average University of California Los Angeles activity score of 8 and mean age of 53 years (range, 24-65 years) were included from a prospective database. In all patients, a 28-mm metal femoral head on annealed HCLPE (Crossfire; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) was used. At minimum 10-year follow-up (11.5±0.94 years), Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 97% for all failures (1 periprosthetic infection and 1 late dislocation) and 100% for mechanical failure (no revisions for osteolysis or loosening). This study showed low revision rates for wear-related failure and superior survivorship in young, active patients. Oxidation causing failure of the locking mechanism has not been a problem with Crossfire for up to 10 years. PMID:26811959

  16. Evaluation of cross-linked aggregates from purified Bacillus subtilis levansucrase mutants for transfructosylation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munguia Agustin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing attention has been focused on inulin and levan-type oligosaccharides, including fructosyl-xylosides and other fructosides due to their nutraceutical properties. Bacillus subtilis levansucrase (LS catalyzes the synthesis of levan from sucrose, but it may also transfer the fructosyl moiety from sucrose to acceptor molecules included in the reaction medium. To study transfructosylation reactions with highly active and robust derivatives, cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs were prepared from wild LS and two mutants. CLEAs combine the catalytic features of pure protein preparations in terms of specific activity with the mechanical behavior of industrial biocatalysts. Results Two types of procedures were used for the preparation of biocatalysts from purified wild type LS (WT LS B. subtilis and the R360K and Y429N LS mutants: purified enzymes aggregated with glutaraldehyde (cross-linked enzyme aggregates: CLEAs, and covalently immobilized enzymes in Eupergit C®. The biocatalysts were characterized and used for fructoside synthesis using xylose as an acceptor model. CLEAs were able to catalyze the synthesis of fructosides as efficiently as soluble enzymes. The specific activity of CLEAs prepared from wild type LS (44.9 U/mg of CLEA, R360K (56.5 U/mg of CLEA and Y429N (1.2 U/mg of CLEA mutants were approximately 70, 40 and 200-fold higher, respectively, than equivalent Eupergit C® immobilized enzyme preparations (U/mg of Eupergit, where units refer to global LS activity. In contrast, the specific activity of the free enzymes was 160, 171.2 and 1.5 U/mg of protein, respectively. Moreover, all CLEAs had higher thermal stability than corresponding soluble enzymes. In the long term, the operational stability was affected by levan synthesis. Conclusion This is the first report of cross-linked transglycosidases aggregates. CLEAs prepared from purified LS and mutants have the highest specific activity for immobilized

  17. Characterization of the somatogenic receptor in rat liver. Hydrodynamic properties and affinity cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat liver somatogenic receptors have been characterized by gel permeation chromatography, sucrose density gradients in H2O and D2O, and affinity cross-linking using 125I-bovine growth hormone (bGH) as a specific somatogenic receptor ligand. Cross-linking of 125I-bovine growth hormone to a Triton X-100-treated low density fraction isolated from livers of late pregnant rats followed by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions showed three major binders with Mr 95,000, 86,000, and 43,000 and a minor binder of Mr 55,000, after correction for bound ligand assuming a 1:1 binding ratio of ligand-receptor. The Mr 86,000, 55,000, and 43,000 species were recovered in the detergent-soluble supernatant after high-speed centrifugation, whereas the Mr 95,000 species remained Triton X-100 insoluble. Detergent-soluble 125I-bGH-receptor complexes were further analyzed by sedimentation into sucrose density gradients. The sedimentation coefficient was S20,w = 5.2 S and the partial specific volume v = 0.72 ml/g. Gel permeation chromatography on a Sepharose S-400 column indicated a Stokes radius of 61 A for the 125I-bGH-receptor-Triton X-100 complex. Based on these figures, the molecular weight of the complex was calculated as 131,100. The molecular weight of the ligand-free receptor-Triton X-100 complex was calculated as Mr 109,100. Affinity cross-linking and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the 61 A peak from Sephacryl S-400 chromatography (cf. above) showed two binding entities, one major and one minor with Mr values 86,000 and 43,000, respectively, in the absence of reductant. When electrophoresis was run in the presence of reductant the Mr 43,000 species was the major binding entity

  18. Intrastromal keratoplasy with segment implantation in combination with corneal collagen cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.I. Moroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of intrastromal keratoplasy with intra-corneal ring segment (ICRS implantation in combination with corneal collagen cross-linking in the treatment of early and advanced keratoconus. Material and methods. In the study 183 eyes with keratoconus were included: 87 eyes (47.5% with the stage II and 96 eyes (32.5% with stage III. The ICRS were implanted as a first step of treatment in 98 cases (53.5%, cross-linking was performed 3 months later. In 85 cases (46.4% the CXL was performed as a first step followed by the ICRS implantation after 3 months. Results. Patients were examined 3, 6, 24 months after surgery. Best functional results were obtained after the ICRS implantation: UCVA and BCVA increased by 3-5 lines, mean keratometry readings decreased by 3.5-4D, the average spherical equivalent decreased by 3.2-2.75D, astigmatism decreased by 2.6-3.9D. After the subsequent CXL procedure, there was a slight improvement of the obtained results. The results obtained in the groups І and II differed insignificantly and were almost identical. At 24 months after surgery some deterioration of functional results was detected in 23.1-26.7% of cases. In the rest of the cases, the obtained effect remained stable. Conclusions. 1. Intra-corneal ring segments implantation and cross-linking are aimed to halt a keratoconus progression and have been successfully used to treat the disease of initial and far-advanced stages. 2. The combination of both methods gives better functional results regardless of which method is performed as a first step. 3. The choice of method to be performed as a first step of treatment depends on the central pachymetry and corneal thickness in a 5-7mm zone of ectasia. 4. Interval between the first and the second step of treatment has to be 3 months or more.

  19. Single-sided Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for condition monitoring of cross-linked polyethylene exposed to aggressive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of single-sided Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to monitor truly non-invasive changes in polymer materials during aging under aggressive media is for the first time evaluated. For this, the NMR method is used in combination with other condition monitoring methods including mechanical measurements, mass uptake, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is validated by studying for the first time the aging kinetics of silane cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) exposed to media used in oil and gas production and transportation, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, sulphur solvents, and corrosion inhibitors in combination with CO2 and H2S. All investigated parameters changed, with the strongest effects detected for the NMR chain mobility and in the presence of hydrocarbons. Furthermore, a universal linear correlation curve could be established between the depression of the tensile strength and the chain mobility. This result represents a fundamental step towards establishing single-sided NMR as a new analytical tool for in situ condition monitoring of polyethylene working under sour conditions. The proposed approach can be easily extended to other polymer materials. - Highlights: • The changes in PEX exposed to sour media were quantified for the first time. • The strongest morphological changes in PEX were detected under exposure to hydrocarbon media. • The chain mobility measured truly non-destructively by single-sided NMR showed the highest sensitivity to the aging process. • A universal linear correlation curve was found between the chain mobility and the tensile strength. • Single-sided NMR was validated as a condition monitoring tool

  20. Single-sided Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for condition monitoring of cross-linked polyethylene exposed to aggressive media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, A., E-mail: Alina.Adams@itmc.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Piechatzek, A.; Schmitt, G. [Institut für Instandhaltung und Korrosionsschutztechnik gGmbH, Kalkofen 4, 58638 Iserlohn (Germany); Siegmund, G. [ExxonMobil Production Germany, Riethorst 12, 30659 Hannover (Germany)

    2015-08-05

    The potential of single-sided Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to monitor truly non-invasive changes in polymer materials during aging under aggressive media is for the first time evaluated. For this, the NMR method is used in combination with other condition monitoring methods including mechanical measurements, mass uptake, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is validated by studying for the first time the aging kinetics of silane cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) exposed to media used in oil and gas production and transportation, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, sulphur solvents, and corrosion inhibitors in combination with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. All investigated parameters changed, with the strongest effects detected for the NMR chain mobility and in the presence of hydrocarbons. Furthermore, a universal linear correlation curve could be established between the depression of the tensile strength and the chain mobility. This result represents a fundamental step towards establishing single-sided NMR as a new analytical tool for in situ condition monitoring of polyethylene working under sour conditions. The proposed approach can be easily extended to other polymer materials. - Highlights: • The changes in PEX exposed to sour media were quantified for the first time. • The strongest morphological changes in PEX were detected under exposure to hydrocarbon media. • The chain mobility measured truly non-destructively by single-sided NMR showed the highest sensitivity to the aging process. • A universal linear correlation curve was found between the chain mobility and the tensile strength. • Single-sided NMR was validated as a condition monitoring tool.

  1. Carcinogenesis switched on by DNA cross-link between complementary bases aroused by aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Qianhuan; LU Ping; PENG Shaohua; ZHANG Qingrong

    2003-01-01

    The di-region theory put forward by Dai Qianhuan, a molecular mechanism of chemical carcinogenesis, concluded that the carcinogenesis induced by most of the environmental carcinogens is switched on by the cross-linking between DNA complementary bases aroused by the bifunctional alkylation of their metabolic intermediates. It was evidenced in this paper with DNA filter elution method that one carcinogenic mycotoxin, aflatoxin G1, four carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, N-nitrosodiethyl-amine, N-nitrosodibutyl-amine, N-nitrosomorpholine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine, one carcinogenic diazo color, 4-dimethylaminodiazobenzene and one carcinogenic nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound, quinoline, all induced DNA interstrands cross-linking with dosage correlation after metabolic activation. However, the non-carcinogens in corresponding series for control, aflatoxin B2, N-nitroso-diphenylamine, 4′-bromo-4-dimethylaminodiazobenzene and isoquinoline, cannot induce DNA interstrands cross-linking at all in the same condition. A method for the determination of cross-linking ratio between DNA complementary bases in total DNA interstrands cross-linking, which has no monitoring measure as yet, has been established for the first time based upon a 24 hour repairing experiment. The DNA complementary pair cross-linking ratio induced by a metabolized carcinogen is correlated with its carcinogenic potential. It may be concluded that the mutations including point and frameshift mutagenesis induced by aflatoxin and other carcinogens are switched on by their corresponding cross-linking base pair between complementary bases. Therefore, the di-region theory is a reasonable molecular mechanism for chemical, endogenous and physical carcinogenesis.

  2. Monitoring human lymphocytic DNA-protein cross-links as biomarkers of biologically active doses of chromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M; Zhitkovich, A; Toniolo, P; Taioli, E; Popov, T; Lukanova, A

    1996-10-01

    A simple and sensitive assay for DNA-protein cross-links has been used as a biomarker of chromate exposure and early carcinogenic effects. Pilot studies of DNA-protein cross-links in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been conducted with individuals who had higher exposure to chromate, including welders, and with individuals who had lower levels of exposure such as residents living in a chromium-contaminated area in Jersey City, New Jersey. Studies were also conducted in two Bulgarian cities (Jambol and Burgas) with different levels of air pollution and Cr(VI) exposure and in chrome platers in Bulgaria who had high exposure to chromate. DNA-protein cross-links in U.S. welders and in individuals living in Hudson County, New Jersey around chromium-contaminated areas were significantly higher compared to matched controls. Although blood and urinary levels of chromium were not extensively studied in these populations, we were able to obtain these measurements in the Bulgarian population. Chromium levels in red blood cells of controls living in Burgas were in the order of 1 to 2 ppb chromium, and these individuals had the lowest levels of DNA-protein cross-links. However, the chromium levels in Jambol ranged from about 2 to 7 ppb in red blood cells of city residents to about 22 ppb in chrome platers. DNA-protein cross-links were saturated at about 7 to 8 ppb chromium in the red blood cells, and cross-links correlated well only with chromium levels in red blood cells. Urinary chromium levels did not correlate well with either DNA-protein cross-links or chromium levels in with red blood cells.

  3. Investigation of cross-linking characteristics of novel hole-transporting materials for solution-processed phosphorescent OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaemin; Ameen, Shahid; Lee, Changjin

    2016-04-01

    After the success of commercialization of the vacuum-evaporated organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), solutionprocessing or printing of OLEDs are currently attracting much research interests. However, contrary to various kinds of readily available vacuum-evaporable OLED materials, the solution-processable OLED materials are still relatively rare. Hole-transporting layer (HTL) materials for solution-processed OLEDs are especially limited, because they need additional characteristics such as cross-linking to realize multilayer structures in solution-processed OLEDs, as well as their own electrically hole-transporting characteristics. The presence of such cross-linking characteristics of solutionprocessable HTL materials therefore makes them more challenging in the development stage, and also makes them essence of solution-processable OLED materials. In this work, the structure-property relationships of thermally crosslinkable HTL materials were systematically investigated by changing styrene-based cross-linking functionalities and modifying the carbazole-based hole-transporting core structures. The temperature dependency of the cross-linking characteristics of the HTL materials was systematically investigated by the UV-vis. absorption spectroscopy. The new HTL materials were also applied to green phosphorescent OLEDs, and their device characteristics were also investigated based on the chemical structures of the HTL materials. The device configuration was [ITO / PEDOT:PSS / HTL / EML / ETL / CsF / Al]. We found out that the chemical structures of the cross-linking functionalities greatly affect not only the cross-linking characteristics of the resultant HTL materials, but also the resultant OLED device characteristics. The increase of the maximum luminance and efficiency of OLEDs was evident as the cross-linking temperature decreases from higher than 200°C to at around 150°C.

  4. Iontophoresis-Assisted Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking with Epithelial Debridement: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Paolo; Romano, Vito; Rosetta, Pietro; Legrottaglie, Emanuela F; Kubrak-Kisza, Magdalena; Azzolini, Claudio; Vinciguerra, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the early outcomes of iontophoresis-assisted corneal collagen cross-linking procedure with epithelial debridement (I-SCXL). Methods. Twenty eyes of twenty patients with progressive keratoconus were included in this prospective clinical study. Best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), sphere and cylinder refraction, corneal topography, Scheimpflug tomography, aberrometry, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and endothelial cell count were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up. The parameters considered to establish keratoconus progression were always proven with differential maps as change in curvature in the cone area of at least 1 diopter obtained with an instantaneous map. Results. Functional parameters showed a significant improvement (p 0.05). Conclusion. The early results indicate that the I-SCXL may be able to reduce the treatment time and improve the riboflavin diffusion. PMID:27547758

  5. AlkB recognition of a bulky DNA base adduct stabilized by chemical cross-linking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    E.coli AlkB is a direct DNA/RNA repair protein that oxidatively reverses N1 alkylated purines and N3 alkylated pyrimidines to regular bases.Previous crystal structures have revealed N1-methyl adenine(1-meA) recognition by AlkB and a unique base flipping mechanism,but how the AlkB active site can accommodate bulky base adducts is largely unknown.Employing a previously developed chemical cross-linking technique,we crystallized AlkB with a duplex DNA containing a caged thymine base(cagedT).The structure revealed a flexible hairpin lid and a reorganized substrate recognition loop used by AlkB to accommodate cagedT.These observations demonstrate,at the molecular level,how bulky DNA adducts may be recognized and processed by AlkB.

  6. Multiplexed protein-DNA cross-linking: Scrunching in transcription start site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Jared T; Vvedenskaya, Irina O; Zhang, Yuanchao; Zhang, Yu; Bird, Jeremy G; Taylor, Deanne M; Gourse, Richard L; Ebright, Richard H; Nickels, Bryce E

    2016-03-01

    In bacterial transcription initiation, RNA polymerase (RNAP) selects a transcription start site (TSS) at variable distances downstream of core promoter elements. Using next-generation sequencing and unnatural amino acid-mediated protein-DNA cross-linking, we have determined, for a library of 4(10) promoter sequences, the TSS, the RNAP leading-edge position, and the RNAP trailing-edge position. We find that a promoter element upstream of the TSS, the "discriminator," participates in TSS selection, and that, as the TSS changes, the RNAP leading-edge position changes, but the RNAP trailing-edge position does not change. Changes in the RNAP leading-edge position, but not the RNAP trailing-edge position, are a defining hallmark of the "DNA scrunching" that occurs concurrent with RNA synthesis in initial transcription. We propose that TSS selection involves DNA scrunching prior to RNA synthesis. PMID:26941320

  7. Mechanical and barrier properties of cross-linked soy and whey protein based films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, S F; Ouattara, B; Yu, H; D'Aprano, G; Le Tien, C; Mateescu, M A; Lacroix, M

    2001-03-01

    Sterilized biofilms based on soy protein isolate (SPI, S system) and a 1:1 mixture of SPI and whey protein isolate (WPI, SW system) were achieved through the formation of cross-links by means of gamma-irradiation combined with thermal treatments. The effect of the incorporation of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and poly(vinyl alcohol) was also examined. gamma-Irradiation combined with thermal treatment improved significantly the mechanical properties, namely, puncture strength and puncture deformation, for all types of films. Irradiated formulations that contain CMC behave more similarly as elastomers. CMC showed also significant improvements of the barrier properties, namely, water vapor permeability, for irradiated films of the S system and for non-irradiated films of the SW system.

  8. Krebs cycle metabolon: structural evidence of substrate channeling revealed by cross-linking and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Minteer, Shelley

    2015-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that the high metabolic flux in the mitochondria is due to the self-assembly of enzyme supercomplexes (called metabolons) that channel substrates from one enzyme to another, but there has been no experimental confirmation of this structure or the channeling. A structural investigation of enzyme organization within the Krebs cycle metabolon was accomplished by in vivo cross-linking and mass spectrometry. Eight Krebs cycle enzyme components were isolated upon chemical fixation, and interfacial residues between mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and aconitase were identified. Using constraint protein docking, a low-resolution structure for the three-enzyme complex was achieved, as well as the two-fold symmetric octamer. Surface analysis showed formation of electrostatic channeling upon protein-protein association, which is the first structural evidence of substrate channeling in the Krebs cycle metabolon.

  9. Elevated carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen in alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Hansen, M; Hillingsø, Jens;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) has been put forward as a marker of bone resorption. Patients with alcoholic liver disease may have osteodystrophy. AIMS: To assess circulating and regional concentrations of ICTP in relation to liver dysfunction,...... osteopenia, the elevated ICTP in cirrhosis may therefore primarily reflect liver failure and hepatic fibrosis......., bone metabolism, and fibrosis. METHODS: In 15 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 controls, hepatic venous, renal venous, and femoral arterial concentrations of ICTP, and bone mass and metabolism were measured. RESULTS: Circulating ICTP was higher in patients with cirrhosis than in controls....... No overall significant hepatic disposal or production was found in the patient or control groups but slightly increased production was found in a subset of patients with advanced disease. Significant renal extraction was observed in the controls, whereas only a borderline significant extraction was observed...

  10. Cooperative assembly of Zn cross-linked artificial tripeptides with pendant hydroxyquinoline ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Gallagher, Joy A; Coppock, Matthew B; Pantzar, Lisa M; Williams, Mary Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    An artificial peptide with three pendant hydroxyquinoline (hq) ligands on a palindromic backbone was designed and used to form multimetallic assemblies. Reaction of the tripeptide with zinc acetate led to a highly fluorescent tripeptide duplex with three Zn(II) coordinative cross-links. The binding process was monitored using spectrophotometric absorbance and emission titrations; NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry confirmed the identity and stoichiometry of the product structure. Titrations monitoring duplex formation of the zinc-tripeptide structure had a sigmoidal shape, equilibrium constant larger than the monomeric analogue, and a Hill coefficient >1, all of which indicate positive cooperativity. Photophysical characterization of the quantum yield, excited state lifetime, and polarization anisotropy are compared with the monometallic zinc-hq analogue. A higher than expected quantum yield for the trimetallic complex suggests a structure in which the central chromophore is shielded from solvent by π-stacking with neighboring Zn(II) complexes.

  11. Structure and mechanical properties of cross-linked polytetrafluoroethylene sheets irradiated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross-linked polytetrafluoroethylene (XPTFE) was prepared by electron beam (EB) irradiation at 335 ± 5 degree C in a nitrogen gas atmosphere. The structure and tensile properties of XPTFE were analyzed by XRD, tensile test and friction test. XPTFE sheet had a better transparency than original one. With increasing absorbed dose the degree of crystallinity of XPTFE decreased, the yield and tensile strength increased, and the elongation at break decreased. The wear resistance of XPTFE was improved by 3 orders of magnitude at a dose of 150 kGy, and higher dose gave better wear resistance. It was concluded that a three-dimensional network of XPTFE was formed through crosslinking the straight chains of PTFE by EB irradiation, and this network was responsible for the changes of the structure and the properties behavior of XPTFE. (authors)

  12. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by barium ion cross-linked alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzaşçı Sesil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Barium ion cross-linked alginate beads have shown great affinity to toxic hexavalent chromium ions in aqueous solution, contrary to the traditional calcium alginate beads. The adsorption experiments were carried out by the batch contact method. The optimal pH for removal was found to be pH 4. The equilibrium was established in 4 h and the removal efficiency of chromium (VI was found as 95%. The adsorption data fit well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum chromium (VI adsorption capacity determined from Langmuir isotherm was 36.5 mg/g dry alginate beads. Our study suggests that barium alginate beads can be used as cost-effective and efficient adsorbents for the removal of chromium (VI from contaminated waters.

  13. Stabilization of porcine pancreatic elastase crystals by glutaraldehyde cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Stefan; Brito, José A; Mulchande, Jalmira; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Pessanha, Miguel; Moreira, Rui; Archer, Margarida

    2015-10-01

    Elastase is a serine protease from the chymotrypsin family of enzymes with the ability to degrade elastin, an important component of connective tissues. Excessive elastin proteolysis leads to a number of pathological diseases. Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) is often used for drug development as a model for human leukocyte elastase (HLE), with which it shares high sequence identity. Crystals of PPE were grown overnight using sodium sulfate and sodium acetate at acidic pH. Cross-linking the crystals with glutaraldehyde was needed to resist the soaking procedure with a diethyl N-(methyl)pyridinyl-substituted oxo-β-lactam inhibitor. Crystals of PPE bound to the inhibitor belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2₁2₁2₁, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.0, b = 58.3, c = 74.9 Å, and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution using an in-house X-ray source.

  14. Observations on the homogeneity of cross-linked copolymers prepared by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk copolymerization in vacuo has been effected to 100% conversion via γ-irradiation. Visual assessment is made of the homogeneity of the products, which comprise n-butyl acrylate with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone over the whole composition range. Textural inhomogeneity (popcorn structure or spongy opacity), produced only below approx. 5 x 10-3 Mrad h-1, is attributed to proliferous polymerization. At medium - high dose rates the optical homogeneity, classified as opacity, translucency or transparency, is dictated only by the composition. Thus, transparency in a xerogel requires a minimum n-butyl acrylate content of 40 wt%, but the threshold composition is reduced by incorporating a hexa-functional cross-linking agent. There is a general trend towards decreased optical homogeneity on hydrating a xerogel to its hydrogel. The change in compositional distribution up to 100% conversion is analysed according to the procedure of Skeist and is shown to be consistent with the experimental observations on compatibility. (author)

  15. Stabilization of human prostate acid phosphatase by cross-linking with diimidoesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylewska, E; Dulińska, J; Trubetskoy, V S; Torchilin, V P; Ostrowski, W S

    1987-01-01

    1. Modification of dimeric human prostate acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) by diimidoesters leads to the formation of water-soluble preparations of high enzymatic activity, resistant to denaturing agents. 2. Monomeric, dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric species were found in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the phosphatase cross-linked with dimethyl-suberimidate, and dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric enzymatically active species on thin-layer Sephadex 200 gel filtration. This molecular pattern evidenced formation of the inter-subunit covalent linkages. All molecular forms are immunoreactive against the polyclonal rabbit anti-phosphatase antibodies. 3. The catalytic properties of the modified phosphatase are almost the same as those of the native enzyme. Differences in the optical properties between the modified and the native enzymes point to slight conformational transitions in the modified enzyme.

  16. Charge regulation and energy dissipation while compressing and sliding a cross-linked chitosan hydrogel layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Tyrode, Eric;

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between a silica surface and a surface coated with a grafted cross-linked hydrogel made from chitosan/PAA multilayers are investigated, utilizing colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. Attractive double-layer forces are found to dominate the long-range interaction over a broad range...... of pH and ionic strength conditions. The deduced potential at the hydrogel/aqueous interface is found to be very low. This situation is maintained in the whole pH-range investigated, even though the degree of protonation of chitosan changes significantly. This demonstrates that pH-variations change...... the concentration of counterions within the hydrogel to keep the interior close to uncharged, which is similar to what has been observed for polyelectrolyte brushes. Changes in pH and ionic strength affect the adhesion force and the friction force between the silica surface and the hydrogel layer...

  17. Microstructured Films Formed on Liquid Substrates via Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition of Cross-Linked Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Laura C; Gupta, Malancha

    2015-07-28

    We studied the formation of microstructured films at liquid surfaces via vapor phase polymerization of cross-linked polymers. The films were composed of micron-sized coral-like structures that originate at the liquid-vapor interface and extend vertically. The growth mechanism of the microstructures was determined to be simultaneous aggregation of the polymer on the liquid surface and wetting of the liquid on the growing aggregates. We demonstrated that we can increase the height of the microstructures and increase the surface roughness of the films by either decreasing the liquid viscosity or decreasing the polymer deposition rate. Our vapor phase method can be extended to synthesize functional, free-standing copolymer microstructured thin films for potential applications in tissue engineering, electrolyte membranes, and separations. PMID:26176742

  18. Enzyme catalyzed oxidative cross-linking of feruloylated pectic polysaccharides from sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz

    beet pulp as a potential starting material for production of pectin derived products which could help maintain the competitiveness of the sugar beet based industry. The overall objective of this study has been focusing on understanding the kinetics of enzyme catalyzed oxidative crosslinking......Sugar beet pulp is a byproduct from sugar production consisting mainly of cellulose and pectic polysaccharide. Its utilization has been mostly as feedstock due to its high content of energy and fiber. This study emphasizes on the utilization of the pectin and arabinan fractions extracted from sugar...... of feruloylated polysaccharide from sugar beet and relating the kinetics of this crosslinking to the properties of the cross-linked products. Several hypotheses have been formulated in order to accomplish our objective. The first part of the study utilized arabinan-oligosaccharide fraction from sugar beet pulp...

  19. Preparation of shell cross-linked nano-objects from hybrid-peptide block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Juan; Babin, Jérôme; Zappone, Bruno; Lecommandoux, Sébastien

    2005-01-01

    Supramolecular structures formed by self-assembly of diblock copolymers in solution are stable over restricted environmental conditions: concentration, temperature, pH, or ion strength among others. To enlarge their domain of application, it appears necessary to develop stabilization strategies. We report here different strategies to stabilize the shell of micelles formed by self-assembly of amphiphilic polydiene-b-polypeptide diblock copolymers. For this purpose, covalent bonds can be formed between either amine or carboxylic acid groups distributed along the soluble peptide block and a cross-linking agent that contains respectively aldehyde or amine functions. Shell stabilization affords systems with unique properties that combine three main advantages: shape persistence, control of the porosity, and stimuli-responsive behavior. The covalent capture of such macromolecular objects has been studied by light scattering, AFM, and conductimetry measurements.

  20. Study on the Adsorption of Sulfate Ions onto Cross-Linked Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Juanqin; Guo, Yingjuan; Bi, Qiang; Mao, Weibo; Li, Jingxian

    2013-07-01

    With chitosan as the raw material, a new type of resin material is synthesized through cross-linking with formaldehyde and benzaldehyde, and it was used as an adsorbent to adsorb sulfate ion from aqueous solution. The effect of different conditions and the kinetics of the adsorption were investigated. Under the conditions of 0.2 g of adsorbent dosage, 153.3 mg/L of sodium sulfate solution, 40°C of the temperature, 120 min of the equilibrium time and pH of 2.0, the adsorption efficiency (AE) and the adsorption capacity (AC) can both be obtained the optimal values. It shows that the applicability of the second-order model fit the experimental data well from the study of adsorption kinetics.

  1. Collagen cross-linking in the treatment of pellucid marginal degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD is an uncommon cause of inferior peripheral corneal thinning disorder, characterized by irregular astigmatism. We analyzed a case of bilateral PMD patient and treated one eye with corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL therapy. Corneal topography was characteristic for PMD. Visual acuity, slitlamp examinations, tonometry, and corneal thickness were observed. Simulated keratometric and topographic index values were detected with corneal topography. Uncorrected, LogMAR visual acuity has improved from +0.8 to +0.55 during the 6 months and +0.3 during the 8 months follow-up after CXL. Pachymetry values and intraocular pressure showed no changes. Keratometric values and topografic indexes disclosed no progression of the disease. CXL may postpone or eliminate the need of corneal transplantation in cases with PMD.

  2. A Simple, High-Yield Synthesis of DNA Duplexes Containing a Covalent, Thermally-Reversible Interstrand Cross-link At a Defined Location**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Jacqueline Gamboa; Gates, Kent S.

    2015-01-01

    Interstrand DNA-DNA cross-links are highly toxic to cells because these lesions block the extraction of information from the genetic material. The pathways by which cells repair cross-links are important, but not well understood. The preparation of chemically well-defined cross-linked DNA substrates represents a significant challenge in the study of cross-link repair. Here we report a simple method that employs “post-synthetic” modifications of commercially available 2’-deoxyoligonucleotides to install a single cross-link in high yield at a specified location within a DNA duplex. The cross-linking process exploits hydrazone formation between a non-natural N4-amino-2’-deoxycytidine nucleobase and the aldehyde residue of an abasic site in duplex DNA. The resulting cross-link is stable under physiological conditions, but can be readily dissociated and re-formed through heating-cooling cycles. PMID:25967397

  3. LARGE EDDY SIMULATION FOR PLUNGING BREAKER WAVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yu-chuan; Wang Zhao-yin

    2003-01-01

    As wave propagates into shallow water, the shoaling effect leads to increase of wave height, and at a certain position, the wave will be breaking. The breaking wave is powerful agents for generating turbulence, which plays an important role in most of the fluid dynamical processes in the surf zone, so a proper numerical model for describing the turbulent effect is needed urgently. A numerical model is set up to simulate the wave breaking process, which consists of a free surface model using the surface marker method and the vertical two-dimensional model that solves the flow equations. The turbulence is described by Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method where the larger turbulent features are simulated by solving the flow equations, and the small-scale turbulence that is represented by a sub-grid model. A dynamic eddy viscosity sub-grid scale stress model has been used for the present simulation. The large eddy simulation model, which we presented in this paper, can be used to study the propagation of a solitary wave in constant water depth and the shoaling of a non-breaking solitary wave on a beach. To track free-surface movements, The TUMMAC method is employed. By applying the model to wave breaking problem in the surf zone, we found that these model results compared very well with experimental data. In addition, this model is able to reproduce the complicated flow phenomena, especially the plunging breaker.

  4. Cross-linked redox gels containing glucose oxidase for amperometric biosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, B.A.; Heller, A. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Oxidoreductases, such as glucose oxidase, can be electrically wired to electrodes by electrostatic complexing or by covalent binding of redox polymers so that the electrons flow from the enzyme, through the polymer, to the electrode. We describe two materials for amperometric biosensors based on a cross-linkable poly(vinylpyridine) complex of (Os-(bpy){sub 2}Cl){sup +/2+} that communicates electrically with flavin adenine dinucleiotide redox centers of enzymes such as glucose oxidase. The uncomplexed pyridines of the poly(vinylpyridine) are quaternized with two types of groups, one promoting hydrophilicity (2-bromoethanol or 3-bromopropionic acid), the other containing an active ester (N-hydroxysuccinimide) that forms amide bonds with both lysines on the enzyme surface and with an added polyamine cross-linking agent (tri-ethylenetetraamine, trien). In the presence of glucose oxidase and trien this polymer forms rugged, cross-linked, electroactive films on the surface of electrodes, thereby eliminating the requirement for a membrane for containing the enzyme and redox couple. The glucose response time of the resulting electrodes is less than 10 s. The glucose response under N{sub 2} shows an apparent Michaelis constant, K{sub m}{prime} = 7.3 mM, and limiting current densities, j{sub max}, between 100 and 800 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Currents are decreased by 30-50% in air-saturated solutions because of competition between O{sub 2} and the Os(III) complex for electrons from the reduced enzyme. Rotating ring disk experiments in air-saturated solutions containing 10 mM glucose show that about 20% of the active enzyme is electrooxidized via the Os(III) complex, while the rest is oxidized by O{sub 2}. These results suggest that only part of the active enzyme is in electrical contact with the electrode.

  5. Pickering emulsions stabilized by whey protein nanoparticles prepared by thermal cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiande; Shi, Mengxuan; Li, Wei; Zhao, Luhai; Wang, Ze; Yan, Xinzhong; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan

    2015-03-01

    A Pickering (o/w) emulsion was formed and stabilized by whey protein isolate nanoparticles (WPI NPs). Those WPI NPs were prepared by thermal cross-linking of denatured WPI proteins within w/o emulsion droplets at 80°C for 15 min. During heating of w/o emulsions containing 10% (w/v) WPI proteins in the water phase, the emulsions displayed turbid-transparent-turbid phase transitions, which is ascribed to the change in the size of the protein-containing water droplets caused by thermal cross-linking between denatured protein molecules. The transparent stage indicated the formation of WPI NPs. WPI NPs of different sizes were obtained by varying the mixing speed. WPI NPs of 200-500 nm were selected to prepare o/w Pickering emulsions because of their good stability against coalescence. By Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, it was observed that WPI NPs were closely packed and distributed at the surface of the emulsion droplets. By measuring water contact angles of WPI NPs films, it was found that under most conditions WPI NPs present good partial wetting properties, but that at the isoelectric point (pI) and high ionic strength the particles become more hydrophobic, resulting in less stable Pickering emulsion. Thus, at pH above and below the pI of WPI NPs and low to moderate ionic strengths (1-10 mM), and with a WPI NPs concentration of 2% (w/v), a stable Pickering emulsion can be obtained. The results may provide useful information for applications of WPI NPs in environmentally friendly and food grade applications, notably in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.

  6. Preparation, Properties and Mechanism of Inhomogeneous Calcium Alginate Ion Cross-linking Gel Microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Inhomogeneous calcium alginate ion cross-linking gel microspheres, a novel ion absorbent, were prepared by dropping a sodium alginate solution to a calcium chloride solution via an electronic droplet generator. Calcium alginate microspheres have uniform particle sizes, a smooth surface and a microporous structure. The electrode probe reveals the inhomogeneous distribution of calcium ions with the highest concentration on the surface, and the lowest concentration in the cores of the spheres. As a novel ion adsorbent, calcium alginate gel microspheres have a lower limiting adsorption mass concentration, a higher enrichment capacity and a higher adsorption capacity for Pb2+ than usual ion exchange resins. The highest percentage of the adsorption is 99.79%. The limiting adsorption mass concentration is 0.0426 mg/L. The adsorption capacity for Pb2+ is 644 mg/g. Calcium alginate gel microspheres have a much faster ion exchange velocity than D418 chelating resin and D113 polyacrylate resin. The moving boundary model was employed to interpret the ion exchange kinetics process, which indicates that the ion exchange process is controlled by intraparticle diffusion of adsorbable ions. So the formation of inhomogeneous gel microspheres reduces the diffusion distance of adsorbable ions within the spheres and enhances the ion exchange velocity. Alginate has a higher selectivity for Pb2+ than for Ca2+ and the selectivity coefficient KPbCa is 316. As an ion cross-linking gel, calcium alginate inhomogeneous microspheres can effectively adsorb heavy metal Pb2+ at a higher selectivity and a higher adsorption velocity. It is a novel and good ion adsorbent.

  7. Filler reinforcement in cross-linked elastomer nanocomposites: insights from fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexander S; Khalatur, Pavel G

    2016-06-28

    Using a fully atomistic model, we perform large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of sulfur-cured polybutadiene (PB) and nanosilica-filled PB composites. A well-integrated network without sol fraction is built dynamically by cross-linking the coarse-grained precursor chains in the presence of embedded silica nanoparticles. Initial configurations for subsequent atomistic simulations are obtained by reverse mapping of the well-equilibrated coarse-grained systems. Based on the concept of "maximally inflated knot" introduced by Grosberg et al., we show that the networks simulated in this study behave as mechanically isotropic systems. Analysis of the network topology in terms of graph theory reveals that mechanically inactive tree-like structures are the dominant structural components of the weakly cross-linked elastomer, while cycles are mainly responsible for the transmission of mechanical forces through the network. We demonstrate that quantities such as the system density, thermal expansion coefficient, glass transition temperature and initial Young's modulus can be predicted in qualitative and sometimes even in quantitative agreement with experiments. The nano-filled system demonstrates a notable increase in the glass transition temperature and an approximately two-fold increase in the nearly equilibrium value of elastic modulus relative to the unfilled elastomer even at relatively small amounts of filler particles. We also examine the structural rearrangement of the nanocomposite subjected to tensile deformation. Under high strain-rate loading, the formation of structural defects (microcavities) within the polymer bulk is observed. The nucleation and growth of cavities in the post-yielding strain hardening regime mainly take place at the elastomer/nanoparticle interfaces. As a result, the cavities are concentrated just near the embedded nanoparticles. Therefore, while the silica nanofiller increases the elastic modulus of the elastomer, it also creates a more

  8. Effect of D-penicillamine on rat lung elastin cross-linking during the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçtürk, Semra; Oktay, Gülgün; Güner, Gül; Pekçetin, Cetin; Güre, Ataman

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to clarify the effects of D-penicillamine (DPA), a drug used for treatment of various pathological events, on lung elastin formation and maturation of the newborn in the perinatal period. The investigation was conducted on 20 newborn rats bred from 40 female and six male rats. DPA doses 400 mg kg(-1) day(-1) and physiological saline were given intraperitoneally (i.p) to experimental and control groups. To assess newborn maturation, their body and lung weights were determined. Serum Cu levels were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and ceruloplasmin (Cp) activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Newborn lung tissue elastin, desmosine (DES) and isodesmosine (IDES) levels were measured by HPLC. The results showed that DPA treatment caused loss of skin elasticity and reduction in body and lung weight in newborns of the experimental group. The serum Cu levels and Cp activity were found to be significantly lower in both maternal and newborn of the experimental groups compared with the control group. The lung DES, IDES and elastin values of newborns in the experimental group were decreased compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results indicate that 400 mg kg(-1) day(-1) DPA, a dose that is used in the treatment of Wilson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and cystinuria, caused the retardation of newborn maturation, a decrease in DES-IDES cross-links and levels of lung elastin of offspring in the perinatal period. Another conclusion to be drawn from this study is that even low levels of Cu depletion due to DPA administration induces a change in cross-linking in lung elastin during the perinatal period.

  9. Effects of PMMA and Cross-Linked Dextran Filler for Soft Tissue Augmentation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Bo Huh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for evaluation of the ability to maintain efficacy and biocompatibility of cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (DiHM and cross-linked dextran mixed with PMMA in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (PDiHM, compared with hyaluronic acid (HA filler. Saline and HA solution was administered in the negative and positive control groups, and DiHM and PDiHM were administered in the test groups (n = 10 in each group. The site of cranial subcutaneous injection was the mid-point of the interpupillary line, and the site of intraoral submucosal injection was the ridge crest 2 mm below the cervical line of the mandibular left incisor. Before and immediately after filler injection, intraoral photos and lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for analysis and comparison of the effect of the filler on the injection sites. The filler injected areas were converted into sequential size changes (% of the baseline. Histomorphologic examination was performed after 12 weeks. The smallest value in the filler injected area was observed during the experimental period in the normal saline group (p < 0.001, which was almost absorbed at 4 weeks (7.19% ± 12.72%. The HA group exhibited a steady decrease in sequential size and showed a lower value than the DiHM and PDiHM groups (saline < HA < DHiM, PDHiM, p < 0.001. DiHM and PDiHM tended to increase for the first 4 weeks and later decreased until 12 weeks. In this study on DiHM and PDiHM, there was no histological abnormality in cranial skin and oral mucosa. DiHM and PDiHM filler materials with injection system provide an excellent alternative surgical method for use in oral and craniofacial fields.

  10. Filler reinforcement in cross-linked elastomer nanocomposites: insights from fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexander S; Khalatur, Pavel G

    2016-06-28

    Using a fully atomistic model, we perform large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of sulfur-cured polybutadiene (PB) and nanosilica-filled PB composites. A well-integrated network without sol fraction is built dynamically by cross-linking the coarse-grained precursor chains in the presence of embedded silica nanoparticles. Initial configurations for subsequent atomistic simulations are obtained by reverse mapping of the well-equilibrated coarse-grained systems. Based on the concept of "maximally inflated knot" introduced by Grosberg et al., we show that the networks simulated in this study behave as mechanically isotropic systems. Analysis of the network topology in terms of graph theory reveals that mechanically inactive tree-like structures are the dominant structural components of the weakly cross-linked elastomer, while cycles are mainly responsible for the transmission of mechanical forces through the network. We demonstrate that quantities such as the system density, thermal expansion coefficient, glass transition temperature and initial Young's modulus can be predicted in qualitative and sometimes even in quantitative agreement with experiments. The nano-filled system demonstrates a notable increase in the glass transition temperature and an approximately two-fold increase in the nearly equilibrium value of elastic modulus relative to the unfilled elastomer even at relatively small amounts of filler particles. We also examine the structural rearrangement of the nanocomposite subjected to tensile deformation. Under high strain-rate loading, the formation of structural defects (microcavities) within the polymer bulk is observed. The nucleation and growth of cavities in the post-yielding strain hardening regime mainly take place at the elastomer/nanoparticle interfaces. As a result, the cavities are concentrated just near the embedded nanoparticles. Therefore, while the silica nanofiller increases the elastic modulus of the elastomer, it also creates a more

  11. Shape-memory behavior of cross-linked semi-crystalline polymers and their blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kolesov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with thermally induced one-way and invertible two-way shape-memory effect (SME in covalent networks on the basis of crystallizable (copolymers and their blends and is an attempt to generalize the results of own investigation received by the authors in the last ten years. The main focus of work clearly lies on research of covalently crosslinked binary and ternary blends having two and three crystalline phases with different thermal stability, respectively. The existence of two or three crystalline phases possessing different melting and crystallization temperatures in heterogeneous polymer networks can lead to triple-shape or even quadruple-shape behavior of such networks. However, the performed investigations point to crucial effect of phase morphology of crosslinked polymer blends on multiplicity of their shapememory behavior beside the influence of blend content, crystallinity and cross-link density of blend phases as well as of processing conditions. For instance, triple-shape memory behavior in binary blends can be realized only if the continuous phase has a lower melting temperature than the dispersed phase. Cross-linked polymer blends are a facile alternative to expensive and complex synthesis of interpenetrating or block-copolymer networks used for shape memory polymers. In addition to findings of experimental investigation of SME in crystallizable covalent polymer networks, the results of modeling their shape-memory behavior on the basis of self-developed physically reasonable model have been briefly described and discussed. Thereby, good accordance between results of theory and experiment was achieved with physically justified fitting parameters.

  12. Citrate cross-linked gels with strain reversibility and viscoelastic behavior accelerate healing of osteochondral defects in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Paulomi; Rameshbabu, Arun Prabhu; Dhara, Santanu

    2014-07-22

    Most living tissues are viscoelastic in nature. Self-repair due to the dissipation of energy by reversible bonds prevents the rupture of the molecular backbone in these tissues. Recent studies, therefore, have aimed to synthesize biomaterials that approximate the mechanical performance of biological materials with self-recovery properties. We report an environmentally friendly method for the development of ionotropically cross-linked viscoelastic chitosan gels with a modulus comparable to that of living tissues. The strain recovery property was found to be highest for the gels with the lowest cross-linking density. The force-displacement curve showed significant hysteresis due to the presence of reversible bonds in the cross-linked gels. Nanoindentation studies demonstrated the creep phenomenon for the cross-linked chitosan gels. Creep, hysteresis, and plasticity index confirmed the viscoelastic behavior of the cross-linked gels. The viscoelastic gels were implanted at osteochondral defect sites to assess the tissue regeneration ability. In vivo results demonstrated early cartilage formation and woven bone deposition for defects filled with the gels compared to nontreated defects. PMID:24971647

  13. Photo-cross-linked poly(ethylene carbonate) elastomers: synthesis, in vivo degradation, and determination of in vivo degradation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchione, L A; Qi, B; Bianco, J; Zhou, Z; Amsden, B G

    2012-10-01

    Low-molecular-weight poly(ethylene carbonate) diols of varying molecular weight were generated through catalyzed thermal degradation of high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene carbonate). These polymers were then end functionalized with acrylate groups. The resulting α,ω-diacrylates were effectively photo-cross-linked upon exposure to long-wave UV light in the presence of a photoinitiator to yield rubbery networks of low sol content. The degree of cross-linking effectively controlled the in vivo degradation rate of the networks by adherent macrophages; higher cross-link densities yielded slower degradation rates. The cross-link density did not affect the number of adherent macrophages at the elastomer/tissue interface, indicating that cross-linking affected the susceptibility of the elastomer to degradative species released by the macrophages. The reactive species likely responsible for in vivo degradation appears to be superoxide anion, as the in vivo results were in agreement with in vitro degradation via superoxide anion, while cholesterol esterase, known to degrade similar poly(alkylene carbonate)s, had no affect on elastomer degradation.

  14. The effect of consolidation and cross-linking on the wear behavior of uhmwpe used in total joint replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total joint replacement (TJR) is performed to recover the functions of a joint when lost by trauma or disease. The major cause of failure in TJR is the wear of the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component. It has been proposed on many occasions that the wear resistance of UHMWPE can be improved by either increasing the degree of consolidation or by chemically cross linking the polymer chains. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the effect of consolidation and cross linking on the wear behaviour of UHMWPE. Varying degrees of consolidation was obtained by subjecting UHMWPE resin to hot isostatic pressing at different temperatures; the consolidation improved with increasing temperature. However, the bidirectional pin on disc wear rate does not change with processing temperature. UHMWPE was also cross linked by using organic peroxides. The degree of cross linking increased with the peroxide content and it was conclusively shown that the wear rate decreased linearly with the increasing degree of cross linking. (author)

  15. Cross-linked Polyethylenimine as Potential DNA Vector for Gene Delivery with High Efficiency and Low Cytotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei DONG; Guang-Hui JIN; Shu-Feng LI; Qi-Ming SUN; Ding-Yuan MA; Zi-Chun HUA

    2006-01-01

    Polyethylenimine (PEI) has been known as an efficient gene carrier with the highest cationic charge potential. High transfection efficiency of PEI, along with its cytotoxicity, strongly depends on its molecular weight. To enhance its gene delivery efficiency and minimize cytotoxicity, we have synthesized small cross-linked PEI with biodegradable linkages and evaluated their transfection efficiencies in vitro. In this study, branched PEI with a molecular weight of 800 Da was cross-linked by small diacrylate [ 1,4-butanediol diacrylate or ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA)] for 2-6 h. The efficiencies of the cross-linked PEI in in vitro transfection of plasmid DNA containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene were assessed in melanoma B 16F10 cell line and other cell lines. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the cellular entry efficiency of plasmid and the transgene expression level. The cytotoxicities of the cross-linked PEI in these cells were evaluated by MTT assay. EGDMA-PEI 800-4h, a typical cross-linked PEI reported here, mediated a more efficient expression of reporter gene than the commercially available 25-kDa branched PEI control, and resulted in a 9-fold increase in gene delivery in B16F10 cells and a 16-fold increase in 293T cells, while no cytotoxicity was found at the optimized condition for gene delivery. Furthermore, the transfection activity of polyplexes was preserved in the presence of serum proteins.

  16. Effectiveness of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate for the electron-beam-irradiation-induced cross-linking of polylactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Hon-Meng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bee, Soo-Tueen, E-mail: beest@utar.edu.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnam, C.T. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sin, Lee Tin; Phang, Yee-Yao; Tee, Tiam-Ting [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahmat, A.R. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Investigation of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on electron beam irradiated PLA. • Irradiated PLA blends were weakened by incorporation of high amount of TMPTMA. • TMPTMA interacts with polymer free radicals to build crosslinking network. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of various loading levels of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) cross-linked via electron-beam irradiation. PLA was compounded with 3–5 wt.% of TMPTMA to induce cross-linking upon subjection to electron-beam irradiation doses of 25–250 kGy. The physical properties of the PLA samples were characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, gel fraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on fractured surfaces after tensile tests. The presence of TMPTMA in PLA was found to effectively increase the crystallite size and gel fraction. However, higher loading levels of TMPTMA could compromise the properties of the PLA/TMPTMA samples, indicating that a larger amount of monomer free radicals might promote degradation within the substantially cross-linked amorphous phase. Irradiation-induced cross-linking in the samples could improve the cross-linking density while decreasing the elongation and interfering with the crystallisation. These effects are caused by the intensive irradiation-induced chain scission that is responsible for the deterioration of the mechanical and crystalline properties of the samples.

  17. Photo-cross-linked poly(ethylene carbonate) elastomers: synthesis, in vivo degradation, and determination of in vivo degradation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchione, L A; Qi, B; Bianco, J; Zhou, Z; Amsden, B G

    2012-10-01

    Low-molecular-weight poly(ethylene carbonate) diols of varying molecular weight were generated through catalyzed thermal degradation of high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene carbonate). These polymers were then end functionalized with acrylate groups. The resulting α,ω-diacrylates were effectively photo-cross-linked upon exposure to long-wave UV light in the presence of a photoinitiator to yield rubbery networks of low sol content. The degree of cross-linking effectively controlled the in vivo degradation rate of the networks by adherent macrophages; higher cross-link densities yielded slower degradation rates. The cross-link density did not affect the number of adherent macrophages at the elastomer/tissue interface, indicating that cross-linking affected the susceptibility of the elastomer to degradative species released by the macrophages. The reactive species likely responsible for in vivo degradation appears to be superoxide anion, as the in vivo results were in agreement with in vitro degradation via superoxide anion, while cholesterol esterase, known to degrade similar poly(alkylene carbonate)s, had no affect on elastomer degradation. PMID:22920572

  18. The effect of cross linking density on the mechanical properties and structure of the epoxy polymers: molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokuhfar, Ali; Arab, Behrouz

    2013-09-01

    Recently, great attention has been focused on using epoxy polymers in different fields such as aerospace, automotive, biotechnology, and electronics, owing to their superior properties. In this study, the classical molecular dynamics (MD) was used to simulate the cross linking of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) with diethylenetriamine (DETA) curing agent, and to study the behavior of resulted epoxy polymer with different conversion rates. The constant-strain (static) approach was then applied to calculate the mechanical properties (Bulk, shear and Young's moduli, elastic stiffness constants, and Poisson's ratio) of the uncured and cross-linked systems. Estimated material properties were found to be in good agreement with experimental observations. Moreover, the dependency of mechanical properties on the cross linking density was investigated and revealed improvements in the mechanical properties with increasing the cross linking density. The radial distribution function (RDF) was also used to study the evolution of local structures of the simulated systems as a function of cross linking density. PMID:23793720

  19. Improving the creep resistance and tensile property of UHMWPE sheet by radiation cross-linking and annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglong; Xu, Lu; Li, Rong; Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Mouhua; Wu, Guozhong

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sheet was cross-linked by γ irradiation in air with a dose of up to 300 kGy at a dose rate of 5 kGy/h and further treated by post-annealing at 120 °C for 4 h in vacuum. Variations in chemical structure, thermostability, crystallinity, creep resistance, and tensile properties were investigated and compared mainly by gel content, TGA, DSC, and creep and tensile measurements. Gel content measurements indicated that cross-linking was predominant over chain scission during irradiation and post-annealing. Radiation cross-linking resulted in an obvious improvement in the creep resistance and tensile properties of UHMWPE. Through cross-linking, the operational temperature and yield strength of the irradiated and subsequently annealed UHMWPE sheet were improved by more than 100 °C and 14%, respectively, at a dose of 300 kGy. Simultaneously, Young's modulus was increased to 1413 MPa, compared with 398 MPa of pristine UHMWPE. Annealing after irradiation further improved the creep resistance and Young's modulus. Highly cross-linked UHMWPE can even be maintained at 250 °C for a long time without any obvious deformation.

  20. Design of Self-Healing Supramolecular Rubbers by Introducing Ionic Cross-Links into Natural Rubber via a Controlled Vulcanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Liming; Lin, Baofeng; Liang, Xingquan; Chen, Yukun

    2016-07-13

    Introducing ionic associations is one of the most effective approaches to realize a self-healing behavior for rubbers. However, most of commercial rubbers are nonpolar rubbers without now available functional groups to be converted into ionic groups. In this paper, our strategy was based on a controlled peroxide-induced vulcanization to generate massive ionic cross-links via polymerization of zinc dimethacrylate (ZDMA) in natural rubber (NR) and exploited it as a potential self-healable material. We controlled vulcanization process to retard the formation of covalent cross-link network, and successfully generated a reversible supramolecular network mainly constructed by ionic cross-links. Without the restriction of covalent cross-linkings, the NR chains in ionic supramolecular network had good flexibility and mobility. The nature that the ionic cross-links was easily reconstructed and rearranged facilitating the self-healing behavior, thereby enabling a fully cut sample to rejoin and retain to its original properties after a suitable self-healing process at ambient temperature. This study thus demonstrates a feasible approach to impart an ionic association induced self-healing function to commercial rubbers without ionic functional groups. PMID:27337545

  1. High-Strength, Tough, Fatigue Resistant, and Self-Healing Hydrogel Based on Dual Physically Cross-Linked Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhengyu; Zhang, Guoping; Zeng, Xiaoliang; Li, Jinhui; Li, Gang; Huang, Wangping; Sun, Rong; Wong, Chingping

    2016-09-14

    Hydrogels usually suffer from low mechanical strength, which largely limit their application in many fields. In this Research Article, we prepared a dual physically cross-linked hydrogel composed of poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PAM-co-PAA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by simple two-steps methods of copolymerization and freezing/thawing. The hydrogen bond-associated entanglement of copolymer chains formed as cross-linking points to construct the first network. After being subjected to the freezing/thawing treatment, PVA crystalline domains were formed to serve as knots of the second network. The hydrogels were demonstrated to integrate strength and toughness (1230 ± 90 kPa and 1250 ± 50 kJ/m(3)) by the introduction of second physically cross-linked network. What̀s more, the hydrogels exhibited rapid recovery, excellent fatigue resistance, and self-healing property. The dynamic property of the dual physically cross-linked network contributes to the excellent energy dissipation and self-healing property. Therefore, this work provides a new route to understand the toughness mechanism of dual physically cross-linked hydrogels, hopefully promoting current hydrogel research and expanding their applications. PMID:27548327

  2. Effectiveness of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate for the electron-beam-irradiation-induced cross-linking of polylactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hon-Meng; Bee, Soo-Tueen; Ratnam, C. T.; Sin, Lee Tin; Phang, Yee-Yao; Tee, Tiam-Ting; Rahmat, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of various loading levels of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) cross-linked via electron-beam irradiation. PLA was compounded with 3-5 wt.% of TMPTMA to induce cross-linking upon subjection to electron-beam irradiation doses of 25-250 kGy. The physical properties of the PLA samples were characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, gel fraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on fractured surfaces after tensile tests. The presence of TMPTMA in PLA was found to effectively increase the crystallite size and gel fraction. However, higher loading levels of TMPTMA could compromise the properties of the PLA/TMPTMA samples, indicating that a larger amount of monomer free radicals might promote degradation within the substantially cross-linked amorphous phase. Irradiation-induced cross-linking in the samples could improve the cross-linking density while decreasing the elongation and interfering with the crystallisation. These effects are caused by the intensive irradiation-induced chain scission that is responsible for the deterioration of the mechanical and crystalline properties of the samples.

  3. Fast and effective quantum-dots encapsulation and protection in PEO based photo-cross-linked micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferji, Khalid; Hamouda, Ines; Chassenieux, Christophe; Nadal, Brice; Dubertret, Benoit; Gaillard, Cedric; Nicol, Erwan

    2016-08-15

    Cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) were easily, quickly and efficiently transferred from an organic medium to water without modification of their surface chemistry by the simple emulsion/solvent evaporation technique using micelles of amphiphilic diblock copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl acrylate) (PEO-b-PMEA) as hosts. The resulting hybrid micelles were stabilized very rapidly by photo-cross-linking the hydrophobic core around the QDs. The encapsulation and photo-cross-linking process were shown to barely affect the photoluminescence properties. Grafting a short octyl chain at the end of the hydrophobic block enhanced both the colloidal stability of the QDs dispersed in water and prevented the quenching of their fluorescence by copper ions. Grafting a longer hexadecyl chain at the end of the PMEA block decreased the efficiency of the corona cross-linking and led to poorer stabilization and protection. PMID:27232538

  4. Effect of cross-linking with riboflavin and ultraviolet A on the chemical bonds and ultrastructure of human sclera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gyeong-Bok; Lee, Hui-Jae; Kim, Ji-Hye; Lim, Jin Ik; Choi, Samjin; Jin, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effect of the cross-linking with riboflavin-ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation on the chemical bonds and ultrastructural changes of human sclera tissues using Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Raman spectroscopy of the normal and cross-linked human sclera tissue revealed different types of the riboflavin-UVA and collagen interactions, which could be identified from their unique peaks, intensity, and shape. Raman spectroscopy can prove to be a powerful tool for examining the chemical bond of collagenous tissues at the molecular level. After riboflavin-UVA treatment, unlike a regular parallel arrangement of normal collagen fibrils, the AFM image revealed interlocking arrangements of collagen fibrils. The observed changes in the surface topography of the collagen fibrils, as well as in their chemical bonds in the sclera tissue, support the formation of interfibrilar cross-links in sclera tissues.

  5. Cross-Linked ZnO Nanowalls Immobilized onto Bamboo Surface and Their Use as Recyclable Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel recyclable photocatalyst was fabricated by hydrothermal method to immobilize the cross-linked ZnO nanowalls on the bamboo surface. The resultant samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR techniques. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the cross-linked wurtzite ZnO nanowalls and bamboo surface were interconnected with each other by hydrogen bonds. Meanwhile, the cross-linked ZnO nanowalls modified bamboo (CZNB presented a superior photocatalytic ability and could be recycled at least 3 times with a photocatalytic efficiency up to 70%. The current research provides a new opportunity for the development of a portable and recycled biomass-based photocatalysts which can be an efficiently degraded pollutant solution and reused several times.

  6. Improved Enzyme Catalytic Characteristics upon Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linking of Alginate Entrapped Xylanase Isolated from Aspergillus flavus MTCC 9390

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Pal, Ajay; Jain, Veena

    2015-01-01

    Purified fungal xylanase was entrapped in alginate beads. Its further cross-linking using glutaraldehyde resulted in large enzyme aggregates which may function as both a catalyst and a support material for numerous substrate molecules. Enzyme cross-linking presented a negative impact on enzyme leaching during repeated washings and recovery of enzyme activity was substantial after twelve cycles of usage. The entrapment followed by cross-linking doubled the total bound activity and also greatly improved the enzyme stability at extreme chemical environment. The wide pH stability, better thermo- and storage stability, lowered Km value, and protection from some metal ions are salient achievements of present immobilization. The study shows the efficacy, durability, and sustainability of immobilized catalytic system which could be efficiently used for various juice processing operations. PMID:26347814

  7. Cross-Linking and Mass Spectrometry Methodologies to Facilitate Structural Biology: Finding a Path through the Maze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkley, Eric D.; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-09-01

    Multiprotein complexes, rather than individual proteins, make up a large part of the biological macromolecular machinery of a cell. Understanding the structure and organization of these complexes is critical to understanding cellular function. Chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry is emerging as a complementary technique to traditional structural biology methods and can provide low-resolution structural information for a multitude of purposes, such as distance constraints in computational modeling of protein complexes. In this review, we discuss the experimental considerations for successful application of chemical cross-linking-mass spectrometry in biological studies and highlight three examples of such studies from the recent literature. These examples (as well as many others) illustrate the utility of a chemical cross-linking-mass spectrometry approach in facilitating structural analysis of large and challenging complexes.

  8. Study of temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in cross-linked epoxies using molecular dynamics simulations with long range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we demonstrate the use of the Green–Kubo integral of the heat flux autocorrelation function, incorporating long-range corrections to model the thermal conductivity versus temperature relationship of cross-linked polymers. The simulations were performed on a cross-linked epoxy made from DGEBA and a curing agent (diamino diphenyl sulfone) using a consistent valence force field (CVFF). A dendrimeric approach was utilized for building equilibrated cross-linked structures that allowed replication of the experimental dilatometric curve for the epoxy system. We demonstrate that the inclusion of a long-range correction within the Ewald/PPPM approach brings the results close to experimentally measured conductivity within an error of 10% while providing a good prediction of the relationship of thermal conductivity versus temperature. This method shows significant promise towards the computation of thermal conductivity from simulations even before synthesis of the polymer for purposes of materials by design. (paper)

  9. 30 CFR 75.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 75.800... § 75.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits entering the underground area of any coal mine shall be protected by suitable circuit breakers of adequate interrupting...

  10. The effect of an additional phosphite stabilizer on the properties of radiation cross-linked vitamin E blends of UHMWPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Ebru; Neils, Andrew; Yabannavar, Pooja; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2014-06-01

    Antioxidant stabilization of radiation cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been introduced to improve the oxidative stability of total joint implant bearing surfaces. Blending of an antioxidant with UHMWPE resin powder followed by consolidation and radiation cross-linking has been cleared by the FDA for use in both total hips and total knees for designs incorporating two antioxidants, namely vitamin E and Covernox™ (a medical grade version of Irganox™ 1010). The antioxidants in the polymer are expected to protect the polymer during consolidation, during radiation cross-linking, on the shelf before implantation, and in vivo after implantation. To maximize the protection of the polymer afforded by the antioxidant in vivo, a novel approach may be the use of multiple antioxidants, especially to protect the primary antioxidant for a longer period of time. We hypothesized that the addition of a phosphite stabilizer (Irgafos 168™) commonly used in conjunction with hindered phenolic antioxidants in polymer processing could improve the oxidative stability of radiation cross-linked blends of vitamin E. To test our hypothesis, we prepared UHMWPE blends with 0.05 wt% Irgafos and 0.05 wt% vitamin E and compared its cross-link density, wear resistance, tensile properties, and impact strength to control blends containing only vitamin E. Our hypothesis was not supported; the cross-link density of UHMWPE was significantly decreased by the additive without additional benefit to oxidative stability. To our knowledge, this was the first attempt at using multiple stabilizers in medical grade UHMWPE.

  11. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) of Pencilluim notatum lipase enzyme with improved activity, stability and reusability characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Saima; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) are considered as an effective tool for the immobilization of enzyme. In this study, Pencillium notatum lipase (PNL) was immobilized as carrier free cross-linked enzyme aggregates using glutaraldehyde (GLA) and Ethylene glycol-bis [succinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide] (EG-NHS) as cross-linking agents. The optimal conditions for the synthesis of an efficient lipase CLEAs such as precipitant type, the nature and amount of cross-linking reagent, and cross-linking time were optimized. The recovered activities of CLEAs were considerably dependent on the concentration of GLA; however, the activity recovery was not severely affected by EG-NHS as a mild cross-linker. The EG-NHS aggregates displayed superior hydrolytic (52.08±2.52%) and esterification (64.42%) activities as compared to GLA aggregates which showed 23.8±1.86 and 34.54% of hydrolytic and esterification activity, respectively. Morphological analysis by fluorescence and scanning electron microscope revealed that EG-NHS aggregates were smaller in size with larger surface area compared to GLA aggregates. The pH optima of both types of CLEAs were displaced to slightly alkaline region and higher temperature as compared to native enzyme. Highest enzyme activity of CLEAs was achieved at the pH of 9.0 and 42°C temperature. Moreover, a significant improvement in the thermal resistance was also recorded after immobilization. After ten reusability cycles in aqueous medium, GLA and EG-NHS cross-linked lipase CLEAs preserved 63.62% and 70.9% of their original activities, respectively. The results suggest that this novel CLEA-lipase is potentially usable in many industrial applications.

  12. Role of Transglutaminase 2 in Liver Injury via Cross-linking and Silencing of Transcription Factor Sp1

    Science.gov (United States)

    TATSUKAWA, HIDEKI; FUKAYA, YAYOI; FRAMPTON, GORDON; MARTINEZ–FUENTES, ANTONIO; SUZUKI, KENJI; KUO, TING–FANG; NAGATSUMA, KEISUKE; SHIMOKADO, KENTARO; OKUNO, MASATAKA; WU, JIAN; IISMAA, SIIRI; MATSUURA, TOMOKAZU; TSUKAMOTO, HIDEKAZU; ZERN, MARK A.; GRAHAM, ROBERT M.; KOJIMA, SOICHI

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Despite high morbidity and mortality of alcoholic liver disease worldwide, the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced liver cell death are not fully understood. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a cross-linking enzyme implicated in apoptosis. TG2 levels and activity are increased in association with various types of liver injury. However, how TG2 induces hepatic apoptosis is not known. Methods Human hepatic cells or primary hepatocytes from rats or TG2+/+ and TG2−/− mice were treated with ethanol. Mice were administered anti-Fas antibody or alcohol. Liver sections were prepared from patients with alcoholic steatohepatitis. Changes in TG2 levels, Sp1 cross-linking and its activities, expression of hepatocyte growth factor receptor, c-Met, and hepatic apoptosis were measured. Results Ethanol induced apoptosis in hepatic cells, enhanced activity and nuclear accumulation of TG2 as well as accumulation of cross-linked and inactivated Sp1, and reduced expression of the Sp1-responsive gene, c-Met. These effects were rescued by TG2 knockdown, restoration of functional Sp1, or addition of hepatocyte growth factor, whereas apoptosis was reproduced by Sp1 knockdown or TG2 overexpression. Compared with TG2+/+ mice, TG2−/− mice showed markedly reduced hepatocyte apoptosis and Sp1 cross-linking following ethanol or anti-Fas treatment. Treatment of TG2+/+ mice with the TG2 inhibitors putrescine or cystamine blocked anti-Fas–induced hepatic apoptosis and Sp1 silencing. Moreover, enhanced expression of cross-linked Sp1 and TG2 was evident in hepatocyte nuclei of patients with alcoholic steatohepatitis. Conclusions TG2 induces hepatocyte apoptosis via Sp1 cross-linking and inactivation, with resultant inhibition of the expression of c-Met required for hepatic cell viability. PMID:19208340

  13. Non-destructive determination of ethylene vinyl acetate cross-linking in photovoltaic (PV) modules by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernev, Boril S; Hirschl, Christina; Eder, Gabriele C

    2013-11-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy was found to be a suitable method for the determination of the degree of cross-linking of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) polymers. Spectral changes in the Raman spectra of EVA with increasing lamination time (which equals increasing degree of cross-linking) were mainly detected in the CH vibrational regions, namely, in the relative intensities of the characteristic CH3 and CH2 bands. These spectral regions were chosen for a chemometric evaluation where a calibration was performed with the Raman spectra of reference EVA samples and the results obtained from corresponding thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry) and Soxhlet extraction data. These datasets were subsequently used to non-destructively determine the progress of cross-linking in EVA foils, embedded in various mini-modules by Raman microscopy. Thus, we could show that Raman spectroscopy is a highly interesting method for quality control in the production of photovoltaic (PV) modules. However, this approach is valid only for a given grade of EVA, meaning a demand for a new calibration when changing the supplier or the type of EVA used. In addition, the applicability of infrared spectroscopy for the determination of the degree of cross-linking was tested. A good correlation of the decrease in intensity of the characteristic cross-linker infrared bands with increasing progress of the cross-linking was found, as determined by reference methods. However, this analytical method requires taking samples of the EVA foils and is, thus, unsuitable for the non-destructive determination of the degree of cross-linking of the EVA encapsulated within a PV module. PMID:24160881

  14. Furan oxidation based cross-linking: a new approach for the study and targeting of nucleic acid and protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrette, L L G; Gyssels, E; De Laet, N; Madder, A

    2016-01-28

    Furan mediated nucleic acid cross-linking, initially developed for DNA interstrand duplex cross-linking, has matured into a versatile tool for the study of protein and nucleic acid interactions, ready to face its applications. The methodology was initially developed for easy and clean chemical generation of DNA interstrand cross-linked duplexes, but has been further expanded for use with other probes, targets and triggers, now allowing mild biologically significant cross-linking with potential therapeutic benefit. It was shown that the methodology could be repurposed for RNA interstrand cross-linking, which is very relevant in today's antisense approaches or miRNA target identification endeavors. This further illustrates the furan oxidation method's generality and mildness, especially when using red light for oxidation. A complementary antigene approach has been explored through duplex targeting with furan modified triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) and DNA binding proteins. Also targeting of peptides and proteins by furan-modified DNA and peptides has been explored. Thorough methodology examination exploring variable reaction conditions in combination with a series of different furan-modified building blocks and application of different activation signals resulted in a detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved and factors influencing the yield and selectivity of the reaction. In order to draw the bigger picture of the scope and limitations of furan-oxidation cross-linking, we here provide a unique side by side comparison and discussion of our published data, supplemented with unpublished results, providing a clear performance report of the currently established furan toolbox and its application potential in various biomacromolecular complexes. PMID:26679922

  15. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) of Pencilluim notatum lipase enzyme with improved activity, stability and reusability characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Saima; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) are considered as an effective tool for the immobilization of enzyme. In this study, Pencillium notatum lipase (PNL) was immobilized as carrier free cross-linked enzyme aggregates using glutaraldehyde (GLA) and Ethylene glycol-bis [succinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide] (EG-NHS) as cross-linking agents. The optimal conditions for the synthesis of an efficient lipase CLEAs such as precipitant type, the nature and amount of cross-linking reagent, and cross-linking time were optimized. The recovered activities of CLEAs were considerably dependent on the concentration of GLA; however, the activity recovery was not severely affected by EG-NHS as a mild cross-linker. The EG-NHS aggregates displayed superior hydrolytic (52.08±2.52%) and esterification (64.42%) activities as compared to GLA aggregates which showed 23.8±1.86 and 34.54% of hydrolytic and esterification activity, respectively. Morphological analysis by fluorescence and scanning electron microscope revealed that EG-NHS aggregates were smaller in size with larger surface area compared to GLA aggregates. The pH optima of both types of CLEAs were displaced to slightly alkaline region and higher temperature as compared to native enzyme. Highest enzyme activity of CLEAs was achieved at the pH of 9.0 and 42°C temperature. Moreover, a significant improvement in the thermal resistance was also recorded after immobilization. After ten reusability cycles in aqueous medium, GLA and EG-NHS cross-linked lipase CLEAs preserved 63.62% and 70.9% of their original activities, respectively. The results suggest that this novel CLEA-lipase is potentially usable in many industrial applications. PMID:27365121

  16. Quantitative Raman characterization of cross-linked collagen thin films as a model system for diagnosing early osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Durney, Krista M.; Fomovsky, Gregory; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Vukelic, Sinisa

    2016-03-01

    The onset of osteoarthritis (OA)in articular cartilage is characterized by degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Specifically, breakage of cross-links between collagen fibrils in the articular cartilage leads to loss of structural integrity of the bulk tissue. Since there are no broadly accepted, non-invasive, label-free tools for diagnosing OA at its early stage, Raman spectroscopyis therefore proposed in this work as a novel, non-destructive diagnostic tool. In this study, collagen thin films were employed to act as a simplified model system of the cartilage collagen extracellular matrix. Cross-link formation was controlled via exposure to glutaraldehyde (GA), by varying exposure time and concentration levels, and Raman spectral information was collected to quantitatively characterize the cross-link assignments imparted to the collagen thin films during treatment. A novel, quantitative method was developed to analyze the Raman signal obtained from collagen thin films. Segments of Raman signal were decomposed and modeled as the sum of individual bands, providing an optimization function for subsequent curve fitting against experimental findings. Relative changes in the concentration of the GA-induced pyridinium cross-links were extracted from the model, as a function of the exposure to GA. Spatially resolved characterization enabled construction of spectral maps of the collagen thin films, which provided detailed information about the variation of cross-link formation at various locations on the specimen. Results showed that Raman spectral data correlate with glutaraldehyde treatment and therefore may be used as a proxy by which to measure loss of collagen cross-links in vivo. This study proposes a promising system of identifying onset of OA and may enable early intervention treatments that may serve to slow or prevent osteoarthritis progression.

  17. A Full Hydro- and Morphodynamic Description of Breaker Bar Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    The present thesis considers a coupled modelling approach for hydro- and morphodynamics in the surf zone, which is based on a solution to the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a Volume of Fluid (VOF) closure for the surf tracking. The basis for the numerical approach is the su......The present thesis considers a coupled modelling approach for hydro- and morphodynamics in the surf zone, which is based on a solution to the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a Volume of Fluid (VOF) closure for the surf tracking. The basis for the numerical approach...... stress on the crest of the breaker bar, and its migration speed. Additionally, a net onshore current over a breaker bar is considered, where this current mimics the presence of a horizontal circulation cell. The development of the breaker bar is described for different values of the net onshore current...

  18. Azidopropylvinylsulfonamide as a New Bifunctional Click Reagent for Bioorthogonal Conjugations: Application for DNA-Protein Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadová, Jitka; Vrábel, Milan; Adámik, Matej; Brázdová, Marie; Pohl, Radek; Fojta, Miroslav; Hocek, Michal

    2015-11-01

    N-(3-Azidopropyl)vinylsulfonamide was developed as a new bifunctional bioconjugation reagent suitable for the cross-linking of biomolecules through copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition and thiol Michael addition reactions under biorthogonal conditions. The reagent is easily clicked to an acetylene-containing DNA or protein and then reacts with cysteine-containing peptides or proteins to form covalent cross-links. Several examples of bioconjugations of ethynyl- or octadiynyl-modified DNA with peptides, p53 protein, or alkyne-modified human carbonic anhydrase with peptides are given.

  19. Application of the Charlesby model to the radiation-induced chain reaction cross-linking of oxirane functionalised polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Julian J. E-mail: julian.j.murphy@awe.co.uk; Jones, Richard G

    2001-01-01

    A range of copolymers containing styrene and epoxystyrene, when formulated with a photo-acid generator, undergo a cross-linking reaction by a chain reaction mechanism when exposed to high-energy radiation in an electron beam lithographic writing machine. The sensitivities of the formulations are shown to correlate with a simple kinetic model for the radiation chemistry of the system. Deductions about the nature of the cross-linking species have been made by comparing the behaviour of the epoxystyrene system with that observed for an epoxy novolac. (author)

  20. Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linking of TendonMechanical Effects at the Level of the Tendon Fascicle and Fibril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P.; Svensson, R.B.; Aagaard, P.;

    2009-01-01

    were examined by atomic force microscopy. Peak forces increased from 1379 to 2622 pN while an extended Hertz fit of force-indentation data showed a 24 fold increase in Young's modulus on indentation. The effect of glutaraldehyde cross-linking on the tensile properties of a single collagen fibril...... was investigated by a novel methodology based on atomic force spectroscopy. The Young's modulus of a secluded fibril increased from 407 MPa to 1.1 GPa with glutaraldehyde treatment. Collectively, the findings indicate that cross-linking at the level of the collagen fibril is of key importance for the mechanical...

  1. The release behavior and kinetic evaluation of tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked Ter polymeric hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malana Muhammad A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study Hydrogels, being stimuli responsive are considered to be effective for targeted and sustained drug delivery. The main purpose for this work was to study the release behavior and kinetic evaluation of Tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked ter polymeric hydrogels. Methods Ter-polymers of methacrylate, vinyl acetate and acrylic acid cross linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA were prepared by free radical polymerization. The drug release rates, dynamic swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of hydrogels ranging in composition from 1-10 mol% EGDMA were studied. Tramadol HCl was used as model drug substance. The release behavior was investigated at pH 8 where all formulations exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Results and major conclusion Absorbency was found to be more than 99% indicating good drug loading capability of these hydrogels towards the selected drug substance. Formulations designed with increasing amounts of EGDMA had a decreased equilibrium media content as well as media penetrating velocity and thus exhibited a slower drug release rate. Fitting of release data to different kinetic models indicate that the kinetic order shifts from the first to zero order as the concentration of drug was increased in the medium, showing gradual independency of drug release towards its concentration. Formulations with low drug content showed best fitness with Higuchi model whereas those with higher concentration of drug followed Hixson-Crowell model with better correlation values indicating that the drug release from these formulations depends more on change in surface area and diameter of tablets than that on concentration of the drug. Release exponent (n derived from Korse-Meyer Peppas equation implied that the release of Tramadol HCl from these formulations was generally non-Fickian (n > 0.5 > 1 showing swelling controlled mechanism. The mechanical strength and controlled

  2. The Release Behavior and Kinetic Evaluation of Tramadol HCl from Chemically Cross Linked Ter Polymeric Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Malana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Hydrogels, being stimuli responsive are considered to be effective for targeted and sustained drug delivery. The main purpose for this work was to study the release behavior and kinetic evaluation of Tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked ter polymeric hydrogels.MethodsTer-polymers of methacrylate, vinyl acetate and acrylic acid cross linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA were prepared by free radical polymerization. The drug release rates, dynamic swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of hydrogels ranging in composition from 1-10 mol % EGDMA were studied. Tramadol HCl was used as model drug substance. The release behavior was investigated at pH 8 where all formulations exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism.Results and major conclusion: Absorbency was found to be more than 99% indicating good drug loading capability of these hydrogels towards the selected drug substance. Formulations designed with increasing amounts of EGDMA had a decreased equilibrium media content as well as media penetrating velocity and thus exhibited a slower drug release rate. Fitting of release data to different kinetic models indicate that the kinetic order shifts from the first to zero order as the concentration of drug was increased in the medium, showing gradual independency of drug release towards its concentration. Formulations with low drug content showed best fitness with Higuchi model whereas those with higher concentration of drug followed Hixson-Crowell model with better correlation values indicating that the drug release from these formulations depends more on change in surface area and diameter of tablets than that on concentration of the drug. Release exponent (n derived from Korse-Meyer Peppas equation implied that the release of Tramadol HCl from these formulations was generally non-Fickian (n>0.5>1 showing swelling controlled mechanism. The mechanical strength and controlled release capability of

  3. Gamma-irradiated cross-linked LDPE foams: Characteristics and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, E. C. L.; Scagliusi, S. R.; Parra, D. F.; Lugão, A. B.

    2013-03-01

    Foamed polymers are future materials, as they are increasingly considered "green materials" due to their interesting properties at very low consumption of raw materials. They can be used to improve appearance of insulation structures, thermal and acoustic insulation, core materials for sandwich panels, fabrication of furniture and flotation materials or to reduce costs involving materials. Low-density polyethylene is widely used because of its excellent properties, such as softness, elasticity, processibility and insulation. In general, cross-linking is often applied to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of polyethylene products, due to the formation of a three-dimensional network. In particular for the production of PE foams, cross-linking is applied prior the expansion to control bubble formation, cell characteristics and final properties of the foam. However, the usual production process of PE foams is a process in which a gaseous blowing agent is injected into a melted thermoplastic polymer, under pressure, to form a solution between blowing agent and melted polymer. An extrusion system is provided for foaming the polymer, supplied to an extruder and moving through a rotating screw. The pressure must be high enough to keep the gas blowing agent (or foaming agent) in the solution with the melt. The foaming agent is then diffused and dissolved in the molten material to form a single-phase solution. In the present work carbon dioxide was used as the bowing agent, a chemically stable and non-toxic gas, with good diffusion coefficient; gas pressure used varied within a 20-40 bar range. Some requirements for physical foaming are required, as low friction heat generation, homogeneous melt temperature distribution, melt temperature at die exit just above crystallization temperature (die) and high melt strength during expansion. This work studied foams properties gamma-irradiated within 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 kGy, from a LDPE exhibiting 2.6 g/10 min Melt

  4. Fracturing Fluid (Guar Polymer Gel Degradation Study by using Oxidative and Enzyme Breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Kyaw

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative and enzyme breakers are used in this research project with the main objective to study on the degradation pattern of fracturing fluid (i.e., guar polymer gel as a function of time, temperature and breaker concentration itself. The fracturing fluid used in hydraulic fracturing or frac pack contain a chemical breakers to reduce the viscosity of the fluid intermingled with the proppant. Chemical breakers reduce viscosity of the guar polymer by cleaving the polymer into small-molecular-weight fragments. The reduction of viscosity will facilitate the flow-back of residual polymer providing rapid recovery of polymer from proppant pack. Ineffective breakers or misapplication of breakers can result in screen-outs or flow-back of viscous fluids both of which can significantly decrease the well productivity. Breaker activity of low to medium temperature range oxidative and enzyme breaker systems was evaluated. ViCon NF an oxidative breaker (Halliburton product and GBW 12- CD an enzyme breaker (BJ Services product were used in this research project with the main objective to study on the degradation pattern of fracturing fluid (guar polymer gel as a function of (time, temperature and breaker concentration itself. This study provides focuses on the way to mix the fracturing fluid, compositions of the fracturing fluid and how to conduct the crosslink and break test. Crosslink test indicate the optimum cross-linker concentration to produce good crosslink gel and the break test gave the characteristic of the gel during degradation process and also the break time. Besides relying on the laboratory experiment, information obtained from research on SPE and US Pattern papers were used to make a comparison study on oxidative and enzyme breakers properties. Degradation pattern observed from the break test showed that reduction in gel viscosity depends on time, temperature and breaker concentration. Observations from experiment also revealed that small

  5. Novel thermally cross-linked polyimide membranes for ethanol dehydration via pervaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. In this work, two novel carboxyl-containing polyimides, 2,2\\'-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride-4,4\\'-diaminodiphenylmethane/3,5-diaminobenzoic acid (6FDA-MDA/DABA, FMD) and 3,3\\',4,4\\'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride-4,4\\'-diaminodiphenylmethane/3,5-diaminobenzoic acid (BTDA-MDA/DABA, BMD), are synthesized via chemical and thermal imidization methods, respectively, and employed as pervaporation membranes for ethanol dehydration. Chemical structures of the two polyimides are examined by FTIR and TGA to confirm the successful synthesis. A post thermal treatment of the polyimide membranes with the temperature range of 250 to 400. °C is applied, and its effects on the membrane morphology and separation performance are studied and characterized by FTIR, TGA, WXRD, solubility and sorption test. It is believed that the thermal treatment of the carboxyl-containing polyimide membrane at a relative low temperature only leads to the physical annealing, while it may cause the decarboxylation-induced cross-linking at a higher temperature. In addition, the operation temperature in pervaporation is also varied and shown to be an important factor to affect the final membrane performance. Performance benchmarking shows that the developed polyimide membranes both have superior pervaporation performance to most other flat-sheet dense membranes. This work is believed to shed useful insights on polyimide membranes for pervaporation applications.

  6. Zwitterionic reagents for labeling, cross-linking and improving the performance of chemiluminescent immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrajan, Anand; Sharpe, David; Wen, David

    2012-03-01

    Improving reagent performance in immunoassays both to enhance assay sensitivity and to minimize interference are ongoing challenges in clinical diagnostics. We describe herein the syntheses of a new class of hydrophilic reagents containing sulfobetaine zwitterions and their applications. These zwitterionic reagents are potentially useful for improving the properties of immunoassay reagents. We demonstrate for the first time that zwitterion labeling is a general and viable strategy for reducing the non-specific binding of proteins to microparticles and, to improve the aqueous solubility of hydrophobic peptides. We also describe the synthesis of zwitterionic cross-linking reagents and demonstrate their utility for peptide conjugation. In automated, chemiluminescent immunoassays, improved assay performance was observed for a hydrophobic, small analyte (theophylline) using an acridinium ester conjugate with a zwitterionic sulfobetaine linker compared to a hexa(ethylene)glycol linker. Sandwich assay performance for a large analyte (thyroid stimulating hormone) was similar for the two acridinium ester labels. These results indicate that zwitterions are complementary to poly(ethylene)glycol in improving the aqueous solubility and reducing the non-specific binding of chemiluminescent acridinium ester conjugates. PMID:22278720

  7. Optimization of protein cross-linking in bicomponent electrospun scaffolds for therapeutic use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papa, Antonio [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, National Research Council of Italy (IPCB-CNR), V.le Kennedy 54, Naples 80125 (Italy); IMAST SCaRL, Piazza Bovio 22, 80133 Naples (Italy); Guarino, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.guarino@cnr.it; Cirillo, Valentina; Oliviero, Olimpia; Ambrosio, Luigi [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, National Research Council of Italy (IPCB-CNR), V.le Kennedy 54, Naples 80125 (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Bio-instructive electrospun scaffolds based on the combination of synthetic polymers, such as PCL or PLLA, and natural polymers (e.g., collagen) have been extensively investigated as temporary extracellular matrix (ECM) analogues able to support cell proliferation and stem cell differentiation for the regeneration of several tissues. The growing use of natural polymers as carrier of bioactive molecules is introducing new ideas for the design of polymeric drug delivery systems based on electrospun fibers with improved bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy and programmed drug release. In particular, the release mechanism is driven by the use of water soluble proteins (i.e., collagen, gelatin) which fully degrade in in vitro microenvironment, thus delivering the active principles. However, these protein are generally rapidly digested by enzymes (i.e., collagenase) produced by many different cell types, both in vivo and in vitro with significant drawbacks in tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery. Here, we aim at investigating different chemical strategies to improve the in vitro stability and mechanical strength of scaffolds against enzymatic degradation, by modifying the biodegradation rates of proteins embedded in bicomponent fibers. By comparing scaffolds treated by different cross-linking agents (i.e., GC, EDC, BDDGE), we have provided an extensive morphological/chemical/physical characterization via SEM and TGA to identify the best conditions to control drug release via protein degradation from bicomponent fibers without compromising in vitro cell response.

  8. Physical Cross-Linking Starch-Based Zwitterionic Hydrogel Exhibiting Excellent Biocompatibility, Protein Resistance, and Biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Zhang, Yabin; Wang, Qiangsong; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Boguang; Ji, Feng; Dong, Dianyu; Gao, Lina; Cui, Yuanlu; Yao, Fanglian

    2016-06-22

    In this work, a novel starch-based zwitterionic copolymer, starch-graft-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (ST-g-PSBMA), was synthesized via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. Starch, which formed the main chain, can be degraded completely in vivo, and the pendent segments of PSBMA endowed the copolymer with excellent protein resistance properties. This ST-g-PSBMA copolymer could self-assemble into a physical hydrogel in normal saline, and studies of the formation mechanism indicated that the generation of the physical hydrogel was driven by electrostatic interactions between PSBMA segments. The obtained hydrogels were subjected to detailed analysis by scanning electron microscopy, swelling ratio, protein resistance, and rheology tests. Toxicity and hemolysis analysis demonstrated that the ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels possess excellent biocompatibility and hemocompatibility. Moreover, the cytokine secretion assays (IL-6, TNF-α, and NO) confirmed that ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels had low potential to trigger the activation of macrophages and were suitable for in vivo biomedical applications. On the basis of these in vitro results, the ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels were implanted in SD rats. The tissue responses to hydrogel implantation and the hydrogel degradation in vivo were determined by histological analysis (Hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson, and Masson's Trichrome stains). The results presented in this study demonstrate that the physical cross-linking, starch-based zwitterionic hydrogels possess excellent protein resistance, low macrophage-activation properties, and good biocompatibility, and they are a promising candidate for an in vivo biomedical application platform.

  9. Composite Films of Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Bifunctional Cross-linking Cellulose Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirviö, Juho Antti; Honkaniemi, Samuli; Visanko, Miikka; Liimatainen, Henrikki

    2015-09-01

    Long and flexible cellulose nanofibrils or stiff and short cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are both promising lightweight materials with high strength and the potential to serve as reinforcing agents in many polymeric materials. In this study, bifunctional reactive cellulose nanocrystals (RCNCs) with carboxyl and aldehyde functionalities were used as reinforcements to prepare acetal-bonding cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films. Two RCNCs were obtained through the mechanical homogenization of partially carboxylated dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) with a residual aldehyde content of 0.55 and 1.93 mmol/g and a carboxyl content of 1.65 and 1.93 mmol/g, respectively. The mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of PVA-RCNC films with a variable mass ratio of RCNCs (0.5-10%) were determined. Reference CNCs without reactive aldehydes were obtained through the reduction of aldehyde functionalities to primary hydroxide groups, and their reinforcing effect was compared to RCNCs. With the addition of 10% acetal-bonding RCNCs with respect to PVA weight, the tensile strength and Young's modulus were up to 2-fold greater than those of pure PVA film. An addition of only 0.5% RCNCs improved the tensile strength of the PVA film by 66% and the modulus by 61%. In comparison, a significantly lower reinforcing effect (19% with CNC loading of 0.5%) was found using reference CNCs. PVA's effective oxygen barrier and thermal properties were preserved when RCNCs were introduced into the films. PMID:26280660

  10. Electrostatically driven drumhead resonators based on freestanding membranes of cross-linked gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicke, Hendrik; Schröter, Clemens J; Vossmeyer, Tobias

    2016-09-21

    Freestanding, nanometer-thin membranes of alkanedithiol cross-linked gold nanoparticles represent elastic, mechanically robust and electrically conductive materials, which are interesting for the fabrication of novel nano- and microelectromechanical devices. In this work we present the first electrostatically driven drumhead resonators based on such nanoparticle membranes. These circular membranes have a thickness of 33 to 52 nm, a diameter of either 50 μm or 100 μm, and are equally spaced from their back electrode by ∼10 μm. Using an interferometric nanovibration analyzer various vibrational modes with resonance amplitudes of up to several 100 nm could be detected when the membranes are excited by applying AC voltages (high kHz range and quality factors Q up to ∼2000. Finally, vibrational spectra and observed mode patterns could be well interpreted using the theory for a clamped circular membrane with negligible bending stiffness. Our findings mark an important step towards the integration of freestanding gold nanoparticle composite membranes into electromechanical devices with various applications, such as novel types of pressure or mass sensors. PMID:27471074

  11. Comparison of Riboflavin/Ultraviolet-A Cross-Linking in Porcine, Rabbit, and Human Sclera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the biomechanical properties of porcine, rabbit, and human sclera before and after riboflavin/ultraviolet-A (UVA collagen cross-linking (CXL. Methods. Eight rabbits, 8 porcine eyeballs, and 8 human eyeballs were included. One rabbit eye and half of each bisected human and porcine eyeball were treated with riboflavin/UVA CXL. Untreated fellow rabbit eyes and eyeball halves served as controls. A 10 mm × 20 mm scleral band was harvested from each specimen. From this band, two 3.5 mm × 15.0 mm strips were prepared for biomechanical testing. The biomechanical parameters were ultimate stress, stress and Young’s modulus. Results. Values of stress, and Young’s modulus showed that human sclera was 4 times stiffer than porcine sclera and 3 times stiffer than rabbit sclera. In rabbit sclera, both the stress and Young’s modulus were significantly increased by CXL (P0.05. Conclusions. Human sclera has higher biomechanical stiffness than porcine and rabbit sclera. With the same irradiation dose, riboflavin/UVA CXL increases the biomechanical stiffness of rabbit sclera but not porcine or human sclera.

  12. Silica cross-linked micelles loading with silicon nanoparticles: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guo-Hui; Barras, Alexandre; Boussekey, Luc; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2013-08-14

    A new family of luminescent and stable silicon-based nanoparticles (NPs), silica cross-linked pluronic F127 (PF127) micelles loaded with decyl capped silicon nanoparticles (decyl-SiNPs), were synthesized in aqueous media. The decyl-SiNPs were prepared by first liberating hydride terminated SiNPs (H-SiNPs) from a porous silicon matrix followed by their functionalization via hydrosilylation with 1-decene under photochemical activation. The silicon-based NPs exhibit bright photoluminescence (PL) with a quantum yield of ∼3.8% and peaking at ∼2.0 eV, which lies within the transmission window that is useful for biological imaging. They display a hydrodynamic size of ∼25 nm with exterior polyethylene oxide (PEO) blocks stretching out in aqueous media. Chloroform was found to quench the excitation at energy above 4.9 eV by shielding the incident light or relaxing the charge carriers, which highlights that caution against solvent interference should be taken when performing the studies on PL origin and luminescence efficiency of SiNPs. For PF127, the blocks of hydrophilic PEO participate in the PL quenching, while poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) does not. The colloidal solution displays excellent PL stability against salt (NaCl) and temperature but is susceptible to basic solution at pH above 9.

  13. Induction of corneal collagen cross-linking in experimental corneal alkali burns in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Colombo-Barboza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of riboflavin-ultraviolet-A-induced cross-linking (CXL following corneal alkali burns in rabbits. Methods: The right corneas and limbi of ten rabbits were burned using a 1N solution of NaOH and the animals were then divided into two groups: a control group submitted to clinical treatment alone and an experimental group that was treated 1 h after injury with CXL, followed by the same clinical treatment as administered to the controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated post-injury at 1, 7, 15, and 30 days by two independent observers. Following this evaluation, the corneas were excised and examined histologically. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in clinical parameters, such as hyperemia, corneal edema, ciliary injection, limbal ischemia, secretion, corneal neovascularization, symblepharon, or blepharospasm, at any of the time-points evaluated. However, the size of the epithelial defect was significantly smaller in the CXL group (p<0.05 (day 15: p=0.008 and day 30: p=0.008 and the extent of the corneal injury (opacity lesion was also smaller (day 30: p=0.021. Histopathology showed the presence of collagen bridges linking the collagen fibers in only the CXL group. Conclusions: These results suggest that the use of CXL may improve the prognosis of acute corneal alkali burns.

  14. Proteins cross-linked to U1 RNA by ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, A.; Jimenez, R.; Matos, J.

    1987-05-01

    Proteins associated to U1 RNA react with antinuclear antibodies obtained from sera of patients with autoimmune diseases. K.B. cells were labeled with /sup 3/H-amino acids of /sup 3/H-uridine. The U1 RNA particles were immunoprecipitated. Protein and RNA analysis was by electrophoresis and fluorography. The ratio of material at the top of the RNA gel to the U1 RNA band was 0.79. After exposure of the cells to UV irradiation, the ratio was 5.04. A substantial amount of U1 RNA was cross-linked to proteins or other nuclear components. Protein patterns obtained from U1 RNP particles subjected to UV irradiation revealed a change in electrophoretic mobility by four proteins in the molecular range of 14,000 to 28,000 daltons. The 33,000 dalton protein was reduced by 50% but its electrophoretic mobility was unchanged. The protein band at 68,000 daltons was unchanged in amount or mobility by UV irradiation. It is concluded that the low molecular weight proteins (14,000 - 28,000) and the protein of 33,000 daltons are in close proximity to U1 RNA and possibly play a role in the molecular function(s) attributed to U1 RNA.

  15. Optimization of protein cross-linking in bicomponent electrospun scaffolds for therapeutic use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Antonio; Guarino, Vincenzo; Cirillo, Valentina; Oliviero, Olimpia; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Bio-instructive electrospun scaffolds based on the combination of synthetic polymers, such as PCL or PLLA, and natural polymers (e.g., collagen) have been extensively investigated as temporary extracellular matrix (ECM) analogues able to support cell proliferation and stem cell differentiation for the regeneration of several tissues. The growing use of natural polymers as carrier of bioactive molecules is introducing new ideas for the design of polymeric drug delivery systems based on electrospun fibers with improved bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy and programmed drug release. In particular, the release mechanism is driven by the use of water soluble proteins (i.e., collagen, gelatin) which fully degrade in in vitro microenvironment, thus delivering the active principles. However, these protein are generally rapidly digested by enzymes (i.e., collagenase) produced by many different cell types, both in vivo and in vitro with significant drawbacks in tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery. Here, we aim at investigating different chemical strategies to improve the in vitro stability and mechanical strength of scaffolds against enzymatic degradation, by modifying the biodegradation rates of proteins embedded in bicomponent fibers. By comparing scaffolds treated by different cross-linking agents (i.e., GC, EDC, BDDGE), we have provided an extensive morphological/chemical/physical characterization via SEM and TGA to identify the best conditions to control drug release via protein degradation from bicomponent fibers without compromising in vitro cell response.

  16. Polar Liquid Crystal Elastomers Cross Linked Far from Thermodynamic Phase Transitions: Dislocation Loops in Smectic Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusril Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematic networks with three different concentrations of polar and nonpolar mesogens and the same concentration of a novel cross-linking agent give rise to unusual liquid single crystal elastomers (LSCEs that are transparent monodomain nematic networks with smectic clusters. The largest spontaneous length change is observed in the sample with 70 mol% of the polar mesogen which also has the highest glass transition temperature and smectic clusters with a slowly increasing but nearly constant layer spacing on cooling from 90°C to 25°C. X-ray scattering intensity from smectic clusters with layer spacings that monotonically increase on cooling first increases to a maximum at T*~60∘C corresponding to clusters of about 30 layers. Below T∗, the scattering intensity decreases as the number of layers in a cluster decreases. To account for this surprising nonlinear behavior that correlates with nonlinear features of the networks’ macroscopic spontaneous shape change and birefringence, a model is proposed where dislocations form in the layers at T∗. Below T∗, more dislocations form to break down the layer structure. The possibility of dislocation formation at T∗ independent of mesogenic concentrations is attributed to a conformational change in the crosslinker which is present at the same concentration in the three LSCEs.

  17. Physical Cross-Linking Starch-Based Zwitterionic Hydrogel Exhibiting Excellent Biocompatibility, Protein Resistance, and Biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Zhang, Yabin; Wang, Qiangsong; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Boguang; Ji, Feng; Dong, Dianyu; Gao, Lina; Cui, Yuanlu; Yao, Fanglian

    2016-06-22

    In this work, a novel starch-based zwitterionic copolymer, starch-graft-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (ST-g-PSBMA), was synthesized via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. Starch, which formed the main chain, can be degraded completely in vivo, and the pendent segments of PSBMA endowed the copolymer with excellent protein resistance properties. This ST-g-PSBMA copolymer could self-assemble into a physical hydrogel in normal saline, and studies of the formation mechanism indicated that the generation of the physical hydrogel was driven by electrostatic interactions between PSBMA segments. The obtained hydrogels were subjected to detailed analysis by scanning electron microscopy, swelling ratio, protein resistance, and rheology tests. Toxicity and hemolysis analysis demonstrated that the ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels possess excellent biocompatibility and hemocompatibility. Moreover, the cytokine secretion assays (IL-6, TNF-α, and NO) confirmed that ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels had low potential to trigger the activation of macrophages and were suitable for in vivo biomedical applications. On the basis of these in vitro results, the ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels were implanted in SD rats. The tissue responses to hydrogel implantation and the hydrogel degradation in vivo were determined by histological analysis (Hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson, and Masson's Trichrome stains). The results presented in this study demonstrate that the physical cross-linking, starch-based zwitterionic hydrogels possess excellent protein resistance, low macrophage-activation properties, and good biocompatibility, and they are a promising candidate for an in vivo biomedical application platform. PMID:27249052

  18. Preparation and characterization of resistant starch type IV nanoparticles through ultrasonication and miniemulsion cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongbo; Zheng, Jiong; Xia, Xuejuan; Ren, Tingyuan; Kan, Jianquan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the properties of resistant starch type IV (chemically modified starch, RS4) prepared from a new and convenient synthesis route by using ultrasonication combined with water-in-oil miniemulsion cross-linking technique. A three-factor Box-Behnken design and optimization was used to minimize particle size through the developed RS4 nanoparticles. The predicted minimized Z-Avel (576.1nm) under the optimum conditions of the process variables (ultrasonic power, 214.57W; sonication time, 114.73min; and oil/water ratio, 10.54:1) was very close to the experimental value (651.0nm) determined in a batch experiment. After preparing the RS4 nanoparticles, morphological, physical, chemical, and functional properties were assessed. Results revealed that RS4 nanoparticle size reached about 600nm. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that ultrasonication induced notches and grooves on the surface. Under polarized light, the polarized cross was impaired. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the crystalline structure was disrupted. Smaller or no endotherms were exhibited in DSC analysis. In the FTIR graph, new peaks at 1532.91 and 1451.50cm(-1) were observed, and pasting properties were reduced. Amylose content, solubility, and SP increased, but RS content decreased. Anti-digestibility remained after ultrasonication. The prepared RS4 nanoparticles could be extensively used in biomedical applications and in the development of new medical materials. PMID:26877007

  19. Polymorphism of highly cross-linked F-actin networks: Probing multiple length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam T.; Hirst, Linda S.

    2011-03-01

    The assembly properties of F-actin filaments in the presence of different biological cross-linker concentrations and types have been investigated using a combined approach of fluorescence confocal microscopy and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation. In particular for highly cross-linked regimes, new network morphologies are observed. Complex network formation and the details of the resulting structure are strongly dependent on the ratio of cross-linkers to actin monomers and cross-linker shape but only weakly dependent on overall actin concentration and filament length. The work presented here may help to provide some fundamental understanding of how excessive cross-linkers interact with the actin filament solution, creating different structures in the cell under high cross-linker concentrations. F-actin is not only of biological importance but also, as an example of a semiflexible polymer, has attracted significant interest in its physical behavior. In combination with different cross-linkers semiflexible filaments may provide new routes to bio-materials development and act as the inspiration for new hierarchical network-based materials.

  20. Photo-responsive polyethyleneimine microcapsules cross-linked by ortho-nitrobenzyl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiying; Tong, Weijun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-02-01

    Intelligent capsules are widely used as carriers for loading small molecules and particles for their capacity to respond to environmental stimuli. In this study, photo-responsive polyethyleneimine (PEI) microcapsules were fabricated using 4-bromomethyl-3-nitrobenzoic acid (BNBA) bearing a photodegradable ortho-nitrobenzyl group as a cross-linker. PEI-doped CaCO3 particles were used as the sacrificial templates, in which the PEI molecules were cross-linked by BNBA molecules under the activation of 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIEA). After the removal of CaCO3 particles by hydrochloric acid, the PEI-BNBA capsules were obtained. Since the C-N bond that formed via reaction of benzyl bromide and amine is photo-cleavable, the capsules could be decomposed under UV irradiation at 365nm. The loaded macromolecules could be released upon UV irradiation, exhibiting the microcapsules' potential applications in the field of controlled release. PMID:26513733