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Sample records for age chronic non-communicable

  1. Social participation and healthy ageing: a neglected, significant protective factor for chronic non communicable conditions

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    Joseph Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low and middle income countries are ageing at a much faster rate than richer countries, especially in Asia. This is happening at a time of globalisation, migration, urbanisation, and smaller families. Older people make significant contributions to their families and communities, but this is often undermined by chronic disease and preventable disability. Social participation can help to protect against morbidity and mortality. We argue that social participation deserves much greater attention as a protective factor, and that older people can play a useful role in the prevention and management of chronic conditions. We present, as an example, a low-cost, sustainable strategy that has increased social participation among elders in Sri Lanka. Discussion Current international policy initiatives to address the increasing prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases are focused on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and cancers, responsible for much premature mortality. Interventions to modify their shared risk factors of high salt and fat diets, inactivity, smoking and alcohol use are advocated. But older people also suffer chronic conditions that primarily affect quality of life, and have a wider range of risk factors. There is strong epidemiological and physiological evidence that social isolation, in particular, is as important a risk factor for chronic diseases as the 'lifestyle' risk factors, yet it is currently neglected. There are useful experiences of inexpensive and sustainable strategies to improve social participation among older people in low and lower middle income countries. Our experience with forming Elders' Clubs with retired tea estate workers in Sri Lanka suggests many benefits, including social support and participation, inter-generational contact, a collective voice, and facilitated access to health promotion activities, and to health care and social welfare services. Summary Policies to

  2. Chronic non-communicable diseases.

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    Unwin, N; Alberti, K G M M

    2006-01-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) account for almost 60% of global mortality, and 80% of deaths from NCD occur in low- and middle-income countries. One quarter of these deaths--almost 9 million in 2005--are in men and women aged disease (30% of total global mortality), cancers (13%), chronic respiratory disease (7%) and diabetes (2%). These conditions share a small number of behavioural risk factors, which include a diet high in saturated fat and low in fresh fruit and vegetables, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking, and alcohol excess. In low- and middle-income countries such risk factors tend to be concentrated in urban areas and their prevalences are increasing as a result of rapid urbanization and the increasing globalisation of the food, tobacco and alcohol industries. Because NCD have a major impact on men and women of working age and their elderly dependents, they result in lost income, lost opportunities for investment, and overall lower levels of economic development. Reductions in the incidences of many NCD and their complications are, however, already possible. Up to 80% of all cases of cardiovascular disease or type-2 diabetes and 40% of all cases of cancer, for example, are probably preventable based on current knowledge. In addition, highly cost-effective measures exist for the prevention of some of the complications of established cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Achieving these gains will require a broad range of integrated, population-based interventions as well as measures focused on the individuals at high risk. At present, the international-assistance community provides scant resources for the control of NCD in poor countries, partly, at least, because NCD continue to be wrongly perceived as predominantly diseases of the better off. As urbanization continues apace and populations age, investment in the prevention and control of NCD in low-and middle-income countries can no longer be ignored. PMID:16899148

  3. Age, chronic non-communicable disease and choice of traditional Chinese and western medicine outpatient services in a Chinese population

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    Yeoh Eng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 Hong Kong reunified with China and the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM started with this change in national identity. However, the two latest discussion papers on Hong Kong's healthcare reform have failed to mention the role of TCM in primary healthcare, despite TCM's public popularity and its potential in tackling the chronic non-communicable disease (NCD challenge in the ageing population. This study aims to describe the interrelationship between age, non-communicable disease (NCD status, and the choice of TCM and western medicine (WM services in the Hong Kong population. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the Thematic Household Survey (THS 2005 dataset. The THS is a Hong Kong population representative face to face survey was conducted by the Hong Kong Administrative Region Government of China. A random sample of respondents aged >15 years were invited to report their use of TCM and WM in the past year, together with other health and demographic information. A total of 33,263 persons were interviewed (response rate 79.2%. Results Amongst those who received outpatient services in the past year (n = 18,087, 80.23% only visited WM doctors, 3.17% consulted TCM practitioners solely, and 16.60% used both type of services (double consulters. Compared to those who only consulted WM doctor, multinomial logistic regression showed that double consulters were more likely to be older, female, NCD patients, and have higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Further analysis showed that the association between age and double consulting was curvilinear (inverted U shaped regardless of NCD status. Middle aged (45-60 years NCD patients, and the NCD free "young old" group (60-75 years were most likely to double consult. On the other hand, the relationship between age and use of TCM as an alternative to WM was linear regardless of NCD status. The NCD free segment of the population was more inclined to use TCM alone

  4. Advancing Surveillance of Chronic and Non-Communicable Disease—A Path Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Weitzman, Elissa R.; Waheed, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To characterize current and future approaches to surveillance of chronic and non-communicable diseases and establish the agenda for both methodological and condition-specific progress. Introduction: Major global stakeholder groups including the United Nations, World Health Organization and Institute of Medicine seek to raise awareness of the threat to global health and security of chronic and non-communicable diseases. These conditions comprise 50–85% of the global annual morbidity...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF LIFESTYLE-RELATED RISK FACTORS CONTRIBUTING FOR CHRONIC NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASE IN PATIENTS VISITING RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Dahal Prasanna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Non-communicable diseases remain an area of high public health concern especially in developing countries where growing middle class and ever changing lifestyle have led to the rapid increase in the burden of non-communicable disease. The study aimed to assess various lifestyle and behavioral risk factors contributing for non-communicable chronic disease in patients visiting rural tertiary care hospital. A total of 152 patients were selected and analyzed in the study out of which 49 (32.22% were female and 102 (67.78% were male. The average age of the male patients were found to be 61.79years (SD±9.28 and females were 57.1years (SD±10.3. Majority of patients were from lower socioeconomic and educational status. Various risk factors contributing for chronic non-communicable disease that are identified in the study were advance age i.e. > 40years 142 (93.42%, genetically risk factor 46 (30.26%, poor income status 120 (78.95%, occupational exposure to dust, smoke and irritants 111 (73.03%, high body mass index (BMI75 (49.34%, stress 110 (72.37%, inadequate sleep 5 (3.29%, smoking habit 69 (45.4%, Alcohol consuming habit 63 (41.48%, lack of physical activity 59 (38.81%, rare fruit consuming habit 72 (47.37% and less vegetable consumption i.e. ≤ 1/day were 32 (21.05%. Study concluded that substantially high levels of the various lifestyle and behavioral related risk factors such as poor socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, high BMI or obesity, stress etc, were significantly associated in patients with chronic disease.

  6. [Nutritional transition and non-communicable diet-related chronic diseases in developing countries].

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    Maire, Bernard; Lioret, Sandrine; Gartner, Agnès; Delpeuch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition similar to that which occurred in industrialized countries in previous centuries. While infectious diseases are still the main cause of morbidity and mortality, there is a marked increase in chronic non-communicable diseases, particularly in the most advanced developing countries, and these diseases are expected to take the lead in a decade or two. Most of these diseases, above all coronary heart diseases, stroke and diabetes, are related to diet and lifestyles, for example tobacco and alcohol consumption. As a matter of fact, these societies are also facing a growing epidemic of overweight and obesity, due to the frequent energetic imbalance between energy-dense food consumption and reduced daily physical expenditure. This health transition, favoured by demographic changes towards aging populations, is occurring at an increased pace in urban societies widely exposed to the modernization of lifestyle, sedentary occupation, and to lipid- and sugar-rich food, often poor in fibre and micronutrients. Increased world access to cheaper vegetable oil is thought to have triggered off this accelerated and generalized trend, though animal food, rich in saturated fat, and imported or locally-made industrialized food also play a role. While increased national and household incomes facilitate the initial change, as the transition advances poor people progressively become the main victims, as has been observed in the more advanced developing countries. Metabolic imprinting due to intra-uterine and infant malnutrition, which are still common in these societies, is also thought to play a significant role in the increase in the expression of insulin resistance, obesity and chronic diseases when these children are exposed to abundant food and modern lifestyle, later in life. Treatment and secondary prevention of nutrition-related chronic diseases and associated disabilities have an

  7. Adapting HIV patient and program monitoring tools for chronic non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Letebo, Mekitew; Shiferaw, Fassil

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become a huge public health concern in developing countries. Many resource-poor countries facing this growing epidemic, however, lack systems for an organized and comprehensive response to NCDs. Lack of NCD national policy, strategies, treatment guidelines and surveillance and monitoring systems are features of health systems in many developing countries. Successfully responding to the problem requires a number of actions by the countri...

  8. Self-reported prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases and associated factors among older adults in South Africa

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    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs of older adults in South Africa. This study aims to investigate the self-reported prevalences of major chronic NCDs and their predictors among older South Africans. Methods: We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the self-reported presence of chronic NCDs suffered, namely, arthritis, stroke, angina, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, depression, and hypertension. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics: age, gender, education, wealth status, race, marital status, and residence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic factors predictive of the presence of chronic NCDs. Results: The prevalence of chronic NCDs was 51.8%. The prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions was 22.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, being in age groups 60–79 and 70–79, being Coloured or Asian, having no schooling, having greater wealth, and residing in an urban area were associated with the presence of NCDs. Conclusion: The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people places a heavy burden on the healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most.

  9. Self-reported prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases and associated factors among older adults in South Africa

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    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Musekiwa, Alfred; Kose, Zamakayise; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Davids, Adlai; Ramlagan, Shandir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) of older adults in South Africa. This study aims to investigate the self-reported prevalences of major chronic NCDs and their predictors among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the self-reported presence of chronic NCDs suffered, namely, arthritis, stroke, angina, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, depression, and hypertension. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics: age, gender, education, wealth status, race, marital status, and residence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic factors predictive of the presence of chronic NCDs. Results The prevalence of chronic NCDs was 51.8%. The prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions) was 22.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, being in age groups 60–79 and 70–79, being Coloured or Asian, having no schooling, having greater wealth, and residing in an urban area were associated with the presence of NCDs. Conclusion The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people places a heavy burden on the healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most. PMID:24054088

  10. Chronic Non-Communicable Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Disease in sub-Saharan Africa: An Academic Model for Countering the Epidemic

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    Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Carter, E. Jane; Binanay, Cynthia; Corey, G. Ralph; Einterz, Robert M.; Tierney, William M.; Velazquez, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Non-communicable diseases are rapidly overtaking infectious, perinatal, nutritional and maternal diseases as the major causes of worldwide death and disability. It is estimated that within the next 10-15 years, the increasing burden of chronic diseases and the ageing of the population will expose the world to an unprecedented burden of chronic diseases. Preventing the potential ramifications of a worldwide epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases in a sustainable manner requires coordinated, collaborative efforts. Herein we present our collaboration's strategic plan to understand, treat and prevent chronic cardiovascular and pulmonary disease in Western Kenya which builds on a two decade partnership between academic universities in North America and Kenya; the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH). We emphasize the importance of training Kenyan clinician-investigators who will ultimately lead efforts in cardiovascular and pulmonary disease care, education and research. This penultimate aim will be achieved by our five main goals. Our goals include creating an administrative core capable of managing operations, develop clinical and clinical research training curricula, enhancing existing technology infrastructure and implementing relevant research programs. Leveraging a strong international academic partnership with respective expertise in cardiovascular medicine, pulmonary medicine and medical informatics we have undertaken to understand and counter cardiovascular and pulmonary disease in Kenya by addressing patient care, teaching and clinical research. PMID:21570512

  11. Care-seeking patterns for fatal non-communicable diseases among women of reproductive age in rural northwest Bangladesh

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    Sikder Shegufta S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though non-communicable diseases contribute to an increasing share of the disease burden in South Asia, health systems in most rural communities are ill-equipped to deal with chronic illness. This analysis seeks to describe care-seeking behavior among women of reproductive age who died from fatal non-communicable diseases as recorded in northwest rural Bangladesh between 2001 and 2007. Methods This analysis utilized data from a large population-based cohort trial in northwest rural Bangladesh. To conduct verbal autopsies of women who died while under study surveillance, physicians interviewed family members to elicit the biomedical symptoms that the women experienced as well as a narrative of the events leading to deaths. We performed qualitative textual analysis of verbal autopsy narratives for 250 women of reproductive age who died from non-communicable diseases between 2001 and 2007. Results The majority of women (94% sought at least one provider for their illnesses. Approximately 71% of women first visited non-certified providers such as village doctors and traditional healers, while 23% first sought care from medically certified providers. After the first point of care, women appeared to switch to medically certified practitioners when treatment from non-certified providers failed to resolve their illness. Conclusions This study suggests that treatment seeking patterns for non-communicable diseases are affected by many of the sociocultural factors that influence care seeking for pregnancy-related illnesses. Families in northwest rural Bangladesh typically delayed seeking treatment from medically certified providers for NCDs due to the cost of services, distance to facilities, established relationships with non-certified providers, and lack of recognition of the severity of illnesses. Most women did not realize initially that they were suffering from a chronic illness. Since women typically reached medically certified

  12. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Chronic Non-communicable Diseases Using WHO Steps Approach in an Adult Population in Delhi

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    Garg, Ankur; Anand, Tanu; Sharma, Urvi; Kishore, Jugal; Chakraborty, Mantosh; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide largely due to prevalence of various risk factors, which can be controlled. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to measure the prevalence of major preventable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, using STEPS approach. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, that included a random sample of 200 adults, was conducted. A study tool based on the...

  13. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Cameroon - burden, determinants and current policies.

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    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Kengne, Andre P

    2011-01-01

    Cameroon is experiencing an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which accounted for 43% of all deaths in 2002. This article reviews the published literature to critically evaluate the evidence on the frequency, determinants and consequences of NCDs in Cameroon, and to identify research, intervention and policy gaps. The rising trends in NCDs have been documented for hypertension and diabetes, with a 2-5 and a 10-fold increase in their respective prevalence between 1994 and 2003. Magnitudes are much higher in urban settings, where increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity (by 54-82%) was observed over the same period. These changes largely result from the adoption of unfavorable eating habits, physical inactivity, and a probable increasing tobacco use. These behavioral changes are driven by the economic development and social mobility, which are part of the epidemiologic transition. There is still a dearth of information on chronic respiratory diseases and cancers, as well as on all NDCs and related risk factors in children and adolescents. More nationally representative data is needed to tract risk factors and consequences of NCDs. These conditions are increasingly been recognized as a priority, mainly through locally generated evidence. Thus, national-level prevention and control programs for chronic diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension) have been established. However, the monitoring and evaluation of these programs is necessary. Budgetary allocations data by the ministry of health would be helpful, to evaluate the investment in NCDs prevention and control. Establishing more effective national-level tobacco control measures and food policies, as well as campaigns to promote healthy diets, physical activity and tobacco cessation would probably contribute to reducing the burden of NCDs. PMID:22112686

  14. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Cameroon - burden, determinants and current policies

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    Echouffo-Tcheugui Justin B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cameroon is experiencing an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, which accounted for 43% of all deaths in 2002. This article reviews the published literature to critically evaluate the evidence on the frequency, determinants and consequences of NCDs in Cameroon, and to identify research, intervention and policy gaps. The rising trends in NCDs have been documented for hypertension and diabetes, with a 2-5 and a 10-fold increase in their respective prevalence between 1994 and 2003. Magnitudes are much higher in urban settings, where increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity (by 54-82% was observed over the same period. These changes largely result from the adoption of unfavorable eating habits, physical inactivity, and a probable increasing tobacco use. These behavioral changes are driven by the economic development and social mobility, which are part of the epidemiologic transition. There is still a dearth of information on chronic respiratory diseases and cancers, as well as on all NDCs and related risk factors in children and adolescents. More nationally representative data is needed to tract risk factors and consequences of NCDs. These conditions are increasingly been recognized as a priority, mainly through locally generated evidence. Thus, national-level prevention and control programs for chronic diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension have been established. However, the monitoring and evaluation of these programs is necessary. Budgetary allocations data by the ministry of health would be helpful, to evaluate the investment in NCDs prevention and control. Establishing more effective national-level tobacco control measures and food policies, as well as campaigns to promote healthy diets, physical activity and tobacco cessation would probably contribute to reducing the burden of NCDs.

  15. Perspectives on healthcare, chronic non-communicable disease, and healthworlds in an urban and rural setting

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    Daniel Lopes Ibanez-Gonzalez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amidst diverging discourses describing chronic non-communicable disease (NCD and healthcare access, the hermeneutical tradition within sociology, particularly as exemplified in the work of Jurgen Habermas, provides a starting point for exploring and interpreting the experiences of chronic illness and healthcare access. In this study, we aimed to understand how women living with NCDs experience their illness and access healthcare in an urban and rural context. Methods: This study was a mixed-methods comparative case study of the healthcare access experiences of women with NCDs in an urban and rural area in South Africa. The core of the study methodology was a comparative qualitative case study, with quantitative methods serving to contextualise the findings. Results: The cross-sectional survey describes a low resource population with a high prevalence of NCDs. Slightly over half the respondents in urban Soweto (50.7% reported having at least one NCD. Only around a third (33.3% of these participants reported accessing formal healthcare services in the past 6 months. Similar trends were found in the review of research carried out in rural Agincourt. The qualitative case study in Soweto is characterised by a preoccupation with how medicine from the clinic interacts with the body. The Agincourt qualitative case study highlights the importance of church membership, particularly of African Christian Churches, as the strongest factor motivating against the open use of traditional medicine. Discussion: A consideration of the findings suggests five broad themes for further research: 1 processes of constructing body narratives; 2 encounters with purposive–rational systems; 3 encounters with traditional medicine; 4 encounters with contemporary informal medicine; and 5 religion and healthcare. These five themes constitute the beginning of a comprehensive schema of the lifeworld/healthworld.

  16. [Integration of mental health and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru: challenges and opportunities for primary care settings].

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    Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Ipince, Alessandra; Toyama, Mauricio; Benate-Galvez, Ysabel; Galán-Rodas, Edén; Medina-Verástegui, Julio César; Sánchez-Moreno, David; Araya, Ricardo; Miranda, J Jaime

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between mental health and chronic non-communicable diseases is discussed as well as the possibility to address them in a comprehensive manner in the Peruvian health system. First, the prevalence estimates and the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases and mental disorders worldwide and in Peru are reviewed. Then, the detrimental impact of depression in the early stages as well as the progress of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is described. Additionally, the gap between access to mental health care in Peru is analyzed. Lastly, the alternatives to reduce the gap are explored. Of these alternatives, the integration of mental health into primary care services is emphasized; as a feasible way to meet the care needs of the general population, and people with chronic diseases in particular, in the Peruvian context. PMID:24718538

  17. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic patterns of chronic non-communicable disease among the older adult population in Ghana

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    Nadia Minicuci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Ghana, the older adult population is projected to increase from 5.3% of the total population in 2015 to 8.9% by 2050. National and local governments will need information about non-communicable diseases (NCDs in this population in order to allocate health system resources and respond to the health needs of older adults. Design: The 2007/08 Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE Wave 1 in Ghana used face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus years. Individual respondents were asked about their overall health, diagnosis of 10 chronic non-communicable conditions, and common health risk factors. A number of anthropometric and health measurements were also taken in all respondents, including height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure (BP. Results: This paper includes 4,724 adults aged 50-plus years. The highest prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions was for hypertension [14.2% (95% CI 12.8–15.6] and osteoarthritis [13.8%, (95% CI 11.7–15.9]. The figure for hypertension reached 51.1% (95% CI 48.9–53.4 when based on BP measurement. The prevalence of current smokers was 8.1% (95% CI 7.0–9.2, while 2.0 (95% CI 1.5–2.5 were infrequent/frequent heavy drinkers, 67.9% (95% CI 65.2–70.5 consume insufficient fruits and vegetables, and 25.7% (95% CI 23.1–28.3 had a low level of physical activity. Almost 10% (95% CI 8.3–11.1 of adults were obese and 77.6% (95% CI 76.0–79.2 had a high-risk waist-to-hip ratio (WHR. Risks from tobacco and alcohol consumption continued into older age, while insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity and obesity increased with increasing age. The patterns of risk factors varied by income quintile, with higher prevalence of obesity and low physical activity in wealthier respondents, and higher prevalence of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake and smoking in lower-income respondents. The multivariate

  18. 我国中老年人群主要慢性病及危险因素分析%Analysis on the major chronic non-communicable diseases and associated common risk factors among Chinese middle-aged and older population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑杨; 姜帅; 郭雁飞; 孙双圆; 吴凡; 施燕

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解我国中老年人群主要慢性病的患病情况及危险因素。方法利用世界卫生组织“全球老龄化与成人健康研究”中国项目第一轮调查资料,分析我国50岁及以上人群主要慢性病的患病率及危险因素比例,并采用多分类有序logistic回归模型分析累积患病情况的相关因素。结果经复杂设计加权计算,50岁及以上人群蔬菜水果摄入不足、低体力活动、现在每日吸烟、肥胖和经常酗酒的比例分别为35.6%、28.1%、26.7%、12.8%和6.3%;高血压、关节炎、心绞痛、慢性肺部疾病、糖尿病、脑卒中、哮喘和抑郁的患病率分别为61.3%、22.0%、7.9%、7.9%、6.6%、3.1%、1.9%和0.3%,多病共存比例为28.4%。高龄、女性、居住在城市、危险因素累积数较多都会导致多病共存情况严重。结论慢性病在中老年人群中极具普遍性,多病共存严重,值得进一步关注并采取有效的防控措施。%Objective To estimate the prevalence of eight chronic non-communicable diseases ( NCDs) and associated common risk factors among Chinese middle-aged and older population . Methods The prevalence of eight NCDs and five common risk factors for NCDs among adults aged 50 years and older were estimated based on the survey data from SAGE-China wave Ⅰ.Ordinal logistic regression models were performed to examine the associated risk factors and social determinates for multiple chronic conditions . Results Adjusting for design weights and post-stratification , the proportions of insufficient vegetables and fruits intake ,low level of physical activity , current daily smoking use , obesity and frequent heavy drinker were 35.6%, 28.1%, 26.7%, 12.8% and 6.3%, respectively.And the prevalence of hypertension , arthritis, angina, chronic lung disease , diabetes, stroke, asthma and depression were 61.3%, 22.0%, 7.9%, 7.9%, 6.6%, 3.1%, 1.9%and 0

  19. The burden of selected chronic non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in Malawi: nationwide STEPS survey.

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    Kelias P Msyamboza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs are becoming significant causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries, although local, high-quality data to inform evidence-based policies are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the magnitude of NCDs and their risk factors in Malawi. METHODS: Using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance, a population-based, nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and September 2009 on participants aged 25-64 years. Socio-demographic and behaviour risk factors were collected in Step 1. Physical anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were documented in Step 2. Blood cholesterol and fasting blood glucose were measured in Step 3. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 5,206 adults (67% females were surveyed. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and raised blood pressure (BP were more frequent in males than females, 25% vs 3%, 30% vs 4% and 37% vs 29%. Overweight, physical inactivity and raised cholesterol were more common in females than males, 28% vs 16%, 13% vs 6% and 11% vs 6%. Tobacco smoking was more common in rural than urban areas 11% vs 7%, and overweight and physical inactivity more common in urban than rural areas 39% vs 22% and 24% vs 9%, all with p<0.05. Overall (both sexes prevalence of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight and physical inactivity was 14%, 17%, 22%, 10% and prevalence of raised BP, fasting blood sugar and cholesterol was 33%, 6% and 9% respectively. These data could be useful in the formulation and advocacy of NCD policy and action plan in Malawi.

  20. Establishment of health clinics as mass screening and referral systems for chronic non-communicable diseases in primary health care

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    Kamal Heidari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to establish a comprehensive screening and referral system for chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD in the routine primary health care, and to determine the prevalence of diabetes, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia in adult population invited by public announcement to the Health clinics in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: This survey was conducted from March 2010, and the current paper presents data obtained until November 2011. To provide health services for prevention and control of CNCDs, with priority of type2 diabetes mellitus, Health clinics were established in different parts of Isfahan city with a population of approximately 2,100,000 in Iran. The general populations aged 30 years and above were invited to the Health clinics by public announcement. Results: A total of 198972 participants were screened. The mean age of participants was 47.8 years (48.5 men, 47.3 women, with a range of 1 to 95 years old and standard deviation of 12.3 years (12.7 men, 12.1 women. Overall, 22% of participants had impaired fasting glucose, 25% had hypercholesterolemia, 31% had hypertriglyceridemia, and 20% had metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The high prevalence of dysglycemia and diabetes in our survey may serve as confirmatory evidence about the importance of mass screening and early diagnosis of CNCDs′ risk factors. Our model of establishing Health clinics, as a comprehensive referral system in the routine primary health care can be adopted by Middle Eastern countries, where CNCDs notably diabetes are an emerging health problem.

  1. Chronic non-communicable diseases, risk and health promotion: social construction of Vigitel participants

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    Erika de Azevedo Leitão Mássimo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dimension of choice and adherence to healthy lifestyles is in the area of social constructions made in representations of individuals and had not yet been included in the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL analysis systems. This article aims to understand, in individual narratives, representations contained in the trajectories of people's lives selected from the 2010 VIGITEL sample, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. It is a qualitative study based on Social Representation Theory. Thirty in-depth and open interviews with subjects selected from the 2010 VIGITEL sample were conducted in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais. The Structural Analysis of Narrative technique was used to reveal the content of speeches. Age and heredity representations related to NCDs are part of the spectrum of current scientific information. Learning from childhood onwards is the basis of care. The lack of comprehension of the pathophysiology of NCDs, and the depth of representations of illness and death related to communicable diseases, is partly responsible for the difficulty of preventing NCDs.

  2. 3. Human Biology of Diet and Lifestyle Linked Chronic Inflammatory Non-Communicable Disease Epidemic - A Review

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    A. K. Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased urbanized lifestyle implies diet transition, reduced physical activity, mental strains with tobacco and alcohol use. That in turn, increases obesity, raises blood pressure, sugar and lipids, the common risk factors of interrelated non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Individual susceptibility and chronic inflammation make huge area of biomedical understanding. Behaviour modifying interventions are prudent for control but food choices also depend on affordability and availability. The low and middle income groups are driven to cheap unhealthy energy dense foods. The scenario of socioeconomic and nutrition transition in India is mounting the non communicable diseases at alarming speed and magnitude. Cardiac death has become number one killer already. Demographic transition is making the poorer and rural population vulnerable too. Prevention programmes are warranted with urgency. Whole grains, legumes, fish, fresh fruits and vegetables constitute healthy old food pattern. Dietary education under strained finances may be ineffective. Policies of food availability made in exclusion of consultation with health sector undermine prevention of NCDs. Recognition of diverse perspectives in social life and environment call for multisectorial engagement with appropriate interventions to reverse the NCDs epidemic.

  3. Trends and dietary implications of some chronic non-communicable diseases in peninsular Malaysia.

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    Khor, G L; Gan, C Y

    1992-09-01

    Non-communicable diseases with dietary implications, ischaemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus and cancers of the breast and colon are discussed in relation to their prevalence and mortality rates in peninsular Malaysia during the past few decades. The mortality rate due to diseases of the circulatory system has more than doubled since 1970, deaths due to ischaemic heart disease being the major cause. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen from 0.65% in 1960 to about 4% currently. The mortality risk for both ischaemic heart disease and diabetes is highest in the Indian compared to Malay and Chinese populations. The Chinese show the highest mortality rate for cancers of the breast and colon. This could reflect, partly, because more people especially in the urban areas are seeking treatment and improved diagnosis. Empirical dietary data indicate an increase in the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia among urban adults and overweight among urban and rural adults. Aggregate data from food balance sheets indicate increased availability of energy intake from fats and oils, sugar, and animal products, with concomitant decline in available energy from plant products. Continued public health education on the important linkage between diet and disease is called for. PMID:24323170

  4. Primary Health Care: a strategic framework for the prevention and control of chronic non-communicable disease

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    Alessandro R. Demaio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs represent the leading causes of global mortality and disability. Government-level concern, and resulting policy changes, are manifesting. However, there continues to be a paucity of guiding frameworks for legislative measures. The surge of NCDs will require strong and effective governance responses, particularly in low and middle-income countries. Simultaneously following the 2008 World Health Report, there has recently been renewed interest in Primary Health Care (PHC and its core principles. With this, has come strengthened support for revitalizing this approach, which aims for equitable and cost-effective population-health attainment. In this light and reflecting recent major global reports, declarations and events, we propose and critique a PHC approach to NCDs, highlighting PHC, with its core themes, as a valuable guiding framework for health promotion and policy addressing this group of diseases.

  5. 重庆市城乡儿童6~13岁慢性病患病率及相关行为比较分析%Comparing chronic non-communicable disease and its relevant behaviors between urban and rural children aged from 6 to 13 years old in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱雪雁; 丁贤彬; 张春华; 毛德强; 吕晓燕; 焦艳; 施小明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the difference of chronic non-communicable disease and its relevant behavior between urban and rural children aged from 6 to 13 years old,so as to provide suggestion for intervention.Methods Children aged from 6 to 13 years old by stratified clustered sampling were interviewed and physical examination were performed.The difference of the prevalence of obesity and hypertension and its relevant behaviors were compared by Chi-square test and variance analysis.Results A total of 803 and 727 urban and rural children were interviewed.The prevalence of overweight,obesity and hypertension among urban children was significant higher than that of rural children (P < 0.05).In the past 7 days,the proportion of urban children had milk or milk products for 6 or 7 days (59.4%) was higher than that of rural children (50.2%) (P <0.001).The proportion of urban children had soy bean milk or bean curd jelly was higher than that of rural children (P =0.001).But the proportion of rural children having sugary drinks for breakfast was higher than that of urban children(P <0.001).The proportion of urban children having breakfast at home was higher than that of rural children(P < 0.001).The proportion of rural children doing homework for more than 4 hours was higher than that of urban children(P =0.003).The time of rural children watching TV from Monday to Friday and weekends was longer than that of urban children (P < 0.05).Conclusion The prevalence of obesity and hypertension among urban children was higher than that of rural children.And the unbalanced diet was common among both urban and rural children.%目的 比较分析城市与农村儿童慢性病患病率及相关行为,为开展有针对性的干预提供建议.方法 采用分层整群抽样的方法抽取6 ~13岁的儿童进行问卷调查与体格检查,比较城市与农村儿童肥胖、高血压检出率、饮食与日常生活相关活动采用卡方检验,比较城市与农村儿童

  6. Cross-Sectional Association between Length of Incarceration and Selected Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases in Two Male Prisons of Mexico City.

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    Omar Silverman-Retana

    Full Text Available Mexico City prisons are characterized by overcrowded facilities and poor living conditions for housed prisoners. Chronic disease profile is characterized by low prevalence of self reported hypertension (2.5% and diabetes (1.8% compared to general population; 9.5% of male inmates were obese. There is limited evidence regarding on the exposure to prison environment over prisoner's health status; particularly, on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from two large male prisons in Mexico City (n = 14,086. Using quantile regression models we assessed the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for NCDs; stratified analysis by age at admission to prison was performed. We found a significant negative trend in BMI and WC across incarceration length quintiles. BP had a significant positive trend with a percentage change increase around 5% mmHg. The greatest increase in systolic blood pressure was observed in the older age at admission group.This analysis provides insight into the relationship between length of incarceration and four selected risk factors for NCDs; screening for high blood pressure should be guarantee in order to identify at risk individuals and linked to the prison's health facility. It is important to assess prison environment features to approach potential risk for developing NCDs in this context.

  7. What is the role of lifestyle behaviour change associated with non-communicable disease risk in managing musculoskeletal health conditions with special reference to chronic pain?

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, E.; Söderlund, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Other than activity and exercise, lifestyle practices such as not smoking and healthy nutrition, well established for preventing and managing lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (i.e., heart disease, cancer, hypertension, stroke, obstructive lung disease, diabetes, and obesity), are less emphasized in the physical therapy guidelines for addressing chronic pain, e.g., back pain. This state-of-the-art review examines the relationships between lifestyle behaviours and musculo...

  8. Identifying determinants of socioeconomic inequality in health service utilization among patients with chronic non-communicable diseases in China.

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    Xin Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD are particularly vulnerable to socioeconomic inequality due to their long-term expensive health needs. This study aimed to assess socioeconomic-related inequality in health service utilization among NCD patients in China and to analyze factors associated with this disparity. METHODS: Data were taken from the 2008 Chinese National Health Survey, in which a multiple stage stratified random sampling method was employed to survey 56,456 households. We analyzed the distribution of actual use, need-expected use, and need-standardized usage of outpatient services (over a two-week period and inpatient services (over one-year across different income groups in 27,233 adult respondents who reported as having a NCD. We used a concentration index to measure inequality in the distribution of health services, which was expressed as HI (Horizontal Inequity Index for need-standardized use of services. A non-linear probit regression model was employed to detect inequality across socio-economic groups. RESULTS: Pro-rich inequity in health services among NCD patients was more substantial than the average population. A higher degree of pro-rich inequity (HI = 0.253 was found in inpatient services compared to outpatient services (HI = 0.089. Despite a greater need for health services amongst those of lower socio-economic status, their actual use is much less than their more affluent counterparts. Health service underuse by the poor and overuse by the affluent are evident. Household income disparity was the greatest inequality factor in NCD service use for both outpatients (71.3% and inpatients (108%, more so than health insurance policies. Some medical insurance schemes, such as the MIUE, actually made a pro-rich contribution to health service inequality (16.1% for outpatient and 12.1% for inpatient. CONCLUSIONS: Inequality in health services amongst NCD patients in China remains largely

  9. Determinants of initial utilization of community healthcare services among patients with major non-communicable chronic diseases in South China.

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    Huajie Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although expected to act as gate-keeping primary care providers, as community health service (CHS facilities are severely under-utilized; Chinese people in both rural and urban areas used predominantly higher-tier facilities for primary care purpose, with significant financial and outcome consequences. This study intends to explore the determinants of initial utilization of CHS among patients with major non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs in order to understand the care-seeking behavior among urban and rural residents in South China. METHODS: A multi-stage cluster random sampling methodology was adopted to create a sample of 19,466 adults with NCDs from 7,970 urban households and 32,035 adults with NCDs from 3,860 rural households in Guangdong, China. Interviews and physical examinations were conducted in 2010 to collect data on patient characteristics, medical conditions, and awareness and utilization of healthcare. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to study utilization patterns and the factors associated with the patterns. RESULTS: Prevalence of major NCDs in urban areas was significantly higher than that in rural areas (12.55% vs. 8.70%; p<0.001. Second-tier district hospitals were most preferred for initial consultation (46.05% in rural areas vs. 45.32% in urban areas; p<0.001, followed by tertiary general or specialized hospitals (28.39% in rural areas vs. 33.89% in urban areas; p<0.001. The proportion of patients who had initial use of CHS was relatively low (25.56% in rural areas vs. 20.79% in urban areas; p<0.001. Awareness of self-care and the presence of medical insurance were leading factors associated with first contact of CHS facilities in both urban and rural areas. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that CHS facilities are not often used as the first contact for patients in both rural and urban areas in south China. Much effect must be made to enhance the gatekeeper system and improve

  10. Globalisation and the prevention and control of non-communicable disease: the neglected chronic diseases of adults.

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    Beaglehole, R; Yach, D

    2003-09-13

    The growing global burden of non-communicable diseases in poor countries and poor populations has been neglected by policy makers, major multilateral and bilateral aid donors, and academics. Despite strong evidence for the magnitude of this burden, the preventability of its causes, and the threat it poses to already strained health care systems, national and global actions have been inadequate. Globalisation is an important determinant of non-communicable disease epidemics since it has direct effects on risks to populations and indirect effects on national economies and health systems. The globalisation of the production and marketing campaigns of the tobacco and alcohol industries exemplify the challenges to policy makers and public health practitioners. A full range of policy responses is required from government and non-governmental agencies; unfortunately the capacity and resources for this response are insufficient, and governments need to respond appropriately. The progress made in controlling the tobacco industry is a modest cause for optimism. PMID:13678979

  11. Heavy burden of non-communicable diseases at early age and gender disparities in an adult population of Burkina Faso: world health survey

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    Miszkurka Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WHO estimates suggest that age-specific death rates from non-communicable diseases are higher in sub-Saharan Africa than in high-income countries. The objectives of this study were to examine, in Burkina Faso, the prevalence of non-communicable disease symptoms by age, gender, socioeconomic group and setting (rural/urban, and to assess gender and socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of these symptoms. Methods We obtained data from the Burkina Faso World Health Survey, which was conducted in an adult population (18 years and over with a high response rate (4822/4880 selected individuals. The survey used a multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling strategy to identify participants. The survey collected information on socio-demographic and economic characteristics, as well as data on symptoms of a variety of health conditions. Our study focused on joint disease, back pain, angina pectoris, and asthma. We estimated prevalence correcting for the sampling design. We used multiple Poisson regression to estimate associations between non-communicable disease symptoms, gender, socioeconomic status and setting. Results The overall crude prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI were: 16.2% [13.5; 19.2] for joint disease, 24% [21.5; 26.6] for back pain, 17.9% [15.8; 20.2] for angina pectoris, and 11.6% [9.5; 14.2] for asthma. Consistent relationships between age and the prevalence of non-communicable disease symptoms were observed in both men and women from rural and urban settings. There was markedly high prevalence in all conditions studied, starting with young adults. Women presented higher prevalence rates of symptoms than men for all conditions: prevalence ratios and 95% CIs were 1.20 [1.01; 1.43] for joint disease, 1.42 [1.21; 1.66] for back pain, 1.68 [1.39; 2.04] for angina pectoris, and 1.28 [0.99; 1.65] for asthma. Housewives and unemployed women had the highest prevalence rates of non-communicable disease

  12. Nutrition transition in South Asia: the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases [version 2; referees: 2 approved

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    Ghose Bishwajit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Overview: South Asian countries have experienced a remarkable economic growth during last two decades along with subsequent transformation in social, economic and food systems. Rising disposable income levels continue to drive the nutrition transition characterized by a shift from a traditional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets towards diets with a lower carbohydrate and higher proportion of saturated fat, sugar and salt. Steered by various transitions in demographic, economic and nutritional terms, South Asian population are experiencing a rapidly changing disease profile. While the healthcare systems have long been striving to disentangle from the vicious cycle of poverty and undernutrition, South Asian countries are now confronted with an emerging epidemic of obesity and a constellation of other non-communicable diseases (NCDs. This dual burden is bringing about a serious health and economic conundrum and is generating enormous pressure on the already overstretched healthcare system of South Asian countries.   Objectives: The Nutrition transition has been a very popular topic in the field of human nutrition during last few decades and many countries and broad geographic regions have been studied. However there is no review on this topic in the context of South Asia  as yet. The main purpose of this review is to highlight the factors accounting for the onset of nutrition transition and its subsequent impact on epidemiological transition in five major South Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Special emphasis was given on India and Bangladesh as they together account for 94% of the regional population and about half world’s malnourished population. Methods: This study is literature based. Main data sources were published research articles obtained through an electronic medical databases search.

  13. A global framework for action to improve the primary care response to chronic non-communicable diseases: a solution to a neglected problem

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    Zachariah Rony

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although in developing countries the burden of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases has often overshadowed that due to chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, there is evidence now of a shift of attention to NCDs. Discussion Decreasing the chronic NCD burden requires a two-pronged approach: implementation of the multisectoral policies aimed at decreasing population-level risks for NCDs, and effective and affordable delivery of primary care interventions for patients with chronic NCDs. The primary care response to common NCDs is often unstructured and inadequate. We therefore propose a programmatic, standardized approach to the delivery of primary care interventions for patients with NCDs, with a focus on hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic airflow obstruction, and obesity. The benefits of this approach will extend to patients with related conditions, e.g. those with chronic kidney disease caused by hypertension or diabetes. This framework for a "public health approach" is informed by experience of scaling up interventions for chronic infectious diseases (tuberculosis and HIV. The lessons learned from progress in rolling out these interventions include the importance of gaining political commitment, developing a robust strategy, delivering standardised interventions, and ensuring rigorous monitoring and evaluation of progress towards defined targets. The goal of the framework is to reduce the burden of morbidity, disability and premature mortality related to NCDs through a primary care strategy which has three elements: 1 identify and address modifiable risk factors, 2 screen for common NCDs and 3 and diagnose, treat and follow-up patients with common NCDs using standard protocols. The proposed framework for NCDs borrows the same elements as those developed for tuberculosis control, comprising a goal, strategy and targets for NCD control, a package of interventions for quality care, key operations for

  14. BUILDING A PLATFORM FOR TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN CHRONIC NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES TO ADDRESS POPULATION HEALTH IN PERU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Málaga, Germán; Cardenas, María K.; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Pesantes, M. Amalia; Araya, Ricardo; Boggio, Oscar; Checkley, William; García, Patricia J.; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Lescano, Andrés G.; Montori, Victor; Pan, William; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Sacksteder, Katherine; Smeeth, Liam; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, was created in 2009 with support from the United States National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The vision of CRONICAS is to build a globally recognised Centre of Excellence conducting quality and innovative research and generating high-impact evidence for health. The Centre’s identity is embedded in its core values: generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality. This review has been structured to describe the development of the CRONICAS Centre, with a focus on highlighting the ongoing translational research projects and capacity building strategies. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence is not a risk-averse organisation: it benefits from past experiences, including past mistakes, and improves upon them, and thus challenges traditional research approaches. This ethos and environment is key to fostering innovation in research. PMID:25754562

  15. The Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors amongst Adults in the Dikgale Health Demographic and Surveillance System (HDSS Site, Limpopo Province of South Africa.

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    Eric Maimela

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of chronic non-communicable disease (NCD risk factors in a rural community in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.This survey was conducted using the WHO "STEPwise approach to the surveillance of non-communicable diseases" (STEPS methodology. Participants were residents of the Dikgale HDSS site and standardised international protocols were used to measure behavioural risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable intake and, physical activity and physical characteristics (weight, height, waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure-BP. Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and HDL-C were determined in 732 participants. Data were analysed using STATA 12 for Windows.The prevalence of current smokers amongst the participants was 13.7%, of which 81.3% were daily smokers. Alcohol was consumed by 16.3% of the participants. The majority of participants (88.6% had low daily intake of fruit and vegetables and low physical activity (66.5%. The prevalence of hypertension amongst the participants was 38.2%. Overweight, obesity and high waist circumference were prevalent in females. The cardio-metabolic risk profile was not significantly different between men and women. People who were older than 40 years, overweight or obese and those who consumed alcohol were more likely to be hypertensive. Smoking was associated significantly with older age, males, never married and divorced people. Alcohol consumption was associated with older age, males, low educational status and low income.High levels of risk factors for NCDs among adults in the Dikgale HDSS suggest an urgent need for health interventions to control these risk factors at the population level in order to reduce the prevalence of NCDs.

  16. Out-of-pocket expenditure on chronic non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of rural Malawi.

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    Qun Wang

    Full Text Available In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA the disease burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs is rising considerably. Given weaknesses in existing financial arrangements across SSA, expenditure on CNCDs is often borne directly by patients through out-of-pocket (OOP payments. This study explored patterns and determinants of OOP expenditure on CNCDs in Malawi. We used data from the first round of a longitudinal household health survey conducted in 2012 on a sample of 1199 households in three rural districts in Malawi. We used a two-part model to analyze determinants of OOP expenditure on CNCDs. 475 respondents reported at least one CNCD. More than 60% of the 298 individuals who reported seeking care incurred OOP expenditure. The amount of OOP expenditure on CNCDs comprised 22% of their monthly per capita household expenditure. The poorer the household, the higher proportion of their monthly per capita household expenditure was spent on CNCDs. Higher severity of disease was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of incurring OOP expenditure. Use of formal care was negatively associated with the possibility of incurring OOP expenditure. The following factors were positively associated with the amount of OOP expenditure: being female, Alomwe and household head, longer duration of disease, CNCDs targeted through active screening programs, higher socio-economic status, household head being literate, using formal care, and fewer household members living with a CNCD within a household. Our study showed that, in spite of a context where care for CNCDs should in principle be available free of charge at point of use, OOP payments impose a considerable financial burden on rural households, especially among the poorest. This suggests the existence of important gaps in financial protection in the current coverage policy.

  17. The Association Between Physical Activity, Mental Status, and Social and Family Support with Five Major Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases Among Elderly People: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Rural Population in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Yang, Huajie; Wang, Harry H.X.; Qiu, Yongjun; Lai, Xiujuan; Zhou, Zhiheng; Li, Fangjian; Zhang, Liwei; Wang, Jiaji; Lei, Jimin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) have become the top threat in China. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of major NCDs among the elderly population in rural areas in southern China and explore its associated social determinants. Methods: A multistage cluster random sampling methodology was adopted to select a total of 9245 rural elderly people from 3860 rural households in Guangdong Province. Interviews and physical examinations were performed to collect patient information. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore factors associated with the presence of major NCDs. Results: Over one-third (38.5%) of the study population suffered from five major NCDs. The grade of activities of daily living (ADL), mental status, and social relationship of elderly people without NCDs were better than those with NCDs. The major factors associated with the presence of NCDs among the elderly people included age (70–79 years group and 80–89 years group), education level (senior high/technical secondary school and junior college and above), mental status (concentration, enrichment and happy life and memory), relationship with neighbours, activities of daily living (ADL) (being able to climb three floors and bend over), physical activity, marital status (bereft), and living conditions (with offspring and family members). Conclusions: The study identified several social determinants associated with the presence of major NCDs. A higher level of family support and physical exercise might contribute to improved physical condition, mental status, and ADL among the elderly people in rural areas in southern China. PMID:26506364

  18. Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases in Zanzibar, Tanzania: a mixed-methods study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania Aase; Keller, Amélie; de Courten, Max

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in developed countries and account for roughly a third of deaths in developing countries. According to the 2004 Food and Agricultural Organization and WHO joint report on fruit and vegetables for health, low consumption of...

  19. The Association Between Physical Activity, Mental Status, and Social and Family Support with Five Major Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases Among Elderly People: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Rural Population in Southern China

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    Xiang Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs have become the top threat in China. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of major NCDs among the elderly population in rural areas in southern China and explore its associated social determinants. Methods: A multistage cluster random sampling methodology was adopted to select a total of 9245 rural elderly people from 3860 rural households in Guangdong Province. Interviews and physical examinations were performed to collect patient information. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore factors associated with the presence of major NCDs. Results: Over one-third (38.5% of the study population suffered from five major NCDs. The grade of activities of daily living (ADL, mental status, and social relationship of elderly people without NCDs were better than those with NCDs. The major factors associated with the presence of NCDs among the elderly people included age (70–79 years group and 80–89 years group, education level (senior high/technical secondary school and junior college and above, mental status (concentration, enrichment and happy life and memory, relationship with neighbours, activities of daily living (ADL (being able to climb three floors and bend over, physical activity, marital status (bereft, and living conditions (with offspring and family members. Conclusions: The study identified several social determinants associated with the presence of major NCDs. A higher level of family support and physical exercise might contribute to improved physical condition, mental status, and ADL among the elderly people in rural areas in southern China.

  20. Esperanza de vida ajustada por algunas enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles Life expectancy adjusted by some non-communicable chronic diseases

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    Emma Domínguez Alonso

    2005-08-01

    de vida en los 3 años estudiados (diferencia relativa para los hombres de 3,05 % en el año 2000. La esperanza de vida resultante de este ajuste representa una herramienta útil para comparar el impacto negativo de la morbilidad por las distintas enfermedades sobre la esperanza de vida en un momento determinado y evaluar la tendencia de su comportamiento a lo largo del tiempo.The summary measures of the health status of a population (SMSP are indicators that quantify the negative burden of a disease, starting not only from the number of deaths caused by the disease, but also from morbidity and from the subsequent loss of quality of life generated by this entity. A specific type of these indicators is the disability adjusted life expectancy. This indicator was used aimed at identifying possible differences in the negative effect of morbidity from some non-communicable chronic diseases (diabetes, asthma, cerebrovascular disease, cancer and ischemic heart disease with differentiation by sex, and at evaluating the general tendency of its behavior with the time (1990, 1995 and 2000. Life expectancy was calculated by using mortality from all the causes and adjusting it according to the morbidity of each of the diseases. The procedure consisted in discounting from the lived years those that may be considered "lost due to the disease". These "lost" years are calculated based on the estimates of the amount of years lived with that disease and on the severities considered as pertinent for them. The negative impact of morbidity from diabetes, asthma, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease on life expectancy increased during the studied decade. Cancer showed a different behavior and it was observed a reduciton of the negative effect of morbidity from this disease in 1995 as compared with 1990. The burden of morbidity from ischemic heart disease and diabetes is higher in women than in men (3,69 vs 3,05 and 0,46 vs 0,27, respectively, in 2000, whereas the opposite

  1. Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases in Zanzibar, Tanzania: a mixed methods study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amélie; de Courten, Max; Dræbel, Tania

    2012-01-01

    includes ten household assessments of fruit and vegetable preparation and consumption and 20 market assessments of fruit and vegetable purchases. We did a systematic analysis of transcribed, coded data to classify themes and sub-themes. Findings Mean daily fruit intake was 72 g (SD 64, range 0...... and not used in food preparation. Interpretation The prevalence of NCDs was higher in urban areas than in rural areas and onsumption of fruit and vegetables was generally low. This low consumption can be explained by the low availability and high price of fruit and vegetables. Further research using other......Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in developed countries and account for roughly a third of deaths in developing countries. According to the 2004 Food and Agricultural Organization and WHO joint report on fruit and vegetables for health, low...

  2. An Overview of a National Surveillance Program in Iran for Prevention of Chronic Non-communicable Diseases from Childhood: CASPIAN Study

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    R Kelishadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The health status of children in the Iran has improved in many areas such as lower rates of infectious diseases and declines in malnutrition. However rapid lifestyle changes might make them prone to chronic diseases in adulthood. Be­cause of the importance of collecting national information about related risk behaviors and risk factors, this national project was conducted for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean region."nMethods:  The baseline survey was conducted among 21111 school students aged 6-18 years, and their parents living in 23 provinces; biochemical tests were obtained from 4811 students."nResults: Underweight and overweight had similar prevalence (13.9% underweight, 13.4% overweight.The most prevalent type of dyslipidemia was low HDL-C and hypertriglyceridemia. In addition to providing national percentiles and reference curves for weight, height and body mass index, this study provided the first reference curves for waist circumference and blood pressure of children, as well as the first national prevalence of pediatric metabolic syndrome in Asia. Unhealthy nutri­tion and low physical activity were associated with most risk factors."nConclusion: Close monitoring of children and adolescents for risk factors and risk behaviors should be considered as a public health priority, thus a national school-based surveillance program is being established in this regard in Iran.  

  3. Transiciones en contexto: hallazgos vinculados a migración rural-urbana y enfermedades no transmisibles en Perú Transitions in context: findings related to rural-to-urban migration and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru

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    J. Jaime Miranda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca describir, en contexto, los distintos procesos de cambio por el que transcurren, en la actualidad, nuestras sociedades y poblaciones a fin de comprender mejor la emergencia de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en países de ingresos medios y bajos. Se describen aquellos factores relevantes para contextos específicos como el Perú, entre ellos migración interna, urbanización y los perfiles de adversidad en etapas tempranas de la vida, todos vinculados con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, incluyendo el sobrepeso y la obesidad. Se describe el modelo de “capacidad y carga”, el cual considera al riesgo de adquirir una enfermedad crónica no transmisible en la etapa adulta como una función de dos rasgos genéticos: capacidad metabólica y carga metabólica. Se presenta también la contribución de la migración rural-urbana a esta problemática en nuestro medio. Finalmente, se mencionan los retos pendientes en este tema para la salud pública del PerúIn order to better understand the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries this article seeks to present, in context, different transitional processes which societies and populations are currently undergoing. Relevant factors for specific contexts such as Peru are described, including internal migration, urbanization and profiles of adversity in early life, all of them linked to chronic non-communicable diseases, including obesity and overweight. The capacity-load model, which considers chronic disease risk in adulthood as a function of two generic traits, metabolic capacity and metabolic load, is described. The contribution of rural-to-urban migration to this problem is also presented. Finally, these topics are framed within pending challenges for public health in Peru

  4. The Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Chronic Disease in Workplace of China%我国工作场所慢性非传染性疾病防控研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨添安; 黎彬

    2011-01-01

    It shows that Non-communicable Chronic Disease has the features of high morbidity, high mortality, expensive cost burden and major clinical hazards.Finally, by domesric and foreign literature research and chronic disease prevention and control of the status of China's workplace analysis, it comes to a conclusion that the whole society should accept the "greater health" concept; China govemment should take its responsibility both on decision-maker and decision-executor; enterprises leaders should aware of the importance of a healthy workforce.%慢性非传染性疾病(以下简称"慢性病")有着病程长、发病率和死亡率高、治疗费用高昂、负担沉重、临床危害大等特点.通过国内外文献调研和我国工作场所慢性病防控现状分析,借鉴国内外先进经验,建议全社会接受人健康理念,政府应充分腹行决策者与执行者的责任,企业领导层应认识到劳动力健康的重要性.

  5. Nutritional profile and presence of risk factors and protection for non-communicable chronic diseases in diabetics - doi 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i2.8886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giana Zarbato Longo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to delineate the nutritional profile and to investigate the presence and distribution of factors of risk and protection for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD in diabetic participants. For this, 54 individuals of both sexes participated in this study, aged 28 to 87 years who have been attended by a health center of the municipality of Maringá, Paraná State. It was measured the weight, height and waist circumference and applied two questionnaires related to risk factors and food frequency (FFQ respectively. The study design is cross-sectional and the descriptive analysis was performed using the statistical software Epi info version 3.32 (2005. The results showed that the most relevant risk factors in the diabetic population in relation to NCD have been related to the overweight, lack of physical activity and self-reported hypertension. The protection factors were healthy diet and quitting of smoking. Based on nutritional assessment, the BMI (Body Mass Index and waist circumference have been positively correlated with high significance. Health education is necessary for the prevention and health promotion of these individuals through the change of lifestyle.  

  6. The burden of non-communicable diseases in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayosi, Bongani M; Flisher, Alan J; Lalloo, Umesh G; Sitas, Freddy; Tollman, Stephen M; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2009-09-12

    15 years after its first democratic election, South Africa is in the midst of a profound health transition that is characterised by a quadruple burden of communicable, non-communicable, perinatal and maternal, and injury-related disorders. Non-communicable diseases are emerging in both rural and urban areas, most prominently in poor people living in urban settings, and are resulting in increasing pressure on acute and chronic health-care services. Major factors include demographic change leading to a rise in the proportion of people older than 60 years, despite the negative effect of HIV/AIDS on life expectancy. The burden of these diseases will probably increase as the roll-out of antiretroviral therapy takes effect and reduces mortality from HIV/AIDS. The scale of the challenge posed by the combined and growing burden of HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases demands an extraordinary response that South Africa is well able to provide. Concerted action is needed to strengthen the district-based primary health-care system, to integrate the care of chronic diseases and management of risk factors, to develop a national surveillance system, and to apply interventions of proven cost-effectiveness in the primary and secondary prevention of such diseases within populations and health services. We urge the launching of a national initiative to establish sites of service excellence in urban and rural settings throughout South Africa to trial, assess, and implement integrated care interventions for chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases. PMID:19709736

  7. The burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries

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    Boutayeb Abdesslam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By the dawn of the third millennium, non communicable diseases are sweeping the entire globe, with an increasing trend in developing countries where, the transition imposes more constraints to deal with the double burden of infective and non-infective diseases in a poor environment characterised by ill-health systems. By 2020, it is predicted that these diseases will be causing seven out of every 10 deaths in developing countries. Many of the non communicable diseases can be prevented by tackling associated risk factors. Methods Data from national registries and international organisms are collected, compared and analyzed. The focus is made on the growing burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries. Results Among non communicable diseases, special attention is devoted to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic pulmonary diseases. Their burden is affecting countries worldwide but with a growing trend in developing countries. Preventive strategies must take into account the growing trend of risk factors correlated to these diseases. Conclusion Non communicable diseases are more and more prevalent in developing countries where they double the burden of infective diseases. If the present trend is maintained, the health systems in low-and middle-income countries will be unable to support the burden of disease. Prominent causes for heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases can be prevented but urgent (preventive actions are needed and efficient strategies should deal seriously with risk factors like smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity and western diet.

  8. Las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en México: sinopsis epidemiológica y prevención integral Chronic non-communicable diseases in Mexico: epidemiologic synopsis and integral prevention

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    José Ángel Córdova-Villalobos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El gobierno federal desarrolla acciones para reducir la mortalidad por las "enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles" (ECNT. Una de ellas es la creación de unidades médicas de especialidad (Uneme diseñadas para el tratamiento especializado de las ECNT (sobrepeso, obesidad, riesgo cardiovascular y diabetes. La intervención se basa en la participación de un grupo multidisciplinario entrenado ex profeso, la educación del paciente sobre su salud, la incorporación de la familia al tratamiento y la resolución de las condiciones que limitan la observancia de las recomendaciones. El tratamiento está indicado con base en protocolos estandarizados. La eficacia de la intervención se evalúa en forma sistemática mediante indicadores cuantitativos predefinidos. Se espera que las Uneme resulten en ahorros para el sistema de salud. En suma, este último desarrolla mejores medidas de control para las ECNT. La evaluación del desempeño de las Uneme generará información para planear acciones preventivas futuras.The federal government has implemented several strategies to reduce mortality caused by chronic non-communicable diseases (CNTD. One example is the development of medical units specialized in the care of CNTD (i.e. overweight, obesity, cardiovascular risk and diabetes, named UNEMES (from its Spanish initials. These units -consisting of an ad-hoc, trained, multi-disciplinary team- will provide patient education, help in the resolution of obstacles limiting treatment adherence, and involve the family in patient care. Treatment will be provided using standardized protocols. The efficacy of the intervention will be regularly measured using pre-specified outcomes. We expect that these UNEMES will result in significant savings. In summary, our health care system is developing better treatment strategies for CNTD. Evaluating the performance of the UNEMES will generate valuable information for the design of future preventive actions.

  9. Modelos de determinação social das doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis Models of social determination of chronic non-communicable diseases

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    Naomar Almeida-Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio revisa criticamente marcos referenciais e modelos teóricos de determinação social das chamadas Doenças Crônicas Não-Transmissíveis. A sociologia funcionalista gerou modelos socioculturais de saúde que influenciaram o campo de investigação epidemiológica da chamada "nova morbidade" (basicamente enfermidades crônicas e degenerativas, posteriormente agrupados sob o rótulo genérico de Teoria do Estresse. Analisam-se abordagens neodurkheimianas das desigualdades sociais, baseadas no conceito de capital social, criticando especialmente os usos quase-teóricos da noção de "estilo de vida" no campo da saúde. Discutem-se ainda alguns modelos derivados do materialismo dialético que se tornaram bastante influentes na epidemiologia social latino-americana, com base nos conceitos de trabalho e classe social. Finalmente, considerando lacunas teóricas e conceituais dessas teorias parciais no que diz respeito ao espaço simbólico da vida social, apresentam-se as bases conceituais de um enfoque teórico alternativo - a "teoria do modo de vida e saúde". Tomada como síntese possível dos modelos objeto desta revisão crítica, considera-se esta teoria como especialmente indicada para a elaboração de modelos epidemiológicos de determinação social de doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis.This essay critically revises theoretical frameworks and models of social determination of chronic non-communicable diseases. Functionalist sociology generated sociocultural models of health that influenced the field of epidemiologic investigation of so-called "new morbidity" (basically chronic and degenerative illnesses, later contained under the generic label of stress theory. Neo-durkheimian approaches of social inequalities, based on the social capital concept, are analyzed and theoretical uses of the lifestyle notion in the health field are criticized. Models derived from the dialectical materialism, grounded on the concepts of labor and

  10. Risk Factors for non-communicable diseases in Mozambique.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Patrícia Diogo Padrão Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the main cause of mortality worldwide, having accounted for two thirds of all deaths in 2010. In Mozambique, although communicable diseases are the most important contributors for the morbidity and mortality burden, NCD are becoming more frequent, being estimated to have accounted for one fifth of all deaths in 2010. Worldwide, the most common NCD cardiovascular (CV) diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes share four main lifestyle ris...

  11. An exploratory study on risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases among adolescents in Malaysia: overview of the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (The MyHeART study)

    OpenAIRE

    Hazreen, Majid Abdul; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Dahlui, Maznah; CHINNA, Karuthan; Ismail, Maslinor; Murray, Liam; Cantwell, Marie; Sadat, Nabilla Al; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Health & Morbidity Survey (NHMS) IV (2011) observed that the prevalence of obese children aged less than 18 years in Malaysia is 6.1% compared to 5.4% overweight and obese in NHMS III (2006). As such, this observation is of public health importance as obesity is a forewarning risk factor for chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and certain types of cancers. This MyHeART (Malaysian Health and Adolescents longitudinal Research Team) stu...

  12. DNA damage in non-communicable diseases: A clinical and epidemiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milic, Mirta; Frustaci, Alessandra; Del Bufalo, Alessandra; Sánchez-Alarcón, Juana; Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Russo, Patrizia; Bonassi, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a leading cause of death and disability, representing 63% of the total death number worldwide. A characteristic phenotype of these diseases is the accelerated aging, which is the result of phenomena such as accumulated DNA damage, telomere capping loss and subcellular irreversible/nonrepaired oxidative damage. DNA damage, mostly oxidative, plays a key role in the development of most common NCDs. The present review will gather some of the most relevant knowledge concerning the presence of DNA damage in NCDs focusing on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and neurodegenerative disorders, and discussing a selection of papers from the most informative literature. The challenge of comorbidity and the potential offered by new systems approaches for introducing these biomarkers into the clinical decision process will be discussed. Systems Medicine platforms represent the most suitable approach to personalized medicine, enabling to identify new patterns in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and prognosis of chronic diseases. PMID:26255943

  13. Chronic pain, perceived stress, and cellular aging: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Sibille Kimberly T; Langaee Taimour; Burkley Ben; Gong Yan; Glover Toni L; King Chris; Riley Joseph L; Leeuwenburgh Christiaan; Staud Roland; Bradley Laurence A; Fillingim Roger B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic pain conditions are characterized by significant individual variability complicating the identification of pathophysiological markers. Leukocyte telomere length (TL), a measure of cellular aging, is associated with age-related disease onset, psychosocial stress, and health-related functional decline. Psychosocial stress has been associated with the onset of chronic pain and chronic pain is experienced as a physical and psychosocial stressor. However, the utility of...

  14. Non-communicating rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, I

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is an extremely rare form of ectopic gestation. The rudimentary horn may or may not communicate with the uterine cavity with the majority of cases being non-communicating. The patient exhibits features of acute abdomen and carries a high risk of maternal death. Even modern scans remain elusive whereas laparatomy remains the confirmatory procedure for the diagnosis. Because of the varied muscular constitution in the thickness and distensibility of the wall of the rudimentary horn, pregnancy is accommodated for a variable period of gestation. Here, we report three cases of pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn of the uterus in different periods of gestation, their outcome and a review of the available literature. PMID:22922902

  15. Chronic pain, perceived stress, and cellular aging: an exploratory study

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    Sibille Kimberly T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pain conditions are characterized by significant individual variability complicating the identification of pathophysiological markers. Leukocyte telomere length (TL, a measure of cellular aging, is associated with age-related disease onset, psychosocial stress, and health-related functional decline. Psychosocial stress has been associated with the onset of chronic pain and chronic pain is experienced as a physical and psychosocial stressor. However, the utility of TL as a biological marker reflecting the burden of chronic pain and psychosocial stress has not yet been explored. Findings The relationship between chronic pain, stress, and TL was analyzed in 36 ethnically diverse, older adults, half of whom reported no chronic pain and the other half had chronic knee osteoarthritis (OA pain. Subjects completed a physical exam, radiographs, health history, and psychosocial questionnaires. Blood samples were collected and TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Four groups were identified characterized by pain status and the Perceived Stress Scale scores: 1 no pain/low stress, 2 no pain/high stress, chronic pain/low stress, and 4 chronic pain/high stress. TL differed between the pain/stress groups (p = 0.01, controlling for relevant covariates. Specifically, the chronic pain/high stress group had significantly shorter TL compared to the no pain/low stress group. Age was negatively correlated with TL, particularly in the chronic pain/high stress group (p = 0.03. Conclusions Although preliminary in nature and based on a modest sample size, these findings indicate that cellular aging may be more pronounced in older adults experiencing high levels of perceived stress and chronic pain.

  16. Calorie restriction and prevention of age-associated chronic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Omodei, Daniela; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Life expectancy in the world has increased dramatically during the last century; the number of older adults is expected to rise while the number of youths will decline in the near future. This demographic shift has considerable public health and economic implications since aging is associated with the development of serious chronic diseases. Calorie restriction (CR) is the most effective nutritional intervention for slowing aging and preventing chronic disease in rodents. In non-human and hum...

  17. Parainflammation, chronic inflammation, and age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune-privileged tissue as a result of its unique anatomic and physiologic properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate-immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergoes low levels of activation (parainflammation). In many cases, this parainflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration, this parainflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal parainflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors, and old age. Dysregulated parainflammation (chronic inflammation) in age-related macular degeneration damages the blood retina barrier, resulting in the breach of retinal-immune privilege, leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate-immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in age-related macular degeneration and explores the difference between beneficial parainflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26292978

  18. Chronic coronary occlusions: age, morphology and chance of reopening.

    OpenAIRE

    Vallbracht, C; Unverdorben, M; Kadel, C; Oster, H; J. Otto; Kober, G; Kaltenbach, M

    1997-01-01

    In chronic coronary occlusions the chance of successful reopening by angioplasty can be judged from the age of the occlusion. Often, however, time since occlusion cannot be accurately assessed. Therefore we determined whether the chance of reopening can be predicted from angiographic morphology. In cineangiograms from 60 consecutive patients with chronic coronary occlusions morphological details in at least two projections were evaluated in relation to the rate of success and the estimated ag...

  19. RISK FACTORS OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES (NCD AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF PATANCHERU

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    Nirmala Devi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Currently developing countries , especially India , are in a transitional phase , an epidemiological transition from a phase of predominantly infectious disease burden to a phase of triple burden of infectious diseases , chronic non - communicable diseases , and injuries largely due to demographic , lifestyle , nutritional and environmental changes. OBJECTIVES : To identify the burden of of Non - Communicable Diseases (NCDs in rural population of Patancheru and to assess various risk factors of NCDs. MATERIAL & METHODS : Presen t study was a part of American Association of Physicians of Indian Origin ( APPIO project. Total study population under the APPIO project was 1 lakh and target population of 20 , 000.It was a community based cross sectional study done in rural field practic e area of Osmania Medical College , Patancheru. 1/4 th part of the project was completed and hence total sample size came to around 5000. Study population was all adults above the age of 20 years. Duration of study was 6 months from June to November 2013. St atistical analysis was done using EPI INFO version 7. RESULTS : Mean age of the respondents was 38.64 years , 52% were males and 85.3% were married. Regarding risk factors for NCDs , tobacco usage in any form was present in 15.4% , and alcohol consumption in 2 7.7% of the study population. High salt intake was seen in 17.8% and no regular intake of fruits & vegetables in 17.8%. Family history of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus was seen in 16.6% & 6.6% respectively. Prevalence of Hypertension was 10% and Diabe tes was 4%. About 5.1% had Cardio vascular diseases (CVDs. CONCLUSIONS : Risk factors for NCDs were very much prevalent in the study population requiring appropriate & timely actions to stop the emergence of epidemic of NCDs.

  20. PREGNANCY IN THE NON COMMUNICATING RUDIMENTARY HORN

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    Meenakshi Menon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : Pregnancy in the Rudimentary horn is extremely rare and usually terminates in rupture during first or second trimester of pregnancy which is life threatening to the mother. However, with the advent of investigations such as ultrasonography, CT scan, MRI, and laparoscopy, the diagnosis is more often being made before rupture. Here, we report a case of a 29 year old G3 P2 L2 with a pregnancy in the non-communicating rudimentary horn diagnosed at 8 weeks and managed by laparoscopic resection of the rudimentary horn. Thus, highlighting the need for high index of suspicion and role of ultrasound in early diagnosis when indicated by clinical examination.

  1. [Non-communicable disease and their significance for dental medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türp, Jens Christoph; Spranger, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, cancers, and diabetes mellitus, are responsible for most deaths worldwide. In view of the rising prevalence and the long-term consequences of NCDs, their prevention is a public health priority. Dentistry plays an important role in this endeavor. Since oral and general diseases share common risk factors (e.g., poor oral hygiene, unhealthy diet, alcohol abuse, tobacco consumption, distress), preventive measures may target both oral diseases (e.g., dental caries, periodontal diseases, oral tumors) and medical NCDs. Consequently, dental medicine assumes an important medical and social role, which has been recognized by the World Health Organization and the General Assembly of the United Nations. To fulfill its mission successfully, consideration of the principles of evidence-based dentistry is a prerequisite. At the same time, the new development provides dentistry with the opportunity to critically reflect on its current and future orientation. PMID:27279058

  2. Targeting mitochondrial phenotypes for non-communicable diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengtang Qi; Shuzhe Ding

    2016-01-01

    The concept that“Exercise is Medicine”has been challenged by the rising prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). This is partly due to the fact that the underlying mechanisms of how exercise influences energy homeostasis and counteracts high-fat diets and physical inactivity is complex and remains relatively poorly understood on a molecular level. In addition to genetic polymorphisms in humans that lead to gross variations in responsiveness to exercise, adaptation in mitochondrial networks is central to physical activity, inactivity, and diet. To harness the benefits of exercise for NCDs, much work still needs to be done to improve health effectively on a societal level such as developing personalized exercise interventions aided by advances in high-throughput genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. We propose that understanding the mitochondrial phenotype according to the molecular information of genotypes, lifestyles, and exercise responsiveness in individuals will optimize exercise effects for prevention of NCDs.

  3. Targeting mitochondrial phenotypes for non-communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtang Qi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept that “Exercise is Medicine” has been challenged by the rising prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs. This is partly due to the fact that the underlying mechanisms of how exercise influences energy homeostasis and counteracts high-fat diets and physical inactivity is complex and remains relatively poorly understood on a molecular level. In addition to genetic polymorphisms in humans that lead to gross variations in responsiveness to exercise, adaptation in mitochondrial networks is central to physical activity, inactivity, and diet. To harness the benefits of exercise for NCDs, much work still needs to be done to improve health effectively on a societal level such as developing personalized exercise interventions aided by advances in high-throughput genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. We propose that understanding the mitochondrial phenotype according to the molecular information of genotypes, lifestyles, and exercise responsiveness in individuals will optimize exercise effects for prevention of NCDs.

  4. Lifestyle and Non-Communicable Diseases: A double edged sword for future India

    OpenAIRE

    Joy Kumar Chakma; Sanjay Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Lifestyle has long been associated with the development of many chronic diseases. WHO has recognized diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke, cancer and chronic lung disease/COPD as major non-communicable diseases (NCDs). These major NCDs share common lifestyle related risk factors like physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol. Globally, the current scenario of NCDs is the major cause of morbidity and mortality. According to WHO Report 2004, they account...

  5. Parainflammation, chronic inflammation and age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune privileged tissue due to its unique anatomical and physiological properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergo low le...

  6. Features of Chronic Bronchitis in Different Age Groups

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    Galina L. Ignatova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung diseases are assuming greater relevance and importance today. Chronic bronchitis is a self-nosology, which may precede the development of COPD, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated. The main problem in this disease is caused by late diagnosis and treatment due to the delay by patients in seeking medical help. The aim of the work was to study the distribution and exposure to tobacco smoke, especially chronic bronchitis, depending on various factors, including age. Methods: We examined 1779 persons, including 855 men and 924 women. The mean age of the population was 35.83±8.3 years. We conducted surveys and spirometry. The outcome was assessed after a bronchodilation test was performed with salbutamol 400 mcg. We performed all statistical analysis using software package Statistica 10. Results: We identified chronic bronchitis in 9.2% of the cases in the group of younger individuals and in 14.9% of the cases in the group of older individuals, during the active detection of chronic bronchitis using questionnaires. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was slightly higher among the younger (39.5% than the older persons (33.6%; the frequency of smoking in a group of chronic bronchitis was reliably higher. Also, in this group, the performance spirometry reliably decreased. Conclusions: Outpatient survey is an effective method of identifying chronic bronchitis. Smoking is a major risk factor in the group of young respondents and the prevalence of smoking is inversely related to the education level of the respondents, regardless of age. As the decline in the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC is the main criterion diagnosis of COPD, it revealed significant declines in the FEV1 of the younger smoking individuals, which may help to predict the development of COPD in the older age group.

  7. Total body protein in chronic diseases and in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R D; Raja, C; Allen, B J

    2000-05-01

    Substantial losses of total body protein (TBP) can occur in chronic diseases and in aging. Such losses impact negatively on immunity and quality of life, and on growth rates in children. Direct measurements of total body nitrogen (TBN) monitor the integrated changes in TBP over time and allow comparison with normal subjects. TBN assessment via neutron capture analysis is therefore the gold-standard method of TBP estimation, so that risk factors for protein deficit can be identified and patient management optimized. The nitrogen index (NI) can be used to predict prognostic outcome: an NI breast-cancer patients. These findings emphasize the central importance of adequate protein stores in recovery from disease or in maintaining quality of life. Aging appears to involve a gradual loss of TBP throughout adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that TBP declines curvilinearly with age, such that there is an accelerated decline after 65 years of age. However, longitudinal data are scarce, and little is known about the relative loss of visceral protein, as opposed to skeletal muscle protein. More clearly-defined data are essential if the effects of aging per se are to be separated from the effects of chronic disease. A further complication is the knowledge that physical activity also declines with age. Thus sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, could primarily result from disuse rather than aging. The economic impact of unsuccessful aging places a pressing need for multicompartment data in longitudinal study designs. PMID:10865769

  8. Fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis: inquérito domiciliar no Município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil. Metodologia e resultados preliminares Risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases: a domiciliary enquiry in the City of S. Paulo, Brazil. Methodology and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Rego

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available As doenças crionicas não-transmissíveis são causa importante de morte no Brasil, principalmente nos grandes centros urbanos. Existem inúmeros fatores de risco relacionados a este tipo de doenças, cuja remoção, ou atenuação, pode contribuir para o declínio da mortalidade. Descreve-se a metodologia do primeiro estudo muiticêntrico abrangente realizado na América Latina sobre a questão dos fatores de risco de doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis. No Brasil o estudo foi realizado nos municípios de São Paulo, SP e Porto Alegre, RS. São apresentados resultados preliminares para o Município de São Paulo quanto à prevalência de hipertenção arterial (22,3%, tabagismo (37,9%, obesidade (18,0%, alcoolismo (7,7% e sedentarismo (69,3%. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com dados existentes para o Brasil e outros países, e discute-se a relação entre a magnitude dos diversos fatores de risco e a mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares em São Paulo e alguns países desenvolvidos.The non-communicable chronic diseases are important causes of death in Brazil, mainly in the great urban centres. There are various risk factors related to these diseases, whose remotion or attenuation would contribute to a fall in mortality. The methodology of the first comprehensive multicenter study into risk factors of non-communicable chronic diseases carried out in Latin America is explained. In Brazil, this study was carried out in the cities of S. Paulo, SP and Porto Alegre, RS. Preliminary results from the city of S. Paulo as to the prevalence of arterial hypertension (22.3%, tabagism (37.9%, obesity (18.0%, alcoholism (7.7% and sedentarism (69.3% are presented. These results are compared with existing data from Brazil and other countries, and the relationship between various risk factors and the mortality from cardiovascular diseases in S. Paulo and some developed countries is discussed.

  9. Prevention of cancer and non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Geoffrey; Gupta, Prakash; Gomes, Fabio; Kerner, Jon; Parra, William; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kim, Jeongseon; Moore, Malcolm; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Sutcliffe, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for approximately 7.6 million deaths (13% of all deaths) in 2008. Cancer mortality is projected to increase to 11 million deaths in 2030, with the majority occurring in regions of the world with the least capacity to respond. However, cancer is not only a personal, societal and economic burden but also a potential societal opportunity in the context of functional life - the years gained through effective prevention and treatment, and strategies to enhance survivorship. The United Nations General Assembly Special Session in 2011 has served to focus attention on key aspects of cancer prevention and control. Firstly, cancer is largely preventable, by feasible means. Secondly, cancer is one of a number of chronic, non- communicable diseases that share common risk factors whose prevention and control would benefit a majority of the world's population. Thirdly, a proportion of cancers can be attributed to infectious, communicable causal factors (e.g., HPV, HBV, H.pylori, parasites, flukes) and that strategies to control the burden of infectious diseases have relevance to the control of cancer. Fourthly, that the natural history of non-communicable diseases, including cancer, from primary prevention through diagnosis, treatment and care, is underwritten by the impact of social, economic and environmental determinants of health (e.g., poverty, illiteracy, gender inequality, social isolation, stigma, socio-economic status). Session 1 of the 4th International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-4) focused on the social, economic and environmental, as well as biological and behavioural, modifiers of the risk of cancer through one plenary presentation and four interactive workshop discussions. The workshop sessions concerned 1) the Global Adult Tobacco Survey and social determinants of tobacco use in high burden low- and middle-income countries; 2) the role of diet, including alcohol, and physical activity in modifying the

  10. Chinese new immigrant mothers' perception about adult-onset non-communicable diseases prevention during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linda Dong Ling; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Wu, Joseph Tsz Kei; Fielding, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Many non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are largely preventable via behaviour change and healthy lifestyle, which may be best established during childhood. This study sought insights into Chinese new immigrant mothers' perceptions about adult-onset NCDs prevention during childhood. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with new immigrant mothers from mainland China who had at least one child aged 14 years or younger living in Hong Kong. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. The present study identified three major themes: perceived causes of adult NCDs, beliefs about NCDs prevention and everyday health information practices. Unhealthy lifestyle, contaminated food and environment pollution were perceived as the primary causes of adult NCDs. Less than half of the participants recognized that parents had responsibility for helping children establish healthy behaviours from an early age to prevent diseases in later life. Most participants expressed helplessness about chronic diseases prevention due to lack of knowledge of prevention, being perceived as beyond individual control. Many participants experienced barriers to seeking health information, the most common sources of health information being interpersonal conversation and television. Participants' everyday information practice was passive and generally lacked awareness regarding early prevention of adult-onset NCDs. Updated understanding of this issue has notable implications for future health promotion interventions. PMID:24842077

  11. Fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis obtidos por inquérito telefônico - VIGITEL Brasil - 2009 Risk and protection factors for chronic non communicable diseases by telephone survey - VIGITEL - 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betine Pinto Moehlecke Iser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis resultantes do Sistema de Vigilância por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL em 2009. METODOLOGIA: Prevalências dos principais fatores de risco e proteção foram estimadas na população >18 anos a partir de entrevistas telefônicas em amostras probabilísticas da população coberta por telefonia fixa nas capitais de estados do Brasil e no Distrito Federal, segundo sexo, faixa etária e escolaridade. RESULTADOS: Foram realizadas 54.367 entrevistas. Fumantes e ex-fumantes corresponderam a 15,5e 22% da população adulta brasileira, respectivamente. O excesso de peso atinge 46,6% dos adultos; 33% relataram consumo de carne com gordura e 18,9% afirmaram consumir bebida alcoólica de forma abusiva. Tais fatores de risco são mais prevalentes em homens e em geral nos indivíduos jovens e de menor escolaridade. A prevalência de atividade física no lazer é de 18,8% (IC95% 17,4-20,1 em homens e de 11,3% (IC95% 10,6-12,0 nas mulheres. A inatividade física atinge 15,6% da população e aumenta com a idade. O consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras e a atividade física no lazer são mais frequentes em homens e mulheres com mais anos de estudo. Diagnóstico de hipertensão arterial foi referido por 21,1% (IC95% 19,6-22,5 dos homens e 27,2% (IC95% 25,8-28,5 das mulheres. A prevalência de diabetes foi de 5,8%. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados apontaram comportamentos em saúde distintos de acordo com o sexo, idade e escolaridade da população e reforçam a tendência de queda do tabagismo e aumento no excesso de peso no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: To describe the risk and protection factors for non communicable diseases with data from Telephone-based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases (VIGITEL in 2009. METHODOLOGY: The prevalence of main risk and protective factors was estimated in adults (>18 years old, by telephone surveys in a probabilistic

  12. Prevalence of Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases in a District of Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor; Atul, Trivedi; Shikha, Jain

    2013-01-01

    The study attempted to identify the prevalence and distribution of risk factors of non-communicable diseases among urban and rural population in Gujarat, India. Using the WHO stepwise approach, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,805 urban and 1,684 rural people of 15-64 years age-group. Information on behavioural and physiological risk factors of non-communicable diseases was obtained through standardized protocol. High prevalence of smoking (22.8%) and the use of smokeless tobac...

  13. China’s biggest, most neglected health challenge: Non-communicable diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Shenglan; Ehiri, John; Long, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past two decades, international health policies focusing on the fight against the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and those diseases that address maternal and child health problems, among others, have skewed disease control priorities in China and other Asian countries. Although these are important health problems, an epidemic of chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in China has accounted for a mu...

  14. Waist Circumference, Weight, and Body Mass Index of Iranians Based on National Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Larijani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is an important and life-threatening disease, associated with different chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We sought to address the paucity of information on the trends of anthropometric indices such as weight, waist circumference, and body mass index in the adult population of Iran. Methods: We drew upon data from the First Non-communicable Disease Survey in Iran in 2005. In total, 79,611 participants between 20 and 64 years old were selected via the random multistage cluster sampling. The Lambda Median Scale method was applied to construct normal curves for anthropometric indices.Results: The mean of waist circumference in both genders increased with age and in all the age groups except those between 20 and 24 years old was higher in the women. The mean of body mass index was higher in all the age brackets in the women, but the means of weight and height were higher in the men. The association of theses indices with diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia was stronger in men. Conclusion: The ranges of waist circumference and body mass index in Iranian population are different from those of other countries. The higher body mass index and waist circumference in females and the direct association between obesity and chronic diseases, is advisable that the effects of this phenomenon be fully investigated and due heed be paid to the importance of lifestyle modification.

  15. [Therapy of chronic apical periodontitis in the elderly age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, S A

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the actual problem in modern medicine therapy of chronic apical periodontitis in the elderly age. It is shown that periodontitis remains till today the leading cause of tooth extraction in the elderly age; in addition, periodontitis can lead to serious complications such as periostitis, phlegmon, osteomyelitis, which creates additional scientific interest in the study of the above complications at the junction of the two specialties--gerontology and stomatology. In elderly patients regeneration after the periodontal infectious processes takes more time, in this case the traditional approach to treatment of inflammation in the periodontium shows frequent lack of regression of the focus of periapical destruction. Based on the results of the study it is proved that prolonged antiseptic and immune-stimulating effect of therapeutic paste PED used in conjunction with 5% liniment cycloferon, leads to a rapid and marked reduction in inflammatory activity in the affected area both at granulating, and at granulomatous forms of chronic periodontitis, and is accompanied by a significantly larger share of the achieved remission. PMID:24640710

  16. Parabiosis for the study of age-related chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggel, Alexander; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Summary Modern medicine wields the power to treat large numbers of diseases and injuries most of us would have died from just a hundred years ago. In view of this tremendous achievement, it can seem as if progress has slowed, and we have been unable to impact the most devastating diseases of our time. Chronic diseases of age such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, or Alzheimer’s disease turn out to be of a complexity that may require transformative ideas and paradigms to understand and treat them. Parabiosis, which mimics aspects of the naturally occurring shared blood supply in conjoined twins in humans and certain animals, may just have the power to be such a transformative experimental paradigm. Forgotten and now shunned in many countries, it has contributed to major breakthroughs in tumor biology, endocrinology, and transplantation research in the past century, and a set of new studies in the US and Britain report stunning advances in stem cell biology and tissue regeneration using parabiosis between young and old mice. We review here briefly the history of parabiosis and discuss its utility to study physiological and pathophysiological processes. We argue that parabiosis is a technique that should enjoy wider acceptance and application, and that policies should be revisited especially if one is to study complex age-related, chronic disorders. PMID:24496774

  17. Promoting Healthy Living and Aging in Central America : Multi-sectoral Approaches to Prevent Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla-Chacin, Maria Eugenia; Vásquez, Luis T. Marcano

    2012-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the main cause of death and disability in Central America. However, communicable diseases and maternal and child conditions remain important causes of death and disability as well as injuries. With the aging of the population and improvements in the control of infectious diseases, the share of NCDs in the total burden of disease is likely to increase. H...

  18. Lifestyle and Non-Communicable Diseases: A double edged sword for future India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Kumar Chakma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle has long been associated with the development of many chronic diseases. WHO has recognized diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke, cancer and chronic lung disease/COPD as major non-communicable diseases (NCDs. These major NCDs share common lifestyle related risk factors like physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol. Globally, the current scenario of NCDs is the major cause of morbidity and mortality. According to WHO Report 2004, they account for almost 60% of deaths and 47% of global burden of disease. Epidemics of NCDs are presently emerging or accelerating in most developing countries. In India, 53% of the deaths in 2008 were due to NCDs (WHO and cardiovascular disease (CVDs alone account for 24 percent of all deaths. As of 2005, India experienced the “highest loss in potentially productive years of life” worldwide and the leading cause of death was cardiovascular disease; mostly affecting people aged 35-64 years. The projected cumulative loss of national income for India due to NCDs mortality for 2006-2015 will be USD237 billion. By 2030, this productivity loss is expected to double to 17.9 million years lost. These major NCDs are largely preventable through effective interventions by tackling the lifestyle related modifiable risk factors. This review discusses the current scenario of NCDs with their impact on health and socioeconomic development, the threat posed by the rising trends of disease burden along with socio-demographic transition and the challenges needs to be addressed for the prevention and control of NCDs.

  19. Rupture of Non-Communicating Rudimentary Horn of Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathima Sara

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in non-communicating rudimentary horn is extremely rare and terminates by rupture in 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Thus excision of the rudimentary horn advised when diagnosed. Here is a case of ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy where the diagnosis was missed by sonogram at 14weeks and reported to us in hemorrhagic shock.Keyword: non-communicating rudimentary horn, pregnancy, unicornuate uterus

  20. Chronic disease and independence in old age: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report uses case study methodology to examine the issue of long-term care of the elderly in the United Kingdom, including where that care should take place. The report will examine the difficulties inherent in maintaining independent living for the elderly (in particular the danger and cost of falls). The case study presented is that of an elderly female patient who had suffered from chronic rheumatoid arthritis for over 10 years. She was admitted to hospital several times from December 2003 to January 2004. The discussion of her case is set in the context of the sociology of ageing; long-term care of the elderly and the UK National Service Frameworks, of which standard six relates to falls in the elderly. The report will also consider the problems in deciding whether it is necessary to terminate independent living for an individual

  1. Fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas: vigilância por meio de inquérito telefônico, VIGITEL, Brasil, 2007 Risk and protective factors for chronic non-communicable diseases: the VIGITEL telephone disease surveillance system, Brazil, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erly Catarina Moura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve a prevalência de fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, a partir dos dados de 2007 do sistema de monitoramento por inquérito telefônico - o VIGITEL. Foram avaliados 54.251 adultos das capitais de estados e do Distrito Federal, Brasil. Os homens apresentaram maior frequência de hábito de fumar, de excesso de peso, de consumo de refrigerantes e de carnes com gordura, de atividade física suficiente no tempo livre, de inatividade física no geral e de consumo abusivo de bebidas alcoólicas; as mulheres, de consumo regular e recomendado de frutas, legumes e verduras. Para os homens, no nível de maior escolaridade, a probabilidade de tabagismo reduz 42%, e a de consumo de carnes com gordura, 31%; as probabilidades de excesso de peso e de inatividade física aumentam, respectivamente, 86% e 42%; consumo recomendado de frutas, legumes e verduras atinge 89%; atividade física no tempo livre aumenta para 78%. Para as mulheres, a probabilidade de tabagismo reduz em 31%, excesso de peso, 26%, e consumo de carnes com gordura, 35%; inatividade física aumenta em 76%, atividade física no tempo livre, 77%, consumo regular de frutas, legumes e verduras, 48%, e recomendado, 75%.This article describes the prevalence of risk and protective factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil, using data collected in 2007 through the telephone disease surveillance system (VIGITEL. We evaluated 54,252 adults residing in Brazil's State capitals and Federal District. Men showed higher rates of smoking, overweight, consumption of soft drinks and fatty meat, sufficient leisure-time physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and binge drinking; women showed higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. For men with more schooling, the probability of smoking decreased by 42% and consumption of fatty meat decreased by 31%; overweight increased 86%, sedentary lifestyle 42%, regular consumption of fruits and

  2. NON-INVASIVE RISK FACTORS OF NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN PRE AND POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN OF VADODARA: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Gaur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a predominant cause of deaths for women worldwide. Earlier post-menopausal women were thought to be at higher risk for chronic degenerative diseases, as protective effect of oestrogen is lost after menopause. Whereas in the last decade, alarming trends for these diseases are seen among women in their child bearing age. Hence the aim of the study was to assess non-invasive risk factors of noncommunicable diseases among adult females with a focus on menopause. For this purpose, 408 females were screened and after excluding cases of peri-menopause, under-nutrition, pregnancy and hysterectomy, based on consent detailed non-invasive risk analysis was performed on 131 female subjects. The results revealed that the prevalence of selfreported history of hypertension and diabetes was around 21% and 11% respectively. About 75% of the subjects were overweight or obese according to Asia Pacific Classification. Post-menopausal women had significantly high prevalence of high body fat per cent (OR 6.52, 95%CI 1.32-62.3 and high blood pressure (OR 4.4 95%CI 2.1-9.3. Mean waist circumference, waist hip ratio, waist stature ratio, body fat and systolic blood pressure were above the normal cut-offs depicting presence of risks in both the groups. A trend of high per capita consumption of oil, salt and sugar at household level was seen. The frequency of practice of regular health check-up and awareness regarding selfbreast examination was very low among the subjects. The study indicates high prevalence of non-communicable disease risks among both pre and post-menopausal women, emphasizing the need to create awareness among young female population to adapt healthy lifestyle practices.

  3. Comparing the Relationship Between Age and Length of Disability Across Common Chronic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jetha, Arif; Besen, Elyssa; Smith, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the association between age and disability length across common chronic conditions. Methods: Analysis of 39,915 nonwork-related disability claims with a diagnosis of arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, depression, low back pain, chronic pulmonary disease, or cancer. Ordinary least squares regression models examined age-length of disability association across chronic conditions. Results: Arthritis (76.6 days), depression (...

  4. Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases and the CARMEN Initiative: a population-based study in the South of Brazil Fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis e a Iniciativa CARMEN: estudo de base populacional no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fernandes Capilheira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The CARMEN Initiative is a strategy of the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization that proposes population-based interventions to reduce risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD by approaching them simultaneously. The present study aims to provide a baseline for further interventions by the CARMEN Initiative based on a cross-sectional population-based study of 3,100 adults (>20 years old in Pelotas, a city in the South of Brazil. Prevalence of smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and excess weight were studied and presented separately and aggregated in various combinations. The most frequent risk factor was physical inactivity (73.2%, followed by excess weight (48.1%. Women were less active and thinner than men. More than half of the sample showed two or three risk factors (53.4%. The combination of physical inactivity and excess weight was observed in 34.7% of the sample, while 10.8% presented physical inactivity, excess weight, and hypertension concurrently. The accumulation of risk factors for CNCD is frequent in the study population and the identification of the most common combinations is essential for planning future interventions.A Iniciativa CARMEN é uma estratégia da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde e da Organização Mundial da Saúde de combate às doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, que prevê intervenções populacionais para a redução simultânea de seus fatores de risco. Pretende-se fornecer uma linha de base para intervenções da Iniciativa CARMEN valendo-se de um estudo de base populacional com 3.100 adultos (> 20 anos, moradores de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. Os fatores estudados foram: tabagismo, sedentarismo, diabetes mellitus, hipertensão arterial sistêmica e excesso de peso, sendo descritos acumulados, isoladamente e em combinações. O sedentarismo foi o fator de risco mais prevalente (73,2%, seguido do excesso de peso (48,1%. As

  5. The visibility of non-communicable diseases in northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Park, Sung-Joon; Odong, George;

    2015-01-01

    Background : WHO and Uganda’s Ministry of Health emphasize the need to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Treatment for these conditions is urgent in northern Uganda where war has negatively affected both health and the public health care system. Objectives : We aimed...

  6. Prediction of chronic lung disease from the chest radiograph appearance at seven days of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess if the chest radiograph appearance at seven days of age could be used to predict chronic lung disease. 60 preterm infants who were ventilated and/or had supplementary oxygen at seven days of age and had a chest radiograph performed at that postnatal age, were prospectively recruited. These chest radiographs were scored according to lung volume, presence of opacification, haziness, interstitial changes and cystic elements. 28 infants subsequently developed chronic lung disease; their median chest radiograph score was 5.5 which was significantly higher than that of the non-chronic lung disease infants. A chest radiograph score of 4 had a 71% sensitivity and 88% specificity in predicting chronic lung disease. It is concluded that chest radiograph appearance at seven days of age is a sensitive and specific predictor of chronic lung disease and thus could be used to indicate the need for preventive therapy. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda; Ireri, Edmund; Amaganga, Clifford; Booth, Mark; Kariuki, H. Curtis; Mwatha, Joseph K.; Kimani, Gachuhi; Ouma, John H.; Muchiri, Eric; Dunne, David W.

    2010-01-01

    investigated in a study area where children were chronically exposed to malaria throughout while S. mansoni transmission was geographically restricted. Hepatosplenomegaly was associated with increased portal vein diameters, with enlargement of the spleen rather than the liver being more closely associated with...... hepatosplenomegaly. Children who presented with hepatosplenomegaly had the lowest height-for-age Z-scores. This study shows that hepatosplenomegaly associated with chronic exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis is not a benign symptom amongst school-aged children but has potential long-term health consequences.......Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen...

  8. Prevention and management of non-communicable disease: the IOC consensus statement, Lausanne 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Gordon O; Klügl, Martin; Engebretsen, Lars; Bendiksen, Fredrik; Blair, Steven N; Börjesson, Mats; Budgett, Richard; Derman, Wayne; Erdener, Ugur; Ioannidis, John P A; Khan, Karim M; Martinez, Rodrigo; Van Mechelen, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Sallis, Robert E; Schwellnus, Martin; Shultz, Rebecca; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Weiler, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2013-11-01

    Morbidity and mortality from preventable, non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) threatens the health of our populations and our economies. The accumulation of vast amounts of scientific knowledge has done little to change this. New and innovative thinking is essential to foster new creative approaches that leverage and integrate evidence through the support of big data, technology and design thinking. The purpose of this paper is to summarise the results of a consensus meeting on NCD prevention sponsored by the IOC in April 2013. Within the context of advocacy for multifaceted systems change, the IOC's focus is to create solutions that gain traction within healthcare systems. The group of participants attending the meeting achieved consensus on a strategy for the prevention and management of chronic disease that includes the following: (1) Focus on behavioural change as the core component of all clinical programmes for the prevention and management of chronic disease. (2) Establish actual centres to design, implement, study and improve preventive programmes for chronic disease. (3) Use human-centred design in the creation of prevention programmes with an inclination to action, rapid prototyping and multiple iterations. (4) Extend the knowledge and skills of Sports and Exercise Medicine (SEM) professionals to build new programmes for the prevention and treatment of chronic disease focused on physical activity, diet and lifestyle. (5) Mobilise resources and leverage networks to scale and distribute programmes of prevention. True innovation lies in the ability to align thinking around these core strategies to ensure successful implementation of NCD prevention and management programmes within healthcare. The IOC and SEM community are in an ideal position to lead this disruptive change. The outcome of the consensus meeting was the creation of the IOC Non-Communicable Diseases ad hoc Working Group charged with the responsibility of moving this agenda forward. PMID

  9. Doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis no Brasil: um desafio para a complexa tarefa da vigilância Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: a challenge for the complex task of surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lessa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A literatura na área da saúde pública é pobre em textos sobre vigilância epidemiológica (VE para DCNT, mas contém várias propostas de programas e várias redes em andamento nos 5 continentes. O tema encontra-se em destaque mundial, não só pela liderança das doenças cardiovasculares na mortalidade na grande maioria dos países, como pela já considerada pandemia da obesidade, inclusive em crianças e adolescentes. A endemia do diabetes é esperada. No Brasil a situação é grave. O envelhecimento populacional é rápido, com expectativa de aumento real das freqüências da obesidade e o diabetes como problema populacional sem concomitantes estratégias de proteção e promoção da saúde no contexto das DCNT. Predomina maciçamente a prática clínica, mas sem assegurar o tratamento ininterrupto para as DCNT na rede básica de saúde. O texto apresentado aborda sumariamente a VE para DCNT de modo geral e comenta o Método Progressivo de VE para DCNT proposto pela OMS, no caso do Brasil. Para aceitá-la é imprescindível uma análise crítica dos dados secundários nacionais disponíveis e mencionados na proposta. É também necessário produzir, a curto prazo, dados primários metodologicamente padronizados com enfoque para fatores de risco.There is a scarcity of literature in the field of public health with regard to the surveillance of non-communicable diseases but there are various proposals for programs and various networks in operation throughout the 5 continents. The subject is in debate all over the world not only because cardiovascular disease is now the leading cause of death in most countries, but because of what is already being considered a pandemic of obesity, including children and adolescents. The diabetes endemic is expected. In Brazil the situation is serious. The population is aging fast and this rapidly accentuates the importance of obesity and diabetes as a public health issue. Healthcare up to now has been

  10. Nutritional profile and presence of risk factors and protection for non-communicable chronic diseases in diabetics = Perfil nutricional e presença de fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas nãotransmissíveis em diabéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielli Aparecida Garcia da Costa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to delineate the nutritional profile and to investigate the presence and distribution of factors of risk and protection for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD in diabetic participants. For this, 54 individuals of both sexes participated in this study, aged 28 to 87 years who have been attended by a health center of the municipality of Maringá, Paraná State. It was measured the weight, height and waist circumference and applied two questionnaires related to risk factors and food frequency (FFQ respectively. The study design is cross-sectional and the descriptive analysis was performed using the statistical software Epi info version 3.32 (2005. The results showed that the most relevant risk factors in the diabetic population in relation to NCD have been related to the overweight, lack of physical activity and self-reported hypertension. The protection factors were healthy diet and quitting of smoking. Based on nutritional assessment, the BMI (Body Mass Index and waist circumference have been positively correlated with high significance. Health education is necessary for the prevention and health promotion of these individuals through the change of lifestyle.Este estudo teve como objetivo traçar o perfil nutricional e investigar a presença e a distribuição dos fatores de risco e de proteção para Doenças Crônicas Não-Transmissíveis (DCNT em portadores de Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Participaram do estudo 54 indivíduos de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 28 a 87 anos, que frequentam um posto de saúde da cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Foram aferidos o peso, a estatura e a circunferência da cintura e aplicados dois questionários relacionados com fatores de risco e frequência alimentar (QFA, respectivamente. O delineamento da pesquisa é transversal e foi feita análise descritiva pelo programa estatístico Epi info, versão 3.32 (2005. Os resultados demonstraram que os fatores de risco mais relevantes encontrados na

  11. Non-communicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: Prevalence, risk factors and community-based prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Wah-Yun Low; Yew-Kong Lee; Alexander Lourdes Samy

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) lead to substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The most common NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. With the rapid increase in NCD-related deaths in Asia Pacific countries, NCDs are now the major cause of deaths and disease burden in the region. NCDs hamper achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). People in the low socio-economic group are most affected by NCDs as they have poor access...

  12. An Assessment of Non-Communicable Diseases, Diabetes, and Related Risk Factors in the Republic of Palau: A Systems Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ichiho, Henry M; Demei, Yorah; Kuartei, Stevenson; Aitaoto, Nia

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Republic of Palau and describes the burden due to selected NCD (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic kidney disease); and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection, and reporting as well as identifying the issues th...

  13. Non-communicable diseases – harnessing the current opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Østergaard, Lise Rosendal;

    2012-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) receive growing attention, which brings a unique opportunity to utilise solutions available to address them. These diseases are largely preventable; proven, cost-effective interventions are available; and when NCDs have emerged, means exist to treat them, prevent ...... complications, and to improve quality of life. Yet, there is a lack in progress in responding effectively to NCDs, and the current discussion and research focus predominantly on challenges rather than the opportunities, which this paper outlines....

  14. Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Esmailnasab, N; G. Moradi; A Delaveri

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is a common nmetabolic ndisorder, which leads to early Cardio Vascular Disease and diabetes type II. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in Kurdistan, Iran. Method: The data was extracted from provincial section of Iranian national non-communicable surveillance survey conducted in 2005. The study was a population-based survey with multi-stage cluster sampling method. Adult Treatment Panel-III measures ...

  15. Mesurer la douleur chez le patient non communicant.

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelle, Camille; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Mergam, Anne-Nora; De Val, M.; Majerus, Steve; Boly, Mélanie; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Boveroux, Pierre; Demertzi, Athina; Gosseries, Olivia; Ledoux, Didier; Peigneux, Philippe; Salmon, Eric; Moonen, Gustave; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Pain is a subjective experience. Its assessment is based on the subject's direct verbal report. This method of assessment is, however, impossible in patients who cannot communicate their feelings. In this context, indirect measurements such as behavioral observations or physiological measurements are needed. To facilitate the assessment of pain in non-communicative patients, numerous standardized behavioral scales have been developed. The aim of this review is to discuss the main validated pa...

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids and non-communicable diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铎

    2003-01-01

    Objective To review the relation between dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) and non-communicable diseases. Method Data were collected from scientific journals and conference publications, MEDLINE (1979-2002) and current content which included 68 prospective, cross-sectional, case control and dietary-intervention studies. Scientific paper selections were based on the association between ω-3 PUFA and non-communicable diseases. Results ω-3 PUFA has beneficial effects on increasing heart rate variability, decreasing the risk of stroke, reducing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance and glucose metabolism. Long chain ω-3 PUFA has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. ω-3 PUFA has also been reported to have a beneficial effect on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, and may be effective in managing depression in adults. Conclusions Results from epidemiological and dietary intervention studies have shown that ω-3 PUFA represent powerfully a class of bioactive compounds and that dietary intake of ω-3 PUFA plays a critical role in human health in relation to non-communicable diseases.

  17. An assessment of non-communicable diseases, diabetes, and related risk factors in the Republic of Palau: a systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiho, Henry M; Demei, Yorah; Kuartei, Stevenson; Aitaoto, Nia

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Republic of Palau and describes the burden due to selected NCD (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic kidney disease); and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection, and reporting as well as identifying the issues that need to be addressed. There has been a 7.1% increase in the population between 2000 and 2010. Significant shifts in the age groups show declines among children and young adults under 34 years of age and increases among adult residents over 45 years of age. Findings reveal that the risk factors of poor diet, lack of physical activity, and lifestyle behaviors are associated with overweight and obesity and subsequent NCD that play a significant role in the morbidity and mortality of the population. The leading causes of death include heart disease and cancer. A 2003 community household survey was conducted and 22.4% of them reported a history of diabetes in the household. A survey among Ministry of Health employees showed that 44% of the men and 47% of the women were overweight and 46% of the men and 42% of the women were obese. Other findings show significant gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, and support services to address these NCD. Priority issues and needs for the administrative and clinical systems were identified. PMID:23901368

  18. SOME EFFECTS OF CHRONIC TRITIUM EXPOSURE DURING SELECTED AGES IN THE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the implication of age at the time of exposure to chronic irradiation, rats were exposed to constant tritium (HTO) activities of 10 microcuries/ml of body water for 42 days beginning either on the first day of pregnancy or at birth, or at 42 days or 74 days of age. This...

  19. Aging populations, chronic diseases, gender and the risk of disability

    OpenAIRE

    Bould, Sally; Casaca, Sara Falcão

    2011-01-01

    The current discussion in the EU of the increase in life expectancy as it relates to pension reform misses a big part of the picture. The increase in life expectancy in Europe, as in the US, is accompanied by an increasing risk of disability in the later years. The time between the onset of a chronic disease and death has increased dramatically in the last half century. It has also created a situation where older workers risk being limited in the kind of paid work they can do and the very old...

  20. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the striatum of aged chronic mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Patki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction has been implicated as a possible mechanism for the onset and progression of Parkinson-like neurodegeneration. However, long-term mitochondrial defects in chronic animal neurodegenerative models have not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the function of striatal mitochondria 6 weeks after the induction of a chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (MPD. Although severe depression of mitochondrial respiration was observed immediately after acute administrations of MPTP, we failed to detect a significant mitochondrial inhibition in presence of striatal dopamine deficit 6 weeks after the chronic MPD induction in young adult mice. In contrast, when aged mice were chronically treated with MPTP and at 6 weeks post-treatment, these animals suffered an inhibition of the basal (state 4 and ADP-stimulated (state 3 respiration and a fall in ATP level in the striatal mitochondria. The aged chronic MPD also brought about a sustained diminution of striatal anti-oxidant enzyme levels including that of superoxide dismutases and cytochrome c. The mitochondrial deficits in the striatum of aged chronic MPD 6 weeks after treatment were further correlated with significant losses of striatal dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine uptake transporter, and with impaired movement when tested on a challenging beam. Our findings suggest that MPTP may trigger the neurodegenerative process by obstructing the mitochondrial function; however, striatal mitochondria in young animals may potentially rejuvenate, whereas mitochondrial dysfunction is sustained in the aged chronic MPD. Therefore, the aged chronic MPD may serve as a suitable investigative model for further elucidating the integral relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegenerative disorder, and for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of mitochondrial protective agents as potential

  1. Multiple risk behaviors for non-communicable diseases and associated factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Melo RODRIGUES

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of risk behaviors for non-communicable diseases and analyze their associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with 1,139 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years attending public and private high schools in Cuiabá, Midwestern Brazil. Data were collected using a selfadministered questionnaire, including a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of tobacco smoking, alcohol experimentation, physical inactivity, unsatisfactory meal pattern, and excessive intake of saturated fat and sodium were evaluated. The associations between risk behaviors and socioeconomic variables, weight status, and self-perceived health status were evaluated. Results: The most common risk behaviors were excessive sodium intake (88%, unsatisfactory meal pattern (72%, excessive intake of saturated fat (39%, and alcohol experimentation (39%. Four of 10 adolescents were exposed to two risk behaviors simultaneously. Among male adolescents, the main factors associated with risk behaviors were: type of school, class schedule, education level of the household head, weight status, and self-perceived health status. Among female adolescents, age, type of school, class schedule, and education level of the household head were the main factors associated with risk behaviors. Conclusion: The prevalence of exposure to risk behaviors for non-communicable diseases was high, highlighting the simultaneous presence of tobacco smoking and experimentation of alcoholic beverages. Special attention should be given to educational activities to minimize the effects of the simultaneous occurrence of multiple risk behaviors.

  2. Implications of the World Trade Organization in combating non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A; Voon, T

    2011-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a number of strategies to combat non-communicable diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes by targeting the risk factors of tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol and poor diet. A number of the domestic regulatory responses contemplated by WHO and individual countries have the potential to restrict or distort trade, raising the question of whether they are consistent with the obligations imposed on Members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This article demonstrates that WTO rules do limit Members' flexibility in implementing public health measures to address these diseases. However, the focus of WTO provisions on preventing discrimination against or between imports and the exceptions incorporated in various WTO agreements leave sufficient scope for Members to design carefully directed measures to achieve genuine public health goals while minimizing negative effects on international trade. PMID:22030320

  3. Chronic Glucocorticoid Hypersecretion in Cushing's Syndrome Exacerbates Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Kathy; Forget, Helene; Cohen, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Cumulative exposure to glucocorticoid hormones (GC) over the lifespan has been associated with cognitive impairment and may contribute to physical and cognitive degeneration in aging. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the pattern of cognitive deficits in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS), a disorder characterized by…

  4. Maternal and childhood psychological factors predict chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, Simon; Tilling, Kate; Joinson, Carol; Rimes, Katharine; Pearson, Rebecca; Hughes, Rachel; Sterne, Jonathan; Crawley, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether premorbid maternal and childhood psychological problems are risk factors for chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years among children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort.Methods: Chronic disabling fatigue was defined as fatigue of at least 3-month, and up to 5-year, duration that prevented school attendance or hobbies/sport/leisure activities, and for which other causes were not identified. Maternal psychological factors were sym...

  5. Heterogeneous Depression Responses to Chronic Pain Onset among Middle-Aged Adults: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhuoying; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Bonanno, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on depression response to chronic pain are limited by lack of clarification of different forms of response patterns and cross-sectional measures. The current study examined heterogeneous long-term patterns of depression response to chronic pain onset using the mixture modeling technique. Depression symptoms prior to and following pain onset over a course of six years were charted in a nationally representative middle-aged sample. Four distinct depression symptom trajectories emerged. ...

  6. Effect of the vegetarian diet on non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo

    2014-01-30

    A vegetarian diet generally includes plenty of vegetables and fruits, which are rich in phytochemicals, antioxidants, fiber, magnesium, vitamins C and E, Fe³⁺, folic acid and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and is low in cholesterol, total fat and saturated fatty acid, sodium, Fe²⁺, zinc, vitamin A, B₁₂ and D, and especially n-3 PUFA. Mortality from all-cause, ischemic heart disease, and circulatory and cerebrovascular diseases was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivorous populations. Compared with omnivores, the incidence of cancer and type 2 diabetes was also significantly lower in vegetarians. However, vegetarians have a number of increased risk factors for non-communicable diseases such as increased plasma homocysteine, mean platelet volume and platelet aggregability compared with omnivores, which are associated with low intake of vitamin B₁₂ and n-3 PUFA. Based on the present data, it would seem appropriate for vegetarians to carefully design their diet, specifically focusing on increasing their intake of vitamin B₁₂ and n-3 PUFA to further reduce already low mortality and morbidity from non-communicable diseases. PMID:23965907

  7. Chronic stress induces ageing-associated degeneration in rat Leydig cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-Fei Wang; Qian Wang; Yong Chen; Qiang Lin; Hui-Bao Gao; Ping Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that stress and ageing exert inhibitory effects on rat Leydig cells.In a pattern similar to the normal process of Leydig cell ageing,stress-mediated increases in glucocorticoid levels inhibit steroidogenic enzyme expression that then results in decreased testosterone secretion.We hypothesized that chronic stress accelerates the degenerative changes associated with ageing in Leydig cells.To test this hypothesis,we established a model of chronic stress to evaluate stress-induced morphological and functional alterations in Brown Norway rat Leydig cells; additionally,intracellular lipofuscin levels,reactive oxygen species (ROS)levels and DNA damage were assessed.The results showed that chronic stress accelerated ageing-related changes:ultrastructural alterations associated with ageing,cellular lipofuscin accumulation,increased ROS levels and more extensive DNA damage were observed.Additionally,testosterone levels were decreased.This study sheds new light on the idea that chronic stress contributes to the degenerative changes associated with ageing in rat Leydig cells in vivo.

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors and non-communicable diseases in Abia state, Nigeria: report of a community-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogah O.S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited population based data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and non-communicable diseases in Nigeria, and Abia state in particular. Aims: The purpose of this survey was to determine the burden of non-communicable diseases as well as associated cardiovascular risk factors in the state using the World Health Organization steps approach. It is believed that information obtained will provide the basis for policies, plans and programs as well as evolve strategies in designing, implementing and evaluation of appropriate interventions that are geared towards controlling them. Methods: The house to house survey was conducted in randomly selected communities in Abia State of Nigeria. Respondents had their biophysical parameters measured: weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, pulse rate blood pressure and some biochemical parameters. Results: Women constituted 52.1% of the 2999 participants. The mean age of the participants was 41.7±18.5 years. Three hundred and eighty seven respondents had ever smoked cigarette, 373 men (96.4% and 14 women (3.6%. Many of the respondents (65.5% were engaged in work involving sedentary activity. Over eighty percent of the study populations were aware of cancer. Hypertension was present in 31.8% and diabetes mellitus in 3.6%. Obesity was present in 13.8% while low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was detected in 54.1%. Conclusions: A suggestion is made for the establishment and strengthening of non-communicable diseases surveillance systems in the state. Surveillance of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors using the World Health Organization stepwise surveillance for non-communicable diseases should be ongoing in the state and should be conducted every two years.

  9. PREVALENCE OF MAJOR NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND ITS SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN ADULT POPULATION OF BLOCK HAJIN, BANDIPOORA J & K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-communicable disease is a medical condition or disease which non-infectious, of long duration and generally of slow progression. Major NCDs include cardiovascular diseases, strokes, diabetes mellitus, cancers and chronic respiratory diseases. They account for a significant part of overall mortality, morbidity & disability, result in huge economic losses to nations, are a cause of psychosocial suffering and are therefore recognized as major public health problem. OBJECTIVE: To find out prevalence and socioeconomic characteristics of NCDs in study population of block Hajin. DESIGN: Community based cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted between May to October 2013. RESULTS: Out of the total study population it was seen that the general prevalence of NCDs was 209 (34.83% of which 125 (34.72% were males and 125 (34.72% were females respectively. The most common NCD was Hypertension (66.02% followed by Diabetes (22% and Cancers (11.96% respectively. Age, sex, type of family, SE status were significantly associated with the occurrence of NCDs (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people place a heavy burden on healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most.

  10. Aging-Dependent Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Redox Status in Chronically Loaded Rat Dorsiflexor Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Michael J.; Dudash, Holly J.; Docherty, Megan; Geronilla, Kenneth B.; Baker, Brent A.; Haff, G. Gregory; Cutlip, Robert G; Alway, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares changes in the pro-oxidant production and buffering capacity in young and aged skeletal muscle after exposure to chronic repetitive loading (RL). The dorsiflexors from one limb of young and aged rats were loaded 3 times/week for 4.5 weeks using 80 maximal stretch-shortening contractions per session. RL increased H2O2 in tibialis anterior muscles of young and aged rats and decreased the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation in aged but not young adult...

  11. HIV and Non-Communicable Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries in the ART Era: What We Know and Best Directions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Khazanie, Prateeti; Morris, Alison; Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Benjamin, Laura A.; Murdoch, David; Radcliff, Virginia S.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Hicks, Charles

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV is becoming a chronic disease. HIV seropositive (+) individuals on ART can expect to live longer and, as a result, they are at risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases related to factors such as aging, lifestyle, long-term HIV infection, and the potential adverse effects of ART. Though data are incomplete, evidence suggests that even in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), chronic cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases are increasing in HIV+ individuals. This review summarizes evidence linking HIV infection to the most commonly cited chronic cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions in LMICs: heart failure, hypertension, coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction, stroke, obstructive lung diseases, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. We describe the observed epidemiology of these conditions, factors affecting expression in LMICs, and key populations that may be at higher risk (i.e., illicit drug users and children), and finally, we suggest strategic areas of research and training intended to counter these conditions effectively. As access to ART in LMICs increases, long-term outcomes among HIV+ persons will increasingly be determined by a range of associated chronic cardiovascular and pulmonary complications. Actions taken now to identify those conditions that contribute to long-term morbidity and mortality, optimize early recognition and diagnosis, and implement effective prevention strategies and/or disease interventions are likely to have the greatest impact on limiting cardiovascular and pulmonary disease comorbidity and improving population health among HIV+ individuals in LMICs. PMID:25117960

  12. Accelerated Aging during Chronic Oxidative Stress: A Role for PARP-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle M. P. H. J. Boesten

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory disease and it has also been linked to accelerated telomere shortening. Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of linear chromosomes that protect these ends from degradation and fusion. Telomeres shorten with each cell division eventually leading to cellular senescence. Research has shown that poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 and subtelomeric methylation play a role in telomere stability. We hypothesized that PARP-1 plays a role in accelerated aging in chronic inflammatory diseases due to its role as coactivator of NF-κb and AP-1. Therefore we evaluated the effect of chronic PARP-1 inhibition (by fisetin and minocycline in human fibroblasts (HF cultured under normal conditions and under conditions of chronic oxidative stress, induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP. Results showed that PARP-1 inhibition under normal culturing conditions accelerated the rate of telomere shortening. However, under conditions of chronic oxidative stress, PARP-1 inhibition did not show accelerated telomere shortening. We also observed a strong correlation between telomere length and subtelomeric methylation status of HF cells. We conclude that chronic PARP-1 inhibition appears to be beneficial in conditions of chronic oxidative stress but may be detrimental under relatively normal conditions.

  13. SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY IN THE DENTATE GYRUS OF AGED RATS IS ALTERED AFTER CHRONIC NIMODIPINE APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    deJong, GI; Buwalda, B.; Schuurman, T.; Luiten, PGM

    1992-01-01

    We examined ultrastructural correlates of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of young (3 months) vs aged (30 months) Wistar rats and established the effects of the calcium antagonist nimodipine in animals chronically treated from 24 to 30 months. The effects of nimodipine was studied since this compound improves hippocampal neuronal physiology and enhances cognitive function during aging. In the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus we found a 24% decrease in synaptic density (Nv) in a...

  14. Premature Aging of the Microcirculation in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Thang, Oanh H.D.; Serné, Erik H; Grooteman, Muriel P.C.; Smulders, Yvo M.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Tangelder, Geert-Jan; Nubé, Menso J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing age and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are both associated with an attenuated vasodilator response of the skin microcirculation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on microvascular reactivity in patients with advanced CKD. Methods Acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-mediated endothelium-independent vasodilation were assessed by iontophoresis combined with laser Doppler flowmetry. Mic...

  15. Chronic vitamin C deficiency does not accelerate oxidative stress in ageing brains of guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Andersen, Stine Hasselholt; Miyashita, Namiyo;

    2012-01-01

      Increased oxidative stress in the brain has consistently been implied in ageing and in several degenerative brain disorders. Acting as a pivotal antioxidant in the brain, vitamin C is preferentially retained during deficiency and may play an essential role in neuroprotection during ageing. Thus......, a lack of vitamin C could be associated with an increase in redox imbalance in the ageing brain. The present study compared oxidative stress of ageing to that of a long-term non-scorbutic vitamin C deficiency in guinea pigs. Adults (3-9 months old) were compared to old (36-42 months old) animals...... during a six-month dietary intervention by assessing vitamin C transport and redox homeostasis in the brain. In contrast to our hypothesis, chronic vitamin C deficiency did not affect the measured markers of oxidative stress in the brains of adult and aged animals. However, aged animals generally showed...

  16. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John S. F.; Pallari, Elena; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002–13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009–13), whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals. PMID:27111670

  17. Looking Beyond the Terrestrial: The Potential of Seaweed Derived Bioactives to Treat Non-Communicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kenneth G; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-03-01

    Seaweeds are a large and diverse group of marine organisms that are commonly found in the maritime regions of the world. They are an excellent source of biologically active secondary metabolites and have been shown to exhibit a wide range of therapeutic properties, including anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities. Several Asian cultures have a strong tradition of using different varieties of seaweed extensively in cooking as well as in herbal medicines preparations. As such, seaweeds have been used to treat a wide variety of health conditions such as cancer, digestive problems, and renal disorders. Today, increasing numbers of people are adopting a "westernised lifestyle" characterised by low levels of physical exercise and excessive calorific and saturated fat intake. This has led to an increase in numbers of chronic Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus, being reported. Recently, NCDs have replaced communicable infectious diseases as the number one cause of human mortality. Current medical treatments for NCDs rely mainly on drugs that have been obtained from the terrestrial regions of the world, with the oceans and seas remaining largely an untapped reservoir for exploration. This review focuses on the potential of using seaweed derived bioactives including polysaccharides, antioxidants and fatty acids, amongst others, to treat chronic NCDs such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26999166

  18. Looking Beyond the Terrestrial: The Potential of Seaweed Derived Bioactives to Treat Non-Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G. Collins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are a large and diverse group of marine organisms that are commonly found in the maritime regions of the world. They are an excellent source of biologically active secondary metabolites and have been shown to exhibit a wide range of therapeutic properties, including anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities. Several Asian cultures have a strong tradition of using different varieties of seaweed extensively in cooking as well as in herbal medicines preparations. As such, seaweeds have been used to treat a wide variety of health conditions such as cancer, digestive problems, and renal disorders. Today, increasing numbers of people are adopting a “westernised lifestyle” characterised by low levels of physical exercise and excessive calorific and saturated fat intake. This has led to an increase in numbers of chronic Non-communicable diseases (NCDs such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus, being reported. Recently, NCDs have replaced communicable infectious diseases as the number one cause of human mortality. Current medical treatments for NCDs rely mainly on drugs that have been obtained from the terrestrial regions of the world, with the oceans and seas remaining largely an untapped reservoir for exploration. This review focuses on the potential of using seaweed derived bioactives including polysaccharides, antioxidants and fatty acids, amongst others, to treat chronic NCDs such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

  19. Prevalence and Determinants of Pre-Hypertension among Omani Adults Attending Non-Communicable Disease Screening Program in Primary Care Setting in Sohar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdullah Al-Maqbali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of pre-hypertension and its association with some selected cardiovascular risk factors among the Omani adult population in the primary healthcare setting.Method: A cross-sectional study involving a sample taken from a National Screening Program of chronic non-communicable diseases in primary healthcare institutions, Sohar city, Sultanate of Oman (July 2006 - December 2007. Inclusion criteria included Omanis aged 40 years or above residents of Sohar city attending primary healthcare institutions not previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or chronic kidney diseases. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the demographic, physical and metabolic characteristics. Univariate analysis was used to identify the significant association between the characteristics and normal blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension. Chi-squared test was used for categorical variables analysis and independent t-test was used for continuous variables analysis. In order to examine the strength of significant associations, the multinomial logistic regression analysis was used.Results: There were 1498 participants, 41% were males and 59% were females. Overall, pre-hypertension was observed in 45% of the total study population (95% CI: 0.422 - 0.473. There were more males affected than females (46% versus 44%. About 34% of the total study population was hypertensive. The multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that an increase of one unit of age, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and total blood cholesterol, were significantly associated with higher risk in both pre-hypertension and hypertension. High odds ratio of pre-hypertension and hypertension was found with the total blood cholesterol.Conclusion: The prevalence of pre-hypertension was high among the Omani adult population. The determinants of pre-hypertension in this research age, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and total blood

  20. Modelling the Age Dynamics of Chronic Health Conditions: Life-Table-Consistent Transition Probabilities and their Application

    OpenAIRE

    Frank T Denton; Byron G. Spencer

    2014-01-01

    [Background:] Surveys of chronic health conditions provide information about prevalence but not about the incidence and the process of change within the population. [Objective:] We show how the "age dynamics" of chronic conditions - the probabilities of contracting the conditions at different ages, of moving from one chronic conditions state to another, and of dying - can be inferred from prevalence data for those conditions that can be viewed as irreversible. [Methods:] Transition probabilit...

  1. The chronic care for age-related macular degeneration study (CHARMED): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Held Ulrike; Wang Mathyas; Woitzek Katja; Frei Anja; Rosemann Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Neovascular age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in people 50 years of age or older in the developed world. As in other chronic diseases, several effective treatments are available, but in clinical daily practice there is an evidence performance gap. The Chronic Care Model represents an evidence-based framework for the care of chronically ill patients and aims at closing that gap. However, no data are available regarding patients ...

  2. Ethnic and Gender Differentials in Non-Communicable Diseases and Self-Rated Health in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jane K. L.; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Methods Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses. Results Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD), followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health. Conclusion Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people. PMID

  3. Assessment of risk factors of non-communicable diseases among high school students in Mangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Non-communicable diseases are ever increasing and will soon outnumber the prevalence of communicable diseases. This study aims to detect prevalence of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in high school students and its comparison among students of private and government schools, Mangalore. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted amongst consenting high-school students. The data collected included socio-demographic factors, dietary habits, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, height and weight. Data was tabulated and analyzed using Microsoft excel and SPSS version 11.5 software. Chi square test was used to determine the association of various factors with risk factors, P < 0.05 was considered significant. The results were presented as tables. Result: 413 students were surveyed from private and government schools. Age range was 13-15 years. One-tenth of the students had adequate dietary habits. Though most students were physically active, the type and duration of activity was inadequate. Two students were obese, both females. There were statistically significant differences among various socioeconomic classes, type of school and the presence of certain risk factors. Alcohol intake among students of upper class was significant ( P = 0.006. Conclusion: The prevalence of risk factors for NCD is low among high-school students of Mangalore. Students should be educated about having adequate amount of fruits and vegetables and advised to reduce the consumption of fast food. Vigorous activity should be encouraged amongst the students to prevent them from getting obese.

  4. The relationship between physical activity and risk factors for non-communicable diseases of a population in transition : the PURE study / Tershia van Niekerk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Niekerk, Tershia

    2014-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases of lifestyle, cause the greatest burden of disease globally. The major risk factors for NCDs are hypertension, hyperglycaemia, high cholesterol, tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, overweight/obesity and physical inactivity. NCDs in South Africa are increasing in black South Africans with the transition from rural to urban areas. The transitions have resulted in a change in lifestyle. Regular moderate intensity physical activity (PA...

  5. An Assessment of Non-Communicable Diseases, Diabetes, and Related Risk Factors in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Yap: A Systems Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ichiho, Henry M; Yurow, Julie; Lippwe, Kipier; Aitaoto, Nia

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Yap, and describes the burdens due to diabetes and other NCDs (heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic renal disease), and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection and reporting as well ...

  6. An Assessment of Non-Communicable Diseases, Diabetes, and Related Risk Factors in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Majuro Atoll: A Systems Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ichiho, Henry M; deBrum, Ione; Kedi, Shra; Langidrik, Justina; Aitaoto, Nia

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-associated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Majuro Atoll and describes the burdens due to selected NCD (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic kidney disease); and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection and reporting as well...

  7. An Assessment of Non-Communicable Diseases, Diabetes, and Related Risk Factors in the Territory of American Samoa: A Systems Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ichiho, Henry M; Roby, Faiese T; Ponausuia, Elisapeta S; Aitaoto, Nia

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in American Samoa and describes the burden of selected NCDs (ie, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and chronic kidney disease); and assesses the system of service capacity and activities regarding service delivery, data collection and reporting as well as identifies the issues needing ...

  8. Uninephrectomy in young age or chronic salt loading causes salt-sensitive hypertension in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Sällström, Johan; Skøtt, Ole; Larsson, Erik; Persson, A Erik G

    2007-01-01

    adulthood. Rats were operated at 3 weeks of age (after completed nephrogenesis) and then subjected to either normal or high-salt diets for 6 to 8 weeks. Four different experimental groups were used: sham-operated animals raised with normal-salt diet (controls) or high-salt diet (HS) and uninephrectomized...... renin concentrations during high sodium conditions and hypertrophic kidneys and hearts with various degrees of histopathologic changes. In conclusion, at a young age after completed nephrogenesis, uninephrectomy or chronic salt loading causes renal and cardiovascular injury with salt...

  9. Molecular signatures of age-associated chronic degeneration of shoulder muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Yotam; Henseler, Jan Ferdinand; Kolk, Arjen; Tatum, Zuotian; Groosjohan, Niels Kuipers; Verwey, Nisha E.; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Kielbasa, Szymon M.; Nagels, Jochem; Hoen, Peter A. C. 't; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; Raz, Vered

    2016-01-01

    Chronic muscle diseases are highly prevalent in the elderly causing severe mobility limitations, pain and frailty. The intrinsic molecular mechanisms are poorly understood due to multifactorial causes, slow progression with age and variations between individuals. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms could lead to new treatment options which are currently limited. Shoulder complaints are highly common in the elderly, and therefore, muscles of the shoulder's rotator cuff could be considered as a model for chronic age-associated muscle degeneration. Diseased shoulder muscles were characterized by muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration compared with unaffected shoulder muscles. We confirmed fatty infiltration using histochemical analysis. Additionally, fibrosis and loss of contractile myosin expression were found in diseased muscles. Most cellular features, including proliferation rate, apoptosis and cell senescence, remained unchanged and genome-wide molecular signatures were predominantly similar between diseased and intact muscles. However, we found down-regulation of a small subset of muscle function genes, and up-regulation of extracellular region genes. Myogenesis was defected in muscle cell culture from diseased muscles but was restored by elevating MyoD levels. We suggest that impaired muscle functionality in a specific environment of thickened extra-cellular matrix is crucial for the development of chronic age-associated muscle degeneration. PMID:26885755

  10. Molecular signatures of age-associated chronic degeneration of shoulder muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Yotam; Henseler, Jan Ferdinand; Kolk, Arjen; Tatum, Zuotian; Groosjohan, Niels Kuipers; Verwey, Nisha E; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Kielbasa, Szymon M; Nagels, Jochem; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Raz, Vered

    2016-02-23

    Chronic muscle diseases are highly prevalent in the elderly causing severe mobility limitations, pain and frailty. The intrinsic molecular mechanisms are poorly understood due to multifactorial causes, slow progression with age and variations between individuals. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms could lead to new treatment options which are currently limited. Shoulder complaints are highly common in the elderly, and therefore, muscles of the shoulder's rotator cuff could be considered as a model for chronic age-associated muscle degeneration. Diseased shoulder muscles were characterized by muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration compared with unaffected shoulder muscles. We confirmed fatty infiltration using histochemical analysis. Additionally, fibrosis and loss of contractile myosin expression were found in diseased muscles. Most cellular features, including proliferation rate, apoptosis and cell senescence, remained unchanged and genome-wide molecular signatures were predominantly similar between diseased and intact muscles. However, we found down-regulation of a small subset of muscle function genes, and up-regulation of extracellular region genes. Myogenesis was defected in muscle cell culture from diseased muscles but was restored by elevating MyoD levels. We suggest that impaired muscle functionality in a specific environment of thickened extra-cellular matrix is crucial for the development of chronic age-associated muscle degeneration. PMID:26885755

  11. The relation of airway obstruction to asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obaseki, D; Potts, J; Joos, G;

    2014-01-01

    history, atopy, and treatment. Multiple regression was used to assess the interactive effects of age and diagnostic group on decline in postbronchodilator ventilatory function. RESULTS: A total of 3337 participants provided adequate data (778 with asthma, 399 with CRS, 244 with both asthma and CRS and......RATIONALE: There is conflicting evidence on whether patients with asthma experience an accelerated decline in lung function with age. We examined the association between postbronchodilator lung function, asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and atopy with age using a large European sample. METHODS......: In 17 centers in 11 European countries, case-control studies were nested within representative cross-sectional surveys of adults aged less than 75 years. Representative samples of participants with asthma, CRS or both and controls were assessed for postbronchodilator ventilatory function, smoking...

  12. The mouse as a model for understanding chronic diseases of aging: the histopathologic basis of aging in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harrison

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inbred mice provide a unique tool to study aging populations because of the genetic homogeneity within an inbred strain, their short life span, and the tools for analysis which are available. A large-scale longitudinal and cross-sectional aging study was conducted on 30 inbred strains to determine, using histopathology, the type and diversity of diseases mice develop as they age. These data provide tools that when linked with modern in silico genetic mapping tools, can begin to unravel the complex genetics of many of the common chronic diseases associated with aging in humans and other mammals. In addition, novel disease models were discovered in some strains, such as rhabdomyosarcoma in old A/J mice, to diseases affecting many but not all strains including pseudoxanthoma elasticum, pulmonary adenoma, alopecia areata, and many others. This extensive data set is now available online and provides a useful tool to help better understand strain-specific background diseases that can complicate interpretation of genetically engineered mice and other manipulatable mouse studies that utilize these strains.

  13. Sociodemographic predictors of multiple non-communicable disease risk factors among older adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Musekiwa, Alfred; Kose, Zamakayise

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are important risk factors of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to explore the sociodemographic predictors of multiple non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors experienced by elderly South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the co-existence of multiple NCD risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol, physical inactivity, fruit and vegetable intake, overweight or obesity, and hypertension) in each individual. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics, namely, age, gender, education, wealth status, population group, marital status, and residence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association between sociodemographic variables and multiple NCD risk factors. Results The mean number of NCD risk factors among all participants was three (95% confidence interval: 2.81–3.10). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that being female, being in the age group of 60–69 years, and being from the Coloured and Black African race were associated with a higher number of NCD risk factors. Marital status, educational level, wealth, and residence were not significantly associated with the number of NCD risk factors experienced. Conclusions The co-existence of multiple lifestyle NCD risk factors among the elderly is a public health concern. Comprehensive health-promotion interventions addressing the co-existence of multiple NCD risk factors tailored for specific sociodemographic groups are needed. PMID:24044582

  14. Profile of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in Punjab, Northern India: Results of a State-Wide STEPS Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Thakur

    Full Text Available Efforts to assess the burden of non-communicable diseases risk factors has improved in low and middle-income countries after political declaration of UN High Level Meeting on NCDs. However, lack of reliable estimates of risk factors distribution are leading to delay in implementation of evidence based interventions in states of India.A STEPS Survey, comprising all the three steps for assessment of risk factors of NCDs, was conducted in Punjab state during 2014-15. A statewide multistage sample of 5,127 residents, aged 18-69 years, was taken. STEPS questionnaire version 3.1 was used to collect information on behavioral risk factors, followed by physical measurements and blood and urine sampling for biochemical profile.Tobacco and alcohol consumption were observed in 11.3% (20% men and 0.9% women and 15% (27% men and 0.3% women of the population, respectively. Low levels of physical activity were recorded among 31% (95% CI: 26.7-35.5 of the participants. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28.6% (95% CI: 26.3-30.9 and 12.8% (95% CI: 11.2-14.4 respectively. Central obesity was higher among women (69.3%, 95% CI: 66.5-72.0 than men (49.5%, 95% CI: 45.3-53.7. Prevalence of hypertension in population was 40.1% (95% CI: 37.3-43.0. The mean sodium intake in grams per day for the population was 7.4 gms (95% CI: 7.2-7.7. The prevalence of diabetes (hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.7-16.8, 21.6% (95% CI: 18.5-25.1 and 16.1% (95% CI: 13.1-19.2, respectively. In addition, 7% of the population aged 40-69 years had a cardiovascular risk of ≥ 30% over a period of next 10 years.We report high prevalence of risk factors of chronic non-communicable diseases among adults in Punjab. There is an urgent need to implement population, individual and programme wide prevention and control interventions to lower the serious consequences of NCDs.

  15. Domains of Chronic Stress, Lifestyle Factors, and Allostatic Load in Middle-Aged Mexican-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Linda C.; Jiménez, Jessica A.; Shivpuri, Smriti; Espinosa de los Monteros, Karla; Mills, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little research has examined how chronic stress in different domains relates to allostatic load (AL). Purpose We examined the relationship between multiple chronic stressors with AL, and evaluated lifestyle factors as possible mediating factors. Methods Three hundred one middle-aged Mexican-American women underwent a physical exam and completed measures of lifestyle factors and chronic stress in eight domains. A composite of 12 neuroendocrine, metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflamm...

  16. Public assessment of key performance indicators of healthcare in a Canadian province: the effect of age and chronic health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurullah, Abu Sadat; Northcott, Herbert C; Harvey, Michael D

    2014-01-15

    This study explores the effect of age and chronic conditions on public perceptions of the health system, as measured by the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of healthcare, in the province of Alberta in Canada. Drawing from data collected by Government of Alberta's Department of Health and Wellness, this research examines two key questions: (1) Do people in the 65+ age group rate the KPIs of healthcare (i.e., availability, accessibility, quality, outcome, and satisfaction) more favorably compared to people in younger age groups in Alberta? (2) Does the rating of KPIs of healthcare in Alberta vary with different chronic conditions (i.e., no chronic problem, chronic illnesses without pain, and chronic pain)? The findings indicate that people in the older age group tend to rate the KPIs of healthcare more favorably compared to younger age groups in Alberta, net of socio-demographic factors, self-reported health status, and knowledge and utilization of health services. However, people experiencing chronic pain are less likely to rate the KPIs of healthcare favorably compared to people with no chronic health problem in Alberta. Discussion includes implications of the findings for the healthcare system in the province. PMID:24455471

  17. AWARENESS OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR RISK FACTORS AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharudha Shivalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral interventions for Non Communicable Diseases (NCD abeyance would profit the most, if initiated at an early age. Major risk factors of NCDs are changing life style and behavior pattern which are largely due to practices adopted in younger age. Students' awareness about NCDs and their risk factors is an important part of population based prevention strategy. Objective: To assess the awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among rural intermediate school children. Methodology: A School based cross sectional study was conducted in Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi from July - Aug 2010. Intermediate school children from eight inter-colleges of Chiraigaon development block were the study subjects. Pretested questionnaire was used in the study and frequency and proportions were used to analyze the data. Results: Less than one third of the children were aware about Diabetes and Hypertension (27% and 31% respectively. Only 18% knew about Body Mass Index (BMI as an indicator of obesity. In general awareness of NCDs was more in boys than girl. Conclusion: Over all awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among students was not satisfactory. There is a need and scope for health education activity regarding NCDs and their risk factors to promote healthy life style among these school children.

  18. Behavioural Risk Factors for Non Communicable Disease among Rural Adults in Andra Pradesh

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    Trupti N Bodhare, Kanchi Venkatesh, Samir Bele, Gali Kashiram, Sujata Devi, Achanta Vivekanand

    2013-01-01

    Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in rural area of Karimnagar among 410 participants. Various risk factors assessed were smoking and alcohol intake, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension and stress among participants. Results: The mean age of the participants was 56.41 ± 11.90 years. Male accounted for 55.6% of the total sample, 34.9% were illiterate and 70.7% belonged to an upper lower class. Presence of at least one risk factor was observed among 76.3% of participants. The prevalence of hypertension was 38.5% among participants, 24.6% were current smokers whereas 29.8% were current alcohol users. Stress was exhibited by 24.9% and 25.9% were physically inactive. A binary logistic regression analysis revealed that older age (p = 0.000, male gender (p = 0.001, illiteracy (p = 0.007 and lower socio-economic status (p = 0.001 were associated with the presence of at least one risk factor. Conclusion: High prevalence of risk factors among rural popula-tion warrants an immediate attention. There is a need for careful monitoring and control of non-communicable disease risk factors in rural area.

  19. Influence of aging and chronic heart failure on temporal dispersion of myocardial repolarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccirillo G

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gianfranco Piccirillo,1 Federica Moscucci,1 Matteo Pascucci,1 Maria Antonella Pappadà,1 Gaetana D’Alessandro,1 Pietro Rossi,2 Raffaele Quaglione,1 Daniele Di Barba,1 Francesco Barillà,1 Damiano Magrì3 1Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrological and Geriatric Sciences, Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 2Division of Cardiology, S. Giovanni Calabita Fatebenefratelli Hospital, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant’Andrea Hospital, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy Background and purpose: QT and Tpeak-Tend (Te intervals are associated with sudden cardiac death in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF. We studied age-dependent influence on short-term temporal dispersion of these two variables in patients with postischemic CHF. Method: We grouped 75 CHF and 53 healthy control subjects into three age subsets: ≤50 years, >50 years and ≤65 years, and >65 years. We then calculated the following indices: QT and Te variability index (QTVI and TeVI, the ratio between the short-term variability (STV of QT or Te, and the STV of resting rate (RR (QT/RR STV and Te/RR STV. Results: In all different age subgroups, patients with CHF showed a higher level of QTVI than age-matched control subjects (≤50 years: P < 0.0001; >50 years and ≤65 years: P < 0.05; >65 years: P <  0.05. Patients with CHF < 50 years old also had all repolarization variability indices higher than normal age-matched controls (TeVI, P < 0.05; QT/RR STV, P < 0.05; Te/RR STV, P < 0.05, whereas we did not find any difference between the two older classes of subjects. Both QTVI (r2: 0.178, P < 0.05 and TeVI (r2: 0.433, P < 0.001 were positively related to age in normal subjects, even if the first correlation was weaker than the second one. Conclusion: Our data showed that QTVI could be used in all ages to evaluate repolarization temporal liability, whereas the other indices are deeply

  20. Natural Antibodies as Rheostats for Susceptibility to Chronic Diseases in the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Natural antibodies are spontaneously produced in the absence of infection or immunization, and are both anti-microbial and autoreactive. Autoreactive natural antibodies can bind noxious molecules, such as those involved in clinical situations of atherosclerosis (oxLDL), malignancy (NGcGM3), and neurodegeneration (amyloid, tau) and can affect the fate of their targets or the cells bearing them to maintain homeostasis. Clinically relevant natural antibodies have been shown to decline with advancing age in those few situations where measurements have been made. Consistent with this, human B-1 cells that are thought to be responsible for generating natural antibodies also decline with advancing age. These findings together suggest that an age-related decline in amount or efficacy of homeostatic natural antibodies is associated with relative loss of protection against molecules involved in several diseases whose incidence rises in the older age population, and that those individuals experiencing greatest loss are at greatest risk. In this view, natural antibodies act as rheostats for susceptibility to several age-related diseases. These considerations suggest that administration of natural antibodies, or of factors that maintain B-1 cells and/or enhance production of natural antibodies by B-1 cells, may serve to counteract the onset or progression of age-related chronic illness. PMID:27092140

  1. PATTERN OF NON - COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN PATIENTS ATTENDING MEDICINE OPD AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF RANCHI, JHARKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, non - communicable diseases (NCDs are increasingly recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. These diseases have reached epidemic proportions, yet they could be significantly reduced, with millions of lives saved and untold suffering avoided, through reduction of their risk factors, early detection and timely treatments. Objective: To study the risk factors responsible for the development of non - communicable diseases in the patients attending Medicine OPD at RIMS, Ranchi. MATERIALS AN D METHODS : It was a cross - sectional observational study. The sample sizes of 207 patients were selected by Consecutive Sampling Method from OPD of Medicine department of Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, Jharkhand. Patients above 30 years of age irrespective of sex were selected in our study and road traffic accident cases & cases of blindness were excluded. Statistical Analysis was done in Proportions. RESULTS: Out of 207 cases 56 . 52% cases were NCD s . The most common age group was 50 - 59yrs. 3 9 . 31% followed by more than 60 yrs 29 . 05 %. The most common disease was cardiovascular 30 . 76 % followed by diabetes 24 . 78 %, respiratory diseases 18 . 80 % and obesity 16 . 23 %. The majorities of the sample belong to urban area 61 . 54 % and have sedentary life style 70 . 08 %, smoking habits 53 . 84 % and non - vegetarian eating habits 78 . 63 %. The disease is prevalent in business class 45 . 29 % followed by service holder 31 . 62 %. CONCLUSION: The studies revealed that majority of the subjects were physically inactive, non - vegetarian. They were consuming tobacco & alcohol, which are the risk factors of various non - communicable diseases like obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Age influence on mice lung tissue response to [i]Aspergillus fumigatus[/i] chronic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kinga Lemieszek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Exposure to conidia of [i]Aspergillus fumigatus[/i] was described as a causative factor of a number of the respiratory system diseases, including asthma, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The study investigates the effects of the repeated exposure to [i]A. fumigatus[/i] in mice pulmonary compartment. Our work tackles two, so far insufficiently addressed, important aspects of interaction between affected organism and[i] A. fumigatus[/i]: 1 recurrent character of exposure (characteristic for pathomechanism of the abovementioned disease states and 2 impact of aging, potentially important for the differentiation response to an antigen. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. In order to dissect alterations of the immune system involved with both aging and chronic exposure to [i]A. fumigatus[/i], we used 3- and 18-month-old C57BL/6J mice exposed to repeated[i] A. fumigatus[/i] inhalations for 7 and 28 days. Changes in lung tissue were monitored by histological and biochemical evaluation. Concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in lung homogenates was assessed by ELISA tests. [b]Results and conclusions. [/b]Our study demonstrated that chronic inflammation in pulmonary compartment, characterized by the significant increase of proinflammatory cytokines (IL1, IL6, IL10 levels, was the dominant feature of mice response to repeated [i]A. fumigatus[/i] inhalations. The pattern of cytokines’ profile in the course of exposure was similar in both age groups, however in old mice the growth of the cytokines’ levels was more pronounced (especially in case of IL1.

  3. Nutrient reference value: non-communicable disease endpoints--a conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, J R; Blumberg, J B; L'Abbe, M; LeDoux, M; Rice, H B; von Schacky, C; Yaktine, A; Griffiths, J C

    2016-03-01

    scientific evidence does exist to confirm a relationship between the intake of a specific bioactive constituent and enhanced health conditions or reduced risk of a chronic disease. Further, research on the putative mechanisms of action of various classes of bioactives is supported by national and pan-national government agencies, and academic institutions, as well as functional food and dietary supplement manufacturers. Consumers are becoming educated and are seeking to purchase products containing bioactives, yet there is no evaluative process in place to let the public know how strong the science is behind the benefits or the quantitative amounts needed to achieve these beneficial health effects or to avoid exceeding the upper level (UL). When one lacks an essential nutrient, overt deficiency with concomitant physiological determents and eventually death are expected. The absence of bioactive substances from the diet results in suboptimal health, e.g., poor cellular and/or physiological function, which is relative and not absolute. Regrettably at this time, there is no DRI process to evaluate bioactives, although a recent workshop convened by the National Institutes of Health (Options for Consideration of Chronic Disease Endpoints for Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs); March 10-11, 2015; http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dri/ ) did explore the process to develop DVs for nutrients, the lack of which result in increased risk of chronic disease (non-communicable disease) endpoints. A final report is expected soon. This conference (CRN-International Scientific Symposium; "Nutrient Reference Value-Non-Communicable Disease (NRV-NCD) Endpoints," 20 November in Kronberg, Germany; http://www.crn-i.ch/2015symposium/ ) explores concepts related to the Codex NRV process, the public health opportunities in setting NRVs for bioactive constituents, and further research and details on the specific class of bioactives, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (also termed omega-3 fatty

  4. Low vitamin D and the risk of developing chronic widespread pain: results from the European male ageing study

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, Paul S.; Pye, Stephen R.; Mc Beth, John; Lee, David M; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Casanueva, Felipe; Finn, Joseph D.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between low levels of vitamin D and the occurrence of chronic widespread pain (CWP) remains unclear. The aim of our analysis was to determine the relationship between low vitamin D levels and the risk of developing CWP in a population sample of middle age and elderly men. Methods Three thousand three hundred sixty nine men aged 40–79 were recruited from 8 European centres for a longitudinal study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study. At baseline participan...

  5. Emerging roles of frailty and inflammaging in risk assessment of age-related chronic diseases in older adults: the intersection between aging biology and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, I-Chien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Hsiung, Chao A

    2015-01-01

    A chronic disease in older adults usually runs a course that is less predictable than in younger individuals. Unexplained variations in disease incidence, prognosis, therapeutic responses, and toxicity are frequently observed among older adults. This heterogeneity poses huge challenges to the current one-size-fits-all health care systems, and calls for more personalized managements of chronic diseases in older adults. Aging is characterized by progressive deterioration of bodily functions with increasing risk of failure over time. The entire process is hierarchically organized, and progresses from intracellular events to changes at systemic and ultimately organism levels at different rates among different individuals. Aging biology exerts great influences on the development and progression of most age-related chronic diseases. Thus, aging biology could contribute to the complexity of illnesses that increase with age, and aging biomarkers possess a great potential to enable personalized health risk assessment and health care. We review evidences supporting the roles of aging biomarkers in risk assessment of prevalent age-related diseases. Frailty phenotype is an objectively measured indicator of advanced-stage aging that is characterized by organism-level dysfunction. In contrast, altered inflammation markers level signifies an earlier stage between cellular abnormalities and systems dysfunction. Results of human observational studies and randomized controlled trials indicate that these measures, albeit simple, greatly facilitate classification of older patients with cancer, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus into groups that vary in disease incidence, prognosis and therapeutic response/toxicity. As the detailed mechanisms underlying the complex biologic process of aging are unraveled in the future, a larger array of biomarkers that correlate with biologic aging at different stages will be discovered. Following the

  6. [GENDER AND AGE DIFFERENCES IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AT HOSPITAL OBSERVATIONS STAGE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashova, G M

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of literature shows that very little data are available on gender differences and age-specific drug use in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). In this work, the character of drug therapy was studied as dependent on the age and sex of patients with CHF under in-hospital observation conditions. Among hospitalized patients with CHF, an important role is played by modern drug therapy. Gender differences were found in respect of therapy with ACE inhibitors, which was used in men more frequently than in women (89 and 78%, respectively, p ACE inhibitors/ARBs (from 79.1 to 95.3%p < 0.01) and aldosterone antagonists (from 29.3 to 38.2% p < 0.001). PMID:27416677

  7. Doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis no Brasil: repercussões do modelo de atenção à saúde sobre a seguridade social Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: the health care system and the social security sector

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    Aloyzio Achutti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A seguridade social envolve ações do poder público e da sociedade sobre direitos à previdência social, à assistência social e à própria saúde. Este artigo traça um esboço de cada um desses elementos. Muitas doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis têm fatores de risco comuns e demandam assistência continuada de serviços. Comparando-se nossa população com a dos EUA, vê-se que é praticamente do mesmo tamanho até a faixa dos 15 aos 24 anos. A americana é duas vezes maior dos 35 aos 44 anos e mais de quatro vezes maior acima dos 75 anos. Tais diferenças explicam porque o número de mortes por DCNT é muito mais baixo no Brasil: nossa população é mais jovem e morre antes. Na medida em que o processo de envelhecimento avance, especialmente, via redução da mortalidade precoce, aumentará a prevalência das DCNT e sua repercussão na seguridade social. Assim como a atenção à saúde, a previdência social e a assistência social sofrem pressões políticas, econômicas e culturais. Na tentativa de imaginar um cenário futuro possível para a seguridade social no Brasil discute-se a necessidade de reformular o orçamento do País, visando ao equilíbrio financeiro.Social security comprehends governmental and societal actions on the rights to the social insurance, to social service, and to health care itself. This article sketches each one of these elements. Many of this group disease have common risk factors, demanding continuous attention. Comparing our population with that from the US, it is possible to observe that they are quite identical until the 15 to 24 years old, while the American population is twofold bigger from 35 to 44 years old and more than four times above the 75. This difference explains why the number of deaths by CNCD is still very low in Brazil compared with US: our population is younger and dies before, by other causes. The ageing process of our population, particularly through reduction of the early

  8. Chronic endurance exercise training offsets the age-related attenuation in contraction-induced rapid vasodilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William E; Ueda, Kenichi; Casey, Darren P

    2016-06-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated contraction-induced rapid onset vasodilation (ROV). We sought to examine whether chronic exercise training would improve ROV in older adults. Additionally, we examined whether a relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and ROV exists in young and older adults. Chronically exercise-trained older adults (n = 16; 66 ± 2 yr, mean ± SE) performed single muscle contractions in the forearm and leg at various intensities. Brachial and femoral artery diameter and blood velocity were measured using Doppler ultrasound. Vascular conductance (VC) was calculated as the quotient of blood flow (ml/min) and mean arterial pressure (mmHg). These data were compared with our previously published work from an identical protocol in 16 older untrained (66 ± 1 yr, mean ± SE) and 14 young (23 ± 1 yr) adults. Peak (ΔVCpeak) and total vasodilator (VCtotal) responses were greater in trained compared with untrained older adults across leg exercise intensities (P 0.05). Comparison of ΔVCpeak in a subset of subjects at an absolute workload in the leg revealed that trained older adults exhibited augmented responses relative to untrained older adults. Exercise capacity (V̇o2 peak) was associated with ΔVCpeak and VCtotal across arm (r = 0.59-0.64) and leg exercise intensities (r = 0.55-0.68, P < 0.05) in older adults. Our data demonstrate that 1) chronic exercise training improves ROV in the arm and leg of trained older adults, such that age-related differences in ROV are abolished, and 2) VO2peak is associated with ΔVCpeak responses in both limbs of older adults. PMID:27032899

  9. Towards reframing health service delivery in Uganda: the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of Non-Communicable Diseases

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    Jeremy I. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs is accelerating. Given that the capacity of health systems in LMICs is already strained by the weight of communicable diseases, these countries find themselves facing a double burden of disease. NCDs contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality, thereby playing a major role in the cycle of poverty, and impeding development. Methods: Integrated approaches to health service delivery and healthcare worker (HCW training will be necessary in order to successfully combat the great challenge posed by NCDs. Results: In 2013, we formed the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of NCDs (UINCD, a multidisciplinary research collaboration that aims to present a systems approach to integrated management of chronic disease prevention, care, and the training of HCWs. Discussion: Through broad-based stakeholder engagement, catalytic partnerships, and a collective vision, UINCD is working to reframe integrated health service delivery in Uganda.

  10. Tobacco use: A major risk factor for non communicable diseases in South-East Asia region

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    J S Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is a serious public health problem in the South East Asia Region where use of both smoking and smokeless form of tobacco is widely prevalent. The region has almost one quarter of the global population and about one quarter of all smokers in the world. Smoking among men is high in the Region and women usually take to chewing tobacco. The prevalence across countries varies significantly with smoking among adult men ranges from 24.3% (India to 63.1% (Indonesia and among adult women from 0.4% (Sri Lanka to 15% (Myanmar and Nepal. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men varies from 1.3% (Thailand to 31.8% (Myanmar, while for women it is from 4.6% (Nepal to 27.9% (Bangladesh. About 55% of total deaths are due to Non communicable diseases (NCDs with 53.4% among females with highest in Maldives (79.4% and low in Timor-Leste (34.4%. Premature mortality due to NCDs in young age is high in the region with 60.7% deaths in Timor Leste and 60.6% deaths in Bangladesh occurring below the age of 70 years. Age standardized death rate per 100,000 populations due to NCDs ranges from 793 (Bhutan and 612 (Maldives among males and 654 (Bhutan and 461 (Sri Lanka among females respectively. Out of 5.1 millions tobacco attributable deaths in the world, more than 1 million are in South East Asia Region (SEAR countries. Reducing tobacco use is one of the best buys along with harmful use of alcohol, salt reduction and promotion of physical activity for preventing NCDs. Integrating tobacco control with broader population services in the health system framework is crucial to achieve control of NCDs and sustain development in SEAR countries.

  11. The Effectiveness of Interventions for Non-Communicable Diseases in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Alexander; Knight, Abigail; Perel, Pablo; Blanchet, Karl; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are of increasing concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) affected humanitarian crises. Humanitarian agencies and governments are increasingly challenged with how to effectively tackle NCDs. Reviewing the evidence of interventions for NCDs in humanitarian crises can help guide future policies and research by identifying effective interventions and evidence gaps. The aim of this paper is to systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of interventions targeting NCDs during humanitarian crises in LMICs. Methods A systematic review methodology was followed using PRISMA standards. Studies were selected on NCD interventions with civilian populations affected by humanitarian crises in low- and middle-income countries. Five bibliographic databases and a range of grey literature sources were searched. Descriptive analysis was applied and a quality assessment conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for observational studies and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for experimental studies. Results The search yielded 4919 references of which 8 studies met inclusion criteria. Seven of the 8 studies were observational, and one study was a non-blinded randomised-controlled trial. Diseases examined included hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, thalassaemia, and arthritis. Study settings included locations in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and South Asia. Interventions featuring disease-management protocols and/or cohort monitoring demonstrated the strongest evidence of effectiveness. No studies examined intervention costs. The quality of studies was limited, with a reliance on observational study designs, limited use of control groups, biases associated with missing data and inadequate patient-follow-up, and confounding was poorly addressed. Conclusions The review highlights the extremely limited quantity and quality of evidence on this topic. Interventions that

  12. Brain SPECT of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): SPM analysis of two age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disorder characterised by profound fatigue and neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Previous studies with cerebral perfusion SPECT (rCBF) scans were performed with inhomogeneous patient populations and were not analysed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). We have used SPM to study subjects with moderate CFS based on the Fukuda criteria, who were not on medication and not depressed, compared to age matched control subjects. An apparent bimodal age distribution has been observed in CFS. Subjects were therefore divided into two age groups: 16-35 or under 35 (17 CFS, 11 control) and 36-61 or over 35 (15 CFS, 15 control). HMPAO brain SPECT was acquired on a 3-head camera. After lower window scatter subtraction, reconstruction with attenuation correction (mu=0.15/cm) and editing of facial activity, scans were spatially normalised (affine + 2x3x2 nonlinear) to SPM's anatomical space. SPM statistical analysis yielded the location, amplitude and corrected p-value of significant focal rCBF deficits. They were: for under 35, left lateral temporal lobe (13%, 0.004), the left insular region (15%, 0.006) and the right lentiform nucleus (15%, 0.01); and for over 35 the left lentiform nucleus (18%, 0.01). Counts at the most significant voxel in the under 35 age group permitted separation of the CFS and control groups with sensitivity 94% and specificity 100%. We are acquiring more controls to better define the age and sex dependence of rCBF in CFS. Analysis of associated clinical variables will be used to investigate the observed differences between the two age groups. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  13. Implementation of an active aging model in Mexico for prevention and control of chronic diseases in the elderly

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    Correa-Muñoz Elsa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background World Health Organization cites among the main challenges of populational aging the dual disease burden: the greater risk of disability, and the need for care. In this sense, the most frequent chronic diseases during old age worldwide are high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, depression, and dementia. Chronic disease-associated dependency represents an onerous sanitary and financial burden for the older adult, the family, and the health care system. Thus, it is necessary to propose community-level models for chronic disease prevention and control in old age. The aim of the present work is to show our experience in the development and implementation of a model for chronic disease prevention and control in old age at the community level under the active aging paradigm. Methods/Design A longitudinal study will be carried out in a sample of 400 elderly urban and rural-dwelling individuals residing in Hidalgo State, Mexico during five years. All participants will be enrolled in the model active aging. This establishes the formation of 40 gerontological promoters (GPs from among the older adults themselves. The GPs function as mutual-help group coordinators (gerontological nuclei and establish self-care and self-promotion actions for elderly well-being and social development. It will be conformed a big-net of social network of 40 mutual-help groups of ten elderly adults each one, in which self-care is a daily practice for chronic disease prevention and control, as well as for achieving maximal well-being and life quality in old age. Indicators of the model's impact will be (i therapeutic adherence; (ii the incidence of the main chronic diseases in old age; (iii life expectancy without chronic diseases at 60 years of age; (iv disability adjusted life years lost; (v years of life lost due to premature mortality, and (vi years lived with disability. Discussion We propose that the

  14. Observational study of the effects of age, diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease on sublingual microvascular flow

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Toby; Vivian-Smith, Amanda; Jhanji, Shaman; Pearse, Rupert M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging has been used to demonstrate microcirculatory abnormalities in a variety of critical illnesses. The microcirculation is also affected by advancing age and chronic comorbidities. However, the effect of these conditions on SDF microcirculatory parameters has not been well described. Methods SDF images were obtained from five groups of 20 participants: healthy volunteers under the age of 25, healthy volunteers over the age of 55, and clinic patients...

  15. Age-related effects of chronic hantavirus infection on female host fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Eva R; Helle, Heikki; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Vapalahti, Olli

    2015-09-01

    1. Pathogens often cause detrimental effects to their hosts and, consequently, may influence host population dynamics that may, in turn, feed back to pathogen transmission dynamics. Understanding fitness effects of pathogens upon animal host populations can help to predict the risks that zoonotic pathogens pose to humans. 2. Here we determine whether chronic infection by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) affects important fitness-related traits, namely the probability of breeding, reproductive effort and mother and offspring condition, in the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Using 9 years empirical data in a PUUV endemic area in Central Finland, we found differences between reproductive characteristics of PUUV-infected and uninfected female bank voles. 3. Young infected females had a significantly higher, and old individuals lower, likelihood of reproducing than uninfected animals during the middle of the breeding season. The implication is that PUUV infection may have long-term deleterious effects that are observed at old age, while in young individuals, the infection may enhance breeding probability by directing resources towards current breeding. 4. Moreover, PUUV infection was related with the mother's body condition. Infected mothers were in poorer condition than uninfected mothers in the early breeding season, but were in better condition than uninfected mothers during the middle of the breeding season. Offspring body condition was positively associated with mother's body condition, which, in turn, was related to the PUUV infection status of the mother. 5. Our findings indicate that chronic infection may affect the reproduction of female hosts, but the effect is dependent on the host age. The effect of chronic hantavirus infection was small and density-independent and hence unlikely to contribute to the cyclic population dynamics of the host. However, the effects on a female's reproductive output might affect the abundance of young susceptible individuals in the

  16. Oral Hygiene Status in a General Population of Iran, 2011: A Key Lifestyle Marker in Relation to Common Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshteh Asgari; Azam Majidi; Jalil Koohpayehzadeh; Koorosh Etemad; Ali Rafei

    2015-01-01

    Background To estimate Oral Hygiene (OH) status in the Iranian population in 2011, and to determine the influence of socio-economic characteristics on OH, and its interrelation with common risk factors of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Methods Data including a total of 12,105 individuals aged 6-70 years were obtained from the sixth round of the surveys of NCDs risk factors in Iran. OH was recorded through a structured questionnaire measuring daily frequencies of tooth bru...

  17. Prevalence of smoking in 15-64 years old population of north of Iran: meta-analysis of the results of non-communicable diseases risk factors surveillance system.

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    Mohammad Jamshidi Ardeshiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known as a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and hence immediate and effective interventions are required for its elimination. This study aimed to collect valid data with regard to cigarette smoking in adult population of north of Iran for policy making by a meta-analysis of the documents of national non-communicable disease risk factors surveillance system. We investigated relevant evidences by searching in published and non-electronic databases. Data were extracted based on variables such as year of the study, sex, age group and prevalence of smoking habit. Based on results of heterogeneity, we applied fixed or random effects model to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. All analyses were performed using STATA 11 software. A total of 20747 subjects (10381 males and 10366 females in five age groups 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men and women showed prevalence of 19.2% (15.8-22.6% and 0.3% (0.2-0.5% respectively. Results of the present meta-analysis showed as much as one fifth of male population of north of Iran are smoker. Subgroup analysis also revealed that the rate of smoking was higher among the middle-aged men.

  18. Chlorophyll and pheophytin content in needles of different age of trees growing under conditions of chronic industrial pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Gowin; Igor Góral

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll and pheophytin content was determined by means of Vernon method (Vernon, 1960) in needles of different age. Needles of Pinus strobus L., Pinus nigra Arnd., Pinus silvestris L., and Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco growing under conditions of chronic industrial pollution as well as under unpolluted conditions were examined. High pheophytin content was found in needles of trees growing under the conditions of chronic pollution. The youngest needles always showed the highest pheophytin c...

  19. A systems medicine clinical platform for understanding and managing non- communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Alfredo; Auffray, Charles; Agusti, Alvar; Apolone, Giovanni; Balling, Rudi; Barbanti, Piero; Bellia, Alfonso; Boccia, Stefania; Bousquet, Jean; Cardaci, Vittorio; Cazzola, Mario; Dall'Armi, Valentina; Daraselia, Nikolai; Ros, Lucio Da; Bufalo, Alessandra Del; Ducci, Giuseppe; Ferri, Luigi; Fini, Massimo; Fossati, Chiara; Gensini, Gianfranco; Granone, Pierluigi Maria; Kinross, James; Lauro, Davide; Cascio, Gerland Lo; Lococo, Filippo; Lococo, Achille; Maier, Dieter; Marcus, Frederick; Margaritora, Stefano; Marra, Camillo; Minati, Gianfranco; Neri, Monica; Pasqua, Franco; Pison, Christophe; Pristipino, Christian; Roca, Joseph; Rosano, Giuseppe; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Russo, Patrizia; Salinaro, Gianluca; Shenhar, Shani; Soreq, Hermona; Sterk, Peter J; Stocchi, Fabrizio; Torti, Margherita; Volterrani, Maurizio; Wouters, Emiel F M; Frustaci, Alessandra; Bonassi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are among the most pressing global health problems of the twenty-first century. Their rising incidence and prevalence is linked to severe morbidity and mortality, and they are putting economic and managerial pressure on healthcare systems around the world. Moreover, NCDs are impeding healthy aging by negatively affecting the quality of life of a growing number of the global population. NCDs result from the interaction of various genetic, environmental and habitual factors, and cluster in complex ways, making the complex identification of resulting phenotypes not only difficult, but also a top research priority. The degree of complexity required to interpret large patient datasets generated by advanced high-throughput functional genomics assays has now increased to the point that novel computational biology approaches are essential to extract information that is relevant to the clinical decision-making process. Consequently, system-level models that interpret the interactions between extensive tissues, cellular and molecular measurements and clinical features are also being created to identify new disease phenotypes, so that disease definition and treatment are optimized, and novel therapeutic targets discovered. Likewise, Systems Medicine (SM) platforms applied to extensively-characterized patients provide a basis for more targeted clinical trials, and represent a promising tool to achieve better prevention and patient care, thereby promoting healthy aging globally. The present paper: (1) reviews the novel systems approaches to NCDs; (2) discusses how to move efficiently from Systems Biology to Systems Medicine; and (3) presents the scientific and clinical background of the San Raffaele Systems Medicine Platform. PMID:24641232

  20. Live Birth Following a Term Pregnancy in a Non-communicating Rudimentary Horn of a Unicornuate Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoke, Ca; Okafor, Cn; Ugwu, Go; Oforbuike, C

    2014-01-01

    A case report of a live birth following a term pregnancy located in a non-communicating rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus in a rural hospital in Nigeria is presented. A 32-year-old primiparous woman registered for antenatal care at a rural missionary hospital at 28 weeks gestation. She had intermittent unexplained vaginal bleeding prior to booking and multiple ultrasound scans in different centers affirmed a viable intrauterine pregnancy. She had an elective cesarean section at 38 weeks gestational age on account of a persistent oblique breech presentation and "low lying placenta." Intra-operatively, the pregnancy was found in a non-communicating pouch continuous with the left fallopian tube and separate from the uterine cavity. A female baby weighing 2.2 kg with no gross deformity was delivered. Resection of the rudimentary horn and repair were done. The possibility of a uterine anomaly should be considered by clinicians and sonographers in unexplained intermittent early pregnancy bleeding. PMID:24669345

  1. Adhesive capsulitis: An age related symptom of metabolic syndrome and chronic low-grade inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Max

    2016-03-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (AC) is very poorly understood, particularly it's underlying etiology. Obesity and metabolic syndrome, which are strongly associated with chronic low grade inflammation, are becoming increasingly understood to underlie a raft of morbid states including upper limb pain syndromes, diabetes (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and central nervous system dysfunction and degeneration. Notwithstanding age, two of the strongest established risk factors for AC are DM and CVD. The hypothesis argues that similar to DM and CVD, the inflammation and capsular fibrosis seen in AC is precipitated by metabolic syndrome and chronic low grade inflammation. These pathophysiological mechanisms are highly likely to be perpetuated by upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, sympathetic dominance of autonomic balance, and neuro-immune activation. The hypothesis predicts and describes how these processes may etiologically underpin and induce each sub-classification of AC. An improved understanding of the etiology of AC may lead to more accurate diagnosis, improved management, treatment outcomes, and reduce or prevent pain, disability and suffering associated with the disease. The paper follows on with a discussion of similarities between the pathophysiology of AC to general systemic inflammatory control mechanisms whereby connective tissue (CT) fibrosis is induced as a storage depot for leukocytes and chronic inflammatory cells. The potential role of hyaluronic acid (HA), the primary component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and CT, in the pathophysiology of AC is also discussed with potential treatment implications. Lastly, a biochemical link between physical and mental health through the ECM is described and the concept of a periventricular-limbic central driver of CT dysfunction is introduced. PMID:26880627

  2. The global impact of non-communicable diseases on macro-economic productivity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaker, Layal; Falla, Abby; van der Lee, Sven J; Muka, Taulant; Imo, David; Jaspers, Loes; Colpani, Veronica; Mendis, Shanthi; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Bramer, Wichor M; Pazoki, Raha; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have large economic impact at multiple levels. To systematically review the literature investigating the economic impact of NCDs [including coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer (lung, colon, cervical and breast), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)] on macro-economic productivity. Systematic search, up to November 6th 2014, of medical databases (Medline, Embase and Google Scholar) without language restrictions. To identify additional publications, we searched the reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted authors in the field. Randomized controlled trials, cohort, case-control, cross-sectional, ecological studies and modelling studies carried out in adults (>18 years old) were included. Two independent reviewers performed all abstract and full text selection. Disagreements were resolved through consensus or consulting a third reviewer. Two independent reviewers extracted data using a predesigned data collection form. Main outcome measure was the impact of the selected NCDs on productivity, measured in DALYs, productivity costs, and labor market participation, including unemployment, return to work and sick leave. From 4542 references, 126 studies met the inclusion criteria, many of which focused on the impact of more than one NCD on productivity. Breast cancer was the most common (n = 45), followed by stroke (n = 31), COPD (n = 24), colon cancer (n = 24), DM (n = 22), lung cancer (n = 16), CVD (n = 15), cervical cancer (n = 7) and CKD (n = 2). Four studies were from the WHO African Region, 52 from the European Region, 53 from the Region of the Americas and 16 from the Western Pacific Region, one from the Eastern Mediterranean Region and none from South East Asia. We found large regional differences in DALYs attributable to NCDs but especially for cervical and lung cancer. Productivity losses in the USA ranged from 88 million

  3. Effect of oral preparation of astragalus membranaceous on serum SOD levels in aged patients with chronic bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect of oral liquid preparation of astragalus membranaceous in aged patients with chronic bronchial asthma with special reference on the serum SOD levels. Methods: Serum SOD levels were measured with RIA in 42 aged patients with chronic bronchial asthma both before and after a course of treatment with oral liquid preparation of astragalus membranaceous (10ml b. i. d for 3 months) as well as in 35 controls. Results: The patients general condition was greatly improved after the treatment. Before treatment, the serum SOD levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Oral liquid preparation of astragalus membranaceous was therapeutically useful for chronic bronchial asthma in aged patients with correction of the serum SOD levels. (authors)

  4. A feasibility study of cell phone and landline phone interviews for monitoring of risk and protection factors for chronic diseases in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Erly Catarina de Moura; Rafael Moreira Claro; Regina Bernal; Juliano Ribeiro; Deborah Carvalho Malta; Otaliba Morais Neto

    2011-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the feasibility of interviews by cell phone as a complement to interviews by landline to estimate risk and protection factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. Adult cell phone users were evaluated by random digit dialing. Questions asked were: age, sex, education, race, marital status, ownership of landline and cell phones, health condition, weight and height, medical diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes, physical activity, diet, binge drinking and ...

  5. The chronic care for age-related macular degeneration study (CHARMED: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Held Ulrike

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neovascular age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in people 50 years of age or older in the developed world. As in other chronic diseases, several effective treatments are available, but in clinical daily practice there is an evidence performance gap. The Chronic Care Model represents an evidence-based framework for the care of chronically ill patients and aims at closing that gap. However, no data are available regarding patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Methods/Design CHARMED is a multicenter randomized controlled trial. The study challenges the hypothesis that the implementation of core elements of the Chronic Care Model (patient empowerment, delivering evidence based information, clinical information system, reminder system with structured follow up and frequent monitoring via a specially trained Chronic Care Coach in Swiss centres for neovascular age-related macular degeneration results in better visual acuity (primary outcome and an increased disease specific quality of life (secondary outcome in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. According to the power calculation, a total sample size of 352 patients is needed (drop out rate of 25%. 14 specialised medical doctors from leading ophtalmologic centres in Switzerland will include 25 patients. In each centre, a Chronic Care Coach will provide disease specific care according to the Chronic Care Model for intervention group. Patients from the control group will be treated as usual. Baseline measurements will be taken in month III - XII, starting in March 2011. Follow-up data will be collected after 6 months and 1 year. Discussion Multiple studies have shown that implementing Chronic Care Model elements improve clinical outcomes as well as process parameters in different chronic diseases as osteoarthritis, depression or e.g. the cardiovascular risk profile of diabetes patients. This

  6. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: a highly prevalent age-dependent phenomenon

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    Lanzillo Roberta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical relevance of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and healthy controls using extra- and intracranial colour Doppler sonography. Methods We examined 146 MS patients, presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive, or primary progressive MS, and 38 healthy controls. Sonographic examination was performed according to Zamboni’s protocol and was performed by three independent sonographers. The results of sonographic examination were compared with clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients. Results CCSVI, defined as the presence of at least two positive Zamboni’s criteria, was found in 76% of MS patients and 16% of control subjects. B-mode anomalies of internal jugular veins, such as stenosis, malformed valves, annuli, and septa were the most common lesions detected in MS patients (80.8% and controls (47.4%. We observed a positive correlation between sonographic diagnosis of CCSVI and the patients’ age (p = 0.003. However, such a correlation was not found in controls (p = 0.635. Notably, no significant correlations were found between sonographic signs of CCSVI and clinical characteristics of MS, except for absent flow in the jugular veins, which was found more often in primary (p Conclusions Sonographically defined CCSVI is common in MS patients. However, CCSVI appears to be primarily associated with the patient’s age, and poorly correlated with the clinical course of the disease.

  7. Inequities in intraurban areas in the distribution of risk factors for non communicable diseases, Belo Horizonte, 2010

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In order to identify intraurban differentials, the prevalence of major protection and risk factors for non communicable chronic diseases were analyzed in nine health districts of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: Analysis of data from a telephone survey conducted with 2,000 adults in Belo Horizonte, in 2010, using the average linkage method for cluster analysis among the health districts, using sociodemographic variables (education, race and marital status. The study compared the prevalence of risk factors for non communicable diseases among the health districts. Results: Four clusters were identified. The best socio-demographic indicators were found in cluster 4 (South Central health district, which also showed a higher prevalence of protective factors such as higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, higher frequency of physical activity practice in the free time, use of ultraviolet protection, higher proportion of ex-smokers, and lower prevalence of whole milk and high-fat meat consumption. As a risk factor, cluster 4 showed a higher proportion of alcohol abuse. Cluster 1, with the worst socio-demographic indicators, concentrated more risk factors such as consumption of whole milk, low regular consumption of fruit and vegetables, and lower practice of physical activity in the free time. The most frequent protective indicators in cluster 1 were the regular consumption of beans, having breakfast at home, and lower alcohol abuse. Conclusion: Intra-urban differences were found in the distribution of risk and protection factors or non transmissible diseases, these differences can support planning aimed at actions for greater equity in health.

  8. EVALUATION OF DRUG USE INDICATORS FOR NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Humayun; Godman, Brian; Bashir, Sajid; Hussain, Shahzad; Mahmood, Sidra; Waseem, Durdana; Malik, Farnaz; Raza, Syed Atif

    2016-01-01

    Irrational drug use practices are a burden to healthcare facilities. Poor prescribing practices affect the overall management and cost of treatment of non-communicable diseases that are the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In an effort to improve prescribing practices, this study was designed to assess prescribing, consultation and facility indicators in healthcare facilities of Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan from December 2012 to December 2013. In this cross-sectional study, random and convenient sampling were used to collected data from both private and public healthcare facilities. Quantitative data were collected using structured questionnaire, observations and prescription analysis, whereas qualitative information on factors influencing prescribing practices was obtained by interviewing medical practitioners. A total of 13693 prescriptions were obtained from 500 patient-prescriber encounters. Results show that history taking, physical examination and diagnoses were adequate while generic prescribing was four-fold less than drugs prescribed by brands. Average number of drugs prescribed was 4.63 with more prescribing tendency in private facilities. 45.07% prescription costs were less than Rs. 150. Sulfonylureas, statins and ACE inhibitors were highly prescribed drugs for diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Prescribing practices were dominantly influenced by severity of disease (73% Punjab; 81% Sindh), patient age (75% Punjab; 68% Sindh) and availability of drugs (62% Punjab; 56% Sindh) whereby 91% practitioners in Sindh and 52% in Punjab rely on medical representatives as the source of drug information. Moreover, the pharmacy and therapeutic committees in all facilities were non-functional along with non-availability of essential drug list in 87% health facilities. Thus, there are considerable opportunities to improve the rational use of medicines in Pakistan including low prices for generics, physician education, prescribing

  9. The Economic impact of Non-communicable Diseases on households in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelgau Michael M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs and injuries account for an estimated 62% of the total age-standardized burden of forgone Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. Public and private financing of clinical services to reduce the NCD burden is a major challenge. Methods We used National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO survey data from 1995-96 and 2004 covering nearly 200 thousand households to assess healthcare utilization patterns and out of pocket health spending by disease category. For this purpose, self-reported diseases and conditions were categorized into NCDs and non-NCDs. Survey data were used to assess how households financed their overall health expenditures and related this pattern to specific health conditions. We measured catastrophic spending on NCD-related hospitalization, defined as occurring when health expenditures exceeded 40% of a household's ability to pay, that is, household consumption spending less combined survival consumption expenditure; and impoverishment when per capita expenditure within the household decreased to below the poverty line once health spending was netted out. Results The share of NCDs in out of pocket health expenses incurred by households increased over time, from 31.6 percent in 1995-96 to 47.3 percent in 2004. In both years, own savings and income were the most important source of financing for many health conditions, typically between 40-60 percent of all spending, whereas 30-35 percent was from borrowing. The odds of catastrophic hospitalization expenditures for cancer was nearly 170% greater and for CVD and injuries 22 percent greater than the odds due to communicable diseases. Impoverishment patterns were similar. Conclusions Out of pocket expenses for treating NCDs rose sharply over the period from 1995-96 to 2004. When NCDs are present, the financial risks to which Indians households are exposed are significant.

  10. Pain Assessment Among Non-Communicating Intellectually Disabled People Described by Nursing Staff

    OpenAIRE

    Kankkunen, Päivi; Jänis, Päivi; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe pain assessment among non-communicating intellectually disabled people living in long term care described by nursing staff. The target group of the study consisted of the nursing staff working at seven mental retardation units in different parts of Finland. The data were collected during spring 2008 by a semi-structured questionnaire (Non-communicating Children’s Pain Checklist – Revised, N=222), and the response rate was 82% (n=181). The data were an...

  11. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe;

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population is...... inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the eff ect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level....

  12. Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts myocardial protein balance and function in aged, but not adult, female F344 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Charles H; Korzick, Donna H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the deleterious effect of chronic alcohol consumption differs in adult and aged female rats. To address this aim, adult (4 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet containing alcohol (36% total calories) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control diet for 20 wk. Cardiac structure and function, assessed by echocardiography, as well as myocardial protein synthesis and proteolysis did not differ in either alcohol- v...

  13. ALGORITHM OF DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF AN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION AT PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIPHERAL UVEITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. I. Khoroshikh; O.I. Krivosheina; Ye. V. Melekhin

    2015-01-01

    The results of clinical trial of various approaches in treatment the exudative forms of macular degenerations, including age-related, against chronic slow intensity inflammatory process on the extreme retinal periphery of an eye are described in represented material. There were 91 patients (105 eyes) in the research with different types of an exudative macular degeneration. The general criteria of inclusion were: age of 18–80 years old, complaints to discomfort in eyes, a spot before an eye, ...

  14. Persuasive technologies in building support system to prevent non-communicable diseases caused by sedentary lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Celis, Concepción; Somodevilla, María J.; Pineda, Ivo H.; Serrano, Alejandro; Ramírez, Karen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the use of persuasion to help people who want to change their everyday behavior technologies. Méxmov and Lifestyle Change Recommender Systems (LSCS) ¡Camina!, are designed to reduce sedentary as prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  15. Chronic fatigue syndrome in middle-aged women: the role of disorders of glucose metabolism

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    Anastasiya V Pleshcheva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS among middle-aged women and to assess the role of glucose metabolism disturbances in the development of this pathology. Materials and Methods: The study included 231 women from 40 to 60 years old (mean age 52.3 ± 5 years, observed at urban polyclinic in Moscow, who was referred to or was observed by an endocrinologist (n = 142, group 1, therapist (n = 56, group 2 or had a prophylactic medical examinations (n = 33, group 3. We recorded demographic and anthropometric data, accessed levels of glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin and calculated BMI and HOMA indexes. Results: The prevalence of CFS in the whole group of patients studied was 27%. The highest frequency of CFS is registered in the group of patients observed by the endocrinologist – 35%, and at dispensary examination – 21%, which was significantly different from the prevalence of CFS in patients seeking an appointment with a therapist – 13% (p = 0.002 and p = 0.03 for Fisher's exact test, respectively. Higher BMI, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and HOMA insulin resistance index as naturally expected were observed in group 1, but after further division for the presence or absence of CFS, significant differences for patients with CFS were only higher fasting glucose levels in group 2. Conclusions: We determined the prevalence of CFS in the examined groups of patients and showed only a weak correlation of CFS and disturbances of glucose metabolism.

  16. Chronic effects of fumonisin B1 in broilers and turkeys fed dietary treatments to market age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomhead, J N; Ledoux, D R; Bermudez, A J; Rottinghaus, G E

    2002-01-01

    Floor pen studies were conducted with 270 broiler chicks and 144 turkey poults, all 1 wk old, to evaluate the chronic effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1). A completely randomized design was used in both studies with six pen replicates of 15 chicks or eight pen replicates of six poults assigned to each of three dietary treatments from Weeks 1 to 7 (broilers) or to Week 14 (turkeys). Fusarium moniliforme (M-1325) culture material was added to a typical corn-soybean basal diet to supply 0, 25, or 50 mg FB1/kg diet. Feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion of chicks were not affected (P > 0.05) by FB1. Turkeys fed 50 mg FB1/kg had significantly (P 0.05) by FB1, other than those chicks fed 25 mg FB1/kg, which had lower (P Broilers fed 50 mg FB1/kg had decreased serum calcium and increased serum chloride when compared to broilers fed 0 or 25 mg FB1/kg. Hematology was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary FB1. No lesions were present in any organ examined microscopically. Results indicate that 50 mg FB1/kg diet is detrimental to turkeys but is not toxic to broilers fed to market age. PMID:11885900

  17. Response of tibialis anterior tendon to a chronic exposure of stretch-shortening cycles: age effects

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    Baker Brent B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of aging on tendon response to repetitive exposures of stretch-shortening cycles (SSC's. Methods The left hind limb from young (3 mo, N = 4 and old (30 mo, N = 9 male Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats were exposed to 80 maximal SSCs (60 deg/s, 50 deg range of motion 3x/week for 4.5 weeks in vivo. After the last exposure, tendons from the tibialis anterior muscle were isolated, stored at -80°C, and then tested using a micro-mechanical testing machine. Deformation of each tendon was evaluated using both relative grip-to-grip displacements and reference marks via a video system. Results At failure, the young control tendons had higher strain magnitude than the young exposed (p Conclusion The chronic protocol enhanced the elastic stiffness of young tendon and the loads in both the young and old tendons. The old exposed tendons were found to exhibit higher load capacity than their younger counterparts, which differed from our initial hypothesis.

  18. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Non-Communicable Diseases and Self Assessed Health in Turkey.

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    Kaan Sozmen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Inequities in health need to be monitored and necessary actions should be taken to reduce them. This study aimed to determine the socioeconomic distribution of self-reported chronic diseases and self-assessed health (SAH in Turkey and try to evaluate the determinants of such inequalities in terms of their contributions.Cross-sectional data from the Turkish Health Survey conducted during year 2008, covering 14,655 adults aged 15 or older were analyzed for the first time to assess socioeconomic inequalities in chronic disease and suboptimal SAH prevalence by calculating concentration index (CI, which ranges from -1 to +1 (concentration of disease among lower and higher socioeconomic groups and the relative index of inequality (RII, reflecting the prevalence ratio between the two extremes of wealth.Several diseases and sub-optimal SAH were more concentrated among those with lower incomes. The concentration indices of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, arthritis, chronic bronchitis, migraine and poor SAH were -0.180 (95% CI = -0.241,-0.111, -0.126 (95% CI = -0.148,-0.105,-0.118 (95%CI = -0.149,-0.079, -0.248(95%CI = (-0.278,-0.219 respectively. Of all chronic diseases, COPD demonstrated the highest relative inequality with a RII value of 2.51 (95%CI: 1.57-4.01. Income was the major contributor to inequality in occurrence of COPD (88.2%, migraine (80.4% and arthritis (77.7%.The findings indicate that majority of chronic diseases were more concentrated among less wealthy individuals in Turkey. Wealth and education had the largest contributions to observed inequalities. These inequalities need to be explicitly addressed and vulnerable subgroups should be targeted to reduce these socioeconomic disparities.

  19. Ageing, chronic alcohol consumption and folate are determinants of genomic DNA methylation, p16 promoter methylation and the expression of p16 in the mouse colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder age and chronic alcohol consumption are important risk factors for the development of colon cancer. Each factor can alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation. This study examined the effects of aging and chronic alcohol consumption on genomic and p16-specific methylation, and p16 express...

  20. New Mechanisms of a Chronic Gastroduodenitis Pathogenesis in Children of a Preschool Age (Immunologic Aspects

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    Galova E.A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of work is elaboration of the different etiology chronic gastroduodenitis diagnosis and treatment new criteria in children of a preschool age on a basis of its clinicomorphological and immunologic peculiarity study. Materials and Methods. The clinical observations and laboratory and instrumental investigations are made in 106 children at the age of 4—7 years (52 boys and 54 girls with a chronic gastroduodenitis (ChGD with detection of the cytokine IL-β, FNO-α and IL-4 content in a gastric juice portion on an empty stomach. Results of investigation. A ChGD, associated with H. pylori, is characterized by a high rate (100%; p=0.0389 of a painful abdominal syndrome, a combined lesion of the stomach anthral department and duodenal bulb (94%; p=0.0138 with nodular changes in a gastroduodenal mucous membrane in half of the patients (p=0.0076 and a diffusive inflammation in the stomach prevailing (89%; p=0.0018. A ChGD at the background of alimentary allergy, independently from H. pylori, is characterized by intensive painful syndrome (60%; p=0.0210, an isolated duodenitis in a third of patients, the erosive (32%; p=0.0480 and subatrophic (25%; p=0.0348 changes in a gastroduodenal mucous membrane, a prevailing of the gastritis superficial forms (67%; p=0.0035. It is established, that a ChGD in children of a preschool age is accompanied by the IL-1β, FTN-α and IL-4 concentration increase in a gastric juice portion on an empty stomach. A degree of the IL-1β increase, observed in a majority of patients (86%, is connected with a period of disease (γ=0.36; p=0.0101. A FTN-α level is increased in a half of children (51% and correlates with expression (γ=0.50; p=0.0049 and activity of inflammation (γ=0.46; p=0.0345 in the stomach mucous membrane. A cytokine profile of a gastric juice at a ChGD, associated with H. pylori, is characterized by the IL-1β and FTN-α increase, and the IL-1β and IL-4 concentration increase at a ChGD at the background

  1. The global impact of non-communicable diseases on households and impoverishment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Colpani, Veronica; Chaker, Layal; van der Lee, Sven J; Muka, Taulant; Imo, David; Mendis, Shanthi; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Bramer, Wichor M; Falla, Abby; Pazoki, Raha; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-03-01

    The global economic impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on household expenditures and poverty indicators remains less well understood. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature evaluating the global economic impact of six NCDs [including coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer (lung, colon, cervical and breast), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)] on households and impoverishment. Medline, Embase and Google Scholar databases were searched from inception to November 6th 2014. To identify additional publications, reference lists of retrieved studies were searched. Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, cohorts, case-control, cross-sectional, modeling and ecological studies carried out in adults and assessing the economic consequences of NCDs on households and impoverishment. No language restrictions. All abstract and full text selection was done by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and checked by a third independent reviewer. Studies were included evaluating the impact of at least one of the selected NCDs and on at least one of the following measures: expenditure on medication, transport, co-morbidities, out-of-pocket (OOP) payments or other indirect costs; impoverishment, poverty line and catastrophic spending; household or individual financial cost. From 3,241 references, 64 studies met the inclusion criteria, 75% of which originated from the Americas and Western Pacific WHO region. Breast cancer and DM were the most studied NCDs (42 in total); CKD and COPD were the least represented (five and three studies respectively). OOP payments and financial catastrophe, mostly defined as OOP exceeding a certain proportion of household income, were the most studied outcomes. OOP expenditure as a proportion of family income, ranged between 2 and 158% across the different NCDs and countries. Financial catastrophe due to

  2. Reliability of the Non-Communicating Adult Pain Checklist (NCAPC), Assessed by Different Groups of Health Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, M.; Moe-Nilssen, R.; Ljunggren, A. E.; Strand, L. I.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating pain in adults with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) is a challenge. The Non-Communicating Adults Pain Checklist (NCAPC) was recently developed from the Non-Communicating Children's Pain Checklist (NCCPC) and examined in a group of adults with IDD (N = 228) and found to hold satisfactory construct validity, internal…

  3. Coronary Heart Disease [CHD] with Obesity in Kebon Kalapa Village, Bogor [Baseline Cohort Study of Non-communicable Diseases Risk Factors

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    Rustika Rustika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has become global pandemic problem in the world as WHO said that it is the largest chronic health problems in adults. Riskesdas 2007 shown that national obesity prevalence in adult based on BMI in 15 years age groups were 10.3%. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors of obesity on CHD i. e socio demography, behavior risk factors and blood test results. Methods: Cross sectional design with a deep analysis on the data evaluation subset of “Risk Factors Cohort Study of Non Communicable Diseases” research in Kebon Kalapa village, Bogor. The samples took were 1079 respondents CHD patients with obesity. CHD patients were determined based on ECG examination in 2013 and had obesity (BMI > 25 cm and hip ratio > 80 cm on women, and > 90 cm on men. Analysis Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results:The research shows that hypertension gives 1.8 of risk compared to obese CHD respondents with no hypertension with 95% of CI 1.31–2.53; LDL gives 1.6 of risk compared to respondents with no risk LDL in obese CHD group with 95% CI 1,18–2,32; HDL give 1.66 higher risk to respondents with risky HDL in obese CHD group with 95% CI 1,23–2,23 while Triglycerides gives 1.5 risk to obese CHD respondents with 95% CI 1,07–2,22. Conclusion: People of old ages, females, divorced, housewifes, well educated and high socioeconomic status would have CHD risk. Suggestion: Required further study of obese CHD on the quality of the food intake, especially in fat of the oil used for frying in order to know more detail the types of saturated fatty acids that affect the deterioration of the blood lipid profile.

  4. Chronic maternal depression is associated with reduced weight gain in latino infants from birth to 2 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Wojcicki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. METHODS: We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age. At 6, 12 and 24 months of age, infants were weighed and measured. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Women who had high depressive symptoms at both time periods were defined as having chronic depression. Logistic mixed models were applied to compare growth curves and risk for overweight and underweight based on exposure to maternal depression. RESULTS: We followed 181 infants to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months, respectively, 27.4% and 40.5% were overweight, and 5.6% and 2.2% were underweight. Exposure to chronic maternal depression was associated with underweight (OR = 12.12, 95%CI 1.86-78.78 and with reduced weight gain in the first 2 years of life (Coef = -0.48, 95% CI -0.94-0.01 compared with unexposed infants or infants exposed to episodic depression (depression at one time point. Exposure to chronic depression was also associated with reduced risk for overweight in the first 2 years of life (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.03-0.92. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to chronic maternal depression in the pre- and postnatal period was associated with reduced weight gain in the first two years of life and greater risk for failure to thrive, in comparison with unexposed infants or those exposed episodically. The infants of mothers with chronic depression may need additional nutritional monitoring and intervention.

  5. Chlorophyll and pheophytin content in needles of different age of trees growing under conditions of chronic industrial pollution

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    Teresa Gowin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll and pheophytin content was determined by means of Vernon method (Vernon, 1960 in needles of different age. Needles of Pinus strobus L., Pinus nigra Arnd., Pinus silvestris L., and Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco growing under conditions of chronic industrial pollution as well as under unpolluted conditions were examined. High pheophytin content was found in needles of trees growing under the conditions of chronic pollution. The youngest needles always showed the highest pheophytin content' as related to Chlorophyll content. The examined species showed different degree of Chlorophyll decomposition under the influence of polluted environment. Trees growing under control environment showed small and similar amounts of pheophytin in needles of different age. Pheophytin content does not seem to be a convenient indicator to test the effect of pollution before visual symptoms occur, since the method is very labourious and plant material very variable.

  6. Coring-type laparoscopic resection of a cavitated non-communicating rudimentary horn under hysteroscopic assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ali; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Sendag, Fatih; Karadadaş, Nedim

    2014-07-01

    Non-communicating accessory uterine horns with an endometrial cavity are the most common and clinically significant unicornuate subtype of Müllerian duct abnormality. They are generally associated with symptoms of dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, infertility, endometriosis, adhesions, and life-threatening cornual pregnancy. Treatment options include surgical resection of the rudimentary horn, hysteroscopic recanalization, and endometrial ablation. Currently, laparoscopic resection is the recommended treatment choice. Dissection of the rudimentary horn from the unicornuate uterus is the most challenging part of this procedure and may compromise the remaining unicornuate uterus wall. Here we describe a case of laparoscopic coring-type resection of a non-communicating functional rudimentary horn firmly attached to the unicornuate uterus, by using hysteroscopic assistance. The use of hysteroscopy, adjunct to laparoscopy, facilitates the coring-type resection and may strengthen the remaining myometrial scar. PMID:25056476

  7. Prevention of non-communicable diseases in Australia: What role should public health law play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvany, Kate

    2015-09-01

    This article explores the role of public health law in the prevention of non-communicable diseases in Australia. The growing urgency to address these diseases is acknowledged and the definition of public health law explored. It is argued that a broad definition of public health law would allow greater recognition of the numerous ways that law can positively influence health outcomes at the population level. Far from substantiating claims of over-reaching state intervention, public health law in the 21st century in Australia should be viewed as a more nuanced and protective strategy in promoting better public health. Adopting this approach offers a way forward towards addressing rising rates of non-communicable diseases, as well as significant health inequities, but it will require greater political will and leadership. PMID:26554201

  8. Pharmacy workforce to prevent and manage non-communicable diseases in developing nations: The case of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Saval; Nissen, Lisa; Veerman, Lennert; Hollingworth, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs, e.g. cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes mellitus) are the main causes of mortality and morbidity in developing countries, including Nepal. Nearly half of the deaths in Nepal are caused by NCDs. Nepal lacks adequate human resources to prevent and manage NCDs, but the skills and expertise of pharmacists in Nepal are underused. There is evidence from many countries that pharmacists can contribute substantially to the prevention and management NCD. We aim to describe the opportunities and challenges for pharmacists to prevent and manage NCDs in Nepal. Pharmacists can contribute by screening and monitoring NCDs; counseling on lifestyle; providing medication therapy management services; promoting public health; and providing other pharmaceutical services. Challenges to the implementation of some of these activities in the current context include inadequate training of pharmacists in NCD prevention and management, the cost of pharmaceutical services to patients and government, and the existing health care service delivery model. There is a need for health services research to determine how pharmacists can be best used to prevent and manage NCDs in Nepal. PMID:26481826

  9. Non-communicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: Prevalence, risk factors and community-based prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wah-Yun Low

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs lead to substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The most common NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (CVD, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. With the rapid increase in NCD-related deaths in Asia Pacific countries, NCDs are now the major cause of deaths and disease burden in the region. NCDs hamper achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG. People in the low socio-economic group are most affected by NCDs as they have poor access to policies, legislations, regulations and healthcare services meant to combat NCDs. This results in loss of productivity by a decreasing labor force with implications at the macroeconomic level. The 3 major NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are CVDs, cancer and diabetes due to the increasing loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs. The 4 major behavioral risk factors for NCDs are: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, inadequate physical activity and unhealthy diet. The underlying risk factors are urbanization, globalization, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and hypertension. Strategies to combat NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are as follows: population-based dietary salt reduction, health education, psychological interventions, i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational-interviewing, taxation and bans on tobacco-related advertisements, implementing smoke-free zones and surveillance by the World Health Organization. Control measures must focus on prevention and strengthening inter-sectorial collaboration.

  10. Non-communicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: Prevalence, risk factors and community-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Wah-Yun; Lee, Yew-Kong; Samy, Alexander Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) lead to substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The most common NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. With the rapid increase in NCD-related deaths in Asia Pacific countries, NCDs are now the major cause of deaths and disease burden in the region. NCDs hamper achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). People in the low socio-economic group are most affected by NCDs as they have poor access to policies, legislations, regulations and healthcare services meant to combat NCDs. This results in loss of productivity by a decreasing labor force with implications at the macroeconomic level. The 3 major NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are CVDs, cancer and diabetes due to the increasing loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The 4 major behavioral risk factors for NCDs are: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, inadequate physical activity and unhealthy diet. The underlying risk factors are urbanization, globalization, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and hypertension. Strategies to combat NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are as follows: population-based dietary salt reduction, health education, psychological interventions, i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational-interviewing, taxation and bans on tobacco-related advertisements, implementing smoke-free zones and surveillance by the World Health Organization. Control measures must focus on prevention and strengthening inter-sectorial collaboration. PMID:26159943

  11. Ethnic and Gender Differentials in Non-Communicable Diseases and Self-Rated Health in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Jane K. L.; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Methods Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Pop...

  12. High Rates of Obesity and Non-Communicable Diseases Predicted across Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Laura; Kilpi, Fanny; Marsh, Tim; Rtveladze, Ketevan; Brown, Martin; McPherson, Klim

    2012-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease and stroke are a major public health concern across Latin America. A key modifiable risk factor for NCDs is overweight and obesity highlighting the need for policy to reduce prevalence rates and ameliorate rising levels of NCDs. A cross-sectional regression analysis was used to project BMI and related disease trends to 2050. We tested the extent to which interventions that decrease body mass index (BMI) have an effect upon the nu...

  13. Unruptured pregnancy in non-communicating rudimentary horn of uterus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahiya Sonika

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn of a uterus is rare. It's incidence is 1 in 76,000 pregnancies. It is treated as an ectopic pregnancy. Most of the times it is diagnosed after rupture in the late 2nd trimester. Here we present a case, where diagnosis is made prior to the rupture. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1244-1245

  14. A case of functional non communicating rudimentary horn of unicornuate uterus presenting as persistent lump abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Amrin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus with a functional non communicating rudimentary horn is a rare congenital mullerian duct anomaly. It presents with various complaints like dysmenorrhoea, hematometra, endometriosis, lump in abdomen, infertility and even ectopic pregnancy. Here we present such a case which had undergone exploratory laparotomy in the past for lump in abdomen and now presented to us with persistence of lump even after surgery. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 530-531

  15. Case report of ruptured non-communicating right rudimentary horn pregnancy: an acute emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Che Hasnura Che; Karim, Abdul Kadir Abdul; Ismail, Nor Azlin Mohamed; Omar, Mohd Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Ruptured pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of women who have had a vaginal delivery is rare and unpredictable. However, when undiagnosed, this condition could lead to maternal morbidity and mortality. We report a pregnancy at 19 weeks gestation presented with acute abdomen and hypovolemic shock. She was initially thought to have an intrauterine pregnancy with the provisional diagnosis of a ruptured uterus. Intraoperatively, a ruptured non-communicating right rudimentary horn with ex utero pregnancy was discovered. PMID:22250483

  16. Behavioural Risk Factors for Non Communicable Disease among Rural Adults in Andra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Trupti N Bodhare, Kanchi Venkatesh, Samir Bele, Gali Kashiram, Sujata Devi, Achanta Vivekanand

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in rural parts of Andhra Pradesh. Most of the risk factors for NCDs are modifiable and can be controlled to reduce incidence and to ensure better outcomes for those having NCDs. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of various behavioral risk factors for NCDS in rural area and to evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics associated with these risk factors. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study wa...

  17. Patent and Exclusivity Status of Essential Medicines for Non-Communicable Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, Tim K.; Liang, Bryan A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The threat of non-communicable diseases ("NCDs") is increasingly becoming a global health crisis and are pervasive in high, middle, and low-income populations resulting in an estimated 36 million deaths per year. There is a need to assess intellectual property rights ("IPRs") that may impede generic production and availability and affordability to essential NCD medicines. METHODS: Using the data sources listed below, the study design systematically eliminated NCD drugs that had no ...

  18. Trends in U.S. Adult Chronic Disease Mortality, 1960–1999: Age, Period, and Cohort Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I examine temporal changes in U.S. adult mortality by chronic disease cause of death and by sex over a 40-year period in the second half of the twentieth century. I apply age-period-cohort (APC) analyses that combine conventional approaches and a new method of model estimation to simultaneously account for age, period, and cohort variations in mortality rates for four leading causes of deaths, including heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and breast cancer. The results show tha...

  19. PGC-1α Modulates Telomere Function and DNA Damage in Protecting against Aging-Related Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shiqin; Patrushev, Nikolay; Forouzandeh, Farshad; Hilenski, Lula; Alexander, R Wayne

    2015-09-01

    Cellular senescence and organismal aging predispose age-related chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerative, metabolic, and cardiovascular disorders. These diseases emerge coincidently from elevated oxidative/electrophilic stress, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage, and telomere dysfunction and shortening. Mechanistic linkages are incompletely understood. Here, we show that ablation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) accelerates vascular aging and atherosclerosis, coinciding with telomere dysfunction and shortening and DNA damage. PGC-1α deletion reduces expression and activity of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and increases p53 levels. Ectopic expression of PGC-1α coactivates TERT transcription and reverses telomere malfunction and DNA damage. Furthermore, alpha lipoic acid (ALA), a non-dispensable mitochondrial cofactor, upregulates PGC-1α-dependent TERT and the cytoprotective Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant/electrophile-responsive element (ARE/ERE) signaling cascades, and counteracts high-fat-diet-induced, age-dependent arteriopathy. These results illustrate the pivotal importance of PGC-1α in ameliorating senescence, aging, and associated chronic diseases, and may inform novel therapeutic approaches involving electrophilic specificity. PMID:26299964

  20. PGC-1α Modulates Telomere Function and DNA Damage in Protecting against Aging-Related Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqin Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence and organismal aging predispose age-related chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerative, metabolic, and cardiovascular disorders. These diseases emerge coincidently from elevated oxidative/electrophilic stress, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage, and telomere dysfunction and shortening. Mechanistic linkages are incompletely understood. Here, we show that ablation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α accelerates vascular aging and atherosclerosis, coinciding with telomere dysfunction and shortening and DNA damage. PGC-1α deletion reduces expression and activity of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT and increases p53 levels. Ectopic expression of PGC-1α coactivates TERT transcription and reverses telomere malfunction and DNA damage. Furthermore, alpha lipoic acid (ALA, a non-dispensable mitochondrial cofactor, upregulates PGC-1α-dependent TERT and the cytoprotective Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant/electrophile-responsive element (ARE/ERE signaling cascades, and counteracts high-fat-diet-induced, age-dependent arteriopathy. These results illustrate the pivotal importance of PGC-1α in ameliorating senescence, aging, and associated chronic diseases, and may inform novel therapeutic approaches involving electrophilic specificity.

  1. “Then She Looked at Me and Said – the Old Age!”: The Impact of Social Representations of Ageing on the Elderly People’s Chronic Illness Experience in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Mezinska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the impact of social representations of ageing, such as breakdown, inevitability of illnesses and unfitness, on chronic illness experience of elderly people in Latvia. The qualitative study is based on theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism and uses grounded theory methodology. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that in Latvia certain social representations of ageing have a negative impact on chronic illness experience of elderly people, decreasing health-related quality of life and hampering reception of required medical assistance, adaptation of environment to the needs of elderly people with chronic illnesses and successful incorporation of the chronic illness in the context of biography.

  2. Multiple Chronic Conditions among Adults Aged 45 and Over: Trends Over the Past 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needs and use for Medicare and other payers. Keywords: hypertension, diabetes, cancer, prevalence The percentage of adults ... with two or more chronic conditions had increasing difficulty obtaining needed medical care and prescription drugs because ...

  3. Are chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms associated with age-related macular degeneration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, M.; Sorensen, T. L.; Flachs, E. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Background. Patients with Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs) already have increased comorbidity at time of diagnosis, and studies show association with ophthalmic manifestations. Retinal vascular symptoms including vascular occlusions and hemorrhages are present, but other manifestations...

  4. Contribution of Chronic Conditions to the Disability Burden across Smoking Categories in Middle-Aged Adults, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Nusselder, Wilma Johanna; Robine, Jean-Marie; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick; Van Oyen, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. Methods Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ≥2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (≥20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. Results An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ≥2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. Conclusions Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This

  5. Assessment of universal health coverage for adults aged 50 years or older with chronic illness in six middle-income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Goeppel, Christine; Frenz, Patricia; Grabenhenrich, Linus; Keil, Thomas; Tinnemann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess universal health coverage for adults aged 50 years or older with chronic illness in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa. Methods We obtained data on 16 631 participants aged 50 years or older who had at least one diagnosed chronic condition from the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. Access to basic chronic care and financial hardship were assessed and the influence of health insurance and rural or u...

  6. Case-control study of factors associated with chronic Chagas heart disease in patients over 50 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Araújo Silva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study on chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD was carried out between 1997 and 2005. Ninety patients over 50 years of age were examined for factors related to (CCHD. Fourty-six patients (51.1% with Chagas heart disease (anomalous ECG were assigned to the case group and 44 (48.9% were included in the control group as carriers of undetermined forms of chronic disease. Social, demographic (age, gender, skin color, area of origin, epidemiological (permanence within an endemic zone, family history of Chagas heart disease or sudden death, physical strain, alcoholism, and smoking, and clinical (systemic hypertension variables were analyzed. The data set was assessed through single-variable and multivariate analysis. The two factors independently associated with heart disease were age - presence of heart disease being three times higher in patients over 60 years of age (odds ratio, OR: 2.89; confidence interval of 95%: 1.09-7.61 - and family history of Chagas heart disease (OR: 2.833, CI 95%: 1.11-7.23. Systemic hypertension and gender did not prove to hold any association with heart disease, as neither did skin color, but this variable showed low statistical power due to reduced sample size.

  7. ALGORITHM OF DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF AN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION AT PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIPHERAL UVEITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Khoroshikh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of clinical trial of various approaches in treatment the exudative forms of macular degenerations, including age-related, against chronic slow intensity inflammatory process on the extreme retinal periphery of an eye are described in represented material. There were 91 patients (105 eyes in the research with different types of an exudative macular degeneration. The general criteria of inclusion were: age of 18–80 years old, complaints to discomfort in eyes, a spot before an eye, distortions and decrease in the central sight, ophthalmoscopic symptoms of hypostasis in the central and peripheral areas of a retina. It is analyzed the general criteria of diagnostics and treatment of the disease in the article. Considering defeat of the chorioretinal structures located near the ora serrata at persons of young and advanced age. Practical recommendations to a choice of methods of diagnostics and treatment of various clinical and morphological forms of the disease are made. Screening methods of identification of patients with the peripheral uveitis are offered. The scheme of risk calculation of development the macular pathology at persons with changes on the extreme periphery of a retina, that can be used as a method of prevention of development predictively adverse of “wet" forms of an age-related macular degeneration, by means of timely sparing treatment at patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of eyes is given.

  8. Adult mortality attributable to preventable risk factors for non-communicable diseases and injuries in Japan: a comparative risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayu Ikeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The population of Japan has achieved the longest life expectancy in the world. To further improve population health, consistent and comparative evidence on mortality attributable to preventable risk factors is necessary for setting priorities for health policies and programs. Although several past studies have quantified the impact of individual risk factors in Japan, to our knowledge no study has assessed and compared the effects of multiple modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases and injuries using a standard framework. We estimated the effects of 16 risk factors on cause-specific deaths and life expectancy in Japan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained data on risk factor exposures from the National Health and Nutrition Survey and epidemiological studies, data on the number of cause-specific deaths from vital records adjusted for ill-defined codes, and data on relative risks from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. We applied a comparative risk assessment framework to estimate effects of excess risks on deaths and life expectancy at age 40 y. In 2007, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure accounted for 129,000 deaths (95% CI: 115,000-154,000 and 104,000 deaths (95% CI: 86,000-119,000, respectively, followed by physical inactivity (52,000 deaths, 95% CI: 47,000-58,000, high blood glucose (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 26,000-43,000, high dietary salt intake (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 27,000-39,000, and alcohol use (31,000 deaths, 95% CI: 28,000-35,000. In recent decades, cancer mortality attributable to tobacco smoking has increased in the elderly, while stroke mortality attributable to high blood pressure has declined. Life expectancy at age 40 y in 2007 would have been extended by 1.4 y for both sexes (men, 95% CI: 1.3-1.6; women, 95% CI: 1.2-1.7 if exposures to multiple cardiovascular risk factors had been reduced to their optimal levels as determined by a theoretical-minimum-risk exposure distribution. CONCLUSIONS

  9. Prevention of non-communicable disease in a population in nutrition transition: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayati Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS is a long term integrated community-based program for prevention of non-communicable disorders (NCD by development of a healthy lifestyle and reduction of NCD risk factors. The study begun in 1999, is ongoing, to be continued for at least 20 years. A primary survey was done to collect baseline data in 15005 individuals, over 3 years of age, selected from cohorts of three medical heath centers. A questionnaire for past medical history and data was completed during interviews; blood pressure, pulse rate, and anthropometrical measurements and a limited physical examination were performed and lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar and 2-hours-postload-glucose challenge were measured. A DNA bank was also collected. For those subjects aged over 30 years, Rose questionnaire was completed and an electrocardiogram was taken. Data collected were directly stored in computers as database software- computer assisted system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of lifestyle modification in preventing or postponing the development of NCD risk factors and outcomes in the TLGS population. Design and methods In phase II of the TLGS, lifestyle interventions were implemented in 5630 people and 9375 individuals served as controls. Primary, secondary and tertiary interventions were designed based on specific target groups including schoolchildren, housewives, and high-risk persons. Officials of various sectors such as health, education, municipality, police, media, traders and community leaders were actively engaged as decision makers and collaborators. Interventional strategies were based on lifestyle modifications in diet, smoking and physical activity through face-to-face education, leaflets & brochures, school program alterations, training volunteers as health team and treating patients with NCD risk factors. Collection of demographic, clinical and laboratory data will be

  10. Telomere Length in Aged Mayak PA Nuclear Workers Chronically Exposed to Internal Alpha and External Gamma Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherthan, Harry; Sotnik, Natalia; Peper, Michel; Schrock, Gerrit; Azizova, Tamara; Abend, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres consist of GC-rich DNA repeats and the "shelterin" protein complex that together protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. Telomeres shorten with age due to incomplete end replication and upon exposure to environmental and intrinsic stressors. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to modulate telomere length. However, the response of telomere length in humans chronically exposed to radiation is poorly understood. Here, we studied relative telomere length (RTL) by IQ-FISH to leukocyte nuclei in a group of 100 workers from the plutonium production facility at the Mayak Production Association (PA) who were chronically exposed to alpha-emitting ((239)Pu) radiation and/or gamma (photon) radiation, and 51 local residents serving as controls, with a similar mean age of about 80 years. We applied generalized linear statistical models adjusted for age at biosampling and the second exposure type on a linear scale and observed an age-dependent telomere length reduction. In those individuals with the lowest exposure, a significant reduction of about 20% RTL was observed, both for external gamma radiation (≤1 Gy) and internal alpha radiation (≤0.05-0.1 Gy to the red bone marrow). In highly exposed individuals (>0.1 Gy alpha, 1-1.5 Gy gamma), the RTL was similar to control. Stratification by gender revealed a significant (∼30%) telomere reduction in low-dose-exposed males, which was absent in females. While the gender differences in RTL may reflect different working conditions, lifestyle and/or telomere biology, absence of a dose response in the highly exposed individuals may reflect selection against cells with short telomeres or induction of telomere-protective effects. Our observations suggest that chronic systemic exposure to radiation leads to variable dose-dependent effects on telomere length. PMID:27340887

  11. Influence of age on prevalence rates of chronic complications of hospitalized aged patients with hypertension——analysis of 17,682 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Cui; Yixin Hu; Li Fan; Guoliang Hu; Wei Dai

    2009-01-01

    Objective To understand the relationship between age and chronic complications in hospitalized aged patients with hypertension, to provide evidence for hypertension prevention and control. Methods To retrospectively analyze the clinical and laboratory data on 17,682 patients with essential hypertension during Jan 1st,1993-Dee 12th, 2008 in PLA general hospital. Results 1)Among all of the inrolled cases, those aged 60-64 account for 27.87%, 65-69 years group account for 26.55%, 70-74 years group accounted for 23.96%, 75-79 years group accounted for 14.14%, 80-84 years group accounted for 5.26%, 85-89 years group accounted for 1.69%, > 90 years accounted for 0.41%. 2) The prevalence rate of chronic complications in 60-69 years group were 31.3-31.2% for diabetes and,22.6-27.0% for cerebrovascular disease, 9.5-11.1% for myocardial infarction, 6.7-9.1% for heart failure, 5.8-6.0% for renal dysfanction 4.9-6.8% for atrial fibrillation, 0.1-0.3% for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in the elderly(P <0.05 ). 3) The first four complications of hypertension were diabetes(33.5%), cerebrovascular disease (31.9%), myocardial infarction(13.2%) and heart failure(12.3%) in 70-74 years group (P<0.05), cerebrovascular disease (42.8%), diabetes (32.8%), heart failure (16.5%) and myocardial infarction(15.9%) in 75-79 years group (P<0.05), cerebrovascular disease (45.4%), diabetes (35.0%), heart failure (21.1%) and myocardial infarction(15.9%) in 80-84 years group (P<0.05), cerebrovascular disease(42.5%), diabetes (35.8%), heart failure (23.1%) and renal dysfanction (17.7%) in 85-89 years group(P<0.05 ),and cerebrovascular disease (45. 2%), heart failure(31.5%), diabetes (26.0%) and renal dysfanction (20.5%) in patients more than 90 years group (P<0.05). Conclusions The prevalence rate and kinds of chronic complications in hospitalized aged patients with hypertension were changed with the increasing age, and the first kind of complication is cerebrovascular disease. It is of

  12. Chronic conditions and sleep problems among adults aged 50 years or over in nine countries: a multi-country study 

    OpenAIRE

    Koyanagi, Ai; Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Leonardi, Matilde; Koskinen, Seppo; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on the association between chronic conditions or the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems in low- or middle-income countries is scarce, and global comparisons of these associations with high-income countries have not been conducted. METHODS: Data on 42116 individuals 50 years and older from nationally-representative samples of the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (Finland, Poland, Spain) and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult...

  13. Lung functions at school age and chronic exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, M.; Kundi, M.; Wiesenberger, W. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    Early signs of lung function impairment have been found correlated with annual concentrations of outdoor air pollutants and with passive smoking. To investigate the combined effects of both indicators of chronic exposure to air pollution pulmonary functions in all elementary and high school children of an Austrian town was examined for 5 years. (author)

  14. Differences between the aging process and the chronic cerebrovascular impairment of memory functioning: the emotional and cognitive interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Three studies illustrate the relationship between memory, emotion, age, and chronic cerebro vascular disorders (CCVDs). In study A, emotion and age interact to produce secondary effects on memory functioning.In study B, emotion-related complaints are correlated with the cognition-related complaints only for high or low lev~ls of impairment For intermediate levels of impairment, the two components of subjective complaints are independent In study C, there is a relationship between aging and the pathological interference by CCVD on memory productivity; young healthy persons do better than aged healthy persons who do better than patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). However,memory processing is different in terms of encoding and organization of stimuli. Young healthy subjects automatically use the semantic structure of the verbal stimuli,whereas the aged healthy persons do so only after a second learning session. Patients with VCI have lost this ability.They keep encoding and organizing items according to the serial effect, the common strategy spontaneously followed by everyone when presented with unstructured stimuli. These are examples of the complex relationships that characterize memory functioning and that should be taken into account when assessing memory when the role of the age factor, the emotional factor, and an eventual CCVD factor should be specifically identified. PMID:23001313

  15. RUPTURE OF SECOND TRIMESTER ECTOPIC PREGNANCY IN A NON COMMUNICATING UTERINE HORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Shivajirao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Term pregnancy in a non communicating rudimentary h orn of the uterus is extremely rare and usually terminates in rupture dur ing second trimester of pregnancy. Diagnosis of rudimentary horn pregnancy and its ruptu re in a woman with prior vaginal delivery is difficult. It can be missed in routine ultrasound scan and in majority of cases it is detected after rupture. It requires a high index of suspicion. Because of muscular constitution of the uterine horn, pregnancy continues up to second tr imester. When uterine rupture occurs, it manifests as a case of acute abdomen with increased risk of maternal mortality. The rudimentary horn may or may not communicate with th e uterine cavity, majority of cases being in a non communicating horn. Here, we present a case of pregnancy which was diagnosed clinically as a case of abdominal pregnancy and on l aparotomy diagnosis of pregnancy from ruptured non communicating uterine horn was made. CASE SUMMARY : - G2P1L1 with rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy at 14weeks of gestation which was diagnosed as abdominal pregnancy with feta l demise by ultrasound, and case referred to our hospital. O/E patient was conscious, oriented, pulse rate 104/min, B.P. 110/70 mm of Hg, severe pallor noted. . On per abdominal e xamination generalised tenderness and guarding were present and exact uterine height was n ot appreciated. On per speculum examination healthy cervix with closed os and no bl eeding found. On per vaginal examination, forniceal tenderness was present and exact uterine s ize was not appreciated due to tenderness. Laparotomy revealed rupture of right rudimentary horn pregnancy with massive hemoperitoneum. Timely laparotomy, excision of the ho rn, and blood transfusion saved the patient.

  16. Rupture of non-communicating rudimentary uterine horn at 16 weeks of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Gupta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in non-communicating rudimentary horn is extremely rare and the usual presentation is rupture of rudimentary horn in second trimester of pregnancy resulting in severe haemoperitoneum which can be life threatening. We report a case of ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy in 23 years old G2P0A1Lo whose diagnosis was initially missed by ultrasonography and presented to us in hemorrhagic shock. Exploratory laparotomy revealed ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy at 16 weeks with haemoperitoneum and excision of ruptured left rudimentary horn with ipsilateral salpingectomy was done. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 268-269

  17. A simple framework for analysing the impact of economic growth on non-communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan K. Cohen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs are currently the leading cause of death worldwide. In this paper, we examine the channels through which economic growth affects NCDs’ epidemiology. Following a production function approach, we develop a basic technique to break up the impact of economic growth on NCDs into three fundamental components: (1 a resource effect; (2 a behaviour effect; and (3 a knowledge effect. We demonstrate that each of these effects can be measured as the product of two elasticities, the output and income elasticity of the three leading factors influencing the frequency of NCDs in any population: health care, health-related behaviours and lifestyle, and medical knowledge.

  18. Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary uterine horn in an obese woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Dorete Frydshou; Markauskas, Algirdas; Lamont, Ronald Francis;

    2013-01-01

    We would like to report the rare occurrence of a pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary uterine horn in an obese woman which evaded diagnosis, ruptured, and resulted in major intra-abdominal hemorrhage. A nulliparous woman, with a BMI of 36, presented at 21-weeks gestation with a history of...... abdominal pain. Prior to that time, the pregnancy had been uneventful with ultrasound (US) scans at 13(+0) and 19(+3) weeks which reported a normal pregnancy. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology....

  19. Non-communicable disease training for public health workers in low- and middle-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davila, Evelyn P; Suleiman, Zubeda; Mghamba, Janneth;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing worldwide. A lack of training and experience in NCDs among public health workers is evident in low- and middle- income countries. METHODS: We describe the design and outcomes of applied training in NCD epidemiology and control piloted in...... Tanzania that included a 2-week interactive course and a 6-month NCD field project. Trainees (n=14 initiated; n=13 completed) were epidemiology-trained Ministry of Health or hospital staff. We evaluated the training using Kirkpatrick's evaluation model for measuring reactions, learning, behavior and...

  20. PATTERN OF NON - COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN PATIENTS ATTENDING MEDICINE OPD AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF RANCHI, JHARKHAND

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha,; Asha; Mithilesh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Globally, non - communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasingly recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. These diseases have reached epidemic proportions, yet they could be significantly reduced, with millions of lives saved and untold suffering avoided, through reduction of their risk factors, early detection and timely treatments. Objective: To study the risk factors responsible for the development of non - communicable diseases in t...

  1. Rationale, design and methods for a community-based study of clustering and cumulative effects of chronic disease processes and their effects on ageing: the Busselton healthy ageing study

    OpenAIRE

    James, Alan; Hunter, Michael; Straker, Leon; Beilby, John; Bucks, Romola; Davis, Tim; Eikelboom, Robert H; Hillman, David; Hui, Jennie; Hung, Joe; Knuiman, Matthew; Mackey, David A.; Newton, Robert U; Palmer, Lyle J; Musk, AW Bill

    2013-01-01

    Background The global trend of increased life expectancy and increased prevalence of chronic and degenerative diseases will impact on health systems. To identify effective intervention and prevention strategies, greater understanding of the risk factors for and cumulative effects of chronic disease processes and their effects on function and quality of life is needed. The Busselton Healthy Ageing Study aims to enhance understanding of ageing by relating the clustering and interactions of comm...

  2. The Changing Pattern of Hospital Admission to Medical Wards; Burden of non-communicable diseases at a hospital in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufian K. Noor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the pattern of hospital admissions and patient outcomes in medical wards at Atbara Teaching Hospital in River Nile State, Sudan. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2013 to July 2014 and included all patients admitted to medical wards at the Atbara Teaching Hospital during the study period. Morbidity and mortality data was obtained from medical records. Diseases were categorised using the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD coding system. Results: A total of 2,614 patient records were analysed. The age group with the highest admissions was the 56‒65-year-old age group (19.4% and the majority of patients were admitted for one week or less (86.4%. Non-communicable diseases constituted 71.8% of all cases. According to ICD classifications, patients were admitted most frequently due to infectious or parasitic diseases (19.7%, followed by diseases of the circulatory (16.4%, digestive (16.4% and genito-urinary (13.8% systems. The most common diseases were cardiovascular disease (16.4%, malaria (11.3%, gastritis/peptic ulcer disease (9.8%, urinary tract infections (7.2% and diabetes mellitus (6.9%. The mortality rate was 4.7%. Conclusion: The burden of non-communicable diseases was found to exceed that of communicable diseases among patients admitted to medical wards at the Atbara Teaching Hospital.

  3. Current asthma contributes as much as smoking to chronic bronchitis in middle age: a prospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmage SC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shyamali C Dharmage,1 Jennifer L Perret,1,2, John A Burgess,1 Caroline J Lodge,1 David P Johns,3 Paul S Thomas,4 Graham G Giles,1,5 John L Hopper,1,6 Michael J Abramson,7,8 E Haydn Walters,3,9, Melanie C Matheson1 1Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The University of Melbourne, 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep (IBAS, Melbourne, VIC, 3“Breathe Well” Center of Research Excellence for Chronic Respiratory Disease and Lung Ageing, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 4Inflammation and Infection Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 5Cancer Epidemiology Center, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 6Department of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Allergy, Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, 8School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 9School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia Background and objective: Personal smoking is widely regarded to be the primary cause of chronic bronchitis (CB in adults, but with limited knowledge of contributions by other factors, including current asthma. We aimed to estimate the independent and relative contributions to adult CB from other potential influences spanning childhood to middle age.Methods: The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort, people born in 1961, completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry in 1968 (n=8,583. Thirty-seven years later, in 2004, two-thirds responded to a detailed postal survey (n=5,729, from which the presence of CB was established in middle age. A subsample (n=1,389 underwent postbronchodilator spirometry between 2006 and 2008 for the assessment of chronic airflow limitation, from which nonobstructive and obstructive CB were defined. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate

  4. Shining a Light on Task-Shifting Policy; Exploring opportunities for adaptability in non-communicable disease management programmes in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Katende

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In terms of disease burden, many low- and middle-income countries are currently experiencing a transition from infectious to chronic diseases. In Uganda, non-communicable diseases (NCDs have increased significantly in recent years; this challenge is compounded by the healthcare worker shortage and the underfunded health system administration. Addressing the growing prevalence of NCDs requires evidence-based policies and strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality rates; however, the integration and evaluation of new policies and processes pose many challenges. Task-shifting is the process whereby specific tasks are transferred to health workers with less training and fewer qualifications. Successful implementation of a task-shifting policy requires appropriate skill training, clearly defined roles, adequate evaluation, an enhanced training capacity and sufficient health worker incentives. This article focuses on task-shifting policy as a potentially effective strategy to address the growing burden of NCDs on the Ugandan healthcare system.

  5. IMPACT OF NUTRITIONAL COUNSELLING ON BODY MASS INDEX (BMI AND NUTRIENT INTAKE OF THE NON - COMMUNICABLE DISEASE PATIENTS (NCD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Good health is an important discussion of the quality of life. Health problem is a major concern in all over the world but especially in developing countries. Non-communicable diseases ( NCDs contribute the ill health. Diabetes, coronary heart disease, various forms of cancer, gastro intestinal disorder and various diseases of bones and joints are diet related NCDs. Nutritional counselling is one of the effective tools of changing the food habits of people. The data for this study is taken from the out patients services of Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism and Cardiology of Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-5. Total 250 samples were included in the study. Age group 40 – 60 years were considered as study samples who attended the Endocrinology and Cardiology departments. Purposive sampling method was used in the study. Questionnaire cum interview method was adopted in the study. Anthropametric measurements were taken by using standard techniques. 24 hours diet recall method was also used in this study. Evaluation of councelling was done on basis of changes in BMI and nutrient intake. Result shows the positive impact of nutritional counselling in BMI and nutrient intake of NCD patients.

  6. Impact of adherence to WHO infant feeding recommendations on later risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Bland, Ruth M; Connelly, Andrew; Reilly, John J

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to WHO infant feeding recommendations has short-term benefits and may also help in the prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study reviewed the evidence on whether adherence to all elements of the WHO infant feeding recommendations (comparison group those exclusively breastfed to 6 months, introduced to appropriate complementary feeding from 6 months, with continued breastfeeding to at least 24 months; exposure group characterised by non-adherence to any of the three recommendations) is associated with reduced risk of later obesity or cardiometabolic disease. The population of interest was children not classified as very low weight (weight-for-age z-score >-3.0). MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL plus, ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis were systematically searched from 2001 to July 2014, manual reference searching of a birth cohort register (http://www.birthcohorts.net/) as well as papers identified in the search and selected journals was carried out. The database search yielded 9050 records, 275 English-language full-text articles were screened, but no studies were eligible, failing to meet the following criteria: comparison (213); exposure (14); population (3); relevant outcome (5); outcome before 24 months (9); insufficient information provided (30); plus one study was qualitative. Eight studies met the inclusion criterion of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months, but did not meet the other inclusion criteria. The present study has revealed an important gap in the evidence on NCD prevention, and suggestions for addressing this evidence gap are provided. PMID:26259927

  7. Effects of chronic estrogen treatment on modulating age-related bone loss in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Farhan A; Mödder, Ulrike Il; Roforth, Matthew; Hensen, Ira; Fraser, Daniel G; Peterson, James M; Oursler, Merry Jo; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-11-01

    While female mice do not have the equivalent of a menopause, they do undergo reproductive senescence. Thus, to dissociate the effects of aging versus estrogen deficiency on age-related bone loss, we sham-operated, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized and estrogen-replaced female C57/BL6 mice at 6 months of age and followed them to age 18 to 22 months. Lumbar spines and femurs were excised for analysis, and bone marrow hematopoietic lineage negative (lin-) cells (enriched for osteoprogenitor cells) were isolated for gene expression studies. Six-month-old intact control mice were euthanized to define baseline parameters. Compared with young mice, aged/sham-operated mice had a 42% reduction in lumbar spine bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), and maintaining constant estrogen levels over life in ovariectomized/estrogen-treated mice did not prevent age-related trabecular bone loss at this site. By contrast, lifelong estrogen treatment of ovariectomized mice completely prevented the age-related reduction in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and thickness at the tibial diaphysis present in the aged/sham-operated mice. As compared with cells from young mice, lin- cells from aged/sham-operated mice expressed significantly higher mRNA levels for osteoblast differentiation and proliferation marker genes. These data thus demonstrate that, in mice, age-related loss of cortical bone in the appendicular skeleton, but not loss of trabecular bone in the spine, can be prevented by maintaining constant estrogen levels over life. The observed increase in osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation marker gene expression in progenitor bone marrow cells from aged versus young mice may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to ongoing bone loss. PMID:20499336

  8. Chronic Exposure to Everyday Discrimination and Sleep in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tené T.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have suggested that poor sleep may play a role in the association between discrimination and health, but studies linking experiences of discrimination to sleep are limited. The authors examined associations between reports of everyday discrimination over four years (chronic everyday discrimination) and subjective and objective indicators of poor sleep. Methods Participants were 368 African-American, Caucasian, and Chinese women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Everyday discrimination was assessed each year from baseline through the third follow-up exam via questionnaire with the Everyday Discrimination Scale (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient over four years=.90). Subjective sleep complaints were measured beginning in year 5 with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Objective indices of sleep continuity, duration, and architecture were assessed via in-home polysomnography (PSG), beginning in year 5. Results In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, race/ethnicity and financial strain, chronic everyday discrimination was associated with more subjective sleep complaints (Estimate =1.52, p<.001) and PSG-assessed wakefulness after sleep onset (Estimate=.19, p<.02), a marker of sleep continuity. Findings did not differ by race/ethnicity and remained significant after adjusting for menopausal status, body mass index, medication use and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Experiences of chronic everyday discrimination are independently associated with both subjective and objective indices of poor sleep. Findings add to the growing literature linking discrimination to key markers of biobehavioral health. PMID:23088174

  9. Promotion of access to essential medicines for non-communicable diseases: practical implications of the UN political declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerzeil, Hans V; Liberman, Jonathan; Wirtz, Veronika J; Kishore, Sandeep P; Selvaraj, Sakthi; Kiddell-Monroe, Rachel; Mwangi-Powell, Faith N; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido

    2013-02-23

    Access to medicines and vaccines to prevent and treat non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is unacceptably low worldwide. In the 2011 UN political declaration on the prevention and control of NCDs, heads of government made several commitments related to access to essential medicines, technologies, and vaccines for such diseases. 30 years of experience with policies for essential medicines and 10 years of scaling up of HIV treatment have provided the knowledge needed to address barriers to long-term effective treatment and prevention of NCDs. More medicines can be acquired within existing budgets with efficient selection, procurement, and use of generic medicines. Furthermore, low-income and middle-income countries need to increase mobilisation of domestic resources to cater for the many patients with NCDs who do not have access to treatment. Existing initiatives for HIV treatment offer useful lessons that can enhance access to pharmaceutical management of NCDs and improve adherence to long-term treatment of chronic illness; policy makers should also address unacceptable inequities in access to controlled opioid analgesics. In addition to off-patent medicines, governments can promote access to new and future on-patent medicinal products through coherent and equitable health and trade policies, particularly those for intellectual property. Frequent conflicts of interest need to be identified and managed, and indicators and targets for access to NCD medicines should be used to monitor progress. Only with these approaches can a difference be made to the lives of hundreds of millions of current and future patients with NCDs. PMID:23410612

  10. Systems medicine approaches for the definition of complex phenotypes in chronic diseases and ageing. From concept to implementation and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Jean; Jorgensen, Christian; Dauzat, Michel; Cesario, Alfredo; Camuzat, Thierry; Bourret, Rodolphe; Best, Nicolas; Anto, Josep M; Abecassis, Frederic; Aubas, Pierre; Avignon, Antoine; Badin, Melanie; Bedbrook, Anna; Blain, Hubert; Bourdin, Arnaud; Bringer, Jacques; Camu, William; Cayla, Guilhaume; Costa, David J; Courtet, Philippe; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Demoly, Pascal; de la Coussaye, Jean-Emmanuel; Fesler, Pierre; Gouzi, Fares; Gris, Jean-Christophe; Guillot, Bernard; Hayot, Maurice; Jeandel, Claude; Jonquet, Olivier; Journot, Laurent; Lehmann, Sylvain; Mathieu, Gwenaelle; Morel, Jacques; Ninot, Gregory; Pelissier, Jacques; Picot, Marie-Christine; Radier-Pontal, Francoise; Robine, Jean-Marie; Rodier, Michel; Roubille, Francois; Sultan, Ariane; Wojtusciszyn, Anne; Auffray, Charles; Balling, Rudi; Barbara, Cristina; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Chavannes, Niels H; Chuchalin, Alexander; Crooks, George; Dedeu, Antoni; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Hajjam, Jawad; Melo Gomes, Elisabete; Palkonen, Susana; Piette, Francois; Pison, Christophe; Price, David; Samolinski, Boleslaw; Schunemann, Holger J; Sterk, Peter J; Yiallouros, Panayiotis; Roca, Josep; Van de Perre, Philippe; Mercier, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases are diseases of long duration and slow progression. Major NCDs (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, rheumatologic diseases and mental health) represent the predominant health problem of the Century. The prevention and control of NCDs are the priority of the World Health Organization 2008 Action Plan, the United Nations 2010 Resolution and the European Union 2010 Council. The novel trend for the management of NCDs is evolving towards integrative, holistic approaches. NCDs are intertwined with ageing. The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) has prioritised NCDs. To tackle them in their totality in order to reduce their burden and societal impact, it is proposed that NCDs should be considered as a single expression of disease with different risk factors and entities. An innovative integrated health system built around systems medicine and strategic partnerships is proposed to combat NCDs. It includes (i) understanding the social, economic, environmental, genetic determinants, as well as the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying NCDs; (ii) primary care and practice-based interprofessional collaboration; (iii) carefully phenotyped patients; (iv) development of unbiased and accurate biomarkers for comorbidities, severity and follow up of patients; (v) socio-economic science; (vi) development of guidelines; (vii) training; and (viii) policy decisions. The results could be applicable to all countries and adapted to local needs, economy and health systems. This paper reviews the complexity of NCDs intertwined with ageing. It gives an overview of the problem and proposes two practical examples of systems medicine (MeDALL) applied to allergy and to NCD co-morbidities (MACVIA-LR, Reference Site of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing). PMID:24641234

  11. Folate/vitamin-B12 prevents chronic hyperhomocysteinemia-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and memory deficits in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Liu, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Chang-E; Wang, Qun; Wei, Zelan; Mousseau, Darrell D; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Tian, Qing; Liu, Gong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous work has demonstrated that combined folate and vitamin B12 (vit-B12) supplementation prevents tau hyperphosphorylation and memory deficits induced by acute administration of homocysteine in young rats. Here, we further investigated whether folate/vit-B12 supplementation is also effective in aged rats with a chronically high level of homocysteine. 18-month-old rats were injected with homocysteine via the vena caudalis with or without a concurrent folate/vit-B12 supplementation for 28 weeks. We found that hyperhomocysteinemia induced tau hyperphosphorylation and accumulation in hippocampus and cortex. Concurrent signaling changes included the activation of glycogen synthase kinases-3β, cyclin-dependent kinase-5, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38MAPK, and inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A. Although the ability to learn was not affected, the aged rats exhibited significant memory deficits. Folate/vit-B12 supplementation attenuated these biochemical and behavioral correlates. These data demonstrate that folate/vit-B12 supplementation is also effective in a chronic hyperhomocysteinemia model in reversing the AD-like tau pathologies and memory deficits. PMID:21860088

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported non-communicable diseases among older Ugandans: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ojiambo Wandera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs among older Ugandans. Therefore, this article is aimed at investigating the prevalence of self-reported NCDs and their associated risk factors using a nationally representative sample. Design: We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2010 Uganda National Household Survey (UNHS using a weighted sample of 2,382 older people. Frequency distributions for descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-square tests to identify the association between self-reported NCDs and selected explanatory variables were done. Finally, multivariable complementary log–log regressions to estimate the risk factors for self-reported NCDs among older people in Uganda were done. Results: About 2 in 10 (23% older persons reported at least one NCD [including hypertension (16%, diabetes (3%, and heart disease (9%]. Among all older people, reporting NCDs was higher among those aged 60–69 and 70–79; Muslims; and Pentecostals and Seventh Day Adventists (SDAs. In addition, the likelihood of reporting NCDs was higher among older persons who depended on remittances and earned wages; owned a bicycle; were sick in the last 30 days; were disabled; and were women. Conversely, the odds of reporting NCDs were lower for those who were relatives of household heads and were poor. Conclusions: In Uganda, self-reported NCDs were associated with advanced age, being a woman, having a disability, ill health in the past 30 days, being rich, depended on remittances and earning wages, being Muslim, Pentecostal and SDAs, and household headship. The Ministry of Health should prevent and manage NCDs by creating awareness in the public and improving the supply of essential drugs for these health conditions. Finally, there is a need for specialised surveillance studies of older people to monitor the trends and patterns of NCDs over time.

  13. Managing population health to prevent and detect cancer and non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Heather; Shin, Hai Rim; Forman, David; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Park, Sohee; Burton, Robert; Varghese, Cherian; Ullrich, Andreas; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Sutcliffe, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The goals of cancer control strategies are generally uniform across all constituencies and are to reduce cancer incidence, reduce cancer mortality, and improve quality of life for those affected by cancer. A well-constructed strategy will ensure that all of its elements can ultimately be connected to one of these goals. When a cancer control strategy is being implemented, it is essential to map progress towards these goals; without mapping progress, it is impossible to assess which components of the strategy require more attention or resources and which are not having the desired effect and need to be re-evaluated. In order to monitor and evaluate these strategies, systems need to be put in place to collect data and the appropriate indicators of performance need to be identified. Session 2 of the 4th International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-4) focused on how to manage population health to prevent and detect cancers and non-communicable diseases through two plenary presentations and four interactive workshop discussions: 1) registries, measurement, and management in cancer control; 2) use of information for planning and evaluating screening and early detection programs; 3) alternative models for promoting community health, integrated care and illness management; and 4) control of non-communicable diseases. Workshop discussions highlighted that population based cancer registries are fundamental to understanding the cancer burden within a country. However, many countries in Africa, Asia, and South/ Central America do not have them in place. A new global initiative is underway, which brings together several international agencies, and aims to establish six IARC regional registration resource centres over the next five years. These will provide training, support, infrastructure and advocacy to local networks of cancer registries, and, it is hoped, improve the host countries' ability to assess and act on cancer issues within their jurisdictions. Multiple methods of

  14. Vitamin E and C supplementation reduces oxidative stress, improves antioxidant enzymes and positive muscle work in chronically loaded muscles of aged rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Michael J.; Dudash, Holly J.; Docherty, Megan; Geronilla, Kenneth B.; Baker, Brent A.; Haff, G. Gregory; Cutlip, Robert G; Alway, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased oxidative stress. Muscle levels of oxidative stress are further elevated with exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if dietary antioxidant supplementation would improve muscle function and cellular markers of oxidative stress in response to chronic repetitive loading in aging. The dorsiflexors of the left limb of aged and young adult Fischer 344 Brown x Norway rats were loaded 3 times weekly for 4.5 weeks using 80 maximal stretch-shortening co...

  15. [Recent trends in and new data on the epidemiology and prevention of non-communicable diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitsov, S A

    2016-01-01

    Mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the country varies considerably among its regions and social strata of the population. The main reason for providing inadequate conditions for a healthy lifestyle is that the state and municipal authorities and employers pay insufficient attention to the role of socioeconomic risk factors for NCDs. Only an analysis of the reasons for changing mortality rates allows the correct course of actions to reduce mortality to be chosen and a national plan for the control of NCDs to be worked out. The important mechanisms for improving the prevention of NCDs are to make better cardiovascular risk stratification systems, to introduce telemonitoring the status of the patients followed up, and to interface the prophylactic medical examination of elderly patients with a geriatric service. The design of long-acting drugs is a promising way to increase the patients' motivation to control blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels. PMID:26978602

  16. High rates of obesity and non-communicable diseases predicted across Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Webber

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs such as cardiovascular disease and stroke are a major public health concern across Latin America. A key modifiable risk factor for NCDs is overweight and obesity highlighting the need for policy to reduce prevalence rates and ameliorate rising levels of NCDs. A cross-sectional regression analysis was used to project BMI and related disease trends to 2050. We tested the extent to which interventions that decrease body mass index (BMI have an effect upon the number of incidence cases avoided for each disease. Without intervention obesity trends will continue to rise across much of Latin America. Effective interventions are necessary if rates of obesity and related diseases are to be reduced.

  17. NMR images of non-communicating hydrocephalus associated with Dandy-Walker variant and achondroplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of non-communicating hydrocephalus caused by a relatively rare etiology were reported. They were both diagnosed by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The first patient, a 4-month-old boy, had Dandy-Walker variant, showing hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and the inferior vermis, and a large cyst behind the vermis, communicating with the subarachnoid space, as well as hydrocephalus; the fourth ventricle was partially reserved. The second patient, also a 4-month-old boy, had achondroplasia, resulting in a narrow foramen magnum; the disturbance of the outflow of the cerebro-spinal fluid around the cisterna magna was thought to be the cause of hydrocephalus in his case. The validity of NMR was demonstrated in the diagnoses of these conditions, for a high resolution was needed in examining the complicated structure of the posterior fossa. (author)

  18. NMR images of non-communicating hydrocephalus associated with Dandy-Walker variant and achondroplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Masaharu; Kuroda, Ryotaro; Watanabe, Masaru; Nakatani, Jiro; Ioku, Masahiko; Irisawa, Minoru; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu

    1988-06-01

    Two cases of non-communicating hydrocephalus caused by a relatively rare etiology were reported. They were both diagnosed by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The first patient, a 4-month-old boy, had Dandy-Walker variant, showing hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and the inferior vermis, and a large cyst behind the vermis, communicating with the subarachnoid space, as well as hydrocephalus; the fourth ventricle was partially reserved. The second patient, also a 4-month-old boy, had achondroplasia, resulting in a narrow foramen magnum; the disturbance of the outflow of the cerebro-spinal fluid around the cisterna magna was thought to be the cause of hydrocephalus in his case. The validity of NMR was demonstrated in the diagnoses of these conditions, for a high resolution was needed in examining the complicated structure of the posterior fossa.

  19. Role of occupational health in managing non-communicable diseases in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pg Khalifah Pg Ismail

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Like most ASEAN countries, Brunei faces an epidemic of non-communicable diseases. To deal with the complexity of NCDs prevention, all perspectives - be it social, familial or occupational – need to be considered. In Brunei Darussalam, occupational health services (OHS offered by its Ministry of Health, among others, provide screening and management of NCDs at various points of service. The OHS does not only issue fitness to work certificates, but is a significant partner in co-managing patients’ health conditions, with the advantage of further management at the workplace. Holistic approach of NCD management in the occupational setting is strengthened with both employer and employee education and participation, targeting several approaches including risk management and advocating healthy lifestyles as part of a healthy workplace programme.

  20. Genetic design of pigs as experimental models in the combat between chronic diseases and healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolund, Lars

    2012-01-01

    necessary. The pig is an excellent model for medical research as well as for testing of new methods and drugs for disease prevention and treatment. Its size and longevity makes it especially useful for the study of chronic disease processes that can be monitored and repeatedly biopsied for long periods with...... and without intervention. The genome of different pig breeds have been sequenced, revealing that the pig is genetically more similar to man than conventional laboratory animals - in agreement with the similarities in organ development, physiology and metabolism. Genetically designed minipigs...... (Göttingen and Yucatan) are obtained by genetic engineering of somatic cells and animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Primary minipig fibroblasts are genetically modified in culture by transposon-based transgenesis and/or homologous recombination with AAV-transduced constructs. The designed pig...

  1. Proliferation and mitogenic response to PDGF-BB of fibroblasts isolated from chronic venous leg ulcers is ulcer-age dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agren, M S; Steenfos, H H; Dabelsteen, S;

    1999-01-01

    pronounced than would have been expected based on studies on acute wounds. The objective of this study was to compare fibroblasts in culture obtained from chronic wounds (non-healing chronic venous leg ulcers), acute wounds and normal dermis regarding growth, mitogenic response to platelet-derived growth...... fibroblasts (n = 8) was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared with those from acute wounds (n = 10) and normal dermis (n = 5). Fibroblasts from ulcers older than 3 y grew significantly (p < 0.01) slower than those from ulcers that had been present for less than 3 y. Morphology and size of fibroblasts...... from the oldest chronic wounds deviated substantially from those of acute wounds and normal dermis, and resembled in vitro aged or senescent fibroblasts. Mitogenic response of chronic wound fibroblasts to human recombinant platelet-derived growth factor-BB was also reduced with ulcer age. No...

  2. PREGNANCY IN A NON - COMMUNICATING RUDIMENTARY HORN OF A UNICORNUATE UTERUS : A CASE REPORT

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    Anuradha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus is rare . 1 An incidence of 1 in 76,000 - 150,000 pregnancies is reported in the literature . 2,3 We present a case report of rupture of a 25 weeks pregnancy in the non - communicating rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus. Congenital malformations of the uterus, also known as Mullerian duct anomalies, are rare in general population ( A pprox. 1%. The se abnormalities result from arrested development, abnormal formation or incomplete fusion of mesonephric ducts. Unicornuate uterus results from unilateral arrested mullerian duct development . Rarely unicornuate uterus may also have a rudimentary horn, mor e on the right than on the left side. The incidence of unicornuate uterus is estimated to be 1:250 and its occurrence with rudimentary horn is 1:100,000 . Such anomalies are reported to result in increased rate of miscarriages, recurrent pregnancy losses, preterm labor , infertility and other obstetric complications. Conception in rudimentary horn arises either from a small communication with the uterine cavity ( C ommunicating or by Trans peritoneal migration of the fertilized ovum from the contra - lateral side ( N on - communicating . The proportion of non - communicating rudimentary horns is 70 - 90% . The frequency of pregnancy in rudimentary horn is reported to be 1:76000 . The clinical presentations vary from being asymptomatic to vague complaints of mild lower abdominal pain with gastrointestinal upset to its severest form of acute abdomen with hemorrhagic shock. The most significant threat of a rudimentary horn pregnancy is the risk of rupture because of poorly developed musculature . In view of the paucity of literature on rare observation of pregnancy in rudimentary horn of uterus, the case reported here is of crucial importance.

  3. Age-specific radiation dose commitment factors for a one-year chronic intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the licensing process for nuclear facilities, radiation doses and dose commitments must be calculated for people in the environs of a nuclear facility. These radiation doses are determined by examining characteristics of population groups, pathways to people, and radionuclides found in those pathways. The pertinent characteristics, which are important in the sense of contributing a significant portion of the total dose, must then be analyzed in depth. Dose factors are generally available for adults, see Reference 1 for example, however numerous improvements in data on decay schemes and half-lives have been made in recent years. In addition, it is advisable to define parameters for calculation of the radiation dose for ages other than adults since the population surrounding nuclear facilities will be composed of various age groups. Further, since infants, children, and teens may have higher rates of intake per unit body mass, it is conceivable that the maximally exposed individual may not be an adult. Thus, it was necessary to develop new radiation-dose commitment factors for various age groups. Dose commitment factors presented in this report have been calculated for a 50-year time period for four age groups

  4. Ovarian hormones, but not fluoxetine, impart resilience within a chronic unpredictable stress model in middle-aged female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Rand; Wainwright, Steven R; Chaiton, Jessica A; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-08-01

    consequences of chronic unpredictable stress, and may modulate the effects of fluoxetine on cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and PSA-NCAM in the middle-aged female. PMID:27018449

  5. State and Regional Prevalence of Diagnosed Multiple Chronic Conditions Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian W; Black, Lindsey I

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and care management of multiple (two or more) chronic conditions (MCC) are important public health concerns (1). Approximately 25% of U.S. adults have diagnoses of MCC (2). Care management of MCC presents a challenge to both patients and providers because of the substantial costs associated with treating more than one condition and the traditional care strategies that focus on single conditions as opposed to enhanced care coordination (3,4). Maintaining surveillance, targeting service delivery, and projecting resources are all important to meet this challenge, and these actions can be informed by identifying state and other regional variations in MCC prevalence (5,6). Data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate prevalence of MCC (defined as two or more of 10 diagnosed chronic conditions) for each U.S. state and region by age and sex. Significant state and regional variation in MCC prevalence was found, with state-level estimates ranging from 19.0% in Colorado to 38.2% in Kentucky. MCC prevalence also varied by region, ranging from 21.4% in the Pacific region to 34.5% in the East South Central region. The prevalence of MCC was higher among women than among men within certain U.S. regions, and was higher in older persons in all regions. Such findings further the research and surveillance objectives stated in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) publication, Multiple Chronic Conditions: A Strategic Framework (1). Furthermore, geographic disparities in MCC prevalence can inform state-level surveillance programs and groups targeting service delivery or allocating resources for MCC prevention activities. PMID:27467707

  6. Interaction between PNPLA3 I148M variant and age at infection in determining fibrosis progression in chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella De Nicola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The PNPLA3 I148M sequence variant favors hepatic lipid accumulation and confers susceptibility to hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect size of homozygosity for the PNPLA3 I148M variant (148M/M on the fibrosis progression rate (FPR and the interaction with age at infection in chronic hepatitis C (CHC. METHODS: FPR was estimated in a prospective cohort of 247 CHC patients without alcohol intake and diabetes, with careful estimation of age at infection and determination of fibrosis stage by Ishak score. RESULTS: Older age at infection was the strongest determinant of FPR (p<0.0001. PNPLA3 148M/M was associated with faster FPR in individuals infected at older age (above the median, 21 years; -0.64±0.2, n = 8 vs. -0.95±0.3, n = 166 log10 FPR respectively; p = 0.001; confirmed for lower age thresholds, p<0.05, but not in those infected at younger age (p = ns. The negative impact of PNPLA3 148M/M on fibrosis progression was more marked in subjects at risk of altered hepatic lipid metabolism (those with grade 2-3 steatosis, genotype 3, and overweight; p<0.05. At multivariate analysis, PNPLA3 148M/M was associated with FPR (incremental effect 0.08±0.03 log10 fibrosis unit per year; p = 0.022, independently of several confounders, and there was a significant interaction between 148M/M and older age at infection (p = 0.025. The association between 148M/M and FPR remained significant even after adjustment for steatosis severity (p = 0.032. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an interaction between homozygosity for the PNPLA3 I148M variant and age at infection in determining fibrosis progression in CHC patients.

  7. FULL TERM UNRUPTURED INTRAUTERINE PREGNANCY OF A DEAD FETUS IN A NON COMMUNICATING HORN: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedarnath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is rare and the outcome almost always unfavorable, usually ending in rupture during the first or second trimester with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability and advances on imagiologic procedures, recognition of this ectopic pregnancy is frequently made at laparotomy after abdominal pain and collapse. Full term pregnancy in rudimentary horn is rarely reported. We report a case of full term unruptured intrauterine pregnancy of a dead fetus in a non-communicating horn in a multigravida 37 weeks 4 days which was diagnosed pre-operatively as dead intra-abdominal pregnancy The diagnosis was missed by prenatal ultrasonography and was made only at laparotomy. Extraction of intrauterine dead fetus weighting 3kg with excision of non-communicating rudimentary horn was carried out. In the literature, few reports of a horn pregnancy reaching the viability of full term are described, enhancing the clinical importance of this case.

  8. Chronic disease, risk factors and disability in adults aged 50 and above living with and without HIV: findings from the Wellbeing of Older People Study in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. Mugisha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the prevalence of chronic conditions, their risk factors, and their associations with disability in older people living with and without HIV are scarce in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: In older people living with and without HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: 1 to describe the prevalence of chronic conditions and their risk factors and 2 to draw attention to associations between chronic conditions and disability. Methods: Cross-sectional individual-level survey data from people aged 50 years and over living with and without HIV were analyzed from three study sites in Uganda. Diagnoses of chronic conditions were made through self-report, and disability was determined using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS. We used ordered logistic regression and calculated predicted probabilities to show differences in the prevalence of multiple chronic conditions across HIV status, age groups, and locality. We used linear regression to determine associations between chronic conditions and the WHODAS. Results: In total, 471 participants were surveyed; about half the respondents were living with HIV. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and eye problems (except for those aged 60–69 years was higher in the HIV-positive participants and increased with age. The prevalence of diabetes and angina was higher in HIV-negative participants. The odds of having one or more compared with no chronic conditions were higher in women (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3 and in those aged 70 years and above (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.6. Sleep problems (coefficient 14.2, 95% CI 7.3–21.0 and depression (coefficient 9.4, 95% CI 1.2–17.0 were strongly associated with higher disability scores. Conclusion: Chronic conditions are common in older adults and affect their functioning. Many of these conditions are not currently addressed by health services in Uganda. There is a need to revise health care policy and practice in Uganda to consider the

  9. Association of early age at establishment of chronic hepatitis B infection with persistent viral replication, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Shimakawa

    Full Text Available Age at infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV is a known risk factor for chronic HBV infection. However, in addition, there is some evidence that early age at infection further increases the risk of primary liver cancer beyond its association with increased risk of chronic infection. This systematic review of observational studies assesses the association between age at initiation of chronic HBV infection and liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and their predictors including indicators of ongoing viral replication and hepatic damage. The review includes birth order and maternal HBV serology as proxies for age at infection. Electronic searches in two English-language (Medline and Embase, until Jan 2012 and two Chinese-language (CNKI and SinoMed, until Sep 2012 databases without language restriction and manual search through reference lists identified 7,077 papers, of which 19 studies of 21 outcomes (8 primary liver cancer, 1 liver cirrhosis, 10 viral replication and 2 liver inflammation are included. One study directly examined the age at infection in a longitudinal cohort, 12 assessed maternal sero-status and 6 investigated birth order. The direction of associations in all studies was in accordance with our hypothesis that earlier age at infection is associated with worse outcomes in addition to its effect of increasing the probability of chronic HBV infection. This has implications for the control of hepatitis B.

  10. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum SOD, TNF, CRP levels and T-cell subsets distribution type after treatment in aged patients with chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum SOD, TNF, CRP levels and T-cell subsets distribution type after treatment in aged patients with chronic bronchitis. Methods: Serum SOD, TNF levels (with RIA), CRP levels (with biochemistry) and T-cell subsets distribution type (with monoclonal antibody) were detected both before and after treatment in 42 aged patients with chronic bronchitis as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum levels of SOD, CD4/CD8 ratios were significantly lower and serum TNF, CRP levels significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (P4/CD8 ratios remained significantly higher than those in controls (P <0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum SOD, TNF, CRP levels and T-cell subsets distribution type is clinically meaningful in aged patients with chronic bronchitis. (authors)

  11. Effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for preschool-age children with chronic disease.

    OpenAIRE

    FIORE, A. E.; Levine, O S; Elliott, J A; Facklam, R R; Butler, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    To estimate the effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, we serotyped isolates submitted to the Pneumococcal Sentinel Surveillance System from 1984 to 1996 from 48 vaccinated and 125 unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age. Effectiveness against invasive disease caused by serotypes included in the vaccine was 63%. Effectiveness against serotypes in the polysaccharide vaccine but not in a proposed seven-valent protein conjugate vaccine was 94%.

  12. Chronic photo-oxidative stress and subsequent MCP-1 activation as causative factors for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mihoko; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Du, Zhao-Jiang; Xie, Ping; Matsumura, Nagakazu; Fu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Renliang; Sonoda, Koh-hei; Egashira, Kensuke; Hazen, Stanley L; Kamei, Motohiro

    2012-05-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in developed countries. Although pathogenic factors, such as oxidative stress, inflammation and genetics are thought to contribute to the development of AMD, little is known about the relationships and priorities between these factors. Here, we show that chronic photo-oxidative stress is an environmental factor involved in AMD pathogenesis. We first demonstrated that exposure to light induced phospholipid oxidation in the mouse retina, which was more prominent in aged animals. The induced oxidized phospholipids led to an increase in the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which then resulted in macrophage accumulation, an inflammatory process. Antioxidant treatment prevented light-induced phospholipid oxidation and the subsequent increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (also known as C-C motif chemokine 2; CCL2), which are the beginnings of the light-induced changes. Subretinal application of oxidized phospholipids induced choroidal neovascularization, a characteristic feature of wet-type AMD, which was inhibited by blocking monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. These findings strongly suggest that a sequential cascade from photic stress to inflammatory processes through phospholipid oxidation has an important role in AMD pathogenesis. Finally, we succeeded in mimicking human AMD in mice with low-level, long-term photic stress, in which characteristic pathological changes, including choroidal neovascularization formation, were observed. Therefore, we propose a consecutive pathogenic pathway involving photic stress, oxidation of phospholipids and chronic inflammation, leading to angiogenesis. These findings add to the current understanding of AMD pathology and suggest protection from oxidative stress or suppression of the subsequent inflammation as new potential therapeutic targets for AMD. PMID:22357958

  13. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), (3) Commitments for Action to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing and the AIRWAYS ICPs network. It is deployed in collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing has proposed a 5-step framework for developing an individual scaling up strategy: (1) what to scale up: (1-a) databases of good practices, (1-b) assessment of viability of the scaling up of good practices, (1-c) classification of good practices for local replication and (2) how to scale up: (2-a) facilitating partnerships for scaling up, (2-b) implementation of key success factors and lessons learnt, including emerging technologies for individualised and predictive medicine. This strategy has already been applied to the chronic respiratory disease action plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. PMID:27478588

  14. Maitake Mushroom Extracts Ameliorate Progressive Hypertension and Other Chronic Metabolic Perturbations in Aging Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry G. Preuss, Bobby Echard, Debasis Bagchi, Nicholas V. Perricone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We assessed the ability of two commercially-available fractions labeled SX and D derived from the edible maitake mushroom to overcome many age-associated metabolic perturbations such as progressive, age-related elevation of blood pressure, over activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, decreased insulin sensitivity, and inflammation in an in vivo laboratory model. Design and Method: We divided forty mature, female Sprague-Dawley rats (SD into five groups of eight. SD ingested regular rat chow containing added sucrose (20% w/w. The groups received baseline diet alone (control or baseline diet containing captopril, niacin-bound chromium, maitake fraction SX, or maitake fraction D. In addition to blood pressure readings, the following procedures were implemented: losartan and insulin challenges, evaluation of serum ACE activity, glucose tolerance testing, blood chemistries, LNAME challenge, and measurement of various circulating cytokines. Results: We found that implementation of all test conditions stopped the gradual elevation of systolic blood pressure (SBP in the SD over the four months of study, even reversing some of the previous elevation that occurred over time. In general, the treatment groups showed decreased activity of the RAS estimated by less lowering of SBP after losartan challenge and decreased serum ACE activity and were more sensitive to exogenous insulin challenge. TNFa levels decreased in all four test groups suggesting a lessening of the inflammatory state. Conclusions: We believe our data suggest that maitake mushroom fractions lessen age-related hypertension, at least in part, via effects on the RAS; enhance insulin sensitivity; and reduce some aspects of inflammation -- actions that should lead to a longer, healthier life span.

  15. Development and implementation of an integrated chronic disease model in South Africa: lessons in the management of change through improving the quality of clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mahomed, Ozayr; Asmall, Shaidah

    2015-01-01

    Background: South Africa is facing a complex burden of disease arising from a combination of chronic infectious illness and non-communicable diseases. As the burden of chronic diseases (communicable and non-communicable) increases, providing affordable and effective care to the increasing numbers of chronic patients will be an immense challenge.Methods: The framework recommended by the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom for the development and evaluation of complex health interven...

  16. Chronic administration of thiamine pyrophosphate decreases age-related histological atrophic testicular changes and improves sexual behavior in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montiel, H L; Vásquez López, C M; González-Loyola, J G; Vega-Anaya, G C; Villagrán-Herrera, M E; Gallegos-Corona, M A; Saldaña, C; Ramos Gómez, M; García Horshman, P; García Solís, P; Solís-S, J C; Robles-Osorio, M L; Ávila Morales, J; Varela-Echavarría, A; Paredes Guerrero, R

    2014-06-01

    Aging is a multifactorial universal process and constitutes the most important risk factor for chronic-degenerative diseases. Although it is a natural process, pathological aging arises when these changes occur quickly and the body is not able to adapt. This is often associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, and a decrease in the endogenous antioxidant systems, constituting a physiopathological state commonly found in chronic-degenerative diseases. At the testicular level, aging is associated with tissue atrophy, decreased steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, and sexual behavior disorders. This situation, in addition to the elevated generation of ROS in the testicular steroidogenesis, provides a critical cellular environment causing oxidative damage at diverse cellular levels. To assess the effects of a reduction in the levels of ROS, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) was chronically administered in senile Wistar rats. TPP causes an activation of intermediate metabolism routes, enhancing cellular respiration and decreasing the generation of ROS. Our results show an overall decrease of atrophic histological changes linked to aging, with higher levels of serum testosterone, sexual activity, and an increase in the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in TPP-treated animals. These results suggest that TPP chronic administration decreases the progression of age-related atrophic changes by improving the intermediate metabolism, and by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:24371036

  17. Does chronic glycolysis accelerate aging? Could this explain how dietary restriction works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipkiss, Alan R

    2006-05-01

    The mechanisms by which dietary restriction (DR) suppresses aging are not understood. Suppression of glycolysis by DR could contribute to controlling senescence. Many glycolytic intermediates can glycate proteins and other macromolecules. Methyglyoxal (MG), formed from dihydroxyacetone- and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates, rapidly glycates proteins, damages mitochondria, and induces a prooxidant state to create a senescent-like condition. Ad libitum-fed and DR animals differ in mitochondrial activity and glycolytic flux rates. Persistent glycolysis in the unrestricted condition would increase the intracellular load of glycating agents (e.g., MG) and increase ROS generation by inactive mitochondria. Occasional glycolysis during DR would decrease MG and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and could be hormetic, inducing synthesis of glyoxalase-1 and anti-glycating agents (carnosine and polyamines). PMID:16804012

  18. Bilateral lower limb polio, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and recurrent acute coronary syndrome in a poly tobacco user: A preventable triple tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Aggarwal; Shridhar Dwivedi

    2012-01-01

    Non communicable diseases in most of the developing countries have surpassed the morbidity and mortality arising from communicable diseases. However there are people who continue to suffer from the residual disabilities of some communicable disease acquired at younger age like polio and develop non communicable diseases like COPD and coronary syndrome at older age primarily because of their tobacco habits. Both of these combination of communicable and non communicable diseases are preventable...

  19. Successful twin pregnancy in a unicornuate uterus with one fetus in the non-communicating rudimentary horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Smiti; Dahiya, Krishna; Sharma, Nidhi; Aggarwal, Deepika; Sighal, Savita Rani; Sangwan, Neetu

    2009-12-01

    Rudimentary horn is a rare anomaly and results from arrested development of the mullerian ducts. We report a case of twin pregnancy in a unicornuate uterus with a non-communicating rudimentary horn, in which two siblings each in separate horn were delivered successfully by caesarean section. PMID:19301025

  20. Promotion of access to essential medicines for non-communicable diseases : practical implications of the UN political declaration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerzeil, Hans V.; Liberman, Jonathan; Wirtz, Veronika J.; Kishore, Sandeep P.; Selvaraj, Sakthi; Kiddell-Monroe, Rachel; Mwangi-Powell, Faith N.; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido

    2013-01-01

    Access to medicines and vaccines to prevent and treat non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is unacceptably low worldwide. In the 2011 UN political declaration on the prevention and control of NCDs, heads of government made several commitments related to access to essential medicines, technologies, and v

  1. Nurse-led care interventions for high blood pressure control: Implications for non-communicable disease programs in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Katende

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Nurses play a significant role in the control of high blood pressure when they employ effective evidence based strategies in identification, prevention and management of hypertension. Adapting effective evidence based strategies in identification, prevention and management of non-communicable diseases could improve patient outcomes in Uganda.

  2. Relationship between prehypertension and chronic kidney disease in middle-aged people in Korea: the Korean genome and epidemiology study

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    Kim Min-Ju

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated blood pressure (BP is a major risk factor for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, little is known about the influence of prehypertension on CKD. In this study, we investigated the relationship between prehypertension and CKD in a middle-aged Korean population. Furthermore, we prospectively evaluated the effect of active BP control on deterioration of kidney function during the two-year follow-up. Methods The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study is a community-based prospective cohort study started in 2001, with a follow-up survey conducted every two years. A total of 9509 participants aged 40–69 years were included in a baseline study. BP was classified according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on High BP (JNC-7 categories and CKD was defined as the presence of proteinuria or eGFR2. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify associations between BP and CKD. Results The overall prevalence of CKD was 13.2%, and significantly increased with BP level. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of CKD was 1.59 for prehypertension and 2.27 for hypertension, compared with a normal BP. At the two-year follow-up, among the participants with prehypertension, subjects whose BP was poorly controlled had a significantly higher risk of eGFR drop (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.13-1.67, as compared to controls. The prevalence of eGFR drop was 57.8% in the controlled BP group and 66.0% in the poorly-controlled BP group. Conclusions Prehypertension, as well as hypertension, is significantly associated with CKD among middle-aged Koreans. Our results indicate that active control of the blood-pressure of prehypertensive individuals is needed to prevent deterioration of kidney function.

  3. Treatment with a corticotrophin releasing factor 2 receptor agonist modulates skeletal muscle mass and force production in aged and chronically ill animals

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    Ferreira Leonardo F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle weakness is associated with a variety of chronic disorders such as emphysema (EMP and congestive heart failure (CHF as well as aging. Therapies to treat muscle weakness associated with chronic disease or aging are lacking. Corticotrophin releasing factor 2 receptor (CRF2R agonists have been shown to maintain skeletal muscle mass and force production in a variety of acute conditions that lead to skeletal muscle wasting. Hypothesis We hypothesize that treating animals with a CRF2R agonist will maintain skeletal muscle mass and force production in animals with chronic disease and in aged animals. Methods We utilized animal models of aging, CHF and EMP to evaluate the potential of CRF2R agonist treatment to maintain skeletal muscle mass and force production in aged animals and animals with CHF and EMP. Results In aged rats, we demonstrate that treatment with a CRF2R agonist for up to 3 months results in greater extensor digitorum longus (EDL force production, EDL mass, soleus mass and soleus force production compared to age matched untreated animals. In the hamster EMP model, we demonstrate that treatment with a CRF2R agonist for up to 5 months results in greater EDL force production in EMP hamsters when compared to vehicle treated EMP hamsters and greater EDL mass and force in normal hamsters when compared to vehicle treated normal hamsters. In the rat CHF model, we demonstrate that treatment with a CRF2R agonist for up to 3 months results in greater EDL and soleus muscle mass and force production in CHF rats and normal rats when compared to the corresponding vehicle treated animals. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the underlying physiological conditions associated with chronic diseases such as CHF and emphysema in addition to aging do not reduce the potential of CRF2R agonists to maintain skeletal muscle mass and force production.

  4. Chronic inflammation and risk of colorectal and other obesity-related cancers: The health, aging and body composition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izano, Monika; Wei, Esther K; Tai, Caroline; Swede, Helen; Gregorich, Steven; Harris, Tamara B; Klepin, Heidi; Satterfield, Suzanne; Murphy, Rachel; Newman, Anne B; Rubin, Susan M; Braithwaite, Dejana

    2016-03-01

    Evidence of the association between chronic inflammation and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and other obesity-related cancers (OBRC) remains inconsistent, possibly due to a paucity of studies examining repeated measures of inflammation. In the Health ABC prospective study of 2,490 adults aged 70-79 years at baseline, we assessed whether circulating levels of three markers of systemic inflammation, IL-6, CRP and TNF-α, were associated with the risk of CRC and OBRC, a cluster including cancers of pancreas, prostate, breast and endometrium. Inflammatory markers were measured in stored fasting blood samples. While only baseline measures of TNF-α were available, IL-6 and CRP were additionally measured at Years 2, 4, 6 and 8. Multivariable Cox models were fit to determine whether tertiles and log-transformed baseline, updated and averaged measures of CRP and IL-6 and baseline measures of TNF-α were associated with the risk of incident cancer(s). During a median follow-up of 11.9 years, we observed 55 and 172 cases of CRC and OBRC, respectively. The hazard of CRC in the highest tertile of updated CRP was more than double that in the lowest tertile (HR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.08-4.86). No significant associations were seen between colorectal cancer and IL-6 or TNF-α. Additionally, no significant associations were found between obesity-related cancers and the three inflammatory markers overall, but we observed a suggestion of effect modification by BMI and NSAID use. In summary, in this population, higher CRP levels were associated with increased risk of CRC, but not of OBRC. The findings provide new evidence that chronically elevated levels of CRP, as reflected by repeated measures of this marker, may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis in older adults. PMID:26413860

  5. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or both? Diagnostic labeling and spirometry in primary care patients aged 40 years or more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melbye H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hasse Melbye1, Elin Drivenes1, Lene G Dalbak2, Tone Leinan1, Svein Høegh-Henrichsen2, Anders Østrem21General Practice Research Unit, Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, 2General Practice Research Unit, Department of Health and Society, University of Oslo, NorwayAims: To describe symptoms and lung function in patients registered with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in primary care and to examine how spirometry findings fit with general practitioners’ (GPs diagnoses.Methods: Patients aged ≥40 years with a diagnosis of asthma or COPD registered in the electronic medical record during the previous 5 years were recruited at seven GP offices in Norway in 2009–2010. Registered diagnosis, spirometry results, comorbidity, and reported symptoms were compared.Results: Among 376 patients, 62% were women. Based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases criteria, a spirometry diagnosis of COPD could be made in 68.1% of the patients with a previous COPD diagnosis and in 17.1% of those diagnosed with asthma only (P < 0.001. The κ agreement between last clinical diagnosis of COPD and COPD based on spirometry was 0.50. A restrictive spirometry pattern was found in 19.4% and more frequently in patients diagnosed with both asthma and COPD (23.9% than in patients diagnosed with COPD only (6.8%, P = 0.003.Conclusion: The ability of GPs to differentiate between asthma and COPD seems to have considerably improved during the last decade, probably due to the dissemination of spirometry and guidelines for COPD diagnosis. A diagnosis of COPD that cannot be confirmed by spirometry represents a challenge in clinical practice, in particular when a restrictive pattern on spirometry is found.Keywords: asthma, COPD, diagnosis, primary care

  6. The politics of non-communicable diseases in the global South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, David; Herrick, Clare; Brown, Tim

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we explore the emergence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) as an object of political concern in and for countries of the global South. While epidemiologists and public health practitioners and scholars have long expressed concern with the changing global distribution of the burden of NCDs, it is only in more recent years that the aetiology, politics and consequences of these shifts have become an object of critical social scientific enquiry. These shifts mark the starting point for this special issue on 'The Politics of NCDs in the Global South' and act as the basis for new, critical interventions in how we understand NCDs. In this paper, we aim not only to introduce and contextualise the six contributions that form this special issue, but also to identify and explore three themes - problematisation, care and culture - that index the main areas of analytical and empirical concern that have motivated analyses of NCDs in the global South and are central to critical engagement with their political contours. PMID:26365886

  7. Embedding non-communicable diseases in the post-2015 development agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, George; Binagwaho, Agnes; Haines, Andy; Jahan, Selim; Nugent, Rachel; Rojhani, Ariella; Stuckler, David

    2013-02-16

    The post-2015 development agenda will build on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), in which health is a core component. This agenda will focus on human development, incorporate the components of the Millennium Declaration, and will be made sustainable by support from the social, economic, and environmental domains of activity, represented graphically as the strands of a triple helix. The approaches to prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have been elaborated in the political declaration of the UN high-level meeting on NCDs and governments have adopted a goal of 25% reduction in relative mortality from NCDs by 2025 (the 25 by 25 goal), but a strong movement is needed based on the evidence already available, enhanced by effective partnerships, and with political support to ensure that NCDs are embedded in the post-2015 human development agenda. NCDs should be embedded in the post-2015 development agenda, since they are leading causes of death and disability, have a negative effect on health, and, through their effect on the societal, economic, and the environmental domains, impair the sustainability of development. Some drivers of unsustainable development, such as the transport, food and agriculture, and energy sectors, also increase the risk of NCDs. PMID:23410606

  8. Default network connectivity reflects the level of consciousness in non-communicative brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Noirhomme, Quentin; Tshibanda, Luaba J-F; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Boveroux, Pierre; Schnakers, Caroline; Soddu, Andrea; Perlbarg, Vincent; Ledoux, Didier; Brichant, Jean-François; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre; Greicius, Michael D; Laureys, Steven; Boly, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The 'default network' is defined as a set of areas, encompassing posterior-cingulate/precuneus, anterior cingulate/mesiofrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junctions, that show more activity at rest than during attention-demanding tasks. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to reliably identify this network in the absence of any task, by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity analyses in healthy volunteers. However, the functional significance of these spontaneous brain activity fluctuations remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test if the integrity of this resting-state connectivity pattern in the default network would differ in different pathological alterations of consciousness. Fourteen non-communicative brain-damaged patients and 14 healthy controls participated in the study. Connectivity was investigated using probabilistic independent component analysis, and an automated template-matching component selection approach. Connectivity in all default network areas was found to be negatively correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative then coma patients. Furthermore, precuneus connectivity was found to be significantly stronger in minimally conscious patients as compared with unconscious patients. Locked-in syndrome patient's default network connectivity was not significantly different from controls. Our results show that default network connectivity is decreased in severely brain-damaged patients, in proportion to their degree of consciousness impairment. Future prospective studies in a larger patient population are needed in order to evaluate the prognostic value of the presented methodology. PMID:20034928

  9. Quality of care for patients with non-communicable diseases in the Dedza District, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Wood

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Malawi, non-communicable diseases (NCDs are thought to cause 28% of deaths in adults. The aim of this study was to establish the extent of primary care morbidity related to NCDs, as well as to audit the quality of care, in the primary care setting of Dedza District, central Malawi.Methods: This study was a baseline audit using clinic registers and a questionnaire survey of senior health workers at 5 clinics, focusing on care for hypertension, diabetes, asthma and epilepsy.Results: A total of 82 581 consultations were recorded, of which 2489 (3.0% were for the selected NCDs. Only 5 out of 32 structural criteria were met at all 5 clinics and 9 out of 29process criteria were never performed at any clinic. The only process criteria performed at all five clinics was measurement of blood pressure. The staff’s knowledge on NCDs was basic and the main barriers to providing quality care were lack of medication and essential equipment, inadequate knowledge and guidelines, fee-for-service at two clinics, geographic inaccessibility and lack of confidence in the primary health care system by patients.Conclusion: Primary care morbidity from NCDs is currently low, although other studies suggest a significant burden of disease. This most likely represents a lack of utilisation, recognition, diagnosis and ability to manage patients with NCDs. Quality of care is poor due to a lack of essential resources, guidelines, and training.

  10. The role of infant nutrition in the global epidemic of non-communicable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Atul

    2016-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) and atherosclerotic CVD in particular, are the most important health problems of the 21st century. Already in every world region except Africa, NCD account for greater mortality than communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions combined. Although modifiable lifestyle factors in adults are the main determinants, substantial evidence now suggests that factors in early life also have a major role in the development of NCD; commonly referred to as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. Factors in utero, early postnatal life and throughout childhood, have been shown to affect NCD by influencing risk factors for CVD such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Infant nutrition (e.g. breastfeeding rather than bottle feeding) and a slower pattern of infant weight gain have been shown to be particularly protective against later risk of obesity and CVD in both low- and high-income countries. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but include epigenetic changes; effects on endocrine systems regulating body weight, food intake and fat deposition; and changes in appetite regulation. As a consequence, strategies to optimise early life nutrition could make a major contribution to stemming the current global epidemic of NCD. This review will consider the role of early life factors in the development of NCD, focusing on the impact of infant nutrition/growth on obesity and CVD. The review will highlight the experimental (randomised) evidence where available, briefly summarise the underlying mechanisms involved and consider the implications for public health. PMID:27066843

  11. Development and Implementation of Worksite Health and Wellness Programs: A Focus on Non-Communicable Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalin, Lawrence P; Kaminsky, Leonard; Lavie, Carl J; Briggs, Paige; Cahalin, Brendan L; Myers, Jonathan; Forman, Daniel E; Patel, Mahesh J; Pinkstaff, Sherry O; Arena, Ross

    2015-01-01

    The development and implementation of worksite health and wellness programs (WHWPs) in the United States (US) hold promise as a means to improve population health and reverse current trends in non-communicable disease incidence and prevalence. However, WHWPs face organizational, economic, systematic, legal, and logistical challenges which have combined to impact program availability and expansion. Even so, there is a burgeoning body of evidence indicating WHWPs can significantly improve the health profile of participating employees in a cost effective manner. This foundation of scientific knowledge justifies further research inquiry to elucidate optimal WHWP models. It is clear that the development, implementation and operation of WHWPs require a strong commitment from organizational leadership, a pervasive culture of health and availability of necessary resources and infrastructure. Since organizations vary significantly, there is a need to have flexibility in creating a customized, effective health and wellness program. Furthermore, several key legal issues must be addressed to facilitate employer and employee needs and responsibilities; the US Affordable Care Act will play a major role moving forward. The purposes of this review are to: 1) examine currently available health and wellness program models and considerations for the future; 2) highlight key legal issues associated with WHWP development and implementation; and 3) identify challenges and solutions for the development and implementation of as well as adherence to WHWPs. PMID:25936908

  12. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation in high fat diet challenged C57BL/6J mice is associated with acceleration of age-dependent renal amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Roel A.; Bijzet, Johan; Meijers, Wouter C.; Yakala, Gopala K.; Kleemann, Robert; Nguyen, Tri Q.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Heeringa, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-induced inflammation presumably accelerates the development of chronic kidney diseases. However, little is known about the sequence of these inflammatory events and their contribution to renal pathology. We investigated the effects of obesity on the evolution of age-dependent renal complicat

  13. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start at age 5 or 6 and get worse until age 12. They often improve during adulthood.

  14. Exercise physiologists emerge as allied healthcare professionals in the era of non-communicable disease pandemics: a report from Australia, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Birinder S; Robergs, Robert A; Askew, Christopher D

    2014-07-01

    Exercise can be prescribed to prevent, manage, and treat many leading non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and underlying risk factors. However, surprisingly, Australia is one of only a few countries where allied healthcare professionals with specialized university education and training in exercise prescription and delivery provide services within a government-run healthcare system (Medicare). This article presents data on Medicare-funded services provided by accredited exercise physiologists (AEPs) from the inclusion of the profession in the allied healthcare model (January, 2006) to the end of 2012. We conceptualize these data in relation to current NCD trends, and outline recommendations that can potentially help curtail the current chronic disease burden through the further integration of exercise professionals into the healthcare system in Australia, and internationally. From 2006 to 2012, the number of AEPs in Australia has increased 563 %. This rise in AEPs has been paralleled by increased delivery of services for eligible patients with a chronic medical condition (+614 %), type 2 diabetes mellitus (+211 to 230 %), and of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent (+343 %). These trends, which were developed through the "early years" of the profession, are encouraging and suggest that AEPs have taken up a vital position within the healthcare system. However, the total number of services provided by AEPs currently remains very low in relation to the prevalence of overweight-obesity and type 2 diabetes in Australia. Furthermore, services for Aboriginal Australians are very low considering the extreme burden of chronic diseases in these vulnerable populations. We provide some recommendations that may help the exercise physiology profession play a greater role in tackling the NCD burden and shift the healthcare model in a direction that is more proactive and focused on disease prevention and health, including the early identification and treatment of major

  15. Increased subsequent risk of erectile dysfunction among middle and old age males with chronic osteomyelitis: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-Y; Chao, C-H; Lin, C-L; Tseng, C-H; Kao, C-H

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation may cause endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, resulting in subsequent erectile dysfunction (ED). We examined the relationship between chronic osteomyelitis, which is a chronic inflammatory disease, and ED. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. After excluding patients osteomyelitis (COM) from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011 were identified for the study. The non-osteomyelitis comparison cohort consisted of 2706 male participants. The incidence of ED was 2.66-fold higher in the COM cohort than in the non-osteomyelitis cohort (4.01 vs 1.51 per 10 000 person-years). After adjusting for age and comorbidities of coronary heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, depression, stroke, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, the patients with COM had a 2.82-fold risk of ED (95% confidence interval=1.44-5.56). The incidence of ED increased with that of comorbidities in both cohorts. The highest hazard ratio was in patients between 40 and 59 years of age who had COM. Our data showed, for the first time, that COM is a possible risk factor for the development of ED. PMID:27169492

  16. Responsiveness of Lebanon's primary healthcare centers to non-communicable diseases and related healthcare needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassoub, Rami; Hashimi, Suha; Awada, Siham; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Lebanon currently faces a rise in non-communicable diseases (NCD) that is stressing the population's health and financial well-being. Preventive care is recognized as the optimal health equitable, cost-effective solution. The study aims to assess the responsiveness of primary health care centers (PHCs) to NCD, and identify the needed health arrangements and responsibilities of PHCs, the Ministry Of Public Health and other healthcare system entities, for PHCs to purse a more preventive role against NCD. Single and group interviews were conducted via a semi-structured questionnaire with 10 PHCs from Lebanon's primary health care network that have undergone recent pilot accreditation and are recognized for having quality services and facilities. This manifested administrative aspects and NCD-related services of PHCs and generated information regarding the centers' deficiencies, strengths and areas needing improvement for fulfilling a more preventive role. Administrative features of PHCs varied according to number and type of health personnel employed. Variations and deficiencies within and among PHCs were manifested specifically at the level of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancer. PHCs identified the pilot accreditation as beneficial at the administrative and clinical levels; however, various financial and non-financial resources, in addition to establishing a strong referral system with secondary care settings and further arrangements with MOPH, are necessary for PHCs to pursue a stronger preventive role. The generated results denote needed changes within the healthcare system's governance, financing and delivery. They involve empowering PHCs and increasing their breadth of services, allocating a greater portion of national budget to health and preventive care, and equipping PHCs with personnel skilled in conducting community-wide preventive activities. PMID:23729408

  17. Community-based integration of management of non-communicable diseases in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a leading cause of deaths and of disease burden in China.This paper analyzes the rationale and implications of a community-based approach to a better coordinated NCDs care and management system in China.As argued by the author, the buildup of an integrated NCDs care delivery system is feasible now and large health expenditures will be saved if more stable outpatients with NCDs could be shifted to community health facilities to receive their medications.However,the key issues remain in building a general practitioner led (GP-led) primary care delivery system in China.Some prominent issues include the shortage of quality generalists, lack of proper incentives and management mechanisms, and the absence of patients and provider, and restrictive arrangements in basic health insurance policies.Even with these hard-to-solve issues, some recent reform initiatives for integrated NCDs care delivery in some localities have demonstrated originality and creativeness in developing better coordination between primary and secondary NCDs care.However, without large-scale public sector reform, innate issues with human resource development, income distribution and financing of public healthcare providers cannot be solved.It may take a long time to see deep integration of primary and secondary NCDs care in China.Copyright 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production.Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  18. Medicalization of global health 3: the medicalization of the non-communicable diseases agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the massive global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) due to their prevalence, projected social and economic costs, and traditional neglect compared to infectious disease. The 2011 UN Summit, WHO 25×25 targets, and support of major medical and advocacy organisations have propelled prominence of NCDs on the global health agenda. NCDs are by definition 'diseases' so already medicalized. But their social drivers and impacts are acknowledged, which demand a broad, whole-of-society approach. However, while both individual- and population-level targets are identified in the current NCD action plans, most recommended strategies tend towards the individualistic approach and do not address root causes of the NCD problem. These so-called population strategies risk being reduced to expectations of individual and behavioural change, which may have limited success and impact and deflect attention away from government policies or regulation of industry. Industry involvement in NCD agenda-setting props up a medicalized approach to NCDs: food and drink companies favour focus on individual choice and responsibility, and pharmaceutical and device companies favour calls for expanded access to medicines and treatment coverage. Current NCD framing creates expanded roles for physicians, healthcare workers, medicines and medical monitoring. The professional rather than the patient view dominates the NCD agenda and there is a lack of a broad, engaged, and independent NGO community. The challenge and opportunity lie in defining priorities and developing strategies that go beyond a narrow medicalized framing of the NCD problem and its solutions. PMID:24848661

  19. The role of law and governance reform in the global response to non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S; Patterson, David

    2014-01-01

    Addressing non-communicable diseases ("NCDs") and their risk-factors is one of the most powerful ways of improving longevity and healthy life expectancy for the foreseeable future - especially in low- and middle-income countries. This paper reviews the role of law and governance reform in that process. We highlight the need for a comprehensive approach that is grounded in the right to health and addresses three aspects: preventing NCDs and their risk factors, improving access to NCD treatments, and addressing the social impacts of illness. We highlight some of the major impediments to the passage and implementation of laws for the prevention and control of NCDs, and identify important practical steps that governments can take as they consider legal and governance reforms at country level.We review the emerging global architecture for NCDs, and emphasise the need for governance structures to harness the energy of civil society organisations and to create a global movement that influences the policy agenda at the country level. We also argue that the global monitoring framework would be more effective if it included key legal and policy indicators. The paper identifies priorities for technical legal assistance in implementing the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020. These include high-quality legal resources to assist countries to evaluate reform options, investment in legal capacity building, and global leadership to respond to the likely increase in requests by countries for technical legal assistance. We urge development agencies and other funders to recognise the need for development assistance in these areas. Throughout the paper, we point to global experience in dealing with HIV and draw out some relevant lessons for NCDs. PMID:24903332

  20. Innovations in non-communicable diseases management in ASEAN: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Lim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and present an unprecedented challenge to economic and social development globally. In Southeast Asia, the challenges are exacerbated by vastly differing levels of health systems development and funding availability. In addressing the burden of NCDs, ASEAN nations need to fundamentally re-examine how health care services are structured and delivered and discover new models as undiscerning application of models from other geographies with different cultures and resources will be problematic. Objective: We sought to examine cases of innovation and identify critical success factors in NCD management in ASEAN. Design: A qualitative design, focusing on in-depth interviews and site visits to explore the meanings and perceptions of participants regarding innovations in NCD against the backdrop of the overall context of delivering health care within the country's context was adopted. Results: In total 12 case studies in six ASEAN countries were analysed. Primary interventions accounted for five of the total cases, whereas secondary interventions comprised four, and tertiary interventions three. Five core themes contributing to successful innovation for NCD management were identified. They include: 1 encourage better outcomes through leadership and support, 2 strengthen inter-disciplinary partnership, 3 community ownership is key, 4 recognise the needs of the people and what appeals to them, and 5 raise awareness through capacity building and increasing health literacy. Conclusions: Innovation is vital in enabling ASEAN nations to successfully address the growing crisis of NCDs. More of the same or wholesale transfers of developed world models will be ineffective and lead to financially unsustainable programmes or programmes lacking appropriate human capital. The case studies have demonstrated the transformative impact of innovation and identified key factors in

  1. Medicalization of global health 3: the medicalization of the non-communicable diseases agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocalyn Clark

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition of the massive global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs due to their prevalence, projected social and economic costs, and traditional neglect compared to infectious disease. The 2011 UN Summit, WHO 25×25 targets, and support of major medical and advocacy organisations have propelled prominence of NCDs on the global health agenda. NCDs are by definition ‘diseases’ so already medicalized. But their social drivers and impacts are acknowledged, which demand a broad, whole-of-society approach. However, while both individual- and population-level targets are identified in the current NCD action plans, most recommended strategies tend towards the individualistic approach and do not address root causes of the NCD problem. These so-called population strategies risk being reduced to expectations of individual and behavioural change, which may have limited success and impact and deflect attention away from government policies or regulation of industry. Industry involvement in NCD agenda-setting props up a medicalized approach to NCDs: food and drink companies favour focus on individual choice and responsibility, and pharmaceutical and device companies favour calls for expanded access to medicines and treatment coverage. Current NCD framing creates expanded roles for physicians, healthcare workers, medicines and medical monitoring. The professional rather than the patient view dominates the NCD agenda and there is a lack of a broad, engaged, and independent NGO community. The challenge and opportunity lie in defining priorities and developing strategies that go beyond a narrow medicalized framing of the NCD problem and its solutions.

  2. Patent and exclusivity status of essential medicines for non-communicable disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K Mackey

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The threat of non-communicable diseases ("NCDs" is increasingly becoming a global health crisis and are pervasive in high, middle, and low-income populations resulting in an estimated 36 million deaths per year. There is a need to assess intellectual property rights ("IPRs" that may impede generic production and availability and affordability to essential NCD medicines. METHODS: Using the data sources listed below, the study design systematically eliminated NCD drugs that had no patent/exclusivity provisions on API, dosage, or administration route. The first step identified essential medicines that treat certain high disease burden NCDs. A second step examined the patent and exclusivity status of active ingredient, dosage and listed route of administration using exclusion criteria outlined in this study. MATERIALS: We examined the patent and exclusivity status of medicines listed in the World Health Organization's ("WHO" Model List of Essential Drugs (Medicines ("MLEM" and other WHO sources for drugs treating certain NCDs. i.e., cardiovascular and respiratory disease, cancers, and diabetes. We utilized the USA Food and Drug Administration Orange Book and the USA Patent and Trademark Office databases as references given the predominant number of medicines registered in the USA. RESULTS: Of the 359 MLEM medicines identified, 22% (79/359 address targeted NCDs. Of these 79, only eight required in-depth patent or exclusivity assessment. Upon further review, no NCD MLEM medicines had study patent or exclusivity protection for reviewed criteria. CONCLUSIONS: We find that ensuring availability and affordability of potential generic formulations of NCD MLEM medicines appears to be more complex than the presence of IPRs with API, dosage, or administration patent or exclusivity protection. Hence, more sophisticated analysis of NCD barriers to generic availability and affordability should be conducted in order to ensure equitable access to global

  3. The Engagement in Physical Activity for Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions: Findings from a Community Health Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current aging trends accompanying the increasing prevalence of multiple chronic conditions (MCCs and decreasing participation in physical activity (PA have swept the United States. In light of the magnitude of this phenomenon, this study seeks to identify the most common MCC combinations and their relationships with PA level. A cross-sectional study, Brazos Valley Health Assessment, was conducted between October 2009 and July 2010. All data analyses were performed by STATA 12.0. The overall sample which met the inclusion criteria is 2,603. Among people older than 45 years, chronic conditions of cardiovascular, endocrine, and musculoskeletal systems were the most prevalent. Participants with three chronic conditions were less likely to meet the PA standard than those with only two chronic conditions. Younger age, women, rural residence, and unsafe environments were related to the lower PA level. After adjusting for seven covariates, all MCCs combinations adversely affect the level of PA (, . People with MCCs were among the least active subgroups despite the health benefits of doing exercise. Given the well-documented benefits of physical activity for delaying the onset or progression of MCCs, public health efforts to enhance regular PA in middle-aged and older adults are recommended.

  4. Trend of non-communicable disease mortality for three common conditions in the elderly population from 2002 to 2010: A population-based study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Li; Jin Guo; Xiao-Qing Cao; Xin Yuan; Ke-Qin Rao; Zhe Zheng; Zhi-Dong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There is a lack of data focusing on non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality in the Chinese elderly population over the past decade.Methods: Using mortality data from the Chinese Health Statistics, we explored the crude and age-standardized mortality trend of three major NCDs in the Chinese population ≥65 years of age from 2002 to 2010, namely, malignant neoplasms, heart diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases.Subpopulations characterized as rural and urban residence, and by gender and age were examined separately.Results: Mortality increased with age and was higher among males than among females across the three NCDs, with the gender difference being most remarkable for malignant neoplasms and least for heart diseases mortality.Condition-specific crude mortalities increased between 2002 and 2010, overall and in all the pre-specified subpopulations.After age-standardization, rising trends were observed for people ≥65 years old, and condition-specific mortalities generally increased in rural regions and decreased in urban regions, especially for cerebrovascular diseases.Conclusions: There were increasing trends for mortality due to malignant neoplasms, heart diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases in China between 2002 and 2010, which were largely driven by the population aging.Disparities existed by rural and urban residence, gender, and age.Copyright 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production.Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  5. Unruptured term pregnancy with a live fetus with placenta percreta in a non-communicating rudimentary horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Sharda; Puri, Manju; Trivedi, Shuba Sagar; Yadav, Reena; Bali, Jyoti

    2007-12-01

    Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is rare and such a pregnancy culminating in the delivery of a live fetus is even rarer. Despite advances in ultrasonography, the accuracy of ultrasound in diagnosing rudimentary horn pregnancy at advanced gestation remains elusive. Confirmatory diagnosis is made only at laparotomy. We report a multigravidae who presented at 37 weeks with transverse lie oligoamnios and decreased perception of fetal movement since quickening. Laparotomy for placenta accreta suspected on ultrasound revealed non-communicating unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy with a live fetus and placenta percreta. Successful extraction of a term live fetus weighing 2.7 kg with excision of the rudimentary horn was carried out. PMID:17988257

  6. Research capacity and training needs for non-communicable diseases in the public health arena in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bulent KILIC; Phillimore, Peter; Islek, Duygu; Oztoprak, Dilek; Korkmaz, Eren; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Zaman, Shahaduz; Unal, Belgin

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to define the research capacity and training needs for professionals working on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the public health arena in Turkey. Methods This study was part of a comparative cross-national research capacity-building project taking place across Turkey and the Mediterranean Middle East (RESCAP-Med, funded by the EU). Identification of research capacity and training needs took place in three stages. The first stage involved mapp...

  7. Integration of non-communicable diseases in health care: tackling the double burden of disease in African settings

    OpenAIRE

    Temu, Florence; Leonhardt, Marcus; Carter, Jane; Thiam, Sylla

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries now face the double burden of Non Communicable and Communicable Diseases. This situation represents a major threat to fragile health systems and emphasises the need for innovative integrative approaches to health care delivery. Health services need to be reorganised to address populations’ needs holistically and effectively leverage resources in already resource-limited settings. Access and delivery of quality health care should be reinforced and implemented at p...

  8. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of mHealth interventions against non-communicable diseases in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Stephani, Victor; Opoku, Daniel; Quentin, Wilm

    2016-01-01

    Background The reasons of deaths in developing countries are shifting from communicable diseases towards non-communicable diseases (NCDs). At the same time the number of health care interventions using mobile phones (mHealth interventions) is growing rapidly. We review studies assessing the health-related impacts of mHealth on NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). Methods A systematic literature search of three major databases was performed in order to identify randomized control...

  9. An Assessment of Non-Communicable Diseases, Diabetes, and Related Risk Factors in the Territory of Guam: A Systems Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ichiho, Henry M; Gillan, James W; Aitaoto, Nia

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the US Territory of Guam and describes the burdens due to NCD, with an emphasis on diabetes; and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection, and reporting as well as identifying the issues that need to be addressed. There has been an incr...

  10. Promotion of access to essential medicines for Non-Communicable Diseases: Practical implications of the UN Political Declaration

    OpenAIRE

    Hogerzeil, Hans V; Liberman, Jonathan; Wirtz, Veronika J.; Kishore, Sandeep P; Selvaraj, Sakthi; Kiddell-Monroe, Rachel; Mwangi-Powell, Faith N; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido

    2013-01-01

    Access to medicines and vaccines to prevent and treat non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is unacceptably low worldwide. In the 2011 UN political declaration on the prevention and control of NCDs, heads of government made several commitments related to access to essential medicines, technologies, and vaccines for such diseases. 30 years of experience with policies for essential medicines and 10 years of scaling up of HIV treatment have provided the knowledge needed to address barriers to long-te...

  11. Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  12. Leveraging rapid community-based HIV testing campaigns for non-communicable diseases in rural Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Chamie

    Full Text Available The high burden of undiagnosed HIV in sub-Saharan Africa limits treatment and prevention efforts. Community-based HIV testing campaigns can address this challenge and provide an untapped opportunity to identify non-communicable diseases (NCDs. We tested the feasibility and diagnostic yield of integrating NCD and communicable diseases into a rapid HIV testing and referral campaign for all residents of a rural Ugandan parish.A five-day, multi-disease campaign, offering diagnostic, preventive, treatment and referral services, was performed in May 2011. Services included point-of-care screening for HIV, malaria, TB, hypertension and diabetes. Finger-prick diagnostics eliminated the need for phlebotomy. HIV-infected adults met clinic staff and peer counselors on-site; those with CD4 ≤ 100/µL underwent intensive counseling and rapid referral for antiretroviral therapy (ART. Community participation, case-finding yield, and linkage to care three months post-campaign were analyzed.Of 6,300 residents, 2,323/3,150 (74% adults and 2,020/3,150 (69% children participated. An estimated 95% and 52% of adult female and male residents participated respectively. Adult HIV prevalence was 7.8%, with 46% of HIV-infected adults newly diagnosed. Thirty-nine percent of new HIV diagnoses linked to care. In a pilot subgroup with CD4 ≤ 100, 83% linked and started ART within 10 days. Malaria was identified in 10% of children, and hypertension and diabetes in 28% and 3.5% of adults screened, respectively. Sixty-five percent of hypertensives and 23% of diabetics were new diagnoses, of which 43% and 61% linked to care, respectively. Screening identified suspected TB in 87% of HIV-infected and 19% of HIV-uninfected adults; 52% percent of HIV-uninfected TB suspects linked to care.In an integrated campaign engaging 74% of adult residents, we identified a high burden of undiagnosed HIV, hypertension and diabetes. Improving male attendance and optimizing linkage to care

  13. Food pricing strategies, population diets, and non-communicable disease: a systematic review of simulation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Eyles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food pricing strategies have been proposed to encourage healthy eating habits, which may in turn help stem global increases in non-communicable diseases. This systematic review of simulation studies investigates the estimated association between food pricing strategies and changes in food purchases or intakes (consumption (objective 1; Health and disease outcomes (objective 2, and whether there are any differences in these outcomes by socio-economic group (objective 3. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Electronic databases, Internet search engines, and bibliographies of included studies were searched for articles published in English between 1 January 1990 and 24 October 2011 for countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Where ≥ 3 studies examined the same pricing strategy and consumption (purchases or intake or health outcome, results were pooled, and a mean own-price elasticity (own-PE estimated (the own-PE represents the change in demand with a 1% change in price of that good. Objective 1: pooled estimates were possible for the following: (1 taxes on carbonated soft drinks: own-PE (n  =  4 studies, -0.93 (range, -0.06, -2.43, and a modelled -0.02% (-0.01%, -0.04% reduction in energy (calorie intake for each 1% price increase (n  =  3 studies; (2 taxes on saturated fat: -0.02% (-0.01%, -0.04% reduction in energy intake from saturated fat per 1% price increase (n  =  5 studies; and (3 subsidies on fruits and vegetables: own-PE (n = 3 studies, -0.35 (-0.21, -0.77. Objectives 2 and 3: variability of food pricing strategies and outcomes prevented pooled analyses, although higher quality studies suggested unintended compensatory purchasing that could result in overall effects being counter to health. Eleven of 14 studies evaluating lower socio-economic groups estimated that food pricing strategies would be associated with pro-health outcomes. Food pricing strategies also have the potential to reduce

  14. Association between Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Nutritional Status among the Women of Child Bearing Age: A Case-Control Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul H. Milton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of nutritional factors in arsenic metabolism and toxicity is yet to be fully elucidated. A low protein diet results in decreased excretion of DMA and increased tissue retention of arsenic in experimental studies. Malnourished women carry a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chronic exposure to high arsenic (>50 µg/L through drinking water also increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The synergistic effects (if any of malnutrition and chronic arsenic exposure may worsen the adverse pregnancy outcomes. This population based case control study reports the association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the rural women in Bangladesh. 348 cases (BMI < 18.5 and 360 controls (BMI 18.5–24.99 were recruited from a baseline survey conducted among 2,341 women. An excess risk for malnutrition was observed among the participants chronically exposed to higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water after adjusting for potential confounders such as participant’s age, religion, education, monthly household income and history of oral contraceptive pills. Women exposed to arsenic >50 µg/L were at 1.9 times (Odds Ratio = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1–3.6 increased risk of malnutrition compared to unexposed. The findings of this study suggest that chronic arsenic exposure is likely to contribute to poor nutritional status among women of 20–45 years.

  15. Systematic age-related differences in chronic disease management in a population-based cohort study: a new paradigm of primary care is required.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Buja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our interest in chronic conditions is due to the fact that, worldwide, chronic diseases have overtaken infectious diseases as the leading cause of death and disability, so their management represents an important challenge for health systems. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of primary health care services in managing diabetes, congestive heart failure (CHF and coronary heart disease (CHD, by age group. METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in Italy, enrolling 1,948,622 residents ≥ 16 years old. A multilevel regression model was applied to analyze compliance to care processes with explanatory variables at both patient and district level, using age group as an independent variable, and adjusting for sex, citizenship, disease duration, and Charlson index on the first level, and for District Health Unit on the second level. RESULTS: The quality of chronic disease management showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with age. In particular, our findings indicate lower levels for young adults (16-44 year-olds, adults (45-64, and oldest old (+85 than for patients aged 65-74 in almost all quality indicators of CHD, CHF and diabetes management. Young adults (16-44 y, adults (45-64 y, the very old (75-84 y and the oldest old (+85 y patients with CHD, CHF and diabetes are less likely than 65-74 year-old patients to be monitored and treated using evidence-based therapies, with the exceptions of echocardiographic monitoring for CHF in young adult patients, and renal monitoring for CHF and diabetes in the very old. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that more effort is needed to ensure that primary health care systems are sensitive to chronic conditions in the young and in the very elderly.

  16. The Impact of Contrast Massage on the Dynamics of the Functional Characteristics of the Microvasculature in Late Reproductive Age Female Patients with Chronic Endometritis

    OpenAIRE

    Azha Kh. Gaidarova; Natal'ya V. Kotenko; Detelina B. Kul'chitskaya; Anna Yu. Sycheva; Larisa Yu. Tarasova

    2014-01-01

    The author explores the functional characteristics of the microvasculature in late reproductive age women diagnosed with chronic endometritis before and after a course of contrast massage. Based on laser Doppler flowmetry data, the author singles out three types of functional changes in the microvasculature which had a high coefficient of correlation with the results of Doppler velocimetry of uterine blood-flow and changed dynamically during the treatment. The author reveals the therapeutic e...

  17. Stroke mortality: predictive value of simple laboratory tests and acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation III scoring system: a hospital based study

    OpenAIRE

    Ajeet K. Chaurasia; Manoj K. Mathur; N C Dwivedi; Manjul Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute stroke is a heterogeneous condition with respect to prognosis. This study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the significance of routine simple blood parameters and APACHE (acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation) III scoring system as methods of prediction of 1-month mortality in stroke patients and to assess the sensitivity and specificity of APACHE III scoring system in predicting short term outcome in critically ill patients having stroke. Methods: Patie...

  18. Effects of body mass index and age on N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide are associated with glomerular filtration rate in chronic heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Kistorp, Caroline N;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a state characterized by glomerular hyperfiltration and age-related decreases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Body mass index (BMI), age, and GFR are associated with plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in chronic heart failure...... (CHF) patients. We hypothesized that the effects of BMI and age on plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP are associated with GFR. METHODS: We obtained clinical data and laboratory test results from 345 CHF patients at the baseline visit in our heart failure clinic and examined the hypothesis using...... multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: Age (P = 0.0184), BMI (P = 0.0098), hemoglobin (P = 0.0043), heart rhythm (P <0.0001), and left ventricular ejection fraction (P <0.0001) were associated with log(NT-proBNP). After adjustment for GFR estimated by the Cockcroft and Gault equation, the parameter...

  19. Quality of life and affective well-being in middle-aged and older people with chronic medical illnesses: a cross-sectional population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wikman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been considerable research into the impact of chronic illness on health-related quality of life. However, few studies have assessed the impact of different chronic conditions on general quality of life (QOL. The objective of this paper was to compare general (rather than health-related QOL and affective well-being in middle aged and older people across eight chronic illnesses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This population-based, cross-sectional study involved 11,523 individuals aged 50 years and older, taking part in wave 1 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. General QOL was assessed using the CASP-19, happiness was evaluated using two items drawn from the GHQ-12, and depression was measured with the CES-D. Analysis of covariance and logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender and wealth, were performed. General QOL was most impaired in people with stroke (mean 37.56, CI 36.73-38.39, and least in those reporting cancer (mean 41.78, CI 41.12-42.44, respectively, compared with no illness (mean 44.15, CI 43.92-44.39. Stroke (mean 3.65, CI 3.58-3.73 was also associated with the greatest reduction in positive well-being whereas diabetes (mean 3.81, CI 3.76-3.86 and cancer were least affected (3.85, CI 3.79-3.91, compared with no illness (mean 3.97, CI 3.95-4.00. Depression was significantly elevated in all conditions, but was most common in chronic lung disease (OR 3.04, CI 2.56-3.61, with more modest elevations in those with osteoarthritis (OR 2.08, CI 1.84-2.34 or cancer (OR 2.07, CI 1.69-2.54. Multiple co-morbidities were associated with greater decrements in QOL and affective well-being. CONCLUSION: The presence of chronic illness is associated with impairments in broader aspects of QOL and affective well-being, but different conditions vary in their impact. Further longitudinal work is needed to establish the temporal links between chronic illness and impairments in QOL and affective well-being.

  20. Laboratory medicine and mobile health technologies at crossroads: Perspectives for the management of chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruson, Damien; Ko, Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    Management of chronic diseases represents a leading health and economic issue worldwide. Biomarkers are critical for the diagnosis and management of both communicable and non-communicable chronic diseases, and mobile health (mHealth) technologies are about to change the "game" with regard to the management of patients with such chronic diseases. The development of efficient, accurate and interactive solutions that integrate biomarkers and mHealth opens new perspectives for caregivers for the management of chronic illness. PMID:26983900

  1. A RARE CASE OF A FUNCTIONAL NON COMMUNICATING HORN IN UNICORNUATE UTERUS IN POSTMENARCHEAL ADOLESCENT GIRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old girl presented with acute abdomen. On exploratory laparotomy she was found to have a right functional rudimentary horn of the uterus. We report a case of unicornuate uterus with functioning rudimentary horn. We here in highlight that mullerian duct anomalies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen even in normally menstruating girls. Unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn is susceptible to many gynecologic and obstetric complications. Hematometra, chronic pelvic pain, endometriosis, infertility are some of the complaints in women with unicornuate uterus.

  2. Women Health in Saudi Arabia: A review of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    M. AlQuaiz, AlJoharah; R Siddiqui, Amna; H Qureshi, Riaz; A Fouda, Mona; A. AlMuneef, Maha; A Habib, Fawzia; M Turkistani, Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    This is a review of the changing pattern of chronic diseases among women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data from national surveys conducted in KSA, whose results were published between 1996 and 2011 were used. The results showed that over a period of ten years the prevalence of obesity increased in Saudi women from 23.6% to 44.0% and in men from 14.2% to 26.2%; self-reported physical inactivity worsened in both women (from 84.7% to 98.1%) and men (from 43.3% to 93.9%); prevalence of s...

  3. The financial burden from non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Kankeu Tchewonpi, Hyacinthe; Saksena, Priyanka; Xu, Ke; David B. Evans

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were previously considered to only affect high-income countries. However, they now account for a very large burden in terms of both mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), although little is known about the impact these diseases have on households in these countries. In this paper, we present a literature review on the costs imposed by NCDs on households in LMICs. We examine both the costs of obtaining medical care and the costs as...

  4. A new paradigm about HERV-K102 particle production and blocked release to explain cortisol mediated immunosenescence and age-associated risk of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderoute, Marian P

    2015-12-01

    The majority of chronic diseases in the aging adult are thought to relate to immune aging characterized by dominant immunosuppression and paradoxically, concomitant inflammation. This is known collectively as immunosenescence. The main change thought to be controlling immune aging is the age-related decline in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and corresponding increase in cortisol; the net effect which decreases the DHEA/cortisol ratio. Exactly how this translates to immunosuppression and concomitant inflammation remains unclear. Recently a new component of the human innate immune system has been discovered. Human endogenous retrovirus K102 (HERV-K102) is a replication-competent foamy retrovirus unique to humans which has been implicated in chronic diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that HERV-K102 may defend the host against viral infections, as well as against breast and other cancers. Particles are produced in activated monocytes and released into vacuoles but do not bud through the cell surface. This renders macrophages foamy, while the release of particles is only through cell lysis. New evidence presented here suggests DHEA but not DHEA-S may specifically bind and inactivate alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). AFP is a well-established immunosuppressive factor which importantly, also blocks cell lysis induction in macrophages through the 67 kilodalton (kD) AFP receptor (AFPr). Here, it is proposed that a decreased DHEA/cortisol ratio may favor the accumulation of foamy macrophages reflecting the cortisol induction of HERV-K102 particle production concomitant with the blocked release of particles by secreted AFP. This is a new paradigm to explain how cortisol-mediated immunosenescence can result in the persistence of foamy macrophages, and how this relates to risk of chronic disease. PMID:26760982

  5. C. neoformans constitutes an ideal model organism to unravel the contribution of cellular aging to the virulence of chronic infections

    OpenAIRE

    Bouklas, Tejas; Fries, Bettina C.

    2013-01-01

    Aging affects all organisms, from unicellular yeasts to multicellular humans. Studies in model organisms demonstrate that the pathways that mediate the two forms of aging, replicative and chronological, are highly conserved. Most studies are focused on the effect of aging on an individual cell rather than a whole population. Complex longevity regulation, however, makes aging a highly adaptive trait that is subject to natural selection. Recent studies have shed light on the potential relevance...

  6. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with chronic glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frifelt, J J; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Valerius, Niels Henrik;

    1985-01-01

    A boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) developed glomerulonephritis at the age of 12 years. The glomerulonephritis progressed to terminal uraemia at age 15 when maintenance haemodialysis was started. The clinical course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and Pseudomonas septicaemia...

  7. Determinants of cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases in Central and Eastern Europe: Rationale and design of the HAPIEE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikhart Hynek

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last five decades, a wide gap in mortality opened between western and eastern Europe; this gap increased further after the dramatic fluctuations in mortality in the former Soviet Union (FSU in the 1990s. Recent rapid increases in mortality among lower socioeconomic groups in eastern Europe suggests that socioeconomic factors are powerful determinants of mortality in these populations but the more proximal factors linking the social conditions with health remain unclear. The HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe study is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the effect of classical and non-conventional risk factors and social and psychosocial factors on cardiovascular and other non-communicable diseases in eastern Europe and the FSU. The main hypotheses of the HAPIEE study relate to the role of alcohol, nutrition and psychosocial factors. Methods and design The HAPIEE study comprises four cohorts in Russia, Poland, the Czech Republic and Lithuania; each consists of a random sample of men and women aged 45–69 years old at baseline, stratified by gender and 5 year age groups, and selected from population registers. The total planned sample size is 36,500 individuals. Baseline information from the Czech Republic, Russia and Poland was collected in 2002–2005 and includes data on health, lifestyle, diet (food frequency, socioeconomic circumstances and psychosocial factors. A short examination included measurement of anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lung function and cognitive function, and a fasting venous blood sample. Re-examination of the cohorts in 2006–2008 focuses on healthy ageing and economic well-being using face-to-face computer assisted personal interviews. Recruitment of the Lithuanian cohort is ongoing, with baseline and re-examination data being collected simultaneously. All cohorts are being followed up for mortality and non-fatal cardiovascular

  8. Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Aspect of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation (Pathophysiological ParaInflammation

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    Małgorzata Nita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The products of oxidative stress trigger chronic low-grade inflammation (pathophysiological parainflammation process in AMD patients. In early AMD, soft drusen contain many mediators of chronic low-grade inflammation such as C-reactive protein, adducts of the carboxyethylpyrrole protein, immunoglobulins, and acute phase molecules, as well as the complement-related proteins C3a, C5a, C5, C5b-9, CFH, CD35, and CD46. The complement system, mainly alternative pathway, mediates chronic autologous pathophysiological parainflammation in dry and exudative AMD, especially in the Y402H gene polymorphism, which causes hypofunction/lack of the protective complement factor H (CFH and facilitates chronic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP. Microglial activation induces photoreceptor cells injury and leads to the development of dry AMD. Many autoantibodies (antibodies against alpha beta crystallin, alpha-actinin, amyloid, C1q, chondroitin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, elastin, fibronectin, heparan sulfate, histone H2A, histone H2B, hyaluronic acid, laminin, proteoglycan, vimentin, vitronectin, and aldolase C and pyruvate kinase M2 and overexpression of Fcc receptors play role in immune-mediated inflammation in AMD patients and in animal model. Macrophages infiltration of retinal/choroidal interface acts as protective factor in early AMD (M2 phenotype macrophages; however it acts as proinflammatory and proangiogenic factor in advanced AMD (M1 and M2 phenotype macrophages.

  9. Using Family Health History for Chronic Disease Prevention in the Age of Genomics: Translation to Health Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Carl; Novilla, Lelinneth; Barnes, Michael; De La Cruz, Natalie; Meacham, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Advances in the field of human genomics have important implications for the prevention of chronic disease. In response to these advancements, public health professionals--including health educators--must become competent in the principles underlying the interface between genomics and the use of family health history. Family health history captures…

  10. Untying chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Häuser, Winfried; Wolfe, Frederik; Henningsen, Peter; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic ...

  11. HIV, co-morbidity and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiss P

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As treatment for HIV infection needs to be used continuously and lifelong, issues concerning long-term outcomes, including those involving tolerability and safety of treatment, are gaining increasing importance. Although current combination antiretroviral therapy (cART regimens are generally better tolerated than those in the early days of cART, treatment toxicity remains an important cause for discontinuation of (components of treatment. Moreover, several of the potential toxicities of cART (including cardiovascular, metabolic, renal and bone toxicity overlap with known ageing-associated co-morbidities. Given that our patient population with HIV is increasingly getting older as a result of the success of cART in reducing traditional HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, these co-morbidities are increasingly being seen and importantly influence patient management. Moreover, persons with HIV, in spite of having suppressed viraemia on cART seem to be at increased risk of the premature development of age-associated non-communicable co-morbidities, including cardiovascular, chronic kidney, liver and pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, non-AIDS associated malignancies, and neurocognitive impairment. It has therefore been hypothesised that such individuals, despite effective cART, may be prone to accelerated ageing. The underlying pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial and, apart from include sustained immune activation, both systemically and within the central nervous system. The presentation will review the current state of knowledge and investigation in this area.

  12. The coexistence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: prevalence and risk factors in young, middle-aged and elderly people from the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de Marco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The joint distribution of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has not been well described. This study aims at determining the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnoses of asthma, COPD and of the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome and to assess whether these conditions share a common set of risk factors. METHODS: A screening questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, diagnoses and risk factors was administered by mail or phone to random samples of the general Italian population aged 20-44 (n = 5163 45-64 (n = 2167 and 65-84 (n = 1030 in the frame of the multicentre Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD study. RESULTS: A physician diagnosis of asthma or COPD (emphysema/chronic bronchitis/COPD was reported by 13% and 21% of subjects aged <65 and 65-84 years respectively. Aging was associated with a marked decrease in the prevalence of diagnosed asthma (from 8.2% to 1.6% and with a marked increase in the prevalence of diagnosed COPD (from 3.3% to 13.3%. The prevalence of the overlap of asthma and COPD was 1.6% (1.3%-2.0%, 2.1% (1.5%-2.8% and 4.5% (3.2%-5.9% in the 20-44, 45-64 and 65-84 age groups. Subjects with both asthma and COPD diagnoses were more likely to have respiratory symptoms, physical impairment, and to report hospital admissions compared to asthma or COPD alone (p<0.01. Age, sex, education and smoking showed different and sometimes opposite associations with the three conditions. CONCLUSION: Asthma and COPD are common in the general population, and they coexist in a substantial proportion of subjects. The asthma-COPD overlap syndrome represents an important clinical phenotype that deserves more medical attention and further research.

  13. A feasibility study of cell phone and landline phone interviews for monitoring of risk and protection factors for chronic diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erly Catarina Moura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to evaluate the feasibility of interviews by cell phone as a complement to interviews by landline to estimate risk and protection factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. Adult cell phone users were evaluated by random digit dialing. Questions asked were: age, sex, education, race, marital status, ownership of landline and cell phones, health condition, weight and height, medical diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes, physical activity, diet, binge drinking and smoking. The estimates were calculated using post-stratification weights. The cell phone interview system showed a reduced capacity to reach elderly and low educated populations. The estimates of the risk and protection factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in cell phone interviews were equal to the estimates obtained by landline phone. Eligibility, success and refusal rates using the cell phone system were lower than those of the landline system, but loss and cost were much higher, suggesting it is unsatisfactory as a complementary method in such a context.

  14. Aggregation of the four main risk factors to non-communicable diseases among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Miranda Tassitano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It was to investigate the cluster of four main risk behaviors (smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity and low consumption of fruits and vegetables related to chronic diseases from Northeastern Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a representative sample (n = 600 of high school students from public schools in Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brazil. The cluster was evaluated by comparing the observed prevalence expected in all the possibilities of coupling between the behaviors. The logistic regression analysis was performed by grouping three or four behaviors, after adjusting for independent variables. Results: With the exception of smoking, other risk behaviors had prevalence rates above 20%. Only 0.3% (95%CI 0.1 - 1.3 of the students presented the four risk behaviors simultaneously, while 15.3% (95%CI 12.3 - 18.2 did not present anyone. Risk behaviors tended to cluster, particularly smoking and alcohol consumption, being more pronounced among boys, and physical inactivity and low consumption of fruits and vegetables among girls (p < 0.05. Regression analysis indicated that, among the independent variables, those students who do not have physical education classes were 2.1 times more likely to have three or more risk behaviors added. Conclusions: The results of this study allow us to establish the prevalence of risk behaviors in cluster, which may have important implications for health policies and practices. It is suggested that educational and health actions are tested in schools, and physical education classes can be an important context for intervention.

  15. Extending employment beyond the pensionable age: a cohort study of the influence of chronic diseases, health risk factors, and working conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Virtanen

    Full Text Available In response to the economic consequences of ageing of the population, governments are seeking ways with which people might work into older age. We examined the association of working conditions and health with extended employment (defined as >6 months beyond the pensionable age in a cohort of older, non-disabled employees who have reached old-age retirement.A total of 4,677 Finnish employees who reached their old-age pensionable date between 2005 and 2011 (mean age 59.8 years in 2005, 73% women had their survey responses before pensionable age linked to national health and pension registers, resulting in a prospective cohort study.In all, 832 participants (17.8% extended their employment by more than 6 months beyond the pensionable date. After multivariable adjustment, the following factors were associated with extended employment: absence of diagnosed mental disorder (OR 1.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.54 and psychological distress (OR 1.68; 1.35-2.08 and of the work characteristics, high work time control (OR 2.31; 1.88-2.84. The projected probability of extended employment was 21.3% (19.5-23.1 among those free of psychiatric morbidity and with high work time control, while the corresponding probability was only 9.2% (7.4-11.4 among those with both psychiatric morbidity and poor work time control. The contribution of chronic somatic diseases was modest.In the present study, good mental health in combination with the opportunity to control work time seem to be key factors in extended employment into older age. In addition, high work time control might promote work life participation irrespective of employees' somatic disease status.

  16. Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP-choline treatment of aging mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez, R.; Raïch, J.; Aguilar, J.

    1991-01-01

    1. Spiroperidol binding (dopamine D2 receptors) and quinuclidinyl benzilate binding (muscarinic receptors) in striata of 19-month old mice was analyzed for animals that had received chronic administration of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) incorporated into the chow consumed (100 or 500 mg kg-1 added per day) for the 7 months before they were killed. 2. Treated animals displayed an increase in the dopamine receptor densities of 11% for those receiving 100 mg kg-1 and 18% for those ...

  17. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or both? Diagnostic labeling and spirometry in primary care patients aged 40 years or more

    OpenAIRE

    Melbye H; Drivenes E; Dalbak LG; Leinan T; Høegh-Henrichsen S; Østrem A

    2011-01-01

    Hasse Melbye1, Elin Drivenes1, Lene G Dalbak2, Tone Leinan1, Svein Høegh-Henrichsen2, Anders Østrem21General Practice Research Unit, Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, 2General Practice Research Unit, Department of Health and Society, University of Oslo, NorwayAims: To describe symptoms and lung function in patients registered with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care and to examine how spirometry findings...

  18. Oral Hygiene Status in a General Population of Iran, 2011: A Key Lifestyle Marker in Relation to Common Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Asgari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background To estimate Oral Hygiene (OH status in the Iranian population in 2011, and to determine the influence of socio-economic characteristics on OH, and its interrelation with common risk factors of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs. Methods Data including a total of 12,105 individuals aged 6-70 years were obtained from the sixth round of the surveys of NCDs risk factors in Iran. OH was recorded through a structured questionnaire measuring daily frequencies of tooth brushing and dental flossing. Descriptive analyses were performed on demographic characteristics in the complex sample survey setting. We also employed weighted binary logistic regression to compute Odds Ratio (OR as a measure of association between the response and explanatory factors. Furthermore, to construct an asset index, we utilized Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Results The percentage with minimum recommended daily OH practices was 3.7% among men and 7.7% among women (OR= 2.3; P< 0.001. Urban citizens were more likely to have their teeth cleaned compared to rural people (OR= 2.8; P< 0.001. For both genders, a relatively better condition was observed in the 25–34 age group (male: 5.6%; female: 10.3%. In addition, OH status improved significantly by increase in both level of education (P< 0.001 and economic status (P< 0.001. There were also apparent associations between self-care practices and specific behavioral risk factors, though the correlation with dietary habits and tobacco use could be largely explained by socio-economic factors. Conclusion OH situation in Iran calls for urgent need to assign proper interventions and strategies toward raising public awareness and reducing disparities in access to health facilities.

  19. Ageing and Chronic Administration of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Upregulate Sirt4 Gene Expression in the Preoptic Area of Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong eDutt Way

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the ageing process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT, encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as ageing molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA, which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10mg/kg for 4 weeks, wk, a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and ageing on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 wk old mice. Furthermore, 4 wk of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 wk of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with ageing in the medial septum area (12 wk = 1.00±0.15 vs 36 wk = 1.68±0.14 vs 52 wk = 1.54±0.11, p<0.05. In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of ageing utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions.

  20. 老年慢性病患者的特殊护理研究%The research of special medical care on chronic patients with old age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱英

    2011-01-01

    目的:进一步规范老年慢性病患者的护理程序.方法:使用汉密顿抑郁量表(Hamilton Depression Scale,HAMD),对患者特护前和特护后HAMD量表总分和因子分等进行比较,比较患者特护前后抑郁和焦虑的差异.结果:HAMD量表总分和因子分之躯体性、精神性,患者特护前后比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:要提高老年慢性病患者的生活质量,在给予躯体疾病治疗同时,应给予心理等方面的特殊护理,对消除或减轻患者的不良情绪所导致的心理障碍,特殊护理有药物不可替代的作用.%Objective: To standardize the procedure of care on chronic patients with old age further. Methods: Through HAMD, we carried out the analysis of total HAMD score and individual HAMD score before and after the special care. And then we contrasted the difference of patients' depression and anxiety before and after special care. Results: The difference of total HAMD score and individual HAMD score before and after the special care were significant on the physical and spiritual aspects of chronic patients with old age. Conclusion: To improve the quality of elderly chronic patients' life, we not only cure their somatopathy, but give them special mental care to remove or relieve their psychology obstacle which is brought on by bad emotion. So the special care has the irreplaceable effect on removing and easing mental disorder from badness mood.

  1. Genotype vs. Phenotype and the Rise of Non-Communicable Diseases: The Importance of Lifestyle Behaviors During Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Brian W; Skidmore, Paula M; Orta, Olivia R; Faulkner, James; Lambrick, Danielle; Signal, Leigh; Williams, Michelle A; Stoner, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Despite continued research and growing public awareness, the incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCD) continues to accelerate. While a person may have a genetic predisposition to certain NCDs, the rapidly changing epidemiology of NCDs points to the importance of environmental, social, and behavioural determinants of health. Specifically, three lifestyle behaviours expose children to important environmental cues and stressors: physical activity, nutritional intake, and sleep behaviour. Failure to expose children to proper gene-environment interactions, through the aforementioned lifestyle behaviours, can and will predispose children to the development of NCDs. Reengineering the environments of children can induce a paradigm shift, from a predominantly biomedical health model of treating symptomology, to a more holistic model based on encouraging appropriate behavioral decisions and optimal health. PMID:26918226

  2. Prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh: Results from STEPS survey 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mostafa Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nationally representative data on noncommunicable disease (NCD risk factors are lacking in Bangladesh. This study was done to determine the prevalence of common risk factors for major NCDs among men and women of rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: This survey was done with 9,275 individuals aged 25 years or older randomly drawn from all over the country. Information on diet, physical activity, tobacco and alcohol, and treatment history for hypertension and diabetes were collected. Height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure (BP were measured. Results: There were 4,312 men and 4,963 women with the mean age of 42 years (standard deviation 13 years. Half of them (54% used tobacco in some form, <1% consumed alcohol within the past 30 days, 92% did not consume adequate fruit and vegetables (five servings or more, and 35% had low physical activity level [<600 metabolic equivalent (MET min per week]. Documented diabetes was found in 4% of the participants. Seventeen percent were overweight [body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 and 21% had abdominal obesity (men ≥94, women ≥80 cm. Overall, 21% people had hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or medication. Physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes were more prevalent in urban areas, as opposed to tobacco. Tobacco intake showed a decreasing gradient, but hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and low physical activity showed an increasing gradient across the wealth quartiles. Conclusion: Risk factors are widely prevalent in Bangladeshi people across sexes and across both rural and urban areas of residences. NCD prevention through risk factor control, and early detection and treatment of hypertension and diabetes are warranted.

  3. Prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: results from a STEPS survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Luc H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCD in Vietnam, information on the prevalence of preventable risk factors for NCD is restricted to the main urban centres of Ha Noi, and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC. This population-based survey aimed to describe the prevalence of risk factors for NCD in a rural Vietnamese sample. Methods This survey was conducted using the WHO "STEPwise approach to surveillance of non-communicable diseases" (STEPS methodology. Participants (n = 1978 were residents of the Mekong Delta region selected by multi-stage sampling. Standardised international protocols were used to measure behavioural risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, physical characteristics (weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure – BP, fasting blood glucose (BG and total cholesterol (TC. Data were analysed using complex survey analysis methods. Results In this sample, 8.8% of men and 12.6% of women were overweight (body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and 2.3% of men and 1.5% of women were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. The prevalence of hypertension (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking medication for hypertension was 27.3% for men and 16.2% for women. There were 1.0% of men and 1.1% of women with raised BG (defined as capillary whole BG of at least 6.1 mmol/L. Conclusion We provide the first NCD risk factor profile of people living in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam using standardised methodology. Our findings for this predominantly rural sample differ from previous studies conducted in Ha Noi and HCMC, and suggest that it is inappropriate to generalise findings from the big-city surveys to the other 80% of the population.

  4. Interactions of Short-Term and Chronic Treadmill Training With Aging of the Left Ventricle of the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Richard D; Jones, Sandra A; Rostron, Kerry A; Kayani, Anna C; Close, Graeme L; McArdle, Anne; Lancaster, Matthew K

    2016-08-01

    With aging, there is a decline in cardiac function accompanying increasing risk of arrhythmias. These effects are likely to be mechanistically associated with age-associated changes in calcium regulation within cardiac myocytes. Previous studies suggest that lifelong exercise can potentially reduce age-associated changes in the heart. Although exercise itself is associated with changes in cardiac function, little is known about the interactions of aging and exercise with respect to myocyte calcium regulation. To investigate this, adult (12 months) and old (24 months) C57/Bl6 mice were trained using moderate-intensity treadmill running. In response to 10 weeks' training, comparable cardiac hypertrophic responses were observed, although aging independently associated with additional cardiac hypertrophy. Old animals also showed increased L- and T-type calcium channels, the sodium-calcium exchange, sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase, and collagen (by 50%, 92%, 66%, 88%, and 113% respectively). Short-term exercise training increased D-type and T-type calcium channels in old animals only, whereas an increase in sodium-calcium exchange was seen only in adult animals. Long-term (12 months) training generally opposed the effects of aging. Significant hypertrophy remained in long-term trained old animals, but levels of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase, sodium-calcium exchange, and collagen were not significantly different from those found in the adult trained animals. PMID:26248561

  5. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  6. Profile of non-communicable disease risk factors among adults in the Republic of Palau: findings of a national STEPS survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Berry Moon; Chiang, Chifa; Ikerdeu, Edolem; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Honjo, Kaori; Mita, Takashi; Cui, Renzhe; Madraisau, Sherilynn; Ngirmang, Gregorio; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2015-11-01

    Palau, similar to other Pacific island countries, is currently highly burdened with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The WHO STEPS was launched in 2011 to comprehensively survey indicators for NCDs in the country. This paper aims to describe the prevalence of key NCD risk factors assessed by the survey. The WHO instrument, including behavioral, physical and biochemical measurements, was adopted to the nationwide survey for all residents aged 25 to 64 years. A cluster-based sampling method was performed to obtain a national representative data. Valid data from 2,184 individuals were selected for the analyses, of which 75% were Palauans and 19% were Filipinos. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 25% in men and 10% in women. Betel nut chewing with tobacco was prevalent particularly among Palauans (58% in men, 69% in women) compared to the other ethnic groups. In terms of all types of tobacco use, 60% of men and 58% of women were current users. Overweight or obesity was very common among Palauans (84% in men, 86% in women) as well as Filipinos (52% in men, 40% in women). Hypertension was found in 55% of men and 49% of women, with the stage 2 hypertension being 21% and 19%, respectively. The prevalence of diabetic level hyperglycemia was more than 20%. Raised total cholesterol was detected in 16% of men and 20% of women. This survey revealed an alarmingly high prevalence of NCD risk factors, especially tobacco use, obesity, hypertension and raised blood glucose. The data would be useful baseline information to develop effective NCD strategies in Palau. PMID:26663939

  7. An overview of the nutrition transition in West Africa: implications for non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosu, William K

    2015-11-01

    The nutrition landscape in West Africa has been dominated by the programmes to address undernutrition. However, with increasing urbanisation, technological developments and associated change in dietary patterns and physical activity, childhood and adult overweight, and obesity are becoming more prevalent. There is an evidence of increasing intake of dietary energy, fat, sugars and protein. There is low consumption of fruit and vegetables universally in West Africa. Overall, the foods consumed are predominantly traditional with the component major food groups within recommended levels. Most of the West African countries are at the early stages of nutrition transition but countries such as Cape Verde, Ghana and Senegal are at the latter stages. In the major cities of the region, children consume energy-dense foods such as candies, ice cream and sweetened beverages up to seven times as frequently as fruit and vegetables. Adult obesity rates have increased by 115 % in 15 years since 2004. In Ghana, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in women has increased from 12·8 % in 1993 to 29·9 % in 2008. In Accra, overweight/obesity in women has increased from 62·2 % in 2003 to 64·9 % in 2009. The age-standardised proportion of adults who engage in adequate levels of physical activity ranges from 46·8 % in Mali to 94·7 % in Benin. The lingering stunting in children and the rising overweight in adults have resulted to a dual burden of malnutrition affecting 16·2 % of mother-child pairs in Cotonou. The prevalence of hypertension has been increased and ranges from 17·6 % in Burkina Faso to 38·7 % in Cape Verde. The prevalence is higher in the cities: 40·2 % in Ougadougou, 46·0 % in St Louis and 54·6 % in Accra. The prevalence of diabetes ranges from 2·5 to 7·9 % but could be as high as 17·9 % in Dakar, Senegal. The consequences of nutrition transition are not only being felt by the persons in the high socioeconomic class, but also in cities such as Accra and

  8. Lifecourse socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes: the role of chronic inflammation in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Zaninotto, Paola; Kumari, Meena; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G David

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association between lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of type 2 diabetes at older ages, ascertaining the extent to which adult lifestyle factors and systemic inflammation explain this relationship. Data were drawn from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) which, established in 2002, is a representative cohort study of ≥50-year olds individuals living in England. SES indicators were paternal social class, participants' education, participants' wealth, and a lifecourse socioeconomic index. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) and lifestyle factors were measured repeatedly; diabetes incidence (new cases) was monitored over 7.5 years of follow-up. Of the 6218 individuals free from diabetes at baseline (44% women, mean aged 66 years), 423 developed diabetes during follow-up. Relative to the most advantaged people, those in the lowest lifecourse SES group experienced more than double the risk of diabetes (hazard ratio 2.59; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.81-3.71). Lifestyle factors explained 52% (95%CI:30-85) and inflammatory markers 22% (95%CI:13-37) of this gradient. Similar results were apparent with the separate SES indicators. In a general population sample, socioeconomic inequalities in the risk of type 2 diabetes extend to older ages and appear to partially originate from socioeconomic variations in modifiable factors which include lifestyle and inflammation. PMID:27101929

  9. Chronic pyruvate supplementation increases exploratory activity and brain energy reserves in young and middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennariikka eKoivisto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of pyruvate when given in systemic injections. Impaired glucose uptake and metabolism are found in Alzheimer's disease (AD and in AD mouse models. We tested whether dietary pyruvate supplementation is able to provide added energy supply to brain and thereby attenuate aging- or AD-related cognitive impairment. Mice received ~ 800 mg/kg/day Na-pyruvate in their chow for 2- 6 months. In middle-aged wild-type mice and in 6.5-month-old APP/PS1 mice, pyruvate facilitated spatial learning and increased exploration of a novel odor. However, in passive avoidance task for fear memory, the treatment group was clearly impaired. Independent of age, long-term pyruvate increased explorative behavior, which likely explains the paradoxical impairment in passive avoidance. We also assessed pyruvate effects on body weight, muscle force and endurance, and found no effects. Metabolic post-mortem assays revealed increased energy compounds in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as increased brain glycogen storages in the pyruvate group. Pyruvate supplementation may counteract aging-related behavioral impairment but its beneficial effect seems related to increased explorative activity rather than direct memory enhancement.

  10. Effects of chronic intraventricular infusion of heparin glycosaminoglycan on learning and brain acetylcholine parameters in aged rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Karel; Schulz, D.; De Souza Silva, M. A.; Müller, H. W.; Huston, J. P.; Hasenöhrl, R. U.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 147, 1-2 (2003), s. 115-123. ISSN 0166-4328 Grant ostatní: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) HU 306/11-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : heparin * memory * ageing Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.817, year: 2003

  11. The association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, disability, engagement in social activities, and mortality among US adults aged 70 years or older, 1994–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yong Liu,1 Janet B Croft,1 Lynda A Anderson,2 Anne G Wheaton,1 Letitia R Presley-Cantrell,3 Earl S Ford11Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, 2Healthy Aging Program, Division of Population Health, CDC and Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 3Program Development and Services Management, Division of Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USAPurpose: To assess associations among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, disability as measured by activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental ADL (IADL, engagement in social activities, and death among elderly noninstitutionalized US residents.Materials and methods: A nationally representative sample of 9,415 adults who were aged ≥70 years and responded to the Second Supplement on Aging survey in 1994–1996 and mortality follow-up study through 2006 were assessed. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the risk of all-cause mortality in participants with COPD after accounting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking status.Results: At baseline, approximately 9.6% of study participants reported having COPD. Compared with participants without COPD, those with COPD were significantly more likely (P<0.05 to have difficulty with at least one ADL (44.3% versus [vs] 27.5% and with at least one IADL (59.9% vs 40.2%, significantly less likely to be engaged in social activities (32.6% vs 26.3%, and significantly more likely to die by 2006 (70.7% vs 60.4%; adjusted risk ratio 1.15, P<0.05. The association between COPD and risk for death was moderately attenuated by disability status.Conclusion: COPD is positively associated with disability and mortality risk among US adults aged ≥70 years. The significant relationship between COPD and mortality risk was moderately attenuated, but was not completely explained by stages of ADL and IADL limitations and social activities.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary

  12. Chronic Blockade of the Androgen Receptor Abolishes Age-Dependent Increases in Blood Pressure in Female Growth-Restricted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Rudsenske, Benjamin R; Davis, Gwendolyn K; Newsome, Ashley D; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction induced via placental insufficiency programs a significant increase in blood pressure at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats that is associated with early cessation of estrous cyclicity, indicative of premature reproductive senescence. In addition, female growth-restricted rats at 12 months of age exhibit a significant increase in circulating testosterone with no change in circulating estradiol. Testosterone is positively associated with blood pressure after menopause in women. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that androgen receptor blockade would abolish the significant increase in blood pressure that develops with age in female growth-restricted rats. Mean arterial pressure was measured in animals pretreated with and without the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide (8 mg/kg/day, SC for 2 weeks). Flutamide abolished the significant increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted rats relative to control at 12 months of age. To examine the mechanism(s) by which androgens contribute to increased blood pressure in growth-restricted rats, blood pressure was assessed in rats untreated or treated with enalapril (250 mg/L for 2 weeks). Enalapril eliminated the increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted relative to vehicle- and flutamide-treated controls. Furthermore, the increase in medullary angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA expression was abolished in flutamide-treated growth-restricted relative to untreated counterparts and controls; cortical angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression was reduced in flutamide-treated growth-restricted versus untreated counterparts. Thus, these data indicate that androgens, via activation of the renin-angiotensin system, are important mediators of increased blood pressure that develops by 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats. PMID:27113045

  13. Malignant Neglect: The Failure to Address the Need to Prevent Premature Non-communicable Disease Morbidity and Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Lachat; Stephen Otchere; Dominique Roberfroid; Abubakari Abdulai; Florencia Maria Aguirre Seret; Jelena Milesevic; Godfrey Xuereb; Vanessa Candeias; Patrick Kolsteren

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs)—chronic medical conditions including cardiovascular diseases (heart disease and stroke), diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma)—are responsible for two-thirds of the world's deaths. Nearly 80% of NCD deaths, close to 30 million per year, occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where they are also rising most rapidly. Diet and lifestyle (including smoking, lack ...

  14. The perspectives of older women with chronic neck pain on perceived effects of qigong and exercise therapy on aging: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christine; Rappenecker, Julia; Karner, Julia J; Witt, Claudia M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent in elderly populations. The goals of this study were 1) to understand the results of a randomized clinical trial - Qigong and Exercise Therapy for Elderly Patients with Chronic Neck Pain (QIBANE) - that showed no difference between qigong, exercise therapy, and no-treatment on quality of life, and 2) to understand how elderly individuals with chronic pain experience interventions of qigong and exercise therapy. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 20 QIBANE participants. Interviews asked about motivation for and expectations of trial participation, experiences with the exercise classes (qigong or exercise therapy), and changes in pain experience. Interviews were transcribed, entered into the software program ATLAS.ti, and coded thematically by two coders. Content analysis was performed. All interviewees reflected positively on their QIBANE experience and described their participation in QIBANE as helpful. However, what was discussed in both groups when they talked about "positive experiences" in the study differed between the two groups. For example, themes that emerged in the exercise-therapy group related to difficulties associated with aging and staying physically active. In the interviews with qigong group members, emergent themes related to qigong as a method that improved bodily experiences and influenced daily activities. The effects that exercise therapy and qigong have on an elderly population cannot be captured by health-related quality-of-life measurements, such as the Short Form (36) Health Survey. Broader concepts of quality of life that include the concepts of self-efficacy and positive affect may be more appropriate. The results presented in this study suggest that for this population group, the approach of patient-centered outcomes is especially pertinent in order to design meaningful intervention studies in the elderly. This means that research questions, interventions, and outcome measurements need to take

  15. Differential diagnosis of frontal lobe atrophy from chronic subdural hematoma or subdural hygroma on CT in aged patients. Usefulness of CT cisternogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metrizamide CT cisternograms (CTC) were performed in order to examine the CSF passage to subarachnoid space, cerebral sulci and Sylvian fissure. The old aged 20 patients (from 63 to 88 years old) with the layer of low density area around bilateral frontal lobe (bi-frontal LDA) in plain CT finding were selected from 2000 aged patients hospitalized in Hanwa-Senboku Hospital. In these 20 patients, it was difficult to differentiate frontal lobe atrophy from the chronic subdural hematoma and subdural hygroma. Conservative therapy was applied in 19 patients for their old age or their complicated diseases. Only 1 patient was operated for subdural hygroma. The 20 patients were investigated in EEGs, severity of dementia, disturbance of consciousness, activity of daily life, their clinical course and prognosis. Only 2 of the 11 patients with type 1 CTC findings (cerebral sulci, Sylvian fissure and bi-frontal LDA were simultaneously enhanced by metrizamide) showed disturbance of consciousness and/or delirium for their serious somatic disorders. All of 6 patients with type 3 CTC findings (only bi-frontal LDA was not enhanced by metrizamide) showed disturbance of consciousness. Three patients with type 2 CTC findings (atypical findings) were reported independently. Subdural disorder elevating intracranial pressure were clarified in the cases with type 3 CTC findings. (author)

  16. Differential diagnosis of frontal lobe atrophy from chronic subdural hematoma or subdural hygroma on CT in aged patients. Usefulness of CT cisternogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Hideaki [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    Metrizamide CT cisternograms (CTC) were performed in order to examine the CSF passage to subarachnoid space, cerebral sulci and Sylvian fissure. The old aged 20 patients (from 63 to 88 years old) with the layer of low density area around bilateral frontal lobe (bi-frontal LDA) in plain CT finding were selected from 2000 aged patients hospitalized in Hanwa-Senboku Hospital. In these 20 patients, it was difficult to differentiate frontal lobe atrophy from the chronic subdural hematoma and subdural hygroma. Conservative therapy was applied in 19 patients for their old age or their complicated diseases. Only 1 patient was operated for subdural hygroma. The 20 patients were investigated in EEGs, severity of dementia, disturbance of consciousness, activity of daily life, their clinical course and prognosis. Only 2 of the 11 patients with type 1 CTC findings (cerebral sulci, Sylvian fissure and bi-frontal LDA were simultaneously enhanced by metrizamide) showed disturbance of consciousness and/or delirium for their serious somatic disorders. All of 6 patients with type 3 CTC findings (only bi-frontal LDA was not enhanced by metrizamide) showed disturbance of consciousness. Three patients with type 2 CTC findings (atypical findings) were reported independently. Subdural disorder elevating intracranial pressure were clarified in the cases with type 3 CTC findings. (author).

  17. Use of Hypnotic Techniques in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Pain: Do the Ages of Patients or Years of Practice and Theoretical Orientation of Clinicians Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé-Pires, Catarina; Solé, Ester; Racine, Mélanie; de la Vega, Rocío; Castarlenas, Elena; Jensen, Mark P; Miró, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Hypnosis is known to be effective in the treatment of pediatric pain. To better understand which strategies might be most useful, more knowledge is needed regarding the strategies that are actually used by experienced clinicians and the factors that influence their use. To address this knowledge gap, 35 health care professionals completed an online survey on the use of hypnosis in the management of pediatric chronic pain. The findings indicate that clinicians vary their use of hypnotic strategies primarily as a function of a patient's age but not as a function of theoretical orientation or amount of experience. The findings may be useful for guiding clinicians in their selection of strategies and suggestions when working with children with pain. PMID:27585730

  18. Effect of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Body Composition Parameters and Exercise Capacity by Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Mann Randeep; Dogra Chauhan Archana; Sarkar Malay; Padam Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Nutritional abnormalities are frequent systemic manifestation associated with COPD. The purpose of the present study was to compare the body composition parameters and exercise capacity between stable COPD patients and healthy controls, and to find the strength of association between exercise capacity, FMI and FFMI. Methods: 100 subjects were recruited, and divided into two groups. Group I included stable COPD patients, and Group II consisted of age matched ...

  19. The role of aging and DNA repair in chronic disease. Final progress report, December 1, 1985--September 29, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, L.

    1993-11-01

    We carried out a molecular epidemiological study of the DNA repair of photochemical damage as a risk factor in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In that clinic-based control study of 88 cases and 135 cancer-free control it was found that DNA repair in the controls declined linearly at a rate of 0.61% per year over a 30-60 year age group. However, repair in younger BCC cases, significantly less than their age-matched controls, did not decline at the same rate so that the repair differences between the cases and the controls disappeared as the cases grew older. Besides this age effect, the odds are high (5:1) that an individual with low repair overexposed to sunlight will have basal cell carcinoma. That these odds increase to 10:1 for females compared to male subjects led to the observation that repair may be sensitive to hormonal control. Because of the ease of BCC diagnosis it is possible to demonstrate significantly that the level of DNA repair directly influences the multiplicity of tumors. Further, both those cases and controls with a family history of BCC invariably have reduced levels of DNA repair (p<0-05).

  20. Efficacy of pegylated interferon-alpha-2a plus ribavirin for patients aged at least 60 years with chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ying-ying; FAN Xiao-hong; WANG Li-feng; TIAN Di; HUO Na; LU Hai-ying; WU Chi-hong; XU Xiao-yuan; WEI Lai

    2012-01-01

    Background In China,patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated liver disease are getting older,and thus the number of deaths due to such disease is increasing.The efficacy of combination therapy with ribavirin and interferon for chronic HCV infection in elderly patients has not been fully clarified.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the combination therapy in the elderly patients.Methods Sixty-eight chronic hepatitis C patients,who received the combination therapy,were classified into two age groups:elderly group (>60 years,n=25) and non-elderly group (<60 years,n=43).Rapid virological response,complete early virological response,sustained virological response,relapse,non-response rate,and safety were compared between the elderly group and non-elderly group.Results Overall sustained virological response was lower in the elderly group than non-elderly group (44% vs.75%,P=0.012,OR=0.270,and 95% C/ 0.095-0.768).Among patients with HCV genotype 1,sustained virological response was lower in the elderly group than non-elderly group (45% vs.77%,P=0.015,OR=0.247,95% C/ 0.078-0.781).The proportions of dose reduction due to laboratory abnormalities were significantly higher in the elderly group than non-elderly group (60.0% vs.32.6%,P=0.027).Multiple binary Logistic regression analysis confirmed that patient age was an associated factor for sustained virological response.Conclusion Among patients with HCV genotype 1,the elderly patients had lower sustained virological response than non-elderly patients during pegylated interferon-alpha-2a plus ribavirin combination therapy.

  1. Protective effects of chronic treatment with a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba L. in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marcelo L; Moreira, Luciana M; Arçari, Demetrius P; Dos Santos, Letícia França; Marques, Antônio Cezar; Pedrazzoli, José; Cerutti, Suzete M

    2016-10-15

    This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba L. (EGb) on short-term and long-term memory as well as on anxiety-like and locomotor activity using the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT). Additionally, we evaluated the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of EGb on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) of middle-aged rats using the comet assay. Twelve-month-old male Wistar rats were administered vehicle or EGb (0.5mgkg(-1) or 1.0gkg(-1)) for 30days. Behavioural data showed that EGb treatment improved short-term memory. Neither an anti-anxiety effect nor a change in locomotor activity was observed. Twenty-four hours after the behavioural tests, the rats were decapitated, and the PFC and DH were quickly dissected out and prepared for the comet assay. The levels of DNA damage in the PFC were significantly lower in rats that were treated with 1.0gkg(-1) EGb. Both doses of EGb decreased H2O2-induced DNA breakage in cortical cells, whereas the levels of DNA damage in the EGb-treated animals were significantly lower than those in the control animals. No significant differences in the level of DNA damage in hippocampal cells were observed among the experimental groups. EGb treatment was not able to reduce H2O2-induced DNA damage in hippocampal cells. Altogether, our data provide the first demonstration that chronic EGb treatment improved the short-term memory of middle-aged rats, an effect that could be associated with a reduction in free radical production in the PFC. These data suggest that EGb treatment might increase the survival of cortical neurons and corroborate and extend the view that EGb has protective and therapeutic properties. PMID:27424157

  2. DNA-damage response associated with occupational exposure, age and chronic inflammation in workers in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Natalya V; Smal, Marharyta P; Kuzhir, Tatyana D; Ershova-Pavlova, Alla A; Goncharova, Roza I

    2012-10-01

    The evaluation of genome integrity in populations occupationally exposed to combine industrial factors is of medical importance. In the present study, the DNA-damage response was estimated by means of the alkaline comet assay in a sizeable cohort of volunteers recruited among workers in the automotive industry. For this purpose, freshly collected lymphocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide (100μM, 1min, 4°C) in vitro, and the levels of basal and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage, and the kinetics and efficiency of DNA repair were measured during a 180-min interval after exposure. The parameters studied in the total cohort of workers were in a range of values prescribed for healthy adult residents of Belarus. Based on the 95th percentiles, individuals possessing enhanced cellular sensitivity to DNA damage were present in different groups, but the frequency was significantly higher among elderly persons and among individuals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The results indicate that the inter-individual variations in DNA-damage response should be taken into account to estimate adequately the environmental genotoxic effects and to identify individuals with an enhanced DNA-damage response due to the influence of some external factors or intrinsic properties of the organism. Underling mechanisms need to be further explored. PMID:22772077

  3. CLINICAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONTROL OF ASTHMA AND CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE IN OVERWEIGHT

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    V. A. Boykov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of overweight prevalence is becoming increasingly important not only in countries with high living standards, but also in developing countries, especially among the urban population. The social significance of obesity is determined by the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases in young patients and decreased overall survival. Given the high prevalence among the population of Tomsk Region of obesity and excessive weight seems actual to establish the extent of the actual impact of this disease on lung function, including patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Tomsk Region. The study included 9303 residents of the city ofTomsk, aged 18 to 88 that have passed examinations in Health Centers in 2010–2012. Among the methods of examination in health centers performed anthropometry and evaluation of respiratory function (spirometry. The study established a negative correlation between body mass index and respiratory function. The presence of obesity leads to a deterioration of the lung function parameters and associated with significantly reduces of asthma control and quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. High prevalence of overweight in the population of residents of Tomsk Region and the impact of this disease on the respiratory system seems actual to develop special programs for weight control in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and adjust screening preventive actions, paying more attention to the prevention of obesity among the population of the region. 

  4. Health status of patients with self-reported chronic diseases in Jamaica

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    Paul A Boume

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing countries such as Jamaica suffer increasingly from high levels of public health problems related to chronic diseases. Aims : To examine the physical health status and use a model to determine the significant predictors of poor health status of Jamaicans who reported being diagnosed with a chronic non-communicable disease. Methods and Materials : The current study extracted a sub-sample of 714 people from a larger nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 6,783 Jamaicans. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from the sample. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square to investigate non-metric variables, and logistic regression to determine predictors of poor health status. Results : Approximately one-quarter ( 25.3% of the sample reported that they had poor health status. Thirty-three percent of the sample indicated unspecified chronic diseases: 7.8% arthritis, 28.9% hypertension, 17.2% diabetes mellitus and 13.3% asthma. Asthma affected 47.2% of children and 23.2% of young adults. S ignificant predictors of poor health status of Jamaicans who reported being diagnosed with chronic diseases were: age of respondents, area of residence and inability to work . Conclusion : Majority of the respondents in the sample had good health, and adults with poor health status were more likely to report having hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus and arthritis, while asthma was the most prevalent among children. Improvement in chronic disease control and health status can be achieved with improved patient education on the importance of compliance, access to more effective medication and development of support groups among chronic disease patients.

  5. Health status of patients with self-reported chronic diseases in Jamaica

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    Paul A. Boume

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing countries such as Jamaica suffer increasingly from high levels of public health problems related to chronic diseases. Aims: To examine the physical health status and use a model to determine the significant predictors of poor health status of Jamaicans who reported being diagnosed with a chronic non-communicable disease. Methods and Materials: The current study extracted a sub-sample of 714 people from a larger nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 6,783 Jamaicans. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from the sample. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square to investigate non-metric variables, and logistic regression to determine predictors of poor health status. Results: Approximately one-quarter (25.3% of the sample reported that they had poor health status. Thirty-three percent of the sample indicated unspecified chronic diseases: 7.8% arthritis, 28.9% hypertension, 17.2% diabetes mellitus and 13.3% asthma. Asthma affected 47.2% of children and 23.2% of young adults. Significant predictors of poor health status of Jamaicans who reported being diagnosed with chronic diseases were: age of respondents, area of residence and inability to work. Conclusion: Majority of the respondents in the sample had good health, and adults with poor health status were more likely to report having hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus and arthritis, while asthma was the most prevalent among children. Improvement in chronic disease control and health status can be achieved with improved patient education on the importance of compliance, access to more effective medication and development of support groups among chronic disease patients.

  6. Exposure to cold and draught, alcohol consumption, and the NS-phenotype are associated with chronic bronchitis: an epidemiological investigation of 3387 men aged 53-75 years: the Copenhagen Male Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suadicani, P; Hein, H.; H. Meyer; Gyntelberg, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—This study was performed to estimate the strength of association between chronic bronchitis and lifetime exposure to occupational factors, current lifestyle, and the NS-phenotype in the MNS blood group among middle aged and elderly men.
METHODS—The study was carried out within the frameworks of the Copenhagen Male Study. Of 3387 men 3331 men with a mean age of 63 (range 53-75) years could be classified by prevalence of chronic bronchitis. As well as the completion of a large questi...

  7. Bilateral lower limb polio, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and recurrent acute coronary syndrome in a poly tobacco user: A preventable triple tragedy

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    Ramesh Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non communicable diseases in most of the developing countries have surpassed the morbidity and mortality arising from communicable diseases. However there are people who continue to suffer from the residual disabilities of some communicable disease acquired at younger age like polio and develop non communicable diseases like COPD and coronary syndrome at older age primarily because of their tobacco habits. Both of these combination of communicable and non communicable diseases are preventable if timely preventive measures and healthy life style is adopted. This case highlights one such case where patient despite suffering from polio and restrictive lung disease started using tobacco and suffered from obstructive lung disease and coronary syndrome.

  8. Does health insurance mitigate inequities in non-communicable disease treatment? Evidence from 48 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Palma, Anton; Freedman, Lynn P; Kruk, Margaret E

    2015-09-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the greatest contributor to morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, NCD care is limited in LMICs, particularly among the disadvantaged and rural. We explored the role of insurance in mitigating socioeconomic and urban-rural disparities in NCD treatment across 48 LMICs included in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey (WHS). We analyzed data about ever having received treatment for diagnosed high-burden NCDs (any diagnosis, angina, asthma, depression, arthritis, schizophrenia, or diabetes) or having sold or borrowed to pay for healthcare. We fit multivariable regression models of each outcome by the interaction between insurance coverage and household wealth (richest 20% vs. poorest 50%) and urbanicity, respectively. We found that insurance was associated with higher treatment likelihood for NCDs in LMICs, and helped mitigate socioeconomic and regional disparities in treatment likelihood. These influences were particularly strong among women. Insurance also predicted lower likelihood of borrowing or selling to pay for health services among the poorest women. Taken together, insurance coverage may serve as an important policy tool in promoting NCD treatment and in reducing inequities in NCD treatment by household wealth, urbanicity, and sex in LMICs. PMID:26271138

  9. Task Shifting the Management of Non-Communicable Diseases to Nurses in Kibera, Kenya: Does It Work?

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    David Some

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa there is an increasing need to leverage available health care workers to provide care for non-communicable diseases (NCDs. This study was conducted to evaluate adherence to Médecins Sans Frontières clinical protocols when the care of five stable NCDs (hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, epilepsy, asthma, and sickle cell was shifted from clinical officers to nurses.Descriptive, retrospective review of routinely collected clinic data from two integrated primary health care facilities within an urban informal settlement, Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya (May to August 2014.There were 3,554 consultations (2025 patients; 733 (21% were by nurses out of which 725 met the inclusion criteria among 616 patients. Hypertension (64%, 397/616 was the most frequent NCD followed by asthma (17%, 106/616 and diabetes mellitus (15%, 95/616. Adherence to screening questions ranged from 65% to 86%, with an average of 69%. Weight and blood pressure measurements were completed in 89% and 96% of those required. Laboratory results were reviewed in 91% of indicated visits. Laboratory testing per NCD protocols was higher in those with hypertension (88% than diabetes mellitus (67% upon review. Only 17 (2% consultations were referred back to clinical officers.Nurses are able to adhere to protocols for managing stable NCD patients based on clear and standardized protocols and guidelines, thus paving the way towards task shifting of NCD care to nurses to help relieve the significant healthcare gap in developing countries.

  10. The roles of community health workers in management of non-communicable diseases in an urban township

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    Lungiswa P. Tsolekile

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community health workers (CHWs are increasingly being recognised as a crucial part of the health workforce in South Africa and other parts of the world. CHWs have taken on a variety of roles, including community empowerment, provision of services and linking communities with health facilities. Their roles are better understood in the areas of maternal and child health and infectious diseases (HIV infection, malaria and tuberculosis. Aim: This study seeks to explore the current roles of CHWs working with non-communicable diseases (NCDs.Setting: The study was conducted in an urban township in Cape Town, South Africa.Method: A qualitative naturalistic research design utilising observations and in-depth interviews with CHWs and their supervisors working in Khayelitsha was used.Results: CHWs have multiple roles in the care of NCDs. They act as health educators, advisors, rehabilitation workers and support group facilitators. They further screen for complications of illness and assist community members to navigate the health system. These roles are shaped both by expectations of the health system and in response to community needs.Conclusion: This study indicates the complexities of the roles of CHWs working with NCDs. Understanding the actual roles of CHWs provides insights into not only the competencies required to enable them to fulfil their daily functions, but also the type of training required to fill the present gaps.

  11. Rural, urban and migrant differences in non-communicable disease risk-factors in middle income countries: a cross-sectional study of WHO-SAGE data.

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    Oyinlola Oyebode

    Full Text Available Understanding how urbanisation and rural-urban migration influence risk-factors for non-communicable disease (NCD is crucial for developing effective preventative strategies globally. This study compares NCD risk-factor prevalence in urban, rural and migrant populations in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa.Study participants were 39,436 adults within the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE, surveyed 2007-2010. Risk ratios (RR for each risk-factor were calculated using logistic regression in country-specific and all country pooled analyses, adjusted for age, sex and survey design. Fully adjusted models included income quintile, marital status and education.Regular alcohol consumption was lower in migrant and urban groups than in rural groups (pooled RR and 95%CI: 0.47 (0.31-0.68; 0.58, (0.46-0.72, respectively. Occupational physical activity was lower (0.86 (0.72-0.98; 0.76 (0.65-0.85 while active travel and recreational physical activity were higher (pooled RRs for urban groups; 1.05 (1.00-1.09, 2.36 (1.95-2.83, respectively; for migrant groups: 1.07 (1.0 -1.12, 1.71 (1.11-2.53, respectively. Overweight, raised waist circumference and diagnosed diabetes were higher in urban groups (1.19 (1.04-1.35, 1.24 (1.07-1.42, 1.69 (1.15-2.47, respectively. Exceptions to these trends exist: obesity indicators were higher in rural Russia; active travel was lower in urban groups in Ghana and India; and in South Africa, urban groups had the highest alcohol consumption.Migrants and urban dwellers had similar NCD risk-factor profiles. These were not consistently worse than those seen in rural dwellers. The variable impact of urbanisation on NCD risk must be considered in the design and evaluation of strategies to reduce the growing burden of NCDs globally.

  12. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  13. Investigation of sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain: an age- and gender-matched case-control study over a 7-night period.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    van de Water, Alexander T M

    2011-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is frequently reported by people with chronic low back pain (>12 weeks; CLBP), but few studies have comprehensively investigated sleep in this population. This study investigated differences in subjectively and objectively measured sleep patterns of people with CLBP, and compared this to age- and gender matched controls. Thirty-two consenting participants (n = 16 with CLBP, n = 16 matched controls), aged 24-65 years (43.8% male) underwent an interview regarding sleep influencing variables, completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Diary, SF36-v2, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Numerical Pain Rating Scales, and underwent seven consecutive nights of actigraphic measurement in the home environment. Compared to controls, people with CLBP had, on self-report measures, significantly poorer sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (range 0-21) mean (SD) 10.9 (4.2)], clinical insomnia [Insomnia Severity Index mean (range 0-28) 13.7 (7.6)], lower sleep efficiency, longer sleep onset latency, more time awake after sleep onset, and more awakenings during sleep (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences between groups were found on objective actigraphy (p > 0.05). The findings provide some evidence to support self-reported sleep assessment as an outcome measure in CLBP research, while further research is needed to determine the validity of objective sleep measurement in this population.

  14. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors at adolescent age prevents enhanced freezing between repeated cue-exposures after conditioned fear in adult mice raised under chronic early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, J Marit; Ter Horst, Judith P; Loi, Manila; den Blaauwen, Jan; Bangert, Eline; Fernández, Guillén; Joëls, Marian; Oitzl, Melly S; Krugers, Harm J

    2016-09-01

    Early life adversity can have long-lasting impact on learning and memory processes and increase the risk to develop stress-related psychopathologies later in life. In this study we investigated (i) how chronic early life stress (ELS) - elicited by limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal day 2 to 9 - affects conditioned fear in adult mice and (ii) whether these effects can be prevented by blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) at adolescent age. In adult male and female mice, ELS did not affect freezing behavior to the first tone 24h after training in an auditory fear-conditioning paradigm. Exposure to repeated tones 24h after training also resulted in comparable freezing behavior in ELS and control mice, both in males and females. However, male (but not female) ELS compared to control mice showed significantly more freezing behavior between the tone-exposures, i.e. during the cue-off periods. Intraperitoneal administration of the GR antagonist RU38486 during adolescence (on postnatal days 28-30) fully prevented enhanced freezing behavior during the cue-off period in adult ELS males. Western blot analysis revealed no effects of ELS on hippocampal expression of glucocorticoid receptors, neither at postnatal day 28 nor at adult age, when mice were behaviorally tested. We conclude that ELS enhances freezing behavior in adult mice in a potentially safe context after cue-exposure, which can be normalized by brief blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during the critical developmental window of adolescence. PMID:27246249

  15. Climate change, air quality and chronic disease: Prospects for adaptation through urban design - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This video clip comprises the four presentations of Panel Session 4, “Preparing Aging Populations for Climate Change in British Columbia and Beyond” held at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Dr. Michael Brauer "Climate change, air quality and chronic disease: Prospects for adaptation through urban design" - Climate change and air pollution are lin...

  16. PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC CONSTIPATION AND ITS PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT ON CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 4 TO 14 YEARS AND THEIR PARENTS : A HOSPITAL BASED CROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Madhu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal functional disorders especially constipation cause morbidity in otherwise healthy children with an estimated prevalence of 1% to 30%. It is perceived as a benign, easily treatable condition however left untreated, can lead to complication s ( F aecal impaction, incontinence and bowel perforations. Only a small proportion of patients seek medical advice; thus, the exact prevalence of the disorder is difficult to estimate. AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of chronic functional constipation in children aged 4 - 14 years and the degree of psychosocial impact on children and their parents. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross - sectional study was carried out at K.R and Cheluvamba Hospital, MMC &RI, MYSORE from 1st FEB 2014 to 31ST MAY, 2014. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Constipation was defined using Rome III criteria. Children with organic causes of chronic constipation were excluded. Abdominal pain, fecal mass, anorexia, fecal soiling, withholding behavior were recorded. Psychosocial impact on children and par ents was assessed using Paediatric Quality Of Life Inventory (PQLI and modified PIP Questionnaires. Scoring done according to instructions given with respective questionnaires. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Prevalence was calculated using rates, ratios and percen tages. Tests of significance were performed wherever relevant. P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of functional constipation was estimated to be 14.29% with higher prevalence in females as compared to males i.e. 1 6.19% vs. 13.42%. Perineal soiling was significantly associated with functional constipation i.e. 58.33%. Mean score of all children was 75.4 and 70.6 for physical and psychosocial impact. 88% children reported PQLI score <80(Mean 69.4. No difference betw een male and female child (p=.614. 83.33% parents reported score <80(Mean 69.3. No significant difference on psychosocial impact and quality of life according to PQLI

  17. The perspectives of older women with chronic neck pain on perceived effects of qigong and exercise therapy on aging: a qualitative interview study

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    Holmberg C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Christine Holmberg,1,2 Julia Rappenecker,1 Julia J Karner,1 Claudia M Witt1,3 1Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics, 2Berlin School of Public Health, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Chronic pain is prevalent in elderly populations. The goals of this study were 1 to understand the results of a randomized clinical trial – Qigong and Exercise Therapy for Elderly Patients with Chronic Neck Pain (QIBANE – that showed no difference between qigong, exercise therapy, and no-treatment on quality of life, and 2 to understand how elderly individuals with chronic pain experience interventions of qigong and exercise therapy. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 20 QIBANE participants. Interviews asked about motivation for and expectations of trial participation, experiences with the exercise classes (qigong or exercise therapy, and changes in pain experience. Interviews were transcribed, entered into the software program ATLAS.ti, and coded thematically by two coders. Content analysis was performed. All interviewees reflected positively on their QIBANE experience and described their participation in QIBANE as helpful. However, what was discussed in both groups when they talked about “positive experiences” in the study differed between the two groups. For example, themes that emerged in the exercise-therapy group related to difficulties associated with aging and staying physically active. In the interviews with qigong group members, emergent themes related to qigong as a method that improved bodily experiences and influenced daily activities. The effects that exercise therapy and qigong have on an elderly population cannot be captured by health-related quality-of-life measurements, such as the Short Form (36 Health Survey. Broader concepts of quality of life that include the

  18. Effect of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Body Composition Parameters and Exercise Capacity by Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Controls

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    Mann Randeep

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nutritional abnormalities are frequent systemic manifestation associated with COPD. The purpose of the present study was to compare the body composition parameters and exercise capacity between stable COPD patients and healthy controls, and to find the strength of association between exercise capacity, FMI and FFMI. Methods: 100 subjects were recruited, and divided into two groups. Group I included stable COPD patients, and Group II consisted of age matched healthy controls respectively. The spirometric parameters recorded were FEV1 (Litres, FVC (Litres, FEV1/FVC ratio (% predicted, FEF 25%75% (Litres/sec. Anthrometric measurements included Body Weight, Height and BMI measurements. Body composition was assessed by four-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BODY STAT, QUAD SCAN, USA. The following parameters were calculated: FFM, FFMI, FM and FMI. The exercise capacity was assessed by the six-minute walking distance test (6MWD. All the recordings were compared between groups and correlation was also computed between 6MWD, FMI and FFMI within groups. Results were analyzed using SPSS, version 16 and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: We found that COPD patients showed lower FFM, FFMI and exercise capacity as compared to healthy controls. And, great strength of association was found between FFMI and exercise capacity. Conclusions: Thus, our study indicates that with COPD there is preferential loss of lean body mass evident from lower FFMI leading to decreased walking distance in these patients. Hence, it is prudent to include nutritional and exercise capacity assessment in patients of COPD, to better manage these patients and improve their quality of life. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 53-57

  19. The relationship between non-communicable disease occurrence and poverty-evidence from demographic surveillance in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirelman, Andrew J; Rose, Sherri; Khan, Jahangir Am; Ahmed, Sayem; Peters, David H; Niessen, Louis W; Trujillo, Antonio J

    2016-07-01

    In low-income countries, a growing proportion of the disease burden is attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). There is little knowledge, however, of their impact on wealth, human capital, economic growth or household poverty. This article estimates the risk of being poor after an NCD death in the rural, low-income area of Matlab, Bangladesh. In a matched cohort study, we estimated the 2-year relative risk (RR) of being poor in Matlab households with an NCD death in 2010. Three separate measures of household economic status were used as outcomes: an asset-based index, self-rated household economic condition and total household landholding. Several estimation methods were used including contingency tables, log-binomial regression and regression standardization and machine learning. Households with an NCD death had a large and significant risk of being poor. The unadjusted RR of being poor after death was 1.19, 1.14 and 1.10 for the asset quintile, self-rated condition and landholding outcomes. Adjusting for household and individual level independent variables with log-binomial regression gave RRs of 1.19 [standard error (SE) 0.09], 1.16 (SE 0.07) and 1.14 (SE 0.06), which were found to be exactly the same using regression standardization (SE: 0.09, 0.05, 0.03). Machine learning-based standardization produced slightly smaller RRs though still in the same order of magnitude. The findings show that efforts to address the burden of NCD may also combat household poverty and provide a return beyond improved health. Future work should attempt to disentangle the mechanisms through which economic impacts from an NCD death occur. PMID:26843515

  20. Economic evaluations of non-communicable disease interventions in developing countries: a critical review of the evidence base

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    Walker Damian

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demographic projections suggest a major increase in non-communicable disease (NCD mortality over the next two decades in developing countries. In a climate of scarce resources, policy-makers need to know which interventions represent value for money. The prohibitive cost of performing multiple economic evaluations has generated interest in transferring the results of studies from one setting to another. This paper aims to bridge the gap in the current literature by critically evaluating the available published data on economic evaluations of NCD interventions in developing countries. Methods We identified and reviewed the methodological quality of 32 economic evaluations of NCD interventions in developing countries. Developing countries were defined according to the World Bank classification for low- and lower middle-income countries. We defined NCDs as the 12 categories listed in the 1993 World Bank report Investing in Health. English language literature was searched for the period January 1984 and January 2003 inclusive in Medline, Science Citation Index, HealthStar, NHS Economic Evaluation Database and Embase using medical subheading terms and free text searches. We then assessed the quality of studies according to a set of pre-defined technical criteria. Results We found that the quality of studies was poor and resource allocation decisions made by local and global policy-makers on the basis of this evidence could be misleading. Furthermore we have identified some clear gaps in the literature, particularly around injuries and strategies for tackling the consequences of the emerging tobacco epidemic. Conclusion In the face of poor evidence the role of so-called generalised cost-effectiveness analyses has an important role to play in aiding public health decision-making at the global level. Further research is needed to investigates the causes of variation among cost, effects and cost-effectiveness data within and between

  1. Developing the agenda for European Union collaboration on non-communicable diseases research in Sub-Saharan Africa

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    Ly Adama

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health research is increasing in Africa, but most resources are currently chanelled towards infectious diseases and health system development. While infectious diseases remain a heavy burden for some African countries, non-communicable diseases (NCDs account for more than half of all deaths globally and WHO predicts 27% increase in NCDs in Africa over the next decade. We present findings of a European-Africa consultation on the research agenda for NCDs. Methods A workshop was held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, organized by the Network for the Coordination and Advancement of Sub-Saharan Africa-European Union Science and Technology Cooperation (CAAST-Net. Drawing on initial presentations, a small expert group from academic, clinical, public-health and administrative positions considered research needs in Africa for cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Results Research in Africa can draw from different environmental and genetic characteristics to understand the causes of the disease, while economic and social factors are important in developing relevant strategies for prevention and treatment. The suggested research needs include better methods for description and recording, clinical studies, understanding cultural impacts, prevention strategies, and the integrated organisation of care. Specific fields proposed for research are listed. Conclusions Our paper contributes to transparency in the process of priority-setting for health research in Africa. Although the European Union Seventh Framework Research Programme prioritises biomedical and clinical research, research for Africa should also address broader social and cultural research and intervention research for greatest impact. Research policy leaders in Africa must engage national governments and international agencies as well as service providers and research communities. None can act effectively alone. Bringing together the different stakeholders, and feeding the results

  2. National responses to HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases in developing countries: analysis of strategic parallels and differences

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    Tilahun Nigatu Haregu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases (NCDs epidemics may have many important similarities in their aetiology, pathogenesis and management. Evidence about the similarities and differences between the national responses HIV/AIDS and NCDs is essential for an integrated response. The objective of this study was to examine the parallels and differences between national responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs in selected developing countries. This study applied a strategic level comparative case study approach as its study design. The main construct was national response to HIV/AIDS and NCDs. The 4 overarching themes were policy response, institutional mechanism, programmatic response and strategic information. Four countries were purposively selected as cases. Data were collected and triangulated from a multiple sources. The focus of analysis included identifying items for comparison, characteristics to be compared, degrees of similarity, and strategic importance of similarities. Analysis of data was qualitative content analysis with within-case, between-case, and across-case comparisons. While the nature of the disease and the contents of national HIV/AIDS and NCD policies are different, the policy processes involved are largely similar. Functional characteristics of programmatic response to HIV/AIDS and NCDs are similar. But the internal constituents are different. Though both HIV and NCDs require both a multi-sectorial response and a national coordination mechanism, the model and the complexity of the coordination are different. Strategic information frameworks for HIV/AIDS and NCDs use similar models. However, the indicators, targets and priorities are different. In conclusion, the national responses between HIV/AIDS and NCDs are largely similar in approaches and functions but different in content.

  3. Age-related increased prevalence of asthma and nasal polyps in chronic rhinosinusitis and its association with altered IL-6 trans-signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong H; Kim, Dae Woo; Lee, Sun H; Kolliputi, Narasaiah; Hong, Seung J; Suh, Lydia; Norton, James; Hulse, Kathryn E; Seshadri, Sudarshan; Conley, David B; Kern, Robert C; Tan, Bruce K; Peters, Anju; Grammer, Leslie C; Schleimer, Robert P

    2015-11-01

    We report that S100 proteins were reduced in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). S100A8/9, which is important in epithelial barrier function, was particularly decreased in elderly patients with CRS. Epithelial expression of S100A8/9 is partly regulated by the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway. The goal of this study was to investigate whether or not age-related reduction of S100A8/9 in CRS is associated with blunting of IL-6 trans-signaling. The levels of IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), soluble gp130 (sgp130), and S100A8/9 from control subjects (n = 10), and patients with CRS without nasal polyps (n = 13) and those with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) (n = 14), were measured by ELISA. Age-related differences in the level of each protein were investigated. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells were cultured in air-liquid interface and stimulated with IL-6/sIL-6R and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α with or without the addition of sgp130, a natural inhibitor of IL-6 trans-signaling. There was a significant age-related decline in S100A8/9 and an increase in sgp130 in nasal tissue samples from patients with CRSwNP, although there was no age-related difference in IL-6/sIL-6R production. Additionally, expression of the S100A8/9 gene and protein was increased significantly by IL-6/sIL-6R plus TNF-α in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. This increase was blocked by sgp130. These results suggest that increased sgp130 in older patients may inhibit IL-6 trans-signaling, impair barrier function, and decrease S1008/9 production in elderly patients with CRSwNP. Restoration of barrier function by targeting sgp130 may be a novel treatment strategy. PMID:26266960

  4. Nurse preparedness for the non-communicable disease escalation in Thailand: a cross-sectional survey of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Nicholas D; Rajataramya, Benjaporn; Tanomsingh, Saengchom; Ronis, David L; Potempa, Kathleen

    2012-03-01

    Chronic diseases are now the largest cause of mortality in Thailand, and form an increasingly large portion of the healthcare landscape. In the Thai health system, many patients with chronic conditions receive care and disease management services from nurses, yet specialized training in chronic diseases is not currently part of standard nursing degree programs. Given the evolving epidemiology of the Thailand population, we questioned whether practicing nurses remain confident in their knowledge and skills in chronic disease management. We conducted a cross-sectional, self-efficacy survey of nurses in eight randomly-selected provinces in Thailand, receiving 468 responses. Nurse self-efficacy was analyzed in prominent chronic disease types, including cancer, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, and pulmonary diseases. Factors, such as geographic location, education level, continuing education experience, and hospital size, were found to significantly affect nurse self-efficacy levels; nurses highly prioritized additional training in heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases, followed by hypertension, cancer, and diabetes. PMID:22304737

  5. Predictive Medicine for Chronic Patients in an Integrated Care Scenario. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease as Use Case

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Franco, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Tesi realitzada a l'Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) BACKGROUND The epidemics of non-communicable diseases and the need for cost-containment are triggering a profound reshaping of healthcare delivery toward adoption of the Chronic Care model, involving deployment of integrated care services (ICS) with the support of information and communication technologies (ICS-ICT). In this scenario, emerging systems medicine, with a holistic mechanism-based approa...

  6. Effects of music videos on sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults with chronic insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hui-Ling; Chang, En-Ting; Li, Yin-Ming; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Lee, Li-Hua; Wang, Hsiu-Mei

    2015-05-01

    Listening to soothing music has been used as a complementary therapy to improve sleep quality. However, there is no empirical evidence for the effects of music videos (MVs) on sleep quality in adults with insomnia as assessed by polysomnography (PSG). In this randomized crossover controlled trial, we compared the effects of a peaceful Buddhist MV intervention to a usual-care control condition before bedtime on subjective and objective sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults with chronic insomnia. The study was conducted in a hospital's sleep laboratory. We randomly assigned 38 subjects, aged 50-75 years, to an MV/usual-care sequence or a usual-care/MV sequence. After pretest data collection, testing was held on two consecutive nights, with subjects participating in one condition each night according to their assigned sequence. Each intervention lasted 30 min. Sleep was assessed using PSG and self-report questionnaires. After controlling for baseline data, sleep-onset latency was significantly shorter by approximately 2 min in the MV condition than in the usual-care condition (p = .002). The MV intervention had no significant effects relative to the usual care on any other sleep parameters assessed by PSG or self-reported sleep quality. These results suggest that an MV intervention may be effective in promoting sleep. However, the effectiveness of a Buddhist MV on sleep needs further study to develop a culturally specific insomnia intervention. Our findings also suggest that an MV intervention can serve as another option for health care providers to improve sleep onset in people with insomnia. PMID:25237150

  7. [Rupture of non-communicating rudimentary pregnant uterine horn in a pseudo-unicornuate uterus at 23 weeks of amenorrhea. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, F; Guillot, E; Cordier, A-G; Chis, C; Raynal, P; Panel, P

    2008-04-01

    Pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus is an extremely rare form of ectopic gestation associated with a high risk of uterine rupture. We report the case of a pregnancy developed in a non communicating rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus complicated by horn rupture at 23 weeks of amenorrhea showing as an acute abdominal pain and massive hemoperitoneum. This patient's uterine abnormality was known before, as this woman has delivered two years before at term a healthy boy by cesarean section. This past pregnancy was located in the normal horn and the non communicating rudimentary horn seemed at this time normal. This uterine malformation is presented with its gynecological and obstetrical entailments as well as methods that could prevent such outcome. PMID:18424217

  8. Do non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes associate with primary open-angle glaucoma? Insights from a case–control study in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Krettek, Alexandra; Shakya-Vaidya, Suraj; Aryal, Umesh Raj; Upadhyay, Madan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as hypertension and diabetes are rapidly emerging public health problems worldwide, and they associate with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). POAG is the most common cause of irreversible blindness. The most effective ways to prevent glaucoma blindness involve identifying high-risk populations and conducting routine screening for early case detection. This study investigated whether POAG associates with hypertension and diabetes in a Nepales...

  9. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd; ,

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a f...

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    NR Anthonisen

    2007-01-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are...

  11. Heredity of chronic bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Backer, Vibeke; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for lung diseases and lower respiratory symptoms, but since not all smokers develop chronic bronchitis and since chronic bronchitis is also diagnosed in never-smokers, it has been suggested that some individuals are more susceptible to develop chronic...... bronchitis due to genetics. OBJECTIVE: To study the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on the variation in the susceptibility to chronic bronchitis. METHODS: In a population-based questionnaire study of 13,649 twins, 50-71 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, we calculated sex......-specific concordance rates and heritability of chronic bronchitis. The response rate was 75%. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 9.3% among men and 8.5% among women. The concordance rate for chronic bronchitis was higher in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins among women; 0.30 vs. 0.17, but not...

  12. Protocol for a national, mixed-methods knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on non-communicable diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya; Amgalan, Gombodorj;

    2011-01-01

    Mongolia is undergoing rapid epidemiological transition with increasing urbanisation and economic development. The lifestyle and health of Mongolians are changing as a result, shown by the 2005 and 2009 STEPS surveys (World Health Organization's STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor...

  13. Vascular Effects of Advanced Glycation End-Products: Content of Immunohistochemically Detected AGEs in Radial Artery Samples as a Predictor for Arterial Calcification and Cardiovascular Risk in Asymptomatic Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Janda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Our aim was to determine whether vascular deposition of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs is associated with arterial calcification and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients and to assess the relationships between vascular content of AGEs and selected clinical and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods. The study comprised 54 CKD patients (33 hemodialyzed, 21 predialyzed. Examined parameters included BMI, incidence of diabetes, plasma fasting glucose, AGEs, soluble receptor for AGEs and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging, serum C-reactive protein (hsCRP, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and fetuin-A. Fragments of radial artery obtained during creation of hemodialysis access were stained for calcifications using alizarin red. AGEs deposits were identified immunohistochemically and their relative content was quantified. Results. Vascular content of AGEs was positively correlated with BMI, hsCRP, fetuin-A, PAI-1, and DPPH scavenging in simple regression; only fetuin-A was an independent predictor in multiple regression. There was a significant positive trend in the intensity of AGEs immunostaining among patients with grades 1, 2, and 3 calcifications. AGEs immunostaining intensity predicted 3-year cardiovascular mortality irrespective of patient’s age. Conclusions. The present study demonstrates an involvement of AGEs in the development of medial arterial calcification and the impact of arterial AGE deposition on cardiovascular mortality in CKD patients.

  14. Dietary and Physical Activity Pattern in Fars Province, National Plan of Chronic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Farahmand

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in lifestyle, especially in different aspects of nutrition and physical activity, have been associated with change in the patterns of diseases, from contagious diseases to non-communicable diseases, and with the prevalence of chronic diseases. Accordingly, this study is carried out within the framework of National Plan to Care for Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases with the aim of comparing the dietary patterns and physical activity of people under study in Fars province during 2006-2007. Materials and Methods: Using the WHO Step-by-step Evaluation Model for Risky Factors, the present study determined fifty 20-person clusters, totally 1,000 people within the age group of 15-64 for each year as the research population. After identifying the applicable people, they were visited at their homes and the questionnaires were filled out for them. The necessary analysis was carried out using Version 6 of EPI-info and Version 10 of STATA software.Results: The findings of the present study indicated that men have more intense physical activity than women (p=0.001. The results also indicated a significant increase in consumption of fruit (p=0.01, vegetable (p=0.001, and fish (p=0.001 in 2007 as compared with 2006. The average number of the consumed vegetable units in women was higher than that of men (p=0.01.Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that the average number of daily consumed units of fruit and vegetable as well as the frequencies of fish consumption per week was lower than the recommended amounts.

  15. Association between dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-wei; WAN Jia; LIU Zhang-suo; WANG Pei; CHENG Gen-yang; SHI Xue-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia,a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease,is common in patients with kidney disease.Recent studies discerned that dyslipidemias play a critical role in renal damage progression in renal diseases,but the association between dyslipidemias and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population remains unknown.Thus,we assessed whether the growing prevalence of dyslipidemia could increase the risk of CKD.Methods A total of 4779 middle-aged and elderly participants participated in this study.Dyslipidemias were defined by the 2007 Guidelines in Chinese Adults.Incident CKD was defined as albuminuria and/or reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR,<60 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2).Regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between dyslipidemia and albuminuria/reduced eGFR.Results Participants with hypercholesterolemia exhibited a greater prevalence of albuminuria and reduced eGFR (10.0% vs.6.1%,P=-0.001; 4.0% vs.2.4%,P=-0.028,respectively).Both hypercholesterolemia and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were independently associated with albuminuria (odds ratio (OR) 1.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.07 and OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.13-2.09,respectively).The multivariable adjusted OR of reduced eGFR in participants with hypercholesterolemia was 1.65 (95% CI 1.03-2.65).As the number of dyslipidemia components increased,so did the OR of CKD:0.87 (95% CI 0.65-1.15),1.29 (95% CI,0.83-2.01),and 7.87 (95% CI,3.75-16.50) for albuminuria,and 0.38 (95% CI 0.21-0.69),1.92 (95% CI 1.14-3.25),and 5.85 (95% CI 2.36-14.51)for reduced eGFR,respectively.Conclusions Our findings indicate that dyslipidemias increase the risk of CKD in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population.Hypercholesterolemia plays an important role in reducing total eGFR.Both low HDL-C and hypercholesterolemia are associated with an increased risk for albuminuria.

  16. [The contradictive tendencies in medical treatment of the Hellenistic age--diversity versus simplification, chronic extension (physical therapy) versus rapidity, humane medicine versus worldly success].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jayoung

    2008-06-01

    It is a one-sided view to find the greatness of Hippocrates just in seeking after scientific medicine (medicina scientia) and sublating superstitious treatment. The scientific medicine did not begin with him, and the succeeding generations of him were not one and the same in opinions. For example, there were the confrontations between the school of Kos and that of Knidos in the very age of Hippocrates, as well as the opposition of rationalism and empiricism. The school of Kos was alleged to succeed the tradition of Hippocrates, taking into consideration individual physical conditions and being based on the principle of various clinical methods of physical therapy assuming chronical extension. On the contrary, the school of Knidos tended to define the diseases in simple aspects, paying no much attention to the difference of physical conditions and developmental stages of illness. Futhermore, the latter grasped the diseases rather in the point of individual organs than the disorder of physical state of the body. It can be said that the anatomical knowledge was more useful for the school of Knidos. The difference between the two schools can also be found in what purpose the medicine sought after. While Hippocrates attached much importance to physical therapy and made the people including the poor as object of medical treatment, there were doctors in no small number, we can suppose, in pursuit of money, power, worldly glory. As time passed, however, the two schools gradually got similar to each other, the difference of them reduced as well as the tradition of Hippocrates faded. The opposition between rationalism and empiricism in the Hellenistic Age shared, in some aspect, the difference of Kos and Knidos. According to Celsus, the conflict between rationalism and empiricism did not refer to pharmacy or anatomy, but just to diet. The rationalism materialized various methods of therapy considering environmental elements as well as individual physical conditions, but the

  17. Prevalence and variation of Chronic Kidney Disease in the Irish health system: initial findings from the National Kidney Disease Surveillance Programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major non-communicable chronic disease that is associated with adverse clinical and economic outcomes. Passive surveillance systems are likely to improve efforts for prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and inform national service planning. This study was conducted to determine the overall prevalence of CKD in the Irish health system, assess period trends and explore patterns of variation as part of a novel surveillance initiative.

  18. Systematic review and economic analysis of the comparative effectiveness of different inhaled corticosteroids and their usage with long-acting beta2 agonists for the treatment of chronic asthma in adults and children aged 12 years and over

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, J; Rogers, G.; R. Anderson; Main, C; Thomson-Coon, J.; Hartwell, D.; Z. Liu; Loveman, Emma; Green, C.J.; Pitt, M.; Stein, K; Harris, P.; Frampton, GK; Smith, M; Takeda, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) alone and ICS used in combination with a long-acting beta2 agonist (LABA) in the treatment of chronic asthma in adults and children aged over 12 years. DATA SOURCES: Major electronic bibliographic databases, e.g. MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched up to February/March 2006 (and updated again in October 2006). REVIEW METHODS: A systematic review of clinical and cost-effectiveness studies was conducted. Co...

  19. The prevalence of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors at different ages among 150 000 men and women living in Mexico City: cross-sectional analyses of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peto Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most of the global burden from chronic diseases, and especially vascular diseases, is now borne by low and middle-income countries, few large-scale epidemiological studies of chronic diseases in such countries have been performed. Methods From 1998–2004, 52 584 men and 106 962 women aged ≥35 years were visited in their homes in Mexico City. Self reported diagnoses of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors were ascertained and physical measurements taken. Age- and sex-specific prevalences and means were analysed. Results After about age 50 years, diabetes was extremely common – for example, 23.8% of men and 26.9% of women aged 65–74 reported a diagnosis. By comparison, ischaemic heart disease was reported by 4.8% of men and 3.0% of women aged 65–74, a history of stroke by 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively, and a history of cancer by 1.3% and 2.1%. Cancer history was generally more common among women than men – the excess being largest in middle-age, due to breast and cervical cancer. At older ages, the gap narrowed because of an increasing prevalence of prostate cancer. 51% of men and 25% of women aged 35–54 smoked cigarettes, while 29% of men and 41% of women aged 35–54 were obese (i.e. BMI ≥30 kg/m2. The prevalence of treated hypertension or measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg increased about 50% more steeply with age among women than men, to 66% of women and 58% of men aged 65–74. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent but daily alcohol drinking was relatively uncommon. Conclusion Diabetes, obesity and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent among adults living in Mexico City. Long-term follow-up of this and other cohorts will establish the relevance of such factors to the major causes of death and disability in Mexico.

  20. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking

  1. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco, E-mail: luiz.baccaro@gmail.com [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Rua Alexander Fleming, 101, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil); Conde, Délio Marques [Breast Clinic, Hospital for Maternal and Child Healthcare, Goiânia, Goiás 74.125-120 (Brazil); Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil)

    2015-03-17

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  2. 老年慢性心衰患者运动康复的效果%Effects of exercise rehabilitation in aged patients with chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明娥; 霍红梅; 王梅林; 许红梅; 马敬霞

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨老年慢性心衰患者实施运动康复的安全性及效果.方法:83例老年慢性心衰患者被随机分为常规护理组(41例,常规护理)和运动康复组(42例,在常规护理基础上接受运动训练).疗程均为8周,随访12个月.患者心功能以纽约心脏病协会(NYHA)分级表示,以超声心动图测定左室射血分数(LVEF)和左室舒张末期内径(LVEDd),同时测定6min步行距离(6MWD),血浆脑钠肽(BNP)水平,代谢当量(METs),明尼苏达心力衰竭生活质量量表(MLHFQ)评分表示健康相关生活质量,记录12个月内的再入院率和死亡率.结果:两组治疗8周时LVEF、LVEDd、NYHA分级均显著改善(P均<0.05),且与常规护理组相比,运动康复组LVEF[ (54.7±6.2)%比(65.4±8.7)%]、LVEDd[(49.6±8.3) mm比(40.2±9.3) mm]、NYHA分级[(2.7±0.8)级比(1.9±0.9)级]改善更显著(P<0.05); 6MWD[ (122.7±9.2)m比(175.6±8.7)m]和METs[(5.8±1.8)比(8.4±2.4)]也明显增加(P<0.01),血浆BNP水平[(43.4±9.8)pg/ml比(31.7±8.9) pg/ml]明显降低(P<0.05);运动康复组康复训练中未发生严重不良事件.12个月时,运动康复组MLHFO评分明显高于常规护理组[(68.9±7.9)分比(45.6±8.2)分,P<0.05],因心衰再入院率明显低于常规护理组(9.5%比24.4%,P<0.05).结论:对老年慢性心衰患者实施运动康复安全有效,可明显改善心功能,增强运动耐力,提高生活质量.%Objective:To explore safcty and effects of exercise rehabilitation in aged patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).Methods:A total of 83 aged CHF patients were randomly divided into exercise rehabilitation group (n=42,received exercise training based on usual care) and usual care group (n=41,received usual care).Period of treatment was eight weeks and patients were followed up for 12 months.New York heart association (NYHA) classification was used to represent cardiac function.Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF),left ventricular enddiastolic dimension

  3. The Critical Need to Promote Research of Aging and Aging-related Diseases to Improve Health and Longevity of the Elderly Population

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Kunlin; Simpkins, James W.; Ji, Xunming; Leis, Miriam; Stambler, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    Due to the aging of the global population and the derivative increase in aging-related non-communicable diseases and their economic burden, there is an urgent need to promote research on aging and aging-related diseases as a way to improve healthy and productive longevity for the elderly population. To accomplish this goal, we advocate the following policies: 1) Increasing funding for research and development specifically directed to ameliorate degenerative aging processes and to extend healt...

  4. Self-reported health and health care use in an ageing population in the Agincourt sub-district of rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Clark

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is experiencing a demographic and epidemiological transition with an increase in population aged 50 years and older and rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases. This, coupled with high HIV and tuberculosis prevalence, puts an already weak health service under greater strain. Objective: To measure self-reported chronic health conditions and chronic disease risk factors, including smoking and alcohol use, and to establish their association with health care use in a rural South African population aged 50 years or older. Methods: The Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE, in collaboration with the INDEPTH Network and the World Health Organization, was implemented in the Agincourt sub-district in rural northeast South Africa where there is a long-standing health and socio-demographic surveillance system. Household-based interviews were conducted in a random sample of people aged 50 years and older. The interview included questions on self-reported health and health care use, and some physical measurements, including blood pressure and anthropometry. Results: Four hundred and twenty-five individuals aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Musculoskeletal pain was the most prevalent self-reported condition (41.7%; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 37.0–46.6 followed by hypertension (31.2%; 95% CI 26.8–35.9 and diabetes (6.1%; 95% CI 4.1–8.9. All self-reported conditions were significantly associated with low self-reported functionality and quality of life, 57% of participants had hypertension, including 44% of those who reported normal blood pressure. A large waist circumference and current alcohol consumption were associated with high risk of hypertension in men, whereas in women, old age, high waist–hip ratio, and less than 6 years of formal education were associated with high risk of hypertension. Only 45% of all participants reported accessing health care in the last 12 months. Those who reported

  5. Opioid therapy in non-cancer chronic pain patients: Trends and efficacy in different types of pain, patients age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin S AlMakadma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In both developing and developed countries, chronic pain remains a real issue and a true disease that affects up to 42% of the population in some areas. Opioids are widely used for the management of chronic pain with variations in prescribing practices, indications and observed efficacy. Aim: to analyze trends in opioids prescribing and patient response in chronic non-cancer pain conditions. Methods: Retrospective study of 1500 casenotes of patients suffering variable non-cancer chronic pain conditions. Detailed review of those cases who were managed using opioids. Statistical analysis using "SOFA" software set. Results: The prevalence of opioids prescribing in patients suffering this condition was thus around 35% (n=526. Women older than 50 years were more likely than men to have a chronic pain condition and to be given opioid therapy for 1 year or more. Opioid efficacy on neuropathic and mixed types of pain was found to be significant with relatively low rate of drop-out and limited side-effects that are not life threatening. Overall, patients stopped or changed their opioid medication due to inefficacy in only 12.7% of cases. Conclusions: The simple fact of having pain is itself a source of self-reported disability regardless of the actual physiological or pathological mechanism. Policy makers should be aware of the huge impact of chronic pain disease and of its serious effects on social and economical well-being. In developing countries, chronic pain could represent a real challenge for all parties. Multimodal management, including opioids, appears crucial for the approach of this disease.

  6. Gender differences and clustering of modifiable risk factors of non-communicable diseases among medical students: a cross sectional study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Aditya; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Giri, Smith; Paudel, Kumar; Neupane, Dinesh

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the study was to explore gender differences in the risk factors of non-communicable diseases among medical students in Nepal. We randomly selected two private and one government medical college located in Kathmandu Valley. All the third year medical students (n = 191) from these selected colleges were requested to participate in an anonymous cross sectional survey. We gathered information about different risk factors for non-communicable diseases including smoking and drinking habits, physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption. We identified significant gender differences in the clustering of modifiable risk factors among our study population (p value = 0.032). Logistic regression model showed that male and female medical students were significantly different in terms of smoking status [aOR = 4.12, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.57; 10.85] and high level of physical activity (aOR = 4.50, 95 % CI 1.80; 11.21). Male medical students should be targeted in future behavioral interventions for smoking cessation, while physical activity among female medical students needs to be promoted. PMID:24974088

  7. Double Burden, Non-Communicable Diseases And Risk Factors Evaluation In Sub-Saharan Africa: The Nigerian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E Ekpenyong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess the age and sex specific burden and associated risk factors ofNCDs in adult population of South-South Nigeria. It was a cross-sectional study conducted inUyo Metropolis, in 2009/2010; with 2780 participants (1447 males and 1333 females aged 18-60years. Instruments of survey were: a semi-structured questionnaire, anthropometric and nonanthropometric measures using standard procedures. The overall prevalence of NCDs was 32.8%.Disease specific prevalence was as follows: 25%, 14.4%, 12.7%, 20.1% and 10% for obesity,hypertension, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disorders and respiratory disorders respectively.Males’ vs females’ prevalence were: 20.7% vs 29.5%; 12.6% vs 12.2%; 9.7% vs 16.0%; 14.0% vs26.5% and 8.6% vs 7.6% for obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disordersand respiratory disorders respectively. Risk factors with increase odds for NCDs were: age, area ofresidence, work stress, triglyceride levels and positive family history. Physical inactivity, high totalcholesterol level, high general adiposity, high central adiposity and poor dietary habits were equallysignificantly associated. The high prevalence of NCDs in Nigeria was precipitated by modifiableand un-modifiable life style factors. Intervention programmes should focus on these factors toreverse the trend.

  8. Mobile applications for chronic disease self-management : building a bridge for behavior change

    OpenAIRE

    Aija Lähdesmäki

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the biggest challenges in the future of healthcare is the rising prevalence of chronic, non-communicable diseases. In high-income countries seven out of ten leading risk factors of death are caused by the way people eat, drink or move. Health behavior patterns are considered to account for 40 % of early mortality. If nothing changes, from 2011 until 2030 the cost of chronic disease in the whole world may reach 47 trillion dollars. It is clear that chronic disease care ne...

  9. Prevention of chronic disease in the 21st century: elimination of the leading preventable causes of premature death and disability in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Ursula E; Briss, Peter A; Goodman, Richard A; Bowman, Barbara A

    2014-07-01

    With non-communicable conditions accounting for nearly two-thirds of deaths worldwide, the emergence of chronic diseases as the predominant challenge to global health is undisputed. In the USA, chronic diseases are the main causes of poor health, disability, and death, and account for most of health-care expenditures. The chronic disease burden in the USA largely results from a short list of risk factors--including tobacco use, poor diet and physical inactivity (both strongly associated with obesity), excessive alcohol consumption, uncontrolled high blood pressure, and hyperlipidaemia--that can be effectively addressed for individuals and populations. Increases in the burden of chronic diseases are attributable to incidence and prevalence of leading chronic conditions and risk factors (which occur individually and in combination), and population demographics, including ageing and health disparities. To effectively and equitably address the chronic disease burden, public health and health-care systems need to deploy integrated approaches that bundle strategies and interventions, address many risk factors and conditions simultaneously, create population-wide changes, help the population subgroups most affected, and rely on implementation by many sectors, including public-private partnerships and involvement from all stakeholders. To help to meet the chronic disease burden, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses four cross-cutting strategies: (1) epidemiology and surveillance to monitor trends and inform programmes; (2) environmental approaches that promote health and support healthy behaviours; (3) health system interventions to improve the effective use of clinical and other preventive services; and (4) community resources linked to clinical services that sustain improved management of chronic conditions. Establishment of community conditions to support healthy behaviours and promote effective management of chronic conditions will deliver

  10. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors at adolescent age prevents enhanced freezing between repeated cue-exposures after conditioned fear in adult mice raised under chronic early life stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marit Arp, J; Ter Horst, Judith P; Loi, Manila; den Blaauwen, Jan; Bangert, Eline; Fernández, Guillén; Joëls, Marian; Oitzl, Melly S; Krugers, Harm

    2016-01-01

    Early life adversity can have long-lasting impact on learning and memory processes and increase the risk to develop stress-related psychopathologies later in life. In this study we investigated i) how chronic early life stress (ELS) - elicited by limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal d

  11. Chronic stress in adulthood followed by intermittent stress impairs spatial memory and the survival of newborn hippocampal cells in aging animals: prevention by FGL, a peptide mimetic of neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borcel, Erika; Pérez-Alvarez, Laura; Herrero, Ana Isabel;

    2008-01-01

    . Administration of FGL, a peptide mimetic of neural cell adhesion molecule, during the 4 weeks of continuous stress not only prevented the deleterious effects of chronic stress on spatial memory, but also reduced the survival of the newly generated hippocampal cells in aging animals. FGL treatment did not......, however, prevent the decrease in the total number of granular neurons that resulted from prolonged exposure to stress. These findings suggest that the development of new drugs that mimic neural cell adhesion molecule activity might be of therapeutic relevance to treat stress-induced cognitive impairment....

  12. GDNF在慢性应激和老化致小鼠行为与认知损伤中的作用%Role of GDNF in the behavior and cognitive impairment of mice induced by chronic stress and aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚; 张亚楠; 陈亚静; 张冠雄; 史建勋

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of chronic stress on the spatial learning-memory and the role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HP) in different age mice. Methods: The chronic stress model mice in 21 days with multiple chronic unpredictable stressors were applied. The spontaneous behavior and spatial learning-memory ability of mice were tested, using Open field and Morris water maze task, and the expression of GDNF in HP and PFC were detected by immunohistoche-mical method. Results: Compared with young mice, the spontaneous behaviors were significantly decreased and the spatial learning-memory function were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01) in aged mice. The GDNF expression in the CA3, DG of HP and PFC were significantly reduced in aged mice (P<0.05, P<0.01). After chronic stress, the spontaneous behaviors were remarkably decreased and the ability of spatial learning-memory of the stress group mice were significantly decreased (P< 0.05, P<0.01) compared with those of the control group mice. The expression of GDNF in HP and PFC were remarkably reduced (P<0.05, P<0.01) in stress group mice. The aged stress mice had more serious changes after chronic stress. Conclusion: The brain aging and chronic stress in mice causes behavioral changes and the damage of spatial learning-memory function, and which may be nearly related to the expression of GDNF in HP and PFC.%目的:探讨慢性应激对不同月龄小鼠空间学习记忆功能的影响,以及小鼠前脑皮层和海马胶质细胞源性神经营养因子(GDNF)的作用.方法:采用多因素慢性应激动物模型,通过旷场试验和Morris水迷宫试验,检测不同月龄小鼠行为及空间学习记忆能力,并检测GDNF在小鼠脑海马和前脑皮层的表达.结果:与青年(2月龄)小鼠比较,老年(15月龄)小鼠的自发活动和探究行为明显减少,空间学习记忆能力明显降低(P<0.05,P<0.01),且海马CA3

  13. The perspectives of older women with chronic neck pain on perceived effects of qigong and exercise therapy on aging: a qualitative interview study

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Christine Holmberg,1,2 Julia Rappenecker,1 Julia J Karner,1 Claudia M Witt1,3 1Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics, 2Berlin School of Public Health, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Chronic pain is prevalent in elderly populations. The goals of this study were 1) to understand the results of a randomize...

  14. The perspectives of older women with chronic neck pain on perceived effects of qigong and exercise therapy on aging: a qualitative interview study

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg C; Rappenecker J; Karner JJ; Witt CM

    2014-01-01

    Christine Holmberg,1,2 Julia Rappenecker,1 Julia J Karner,1 Claudia M Witt1,3 1Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics, 2Berlin School of Public Health, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Chronic pain is prevalent in elderly populations. The goals of this study were 1) to understand the results of a randomized clinical t...

  15. The Coexistence of asthma and Chronic Ostructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): prevalence and risk factors in young, middle-aged and elderly people from the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto de Marco; Giancarlo Pesce; Alessandro Marcon; Simone Accordini; Leonardo Antonicelli; Massimiliano Bugiani; Lucio Casali; Marcello Ferrari; Gabriele Nicolini; Maria Grazia Panico; Pietro Pirina; Maria Elisabetta Zanolin; Isa Cerveri; Giuseppe Verlato

    2013-01-01

    Background: The joint distribution of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been well described. This study aims at determining the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnoses of asthma, COPD and of the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome and to assess whether these conditions share a common set of risk factors. Methods: A screening questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, diagnoses and risk factors was administered by mail or phone to random samples of the general It...

  16. Application of the COOP/WONCA charts to aged patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a comparison between Japanese and Chinese populations

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Midori; Nakao, Motoyuki; Obata, Hideto; Ikeda, Hideki; Kanda, Tetsuro; Wang, Qiao; Hara, Yoriko; Omori, Hisamitsu; Ishihara, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is similar in Japan and China and is increasing due to high rates of smoking in these countries. Reducing COPD is an important public health issue. The goals of this study were to verify the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the COOP/WONCA charts, a tool for measuring health status, and to examine the qualitative differences in health status between Japanese and Chinese patients with COPD and between t...

  17. Pharmaceutical supply for disaster victims who need chronic disease management in region with aging population based on lessons learned from the Noto Peninsula Earthquake in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Junko; Nishita, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Kazuko

    2008-09-01

    The lessons from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and Chuuetsu Earthquake showed us how difficult it is to keep chronic disease management for survivors of such large-scale earthquakes, particularly for elderly people. To solve the problem, an ordinance for enforcement on exceptional practices was issued for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law Article 49 Clause 1. The law allows selling prescription medicines for patients with chronic diseases who have difficulties to continue their medications due to a large-scale disaster. To make it work, the patient should demonstrate that he or she continuously received the medication by presenting either Medication Notebook or prescription book recorded by the pharmacist. However, the Separation Rate of Prescription and Dispensing in Japan is still low; in particular, that in Ishikawa prefecture, where the Noto Peninsula Earthquake (M 6.9) occurred on March 25, 20007, is very low. It means that few victims hold a Medication Notebook. In consideration of this situation, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elderly victims of the Noto Peninsula Earthquake with a key-informant-interview during the period from July through August, 2007. This study revealed that: 1) Only 16% (18/110) of respondents kept a Medication Notebook; 2) 75% (82/110) had chronic diseases and received medication regularly; 3) Of 81 who had chronic diseases, 42% (34/91) were dispensed at the same pharmacy always, (The rest received from either clinic or changing pharmacy according to clinic location); and 4) Diseases that the respondents had were hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and so on. Based on these results, we discuss the establishment of a pharmaceutical supply system that can effectively distribute appropriate medicines to patients under difficult situations following a large-scale disaster in Japan. PMID:18758141

  18. Chronic Disease Burden Among Bhutanese Refugee Women Aged 18-65 Years Resettled in Northeast Ohio, United States, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Madhav P; Shakya, Sunita; Assad, Lori; Zullo, Melissa D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this community-based study was to assess the prevalence of chronic diseases among 18-65 year old Bhutanese refugee women resettled in Northeast Ohio, United States (US). A Nepali-language questionnaire was administered in a face-to-face mode. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, and hip and waist circumferences. The overall prevalence (95 % confidence interval) of self-reported hypertension, diabetes, asthma, heart disease, and cancer were 15.3 % (9.2-23.4), 6.4 % (2.3-10.9), 5.5 % (2.0-11.5), 2.7 % (0.6-7.8), and 1.8 % (0.2-6.4), respectively. Overweight/obesity was observed in 64.8 % of the women; 69.5 and 74.1 % had waist circumference >80 cm and waist-to-hip ratio ≥85, respectively. Length of time in the US was not associated with the prevalence of the chronic conditions. This study suggests chronic conditions may be significant health issues among US resettled Bhutanese refugees and a larger population-based study to confirm the findings is warranted. PMID:24849870

  19. Construction of the Chinese Veteran Clinical Research (CVCR) Platform for the assessment of non-communicable diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Jiping; Li Nan; Gao Jing; Guo Yuhe; Hu Wei; Yang Jinsheng; Yu Baocheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on the excellent medical care and management system for Chinese veterans,as well as the detailed medical documentation available,we aim to construct a Chinese Veteran Clinical Research (CVCR) platform on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and carry out studies of the primary disabling NCDs.Methods The Geriatric Neurology Department of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital and veterans' hospitals serve as the leading and participating units in the platform construction.The fundamental constituents of the platform are veteran communities.Stratified typical cluster sampling is adopted to recruit veteran communities.A cross-sectional study of mental,neurological,and substance use (MNS) disorders are performed in two stages using screening scale such as the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal cognitive assessment,followed by systematic neuropsychological assessments to make clinical diagnoses,evaluated disease awareness and care situation.Results A total of 9 676 among 277 veteran communities from 18 cities are recruited into this platform,yielding a response rate of 83.86%.8 812 subjects complete the MNS subproject screening and total response rate is 91.70%.The average participant age is (82.01±4.61) years,69.47% of veterans are 80 years or older.Most participants are male (94.01%),83.36% of subjects have at least a junior high school degree.The overall health status of veterans is good and stable.The most common NCD are cardiovascular disorders (86.44%),urinary and genital diseases (73.14%),eye and ear problems (66.25%),endocrine (56.56%) and neuro-psychiatric disturbances (50.78%).Conclusion We first construct a veterans' comprehensive clinical research platform for the study of NCDs that is primarily composed of highly educated Chinese males of advanced age and utilize this platform to complete a cross-sectional national investigation of MNS disorders among veterans.The good and stable health condition of the

  20. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  1. Executive summary: Football for health - prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases across the lifespan through football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangsbo, J; Junge, A; Dvorak, J; Krustrup, P

    2014-08-01

    This supplement contains 16 original articles describing how football conducted as small sided games affects fitness and health of untrained individuals across the lifespan. The intermittent nature of football and high exercise intensity result in a broad range of effects. The heart changes its structure and improves its function. Blood pressure is markedly reduced with the mean arterial blood pressure being lowered by ~10 mmHg for hypertensive men and women training 2-3 times/week for 12-26 weeks. Triglycerides and cholesterol are lowered and body fat declines, especially in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, muscle mass and bone mineral density increases in a number of participant groups, including 65-75-year-old men. The functional capacity is elevated with increases in VO₂ max of 10-15%, and 50-100% improvements in the capacity to perform intermittent work within 16 weeks. These effects apply irrespective of whether the participants are young, overweight, elderly or suffering from a disease. The studies clearly show that the participants enjoy playing football and form special relationships with their team mates. Thus, football is a healthy activity, providing a unique opportunity to increase recruitment and adherence to physical activity in a hitherto underserved population, and to treat and rehabilitate patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes and prostate cancer. PMID:24944139

  2. Chronic gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understand...

  3. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  4. Effects of unpredictable chronic stress on behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in CA3 subfield and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in different aged rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; JI Yong-juan; JIANG Hong; LIU De-xiang; ZHANG Qian; FAN Shu-jian; PAN Fang

    2009-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a stress-responsive intercellular messenger modifying hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The interaction between stress and age in BDNF expression is currently not fully understood. This study was conducted to observe unpredictable stress effect on behavior and BDNF expression in CA3 subfield (CA3) and dentate gyrus of hippocampus in different aged rats. Methods Forty-eight Wistar rats of two different ages (2 months and 15 months) were randomly assigned to six groups: two control groups and four stress groups. The rats in the stress group received three weeks of unpredictable mild stress. The depression state and the stress level of the animals were determined by sucrose preference test and observation of exploratory behavior in an open field (OF) test. The expressions of BDNF in CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were measured using immunohistochemistry. Results Age and stress had different effects on the behavior of different aged animals (age: F=6.173, P <0.05, stress: F=6.056, P <0.05). Stress was the main factor affecting sucrose preference (F=123.608, P <0.05). Decreased sucrose preference and suppressed behavior emerged directly following stress, lasting to at least the eighth day after stress in young animals (P <0.05). The older stress rats showed a lower sucrose preference than young stress rats (P <0.05). Older control rats behaved differently from the younger control animals in the OF test, spending more time in the central square (P <0.05), exhibiting fewer vertical movements (P <0.05) and less grooming (P <0.05). Following exposure to stress, older-aged rats showed no obvious changes in vertical movement and grooming. This indicates that aged rats were in an unexcited state before the stress period, and responded less to stressful stimuli than younger rats. There was significantly lower BDNF expression in the CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus following stress

  5. Analysis of bone mineral density in 143 middle- and elder-aged patients with chronic renal failure%143例中老年慢性肾衰竭患者双能X线骨密度结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂英; 邸彬; 肖太玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究中老年慢性肾衰竭CKD3期~CKD5期患者骨质疏松情况,分析骨质疏松与慢性肾衰竭、年龄、体重指数及性别的相关性,探讨慢性肾衰竭所致骨质疏松的早期表现。方法 ①采用双能X线骨密度仪测定腰椎正位(L1~L4)和股骨颈、Ward's三角、大粗隆的骨密度;②测量143例中老年慢性肾衰竭患者及对照组165例骨密度(BMD)值,采用病例对照法分析慢性肾衰竭对骨质疏松发病率的影响;③采用Logistic多元回归法分析慢性肾衰竭、年龄、性别及体重指数对骨质疏松的影响。结果 ①中老年慢性肾衰竭患者的骨质疏松发病率为79.02%,明显高于对照组(47.88%);②CKD3、4、5期患者中,骨质疏松患病率随肾功能减退而逐渐增加;骨质疏松与慢性肾衰竭及年龄正相关,与体重指数负相关;④Ward's三角的骨质疏松患病率及骨量减少程度高于股骨其他部位及腰椎。结论 慢性肾衰竭是骨质疏松的重要影响因素。Ward's三角可作为早期诊断骨质疏松的首选检查部位。%Objective To study the osteoporosis status in middle- and elder-aged patients with stage 3-5 of chronic renal failure, and to analyze the correlation among osteoporosis and chronic renal failure, age, body mass index, and gender, and to explore the early manifestations of osteoporosis in chronic renal failure patients. Methods 1 ) Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the bone mineral densities (BMD) of the lumbar vertebra (L,-L4), the femoral neck, the Ward' s triangle, and the femoral trochanter. 2) BMDs were measured in 143 middle- and elder-aged patients with chronic renal failure and 165 controls. Case-control analysis was used to show the effect of chronic renal failure on the incidence of osteoporosis. 3) Logistic multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the contributions of chronic renal failure, age, gender, and body mass index to

  6. PBPK modeling/Monte Carlo simulation of methylene chloride kinetic changes in mice in relation to age and acute, subchronic, and chronic inhalation exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, R S; Yang, R S; Morgan, D G; Moorman, M P; Kermani, H R; Sloane, R A; O'Connor, R W; Adkins, B; Gargas, M L; Andersen, M E

    1996-01-01

    During a 2-year chronic inhalation study on methylene chloride (2000 or 0 ppm; 6 hr/day, 5 days/week), gas-uptake pharmacokinetic studies and tissue partition coefficient determinations were conducted on female B6C3F1, mice after 1 day, 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years of exposure. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling coupled with Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap resampling for data analyses, a significant induction in the mixed function oxidase (MFO) rate constant (Vma...

  7. Chronic Cough in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, David S.

    1982-01-01

    Persistent cough in children is a symptom, and the cause should be ascertained. Reactive airways disease is the most common reason for chronic cough in children over three to six months of age, especially at night. Under three months, the cause is likely to be more serious. Cough often disturbs parents more than the child, and physicians should consider parents' need for sleep and relief when deciding whether or not to prescribe cough suppressants. Investigations depend on the child's age, th...

  8. History of Chronic Subdural Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2015-10-01

    Trephination or trepanation is an intentional surgical procedure performed from the Stone Age. It looks like escaping a black evil from the head. This technique is still used for treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (SDH). Now, we know the origin, pathogenesis and natural history of this lesion. The author try to explore the history of trephination and modern discovery of chronic SDH. The author performed a detailed electronic search of PubMed. By the key word of chronic SDH, 2,593 articles were found without language restriction in May 2015. The author reviewed the fact and way, discovering the present knowledge on the chronic SDH. The first authentic report of chronic SDH was that of Wepfer in 1657. Chronic SDH was regarded as a stroke in 17th century. It was changed as an inflammatory disease in 19th century by Virchow, and became a traumatic lesion in 20th century. However, trauma is not necessary in many cases of chronic SDHs. The more important prerequisite is sufficient potential subdural space, degeneration of the brain. Modifying Virchow's description, chronic SDH is sometimes traumatic, but most often caused by severe degeneration of the brain. From Wepfer's first description, nearly 350 years passed to explore the origin, pathogenesis, and fate of chronic SDH. The nature of the black evil in the head of the Stone Age is uncovering by many authors riding the giant's shoulder. Chronic SDH should be categorized as a degenerative lesion instead of a traumatic lesion. PMID:27169062

  9. Chronic growth faltering amongst a birth cohort of Indian children begins prior to weaning and is highly prevalent at three years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar Shabbar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor growth of children in developing countries is a major public health problem associated with mortality, morbidity and developmental delay. We describe growth up to three years of age and investigate factors related to stunting (low height-for-age at three years of age in a birth cohort from an urban slum. Methods 452 children born between March 2002 and August 2003 were followed until their third birthday in three neighbouring slums in Vellore, South India. Field workers visited homes to collect details of morbidity twice a week. Height and weight were measured monthly from one month of age in a study-run clinic. For analysis, standardised z-scores were generated using the 2006 WHO child growth standards. Risk factors for stunting at three years of age were analysed in logistic regression models. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the effect of missing values. Results At age three years, of 186 boys and 187 girls still under follow-up, 109 (66%, 95% Confidence interval 58-73% boys and 93 (56%, 95% CI 49-64% girls were stunted, 14 (8%, 95% CI 4-13% boys and 12 (7%, 95% CI 3-11% girls were wasted (low weight-for-height and 72 (43%, 95% CI 36-51 boys and 66 (39%, 95% CI 31-47% girls were underweight (low weight-for-age. In total 224/331 (68% children at three years had at least one growth deficiency (were stunted and/or underweight and/or wasted; even as early as one month of age 186/377 (49% children had at least one growth deficiency. Factors associated with stunting at three years were birth weight less than 2.5 kg (OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.36-9.70 'beedi-making' (manual production of cigarettes for a daily wage in the household (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.05-2.86, maternal height less than 150 cm (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.12-3.62, being stunted, wasted or underweight at six months of age (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.05-2.93 and having at least one older sibling (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.14-3.51. Conclusion A high proportion of urban slum dwelling

  10. Chronic Disease Cost not Transferable: Colombian Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Gallardo Solarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim is to reflect on the social and economic costs of chronic non-communicable disease (NCD in Colombia to display a charging indicator of these pathologies. Material and methods: In a review of 50 studies, 27 were selected since these met the inclusion criteria, like chronical disease, studies conducted between 2002 and 2011 related to costs, chronic disease, and being Colombian. Results: This is a review study of chronic diseases vs. their costs, being here cardiovascular diseases part of the group of high cost and higher incidence diseases, thus repre­senting a great risk to the financial stability of healthcare companies. There are few studies that address the costs generated by the treatment of ncds patients that show the economic impact experienced by public and private institutions providing and promoting health services. Most of them forget the economic, family and social costs the affected population must suffer. Conclu­sions: ncds represent a burden to the health service system for their very high costs, untimely intervention and reduced significant benefit for this population and their families.

  11. Intake of high fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks is associated with prevalent chronic bronchitis in U.S. Adults, ages 20–55 y

    OpenAIRE

    DeChristopher, Luanne Robalo; URIBARRI, JAIME; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Background High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) sweetened soft drink intake has been linked with asthma in US high-schoolers. Intake of beverages with excess free fructose (EFF), including apple juice, and HFCS sweetened fruit drinks and soft drinks, has been associated with asthma in children. One hypothesis for this association is that underlying fructose malabsorption and fructose reactivity in the GI may contribute to in situ formation of enFruAGEs. EnFruAGEs may be an overlooked source of adv...

  12. Chronic consumption of a western diet induces robust glial activation in aging mice and in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Leah C.; Harder, Jeffrey M.; Ileana Soto; de Vries, Wilhelmine N.; Simon W M John; Gareth R Howell

    2016-01-01

    Studies have assessed individual components of a western diet, but no study has assessed the long-term, cumulative effects of a western diet on aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, we have formulated the first western-style diet that mimics the fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and mineral levels of western diets. This diet was fed to aging C57BL/6J (B6) mice to identify phenotypes that may increase susceptibility to AD, and to APP/PS1 mice, a mouse model of AD, to determine the e...

  13. Distribution of TCM constitution types of community residents aged over 60 years with chronic diseases%社区老年居民慢性病患者的体质分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈孟炼; 钱会南; 孙鑫; 张标

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation of TCM constitution types and chronic diseases of elderly community residents. Methods After investigate the community residents who went to the Xiangheyuan Community Health Service centre using TCM Constitution Identification Questionnaire, the database was established and the data were analyzed. Results A total306 residents included, 84 of male (27. 45 % ) and 222 of female (72. 55 % ), 30 of constitution of yin - yang harmony (9. 80 % ) and 276 of biased constitution ( 90. 20 % ) . Compared with female, the percentage of harmony constitution and that of phlegm-dampness constitution in male were more( P く 0. 05 ) , while that of yang deficiency constitution was lower( P く 0. 05 ) . There were differences of distribution of nine constitution types in different age grades( P く 0. 05 ) . There were significant differences of distribution of constitutions of yang deficiency, yin deficiency, phlegm-dampness, damp-heat, qi stagnation, or allergy between the residents below 60 years old and the residents aged 60 and over(P く0. 05) - There were 20 of harmony constitution (8. 00 % ) and 230 biased constitution (92. 00% ) in 250 residents with chronic diseases ;10 of harmony constitution (17. 86 % ) and 46 biased constitution( 82.14% ) in 56 residents with no chronic diseases. The biased constitution ratio of residents with chronic diseases was higher than that of residents with no chronic diseases(P く 0.05 ) - Within the residents with chronic diseases, the five leading constitutions were, arranging from high to low, phlegm-dampness, qi stagnation, yin deficiency and yang deficiency. The leading chronic diseases were listed as hypertension , followed by osteoarthrosis , cardio-cerebrovascu-lar disease , chronic gastritis , hyperlipidemia , diabetes , insomnia. There were also differences distribution of TCM constitutions in different chronic diseases. Conclusion Biased constitution had higher proportion in community elderly

  14. Serving the Student-Survivor: Exploring the Transitional and Psychosocial Needs of School-Aged Children with Cancer and Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanin, Devon Malia

    2014-01-01

    The advances in medicine today have created an emerging population of student-survivors, school-aged children living with and/or recovering from serious health conditions (Bauman, 2010). Each school day in the United States, 46 young people, or the equivalent of two classrooms of students, learn they have cancer (Cure Search National Childhood…

  15. Exercise, Inflammation and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey A Woods; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Martin, Stephen A.; Kistler, Brandon M.

    2011-01-01

    Aging results in chronic low grade inflammation that is associated with increased risk for disease, poor physical functioning and mortality. Strategies that reduce age-related inflammation may improve the quality of life in older adults. Regular exercise is recommended for older people for a variety of reasons including increasing muscle mass and reducing risk for chronic diseases of the heart and metabolic systems. Only recently has exercise been examined in the context of inflammation. This...

  16. The effect of under-reporting of energy intake on dietary patterns and on the associations between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease in women aged 50-69 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Marianne S; Veierød, Marit B; Ursin, Giske; Andersen, Lene F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether under-reporting of energy intake affects derived dietary patterns and the association between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease. Diets of 6204 women aged 50-69 years participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program were assessed using a 253-item FFQ. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis. According to the revised Goldberg cut-off method, women with a ratio of reported energy intake:estimated BMR<1·10 were classified as low energy reporters (n 1133, 18 %). We examined the associations between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic diseases by log-binomial regression, and the results are presented as prevalence ratios (PR) and CI. 'Prudent', 'Western' and 'Continental' dietary patterns were identified among all reporters and plausible reporters. The PR expressing the associations between the 'Western' and 'Prudent' dietary pattern scores and self-reported chronic diseases were consistently highest among plausible reporters except for joint/muscle/skeletal disorders. The largest difference in PR among plausible v. all reporters was found for the association between the 'Prudent' pattern and diabetes (PR for highest v. lowest tertile: PRall reporters 2·16; 95 % CI 1·50, 3·13; P trend<0·001; PRplausible reporters 2·86; 95 % CI 1·81, 4·51; P trend<0·001). In conclusion, our results suggest that under-reporting can result in systematic error that can affect the association between dietary pattern and disease. In studies of dietary patterns, investigators ought to consider reporting effect estimates both for all individuals and for plausible reporters. PMID:27265399

  17. Chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044

  18. The Transferability of Health Promotion and Education Approaches Between Non-communicable Diseases and Communicable Diseases—an Analysis of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. McQueen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a seeming lack within the public health fields of both research and practice of information sharing across so-called “silos of work”. Many professionals in the public health fields dealing with infectious diseases (IDs are unaware of the programs and approaches taken by their colleagues in the non-communicable diseases (NCDs arena, and vice versa. A particular instance of this is in the understanding and application of health promotion approaches. This is a problem that needs to be addressed with the goal of producing the most efficient and effective health promotion approaches to the prevention and control of diseases in general. Objectives: This project examined health promotion approaches to the prevention of NCDs that could be used in the prevention of IDs. Methods: A knowledge synthesis and translation perspective was undertaken. We screened and analyzed a wide range of sources that were considered relevant, with particular emphasis on systematic reviews, published articles and the grey literature. Results: The analysis revealed a diverse health promotion knowledge base for application to IDs. Comprehensive health promotion models were found to be useful. Findings suggest that there are profound similarities for health promotion approaches in both NCDs and IDs. Conclusions: This study revealed gaps in knowledge synthesis to translation. The need for development of intervention and implementation research is considered.

  19. Can the sustainable development goals reduce the burden of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases without truly addressing major food system reforms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    While the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; 2000-2015) focused primarily on poverty reduction, hunger and infectious diseases, the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets pay more attention to nutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). One of the 169 proposed targets of the SDGs is to reduce premature deaths from NCDs by one third; another is to end malnutrition in all its forms. Nutrition-related NCDs (NR-NCDs) stand at the intersection between malnutrition and NCDs. Driven in large part by remarkable transformations of food systems, they are rapidly increasing in most low and middle income countries (LMICs). The transformation to modern food systems began in the period following World War II with policies designed to meet a very different set of nutritional and food needs, and continued with globalization in the 1990s onwards. Another type of food systems transformation will be needed to shift towards a healthier and more sustainable diet--as will meeting many of the other SDGs. The process will be complex but is necessary. Communities concerned with NCDs and with malnutrition need to work more closely together to demand food systems change. PMID:26082154

  20. Successful term delivery after laparoscopic resection of a non-communicating rudimentary horn in a patient with a unicornuate uterus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yasuhira; Suzuki, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eri; Goya, Ken-ichi; Nishijima, Yoshihiro; Shinoda, Mari; Hayashi, Masaru; Izumi, Shun-ichiro

    2014-07-01

    Unicornuate uterus accompanied by a non-communicating rudimentary horn is a rare uterine malformation. If a embryo is implanted into the rudimentary horn, continuation of pregnancy is difficult due to the risk of uterine rupture. We recently performed laparoscopic resection of the right rudimentary horn after two right rudimentary horn pregnancies in a woman, in whom a normal pregnancy occurred in the left unicornuate uterus, leading to successful delivery of a baby. This case is presented herein. The diagnostic procedures leading to identification of this rare malformation were prompted by inability to remove uterine contents during surgery performed after a diagnosis of missed abortion. A right rudimentary horn pregnancy, which had occurred twice, was treated with methotrexate. To prevent further pregnancy in the right rudimentary horn, resection of this rudimentary horn was planned and successfully implemented under laparoscopic guidance. This surgical procedure is usually difficult, but fertility could be preserved by employing minimally invasive surgery, involving the use of a LigaSureTM Vessel Sealing System to avoid ligation and assure virtually no bleeding. Soon after surgery, a natural pregnancy in the left unicornuate uterus was confirmed. Intrauterine fetal growth was normal, and transvaginal delivery at term was possible. PMID:25027248

  1. A proposed approach to monitor private-sector policies and practices related to food environments, obesity and non-communicable disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Kraak, V; Downs, S; Walker, C; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbé, M; Lee, A; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S

    2013-10-01

    Private-sector organizations play a critical role in shaping the food environments of individuals and populations. However, there is currently very limited independent monitoring of private-sector actions related to food environments. This paper reviews previous efforts to monitor the private sector in this area, and outlines a proposed approach to monitor private-sector policies and practices related to food environments, and their influence on obesity and non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention. A step-wise approach to data collection is recommended, in which the first ('minimal') step is the collation of publicly available food and nutrition-related policies of selected private-sector organizations. The second ('expanded') step assesses the nutritional composition of each organization's products, their promotions to children, their labelling practices, and the accessibility, availability and affordability of their products. The third ('optimal') step includes data on other commercial activities that may influence food environments, such as political lobbying and corporate philanthropy. The proposed approach will be further developed and piloted in countries of varying size and income levels. There is potential for this approach to enable national and international benchmarking of private-sector policies and practices, and to inform efforts to hold the private sector to account for their role in obesity and NCD prevention. PMID:24074209

  2. The "expert patient" approach for non-communicable disease management in low and middle income settings: When the reality confronts the rhetoric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Xiao

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the relevance between the Western "expert patient" rhetoric and the reality of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) control and management in low and middle income settings from the health sociological perspective.It firstly sets up a conceptual framework of the "expert patient" or the patient self-management approach, showing the rhetoric of the initiative in the developed countries.Then by examining the situation of NCDs control and management in low income settings, the paper tries to evaluate the possibilities of implementing the "expert patient" approach in these countries.Kober and Van Damme's study on the relevance of the "expert patient" for an HIV/AIDS program in low income settings is critically studied to show the relevance of the developed countries' rhetoric of the "expert patient" approach for the reality of developing countries.In addition, the MoPoTsyo diabetes peer educator program is analyzed to show the challenges faced by the low income countries in implementing patient selfmanagement programs.Finally, applications of the expert patient approach in China are discussed as well, to remind us of the possible difficulties in introducing it into rural settings.Copyright 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production.Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  3. Use of m-Health Technology for Preventive Interventions to Tackle Cardiometabolic Conditions and Other Non-Communicable Diseases in Latin America- Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratarrechea, Andrea; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Irazola, Vilma; Miranda, Jaime; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Rubinstein, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    In Latin America, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates will increase by an estimated 145% from 1990 to 2020. Several challenges related to social strains, inadequate public health infrastructure, and underfinanced healthcare systems make cardiometabolic conditions and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) difficult to prevent and control. On the other hand, the region has high mobile phone coverage, making mobile health (mHealth) particularly attractive to complement and improve strategies toward prevention and control of these conditions in low- and middle-income countries. In this article, we describe the experiences of three Centers of Excellence for prevention and control of NCDs sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute with mHealth interventions to address cardiometabolic conditions and other NCDs in Argentina, Guatemala, and Peru. The nine studies described involved the design and implementation of complex interventions targeting providers, patients and the public. The rationale, design of the interventions, and evaluation of processes and outcomes of each of these studies are described, together with barriers and enabling factors associated with their implementation. PMID:27041078

  4. Performance of the waist-to-height ratio in identifying obesity and predicting non-communicable diseases in the elderly population: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Márcia Mara; Thumé, Elaine; De Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Tomasi, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was carried out aiming to collect evidence on the use of the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) on the elderly population, focusing on validity measures to identify the best anthropometric indicator in assessing obesity associated with non-communicable diseases. The review consisted in a search of papers published on the databases Pubmed, Web of Science, and Lilacs, with no restriction regarding period of publication, using the following combinations: abdominal fat or overweight or obesity and waist-to-height ratio or waist height or waist ht or WHtR or waist to stature ratio or wst stature or WSR or stature and girth. Sixteen papers were selected, most of which with high methodological quality. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was the validity measure explored in 13 papers, followed by sensitivity and specificity measures. In all studies, the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) received special attention for analysis along with WHtR. Five manuscripts showed evidence of WHtR being the best anthropometric index when used alone, four showed that both WHtR and WC had the best discriminatory power in predicting cardiovascular risk factors compared to the other indices, and two ranked WHtR at the same performance level as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and BMI. An association was shown of the obesity assessed by WHtR in predicting risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes compared to other anthropometric parameters. PMID:27061665

  5. Non-communicating intramuscular ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intramuscular ganglia are rare. Most of the previously reported cases were connected with an adjacent joint. We present the imaging findings in three patients who had intramuscular ganglia that were not connected with a joint. Magnetic resonance showed a septated, encapsulated mass that was iso- or hypointense to muscle on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. A post-contrast T1-weighted scan in one patient showed minimal capsular enhancement. Ultrasound performed in one case showed an encapsulated, anechoic mass. (orig.)

  6. Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ... of the body equally. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic neuropathy caused by ...

  7. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  8. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  9. Chronic Dehydration and Regularly Drinking Water to Mitigate Age-Related Cognitive Impairment%慢性脱水与老年认知损伤及饮水干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷; 强敏; 赫荣乔

    2012-01-01

    Age-related cognitive impairment undergoes a continuous progression:pre-mild cognitive impairment(preMCI),mild cognitive impairment(MCI)and Alzheimer’s disease(AD). So far,chronic dehydration is regarded as a common symptom for the patients with age-related cognitive impairment,in particular of those with AD. Monitored with an infrared-CCD camera,a marked decrease in the drinking frequency(P65 years old)and in the hippocampus of Alzheimer’s patients. Regularly drinking water relieves not only chronic dehydration for aging people,but also significantly decreases the concentration of endogenous formaldehyde, which may offer protection of central nervous system. Therefore,building the habit to regularly drink water should be emphasized at the early stage to relieve chronic dehydration and scavenge cytotoxic metabolic products including formaldehyde for aging people,which might be beneficial to mitigate age-related cognitive impairment at its early stage.%老年认知损伤被认为是一个连续发展的病理生理学过程,包括轻度认知损伤前期(pre-mild cognitive impairment,pre-MCI)、轻度认知损伤(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)、阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer’s disease, AD)三个阶段,慢性脱水是老年性痴呆患者共同具有的一种特征。红外线摄像监控C57 BL/6小鼠饮水频率和饮水量的结果显示,老龄鼠的饮水频率和饮水量均较年轻对照组显著减少(P65岁)而逐渐升高,且AD病人脑内甲醛含量也显著升高。研究表明,甲醛代谢失调所造成的中枢神经系统慢性损伤被认为是老年认知损伤的原因之一,合理饮水不但可以改善老龄化人群的慢性脱水状态,同时能够明显降低体内的甲醛浓度,防止甲醛过量对中枢神经系统的危害,因此,合理饮水习惯的建立,被认为是减缓中老年人慢性脱水和体内细胞毒性代谢产物累积的方法之一,也可能在某种程度上,起

  10. Chronic treatment with a precursor of cellular phosphatidylcholine ameliorates morphological and behavioral effects of aging in the mouse [correction of rat] hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, D; Megias, M; Fernandez-Viadero, C; Verduga, R

    2004-06-01

    Normal aging is commonly associated with a decline in memory, mainly for that related with newly acquired information. The hippocampal formation (HF) is a brain region that has been implicated in this dysfunction. Within the HF there are several cellular types, such as pyramidal cells, granule neurons of the dentate gyrus, and astrocytes. CDP-choline is a well-known intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid essential for neuronal membrane preservation and function; thus, this compound would attenuate the process of neuronal aging. To test this, three groups of male mice were used in this study. An adult 12-month-old group (ACG), a 24-month-old (OCG), and an old experimental group (OEG) were administered orally a solution of CDP-choline (150 mg/kg per day) from 12 up to 24 months. Experimental observations suggest that CDP-choline has a positive effect on memory (reference errors were attenuated), and hippocampal morphology resembled that of younger animals. PMID:15246991

  11. Do non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes associate with primary open-angle glaucoma? Insights from a case–control study in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Krettek

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs such as hypertension and diabetes are rapidly emerging public health problems worldwide, and they associate with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. POAG is the most common cause of irreversible blindness. The most effective ways to prevent glaucoma blindness involve identifying high-risk populations and conducting routine screening for early case detection. This study investigated whether POAG associates with hypertension and diabetes in a Nepalese population. Methods: To explore the history of systemic illness, our hospital-based case–control study used non-random consecutive sampling in the general eye clinics in three hospitals across Nepal to enroll patients newly diagnosed with POAG and controls without POAG. The study protocol included history taking, ocular examination, and interviews with 173 POAG cases and 510 controls. Data analysis comprised descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics computed the percentage, mean, and standard deviation (SD; inferential statistics used McNemar's test to measure associations between diseases. Results: POAG affected males more frequently than females. The odds of members of the Gurung ethnic group having POAG were 2.05 times higher than for other ethnic groups. Hypertension and diabetes were strongly associated with POAG. The overall odds of POAG increased 2.72-fold among hypertensive and 3.50-fold among diabetic patients. Conclusion: POAG associates significantly with hypertension and diabetes in Nepal. Thus, periodic glaucoma screening for hypertension and diabetes patients in addition to opportunistic screening at eye clinics may aid in detecting more POAG cases at an early stage and hence in reducing avoidable blindness.

  12. Understanding and living with glaucoma and non-communicable diseases like hypertension and diabetes in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site: a qualitative study from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Shakya-Vaidya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is one of the most common causes of irreversible blindness. A possible association between POAG and non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes suggests that the incidence of POAG may increase. People with POAG in Nepal usually present late to hospital and have poor knowledge of glaucoma. Objectives: Anticipating a knowledge gap regarding these diseases, this study aimed to explore the knowledge of POAG, hypertension, and diabetes in the community and barriers to health care. Design: We conducted this qualitative study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community near Kathmandu, a capital city of Nepal. To study how disease influences knowledge, we conducted focus group discussions separately for men and women with and without pre-existing POAG, hypertension, and diabetes. Data were analyzed using the framework analysis approach. Results: Although people suffering from POAG, hypertension, and/or diabetes exhibited adequate knowledge of hypertension and diabetes, they lacked in-depth knowledge of POAG. People believed mostly in internal health locus of control. Perception of disease consequences and impact of disease on daily life was influenced by pre-existing POAG, hypertension, and/or diabetes but only in men. Gender disparity was observed regarding health literacy, health perception, and health barriers, which put women in a more difficult situation to tackle their health. We also revealed a gap between knowledge, attitude, and practice of health among women and healthy men. Conclusion: Although people in JD-HDSS exhibited adequate knowledge regarding hypertension and diabetes, they lacked in-depth knowledge about POAG. This study demonstrated gender difference in health literacy and access to health care, making women more vulnerable towards disease. We also demonstrated a gap between knowledge, attitude, and practice of health

  13. Influence of Angiotensin II Subtype 2 Receptor (AT2R Antagonist, PD123319, on Cardiovascular Remodelling of Aged Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats during Chronic Angiotensin II Subtype 1 Receptor (AT1R Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma S. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Adult (20 weeks and senescent (20 months spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were treated with either the AT1R antagonist, candesartan cilexetil (2 mg/kg/day, the AT2R antagonist, PD123319 (10 mg/kg/day, or a combination of the 2 compounds. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and left ventricular volume were markedly decreased by candesartan cilexetil, however, simultaneous treatment with PD123319 had no additional effect on either parameter. Perivascular fibrosis was significantly reduced by candesartan cilexetil in aged animals only, and this effect was reversed by concomitant PD123319 administration. Vascular hypertrophy was reduced by candesartan cilexetil, and these effects were reversed by simultaneous PD123319. These results suggest that AT2R stimulation does not significantly influence the antihypertensive effect of chronic AT1R blockade, but plays a role in the regulation of vascular structure. The severe degree of cardiac perivascular fibrosis in senescent animals was regressed by AT1R blockade and this effect was reversed by simultaneous AT2R inhibition, demonstrating an antifibrotic role of AT2R stimulation in the aging hypertensive heart.

  14. Successful up-scaled population interventions to reduce risk factors for non-communicable disease in adults: results from the International Community Interventions for Health (CIH Project in China, India and Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A Dyson

    Full Text Available Non-communicable disease (NCD is increasing rapidly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC, and is associated with tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. There is little evidence for up-scaled interventions at the population level to reduce risk in LMIC.The Community Interventions for Health (CIH program was a population-scale community intervention study with comparator population group undertaken in communities in China, India, and Mexico, each with populations between 150,000-250,000. Culturally appropriate interventions were delivered over 18-24 months. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of a stratified sample of adults aged 18-64 years were conducted at baseline and follow-up.A total of 6,194 adults completed surveys at baseline, and 6,022 at follow-up. The proportion meeting physical activity recommendations decreased significantly in the control group (C (44.1 to 30.2%, but not in the intervention group (I (38.0 to 36.1%, p<0.001. Those eating ≥ 5 portions of fruit and vegetables daily decreased significantly in C (19.2 to 17.2%, but did not change in I (20.0 to 19.6%,, p=0.013. The proportion adding salt to food was unchanged in C (24.9 to 25.3% and decreased in I (25.9 to 19.6%, p<0.001. Prevalence of obesity increased in C (8.3 to 11.2%, with no change in I (8.6 to 9.7%, p=0.092. Concerning tobacco, for men the difference-in-difference analysis showed that the reduction in use was significantly greater in I compared to C (p=0.014.Up-scaling known health promoting interventions designed to reduce the incidence of NCD in whole communities in LMIC is feasible, and has measurable beneficial outcomes on risk factors for NCD, namely tobacco use, diet, and physical inactivity.

  15. Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi Armin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim We have recently determined the optimal cut-off of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance for the diagnosis of insulin resistance (IR and metabolic syndrome (MetS in non-diabetic residents of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The aim of the present study is to establish the optimal cut-off at the national level in the Iranian population with and without diabetes. Methods Data of the third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases, available for 3,071 adult Iranian individuals aging 25-64 years were analyzed. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. HOMA-IR cut-offs from the 50th to the 95th percentile were calculated and sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio for MetS diagnosis were determined. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves of HOMA-IR for MetS diagnosis were depicted, and the optimal cut-offs were determined by two different methods: Youden index, and the shortest distance from the top left corner of the curve. Results The area under the curve (AUC (95%CI was 0.650 (0.631-0.670 for IDF-defined MetS and 0.683 (0.664-0.703 with the ATPIII definition. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for the diagnosis of IDF- and ATPIII-defined MetS in non-diabetic individuals was 1.775 (sensitivity: 57.3%, specificity: 65.3%, with ATPIII; sensitivity: 55.9%, specificity: 64.7%, with IDF. The optimal cut-offs in diabetic individuals were 3.875 (sensitivity: 49.7%, specificity: 69.6% and 4.325 (sensitivity: 45.4%, specificity: 69.0% for ATPIII- and IDF-defined MetS, respectively. Conclusion We determined the optimal HOMA-IR cut-off points for the diagnosis of MetS in the Iranian population with and without diabetes.

  16. Relação do sexo e da idade com nível de qualidade de vida em renais crônicos hemodialisados Relationship between gender and age with quality of life in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Santos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A taxa de mortalidade estacionada na última década e o aumento da prevalência de idosos entre hemodialisados motivaram o presente estudo que teve por objetivo determinar a relação do sexo e da idade com o nível de qualidade de vida (QV em portadores de insuficiência renal crônica sob terapia hemodialítica. MÉTODOS: Em uma amostra de 107 indivíduos submetidos à hemodiálise regular em uma Unidade de Diálise no interior do estado do Ceará, o Medical Outcomes Study Questionaire 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 foi utilizado para medida da QV. Foi calculado o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson para estimar e testar a correlação linear entre idade e as pontuações geradas pelo SF-36, e as pontuações de acordo com o sexo foram comparadas pelo teste t e de Mann-Whitney quando indicado. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre as pontuações de acordo com o sexo. Foi encontrada correlação linear e negativa entre a idade e as dimensões de QV nomeadas capacidade funcional (r=-0,289, p=0,003, limitação por aspectos físicos (r=-0,224, p=0,020, dor (r=0,252, p=0,008, estado geral de saúde (r=-0,245, pBACKGROUND: The stagnant mortality rate of the last decade and the increased prevalence of aged people among hemodialysis patients motivated the present study to determine the relation of gender and age with the quality of life (QL of patients with chronic kidney failure treated with hemodialysis. METHODS: From the sample of 107 individuals who underwent regular hemodialysis in a Dialysis Unit in the interior of the state of Ceará, Brazil, the Medical Outcomes Study Questionnaire 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 was used to assess quality of life. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to calculate and to test the linear correlation between age and the score generated by the SF-36. The score for gender was compared by the t test and the Mann-Whitney when indicated. RESULTS: There was no difference

  17. Molecular Inflammation: Underpinnings of Aging and Age-related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hae Young; Cesari, Matteo; Anton, Stephen; Marzetti, Emanuele; Giovannini, Silvia; Seo, Arnold Young; Carter, Christy; Yu, Byung Pal; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2008-01-01

    Recent scientific studies have advanced the notion of chronic inflammation as a major risk factor underlying aging and age-related diseases. In this review, low-grade, unresolved, molecular inflammation is described as an underlying mechanism of aging and age-related diseases, which may serve as a bridge between normal aging and age-related pathological processes. Accumulated data strongly suggest that continuous (chronic) up-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g., TNF-α, IL-1β, 6, CO...

  18. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  19. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have chronic pain may also have low self-esteem, depression, and anger. Causes & Risk Factors What causes ... as stretching and strengthening activities) and low-impact exercise (such as walking, swimming, or biking) can help ...

  20. Chronic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  1. Chronic Pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... weeks after heart surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is ...

  2. Prevalence of chronic conditions – Chronic Airflow Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland and Northern Ireland Population Health Observatory (INIsPHO)

    2012-01-01

    IPH has estimated and forecast clinical diagnosis rates of CAO among adults for the years 2010, 2015 and 2020. In the Republic of Ireland, the data are based on the Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN) 2007. The data describe the number of people who report that they have experienced doctor-diagnosed chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive lung (pulmonary) disease, or emphysema in the previous 12 months (annual clinical diagnosis). Data is available by age and sex for each Loca...

  3. Chronic treatment with a tryptophan-rich protein hydrolysate improves emotional processing, mental energy levels and reaction time in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, M H; Wittwer, J; Vargas, K; Hogan, E; Holmes, A; Rogers, P J; Goralczyk, R; Gibson, E L

    2015-01-28

    Common pharmacological treatments of mood disorders aim to modulate serotonergic neurotransmission and enhance serotonin levels in the brain. Brain serotonin levels are dependent on the availability of its food-derived precursor essential amino acid tryptophan (Trp). We tested the hypothesis that delivery of Trp via food may serve as an alternative treatment, and examined the effects of a Trp-rich, bioavailable dietary supplement from egg protein hydrolysate on cognitive and emotional functions, mood state, and sleep quality. In a randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel trial, fifty-nine mentally and physically healthy women aged 45-65 years received placebo (n 30) or the supplement (n 29) (both as 0.5 g twice per d) for 19 d. Emotional processing was significantly changed by supplementation, exhibiting a shift in bias away from negative stimuli. The results for the Affective Go/No-Go Task exhibited a slowing of responses to negative words, suggesting reduced attention to negative emotional stimuli. The results for the Facial Emotional Expression Rating Task also supported a shift away from attention to negative emotions and a bias towards happiness. An increase in arousal-like symptoms, labelled 'high energy', shorter reaction times and a slight benefit to sustained attention were observed in the treated subjects. Finally, when the supplement was taken 60-90 min before bedtime, a feeling of happiness before going to bed was consistently reported. In summary, daily consumption of a low-dose supplement containing bioavailable Trp may have beneficial effects on emotional and cognitive functions. PMID:25572038

  4. Non-communicable disease risk factor patterns among mining industry workers in Papua, Indonesia: longitudinal findings from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in a Papuan Population and Estimation of Risk (COPPER) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Rahajeng, Ekowati; Viliani, Francesca; Kushadiwijaya, Haripurnomo; Rachel M Amiya; Bangs, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) constitute an increasing slice of the global burden of disease, with the South-East Asia region projected to see the highest increase in NCD-related deaths over the next decade. Mining industry employees may be exposed to various factors potentially elevating their NCD risk. This study aimed to assess the distribution and 5-year longitudinal trends of key metabolic NCD risk factors in a cohort of copper–gold mining company workers in Papua, Indonesi...

  5. [Mnemonic complaints and chronic migraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Lasaosa, S; Viloria-Alebesque, A; Morandeira-Rivas, C; Lopez Del Val, L J; Bellosta-Diago, E; Velazquez-Benito, A

    2013-08-16

    INTRODUCTION. Patients with chronic migraine often report lower cognitive performance, which affects their quality of life. AIMS. To analyse whether the mnemonic capacity of patients with chronic migraine is altered or not. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with chronic migraine evaluated consecutively in our unit, and paired by age (18-60 years) and gender with a control group consisting of cognitively healthy volunteers. The following cognitive instruments were administered: Folstein Minimental State Examination (MMSE), Memory Alteration Test (M@T), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and working memory. RESULTS. A total of 30 patients with chronic migraine were included (mean age: 49.33 ± 10.05 years) paired with a control group of 30 healthy volunteers (mean age: 44.83 ± 10.91 years). The mean elapsed time since onset of the patients with chronic migraine was 4.47 ± 2.74 years. On performing a comparative analysis between the two groups, significant differences were found with overall lower scores in the group of patients with chronic migraine in the MoCA (24.16 versus 29), M@T (43.76 versus 48.8) and working memory tests (17.5 versus 24.26). Performance in the MMSE was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS. Patients with chronic migraine can have lower cognitive performance regardless of distracting elements, such as pharmacological factors or psychiatric comorbidity, since chronic migraine can be understood as yet another element within the spectrum of chronic pain. PMID:23884868

  6. Application study of comfortable nursing pattern on old age patients with chronic heart failure%舒适护理模式在老年慢性心力衰竭患者中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉云

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨老年慢性心力衰竭患者实施舒适护理的有效方法,全面提升护理质量.方法 将110例老年慢性心力衰竭患者随机分为观察组和对照组各55例,观察组实施舒适护理模式为框架,给予环境、生理、心理及社会各方面的护理干预.对照组给予常规护理,比较两组患者满意度、康复效果和依从性.结果 观察组患者的满意度、康复效果和依从性程度明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 舒适护理模式能使老年慢性心力衰竭患者在心理上获得安全感,增强其信心,值得临床推广.%Objective To explore the method of implementing comfortable nursing on old age patients with chronic heart failure,promote the nursing quality comprehensively.Methods A total of 1 10 patients were divided into observation group and control group,each group had 55 cases.The observation group was taken the comfortable nursing pattern as a frame including the environment,physiological,psychological and the social aspect nursing intervention.Control group was received conventional nursing pattern.Results Compared with control group,patient's degree of satisfaction,the recovery effect and the compliance degree in the observation group were improved obviously (P < 0.05 ).Conclusions The comfortable nursing pattern can get the old age patients with chronic heart failure obtain the security sense in the psychology,heightens its confidence.It is worth spreading.

  7. Challenges of non-communicable-diseases and control policies in China%我国慢性病挑战与防控对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁春琦; 石光

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable-diseases(NCDs)have become leading death causes and major health challenges for the Chinese people,incurring direct and indirect economic burden of diseases on families and the society,and even posing a serious threat to social-economic development sustainability of the country.Given their complex causes,NCDs mostly result from unhealthy lifestyle of the individuals,along with complex multiple social determinants.Evidences from home and abroad prove NCDs as preventable and controllable,which call for powerful government policy commitments and leadership.The government should make health policies part of social policies,build such intervention platform as Healthy City,rebuild the health service system,promote universal coverage of cost-effective interventions,and involve the entire society,reinforce general measures such as planning and performance monitoring.All of which can achieve desired outcomes for NCD control in the end.%慢性病是我国居民的主要死因和主要健康问题,可对家庭和社会带来直接和间接的经济损失,甚至成为影响经济社会可持续发展的重要问题.慢性病病因复杂,主要是不良生活方式的结果,但其背后有复杂的社会决定因素.国内外经验表明,慢性病是可防可控的,必须通过加强政府的政策承诺和领导,将卫生政策融入所有社会政策,建立健康城市等综合干预平台,重构医疗服务体系,普及推广具有成本效益措施以及动员全社会参与,强化规划和监督评价考核等综合措施,才能取得更好的防控效果.

  8. El control del tabaco, estrategia esencial para reducir las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles Tobacco control, a strategy to reduce non-communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerca de dos terceras partes del total de muertes a nivel global son causadas por las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Se han recomendando cinco intervenciones prioritarias para disminuir esta tendencia: 1. Control del tabaco (la más urgente e inmediata, 2. Reducción del consumo de sal, 3. Mejoría en la dieta y actividad física, 4. Reducción del consumo peligroso de alcohol y 5. Acceso a los medicamentos esenciales y la tecnología. En relación con los padecimientos derivados del consumo del tabaco, la OMS reconoce el conflicto fundamental de intereses entre las tabacaleras y la salud pública y sugiere la implementación del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco de la OMS y las estrategias MPOWER, ya que su completa implementación podría evitar cerca de 5.5 millones de muertes en los siguientes 10 años. Todas estas recomendaciones son viables y factibles de implementar si se consideran la voluntad política de los gobiernos, la infraestructura disponible, la capacidad técnica existente, la participación coordinada de todos los sectores y grupos de interés, la sociedad civil organizada y la colectividad en su conjunto.Nearly two-thirds of all deaths globally are caused by noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases and diabetes. The UN General Assembly approved Political Declaration of the High-Level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of non communicable diseases and recommending five priority interventions: 1. Tobacco control (the most urgent and immediate, 2. Salt reduction, 3. Improved diet and physical activity, 4 Reduction of hazardous alcohol intake, 5. Access to essential drugs and technologies. The Assembly recognizes the fundamental conflict of interest between tobacco industry and public health and recommends the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and MPOWER strategies. The full implementation of FCTC could prevent 5.5 Million of death in

  9. Study on Psychological Nursing of the Young or Middle-aged Patients with Chronic hepatitis B%中青年慢性乙型肝炎患者心理干预的临床效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴顺梅; 田思思; 陈左翼; 于洪博; 于雷

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究中青年慢性乙型肝炎患者的个性特征和心理状态,探讨适合患者的心理护理方法.方法:将100例中青年慢性乙型肝炎患者随机分为干预组和对照组,每组50例,两组在应用传统保肝治疗同时,对照组给予常规护理治疗,而干预组依照患者的一般资料,艾森克人格问卷测得的患者的个性特征,SCL-90测评的患者的心理状态,实施相应的心理护理,内容包括相关知识教育、支持性心理护理、音乐心理护理以及睡眠心理护理.两组均治疗六个月,通过对干预组和对照组治疗效果及护理满意度的比较,探讨适合中青年慢性乙型肝炎患者的心理护理方法.结果:中青年慢性乙型肝炎患者具有特殊的个性特征和心理状态,其气质类型以抑郁质和胆汁质占多数,并且不同性别、年龄、职业的患者其个性特征不同,其心理状态也不同.干预组的治疗效果和护理满意度评分明显高于对照组,具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:心理护理按照患者的不同个性特征和心理状态制定,能够有效减轻抑郁、焦虑等症状,缓解心理压力,稳定情绪,提高睡眠质量,有利于疾病的治疗.%Objective: To analyse the personality characteristic and psychological state of the young or middle-aged patients suffer form chronic hepatitis B, and to reseach the proper psychological nursing methods on these patients. Methods: 100 cases were randomly divided into treatment group and control group with 50 cases in each. Both groups were given conventional liver-protecting drags. Routine nursing and therapy were performed in control group while psychological nursing include health education,supportive, music and sleep psychological nursing according to the result of general data, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Symptom Checklist 90, were given to the treatment group, then research the proper psychological nursing methods on the young or middle-aged

  10. Heart Age PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  11. 中老年男性肥胖流行特征及其与慢性病的关系%Epidemiological characteristics of obesity and its relation to chronic diseases among middle aged and elderly men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泓澜; 徐飚; 郑苇; 徐望红; 高静; 舒晓鸥; 项永兵

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解上海市中老年男性肥胖的流行现状及其与慢性病的关系.方法 利用上海市男性健康队列研究的基线调查资料.研究对象为上海市某区8个街道40~74岁的中老年男性,2002-2006年期间共调查61 500人.采用体重指数(BMI)和腰围臀围比(WHR)作为肥胖的测量指标.利用非条件logistic回归模型分析肥胖和各种慢性病之间的关系.结果 被访者超重、肥胖和向心性肥胖的标化患病率分别为36.8%、7.7%和49.7%.在所有被访者中,66.7%患有一种及以上慢性疾病.高血压标化患病率(26.5%)居首位.分别调整WHR和BMI,高血压、冠心病、胆结石、泌尿道结石、中风的患病率随BMI和WHR的增高而上升.与正常BMI组相比,肥胖组患5种疾病的OR值为1.16~3.13;WHR最大组与最小组相比,5种疾病的OR值为1.20~1.69.趋势检验P值均<0.05.糖尿病与WHR呈正相关,WHR最大组的患病率是最小组2.40倍(95%CI:2.14~2.70),而糖尿病与BMI无关.慢性阻塞性肺病的患病率随BMI增高而下降,肥胖组与正常BMI组相比,OR=0.87(95%CI:0.77~0.98);而WHR结果 则相反,WHR最大组的OR值为最小组的1.26倍(95%CI:1.14~1.40).结论 高血压、胆结石、泌尿道结石、心脑血管疾病在肥胖男性中患病率较高.糖尿病患病率与向心性肥胖呈正相关.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of obesity and how they related to chronic diseases among middle aged and elderly men in urban Shanghai.Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from a baseline survey from an on-going cohort study of 61 500 men between 40-74 of age in urban Shanghai.Study subjects were recruited from 8 communities of an urban district in Shanghai during 2002 to 2006.General obesity was measured by body mass index (BMI≥28) and,central obesity by waist to hip ratio (WHR≥0.9).Unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio and 95

  12. [Prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease and strategies to counteract chronic diseases in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrilli, Valeria; D'Elia, Roberto; Galeone, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The Prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is placed in the more general context of prevention of major chronic Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs): cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic lung diseases and tumors that are the main problem for public health worldwide. Any health policy strategy aimed to the prevention of NCDs has to provide knowledge of health and socioeconomic status of the population, to reduce the level of exposure to risk factors and to adapt health services to the request for assistance. To this purpose, population monitoring systems have been implemented in the last years. The NCDs share some risk factors that are related, in large part, to unhealthy individual behaviours: smoking, alcohol abuse, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. NCDs prevention has to be understood as the set of all actions, sanitary and not, aiming to prevent or delay the onset of diseases or their complications. Preventive measures should, therefore, involve not only the health sector but also all the actors that can help to prevent that disease. As for the Prevention of CKD, the Ministry of Health has established a working table, which handled the Drafting of the "Position paper for the CKD", approved in the State-Regions Conference on august 8th 2014. The document draws a national strategy to combat this disease through primary prevention, early diagnosis and the establishment of diagnostic - therapeutic pathways (DTP). PMID:27545630

  13. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  15. Relationship between Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Sarcopenia in Korean Aged 40 Years and Older Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV-2, 3, and V-1, 2, 2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Jin Moon

    Full Text Available Protein-energy wasting is common in patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, few studies have examined the relationship between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD and sarcopenia.We conducted a cross-sectional study based on data in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. In total, 11,625 subjects aged 40 years or older who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined based on values of appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight (ASM/Wt two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean for young adults. Estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR were calculated using the CKD-EPI equation.Mean age, body mass index (BMI, and HOMA-IR were higher and caloric intake, physical activity, and vitamin D level were lower in the sarcopenia groups in both men and women. As the stage of CKD increased, the prevalence of sarcopenia increased, even in the early stages of CKD (normal and CKD1, 2, and 3-5: 2.6%, 5.6%, and 18.1% in men and 5.3%, 7.1%, and 12.6% in women, respectively; p < 0.001. In addition, a correlation analysis showed that GFR and ASM/Wt had significant correlations in both men and women. Logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for age, BMI, caloric intake, log(physical activity, vitamin D level, and log(HOMA-IR, showed that the odds ratio for sarcopenia with respect to CKD 3-5 was 1.93 (95% CI = 1.02-3.68 in men but was not statistically significant in women.The prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in elderly Korean patients with even mildly reduced kidney function. Stage of CKD was associated with an increased prevalence of sarcopenia in men but not women. Thus, we should evaluate the risk of sarcopenia and work to prevent it, even in patients with early CKD.

  16. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  17. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  18. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  19. The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Marnie; Bester, Janette; Kell, Douglas B; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-07-01

    Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a 'sterile' environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. 'Non-culturability', reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as 'dysbiosis'). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. 'Dysbiosis' is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term 'atopobiosis' for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines. PMID:25940667

  20. Entorno familiar, laboral, manifestaciones clínicas y enfermedades crónicas en mujeres de edad mediana Family and work environment, clinical manifestations of chronic diseases present in mean-age women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Heredia Hernández

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar a las mujeres atendidas en la consulta de climaterio y menopausia del Hospital Universitario "Eusebio Hernández" con respecto a: manifestaciones clínicas, entorno familiar y laboral, y enfermedades crónicas. MÉTODOS: estudio analítico transversal, con 450 mujeres de entre 40 y 59 años, de los municipios La Lisa, Playa y Marianao, atendidas entre el 1º de enero de 2006 y el 1º de enero de 2007. Se estudiaron diversas variables y se consideraron respuestas favorables o desfavorables según criterios establecidos en la encuesta. RESULTADOS: predominaron los calambres de manos y pies en el 79,5 % de las perimenopáusicas y 82,4 % de las posmenopáusicas, así como los bochornos o calores en el 53,8 % de las perimenopáusicas y 76,5 de las posmenopáusicas. En estas últimas predominaron los síntomas psicológicos en las que tenían entorno laboral desfavorable. El entorno familiar influyó significativamente en la presencia de un mayor número de síntomas clínicos en las perimenopáusicas y el entorno laboral en las posmenopáusicas. Hay un incremento en la aparición de algunas enfermedades crónicas después de la menopausia: la hipertensión arterial, la diabetes mellitus y la osteoporosis, con el 52,9, 29,4 y 11,8 % respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: hubo manifestaciones clínicas en las perimenopáusicas y en las posmenopáusicas, con sus particularidades. El entorno tuvo su influencia, para las perimenopáusicas fue significativo el familiar y para las posmenopáusicas el laboral. Las enfermedades crónicas más frecuentes en la posmenopausia fueron la hipertensión arterial, la diabetes mellitus y la osteoporosis.OBJECTIVE: to characterize the women seen in climacteric and menopause consultation of "Eusebio Hernández" University Hospital regarding: clinical manifestation, family and labour environment, and chronic disease. METHODS: authors made a cross-sectional and analytical study in 450 women aged between 40

  1. Facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nomiya, Shigenobu; Kariya, Shin; Nomiya, Rie; MORITA, NORIMASA; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Paparella, Michael M.; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2013-01-01

    The information on incidence of the facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media is important for surgeons. The purpose of this study is to disclose the histopathologic findings of facial nerve canal dehiscence in human temporal bones with chronic otitis media. We divided the human temporal bones into two groups (age 4 years, and under 4 years of age). We evaluated the incidence and the area of the facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media under light microscopy. Age-matc...

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  3. 杭州市下城区流动人口慢性病患病情况及危险因素分析%An analysis on the prevalence and risk factors of non - communicable diseases among immigrants in Xiacheng district in Hangxhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓红; 席胜军; 赵琪; 张睿

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of non - communicable diseases(NCD)among immigrants in Xiacheng district in Hangzhou city and to provide a scientific evidence for the development of prevention and control measures. Methods Using multi - stage cluster sampling method,immigrants were recruited. A face - to - face interview was conducted using structured questionnaire including general condition,smoking,drinking,physical exercise and life satisfaction. Meanwhile,height,weight,waist circumference,blood pressure,blood glucose and blood lipids were examined. The risk factors of NCD were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results A total of 303 immigrants aged over 18 years were randomly selected from 5 industries in Xiacheng district,Hangzhou. The prevalence rate of NCD among immigrants was 39. 60% ,and the prevalence rates of hypertension,diabetes,dyslipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD),asthma,cancer,bone and joint disease,cervical or lumbar disease were 16. 17% ,2. 97% ,28. 71% ,0. 99% ,0. 33% ,0. 66% ,3. 30% ,3. 63% , respectively. There were significant differences in the prevalence among immigrants of different industry,gender,age,education,marriage,body mass index (BMI),waist circumference,living environment,peasant - workers time and working way( P < 0. 05). Unconditional multivariate logistic regressions showed that accommodation and catering,social services,female,junior middle school and above were the protective factors,however overweight,obesity and waist circumference(male above 85 cm or female above 80 cm)were the risk factors. The odds ratios were 6. 112,11. 321,and 2. 315 respectively. Conclusion The prevalence rate of NCD among immigrants was high in urban area of Hangzhou city. Intervention strategy should be implemented timely in order to control the development of NCD according to the prevalence of different industry and related risk factors.%目的:了解杭州市下城区流动人口慢性病

  4. Chronic coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  5. Surveillance of the Incidence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) with Sparse Resources: A Simulation Study Using Data from a National Diabetes Registry, Denmark, 1995–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinks, Ralph; Hoyer, Annika; Landwehr, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    We propose two new methods to estimate secular trends in the incidence of a chronic disease from a series of prevalence studies and mortality data. One method is a direct inversion formula, the second method is a least squares estimation. Both methods are validated in a simulation study based on data from a diabetes register. The results of the validation show that the proposed methods may be useful in epidemiological settings with sparse resources, where running a register or a series of follow-up studies is difficult or impossible. PMID:27023438

  6. Chronic pain after childhood groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Kehlet, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to the well-described 10% risk of chronic pain affecting daily activities after adult groin hernia repair, chronic pain after childhood groin hernia repair has never been investigated. Studies of other childhood surgery before the age of 3 months suggest a risk of increased...... pain responsiveness later in life, but its potential relationship to chronic pain in adult life is unknown. METHODS: This was a nationwide detailed questionnaire study of chronic groin pain in adults having surgery for a groin hernia repair before the age of 5 years (n = 1075). RESULTS: The response...... the age of 3 months (n = 122) did not report groin pain more often or with higher intensity than other patients did. CONCLUSIONS: Groin pain in adult patients operated on for a groin hernia in childhood is uncommon and usually mild and occurs in relation to physical activity. Operation before the age...

  7. Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidi Armin; Nakhjavani Manouchehr; Zandieh Ali; Khalilzadeh Omid; Ashraf Haleh; Esteghamati Alireza; Haghazali Mehrdad; Asgari Fereshteh

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim We have recently determined the optimal cut-off of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance for the diagnosis of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non-diabetic residents of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The aim of the present study is to establish the optimal cut-off at the national level in the Iranian population with and without diabetes. Methods Data of the third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases, available f...

  8. Longevity factor klotho and chronic psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    Prather, A A; Epel, E S; Arenander, J; Broestl, L; Garay, B I; Wang, D; Dubal, D B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging and premature morbidity and mortality; however, the biology linking chronic psychological stress and its maladaptive effects remains largely unknown. Klotho is a pleiotropic hormone that regulates the aging process and promotes better brain and body health. Whether klotho is linked to psychosocial stress or its negative impact in humans has not been investigated. To address this gap, we recruited 178 healthy women who were eith...

  9. Skin mirrors human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Aged skin exhibits disturbed lipid barrier, angiogenesis, production of sweat, immune functions, and calcitriol synthesis as well as the tendency towards development of certain benign or malignant diseases. These complex biological processes comprise endogenous and exogenous factors. Ethnicity also markedly influences the phenotype of skin aging. The theories of cellular senescence, telomere shortening and decreased proliferative capacity, mitochondrial DNA single mutations, the inflammation theory, and the free radical theory try to explain the biological background of the global aging process, which is mirrored in the skin. The development of advanced glycation end-products and the declining hormonal levels are major factors influencing intrinsic aging. Chronic photodamage of the skin is the prime factor leading to extrinsic skin aging. The deterioration of important skin functions, due to intrinsic and extrinsic aging, leads to clinical manifestations, which mirror several internal age-associated diseases such as diabetes, arterial hypertension and malignancies. PMID:25436743

  10. Modelos de determinação social das doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis Models of social determination of chronic non-communicable diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Naomar Almeida-Filho

    2004-01-01

    Este ensaio revisa criticamente marcos referenciais e modelos teóricos de determinação social das chamadas Doenças Crônicas Não-Transmissíveis. A sociologia funcionalista gerou modelos socioculturais de saúde que influenciaram o campo de investigação epidemiológica da chamada "nova morbidade" (basicamente enfermidades crônicas e degenerativas), posteriormente agrupados sob o rótulo genérico de Teoria do Estresse. Analisam-se abordagens neodurkheimianas das desigualdades sociais, baseadas no c...

  11. Transiciones en contexto: hallazgos vinculados a migración rural-urbana y enfermedades no transmisibles en Perú Transitions in context: findings related to rural-to-urban migration and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jaime Miranda; Wells, Jonathan C.K.; Liam Smeeth

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo busca describir, en contexto, los distintos procesos de cambio por el que transcurren, en la actualidad, nuestras sociedades y poblaciones a fin de comprender mejor la emergencia de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en países de ingresos medios y bajos. Se describen aquellos factores relevantes para contextos específicos como el Perú, entre ellos migración interna, urbanización y los perfiles de adversidad en etapas tempranas de la vida, todos vinculados con enfe...

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter J; Burney, Peter G J; Silverman, Edwin K; Celli, Bartolome R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease with high global morbidity and mortality. COPD is characterized by poorly reversible airway obstruction, which is confirmed by spirometry, and includes obstruction of the small airways (chronic obstructive bronchiolitis) and emphysema, which lead to air trapping and shortness of breath in response to physical exertion. The most common risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking, but other environmental factors, such as exposure to indoor air pollutants - especially in developing countries - might influence COPD risk. Not all smokers develop COPD and the reasons for disease susceptibility in these individuals have not been fully elucidated. Although the mechanisms underlying COPD remain poorly understood, the disease is associated with chronic inflammation that is usually corticosteroid resistant. In addition, COPD involves accelerated ageing of the lungs and an abnormal repair mechanism that might be driven by oxidative stress. Acute exacerbations, which are mainly triggered by viral or bacterial infections, are important as they are linked to a poor prognosis. The mainstay of the management of stable disease is the use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, whereas corticosteroids are beneficial primarily in patients who have coexisting features of asthma, such as eosinophilic inflammation and more reversibility of airway obstruction. Apart from smoking cessation, no treatments reduce disease progression. More research is needed to better understand disease mechanisms and to develop new treatments that reduce disease activity and progression. PMID:27189863

  13. Chronic Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and...

  14. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Wu; Janchun Yu; Aiqin Zhu; Hiroshi Nakanishi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and ...

  15. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Stojceva-Taneva

    2016-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Our study showed that chronic kidney disease is frequent in the Republic of Macedonia and is associated with older age and diabetes. Diabetes had a significantly stronger association with CKD at younger age.

  16. Sedentary lifestyle and passive leisure in Czech school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Zdeněk Hamřík; Kalman Michal; Daniela Bobáková; Sigmund Erik

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour and an insufficient level of physical activity in children are the key factors leading to physically inactive behaviour in adulthood associated with the growing prevalence of mass non-communicable diseases in the population of the Czech Republic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze sedentary lifestyle, focusing on passive leisure (time spent watching television and using computer) in school-aged children in the Czech Republic. METHODS: To determine...

  17. Multiple chronic conditions and life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DuGoff, Eva H; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Buttorff, Christine; Leff, Bruce; Anderson, Gerard F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of people living with multiple chronic conditions is increasing, but we know little about the impact of multimorbidity on life expectancy. OBJECTIVE: We analyze life expectancy in Medicare beneficiaries by number of chronic conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN: A retrospective cohort...... study using single-decrement period life tables. SUBJECTS: Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=1,372,272) aged 67 and older as of January 1, 2008. MEASURES: Our primary outcome measure is life expectancy. We categorize study subjects by sex, race, selected chronic conditions (heart disease, cancer......, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, and Alzheimer disease), and number of comorbid conditions. Comorbidity was measured as a count of conditions collected by Chronic Conditions Warehouse and the Charlson Comorbidity Index. RESULTS: Life expectancy decreases with each additional chronic...

  18. Occurrence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Pritish K

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia of adults in the western world and constitutes about 33% of all leukemia′s. The incidence of CLL increases with age and are more common in older population. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) on the contrary occurs in both young adults and elderly and is a chronic myeloproliferative disease that originates from abnormal pluripotent stem cells and results in involvement of multiple hematopoietic lineages, but predominantly myeloid and ...

  19. Cohort Profile: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project: a prospective study of non-communicable diseases in a multi-ethnic population

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, Rahman; Syed Zakaria, Syed Zulkifli; Kamaruddin, Mohd Arman; Abd Jalal, Nazihah; Ismail, Norliza; Mohd Kamil, Norkhamiwati; Abdullah, Noraidatulakma; Baharudin, Norhafizah; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Hanita; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; ,

    2014-01-01

    The Malaysian Cohort study was initiated in 2005 by the Malaysian government. The top-down approach to this population-based cohort study ensured the allocation of sufficient funding for the project which aimed to recruit 100 000 individuals aged 35–70 years. Participants were recruited from rural and urban areas as well as from various socioeconomic groups. The main objectives of the study were to identify risk factors, to study gene-environment interaction and to discover biomarkers for the...

  20. Chronic migraine: risk factors, mechanisms and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Arne; Schulte, Laura H

    2016-08-01

    Chronic migraine has a great detrimental influence on a patient's life, with a severe impact on socioeconomic functioning and quality of life. Chronic migraine affects 1-2% of the general population, and about 8% of patients with migraine; it usually develops from episodic migraine at an annual conversion rate of about 3%. The chronification is reversible: about 26% of patients with chronic migraine go into remission within 2 years of chronification. The most important modifiable risk factors for chronic migraine include overuse of acute migraine medication, ineffective acute treatment, obesity, depression and stressful life events. Moreover, age, female sex and low educational status increase the risk of chronic migraine. The pathophysiology of migraine chronification can be understood as a threshold problem: certain predisposing factors, combined with frequent headache pain, lower the threshold of migraine attacks, thereby increasing the risk of chronic migraine. Treatment options include oral medications, nerve blockade with local anaesthetics or corticoids, and neuromodulation. Well-defined diagnostic criteria are crucial for the identification of chronic migraine. The International Headache Society classification of chronic migraine was recently updated, and now allows co-diagnosis of chronic migraine and medication overuse headache. This Review provides an up-to-date overview of the classification of chronic migraine, basic mechanisms and risk factors of migraine chronification, and the currently established treatment options. PMID:27389092

  1. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Dalke Meucci; Anaclaudia Gastal Fassa; Neice Muller Xavier Faria

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex. METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed), LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pai...

  2. How to Do in Persistent Diarrhea of Children?: Concepts and Treatments of Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kun Song; Kang, Dong Soo; Yu, Jeesuk; Chang, Young Pyo; Park, Woo Sung

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is defined as passing watery stools that lasts for more than 2 weeks. Persistent diarrhea belongs to chronic diarrhea and is a chronic episode of diarrhea of infectious etiology. The etiology of chronic diarrhea is varied. It is important to consider the child's age and clinical manifestations with alarm signals for an application of proper treatments to children with chronic diarrhea. Vicious cycle is present in chronic diarrhea and nutritional rehabilitation can break the v...

  3. Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  4. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  5. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Chronic Bronchitis If you have chronic bronchitis, you can take steps to control your symptoms. ... and a pneumonia vaccine. If you have chronic bronchitis, you may benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). PR ...

  6. Adult stem cells for chronic lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Ana L; Rojas, Mauricio

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic, progressive and lethal lung diseases. The incidence of IPF and COPD increases with age, independent of exposure to common environmental risk factors. At present, there is limited understanding of the relationship between ageing and the development of chronic lung diseases. One hypothesis is that chronic injury drives to exhaustion the local and systemic repair responses in the lung. These changes are accentuated during ageing where there is a progressive accumulation of senescent cells. Recently, stem cells have emerged as a critical reparative mechanism for lung injury. In this review, we discuss the repair response of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (B-MSC) after lung injury and how their function is affected by ageing. Our own work has demonstrated a protective role of B-MSC in several animal models of acute and chronic lung injury. We recently demonstrated the association, using animal models, between age and an increase in the susceptibility to develop severe injury and fibrosis. At the same time, we have identified functional differences between B-MSC isolated from young and old animals. Further studies are required to understand the functional impairment of ageing B-MSC, ultimately leading to a rapid stem cell depletion or fatigue, interfering with their ability to play a protective role in lung injury. The elucidation of these events will help in the development of rational and new therapeutic strategies for COPD and IPF. PMID:23648014

  7. Advanced glycation endproducts in chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Andries J.; Hartog, Jasper W. L.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Schleicher, E; Somoza,; Shieberle, P

    2008-01-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been proposed as factors involved in the development and progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). Cross-linking by AGEs results in vascular and myocardial stiffening, which are hallmarks in the pathogenesis of CHE Additionally, stimulation of receptors b

  8. Successful Aging: Multiple Trajectories and Population Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Following Rowe and Kahn¡¯s successful aging model, this study identified successful aging as a distinctive aging trajectory and examined gender differences in the aging process. Using the Health and Retirement Study data (2000-2008), this study applied group-based trajectory analysis to identify multiple aging trajectories in a sample of older Americans aged 65 and over (N=9,226). Six dimensions were analyzed in the multi-trajectory model: chronic disease, physical functional limitation, disa...

  9. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  10. Validation of anti-aging drugs by treating age-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2009-01-01

    Humans die from age-related diseases, which are deadly manifestations of the aging process. In order to extend life span, an anti-aging drug must delay age-related diseases. All together age-related diseases are the best biomarker of aging. Once a drug is used for treatment of any one chronic disease, its effect against other diseases (atherosclerosis, cancer, prostate enlargement, osteoporosis, insulin resistance, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, age-related macular degeneration) may be...

  11. CHANGING TRENDS IN CHRONIC PANCREATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenidhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: AIMS : To determine the demographic profile , to evaluate risk factors of chronic pancreatitis , frequency of complications and therapeutic modalities for management of chronic pancreatitis . METHODS : Data analyzed retrospectively from 177 patients of chronic pancreatitis admitted in the Department of Surgery in our institute between Jan 2003 & Decembe r 2012 . RESULTS : Male predominance , mean age of presentation is 32yrs , 66% with Alcohol consumption was the main risk factor , with associated diabetes and gall stones. Pain abdomen was the commonest mode of presentation , and USG sensitivity rate was 55%. P arenchymal calcification , Ductal calculi , pseudocyst were the commonest complications. Medical line of management was the initial therapy and surgical intervention was done as indicated. Number of readmissions noted. CONCLUSIONS : Although Kerala is known for highest prevalence of chronic pancreatitis in our country , it is a noted di sease & is on the rise in the state of Karnataka. Mean age of onset is older as compared to two decades ago and also a shift of etiology from tropical t o a lcoholic pancreatitis has been noted.

  12. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136

  13. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A.; Zugck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America:Effects of age,sex,polymorphism at PRNP codon 96,and disease progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa ...

  15. [Chronic diseases as a priority for the public health surveillance system in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral Cortes, José María; Aragonés Sanz, Nuria; Godoy, Pere; Sierra Moros, María José; Cano Portero, Rosa; González Moran, Francisco; Pousa Ortega, Ánxela

    2016-01-01

    At present, epidemiological surveillance in Spain remains focused on the communicable diseases included in the list of notifiable diseases. However, there has been a change in epidemiological pattern that predominated until the last few decades of the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, which used to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, have given way to a predominance of chronic diseases. In this regard, progress has been made in the drafting and adoption of specific legal regulations on public health monitoring. However, Spain has yet to develop this legislation which, among other elements, includes the mandate to organize the surveillance of non-communicable diseases in Spain. This article aims to describe some points that should be considered in the development of a national surveillance system linked to existing strategies for the prevention and control of chronic diseases. PMID:26832857

  16. [Environmentally induced (extrinsic) skin aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutmann, J; Schikowski, T; Hüls, A; Vierkötter, A; Grether-Beck, S

    2016-02-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, particularly as a component of natural sunlight, is a major cause of environmentally induced aging of the skin. In addition, other environmental factors for premature skin aging include longer wavelength radiation in the visible light region and in particular in the shortwave infrared radiation region. Furthermore, particulate and gaseous components of air pollution significantly contribute to the aging process. PMID:26769311

  17. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordier Jean-François

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than lymphocyte counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage. ICEP is a rare disorder of unknown cause. Its exact prevalence remains unknown. ICEP may affect every age group but is rare in childhood. It is twice as frequent in women as in men. One third to one half of the ICEP patients have a history of asthma. The mainstay of treatment of ICEP is systemic corticosteroids. Response to oral corticosteroid therapy is dramatic and has led to the consideration of corticosteroid challenge as a diagnostic test for ICEP. Nevertheless, relapses or development of severe asthma are frequent when tapering or withdrawing treatment. Long-term oral corticosteroid therapy is necessary in up to half of the patients.

  18. Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tram T.; Martin, Paul

    2001-12-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for 40% of cases of chronic liver disease in the United States and is now the most common indication for liver transplantation. Estimates suggest that 4 million people (1.8%) of the American population are or have been infected with HCV. Currently, the treatment of choice for patients with chronic HCV infection is recombinant interferon alfa with ribavirin. Pegylated interferons are a promising new development, and in combination with ribavirin, they will rapidly become the standard of care. The goals of therapy are to slow disease progression, improve hepatic histology, reduce infectivity, and reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Sustained virologic response, which generally implies the absence of viremia for 6 months or more following completion of therapy, is increasingly being regarded as a cure, with evidence of slowing or even regression of fibrosis on follow-up liver biopsy. A number of factors have been shown to be predictive of a sustained response, including viral genotype other than 1, low serum HCV RNA levels, absence of cirrhosis, younger age, female gender, and shorter duration of infection. Disease severity as assessed by liver biopsy, comorbidities, and possible contraindications to therapy should be weighed in the decision to begin treatment. Counseling patients regarding transmission, natural history, and drug and alcohol abstinence also should be included in management. Close monitoring should be done during treatment for side effects of interferon, including depression and bone marrow suppression. Hemolytic anemia is the major side effect of ribavirin. PMID:11696276

  19. The chronic leukaemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jacobs

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available The slow progression of both chronic granulocytic and lymphocytic leukaemia, when compared to their acute counterparts, has been used as an argument to support less aggressive therapy or even, in some instances, a watch-and-wait policy. This conservative approach is bolstered by a number of observations including the ease with which haematologic control can initially be achieved, the older age of patients with the lymphocytic variant and the paucity of controlled data showing that long disease-free survival or cure can result from the use of aggressive treatment. Given these circumstances, it is not surprising that many such individuals are managed outside specialised centres using a variety of agents and schedules, both of which may, on occasions, be inappropriate. Accumulating evidence suggests a need to reconsider these practices since cure is now possible in selected patients with chronic granulocytic leukaemia while the use of multi-drug regimens in the lymphatic form can significantly improve survival. These advances are the result of carefully conducted clinical trials involving many individuals the world over and constitute the basis fo r advocating early referral to those institutions where all the necessary expertise is available.

  20. [The role of the Consultative and Diagnostic Centre "Healthy Nutrition" in the diagnosis and nutritional prevention of non-communicable diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogozheva, A V; Sorokina, E Yu; Baturin, A K; Peskova, E V; Makurina, O N; Levin, L G; Soto, S Kh; Aristarkhova, T A; Korosteleva, M M; Denisova, N N; Solntseva, T N; Aleshina, I V; Toboleva, M A; Redzyuk, L A; Polyakova, A V

    2014-01-01

    In a consultative and diagnostic center "Healthy Nutrition" of Institute of Nutrition the nutritional status of 3500 patients (mean age 48.4 ± 0.3 years) liv- ing in the Moscow region, using a system Nutritest IP-3, including genomic analysis has been examined. In the analysis of dietary intake by an average review, increased energy intake due to excess intake of the total (44.2% energy) and saturated fat (13.6%) has been shown. 30.0% of patients were overweight and 34.1% were obese. Osteopenia was detected in 31.0% of men and 25.0% women, osteoporosis--20.9% and 30.3%, respectively. Analysis of the results of biochemical studies revealed increased cholesterol in 68.7% of patients, LDL cholesterol--at 63.9%, triglycerides-- at 22.5%, glucose--at 29.4%. The frequency of the occurrence of risk alleles of genes associated with the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus was: 47.8%--for the polymorphism rs9939609 (FTO gene), 8.3%--for polymorphism rs4994 (gene ADRB3), 60.2%--for the polymorphism rs659366 (gene UCP2), 36.6%--for the rs5219 polymorphism in the gene of ATP-dependent potassium channel. PMID:25929022