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Sample records for age body mass

  1. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  2. Is Age of Menarche Related with Body Mass Index?

    OpenAIRE

    Kazem Mohamad; Leila Jamshidi; Keramat Nouri Jelyani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Prediction of the onset of menstruation (menarche age) using height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) is a major health procedure. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between anthropometric indices and menarche age in 488 girls 11-17 years in southern Iran (Kish Island) in 2011. Methods Data was collected using questionnaires as well as measurements of the children’s height and weight. This data was analyzed using t-test and logistic regression. R...

  3. Body mass index and age of menarche in young girls

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Olivia; Melda Deliana; Supriatmo; Hakimi; Siska Mayasari Lubis

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently the age at onset of menarche is earlier than in the past. Nutritional status has an important role in the onset of menarche. Past studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) in young girls and earlier onset of menarche. Objective To assess an association between BMI and age at onset of menarche. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in young girls aged 10 to 15 years from Immanuel Elementary and Junior High School, Medan in June 2010...

  4. Is Age of Menarche Related with Body Mass Index?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Mohamad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prediction of the onset of menstruation (menarche age using height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI is a major health procedure. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between anthropometric indices and menarche age in 488 girls 11-17 years in southern Iran (Kish Island in 2011.Methods: Data was collected using questionnaires as well as measurements of the children’sheight and weight. This data was analyzed using t-test and logistic regression.Results: Median age of menarche of menstruated girls as inferred from the age of menarche cumulative distribution was 12.9 years. Mean (SD BMI in menstruated and non-menstruated girls were 21.97 (4.5 and 19.17 (3.7, respectively. Mean (SD weight and height of the menstruated girls were 53.65 (12.3 kg and 156.06 (5.5 cm, respectively which are higher than respective figures of the non-menstruated participants 43.70 (10.7 kg and 150.21 (6.3 cm, respectively. Our results revealed a significant correlation between BMI and menarche age.Conclusion: Menarche age and BMI are significantly correlated with higher BMI related to lower menarche age.

  5. Daily physical activity as determined by age, body mass and energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Klaas R Westerterp

    2015-01-01

    Aim Insight into the determinants of physical activity, including age, body mass and energy balance, facilitates the design of intervention studies with body mass and energy balance as determinants of health and optimal performance. Methods An analysis of physical activity energy expenditure in relation to age and body mass and in relation to energy balance, where activity energy expenditure is derived from daily energy expenditure as measured with doubly labelled water and body movement is m...

  6. Trends of Age at Menarche and Association with Body Mass Index in Chinese School-Aged Girls, 1985-2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing; Agardh, Anette

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the shifts in age at menarche from 1985 to 2010, compare the differences of average age at menarche between urban and rural groups, and determine the association of menarche with body mass index (BMI).

  7. TO STUDY THE BODY IMAGE AMO NG THE ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH BODY MASS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keziah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self - worth and mental health across lifespan . Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends not only on inner biological , but also psychological and socio - cultural components , body image is conceived as one’s attitudinal dispositions toward the physical self . The purpose of this study is to evaluate the body image satisfaction - dissa tisfaction among adolescent age group , to correlate the components of body image with body mass index and the influence of parents , peers and mass media on body image .

  8. Lean body mass in small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual photon absorptiometry using 153Gd in a whole-body scanner was used to measure lean body mass (LBM) in 51 newborn infants. LBM% decreased exponentially with increasing gestational age in both small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. In preterm SGA and AGA infants LBM was 104% and 103%, respectively, indicating that no fat was detectable. In term SGA infants LBM was 98%, which corresponded to 48 gm fat on average, and in term AGA infants LBM was 87%, which corresponded to 452 gm fat on average. The LBM%, ponderal index, and skinfold thickness were significantly different between AGA and SGA infants. Infants with clinical signs of intrauterine wastage had significantly higher LBM% than did infants without signs of weight loss. Our results on LBM% by dual photon absorptiometry agree with earlier dissection data; the clinically applicable methods of (1) height combined with weight (i.e., ponderal index), (2) skinfold thickness, and (3) scoring by clinical observations are useful for the estimation of lack of fat as an indicator of intrauterine growth retardation

  9. Body-mass dependence of age-related deterioration in human muscular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, D E

    1996-04-01

    Maximal anaerobic power of human muscles declines with increasing chronological age and is correlated with body mass. This study investigated whether the rate of deterioration in human muscular function among trained weight lifters is also correlated with body mass. Cross-sectional analysis of performance data of over 1,100 Masters competitors in Olympic-style weight lifting was carried out; eight body-weight classes and six age groups were represented. Two-lift total data (sum of snatch and clean and jerk lifts) were analyzed. Mean deterioration rates in the performance of athletes of widely diverse body masses were compared over the following age ranges: 42-57, 42-62, and 42-67 yr. No statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) was found between rate of performance decline and body mass. The relationship between body mass and the magnitude of age-related variation of deterioration rate was also studied; no significant correlation was found. Previous studies have demonstrated that performance in Olympic-style weight lifting is correlated with maximal anaerobic muscular power. This leads us to suggest that the age-related deterioration rate of anaerobic power in trained subjects may not be correlated with the body mass of the individual. PMID:8926240

  10. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo;

    2015-01-01

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins...

  11. Stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy: influence of maternal body mass index and age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Eva M

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy is limited. Uterine contractile performance may be altered in association with maternal obesity and advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to investigate the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy, and to evaluate a potential influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) and age.

  12. Whether age of menarche is influenced by body mass index and lipoproteins profile? a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Fereidoun Azizi; Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani; Maryam Farahmand

    2012-01-01

    Background: Menarche, a milestone in the reproductive life span of a woman, is influenced by several genetics and environmental factors. There is no consensus regarding the impact of body mass index (BMI) and lipid profiles on the age of menarche, as the results of various studies demonstrate. Objective: To investigate the correlation between age of menarche and BMI/lipoprotein profile in a community sample of Iranian girls. Materials and Methods: In the study, 370 girls, aged 10-16 years, wh...

  13. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9–15: The Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro Lilian A.; Novaes Jefferson S.; Santos Mara L.; Fernandes Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.8...

  14. Influence of age, menopause status, body mass index and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in midlife women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dai-min; Yu Qi; Zhang Ying; Chen Feng-ling

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of age,menopause status,body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in Chinese midlife women.Methods: The healthy women who underwent anniversary health checkup in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited cross-sectionally.The level of physical activity was determined via International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short in Chinese Version.The body composition and fat distribution were measured by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry.Results: A total of 162 women with average age 52 years (40-62 years) were recruited.Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between age,menopause status,BMI and physical activity and parameters of body composition and body fat distribution.The total fat tissue percentage was positively associated with BMI (standardized partial regression coefficient: b=0.70),menopause status (b=0.19,grading variables 1,2,3 were assigned to represent for reproductive group,menopausal transition group and postmenopausal group,respectively),and negatively associated with physical activity energy expenditure (b=-0.17) with model determination coefficient 0.55.Total body fat-free-tissue mass was positively associated with BMI (b =0.61),negatively associated with menopause status (b =-0.14) with model determination coefficient 0.39.The ratio of trunk fat-tissue mass/total body fat-tissue mass (Tr/T) was positively associated with BMI (b=0.32) and menopause status (b= 0.30) with model determination coefficient 0.20.After adjusted the effects of BMI,menopause status and physical activity,age was not significantly related with total fat tissue percentage,body fat-free-tissue mass,nor ratio of (Tr/T).Conclusion: Menopause impacts body composition and body fat distribution independently.During the process of female reproductive aging,body fat tissue mass and centrally distributed fat tissue mass increase,while body fatfree

  15. Assessment of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and dental age

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Sharifi; Hosein Agha Aghili; Maryam Zangouei-Booshehri; Fatemeh Ezoddini-Ardakani

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the rela-tionship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and accelerated dental development. The dental developmental ages of 100 children aged between 8 and 12 years were determined using the Demirjian method and panoramic radiographs. BMI status was determined for each subject on the basis of the system developed by the International Obesity Task Force. There was a significant direct relationship between dental development and BMI (P < 0.01). Obese children h...

  16. Age at menarche in the Korean female: secular trends and relationship to adulthood body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Ju Hyun; Lim, Se Won; Song, Bong Sub; Seo, Juhee; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Jung Sub

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study is to estimate the trend in age at menarche in the Korean female and evaluate the relationship between age at menarche and adult body mass index (BMI), which is a indicator of later-life health. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample (self-reported age at menarche and measured height and weight) of 11,065 females aged 15 and older. Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examinati...

  17. Exercise and aging: relationships between functional fitness, body mass index and psychosocial variables

    OpenAIRE

    de Souto Barreto, P.; Macia, E.; Chapuis-Lucciani, N.; Ferrandez, A.-M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to assess older exercisers’ functional fitness (FF), (2) to study the relationships between FF and psychosocial variables among older exercisers, and (3) to compare levels of body mass index (BMI), handgrip strength, and psychosocial variables, between exercisers and non-exercisers. Older women who were exercisers (Es, n = 17, age 59-86) and non-exercisers (NEs, n = 41, age 61-85) were tested on self-esteem, aesthetic body care, BMI and handgrip st...

  18. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a fall in maximal aerobic capacity as well as with a decline in lean body mass. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of aging on the relationship between aerobic capacity and lean body mass in subjects that chronically train both their upper and lower bodies. Eleven older rowers (58±5 yrs) and 11 younger rowers (27±4 yrs) participated in the study. Prior to the VO2max testing, subjects underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate total lean body mass. Subsequently, VO2max was quantified during a maximal exercise test on a rowing ergometer as well as a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer. The test protocol included a pre-exercise stage followed by incremental exercise until VO2max was reached. The order of exercise modes was randomized and there was a wash-out period between the two tests. Oxygen uptake was obtained via a breath-by-breath metabolic cart (Vmax™ Encore, San Diego, CA). Rowing VO2max was higher than cycling VO2max in both groups (p0.05), however, older subjects still demonstrated a lower rowing VO2max relative to younger subjects (p<0.05). Muscle mass is associated with the VO2max obtained, however, it appears that VO2max in older subjects may be less influenced by muscle mass than in younger subjects. PMID:27479009

  19. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Wheatley, Courtney M; Behnia, Mehrdad; Johnson, Bruce D

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a fall in maximal aerobic capacity as well as with a decline in lean body mass. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of aging on the relationship between aerobic capacity and lean body mass in subjects that chronically train both their upper and lower bodies. Eleven older rowers (58±5 yrs) and 11 younger rowers (27±4 yrs) participated in the study. Prior to the VO2max testing, subjects underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate total lean body mass. Subsequently, VO2max was quantified during a maximal exercise test on a rowing ergometer as well as a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer. The test protocol included a pre-exercise stage followed by incremental exercise until VO2max was reached. The order of exercise modes was randomized and there was a wash-out period between the two tests. Oxygen uptake was obtained via a breath-by-breath metabolic cart (Vmax™ Encore, San Diego, CA). Rowing VO2max was higher than cycling VO2max in both groups (prowing (p0.05), however, older subjects still demonstrated a lower rowing VO2max relative to younger subjects (p<0.05). Muscle mass is associated with the VO2max obtained, however, it appears that VO2max in older subjects may be less influenced by muscle mass than in younger subjects. PMID:27479009

  20. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  1. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8±6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8±7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1±6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0±9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1±2.7 kg/m2. 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged ≥50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged ≥40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  2. Effects of Aqua Aerobics on Body Composition, Body Mass, Lipid Profile, and Blood Count in Middle-Aged Sedentary Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantyka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effects of aqua aerobics on body weight and composition, lipid profile, and selected blood count parameters in middle-aged sedentary females. Methods. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (age 56.20 ± 2.57 years, height 162.80 ± 4.76 cm, weight 74.03 ± 3.84 kg that participated in aqua aerobics classes three times a week for three months and a control group (mean age 56.44 ± 3.28 years, height 165.00 ± 3.91 cm, weight 70.01 ± 11.36 kg not involved in any kind of targeted exercise. The aqua aerobics classes were tailored to suit the age and abilities of the participants, with workout intensity controlled and maintained at approximately 128-137 bpm. Results. Significant differences between the experimental and control groups were found for body weight, total body water, fat-free mass, and skeletal muscle mass. A significant increase in post-intervention hemoglobin and erythrocyte counts was observed in the experimental group. Conclusions. Future studies should determine the intensity of physical activity with the most beneficial effect on blood variables in middle-aged and older individuals.

  3. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9-15: the Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Lilian A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32. The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively. The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104 and self-esteem (p=0.09 were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01 and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016 and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01 only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02, but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02. It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the nonpractitioners group.

  4. Tracking of body mass index from 7 to 69 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Bjerregaard, L G; Gamborg, M; Ängquist, L; Tjønneland, A; Overvad, K; Linneberg, A; Osler, M; Mortensen, E L; Gyntelberg, F; Lund, R; Tia, Sørensen; Baker, J L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heavy children have an increased risk of being overweight young adults. Whether this risk remains in late adulthood is not fully elucidated. We investigated body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) tracking from childhood to late adulthood. METHODS: From the Copenhagen School Health Records...... patterns were similar. CONCLUSIONS: BMI tracking was weaker at late adult ages than young ages. Although BMI tracks across the life course, childhood BMI is relatively poor at identifying later adult overweight or obesity at ages when chronic diseases generally emerge.International Journal of Obesity...... accepted article preview online, 11 May 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.88....

  5. Association between serum total testosterone and Body Mass Index in middle aged healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim, Muhammad Omar; Ali Khan, Farooq Munfaet; Arshad, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine correlation of serum total testosterone with body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) in healthy adult males. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 nonsmoker healthy males (aged 30-50 years) university employees. They were selected by convenience sampling technique after a detailed medical history and clinical examination including BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) calculation. Blood sampling was carried out to measure serum total testosterone (TT) u...

  6. Weight gain in different periods of pregnancy and offspring's body mass index at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age.......We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age....

  7. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo;

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of...... age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer...... statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited...

  8. Physical fitness is inversely related with body mass index and body fat percentage in soccer players aged 16-18 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaïdis Pantelis Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents are at increased risk for the development of obesity, while sport has been suggested as an effective means against adolescent obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine (a the prevalence of overweight/obesity, (b the relationship between body mass index and body fat percentage, and (c the association between body mass index, body fat and physical fitness in soccer players aged 16-18 yr. Material and Methods: Members (n=109, aged 17.0±0.5 yr of competitive soccer clubs were examined for physical and physiological characteristics. Results: Based on international body mass index cut-off points, 18.3% (n=20 of participants were classified as overweight. Body mass index was highly correlated with body fat percentage (r=0.70, p<0.001. Body fat percentage was in inverse relationship with aerobic power (r=-0.21, p=0.029, maximal anaerobic power (r=-0.20, p=0.044 and local muscular endurance (r=-0.39, p<0.001, while corresponding values of body mass index were non-significant (r=-0.05, p=0.614; r=0.03, p=0.771; r=-0.12, p=0.220, respectively. However, both body fat percentage and body mass index were inversely related with fatigue index of Wingate anaerobic test (r=-0.26, p=0.009; r=-0.29, p=0.003, respectively. Conclusions: The strong relationship between body mass index and body fat percentage suggest the further use of body mass index in adolescent soccer players. The findings confirmed previous observations on general population about the negative effect of overweight and fatness on physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight among participants was similar with what is observed in general population. Therefore, sport participation cannot guarantee physiological body mass and body composition, and it is necessary to prescribe exercise targeting body mass and fat control.

  9. Cytokine responses in relation to age, gender, body mass index, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and otitis media among inuit in greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Soborg, Bolette; Børresen, Malene;

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection.......To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection....

  10. Senescence or selective disappearance? Age trajectories of body mass in wild and captive populations of a small-bodied primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Anni; Dammhahn, Melanie; Aujard, Fabienne; Eberle, Manfred; Hardy, Isabelle; Kappeler, Peter M; Perret, Martine; Schliehe-Diecks, Susanne; Kraus, Cornelia

    2014-09-22

    Classic theories of ageing consider extrinsic mortality (EM) a major factor in shaping longevity and ageing, yet most studies of functional ageing focus on species with low EM. This bias may cause overestimation of the influence of senescent declines in performance over condition-dependent mortality on demographic processes across taxa. To simultaneously investigate the roles of functional senescence (FS) and intrinsic, extrinsic and condition-dependent mortality in a species with a high predation risk in nature, we compared age trajectories of body mass (BM) in wild and captive grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) using longitudinal data (853 individuals followed through adulthood). We found evidence of non-random mortality in both settings. In captivity, the oldest animals showed senescence in their ability to regain lost BM, whereas no evidence of FS was found in the wild. Overall, captive animals lived longer, but a reversed sex bias in lifespan was observed between wild and captive populations. We suggest that even moderately condition-dependent EM may lead to negligible FS in the wild. While high EM may act to reduce the average lifespan, this evolutionary process may be counteracted by the increased fitness of the long-lived, high-quality individuals. PMID:25100693

  11. Physical fitness is inversely related with body mass index and body fat percentage in soccer players aged 16-18 years

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaïdis Pantelis Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents are at increased risk for the development of obesity, while sport has been suggested as an effective means against adolescent obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, (b) the relationship between body mass index and body fat percentage, and (c) the association between body mass index, body fat and physical fitness in soccer players aged 16-18 yr. Material and Methods: Members (n=109, aged 17.0±0.5 yr) of co...

  12. Impact of body mass index, age and varicocele on reproductive hormone profile from elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. R. Yamaçake

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To study the impact of obesity, age and varicocele on sexual hormones fof adult and elderly men. Materials and Methods: 875 men who were screened for prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. Data recorded comprised age, body mass index (BMI, serum levels of total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH. Patients were divided in groups according to their BMI in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese grades 1, 2 or 3. First, it was studied the association between age, BMI, and hormone profile. Then, clinical varicocele was evaluated in 298 patients to assess its correlation to the others parameters. Results: Obese patients had lower levels of TT, FT and SHBG (p<0.001 compared to underweight or normal weight patients. There were no differences in age (p=0.113, FSH serum levels (p=0.863 and LH serum levels (p=0.218 between obese and non-obese patients. Obese grade 3 had lower levels of TT and FT compared to obese grade 1 and 2 (p<0.05. There was no difference in the SHBG levels (p=0.120 among obese patients. There was no association between varicocele and BMI; and varicocele did not impact on testosterone or SHBG levels. Conclusions: Men with higher BMI have a lower serum level of TT, FT and SHBG. The presence of clinical varicocele as well as its grade has no impact on hormone profile in elderly men.

  13. [Maternal Predictors of Body Mass Index of Pre-school and School Age Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Félix, Rosario E; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Cárdenas-Villareal, Valia M; Moral de la Rubia, José; Ruvalcaba Rodríguez, María D; Hernandez-Carranco, Roandy G

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to identify maternal variables that could be used as predictors of the child's body mass index (BMI). We considered the following variables: (a) socio-demographic (age, education, occupation, marital status and family income); (b) anthropometric (BMI); and (c) upbringing strategies (monitoring and limits for eating habits, monitoring and sedentary behavior limits, discipline and control in feeding. A predictive correlational study was carried out with 537 dyads (mother-child). Children enrolled in 4 public schools (2 for pre-school children and 2 for primary school children) were selected for probabilistic, random sampling. The mothers answered the Feeding and Activity Upbringing Strategies Scale, giving socio-demographic information and the dyads' weight and height was measured. The data were analyzed for correlations and path analysis. It was found that the average age of mothers was 34.25 years (SD=6.91), with 12.40 years of education (SD=3.36), 53.3% mentioned that they were housewives and 46.7% had a paid job outside of the home; 38.5% showed pre-OB and 27.3% some degree of OB. The child's average age was 7.26 years (SD=2.46), and 3.2% showed low weight, 59.6% normal weight and 37.2% OW-0B. It was found that working outside the home, having a higher maternal BMI, less control and more discipline in feeding are variables that predict higher BMI in the child. We recommend the design of interventions to reduce and treat the child's OW-OB taking into account the predictors that were found. PMID:26821487

  14. Sex and Age Differences in Body-Image, Self-Esteem, and Body Mass Index in Adolescents and Adults After Single-Ventricle Palliation

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Nancy A.; EVANGELISTA, LORRAINE S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 fema...

  15. The variations of body mass index and body fat in adult Thai people across the age spectrum measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chittawatanarat K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaweesak Chittawatanarat1,2, Sakda Pruenglampoo3, Siriphan Kongsawasdi4, Busaba Chuatrakoon4, Vibul Trakulhoon5, Winai Ungpinitpong6, Jayanton Patumanond21Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 2Clinical Epidemiology Unit, 3Research Institute for Health Sciences, 4Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 5Department of Surgery, Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, Bangkok, 6Surgical Unit, Surin Hospital, Surin, ThailandBackground: The measurements of body mass index (BMI and percentage of body fat are used in many clinical situations. However, special tools are required to measure body fat. Many formulas are proposed for estimation but these use constant coefficients of age. Age spectrum might affect the predicted value of the body composition due to body component alterations, and the coefficient of age for body fat prediction might produce inconsistent results. The objective of this study was to identify variations of BMI and body fat across the age spectrum as well as compare results between BMI predicted body fat and bioelectrical impedance results on age.Methods: Healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. Body fat was measured by bioelectrical impedance. The age spectrum was divided into three groups (younger: 18–39.9; middle: 40–59.9; and older: ≥60 years. Comparison of body composition covariates including fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM, percentage FM (PFM, percentage FFM (PFFM, FM index (FMI and FFM index (FFMI in each weight status and age spectrum were analyzed. Multivariable linear regression coefficients were calculated. Coefficient alterations among age groups were tested to confirm the effect of the age spectrum on body composition covariates. Measured PFM and calculated PFM from previous formulas were compared in each quarter of the age spectrum.Results: A total of 2324 volunteers were included in this study. The overall body composition and weight

  16. Body mass, fat percentage, and fat free mass as reference variables for lung function: effects on terms for age and sex

    OpenAIRE

    COTES, J; Chinn, D.; Reed, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Sex specific cross sectional reference values for lung function indices usually employ a linear model with terms for age and stature. The effects of also matching for body mass index (BMI= mass/stature2) or its components, fat percentage of body mass (fat%) and fat free mass index (FFMI = fat free mass/stature2) were studied.
METHODS—The subjects were 458 asymptomatic male and female non-smokers (383 men) and 22 female ex-smokers. Measurements were made of ventila...

  17. Effects of Aqua Aerobics on Body Composition, Body Mass, Lipid Profile, and Blood Count in Middle-Aged Sedentary Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kantyka Joanna; Herman Damian; Roczniok Robert; Kuba Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effects of aqua aerobics on body weight and composition, lipid profile, and selected blood count parameters in middle-aged sedentary females. Methods. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (age 56.20 ± 2.57 years, height 162.80 ± 4.76 cm, weight 74.03 ± 3.84 kg) that participated in aqua aerobics classes three times a week for three months and a control group (mean age 56.44 ± 3.28 years, height 165...

  18. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  19. The relationship between the risk of the gestational diabetes mellitus with respect to maternal age and initial body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgün Güdücü Kutay; Gökçenur Gönenç; Herman İşçi; Alin Başgül Yiğiter; İlkkan Dünder

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish the risk of the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with respect to maternal age and body mass index (BMI). Methods: The data of the patients, admitted to our clinic for pregnancy follow up between 2007 and 2011were collected retrospectively. 50 gram and 100 gram screening test results, birth weight of the newborns and demographic features of the patients were recorded. Results: 544 patients were included. Mean age of the patients was 30.2±4.2 years,...

  20. Body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  1. Body Fat and Body-Mass Index among a Multiethnic Sample of College-Age Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Carpenter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity prevalence and average body composition vary by US race and gender. Asian Americans have the lowest prevalence of obesity. Relying on body-mass index (BMI to estimate obesity prevalence may misclassify subgroups that appear normally weighted but have excess body fat. We evaluated percentage body fat (PBF and BMI to determine whether BMI reflects PBF consistently across different races. 940 college students were recruited from a local public university over four consecutive years. We measured PBF by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, weight by physicians’ scales, and height with stadiometers. Our sample comprised Asians (49%, Caucasians (23%, Hispanics (7%, and Other (21%. Participants averaged 21.4 years old; BMI was 22.9 kg/m2; PBF was 24.8%. BMI and PBF varied significantly by race and gender (P value = 0.002 and 0.005 for men; 0.0009 and 0.0008 for women. Asian-American women had the lowest BMI (21.5 kg/m2 but the second highest PBF (27.8%. Linear association between BMI and PBF was the weakest ( among Asian-American women and BMI had the poorest sensitivity (37% to detect PBF. The high PBF with low BMI pattern exhibited by Asian-American women suggests that they could escape detection for obesity-related disease if BMI is the sole measure that estimates body composition.

  2. Age-related rump fat, fat percent, body fat mass, leptin, androgens and semen parameters ofArab stallions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AmalMAboEl-Maaty; GamalA ElSisy; MonaHShaker; OmimaH Ezzo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To study the effect of age and body fat on leptin levels and semen parameters of Arab horse.Methods:Fifteen fertileArab stallions of different ages belonging toPoliceAcademy were divided into three equal groups according to their age.Old horses are those of >18 yeas (18-27),Mid-age horses≥13 to18 years(13-18),Young horses are those of <12 years(7-11). Semen was evaluated three times for each stallion.Blood and seminal plasma were assayed for measuring leptin, testosterone and estradiol.Subcutaneous rump fat thickness was measured using ultrasound for estimating body fat percent and fat mass percent.Results:All body fat parameters were significantly high inYoung stallions and decreased with increasing age.As age increased, testosterone levels increases but leptin levels decreased.Age was inversely correlated with fat%, fat mass and leptin.All fat parameters had direct correlation with leptin in semen and serum but an inverse one with serum testosterone.Serum leptin directly correlated with sperm cell concentration inMid- age stallions and inversely correlated with percent of live sperm in Old stallions.Semen leptin correlated directly with both percent of live sperm and percent of abnormal sperm inOld stallions.Conclusion:This study proved that aging in stallions is related to a drop in fertility, a decrease in body fat and in turn leptin.Arab stallions of age7 to18 years could be used in the breeding efficiently.

  3. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES)

    OpenAIRE

    Hirai Hiroshi; Ojima Toshiyuki; Nakade Miyo; Nakaya Tomoki; Kondo Katsunori; Hanibuchi Tomoya; Kawachi Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI) in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2006...

  4. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Stager, Joel; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55-64 yrs), young-old (65-74 yrs), and old (75-84 yrs) senior athletes (n = 56), physically active (n = 58) or sedentary adults (n = 65) were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height) and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception). Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (Pbody mass index (BMI) and several components of body image and exercise dependence. Senior athletes showed, compared to their sedentary counterparts, further differences (Pbody image (dis)satisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health by ensuring the maintenance, also at older age, of a satisfactory body image. PMID:27611689

  5. Aged-Related Changes in Body Composition and Association between Body Composition with Bone Mass Density by Body Mass Index in Chinese Han Men over 50-year-old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    Full Text Available Aging, body composition, and body mass index (BMI are important factors in bone mineral density (BMD. Although several studies have investigated the various parameters and factors that differentially influence BMD, the results have been inconsistent. Thus, the primary goal of the present study was to further characterize the relationships of aging, body composition parameters, and BMI with BMD in Chinese Han males older than 50 years.The present study was a retrospective analysis of the body composition, BMI, and BMD of 358 Chinese male outpatients between 50 and 89 years of age that were recruited from our hospital between 2009 and 2011. Qualified subjects were stratified according to age and BMI as follows: 50-59 (n = 35, 60-69 (n = 123, 70-79 (n = 93, and 80-89 (n = 107 years of age and low weight (BMI: < 20 kg/m2; n = 21, medium weight (20 ≤ BMI < 24 kg/m2; n = 118, overweight (24 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m2; n = 178, and obese (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2; n = 41. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA was used to assess bone mineral content (BMC, lean mass (LM, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, lumbar spine (L1-L4 BMD, femoral neck BMD, and total hip BMD. Additionally, the FM index (FMI; FM/height2, LM index (LMI; LM/height2, FFM index (FFMI; [BMC+LM]/height2, percentage of BMC (%BMC; BMC/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%, percentage of FM (%FM; FM/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%, and percentage of LM (%LM; LM/(BMC+FM+LM × 100% were calculated. Osteopenia or osteoporosis was identified using the criteria and T-score of the World Health Organization.Although there were no significant differences in BMI among the age groups, there was a significant decline in height and weight according to age (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0002, respectively. The LMI and FFMI also declined with age (both p < 0.0001 whereas the FMI exhibited a significant increase that peaked in the 80-89-years group (p = 0.0145. Although the absolute values of BMC and LM declined with age (p = 0.0031 and p < 0

  6. TO STUDY THE BODY IMAGE AMO NG THE ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH BODY MASS INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Keziah; Gurmeet; Jugesh

    2015-01-01

    Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self - worth and mental health across lifespan . Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends not only on inner biological , but also psychological and socio - cultural components , body image is conceived as one’s attitudinal dispositions toward the physical self . The purpose of this study is to eva...

  7. Senescence or selective disappearance? Age trajectories of body mass in wild and captive populations of a small-bodied primate

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Anni; Dammhahn, Melanie; Aujard, Fabienne; Eberle, Manfred; Hardy, Isabelle; Kappeler, Peter M.; Perret, Martine; Schliehe-Diecks, Susanne; Kraus, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Classic theories of ageing consider extrinsic mortality (EM) a major factor in shaping longevity and ageing, yet most studies of functional ageing focus on species with low EM. This bias may cause overestimation of the influence of senescent declines in performance over condition-dependent mortality on demographic processes across taxa. To simultaneously investigate the roles of functional senescence (FS) and intrinsic, extrinsic and condition-dependent mortality in a species with a high pred...

  8. Age at menarche and its relationship to body mass index among adolescent girls in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Awadhi Nora; Al-Kandari Nouf; Al-Hasan Teebah; AlMurjan Daliah; Ali Salhah; Al-Taiar Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the increasing rates of childhood obesity and rapid change in socio-economic status, the mean age at menarche remains mostly unknown among contemporary girls in Kuwait and other countries in the Gulf region. This study aimed to estimate the mean age at menarche among schoolgirls in Kuwait and investigate the association between age at menarche and obesity. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,273 randomly selected female high school students from all ...

  9. The Effects of Physical Activity, Education, and Body Mass Index on the Aging Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, April J.; Raji, Cyrus A.; Becker, James T.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Hua, Xue; Dinov, Ivo D.; Stein, Jason L; Rosano, Caterina; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Normal human aging is accompanied by progressive brain tissue loss and cognitive decline; however, several factors are thought to influence brain aging. We applied tensor-based morphometry to high-resolution brain MRI scans to determine whether educational level or physical activity was associated with brain tissue volumes in the elderly, particularly in regions susceptible to age-related atrophy. We mapped the 3D profile of brain volume differences in 226 healthy elderly subjects (130F/96M; ...

  10. Age at voice break in Danish boys: effects of pre-pubertal body mass index and secular trend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Magnusdottir, Steinunn; Scheike, Thomas;

    2007-01-01

    in the boys choir and pre-pubertal body mass index (BMI)] by survival analysis techniques based on retrospective analyses of age at voice break in 463 Danish choir boys who were studied over a 10-year period. We found an overall median age at voice break of 14.0 [13.9-14.6] years, and a statistically...... significant downwards trend in age at voice break in the 10-year period (1994-2003) (log-rank test p = 0.0146). There was a statistically significant difference in age at voice break between boys in the different BMI quartiles in pre-puberty (p = 0.00822) with a tendency towards early voice break with...... increasing BMI standard deviation scores. Thus boys in the heaviest quartile at 8 years of age had an increased risk of early voice break (RR of 1.74 [1.14-2.65]) approximately 6 years later, compared with boys in the thinnest quartile. The earlier voice break seen during the 10-year observation period could...

  11. Age at menarche and its relationship to body mass index among adolescent girls in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Awadhi Nora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing rates of childhood obesity and rapid change in socio-economic status, the mean age at menarche remains mostly unknown among contemporary girls in Kuwait and other countries in the Gulf region. This study aimed to estimate the mean age at menarche among schoolgirls in Kuwait and investigate the association between age at menarche and obesity. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,273 randomly selected female high school students from all governorates in Kuwait. Overweight was defined as higher than or equal to the 85th percentile and obesity as higher than or equal to the 95th percentile using growth charts provided by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2000. Data on menarche, socio-demographic status, physical activity and diet were collected using confidential self-administered questionnaire. Results Out of 1,273 students, 23 (1.8% were absent or refused to participate. The mean age at menarche was 12.41 years (95% CI: 12.35-12.48. The prevalence of early menarche, defined as less than 11 years of age, was 8.5% (95% CI: 7.0-10.2%. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 18.3% (95% CI: 16.2-20.6% and 25.8% (95% CI: 23.42-28.30%, respectively. Age at menarche was inversely and significantly associated with odds of overweight and obesity after adjusting for potential confounders, odds ratio 0.84 (0.77-0.93; (p = 0.001. Conclusion Age at menarche among contemporary girls in Kuwait is similar to that in industrialized countries. There is an inverse association between age at menarche and obesity or overweight. Trends in menarcheal age should be monitored and time of sexual maturation and its related factors should be taken into account in strategies that aim to combat obesity.

  12. Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts KidsHealth > For Parents > Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts Print A A A Text ... same age. Now they have another tool: body mass index (BMI). BMI is a calculation that uses ...

  13. Personality and Body-Mass-Index in School-Age Children: An Exploration of Mediating and Moderating Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S.; Vella, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored longitudinal associations between personality and body-mass-index (BMI) in school-age children, including the potential mediating role of screen time and physical activity, and the potential moderating roles of child demographics and neighbourhood socioeconomic position. Participants were the parents (and teachers) of 3857 ten-year-old children, who completed questionnaires at baseline with a two-year follow-up. After controlling for child demographics (e.g., sex, pubertal status), we found that personality was unimportant for concurrent BMI, but was important for subsequent BMI and change in BMI over two years. Low levels of introversion and persistence at baseline, and decreases in persistence over time, were associated with a higher BMI at follow-up and a greater increase in BMI over time. Moderator analyses showed that introversion was more strongly related to subsequent BMI for children listed as aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. The relationship between personality and change in BMI was mediated by screen time, but not by physical activity. To conclude, findings demonstrate that personality is important for change in body mass in Australian children (particularly indigenous children), and that screen-based sedentary behaviour features an important role in this association. PMID:27486752

  14. The association of perceived stress, contextualized stress, and emotional eating with body mass index in college-aged Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggins, Allyson; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl; Waters, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of literature supports the association between adverse stress experiences and health inequities, including obesity, among African American/Black women. Adverse stress experiences can contribute to poor appetite regulation, increased food intake, emotional eating, binge eating, and sedentary behavior, all of which can contribute to weight gain and obesity. Most research studies concerning the effect of psychological stress on eating behaviors have not examined the unique stress experience, body composition, and eating behaviors of African American/Black women. Even fewer studies have examined these constructs among Black female college students, who have an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity compared to their counterparts. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to examine the associations among emotional eating, perceived stress, contextualized stress, and BMI in African American female college students. All participants identified as African American or Black (N=99). The mean age of the sample was 19.4 years (SD=1.80). A statistically significant eating behavior patterns×perceived stress interaction was evident for body mass index (BMI) (β=0.036, S.E.=.0118, pstress interaction was observed for BMI (β=0.007, S.E.=.0027, p=.015). Findings from this study demonstrate that the stress experience interacts with emotional eating to influence BMI. Based on these findings, culturally relevant interventions that target the unique stress experience and eating behavior patterns of young African American women are warranted. PMID:26496005

  15. Body mass index is associated with age-at-onset of HCVinfected hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takumi Akiyama; Toshihiko Mizuta; Seiji Kawazoe; Yuichiro Eguchi; Yasunori Kawaguchi; Hirokazu Takahashi; Iwata Ozaki; Kazuma Fujimoto

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To identify factors associated with the age at onset of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS:Five hundred and fifty-six consecutive patients positive for HCV antibody and treatmentna(i)ve HCC diagnosed between 1995 and 2004 were analyzed.Patients were classified into three groups according to age at HCC onset: 60 years old were lower and mean BMI values of female patients 25 kg/m2 [hazard ratio (HR),1.8,P = 0.045],excessive alcohol consumption (HR,2.5,P = 0.024),male sex (HR,3.6,P = 0.002),and GGT levels > 50 IU/L (HR,2.4,P = 0.014) were independently associated with HCC onset in patients < 60 years.Low ALT level was the only factor associated with HCC onset in patients aged ≥ 80 years.CONCLUSION:Increased BMI is associated with increased risk for early HCC development in HCV-infected patients.Achieving recommended BMI and reducing alcohol intake could help prevent hepatic carcinogenesis.

  16. Body Mass Index Trajectories among Middle-Aged and Elderly Canadians and Associated Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Whether there is heterogeneity in the development of BMI from middle-age onward is still unknown. The primary aim of this study is to analyze long-term obesity and how BMI trajectories are associated with health outcomes in midlife. Methods. Latent Class Growth Modelling was used to capture the changes in BMI over time. In this study, 3070 individuals from the National Population Health Survey (NPHS, aged 40–55 years at baseline, were included. Results. Four BMI trajectory groups, “Normal-Stable” (N-S, “Overweight-Stable” (OV-S, “Obese I-Stable” (OB I-S, and “Obese II-Stable” (OB II-S, were identified. Men, persons of White ancestry, and individuals who had no postsecondary education had higher odds of being in the latter three groups. Moreover, members of the OV-S, OB I-S, and OB II-S groups experienced more asthma, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, cognitive impairment, and reduced self-rated overall health. Individuals in the OB II-S group were at greater risk for back problems, chronic bronchitis or emphysema, and emotional issues when compared to the N-S group. Conclusion. Understanding different BMI trajectories is important in order to identify people who are at the highest risk of developing comorbidities due to obesity and to establish programs to intervene appropriately.

  17. The Relation of Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure in Iranian Children and Adolescents Aged 7- 18 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hosseini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity and hypertension are the major risk factors of several life threatening diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the relation between body mass index (BMI the validated index of adiposity and different aspect of blood pressure (BP. Methods: Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and also weight and height of 7 to 18 years old children and adolescent col­lected in 2002 and 2004 respectively. Data was consisted of 14865 schoolchildren and adolescents from representative sam­ple of country. BMI was classified according to CDC 2000 standards into normal (BMI<85th percentile, at risk of over­weight (BMI≥85th and <95th percentile and overweight (BMI≥ 95th percentile. Then, age-sex specific prevalence of be­ing overweight was derived. ANOVA was used to investigate the effect of BMI on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure of participants. Results: Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP signifi­cantly increased with BMI (P< 0.0001 and age groups (P< 0.0001, and was significantly (P< 0.0001 higher in boys than girls especially in older ages. (P< 0.0001, interaction of age and BMI level. The proportion of being overweight was signifi­cantly higher in boys than girls was (7.4% vs. 3.6%; P< 0.0001. Conclusion: There is an association between BP and BMI in children and adolescence. SBP, DBP and MAP are associated with rise in BMI and age, which was lower in girls. This data can provide basics for public health policy makers and pri­mary prevention policies in the country.

  18. Co-relation of blood pressure with Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist TO Hip Ratio (WHR in middle aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. D. B. Tambe MD

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and cardiovascular risks are closely associated. Hypertension is the most common and early complication of obesity. Obesity is measured with different parameters like Body Mass Index, Waist to Hip Ratio etc. In the present study we have tried to link parameters of obesity with hypertension. We have found that in hypertensive middle aged Indian males diastolic blood pressure showed a better correlation with Waist to Hip Ratio rather than with Body Mass Index.

  19. High sodium and low potassium intake among Italian children: relationship with age, body mass and blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Campanozzi

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure.To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health.The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9 who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures.The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g and 36 mmol (1.40 g, respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population.The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention.

  20. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy El Hayek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N. Materials and methods. Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296. Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin. Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.. Results. Children divided by speed of sound (SoS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA quartiles were not different for age (years, sex (M/F, calcium (mg/d and vitamin D intake (µg/d and plasma 25(OHD concentration (nmol/L. However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.

  1. The Impact of Maternal Age, Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index Weight Gain and Parity on Glucose Challenge Test (GCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoshirvan Kazemnejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM complicates 3-7% of all pregnancies and feto-maternal outcomes are strongly related to early diagnosis of GDM. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of risk factors in the prediction of an abnormal glucose challenge test (GCT.Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study conducted during 2009-2010 in two prenatal clinics in Rey, Iran. A total of 711 pregnant women who were in their first trimester of pregnancy and met the inclusion criteria were selected. The women were observed once every other week until 24-28 weeks of gestation. All patients at 24-28 weeks of gestation were screened with 50 g oral glucose GCT. The effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, maternal age, and weight gain until the time of GCT, and parity on abnormal GCT were evaluated. All confident intervals were calculated at the 95% level. Data was analyzed using student’s t test and the logistic regression test.Results: Maternal age (p<0.001, pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.00, parity (p=0.05 and weight gain during pregnancy (p=0.05, were significantly higher in women with abnormal GCT compared to women who had normal GCT. Logistic regression analyses confirmed that pre-pregnancy BMI (OR=1.09, maternal age (OR=1.14, and weight gain during pregnancy (OR=1.13 were associated with abnormal GCT.Conclusion: Weight gain had a profound impact on the prevalence of abnormal GCT in our population. Therefore, we propose that pregnant women should only gain the recommended amount of weight during pregnancy.

  2. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES, conducted in 2006 and 2007. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS, we mapped respondents' access to supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food outlets, based on a street network (both the distance to the nearest stores and the number of stores within 500 m of the respondents' home. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food environment and BMI. Results In contrast to previous reports, we found that better access to supermarkets was related to higher BMI. Better access to fast food outlets or convenience stores was also associated with higher BMI, but only among those living alone. The logistic regression analysis, using categorized BMI, showed that the access to supermarkets was only related to being overweight or obese, but not related to being underweight. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the types of food environment measures previously used in western settings. Importantly, our results suggest the need to develop culture-specific approaches to characterizing neighborhood contexts when hypotheses are extrapolated across national borders.

  3. Making t he Objectives of Individuals Sports Body Mass Index, b y Age a nd Gender Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Kubilay TÜRKAY

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the intent of making sport of individuals to the sports center. The study of 441 women and 808 men in 2007 - 2013 to the fitness center for a total of 1,250 people participated. The purpose of sports participants, Body Mass Index (BMI, by age and sex were examined. Obtained from the study for the Chi - square test was used for statistical analysis. %66,8 participants of the order to lose weight,%15,7in order to take the weight,%17,5 Tighter to the sports they have been identified. Participants "why sports are you doing?" The answer to the question they differ according to BMI was observed (p <0.01. Those whoare obese%99,5, those who are fat %98,7 exercise in order to lose weight, where as the rate of 0% is seen as weak and emerges with patients with normal %4 2,1. The age of participants in the sport with the aim of making a connection to a statistically significant difference (p <0.01. Again, the purpose of gender of the participants with a statistically significant link between sports (p < 0.01. In a recent study in Turkey of the population above the age of 15 and 16.9% obese, 33% fat was found (are over weight. (TSI, NO: 220 YEAR: 27.11.2011. The World Health Organization (WHO physical activity, "health is not just protection from disease and germs as a whole, the physical, mental and social well - being" is defined as (Ozer, 2006. As a result, a large portion of the participants exercise in order to lose weight was observed. BMI affects the purpose of sports, with increasing age, "to lose weight" sport in creased the proportion of those who have been identified.Our society is increasingly associated with obesity on the importance of sport habits of highly groups of subjects participated in this study, is a beautiful declaratory.

  4. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  5. Body mass index in young adulthood and suicidal behavior up to age 59 in a cohort of Swedish men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Sörberg

    Full Text Available An association of higher body mass index (BMI with lower risk of attempted and completed suicide has been reported. In contrast, increasing BMI has been found to be associated with depression and other risk factors for suicidal behavior. We aimed to investigate this possible paradox in a cohort comprising 49 000 Swedish men. BMI, mental health, lifestyle and socioeconomic measures were recorded at conscription in 1969-70, at ages 18-20. Information on attempted suicide 1973-2008 and completed suicide 1971-2008 was obtained from national records. Hazard ratios (HR were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. We found that each standard deviation (SD increase in BMI was associated with a 12% lower risk of later suicide attempt (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.94. Associations were somewhat weaker for completed suicide and did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.01. Adjustment for a wide range of possible confounding factors had little effect on the associations. Lower BMI at conscription was also associated with higher prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses, low emotional control and depressed mood. Our results confirm previous findings regarding the association of higher BMI with a reduced risk of suicide, extending them to show similar findings in relation to suicide attempts. The associations were little affected by adjustment for a range of possible confounding factors. However, we found no evidence that high BMI was associated with an increased risk of depression cross-sectionally or longitudinally.

  6. Body mass index in young school-age children in relation to organochlorine compounds in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, B B; Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Henriksen, T B;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal pregnancy and estimated postnatal serum concentrations of the organochlorines 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and body mass index (BMI) z-scores in 5- to 9-year......-old children. METHODS: Maternal sera from the INUENDO birth cohort (2002-2004) comprising mother-child pairs (N=1109) from Greenland, Warsaw (Poland), and Kharkiv (Ukraine) were analysed for CB-153 and p,p'-DDE, using gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry, and were grouped into tertiles for statistical analyses...

  7. Aging changes in body shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003998.htm Aging changes in body shape To use the sharing ... and both sexes. Height loss is related to aging changes in the bones, muscles, and joints. People ...

  8. Development and Tracking of Body Mass Index from Preschool Age into Adolescence in Rural South African Children: Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    K.D. Monyeki; Monyeki, Makama A.; Brits, S.J.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Makgae, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this observational prospective cohort study was to investigate the development and tracking of body mass index (BMI) of Ellisras rural children from preschool age into late adolescence from the Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. Heights and weights of children were measured according to the standard procedures recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry twice a year from 1996 to 2003. In total, 2,225 children—550 preschool and 1,...

  9. Dietary patterns in Canadian men and women ages 25 and older: relationship to demographics, body mass index, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towheed Tanveer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that underlying dietary patterns are related to the risk of many different adverse health outcomes, but the relationship of these underlying patterns to skeletal fragility is not well understood. The objective of the study was to determine whether dietary patterns in men (ages 25-49, 50+ and women (pre-menopause, post-menopause are related to femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD independently of other lifestyle variables, and whether this relationship is mediated by body mass index. Methods We performed an analysis of 1928 men and 4611 women participants in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, a randomly selected population-based longitudinal cohort. We determined dietary patterns based on the self-administered food frequency questionnaires in year 2 of the study (1997-99. Our primary outcome was BMD as measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in year 5 of the study (2000-02. Results We identified two underlying dietary patterns using factor analysis and then derived factor scores. The first factor (nutrient dense was most strongly associated with intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The second factor (energy dense was most strongly associated with intake of soft drinks, potato chips and French fries, certain meats (hamburger, hot dog, lunch meat, bacon, and sausage, and certain desserts (doughnuts, chocolate, ice cream. The energy dense factor was associated with higher body mass index independent of other demographic and lifestyle factors, and body mass index was a strong independent predictor of BMD. Surprisingly, we did not find a similar positive association between diet and BMD. In fact, when adjusted for body mass index, each standard deviation increase in the energy dense score was associated with a BMD decrease of 0.009 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.016 g/cm2 for men 50+ years old and 0.004 (95% CI: 0.000, 0.008 g/cm2 for postmenopausal women. In contrast, for men 25-49 years old

  10. ASSESSING ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN CARIES PREVALENCE AND BODY MASS INDEX AND NUTRITIONAL DATA AMONG CHILDREN AGED 6-12 YEARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrakul, Kemthong; Asvanund, Yuwadee; Arunakul, Malee; Srisuchat, Natchanon; Chotthanakarn, Nutcha; Praisuwanna, Nathaporn; Luckamnuyporn, Natasan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross sectional study was to examine associations between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) and diet in 6 to 12 year old children. One hundred subjects were included in the study. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), height and weight were examined in each subject. The primary caregiver for each subject completed a diet questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a chi-square test, a Fisher's exact test, a Kruskal-Wallis test and an independent sample t-test. Associations between variables and caries were examined using a Spearman's correlation with significance set at a p-value caries (DMFT score = 0), 23% had moderate to many caries (DMFT scores = 3.1-6.9), 22% had very many caries (DMFT scores ≥ 7), 17% had few caries (DMFT scores caries and amount of sugar and carbohydrate consumption and dental caries. PMID:27086436

  11. Effects of body mass index and age on N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide are associated with glomerular filtration rate in chronic heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Kistorp, Caroline N;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a state characterized by glomerular hyperfiltration and age-related decreases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Body mass index (BMI), age, and GFR are associated with plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in chronic heart failure...... (CHF) patients. We hypothesized that the effects of BMI and age on plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP are associated with GFR. METHODS: We obtained clinical data and laboratory test results from 345 CHF patients at the baseline visit in our heart failure clinic and examined the hypothesis using...... multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: Age (P = 0.0184), BMI (P = 0.0098), hemoglobin (P = 0.0043), heart rhythm (P <0.0001), and left ventricular ejection fraction (P <0.0001) were associated with log(NT-proBNP). After adjustment for GFR estimated by the Cockcroft and Gault equation, the parameter...

  12. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (1) Body Mass Index Reference for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese School-age Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGYE JI; COOPERATIVE STUDY ON CHILDHOOD OBESITY, WORKING GR

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To establish and propose a national body mass index (BMI) reference for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents. Methods 2000 CNSSCH (Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health) data, including 216 620 primary and secondary school students aged 7 to 18 years old, were used as a reference population. Compared with those of the NCHS internatioanl reference, three temporary sets of cut-off BMI were proposed by testing different combinations of P8s, P9o, and P95. When physiological and biochemical measures between and among "obesity","overweight", and "normal weight" groups were taken into consideration, set Ⅱ was selected to be the most appropriate one.The sex-age-specific curves were then plotted and smoothed by using B-spline method. Results Based on the samples from costal developed metropolis, the BMI curves successfully overcame the shortcomings of lower and level-off tendency of the Chinese total population. Temporary set Ⅱ, composed by cut-offs of P85 for overweight and P95 for obesity, was finally selected by its sensitivity and peculiarity. BMI 24 and 28 were used as cut-offs for overweight and obesity for both males and females aged 18 years old. These cut-offs, consistent with Chinese Adult's Reference, was proposed as the Body mass index reference for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents. Conclusion The new reference clearly showed its superiorty in both prospectivity and actuality. The proposed reference minimized the gaps of the BMI curve between Chinese adolescents and the international reference. Most importantly was that it was consistent with the Eastern Asia ethnic characteristics of body fatness growth. It was therefore proposed by the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) to use it as an nationwide reference for screening overweight and obesity of school-age children and adolescents in China.

  13. The Study of Association between Mother Weight Efficacy Life-style with Feeding Practices, Food Groups Intake and Body Mass Index in Children Aged 3-6 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Gholamalizadeh; Mohammad Hassan Entezari; Zamzam Paknahad; Akbar Hassanzadeh; Saeid Doaei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutrition in childhood has a significant role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother′s life-style has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child, child′s diet and body mass index (BMI). This study paper aimed to investigate the association between mother′s weight efficacy life-style (WEL) with feeding practices and diet in children aged 3-6 years. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, which was carried out in 18 Primary ...

  14. Contributions of body mass index and exercise habits on inflammatory markers: a cohort study of middle-aged adults living in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Strohacker, Kelley; Wing, Rena R.; McCaffery, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Determine whether body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA) above, at or below MET minute per week (MMW) levels recommended in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines interact or have additive effects on interleukin (IL)-6, C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin6 (IL-6) soluble receptor (IL-6sr), soluble E-selectin and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1. Design Archived cohort data (n=1254, age 54.5±11.7 year, BMI 29.8±6.6 kg/m2) from the National Sur...

  15. Body mass index, exercise, and other lifestyle factors in relation to age at natural menopause: analyses from the breakthrough generations study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Danielle H; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; McFadden, Emily; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2012-05-15

    The authors examined the effect of women's lifestyles on the timing of natural menopause using data from a cross-sectional questionnaire used in the United Kingdom-based Breakthrough Generations Study in 2003-2011. The analyses included 50,678 women (21,511 who had experienced a natural menopause) who were 40-98 years of age at study entry and did not have a history of breast cancer. Cox competing risks proportional hazards models were fitted to examine the relation of age at natural menopause to lifestyle and anthropometric factors. Results were adjusted for age at reporting, smoking status at menopause, parity, and body mass index at age 40 years, as appropriate. All P values were 2-sided. High adult weight (P(trend) vegetarian (P < 0.001) were associated with older age at menopause. Neither height nor history of an eating disorder was associated with menopausal age. These findings show the importance of lifestyle factors in determining menopausal age. PMID:22494951

  16. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  17. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Duke University Medical Center, Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Durham, NC (United States); GE Healthcare, Applied Science Laboratory, Taipei (China); Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Chiu, Hui-Chu [Tatung University, Graduate Institute of Design Science, Taipei (China); Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (China); Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, MD.624, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2014-09-15

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  18. Body fat mass in normal weight subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Stokić Edita J.; Srdić Biljana; Peter Andrea; Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by excessive body fat accumulation which may lead to serious health problems and complications. Body mass index is the most optimal parameter to evaluate the level of nutritional status and diagnose obesity. However, modern techniques studying body composition can more accurately determine whether the gain of body weight was on the account of body fat, lean body mass or total body water. If one's body mass index is in the range of normal values but the amount of body ...

  19. Age at voice break in Danish boys: effects of pre-pubertal body mass index and secular trend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Magnusdottir, Steinunn; Scheike, Thomas;

    2007-01-01

    Voice break is a late, but characteristic event in male puberty. Assessment of age at voice break may be a relevant marker for epidemiological studies of male pubertal development. We investigated the timing of voice break and its association with explanatory variables [calendar year of admission...... significant downwards trend in age at voice break in the 10-year period (1994-2003) (log-rank test p = 0.0146). There was a statistically significant difference in age at voice break between boys in the different BMI quartiles in pre-puberty (p = 0.00822) with a tendency towards early voice break with...... increasing BMI standard deviation scores. Thus boys in the heaviest quartile at 8 years of age had an increased risk of early voice break (RR of 1.74 [1.14-2.65]) approximately 6 years later, compared with boys in the thinnest quartile. The earlier voice break seen during the 10-year observation period could...

  20. Association of Body Mass Index with Risk of Lung Cancer: Evidence from a Middle-Aged male Cohort in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnjuLiu; XueliWang; JianminYuan; YutangGao

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk among men in urban Shanghai, China. METHODS Between January 1,1986 and September 30,1989, a total of 18,244 male residents of urban Shanghai were recruited in the prospective cohort study. The eligible study subjects were those aged 45 to 64 years and without history of cancer. Through July 10th, 2003 (17 years follow-up), 467 new cases of lung cancer were identified in the cohort. Cox regression models were used to estimate the adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cls). RESULTS The risk of lung cancer decreased with increasing in BMI. After adjustment for some potential confounding factors, a relative risk of 0.6 (highest versus lowest quintile of BMI) was observed (P-trend =0.01). Stratified by smoking status, an inverse association of body mass index with lung cancer risk still existed among current smokers. There were too few cases of lung cancer to draw a valid result among men who never smoked. The results also showed that the association of BMI with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma was more apparent than with other histological subtypes. CONCLUSION An inverse association of BMI with lung cancer risk may exist among men in Shanghai.

  1. Examining the effects of age, sex, and body mass index on normative median motor nerve excitability measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, John C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to build a large reference database of excitability measures in normal subjects and to examine the effects of age, sex, and BMI. METHODS: One hundred and five healthy subjects had median motor nerve excitability testing performed at the wrist using the automated threshold-tracking program, QTRAC. Statistical linear regression was used to explore relationships between nerve excitability and the independent variables. RESULTS: The main effect of age is a reduced superexcitability. Lesser effects are flattening of the normalized stimulus response curve and reduction in threshold change following strong hyperpolarizing currents. Females have lower thresholds than males and small but significant differences in voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNQ) mediated properties (late subexcitability, accommodation half time, and threshold undershoot following depolarizing electrotonus), as well as a small increase in superexcitability. BMI has no influence on nerve excitability data and does not explain sex-related differences in threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex have few and small effects on excitability parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of nodal KCNQ channels appears to be greater in females. Age-related increases in subexcitability may be attributable to changes in the muscle fibre and not the nerve.

  2. Externalizing behavior in early childhood and body mass index from age 2 to 12 years: longitudinal analyses of a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoppe-Sullivan Sarah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some evidence suggests that obesity and behavior problems are related in children, but studies have been conflicting and have rarely included children under age 4. An association between behavior problems in early childhood and risk for obesity could suggest that a common set of factors contribute to both. Our research objectives were to determine the extent to which externalizing behavior in early childhood is related to body mass index (BMI in early childhood and through age 12, and to evaluate whether these associations differ by sex and race. Methods Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed. Externalizing behaviors at 24 months were assessed by mothers using the Child Behavior Checklist. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight assessed 7 times between age 2 and 12 years. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess associations between 24 month externalizing behavior and BMI from 2 to 12 years, calculate predicted differences in BMI, and evaluate effect modification. Results Externalizing behavior at 24 months was associated with a higher BMI at 24 months and through age 12. Results from a linear mixed effects model, controlling for confounding variables and internalizing behavior, predicted a difference in BMI of approximately 3/4 of a unit at 24 months of age comparing children with high levels of externalizing behavior to children with low levels of externalizing behavior. There was some evidence of effect modification by race; among white children, the average BMI difference remained stable through age 12, but it doubled to 1.5 BMI units among children who were black or another race. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that externalizing behaviors in early childhood are associated with children's weight status early in childhood and throughout the elementary school years, though the magnitude of the effect is modest.

  3. The Relations among Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Body Mass in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Gianine D.; Lewis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examined body dissatisfaction, physical attractiveness, and body mass index in adolescents at 13, 15, and 18 years of age. Found that sex differences in body dissatisfaction emerged between 13 and 15 years and were maintained. Girls' body dissatisfaction increased, whereas boys' decreased. Body dissatisfaction was weakly related to others' rating…

  4. Thermal discomfort with cold extremities in relation to age, gender, and body mass index in a random sample of a Swiss urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orgül Selim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate the relationship of thermal discomfort with cold extremities (TDCE to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI in a Swiss urban population. Methods In a random population sample of Basel city, 2,800 subjects aged 20-40 years were asked to complete a questionnaire evaluating the extent of cold extremities. Values of cold extremities were based on questionnaire-derived scores. The correlation of age, gender, and BMI to TDCE was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 1,001 women (72.3% response rate and 809 men (60% response rate returned a completed questionnaire. Statistical analyses revealed the following findings: Younger subjects suffered more intensely from cold extremities than the elderly, and women suffered more than men (particularly younger women. Slimmer subjects suffered significantly more often from cold extremities than subjects with higher BMIs. Conclusions Thermal discomfort with cold extremities (a relevant symptom of primary vascular dysregulation occurs at highest intensity in younger, slimmer women and at lowest intensity in elderly, stouter men.

  5. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI. PMID:26996222

  6. Women Are Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes at Higher Body Mass Indices and Older Ages than Men: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Kyoung Kwon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany epidemiologic studies have shown that women with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared with men with diabetes. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether disparities of adiposity, age and insulin resistance (IR at the time of diabetes diagnosis exist between women and men in the adult Korean population.MethodsData from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, performed in Korea from 2007 to 2010, were used. In the survey, anthropometric data and blood samples were obtained during a fasting state. IR and β-cell function were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, respectvely.ResultsThe mean age of diabetes diagnosis was 58.5 years in women and was 55.1 years in men (P=0.015. The mean body mass index (BMI of newly diagnosed diabetes subjects was 26.1 kg/m2 in women and 25.0 kg/m2 in men (P=0.001. The BMI was inversely related to age in both genders, and the higher BMI in women than men was consistent throughout all age groups divided by decade. The HOMA-IR in women with diabetes is higher than in men with diabetes (7.25±0.77 vs. 5.20±0.32; P=0.012.ConclusionKorean adult women are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at higher BMI and older age than men and are more insulin-resistant at the time of diabetes diagnosis. This may help explain why women with diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease after the diagnosis of diabetes, compared to men.

  7. Body Mass Index and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with excess mortality and morbidity, mortality is lower in obese than in normal weight stroke patients (the obesity paradox). Studies now indicate that obesity is not associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke in the years after first stroke. We studied the ...... the association between body mass index (BMI) and stroke patient's risk of having a history of previous stroke (recurrent stroke)....

  8. Combined effect of short stature and socioeconomic status on body mass index and weight gain during reproductive age in Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichieri R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature, a marker for undernutrition early in life, has been associated with obesity in Brazilian women, but not in men. We tested the hypothesis that weight gain during the reproductive years could explain this gender difference. A national two-stage household survey of mothers with one or more children under five years of age was conducted in Brazil in 1996. The subjects were women aged 20 to 45 years (N = 2297, with last delivery seven months or more prior to the interview. The regions of the country were divided into rural, North/Northeast (urban underdeveloped and South/Southeast/Midwest (urban developed. The dependent variables were current body mass index (BMI measured, BMI prior to childbearing (reported, and BMI change. Socioeconomic variables included mother's years of education and family purchasing power score. A secondary analysis was restricted to primiparous women. The prevalence of current overweight and overweight prior to childbearing (BMI > or = 25 kg/m² was higher among shorter women (<1.50 m compared to normal stature women only in the urban developed region (P < 0.05. After adjustment for socioeconomic variables, age, parity, BMI prior to childbearing, and age at first birth, current BMI was 2.39 units higher (P = 0.008 for short stature women living in the urban developed area compared with short stature women living in the urban underdeveloped area. For both multiparous and primiparous women, BMI gain compared to the value prior to childbearing was significantly higher among short stature women living in the urban developed region (P <= 0.04. These results provide clear evidence that short stature was associated with a higher BMI and with an increased risk of weight gain/retention with pregnancy in the developed areas of Brazil, but not in the underdeveloped ones.

  9. Body mass of late Quaternary mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, F. A.; Lyons, S.K.; Ernest, S.K. Morgan; Jones, K E; Kaufman, D M; Dayan, T.; Marquet, P. A.; Haskell, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this data set was to compile body mass information for all mammals on Earth so that we could investigate the patterns of body mass seen across geographic and taxonomic space and evolutionary time. We were interested in the heritability of body size across taxonomic groups (How conserved is body mass within a genus, family, and order?), in the overall pattern of body mass across continents (Do the moments and other descriptive statistics remain the same across geographic space?)...

  10. Effect of a child care center-based obesity prevention program on body mass index and nutrition practices among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby A; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Asfour, Lila; Messiah, Sarah E

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention program on changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and nutrition practices. Eight child care centers were randomly assigned to an intervention or attention control arm. Participants were a multiethnic sample of children aged 2 to 5 years old (N = 307). Intervention centers received healthy menu changes and family-based education focused on increased physical activity and fresh produce intake, decreased intake of simple carbohydrate snacks, and decreased screen time. Control centers received an attention control program. Height, weight, and nutrition data were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Analysis examined height, weight, and BMI z-score change by intervention condition (at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months). Pearson correlation analysis examined relationships among BMI z-scores and home activities and nutrition patterns in the intervention group. Child BMI z-score was significantly negatively correlated with the number of home activities completed at 6-month post intervention among intervention participants. Similarly, intervention children consumed less junk food, ate more fresh fruits and vegetables, drank less juice, and drank more 1% milk compared to children at control sites at 6 months post baseline. Ninety-seven percent of those children who were normal weight at baseline were still normal weight 12 months later. Findings support child care centers as a promising setting to implement childhood obesity prevention programs in this age group. PMID:24662896

  11. Childhood body mass index and risk of schizophrenia in relation to childhood age, sex and age of first contact with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H J; Gamborg, M; Sørensen, T I A;

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Childhood leanness is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, but the effects of gender, age at anthropometric measurements and age at first diagnosis on this relationship are unclear. The present study aimed at elucidating these associations. METHODS: Population...... with Cox regression models. RESULTS: Childhood BMI was significantly inversely associated with risk of schizophrenia, however with different patterns among boys and girls. In boys, childhood BMI had an inverse non-linear association with schizophrenia risk dependent on age at diagnosis; in particular......-based cohort study with childhood anthropometric measures obtained annually from the age of 7 to 13 years in 253,353 Danes born 1930-1976 and followed to 31 December 2010. During this period, 4936 were registered with schizophrenia. The associations of childhood BMI with risk of schizophrenia were estimated...

  12. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation: Effects of gender, age, and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Russo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG relieves symptoms in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and may have prebiotic properties. However, the correlation between the effectiveness of PHGG and patient characteristics has not been examined. We aimed to investigate the effect of PHGG in symptom relief on constipation-predominant IBS according to gender, age, and body mass index (BMI. Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with IBS entered a 2-week run-in period, followed by a 4-week study period with PHGG. Patients completed a daily questionnaire to assess the presence of abdominal pain/discomfort, swelling, and the sensation of incomplete evacuation. The number of evacuations/day, the daily need for laxatives/enemas and stool consistency-form were also evaluated. All patients also underwent a colonic transit time (CTT evaluation. Results: PHGG administration was associated with a significant improvement in symptom scores, use of laxatives/enemas, stool form/consistency and CTT. At the end of the study period and compared with baseline, the number of evacuations improved in women, patients aged ≥ 45 years and those with BMI ≥ 25 (P < 0.05 for all comparisons; abdominal bloating improved in males (P < 0.05, patients < 45 years (P < 0.01 and those with BMI < 25 (P < 0.05. A decrease in the number of perceived incomplete evacuations/day was reported in patients with a BMI ≥ 25 (P < 0.05. Reductions in laxative/enema use were recorded in females (P < 0.05, patients < 45 years (P < 0.01, and patients with BMI < 25 (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Gender, age, and BMI seem to influence the effect of PHGG supplementation in constipated IBS patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the interaction of such parameters with a fiber-enriched diet.

  13. Muscle Strength and Body Cell Mass in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Callie Griggs

    2001-01-01

    It has been observed that the normal process of aging is associated with a decline in muscle strength and mass. It has also been observed that total body potassium and intracellular water (ICW) decrease with age, reflecting a loss of body cell mass (BCM), 60% of which is the skeletal muscle. It is generally accepted that traditional high-intensity strength training (ST) regimens can not only attenuate, but in some cases, reverse some of these aging-related changes. Periodization, a nontradi...

  14. Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Patients Submitted to Kidney Transplantation Is Related to Age, Body Mass Index, Time on Dialysis, and Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Madeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal transplantation (Tx influences bone mineral density (BMD by several mechanisms. The main objective of this study was to correlate BMD and risk factors associated with bone loss in patients submitted to kidney Tx. Methods. We evaluated 88 individuals after renal Tx (median time = 31.5 months since Tx. All of them sustained glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Prodigy-GE. Calcium, phosphate, albumin, creatinine, and intact parathormone (PTH were measured at the same time. All statistical tests were two-sided and P value less than 0.05 were accepted as significant for all analyses in this study. Results. Serum PTH was raised in 42% patients, but corrected calcium was normal in 83 patients. No fragility fracture was reported, but the overall prevalence of osteoporosis was 27.6% and lower than expected BMD (Z-score ≤ −2.0 SD was observed in 28.4%. Patients with lower than expected BMD had higher PTH levels. Conclusions. Older age, lower body mass index (BMI, longer time on dialysis, and elevated PTH levels were identified as the main factors associated with lower BMD.

  15. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Maria F. Laus; Telma M. Braga Costa; Sebastião S. Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in a Brazilian sample of adolescents. Methods: A total of 275 adolescents (139 boys and 136 girls) between the ages of 14 and 18 years completed measures of body image dissatisfaction through the Contour Drawing Scale and current physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Weight and height were also measured for subsequent calculation of body mass inde...

  16. Child-care use and the association with body mass index and overweight in children from 7 months to 2 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries, N.K. de; Buuren, S. van; Thijs, C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives:Studies regarding the association of child-care use with body mass index (BMI), overweight or obesity development show contradictory results. This study examined the relationship between child-care use and BMI z-scores and overweight, as well as associates of child-care use in children up

  17. Aging and the Body: A Review*

    OpenAIRE

    CLARKE, LAURA HURD; Korotchenko, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the existing sociocultural research and theory concerned with the aging body. In particular, we review the body image and embodiment literatures and discuss what is known about how older adults perceive and experience their aging bodies. We analyse how body image is shaped by age, culture, ethnicity, gender, health status, sexual preference, and social class. Additionally, we critically elucidate the embodiment literature as it pertains to illness experiences, sexu...

  18. Are physical activity, sedentary behaviors and sleep duration associated with body mass index-for-age and health-related quality of life among high school boys and girls?

    OpenAIRE

    Jalali-Farahani, Sara; Amiri, Parisa; Chin, Yit Siew

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores in overweight and obese adolescents compared to their normal weight counterparts; however, few studies investigated the association between obesity-related behaviors including physical activity and sedentary behaviors and HRQOL in adolescents. This study aimed at investigating the relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep duration and body mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age) and HRQO...

  19. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibíades Bustamante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  20. Gender, Age, and Education Level Modify the Association between Body Mass Index and Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study in Hangzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Mengyu; SU, MENG; Tan, Yayun; Liu, Qingmin; Ren, Yanjun; Li, Liming; Lv, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous studies have reported a strong inverse association between BMI and physical activity in western populations. Recently, the association between BMI and physical activity has been considered bidirectional. This study aimed to examine the associations of body mass index (BMI) with physical activity and sedentary behavior and to explore whether those associations were modified by socio-demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods We conducted a multistage random sampli...

  1. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors Affecting Body Mass Index of Adolescents Students Aged 10–19 in Ambo (a Rural Town) in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yetubie, Mesert; Haidar, Jemal; Kassa, Hailu; Fallon, Fleming

    2010-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is a commonly used anthropometric measurement to estimate the level of nutritional indices (underweight/overweight) of adolescents and adults. Knowledge of the factors affecting BMI is essential for developing intervention programs. This study was conducted to measure BMI and determine the socioeconomic and demographic factors affecting the relative weight of adolescents living in rural districts in Ethiopia. Methods: A randomized cross-sectional study of 425...

  2. Effect of age on body composition in healthy Beijing women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Rong; Lin Shou-qing; Lin Xia; Chen Yan; Yang Qiu-hong; Zhou Yong; Zhang Ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of age on body composition in healthy Beijing women.Methods:We measured body composition with dual-energy X-ray (GE Lunar Prodigy) in 316 healthy Beijing females aged 20 to 74 years (5-7 women per age).Parameters provided by the software were as following:total body bone mineral content (BMC),lean mass (LM),fat mass and fat mass percentage (FM%).Local regions measured included arm,leg,trunk,android region and gynoid region.Body mass index (BMI),fat mass index (FMI),free fat mass index (FFMI) and A/G were calculated.Volunteers were assigned to 6 groups according to age by every ten years a group.Results..BMC peaked during the 4th decade,LM peaked during the 5th decade,with a decline of 18.1% and 5.2% respectively at age 74 years.Total body fat mass and FM% showed a general increase with aging throughout the studied age range.Total body fat mass increased from (16±5) kg at age 20-29 years to (24±6)kg at age 70-74years,while FM% increased from 31.3% to 39.5%.All local region FM% increased with aging at different extents.Android region FM% showed the largest raise extent (32.2%).BMI increased gradually from 21.1 kg/m2 at age 20-29 years to 26.1 kg/m2 at age 70-74 years.FMI changed more obviously than FFMI.A/G increased from 0.85 at age 20-29 years to 1.02 at age 70-74 years.Different menstrual status in women of 40-59 years had obvious effect on A/G and BMC (P<0.05),while it had no significant effect on BMI,body weight and waist circumference (P>0.05).Conclusion:Aging has a great effect on body composition distribution in healthy Beijing women.

  3. Body Mass Index and spontaneous miscarriage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage in women categorised as obese, based on a Body Mass Index (BMI) >29.9 kg\\/m(2), with women in other BMI categories. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective observational study conducted in a university teaching hospital, women were enrolled at their convenience in the first trimester after a sonogram confirmed an ongoing singleton pregnancy with fetal heart activity present. Maternal height and weight were measured digitally and BMI calculated. Maternal body composition was measured by advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. RESULTS: In 1200 women, the overall miscarriage rate was 2.8% (n=33). The mean gestational age at enrolment was 9.9 weeks. In the obese category (n=217), the miscarriage rate was 2.3% compared with 3.3% in the overweight category (n=329), and 2.3% in the normal BMI group (n=621). There was no difference in the mean body composition parameters, particularly fat mass parameters, between those women who miscarried and those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: In women with sonographic evidence of fetal heart activity in the first trimester, the rate of spontaneous miscarriage is low and is not increased in women with BMI>29.9 kg\\/m(2) compared to women in the normal BMI category.

  4. The face of appearance-related social pressure: gender, age and body mass variations in peer and parental pressure during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Helfert, Susanne; Warschburger, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Background Appearance-related social pressure plays an important role in the development of a negative body image and self-esteem as well as severe mental disorders during adolescence (e.g. eating disorders, depression). Identifying who is particularly affected by social pressure can improve targeted prevention and intervention, but findings have either been lacking or controversial. Thus the aim of this study is to provide a detailed picture of gender, weight, and age-related variations in t...

  5. Aging changes in body shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and both sexes. Height loss is related to aging changes in the bones, muscles, and joints. People ... lifetime. Your lifestyle choices affect how quickly the aging process takes place. Some things you can do ...

  6. Childhood body mass index and multiple sclerosis risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munger, Kassandra L; Bentzen, Joan; Laursen, Bjarne; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, Nils Iørgen; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Baker, Jennifer Lyn

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity in late adolescence has been associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS); however, it is not known if body size in childhood is associated with MS risk. METHODS: Using a prospective design we examined whether body mass index (BMI) at ages 7-13 years was...

  7. Body fat mass in normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokić Edita J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by excessive body fat accumulation which may lead to serious health problems and complications. Body mass index is the most optimal parameter to evaluate the level of nutritional status and diagnose obesity. However, modern techniques studying body composition can more accurately determine whether the gain of body weight was on the account of body fat, lean body mass or total body water. If one's body mass index is in the range of normal values but the amount of body fat is above normal range, we talk about sarcopenic obesity. In order to evaluate presence of sarcopenic obesity, a group of 140 normal weight students of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad were measured. Apart from standard anthropometrical parameters the amount of body fat was also determined by using the method of bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sarcopenic obesity was diagnosed in 25.71% of examined students. By using body mass index values this type of obesity cannot be diagnosed, and knowing that a higher amount of body fat in normal weight persons can lead to complications, especially metabolic, it is of great importance to evaluate the amount of body fat accurately.

  8. Thickness of Rectus Abdominis Muscle and Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Tissue in Adult Women: Correlation with Age, Pregnancy, Laparotomy, and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue are usefulfor reconstruction of the chest wall, and abdominal, vaginal, and perianal defects. Thus,preoperative evaluation of rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue isimportant. This is a retrospective study that measured the thickness of rectus abdominis muscleand abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue using computed tomography (CT and analyzed thecorrelation with the patients’ age, gestational history, history of laparotomy, and body massindex (BMI.Methods A total of 545 adult women were studied. Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominalsubcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured with abdominopelvic CT. The results were analyzedto determine if the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle or subcutaneous fat tissue wassignificantly correlated with age, number of pregnancies, history of laparotomy, and BMI.Results Rectus abdominis muscle thicknesses were 9.58 mm (right and 9.73 mm (left at thexiphoid level and 10.26 mm (right and 10.26 mm (left at the umbilicus level. Subcutaneousfat thicknesses were 24.31 mm (right and 23.39 mm (left. Rectus abdominismuscle thicknessdecreased with age and pregnancy. History of laparotomy had a significant negative correlationwith rectus abdominis muscle thickness at the xiphoid level. Abdominal subcutaneous fatthickness had no correlation with age, number of pregnancies, or history of laparotomy.Conclusions Age, gestational history, and history of laparotomy influenced rectus abdominismuscle thickness but did not influence abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness. These results areclinically valuable for planning a rectus abdominis muscle flap and safe elevation of muscle flap.

  9. EFFECTS OF A STEPS/DAY PROGRAMME WITH EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ON BODY MASS INDEX IN SCHOOLCHILDREN 11-12 YEARS OF AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Ruiz-López, Rafael; Moral-García, José-Enrique; Ruiz-Ariza, Alberto; J. Martínez-López, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects that a steps/day programme may have on body mass index (BMI) among primary education students (11.37±0.48 years). A six-week controlled trial with a follow-up was completed with an experimental group (N=66, pedometer + steps/day programme + reinforcement programme in their physical education (PE) marks + weekly follow-up in PE), and a control group (N=76). Omron HJ-152-E2 pedometers were used. Normoweight students complied with programme requirem...

  10. Mass media and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Laurie A; Johnson, Christine P

    2008-01-01

    Health effects associated with media use have largely focused on children and youth with little attention paid to adults, particularly older adults. However, adults aged 60 years and older report heavy television viewing, and unique health education challenges will be faced as the technically savvy baby-boomer cohort ages. Media health effects relevant to older adults include an established causative link with adiposity and correlations to increased risk of chronic disease, reduced physical activity, and undesirable food choice behaviors. Advertising has targeted older adults as a key market segment promoting anti-aging and health related products, with potential negative body image impacts. Implications for health practitioners and research are discussed in the context of these consequences. PMID:19042578

  11. Edad de la menarquia y su relación con el nivel socioeconómico e índice de masa corporal Age of menarche and its relationship with body mass index and socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Isabel Hernández

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A decline in the age of menarche was observed from early 1900s to the 1970s. However, it is not known if a further decline ocurred thereafter. Aim: To evaluate the age of menarche in girls from Santiago, Chile and its relationship with body mass index (BMI and socioeconomic status. Material and Methods: We studied 1302 healthy girls aged 7 to 19 years. Age of menarche was evaluated through a questionnaire to the patient and her parents. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to determine age of menarche and Cox regression analysis was employed to evaluate the effect of the type of school and BMI on the age of menarche. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.7±0.04 years. Girls from public and private schools had their period at 12.5±0.1 and 13.05±0.05 years respectively. A negative correlation between z scores for BMIand age of menarche was observed (r-0.3: p =0.001. Girls whose menarche occurred before 11.5 years had higher z scores for BMI and a larger proportion were overweight, compared to girls who had menarche later. Cox regression analysis showed that after adjusment for BMI, age of menarche was similar in both types of schools. Conclusions: Age of menarche is ocurring three months earlier in girls from public schools, which is associated with higher z scores for BMI. Type of school, a marker of socio-economic status in Chile, affects timing of menarche due to differences in body mass index

  12. Female's Characteristic Index of Upper Body for Apparel Mass Customization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhi-ying; CONG Shan; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2006-01-01

    The measurements of female aged from 18 to 50 in the East China are taken by TC2 3D-body scanner. The first five factors are obtained by factor analysis of SPSS from 25items of the upper body which influence the body shape,that is, circumference factor, height factor, side shape factor, frontal shape factor, and shoulder slope factor.Then characteristic indices of upper body are chosen by analyzing body scan data. This study will be useful for developing pattern more fitting and faster and helpful for realizing apparel mass customization.

  13. Influence of age, menopause status, body mass index and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in midlife women%中年妇女年龄、月经状态、体重指数及体力活动对机体组成及脂肪分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏代敏; 郁琦; 张颖; 陈凤领

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of age, menopause status, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in Chinese midlife women. Methods: The healthy women who underwent anniversary health checkup in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited cross-sectionally. The level of physical activity was determined via International Physical Activity Questionare-Short in Chinese Version. The body composition and fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: A total of 162 women with average age 52 years (40-62 years) were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between age, menopause status, BMI and physical activity and parameters of body composition & body fat distribution. The total fat tissue percentage was positively associated with BMI (standardized partial regression coefficient; b = 0. 70), menopause status (b = 0. 19, grading variable 1, 2, 3) were assigned to represent for reproductive group, menopausal transition group and postmenopausal group, respectively, and negatively associated with physical activity energy expenditure (b=-0. 17) with model determination coefficient 0. 55. Total body fat-free mass was positively associated with BMI (b = 0. 61) , negatively associated with menopause status (b=-0. 14) with model determination coefficient 0. 39. The ratio of trunk fat tissue/total body fat tissue was positively related with BMI (b = 0. 32) and menopause status (b = 0. 30) with model determination coefficient 0. 20. After adjusted the effects of BMI, menopause status and physical activity, age was not significantly related with total fat tissue percentage, body fat-free mass, nor ratio of trunk fat tissue/total body fat tissue. Conclusions: Menopause impact body composition and body fat distribution independently. During the process of female reproductive aging, body fat tissue mass increases and becomes more susceptible to

  14. Childhood social circumstances and body mass index in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne-Mette; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit;

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships.......To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships....

  15. Can physical activity maintain normal grades of body mass index and body fat percentage?

    OpenAIRE

    Kesavachandran, C.; Bihari, V.; N. Mathur

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 767 urban male volunteers performing physical activity and 469 age and socioeconomic status matched controls not doing any physical activity from the city limits of North India. Materials and Methods: Height and weight were recorded for each participant to determine their Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat percentage and weight was measured using a body fat monitor. Results: Fifty three percent of the physical activity performers showed ...

  16. Can physical activity maintain normal grades of body mass index and body fat percentage?

    OpenAIRE

    Kesavachandran C; Bihari V; Mathur N

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims : A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 767 urban male volunteers performing physical activity and 469 age and socioeconomic status matched controls not doing any physical activity from the city limits of North India. Materials and Methods : Height and weight were recorded for each participant to determine their Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat percentage and weight was measured using a body fat monitor. Results : Fifty three percent of the physical activity performers ...

  17. Careveillance of Aging Bodies As Proxemic Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    New healthcare technologies are increasingly used for augmenting old age homecare. These are often designed to improve risk awareness and render healthcare data more visible and mobile. At the same time this situation raises questions about how human-technological relationalities effect old age h...... aging bodies are observed and treated as cared entities. On a final note the article also suggests that the concept ‘proxemic diffraction' provides polycentric vantage points for considering the relational effects of ethnographic inquiry....

  18. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and childhood abuse categories in a national representative sample for a specific age group: associations to body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidsel H. Karsberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants born in 1984, achieving a response rate of 67%. The participants were interviewed with a structured interview with questions pertaining PTSD symptomatology, exposure to childhood abuse, exposure to potentially traumatizing events, height, and weight. Underweight was defined by a body mass index (BMI <18.5, overweight was defined by a BMI ≥25 and <30 and obesity was defined by a BMI ≥30. Results: PTSD symptomatology and childhood abuse were significantly associated with both underweight and overweight/obesity. Childhood emotional abuse was especially associated with underweight, whereas sexual abuse and overall abuse were particularly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: These findings indicate that health care professionals may benefit from assessing PTSD and childhood abuse in the treatment of both overweight and underweight individuals.

  19. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire;

    2016-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We...

  20. Collagen fragment biomarkers as serological biomarkers of lean body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, A.; Dalgas, U.; Primdahl, H.;

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of muscle mass and function is an important complication to ageing and a range of pathologies, including, but not restricted to, cancer, organ failures, and sepsis. A number of interventions have been proposed ranging from exercise to anabolic pharmacological therapy, with varying...... success. Easily applicable serological biomarkers of lean and/or muscle mass and change therein would benefit monitoring of muscle mass during muscle atrophy as well as during recovery. We set out to validate if novel peptide biomarkers derived from Collagen III and VI were markers of lean body mass (LBM...

  1. Body mass index in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi M; Schou, Morten; Goetze, Jens P; Faber, Jens; Frystyk, Jan; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Kistorp, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is associated with a poor outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF). An inverse association between BMI and adiponectin and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether novel markers of...

  2. Analysis on body height,body weight,and body mass index in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old in Wuhan area%武汉地区6~17岁儿童青少年身高、体重及体质指数的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐焜; 韩娟; 徐阳欢; 杨森焙; 汤佳; 毕烨; 谢姝; 闫梅; 胡月

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To research the distribution characteristics of body height, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old in Wuhan area. Methods: Cluster sampling method was used to select 4 153 middle school students and elementary school students from rural area and urban area of Wuhan city, their body height and body weight were measured, BMI was calculated; the age and gender distribution characteristics of general body, shape, and growth were analyzed; t test was used to analyze the gender and urban - rural differences of various indexes in different age groups. Results; The growth and development of the children and adolescents in Wuhan area were in accordance with the regular rules, the mean values of various indexes of body shape increased with age, there was statistically significant difference between urban area and rural area, as well as between boys and girls ( P < 0. 05) . Compared with boys and rural students, the puberty showed a tendency of advance and shortening in girls and urban students. Conclusion: The educators should lay stress on puberty and rural area based on the gender and urban - rural differences of body height, body weight, and BMI in students in different age groups.%目的:研究武汉地区6~17岁儿童青少年身高、体重及体质指数的分布特征.方法:采用整群系统抽样的方法抽取武汉市区及周边农村中小学学生共4 153名,测量身高体重并计算体质指数,分析一般身体形态生长各项指标的年龄性别分布特点,通过两样本t检验分析各年龄组身体形态生长各项指标的性别和城乡差异.结果:武汉地区6~17岁儿童青少年生长发育符合一般规律,身体形态各项指标均值随年龄的增长而增长,城乡和性别之间差异性显著(P<0.05).女生相对于男生,城市学生相对于农村学生,青春期有提前和缩短的趋势.结论:基于不同年龄组学生身高、体重和体质指数男女

  3. Role of Lifetime Body Mass Index in the Association Between Age at Puberty and Adult Lipids: Findings From Men and Women in a British Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Mary B.; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Why early puberty is associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. The relationship between puberty and lipids is unclear. Our aim was to assess whether age at puberty was associated with triglyceride and total low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at age 53 years. Methods Participants in a national birth cohort were examined at 15 years, when pubertal stage for boys was assessed and age at menarche reported by the girls' mothers. At 53 years, 30...

  4. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843

  5. Correlation of body mass index and age of menopause in women attending medicine and gynaecology department of a tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Maru

    2016-06-01

    Results: The age of menopause varied with the increasing height, weight and BMI. Though no statistical significance was found in between height and age of menopause, there was a definite correlation between weight and BMI of the women. Conclusions: Time long obesity and higher BMI is known for being associated with many diseases like hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome etc. This study indicates how it affects the physiologic change i.e. menopause also. Women with higher BMI tend to have higher age of attaining menopause. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2206-2209

  6. VLCD compliance and lean body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Quaade, F

    1989-01-01

    occur after cycles of weight loss and regain have not been clarified. After weight cycles with weight losses obtained by conventional diets, obese women have lower lean body mass than obese non-dieting controls. Hence, more information about the changes in body composition during dieting on conventional......Very low calorie diets (VLCD) have many advantages, as they are inexpensive, safe and easy to comply with, and give rapid and encouraging weight loss. On the other hand, many patients complain of hunger and constipation. We have shown that these drawbacks can be reduced by the supplementation of 30...... diets and VLCD are needed....

  7. Changes in body chemical composition with age measured by total-body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total-body levels of calcium and phosphorus (reflecting skeletal mass) and total-body levels of potassium (reflecting muscle mass) were measured by neutron activation analysis in 39 men and 40 women ages 30 to 90 yr. In order to intercompare the total body calcium (TBCa) values in a heterogeneous population, such as this, it was necessary to normalize the data for skeletal size. The normalization consisted of dividing the absolute calcium level by the predicted calcium level for each individual matched to a set of critical parameters. The parameter used in the computation of normal values were age, sex, muscle mass, i.e., total body potassium (TBK) and height. For the calcium data of the women, it was necessary to add an age correction factor after the age of 55 yr. The calcium ratio (mean ratio of the predicted to measured TBCa) in men was 1.000 +- 7.8 percent and in women 0.996 +- 7.1 percent. The TBCa of normal males and females can thus be predicted to +-13 percent (at the 90 percent confidence level). An exception to this was found in males (70 to 90 yr) who exhibited a mean calcium ratio greater than 1.13

  8. Racial differences in body fat distribution among reproductive-aged women

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Temple, Jeff R.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey B

    2009-01-01

    We examined the influence of race/ethnicity on body fat distribution for a given body mass index (BMI) among reproductive-aged women. Body weight, height, and body fat distribution were measured with a digital scale, wall-mounted stadiometer, and dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA), respectively, on 708 healthy black, white, and Hispanic women 16–33 years of age. Multiple linear regression was used to model the relationship between race/ethnicity and different body fat distribution variables aft...

  9. Body mass index evaluation in hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Magalhães da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension prevalence is approximately three times higher in obese people. This study analyzed the Body Mass Index (BMI in 200 hypertensive women in follow up treatment in a public hypertension center in the city of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Sixty-one percent or 122 have incomplete primary school levels; 118 (59% had family incomes from 1 to 2 minimum wages, (US$90.00-US$190.00. Sixty one percent were obese and 30% were overweight; 150 (75% had hypertension cases in the family, as well as 98 (49% had cases of acute myocardium infarct and 97 (48% of vascular cerebral stroke in the family. Our results indicate variation of Body Mass Index especially in obese and then in overweight women. An efficient follow up treatment is fundamental specifically for those patients due to cardiovascular and cardio cerebral risks.

  10. Does Net Endogenous Acid Production (NEAP) Estimated from Diet Vary with Age and Body Mass Index (BMI) in Men and Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid-base balance may influence skeletal health in humans. Animal and plant-based foods provide acid and alkaline precursors respectively, which contribute to net acid-base balance. Algorithms for estimating NEAP from dietary protein and potassium levels have been published, but it is unknown if age...

  11. Blood pressure in a national birth cohort at the age of 36 related to social and familial factors, smoking, and body mass.

    OpenAIRE

    Wadsworth, M E; Cripps, H A; Midwinter, R E; Colley, J R

    1985-01-01

    Blood pressure was measured in a birth cohort of 5362 subjects at the age of 36. The prevalence of hypertension in men (blood pressure greater than 140/90 mm Hg) was almost twice that in women, although women received treatment more often. Deaths of fathers of subjects from hypertensive and ischaemic heart disease were associated with significantly higher mean systolic and diastolic pressures in both sexes. Cigarette smoking was not strongly associated with blood pressure in men and not assoc...

  12. Age and body mass index-dependent relationship between correction of iron deficiency anemia and insulin resistance in non-diabetic premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No prospective studies have evaluated the effects of correction of iron deficiency anemia on insulin resistance in non-diabetic premenopausal women with iron deficiency anemia. All patients were treated with oral iron preparations. Insulin resistance was calculated with the Homeostasis Model Assessment formula. All patients were dichotomized by the median for age and BMI to assess how the relationship between iron deficiency anemia and insulin resistance was affected by the age and BMI. Although the fasting glucose levels did not change meaningfully, statistically significant decreases were found in fasting insulin levels following anemia treatment both in the younger age (= 40 years) and the high BMI (>-27Kg/m) subgroups. Post-treatment fasting insulin levels were positively correlated both with BMI (r=0.386, P=0.004) and post-treatment hemoglobin levels. (r=0.285, P=0.036). Regression analysis revealed that the factors affecting post-treatment insulin levels were BMI (P=0.001) and post-treatment hemoglobin levels (p=0.030). Our results show that following he correction of iron deficiency anemia, insulin levels and HOMA scores decrease in younger and lean non-diabetic premenopausal women. (author)

  13. Relation between exercise, depression and body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    José Vasconcelos-Raposo; Helder Miguel Fernandes; Miriam Mano; Edith Martins

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI). The sample of the study consisted of 175 participants (43 male and 132 female) with ages between the 18 and 27 years. The used instruments were: an adapted and validated Portuguese version of the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) and an adaptation of the physical exercise scale developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001). The results suggested a negative correlation be...

  14. Modeling of Body Mass Index by Newton's Second Law

    CERN Document Server

    Canessa, E

    2008-01-01

    Since laws of physics exist in nature, their possible relationship to terrestial growth is introduced. By considering the human body as a dynamic system of variable mass (and volume), growing under a gravity field, it is shown how natural laws may influence the vertical growth of humans. This approach makes sense because the non-linear percentile curves of different aspects of human physical growth from childhood to adolescence can be described in relation to physics laws independently of gender and nationality. Analytical relations for the dependence of stature, measured mass (weight), growth velocity (and their mix as the body mass index) on age are deduced with a set of common statistical parameters which could relate environmental, genetics and metabolism and different aspects of physical growth on earth. A relationship to the monotone smoothing using functional data analysis to estimate growth curves and its derivatives is established. A preliminary discussion is also presented on horizontal growth in an...

  15. Total body protein in chronic diseases and in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R D; Raja, C; Allen, B J

    2000-05-01

    Substantial losses of total body protein (TBP) can occur in chronic diseases and in aging. Such losses impact negatively on immunity and quality of life, and on growth rates in children. Direct measurements of total body nitrogen (TBN) monitor the integrated changes in TBP over time and allow comparison with normal subjects. TBN assessment via neutron capture analysis is therefore the gold-standard method of TBP estimation, so that risk factors for protein deficit can be identified and patient management optimized. The nitrogen index (NI) can be used to predict prognostic outcome: an NI breast-cancer patients. These findings emphasize the central importance of adequate protein stores in recovery from disease or in maintaining quality of life. Aging appears to involve a gradual loss of TBP throughout adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that TBP declines curvilinearly with age, such that there is an accelerated decline after 65 years of age. However, longitudinal data are scarce, and little is known about the relative loss of visceral protein, as opposed to skeletal muscle protein. More clearly-defined data are essential if the effects of aging per se are to be separated from the effects of chronic disease. A further complication is the knowledge that physical activity also declines with age. Thus sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, could primarily result from disuse rather than aging. The economic impact of unsuccessful aging places a pressing need for multicompartment data in longitudinal study designs. PMID:10865769

  16. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  17. Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

  18. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-10-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the 'punctuated equilibrium' debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  19. Nationality, Gender, Age, and Body Mass Index Influences on Vitamin D Concentration among Elderly Patients and Young Iraqi and Jordanian in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Horani, Hanan; Abu Dayyih, Wael; Mallah, Eyad; Hamad, Mohammed; Mima, Mohammad; Awad, Riad; Arafat, Tawfiq

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is necessary for maintaining and regulating calcium levels; thus, insufficiency of vitamin D increases the risk of many chronic diseases. This study aimed to examine vitamin D levels among Jordanian and Iraqi volunteers and find the relation between vitamin D level and lipid profile patients. Vitamin D levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For young healthy group subjects, vitamin D levels were 20.60 ± 5.94 ng/mL for Jordanian and 27.59 ± 7.74 ng/mL for Iraqi. Vitamin D concentrations for young males and females were 25.82 ± 8.33 ng/mL and 21.95 ± 6.39 ng/mL, respectively. Females wearing hijab were 20.87 ± 6.45 ng/mL, while uncovered females were 23.55 ± 6.04 ng/mL. For >40 years Iraqi subjects, vitamin D level for healthy was 29.78 ± 9.49 ng/mL and 23.88 ± 7.93 ng/mL for hyperlipidemic subjects. Vitamin D levels for overweight and obese healthy groups were significantly higher (P < 0.050) than those for the hyperlipidemic patients groups. Vitamin D levels for males were significantly higher than females and were significantly higher for healthy than those hyperlipidemic Iraqi patients. These findings showed that vitamin D levels are affected by age, nationality, gender, and health statues and highlight the importance of vitamin D supplementation for groups with low levels particularly old, hijab wearing females, and hyperlipidemic groups. PMID:27110402

  20. Nationality, Gender, Age, and Body Mass Index Influences on Vitamin D Concentration among Elderly Patients and Young Iraqi and Jordanian in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Al-Horani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is necessary for maintaining and regulating calcium levels; thus, insufficiency of vitamin D increases the risk of many chronic diseases. This study aimed to examine vitamin D levels among Jordanian and Iraqi volunteers and find the relation between vitamin D level and lipid profile patients. Vitamin D levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For young healthy group subjects, vitamin D levels were 20.60 ± 5.94 ng/mL for Jordanian and 27.59 ± 7.74 ng/mL for Iraqi. Vitamin D concentrations for young males and females were 25.82 ± 8.33 ng/mL and 21.95 ± 6.39 ng/mL, respectively. Females wearing hijab were 20.87 ± 6.45 ng/mL, while uncovered females were 23.55 ± 6.04 ng/mL. For >40 years Iraqi subjects, vitamin D level for healthy was 29.78 ± 9.49 ng/mL and 23.88 ± 7.93 ng/mL for hyperlipidemic subjects. Vitamin D levels for overweight and obese healthy groups were significantly higher (P<0.050 than those for the hyperlipidemic patients groups. Vitamin D levels for males were significantly higher than females and were significantly higher for healthy than those hyperlipidemic Iraqi patients. These findings showed that vitamin D levels are affected by age, nationality, gender, and health statues and highlight the importance of vitamin D supplementation for groups with low levels particularly old, hijab wearing females, and hyperlipidemic groups.

  1. Body Composition at 3-years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    are physiologically plausible and should be investigated in other study settings. Results from paper III showed that total and free IGF-I at both 9 and 36 months were positively related to most measures of anthropometry and body composition at 3 years. We found no clear associations between IGF-I levels and early...... with later increased adiposity risk. Growth in early childhood is highly related to the levels of insulin-like growth factor-I. Objectives: Data used in this thesis is from the prospective cohort study SKOT which includes 330 children examined at 9, 18 and 36 months of age. The main objective with this Ph...... was to identify growth periods with relation to body composition at 3 years and whether the impact of growth was modified by nutrition. A third objective was to examine the relation between IGF-I levels at 9 and 36 months and body composition at 3 years. Since the IGF-I level was expected to be affected...

  2. Dynamics of bodies with time-variable mass

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the problem of dynamics of bodies with time-variable mass and moment of inertia. Mass addition and mass separation from the body are treated. Both aspects of mass variation, continual and discontinual, are considered. Dynamic properties of the body are obtained applying principles of classical dynamics and also analytical mechanics. Advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed. Dynamics of constant body is adopted, and the characteristics of the mass variation of the body is included. Special attention is given to the influence of the reactive force and the reactive torque. The vibration of the body with variable mass is presented. One and two degrees of freedom oscillators with variable mass are discussed. Rotors and the Van der Pol oscillator with variable mass are displayed. The chaotic motion of bodies with variable mass is discussed too. To support learning, some solved practical problems are included.

  3. Body Mass Index and Body Fat Status of Men Involved in Sports, Exercise, and Sedentary Activites

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Nudri, Wan Daud; Wan Abdul Manan, Wan Muda; Mohamed Rusli, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kota Bharu on three groups of men with ages ranging from 18 to 44 years. The study groups included 83 athletes representing various types of sports and levels of participation (athlete group), 80 active men who exercised a minimum of 30 minutes per day at least 3 times per week (exercise group), and 80 inactive men (sedentary group). The objectives of the study were to compare the body mass indices (BMIs) and body fat statuses among the three groups ...

  4. Body Composition Assessment from Birth to Two Years of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During infancy and early childhood, the pace and quality of growth mark the risk of ill health in the short and longer term. Measurements of body weight and its changes are frequently taken as indicators of growth, without adequate attention being paid to linear growth or body composition during this critical window of opportunity, as these measurements are more challenging to make. To better define and characterize healthy growth, there is a need for guidance on the use of standardized methodologies to assess body composition during early life to differentiate between nutrient partitioning to fat free mass and to fat mass in infants and young children. Given the necessity for an international consensus, in 2009 the IAEA initiated a review of body composition assessment techniques as the basis for efforts aimed at the standardization of body composition assessment from birth to 2 years of age. This initiative follows the IAEA's long standing tradition of providing guidance on the use of nuclear techniques in nutrition. This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA's contribution to the transfer of technology and capacity building in this field to assist Member States in their efforts to improve the nutrition and health of infants and young children, who are among the most vulnerable population groups. This publication provides practical information on the assessment of body composition from birth up to 2 years of age and is intended for nutritionists, paediatricians and other health professionals. The body composition assessment techniques included in this publication were considered the methodologies with the highest potential for standardization globally - based on considerations such as access to equipment, cost and the training needs of staff - and include stable isotope dilution for total body water assessment as well as dual energy X ray absorptiometry and air displacement plethysmography. In addition, the

  5. Body mass index and poststroke mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Petersen, Hans Gregers; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is an established cardiovascular risk factor. We studied the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality after stroke. Methods: A registry started in 2001 with the aim to register all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark now includes 21,884 patients in...... whom BMI was recorded. There are five BMI groups: underweight (BMI <18.5), normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9), obese (BMI 30.0-34.9) and severely obese (BMI 6 35). All patients underwent an evaluation including stroke severity, computed tomography, and cardiovascular risk factors....... Survival was followed up to 5 years after stroke (median 1.5 years). Independent predictors of death were identified by means of a survival model based on 13,242 individuals with a complete data set. Results: Compared to normal- weight patients, mortality was lower in overweight [hazard rate (HR) 0.73, 95...

  6. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  7. Association between body mass index and breast density using digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwa Sun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    It is well known that low body mass index and younger age are associated with high breast density. Mammographic dense breast has been reported both as a cause of false-negative findings on mammography and as an indicator of increased breast cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between breast density and body mass index. Furthermore, we considered proper screening method of breast cancer in Korean women. The study was performed on 496 women who underwent health checkup in a university hospital. Age and body mass index were negatively associated with breast density respectively. In postmenopausal women, age and body mass index showed statistically significant association with breast density. Therefore, we should consider sensitive additional method for breast cancer screening especially in younger age and underweight women.

  8. Health Behaviour and Body Mass Index Among Problem Gamblers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Algren, Maria; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish...... Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy...

  9. Body mass index across midlife and cognitive change in late life

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Anna K.; Hassing, Linda B.; Fransson, Eleonor I; Gatz, Margaret; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Background High midlife body mass index (BMI) has been linked to a greater risk of dementia in late life, but few have studied the effect of BMI across midlife on cognitive abilities and cognitive change in a dementia free sample. Methods We investigated the association between body mass index (BMI), measured twice across midlife (mean age 40 and 61 years, respectively), and cognitive change in four domains across two decades in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). Results Latent...

  10. Study Regarding the Correlation between Body Mass and spur Length in Hunting Pheasant (males, in November

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    Eugenie Grigoroiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the correlation between body mass and spur length in November 2009.November is the month when the pheasant hunting begins. The structure per ages of pheasant cocks is not well known, but we may consider that over 80% are pheasants eclosed during the current year, from the first, second or the third mating, so that the body mass and spur length were different according to age.

  11. Study Regarding the Correlation between Body Mass and Spur Length in Hunting Pheasant (Males, in October

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenie Grigoroiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the correlation between body mass and spur length in October 2009.October is the month when the pheasant hunting begins. The structure per ages of pheasant cocks is not well known, but we may consider that over 80% are pheasants eclosed during the current year, from the first, second or the third mating, so that the body mass and spur length were different according to age.

  12. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  13. The estimation of body mass index and physical attractiveness is dependent on the observer's own body mass index.

    OpenAIRE

    Tovée, M.J.; Emery, J L; Cohen-Tovée, E M

    2000-01-01

    A disturbance in the evaluation of personal body mass and shape is a key feature of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. However, it is uncertain whether overestimation is a causal factor in the development of these eating disorders or is merely a secondary effect of having a low body mass. Moreover, does this overestimation extend to the perception of other people's bodies? Since body mass is an important factor in the perception of physical attractiveness, we wanted to determine whether this ...

  14. The Effect of Body fat Mass and Fat Free Mass on Migraine Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity seems to be associated to migraine headache. Increase in body fat, especially in gluteofemoral region, elevates adiponectin and leptin secretion which in turn impair inflammatory processes that could be contributing to migraine risk. This study was designed to assess the relationship between body composition and risk of migraine for the first time.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1510 middle-aged women who were visited in a weight reduction clinicof university were recruited. Migraine was diagnosedwith HIS criteria. Body composition parameters including total fat mass (FATM, total fat free mass (FFM, truncal fat mass (TFATM, and truncal fat free mass (TFFM was assessed using bioelectric impedance. We further assessed cardiovascular risk factors and smoking as confounding factors. To determine the real association between different variables and risk of migraine, the associations were adjusted by multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results: Elevation in fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, FFM, TFFM, and waist-to-hip ratio increased the risk of migraine. When the associations were adjusted for other factors, only the association between migraine and FFM remained statistically significant.Conclusion: Lower FFM increased the risk of migraine in overweight and obese individuals. In the other words, higher fat free mass could be a protective factor for migraine.

  15. Effect of body mass index on serum leptin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Leptin is product of ob gene, an adipose tissue derived hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of body fat mass by regulating appetite and metabolism while balancing energy intake and energy expenditure. The objective of the study was to evaluate possible association between serum leptin levels and Body Mass Index (BMI) of gender in adult age group. Methods: Two-hundred-seventy subjects aged 20-50 years were randomly selected from general population of Abbottabad. The subjects were grouped on the basis on BMI (89 normal, 92 overweight, and 89 obese). After complete evaluation, demographic data was recorded and BMI. Non-fasting venous blood samples were drawn to measure serum leptin and serum glucose levels. The data were analysed using SPSS-15 calculating mean, percentage, independent t-test and chi-square test. Correlation and regression curve analysis were obtained, and p and r values were calculated. Results: Serum leptin levels and differences between genders were significant in all body mass indices. For normal BMI group the mean values for leptin were 2.6+-1.5 gamma g/ml in men, and 17.3+9-10.2 gamma g/ml for women. For Group-2 mean leptin levels in men were 9.9+-6.8 gamma g/ml and in women were 34.8+-13.6 gamma g/ml. For Group-3 BMI comprising obese subjects mean values for men were 21.3+-14.2 gamma g/ml and for women were 48.21+-21.2 gamma g/ml (p<0.001). Conclusion: A progressive increase in serum leptin concentration was observed with an increase in BMI. Significant difference between leptin concentrations in either gender was found in normal, overweight and obese subjects. (author)

  16. Lean body mass and total body fat by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a method for measuring the lean body mass (LBM) and total body fat (FAT) by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (DPA). Lean percent determination on limb phantoms, revealed precision and accuracy errors below 2.0%. The in vivo precision of the LBM of duplicate measurements on five healthy subjects was 2.2%. The accuracy error in vivo of measuring the total mass of soft tissues was 1.4%, thus yielding an overall accuracy error of the LBM of about 2.5%. Measurements on 100 healthy subjects revealed high correlations between FAT, FAT% or LBM by DPA versus FAT, FAT% or LBM calculated from anthropometric measurements. From DPA measurements of 228 normal adults, multiple regression equations of LBM and FAT based on age, height, and weight were computed. They conclude that DPA measurements of LBM and FAT in vivo is a reliable estimation of the gross body composition, and that LBM and FAT in normal adults can be calculated solely from age, height, and weight with reasonable accuracy for many purposes

  17. Body mass index and daily physical activity in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouten, C V; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D; Westerterp, K R

    1996-08-01

    The level of daily physical activity in 11 non-hospitalized women with anorexia (age: 21-48 yr, body mass index (BMI): 12.5-18.3 kg.m-2), compared with 13 normal-weight women (age: 20-35 yr, BMI 19.2-26.7 kg.m-2), was studied in relation to BMI. Daily physical activity over a 7-d period was determined from movement registration and by combining measurements of average daily metabolic rate (measured in a respiration chamber). Group averages of daily physical activity were similar for subjects with anorexia and control subjects. However, women with anorexia had either a low or a high level of daily physical activity, whereas most control subjects had a moderate level of daily physical activity. In the women with anorexia, daily physical activity was significantly related to BMI (r = 0.84). Subjects with a BMI > or = kg.m-2 were equally or more active compared with control subjects, while subjects with a BMI active compared with control subjects. The increased physical activity at BMI > or = 17 kg.m-2 is considered to be facilitated by an improving physical capacity combined with the advantages of a low body mass during weight-bearing activities. At lower BMI, undereating and declining physical capacity may have caused the observed decrease in daily physical activity. PMID:8871905

  18. Hypothalamic digoxin and regulation of body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus produces digoxin, an endogenous membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor and regulator of neurotransmission. Digoxin being a steroidal glycoside, is synthesised by the isoprenoid pathway. In view of the reports of elevated digoxin levels in metabolic syndrome X with high body mass index, the isoprenoid pathway mediated biochemical cascade was assessed in individuals with high and low body mass index. It was also assessed in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to find out the relationship between digoxin status, body mass index and hemispheric dominance. The isoprenoid pathway metabolites, tryptophan / tyrosine catabolic patterns and membrane composition were assessed. In individuals with high body mass index an upregulated isoprenoid pathway with increased HMG CoA reductase activity, serum digoxin and dolichol levels and low ubiquinone levels were observed. The RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium levels were decreased. The tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, morphine, epinephrine and norepinephrine were reduced and the tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, strychnine and nicotine were increased. There was an increase in membrane cholesterol : phospholipid ratio and a reduction in membrane glycoconjugates in individuals with high body mass index. The reverse patterns were seen in individuals with low body mass index. The patterns in individuals with high body mass index and low body mass index correlated with right hemispheric dominance and left hemispheric dominance respectively. Hemispheric dominance and digoxin status regulates the differential metabolic pattern observed in individuals with high and low body mass index.

  19. Modeling of body mass index by Newton's second law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Enrique

    2007-10-21

    Since laws of physics exists in nature, their possible relationship to terrestrial growth is introduced. By considering the human body as a dynamic system of variable mass (and volume), growing under a gravity field, it is shown how natural laws may influence the vertical growth of humans. This approach makes sense because the non-linear percentile curves of different aspects of human physical growth from childhood to adolescence can be described in relation to physics laws independently of gender and nationality. Analytical relations for the dependence of stature, measured mass (weight), growth velocity (and their mix as the body mass index) on age are deduced with a set of common statistical parameters which could relate environmental, genetics and metabolism and different aspects of physical growth on earth. A relationship to the monotone smoothing using functional data analysis to estimate growth curves and its derivatives is established. A preliminary discussion is also presented on horizontal growth in an essentially weightless environment (i.e., aquatic) with a connection to the Laird-Gompertz formula for growth. PMID:17692872

  20. Effects of photoperiod on body mass, thermogenesis and body composition in Eothenomys miletus during cold exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-long Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many small mammals respond to seasonal changes in photoperiod by altering body mass and adiposity. These animals may provide valuable models for understanding the regulation of energy balance. In present study, we examined the effect on body mass, rest metabolic rate, food intake and body composition in cold-acclimated (5 °C in Eothenomys miletus by transferring them from a short (SD, 8h :16h L: D to long day photoperiod (LD, 16h: 8h L:D. During the first 4 weeks of exposure to SD, E. miletus decreased body mass. After the next 4 weeks of exposure to LD, which the average difference between body masses of LD and SD voles was 4.76 g. This 14.74% increase in body mass reflected significant increases in absolute amounts of body components, including wet carcass mass, dry carcass mass and body fat mass. After correcting body composition and organ morphology data for the differences in body mass, only livers, kidney, and small intestine were enlarged due to photoperiod treatment during cold exposure. E. miletus increased RMR and energy intake exposure to LD, but maintained a stable level to SD after 28 days. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body mass, body fat mass, RMR as well as energy intake. All of the results indicated that E. miletus may provide an attractive novel animal model for investigation of the regulation of body mass and energy balance at organism levels. Leptin is potentially involved in the photoperiod induced body mass regulation and thermogenesis in E. miletus during cold exposure.

  1. The relationship between body mass index and subjective well-being - the moderating role of body dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdarić Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Excess bodyweight and obesity are widespread health problems throughout the world. In Serbia, over 50% of the adult population is overweight and the Province of Vojvodina is one of the regions with the highest percentage of obesity. The relationship between obesity and health complications has been consistently demonstrated. However, research on the relationship between obesity and subjective well-being has not provided clear results. Body dissatisfaction is considered to be an important factor for understanding this relationship. The main objective of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of body dissatisfaction in the relationship between body mass index and subjective well-being. Material and Methods. The study sample included 731 respondents (72.6% women, with the mean age 28.93 years (SD = 8.47 from the Province of Vojvodina who had completed an online set of tests consisting of Body Shape Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience and a self-assessment of bodyweight and body height. Results. The results indicate that the moderating effect of body dissatisfaction in the relationship between body mass index and indicators of subjective well-being is statistically significant in both sexes. Specifically, the women with higher body mass index values who expressed lower body dissatisfaction reported lower levels of emotional distress and higher levels of pleasant emotions than those with lower body mass index. On the other hand, the men with higher bodyweight preoccupation and low body mass index reported significantly higher levels of pleasant emotions than those with higher body mass index values. Conclusion. These results suggest the necessity of a more detailed study of this relationship on both clinical and general population samples from Serbia.

  2. Body mass index and smoking: cross-sectional study of a representative sample of adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhariwal, Mukesh; Rasmussen, Mette; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2010-01-01

    To quantify the association between body mass index (BMI) and smoking (at all and daily smoking) stratified by gender, family social class, and ethnicity among adolescents aged between 13 and 15.......To quantify the association between body mass index (BMI) and smoking (at all and daily smoking) stratified by gender, family social class, and ethnicity among adolescents aged between 13 and 15....

  3. The influence of body mass on calculation of power during lower-body resistance exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McBride, Jeffrey M; McCaulley, Grant O

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the influence of body mass in the calculation of power and the subsequent effect on the load-power relationship in the jump squat, squat, and power clean. Twelve Division I male athletes were evaluated on their performance across various intensities in all the 3 lifts. Power output was calculated using 3 separate techniques: (a) including the contribution of body mass in force output (IBM), (b) including the contribution of the mass of body less the mass of the shanks and feet in force output (IBMS), and (c) excluding the contribution of body mass in force output (EBM). Peak power, peak power relative to body mass, and peak force calculated using EBM were significantly (p power curve was affected when derived via the EBM method as a result of the underrepresentation of power output at light loads. This was due to the majority of the load being neglected when the mass of the body was removed from the system mass used in the calculation of force. This study indicates that not only is the actual power output significantly lower when body mass is excluded from the force output of a lower body movement, but the load-power relationship is altered as well. Therefore, it is imperative that the mass of the individual being tested is incorporated into the calculation of force used to determine power output during lower-body movements. PMID:18076268

  4. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  5. Association between Asthma and Body Mass Index in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Amra

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been reported to be associated with an increase in asthma in children. If there is any association, it could be attributed to an effect of obesity on lung volume and thus airway’s obstruction. Data from 2413 children aged 7–12 years in Isfahan were analyzed. The subjects were included in this study if data were available for: height, weight, age, lung volume, and any measure of asthma, including history of diagnosed asthma, wheeze, chronic cough, and medication as obtained by questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI percentiles, divided into quintiles per year age, were used as a measure of standardized weight.After adjusting for, sex, age, smoking and family history, BMI was a significant risk factor for wheeze ever (p = 0.000 and asthma ever (p = 0.000, diagnosed asthma (P=0.000 and current asthma (p = 0.000. There was no significant correlation between BMI and obstructive spirometry. Increased BMI was significantly associated with an increased airway resistance.Despite the fact that higher BMI is a risk factor for, wheeze ever, wheeze and dyspnea in the last 12 months, and diagnosed asthma, higher BMI is not a risk factor for obstructive pattern in pulmonary function test.

  6. The estimation of body mass index and physical attractiveness is dependent on the observer's own body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovée, M J; Emery, J L; Cohen-Tovée, E M

    2000-10-01

    A disturbance in the evaluation of personal body mass and shape is a key feature of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. However, it is uncertain whether overestimation is a causal factor in the development of these eating disorders or is merely a secondary effect of having a low body mass. Moreover, does this overestimation extend to the perception of other people's bodies? Since body mass is an important factor in the perception of physical attractiveness, we wanted to determine whether this putative overestimation of self body mass extended to include the perceived attractiveness of others. We asked 204 female observers (31 anorexic, 30 bulimic and 143 control) to estimate the body mass and rate the attractiveness of a set of 25 photographic images showing people of varying body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure of weight scaled for height (kg m(- 2)). The observers also estimated their own BMI. Anorexic and bulimic observers systematically overestimated the body mass of both their own and other people's bodies, relative to controls, and they rated a significantly lower body mass to be optimally attractive. When the degree of overestimation is plotted against the BMI of the observer there is a strong correlation. Taken across all our observers, as the BMI of the observer declines, the overestimation of body mass increases. One possible explanation for this result is that the overestimation is a secondary effect caused by weight loss. Moreover, if the degree of body mass overestimation is taken into account, then there are no significant differences in the perceptions of attractiveness between anorexic and bulimic observers and control observers. Our results suggest a significant perceptual overestimation of BMI that is based on the observer's own BMI and not correlated with cognitive factors, and suggests that this overestimation in eating-disordered patients must be addressed directly in treatment regimes. PMID:11075712

  7. Relationship between pre-pregnant body mass index, maternal weight gain and small for gestational age%孕前体重指数及孕期增重与小于胎龄儿的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭婷婷; 岳福娟; 王芳; 冯永亮; 邬惟为; 王素萍; 张亚玮; 杨海澜

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨孕前BMI、孕期增重与小于胎龄儿(small for gestational age,SGA)的关系,为预防小于胎龄儿的发生提供理论依据.方法 以2012年3月至2014年7月在山西医科大学第一医院产科分娩的4 754例单胎孕妇为研究对象,收集其一般人口学特征及健康状况、分娩情况等资料,测量其孕前身高、体重和分娩前体重,计算孕前BMI及孕期增重并分组,收集新生儿出生结局,了解孕前BMI和孕期增重对SGA的影响.结果 SGA发生率为9.26%(440/4 754).孕前体重较低组、正常组及超重/肥胖组SGA发生率为9.85%、8.54%和9.45%,调整孕妇年龄、孕产史等因素后,孕前BMI过高和超重/肥胖者SGA发生率低于孕前BMI正常范围的孕妇(OR=0.714,95%CI:0.535 ~ 0.953);不同孕期增重组SGA发生率分别为孕期增重低于美国医学研究所(IOM)建议范围下限组12.20%、增重在建议范围组9.23%、增重超过建议范围上限组8.45%;调整孕妇年龄、孕产史等因素后,孕期增重低于IOM建议范围下限增加SGA的发生风险(OR=1.999,95%CI:1.487~ 2.685),无论是孕前BMI较低、适宜还是超重/肥胖,分别以增重适宜作为参照,孕期增重低于IOM建议范围下限均增加SGA的发生风险,OR值分别为2.558(95%CI:1.313~ 4.981)、1.804(95%CI:1.258~2.587)、3.108(95%CI:1.237 ~ 7.811).孕前高BMI和孕期增重不足间未发现相加和相乘交互作用.结论 孕前BMI超重/肥胖者SGA发生率低于孕前BMI正常范围的孕妇,孕期增重不足增加SGA的发生风险,无论孕前BMI较低、正常还是超重/肥胖的孕妇增重均应避免低于IOM推荐的增重范围下限,以减少SGA的发生.%Objective To investigate the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index,weight gain during pregnancy and small for gestational age (SGA) birth so as to provide evidence for the development of comprehensive prevention programs on SGA birth.Methods Between

  8. Regional body composition in college-aged Caucasians from anthropometric measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Robert T

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitating fat and lean tissue in isolated body regions may be helpful or required in obesity and health-outcomes research. However, current methods of regional body composition measurement require specialized, expensive equipment such as that used in computed tomography or dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Simple body size or circumference measurement relationships to body composition have been developed but are limited to whole-body applications. We investigated relationships between body size measurements and regional body composition. Methods Using DEXA technology we determined the fat and lean tissue composition for six regions of the body in predominantly Caucasian, college-aged men (n = 32 and women (n = 67. Circumference measurements as well as body weight and height were taken for each individual. Equations relating body measurements to a respective regional fat and lean mass were developed using multiple regression analysis. Results Multiple regression R2 values ranged from 0.4451 to 0.8953 and 0.1697 to 0.7039 for regional fat and lean mass relationships to body measurements, respectively. Conclusion The equations developed in this study offer a simple way of estimating regional body composition in a college-aged adult population. The parameters used in the equations are common body measurements that can be obtained with the use of a measuring tape and weight scale.

  9. A STUDY OF ASSOCIATION OF BODY MASS INDEX WITH SEVERITY OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN 132 PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaykumar; Mahavir; Dattatray; Rakhi

    2014-01-01

    As the prevalence of both obesity and severity of asthma are in increasing trend, we study association between body mass index (BMI) and asthma severity in cross sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To study association between Body mass index and Asthma severity METHODOLOGY- We included adults (age >13yrs), who are diagnosed as patients of asthma by Pulmonologist and who are non -smoker, without any other lung pathology, are not on long term systemic steroids. Total of 132 patient...

  10. Correlation between Body Mass Index and Sexual Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Rada

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The limited number of studies on sexual quality of life in obesity suggests that this is an area in need of further study.Objectives: We intended to identify how the BMI (Body Mass Index affects the subjects’ sexual dynamics. Methods: A questionnaire with items regarding the sexual life and BMI measurements was used in a sample of 1493 subjects, aged 18-90, randomly selected from urban Romanian areas. Results: The sample was characterized by average: weight of 72.11 kilograms, height of 1.71 m and a BMI of 24.30. The incidence of cases diagnosed with arterial hypertension is higher in overweight (51.3% or obese (19.7% subjects (p<0.001. In the overweight category the men’s proportion was twice higher (p<0.001. As the age increased the proportion of the overweight persons increased (p<0.001. In the entire sample the weekly sexual contacts prevailed (49.1%, most of the subjects reported an average duration of sexual contacts in the last year (without prelude and postlude of 5-15 minutes (39.1%. The latent class analysis indicated that sexual life quality decrease with age and BMI. The univariate binary logistical regression showed a fragile association between high BMI values and sexual insatisfaction. With no doubt the most influencing variable over BMI and sexual satisfaction is the age, followed by marital status. Although the BMI increases by age yet at adult age (40-50 years the overweightness and obesity are less frequent to the persons who do not share the household environment. Conclusion: For the obese people the benefits of weight loss to improve sexual life may be a way to motivate them to start and continue a special nutritional and physical activity program.

  11. Relation between exercise, depression and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vasconcelos-Raposo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI. The sample of the study consisted of 175 participants (43 male and 132 female with ages between the 18 and 27 years. The used instruments were: an adapted and validated Portuguese version of the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI and an adaptation of the physical exercise scale developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001. The results suggested a negative correlation between the physical exercise and depression, with statistical significance. The group that does not reach the recommended level of physical exercise presents higher scores of depression in comparison with the group that reaches. This study corroborates previous studies that suggested positive effects of physical exercise on depression.

  12. The evaluation of the impact of age, skin tags, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, and smoking on homocysteine, endothelin-1, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and on the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Soliman El Safoury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags (STs are small, pedunculated skin-colored or brown papules that occur around any site where skin folds occur. The literature is short of comprehensive and controlled clinical studies aimed to evaluate the atherogenic risk factors in patients with STs. Aim of Work: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of age, STs, metabolic syndrome (METs, body mass index (BMI, and smoking on homocysteine (Hcy, endothelin-1 (ET-1, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP, and on cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: This study included 30 cardiac patients with STs, 30 non-cardiac patients with STs, and 30 healthy controls with neither heart disease nor STs. History of smoking, measurement of height, weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure, STs number, color, acanthosis nigricans, estimation of serum level of fasting glucose, triglycerides (TGs, cholesterol, high-dense lipoproteins (HDL, Hcy, ET-1, Hs-CRP, and the presence of the METs were elicited in the three groups. Results: Regarding the Hcy, ET-1, and Hs-CRP, the cardiac-STs group showed the highest levels and the control group showed the least ( P < 0.001. The percents of patients with METs were 56.7% in the cardiac-STs, 40% in the non-cardiac-STs, and 0% in the control group ( P < 0.001. Mean BMI exceeded the limit of obesity in the cardiac-STs group (30.9 ± 3.9 and the non-cardiac-STs group (32.6 ± 6 and was normal in the control group (24.7 ± 2.8. Hyperpigmented STs were present in 66.7% of the cardiac-STs group. Multivariate regression analysis for the independent effectors on Hcy level were the presence of STs ( P < 0.001, METs ( P = 0.001, and BMI ( P = 0.024. Regarding ET-1, the effectors were the presence of STs and METs ( P = 0.032. For Hs-CRP, effectors were the presence of STs ( P < 0.001 and smoking ( P = 0.040. Multivariate logistic regression of the predictors of cardiac disease showed that the independent predictors of the occurrence

  13. The changing understanding of ageing. Part 2: Body composition, metabolism and cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis F. Lawler

    2011-01-01

    This second of three discussions about ageing biology and diseases continues at the level of the organism, examining the relationship among body composition, late life and diseases. One view of significant age-related mass loss in humans suggests that anabolic failure is associated with various precipitating factors that may share anorexia in common. Lean mass decline with even partial anorexia should alert clinicians to monitor patients for emergence of otherwise subclinical disease. Weight ...

  14. Body composition, dietary patterns, cardiovascular disease and mortality in older age

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and poor quality diet are major interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, which are well established in middle-aged populations. However, there is controversy on the effects of obesity on CVD and mortality in the elderly. Since body composition changes with age (visceral fat increases and muscle mass decreases) it may be important to also account for muscle mass in the elderly. However, few studies have examined the combined effects of adiposity and sar...

  15. Stochastic and compensatory effects limit persistence of variation in body mass of young caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, B.W.; Adams, L.G.; Collins, W.B.; Joly, Kyle; Valkenburg, P.; Tobey, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional restriction during growth can have short- and long-term effects on fitness; however, animals inhabiting uncertain environments may exhibit adaptations to cope with variation in food availability. We examined changes in body mass in free-ranging female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) by measuring mass at birth and at 4, 11, and 16 months of age to evaluate the relative importance of seasonal nutrition to growth, the persistence of cohort-specific variation in body mass through time, and compensatory growth of individuals. Relative mean body mass of cohorts did not persist through time. Compensatory growth of smaller individuals was not observed in summer; however, small calves exhibited more positive change in body mass than did large calves. Compensation occurred during periods of nutritional restriction (winter) rather than during periods of rapid growth (summer) thus differing from the conventional view of compensatory growth. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  16. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Impaired strength adversely influences an older person’s ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1 upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS; (2 lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG and sit to stand test (STS; and (3 endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT. Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg, MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001 and % body fat (p < 0.005 were significant (r2 = 46.5%; p < 0.000. For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000, age (p = 0.036, protein intake (p = 0.015 and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015 were significant (r2 = 0.535; p < 0.000. For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r2 = 0.346; p < 0.000. For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r2 = 0.251; p < 0.000. LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance.

  17. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Langford, Kelly; Lateo, Jenna; Brock, Erin; Walton, Karen; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Eisenhauer, Katie; Green, Nick; McLean, Cameron

    2015-09-01

    Impaired strength adversely influences an older person's ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI) = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m²) aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1) upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS); (2) lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG) and sit to stand test (STS)); and (3) endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT). Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM)) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA) and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg), MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln) of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001) and % body fat (p < 0.005) were significant (r² = 46.5%; p < 0.000). For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000), age (p = 0.036), protein intake (p = 0.015) and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015) were significant (r² = 0.535; p < 0.000). For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r² = 0.346; p < 0.000). For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r² = 0.251; p < 0.000). LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance. PMID:26343709

  18. 体质量指数对不同年龄不孕女性体外受精结局的影响%Effect of body mass index on outcomes of in vitrofertilization for infertile females at different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李沛; 张静; 金萱

    2016-01-01

    背景:体质量指数对体外受精妊娠结局的影响是存在争议的,部分学者研究认为体质量指数越大,妊娠率越低,流产率越高,而另有学者认为没影响。且体质量指数对不同年龄段妊娠结局的影响的报道很少。  目的:分析体质量指数对不同年龄女性体外受精结局的影响。  方法:收集第1次接受体外受精治疗的902例不孕患者的临床资料,先按年龄分为2组:≤35岁组和>35岁组;再将2组分别按体质量指数的大小分为4组:低体质量组;正常体质量组;超重组;肥胖组。  结果与结论:随着体质量指数的增加,2个年龄组平均促性激素用量均逐渐增加(P35岁组中,肥胖组的空卵泡率高于正常体质量组(P0.05)。结果说明,在低年龄组,体质量指数不仅影响了卵泡质量和受精率,而且随着体质量指数增加,临床妊娠率明显下降;而对高年龄患者,体质量指数仅对卵泡质量、胚胎质量和受精率有影响,妊娠结局并无差异。由此可知体质量指数对体外受精助孕结局有影响,且对低年龄组的助孕结局影响更显著。%BACKGROUND:The effect of body mass index (BMI) on the outcomes ofin vitrofertilization (IVF) is controversial. Some scholars suggested that the higher BMI, the lower rate of pregnancy, and the higher rate of abortion. However, some others got the different results. To data, the effects of BMI on the pregnancy outcomes in females at different ages are rarely reported. OBJECTIVE:To explore the effect of BMI on the pregnancy outcomes of IVF for infertile women atdifferent ages. METHODS:A total of 902 cycles undergoing IVF were divided into two groups according to the age:≤ or> 35 years old groups. The patients in each group were then divided into four subgroups according to BMI: low weight, normal weight, excess weight, and obesity subgroups, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: With

  19. Recycling Pulsars: spins, masses and ages

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, T M; Langer, N

    2012-01-01

    Although the first millisecond pulsars (MSPs) were discovered 30 years ago we still do not understand all details of their formation process. Here, we present new results from Tauris, Langer & Kramer (2012) on the recycling scenario leading to radio MSPs with helium or carbon-oxygen white dwarf companions via evolution of low- and intermediate mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs, IMXBs). We discuss the location of the spin-up line in the (P,Pdot)-diagram and estimate the amount of accreted mass needed to obtain a given spin period and compare with observations. Finally, we constrain the true ages of observed recycled pulsars via calculated isochrones in the (P,Pdot)-diagram.

  20. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  1. Perception of Affective Body Movements in HRI Across Age Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Krogsager, Anders; Segato, Nicolaj

    robots and the signals they produce. In this paper we focus on affective connotations of body movements and investigate how the perception of body movements of robots is related to age. Inspired by a study from Japan, we introduce culture as a variable in the experiment and discuss the difficulties of...... cross-cultural comparisons. The results show that there are certain age-related differences in the perception of affective body movements, but not as strong as in the original study. A follow up experiment puts the affective body movements into context and shows that recognition rates deteriorate for...

  2. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI, percent body fat, and leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to help diagnose and treat obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998-2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2. Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9 and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3. BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL. Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.

  3. Body image in the mass media

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Iris Bazán; Rosinella Miño

    2015-01-01

    The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, t...

  4. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Need and When / A Note on Complementary Medicines / Nutrition and the Aging Eye / In The Genes? Searching for Methuselah Winter 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 1 Page 16 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the ...

  5. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor

  6. Affirmative old age - the ageing body and feminist theories on difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn Sandberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Discourses on old age and ageing are framed in narrow and binary ways, either as a decline narrative or through discourses of positive and successful ageing. The decline narrative, on the one hand, is highly centred on the decline of the ageing body as frail, leaky and unbounded, and on how old age is characterised by non-productivity, increasing passivity and dependency. Discourses on successful ageing, on the other hand, rely heavily on neo-liberal imperatives of activity, autonomy and responsibility. In successful ageing, the specificities of ageing bodies are largely overlooked while the capacity of the old person to retain a youthful body, for example, with the aid of sexuopharmaceuticals, is celebrated. This article argues for the need of a theorising of old age that goes beyond the binaries of decline and success. Drawing on the work of feminist corpomaterialists Rosi Braidotti and Elisabeth Grosz, the article proposes affirmative old age as an alternative conceptualisation of old age. As a theoretical project, affirmative old age aims to acknowledge the material specificities of the ageing body and is an attempt to theorise the ageing body in terms of difference but without understanding it as a body marked by decline, lack or negation.

  7. Planet Host Stars: Mass, Age and Kinematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We determine the mass, age and kinematics of 51 extra-solar planet host stars. The results are then used to search for signs of connection of the data with metallicity and to investigate the population nature. We find that the increase in mean metallicity with stellar mass is similar to that in normal field stars, so it seems unsuitable to use this relation as a constraint on the theory of planet formation. The age and kinematic distributions seem to favour the metallicity of extra-solar planet host stars being initial. Although the kinematic data of these stars indicate their origin from two populations - the thin and the thick disks, kinematics may not help in the maintenance of the planet around the host. Stars with planets, brown dwarfs or stellar companions are sorted into three groups and re-investigated separately for their formation mechanism. The main results indicate that stars with M2 < 25MJ have [Fe/H] > -0.1 and a wide period range, but there are no other differences.Thus, there does not seem to be any physically distinguishable characteristics among the three star groups.

  8. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue i...

  9. Body mass index relates to blood pressure among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Dua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The blood pressure and anthropometric measurements are important for evaluating the health of children, adolescents as well as adults. Aim: The aim is to study the blood pressure and body dimensions and to find out the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertension among adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of all the people belonging to the Punjabi community, residing in Roshanara area and Jaina building in Delhi, for the past 20 years and aged 18-50 years. The men were engaged in transport business and women were mainly housewives. Results: Mean values of all the measurements, that is, height, weight, upper arm circumference, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were higher among males as compared with females, except skinfold thicknesses. Body mass index (BMI and fat percentage was found to be higher among females as compared with males. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI, fat percentage, and blood pressure both SBP as well as DBP. Odds ratio showed that overweight/obese subjects were more likely to have hypertension than those with normal BMI. Conclusion: Prevalence of prehypertension among overweight/obese suggested an early clinical detection of prehypertension and intervention including life style modification, particularly weight management.

  10. 高血压、体质指数与年龄相关白内障的关系研究%Correlation of Age-Related Cataract with Hypertension,Body Mass Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文慧; 闫佳; 姜腾轩; 张迪; 翟淑娜; 李岩; 卢智泉

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨中老年人高血压、体质指数(BMI)与年龄相关白内障(ARC)危险性之间的关系.方法 采用以医院为基础的病例对照研究方法.病例组由45~85岁的360例ARC患者组成,对照组由同期入住相同医院的360例非白内障患者组成,采取1:1匹配.采用标准调查表对研究对象进行面对面调查,内容包括人口学特征、生活方式以及疾病既往史等,同时对身高、体质量进行测量,计算BMI和腰臀比.应用多因素Logistic回归分析估计高血压及BMI与ARC关联的比值比(OR)及其相应的95%可信区间(CI).结果 在调整了年龄和性别因素后,高血压与ARC呈显著正相关(OR=1.573,P=0.005).与收缩压正常者相比较,收缩压≥180 mm Hg者发病的危险性增加[OR=2.812,95%CI(1.450,5.455),P=0.002].高血压病程10~20年的研究对象发病的危险性升高[OR=1.867,95%CI(1.053,3.307),P=0.033].同样,与正常BMI者相比较,无论是超重或肥胖,发生ARC的危险性均显著升高[分别为:OR=1.587,95%CI(1.135,2.218),P=0.007;OR=2.315,95%CI(1.369,3.914),P=0.002].BMI为24.0~27.9 kg/m2者患高血压可使发生ARC的危险性显著增加[OR=1.991,95%CI(1.160,3.419),P=0.012].进一步控制多种混杂因素后的多因素分析结果并未发生改变.结论 高血压、BMI增高可使发生ARC的危险性升高;均衡膳食、适量运动,维持正常血压和体质量可能有助于预防ARC.%Objective To investigate the association between hypertension, body mass index ( BMI ) and the risk of age - related cataract ( ARC ) in middle - aged and elderly people. Methods A hospital - based case control study was conducted. Disease group ( n = 360 ) was composed of ARC patients aged 45 ~ 85 , and control group ( n = 360 ) was composed of non -ARC patients who had been admitted concurrently, with an 1: 1 matching ratio. All subjects were interviewed by using a structured questionnaire, including information on socio - demographic characteristics

  11. Misperceptions of Body Mass: Analysis of NSW Health Survey 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Cronin; Marion Haas; Elizabeth Savage; Minh Vu

    2009-01-01

    Overweight and obesity continue to contribute to increased risk of chronic diseases, including higher lifetime health expenditures and impacting on individuals? quality of life. Whilst international studies have compared individuals? perceptions of their body mass with more objective measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI) few Australian studies have examined this relationship in any detail. This study uses unit record data from the 2003 NSW Health Survey to identify factors associated with th...

  12. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of fun...

  13. Clothing, age and the body: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Twigg, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Clothes are central to the ways older bodies are experienced, presented and understood within culture, so that dress forms a significant, though neglected, element in the constitution and experience of old age. Drawing on a range of secondary literature, the article traces how clothing intersects with three key debates in social gerontology: concerning the body, identity and agency. It examines the part played by clothing in the expression of social difference, exploring the role of age order...

  14. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  15. Study on Body Form and Garment Size Series of the Middle Age and Aged People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑜; 郁进明

    2003-01-01

    This paper was designed to analyze on the data,which was obtained from "National Physique Fitness Investigation Report (2000)".In order to get the typical body form and figure type of the middle age and aged people,it was focused on the body form data of this group (age 4060)[1].After calculation and analyzing,the distinguishing feature of body form and the distribution of figure type were deduced.Finally,the re-classification of body form for Chinese middle age and aged people was suggested.It as also suggested that a new garment size series especially for the middle age and aged should be built to fit for these people.This conclusion would be useful and significant to design and production for clothing company,especially that who take the aged people as their target consumer.

  16. Comparison of the Body Adiposity Index to Body Mass Index in Korean Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Yeon-Ah; Oh, Jee-Young; Lee, Hyejin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is a major public health issue and is associated with many metabolic abnormalities. Consequently, the assessment of obesity is very important. A new measurement, the body adiposity index (BAI), has recently been proposed to provide valid estimates of body fat percentages. The objective of this study was to compare the BAI and body mass index (BMI) as measurements of body adiposity and metabolic risk. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis performed on Korean...

  17. Gender differences in vestibular modulation of body mass in altered force environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Charles; Fuller, Patrick; Hoban-Higgins, Tana; Fuller, Charles

    Body mass regulation is affected by the gravitational environment. Gravitational and linear acceleration information is transduced by the vestibular macular receptors. In addition, there are gender differences in the regulation of body mass and composition. This study therefore investigated the role of the vestibular system in the regulation of body mass in age-matched male and female rats. Four groups of male and female rats were established. A 1G and a 2G labyrinthectomized experimental group (Labx) and a 1G and 2G control group (Con). Labyrinthectomies were accomplished by trans-tympanic injection of sodium arsanilate to remove vestibular input. Control groups experienced the same surgical procedures, but with a saline control injection. Body mass and food and water consumption data were collected twice weekly. Baseline data were collected prior to surgery. There was a decrease in body mass following chemical labyrinthectomy in both male and female rats. A recovery period followed surgery to allow for the re-establishment of stable growth curves. Body mass of female experimental rats returned to the same levels as the female controls while male labyrinthectomized rats continued to regulate body mass at a lower level. All 2G groups were exposed to 8 weeks of 2G produced via centrifugation while all control groups remained at 1G. All 2G groups decreased body mass at the onset of centrifugation, with experimental groups having a smaller response than the controls. Males continued to maintain body mass at a lower level under 2G, while, again body mass of the females returned to levels similar to controls. At the conclusion of the eight week centrifugation period, all four female groups had a similar body mass while differences were evident between male groups. Overall, 1G males had a higher body mass than did males exposed to 2G. Within G levels, 1G controls were heavier than 1G Labx and, in contrast, at 2G Labx had a larger body mass than controls. (Supported by

  18. Metabolically active portion of fat-free mass: a cellular body composition level modeling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, ZiMian; Heshka, Stanley; Wang, Jack; Gallagher, Dympna; Deurenberg, Paul; Chen, Zhao; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of fat-free mass (FFM) as body cell mass (BCM) is highly related to whole body resting energy expenditure. However, the magnitude of BCM/FFM may have been underestimated in previous studies. This is because Moore’s equation [BCM (kg) =0.00833 × total body potassium (in mmol)], which was used to predict BCM, underestimates BCM by ~ %. The aims of the present study were to develop a theoretical BCM/FFM model at the cellular level and to explore the influences of sex, age, and adi...

  19. Downsizing a giant: re-evaluating Dreadnoughtus body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Karl T; Falkingham, Peter L; Macaulay, Sophie; Brassey, Charlotte; Maidment, Susannah C R

    2015-06-01

    Estimates of body mass often represent the founding assumption on which biomechanical and macroevolutionary hypotheses are based. Recently, a scaling equation was applied to a newly discovered titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur (Dreadnoughtus), yielding a 59 300 kg body mass estimate for this animal. Herein, we use a modelling approach to examine the plausibility of this mass estimate for Dreadnoughtus. We find that 59 300 kg for Dreadnoughtus is highly implausible and demonstrate that masses above 40 000 kg require high body densities and expansions of soft tissue volume outside the skeleton several times greater than found in living quadrupedal mammals. Similar results from a small sample of other archosaurs suggests that lower-end mass estimates derived from scaling equations are most plausible for Dreadnoughtus, based on existing volumetric and density data from extant animals. Although volumetric models appear to more tightly constrain dinosaur body mass, there remains a clear need to further support these models with more exhaustive data from living animals. The relative and absolute discrepancies in mass predictions between volumetric models and scaling equations also indicate a need to systematically compare predictions across a wide size and taxonomic range to better inform studies of dinosaur body size. PMID:26063751

  20. Mass-imbalanced Three-Body Systems in Two Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.; T. Yamashita, M.;

    2013-01-01

    demonstrate that mass-imbalanced systems that are accessible in the field of ultracold atomic gases can have a rich three-body bound state spectrum in two dimensional geometries. Small light-heavy mass ratios increase the number of bound states. For 87Rb-87Rb-6Li and 133Cs-133Cs-6Li we find respectively 3 and...

  1. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Yong Soon

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both lo...

  2. A Solvable Model of Species Body Mass Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Clauset, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    We present a quantitative model for the biological evolution of species body masses within large groups of related species, e.g., terrestrial mammals, in which body mass M evolves according to branching (speciating) multiplicative diffusion and an extinction probability that increases logarithmically with mass. We describe this evolution in terms of a convection-diffusion-reaction equation for ln M. The steady-state behavior is in good agreement with empirical data on recent terrestrial mammals, and the time-dependent behavior also agrees with data on extinct mammal species between 95 - 50 million years ago.

  3. Masses of Small Bodies: Mass estimation of small solar system bodies using Radio Science data from close flybys

    OpenAIRE

    Andert, Thomas Paul

    2010-01-01

    The Radio Science technique enables to estimate the mass and other gravitational parameters of a solar system body from spacecraft observations very precisely. It uses the radio link between ground station and spacecraft. The frequency shift of the radio signal is proportional to the relative velocity change between spacecraft and ground station. If a spacecraft performs a close flyby at a solar system body, the velocity of the spacecraft is changed by the gravitational attraction of the body...

  4. A new body shape index predicts mortality hazard independently of body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y Krakauer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, typically quantified in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI exceeding threshold values, is considered a leading cause of premature death worldwide. For given body size (BMI, it is recognized that risk is also affected by body shape, particularly as a marker of abdominal fat deposits. Waist circumference (WC is used as a risk indicator supplementary to BMI, but the high correlation of WC with BMI makes it hard to isolate the added value of WC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We considered a USA population sample of 14,105 non-pregnant adults (age ≥ 18 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004 with follow-up for mortality averaging 5 yr (828 deaths. We developed A Body Shape Index (ABSI based on WC adjusted for height and weight: ABSI ≡ WC/(BMI(2/3height(1/2. ABSI had little correlation with height, weight, or BMI. Death rates increased approximately exponentially with above average baseline ABSI (overall regression coefficient of +33% per standard deviation of ABSI [95% confidence interval: +20%-+48%, whereas elevated death rates were found for both high and low values of BMI and WC. 22% (8%-41% of the population mortality hazard was attributable to high ABSI, compared to 15% (3%-30% for BMI and 15% (4%-29% for WC. The association of death rate with ABSI held even when adjusted for other known risk factors including smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol. ABSI correlation with mortality hazard held across the range of age, sex, and BMI, and for both white and black ethnicities (but not for Mexican ethnicity, and was not weakened by excluding deaths from the first 3 yr of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Body shape, as measured by ABSI, appears to be a substantial risk factor for premature mortality in the general population derivable from basic clinical measurements. ABSI expresses the excess risk from high WC in a convenient form that is complementary to BMI and to other known risk factors.

  5. Body mass index versus percentage body fat in Chinese, African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; He Qing; Lin Shou-qing; Tian Jun-ping; Stan He-shka; Jack Wang; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N. Pierson; Dympna Gallagher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate in postmenopausal women whether the relationship between percentage body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) differs between Asians living in Beijing (BA) and African-Americans (AA), and Caucasians (Ca) living in New York City.Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (231 BA; 113 AA, 95 Ca), aged 50-80 years, were studied. Weight, height and PBF by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. The relationship between PBF and BMI was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Race, reciprocal of BMI (1/BMI) and the interaction between race and 1/BMI were all significantly (P<0.05) related to PBF in this sample. The slope of the line relating 1/BMI to PBF was different for BA compared to AA (P=0.01) and Ca (P=0.003) while the slopes for AA and Ca were not different (P>0.05). At lower levels of BMI, Asians tended to have higher PBF comparable to AA and Ca, while at BMI >30 BA tended to have less PBF than the other groups. Conclusion: The relation between PBF and BMI in BA postmenopausal women differs from that of AA and Ca women in this sample.

  6. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  7. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  8. Modifiable environmental influences on body mass index shared by young adult brothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokholm, B; Silventoinen, K; Tynelius, P; Sørensen, T I A; Rasmussen, F

    2013-01-01

    Twin and adoption studies suggest that family environment has little, if any, influence on body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. We investigated the hypothesis that the differences in the years of birth between siblings influence their similarity in BMI at comparable ages, which would give evidence...

  9. Body mass index distribution affects discrepancies in weight classifications in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) distribution, ethnicity, and age at menarche on the consistency in the prevalence of underweight and overweight as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Task Fo...

  10. Antidepressant Use and Body Mass Index Change in Overweight Adolescents: A Historical Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cockerill, Richard G.; Biggs, Bridget K.; Oesterle, Tyler S.; Croarkin, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Given the limited empirical data on antidepressant use and weight change in children, we performed a historical cohort study to assess change in age- and sex-standardized body mass index associated with antidepressant use among overweight adolescents diagnosed with a depressive disorder.

  11. Body mass index and regular smoking in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alexis E; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Nelson, Elliot C; Pergadia, Michele L; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between relative body weight and transition from experimentation to regular smoking in young adult women. In the current study, data from 2494 participants in wave 4 of the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (aged 18-29years) who reported ever smoking a cigarette were analyzed using logistic regression. Body mass index (BMI) at time of interview was categorized according to CDC adult guidelines, and regular smoking was defined as having ever smoked 100 or more cigarettes and having smoked at least once a week for two months in a row. Since the OR's for the overweight and obese groups did not differ significantly from one another in any model tested, these groups were combined. Forty-five percent of women who had ever smoked had become regular smokers. Testing of interactions between potential covariates and levels of the categorical BMI variable revealed a significant interaction between overweight/obesity and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; p<0.001) associated with regular smoking. Among women reporting CSA, the association between overweight/obesity and having become a regular smoker was negative (n=374; OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.28-0.81). Both underweight and overweight/obesity were positively associated with transition to regular smoking among women who did not report CSA (n=2076; OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.35 and OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.35-2.20, respectively). These results suggest that experiencing CSA alters the association between BMI and regular smoking in women who have experimented with cigarettes. PMID:20634004

  12. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    (WC), android fat mass divided by total fat mass (AFM:TFM), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) of 8-11-year-olds? 2.) Can fasting levels of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), osteocalcin and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) predict changes......Growth and body composition in childhood are influenced by many factors. Some of these are modifiable e.g. dietary intake, while others may be less easy to influence. The hormonal regulation of growth and body composition during childhood is complex and the interrelationship between the numerous...... hormones involved has to be taken into account when studying the impact of individual hormones. There is increasing evidence for a bidirectional relationship between bone growth and energy metabolism. Hormones coupled to the mineralization or demineralization of bones have been suggested to impact...

  13. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    6th grade) on health related outcomes in children. The objectives are: 1.To describe the Svendborg Project and the CHAMPS study-DK (paper I). 2.To evaluate the effect of four extra PE lessons per week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8 to 13 (paper II). 3.To......Background In 2011 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that more than 40 million children under the age of five were overweight and ten per cent of the world’s school aged children are estimated to carry excess body fat. Childhood obesity is associated with a number of immediate...... Intervention had beneficial, but non significant effect on mean BMI or mean Total Body Fat percentage (TBF%), but a significant beneficial effect on overweight and obesity prevalence, as children at intervention schools had a significant reduced risk of becoming overweight or obese after 2 school years...

  14. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  15. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  16. EFFECT OF BODY MASS INDEX ON COLORECTAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霁; 苏向前; 郑俊全; 顾晋; 宗祥龙; 王怡; 季加孚

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between obesity and the risk of colorectal cancer. Methods: 331 patients with rectal cancer and 175 with colon cancer who accepted surgical operation at Beijing Cancer Hospital during 1995 and 2002 were enrolled. Data were collected by reviewing the pathology materials and hospital records. 258 healthy people who accepted health examination at Beijing Cancer Hospital during 2000 and 2002 were also enrolled as control. Data of height, weight and gender at the time of examination were also collected. Obesity was estimated by body mass index (BMI), computed as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (kg/m2). The degree of obesity was compared between the two groups using BMI(18.5, 24-27.9 and (28 (kg/m2) as the cut-off points for underweight, overweight and obesity. Associations with obesity were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All ORs were adjusted for age and sex. Results: Obesity was significantly prevalent in female patients with rectal cancer. All the patients with colon cancer showed lower level of BMI than control subjects. The ORs for rectal cancer rose with increasing BMI in women. Meanwhile, the ORs for colon cancer dropped with increasing BMI in both men and women. Obesity was an independent risk factor for rectal cancer, but not an independent risk factor for colon cancer. Conclusion: Rectal cancer and colon cancer may have different biological behavior. Obese women have relatively high risk for rectal cancer.

  17. EFFECTS OF PHOTOPERIOD ON BODY MASS, THERMOGENESIS AND BODY COMPOSITION IN EOTHENOMYS MILETUS DURING COLD EXPOSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-long Zhu; Shengchang Yang; Jin-hong Cai; Lihua Meng; Zheng-kun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Many small mammals respond to seasonal changes in photoperiod by altering body mass and adiposity. These animals may provide valuable models for understanding the regulation of energy balance. In present study, we examined the effect on body mass, rest metabolic rate, food intake and body composition in cold-acclimated (5 °C) in Eothenomys miletus by transferring them from a short (SD, 8h :16h L: D) to long day photoperiod (LD, 16h: 8h L:D). During the first 4 weeks of exposure to SD, E. mil...

  18. Growth in Body Mass Index from Childhood into Adolescence: The Role of Sleep Duration and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Bagley, Erika J.; Keiley, Margaret K.; Erath, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relations between sleep and body mass index (BMI) from late childhood ([X-bar] age = 9.44 at T1) to early adolescence ([X-bar] age = 11.36 at T3) with a relatively large (n = 273 at T1) and diverse (35% African Americans) sample. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy-based sleep minutes and self-reported sleep…

  19. Body mass index and dynamic lung volumes in office workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the association of body mass index (BMI) to lung volumes assessed by spirometer. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from February to August 2009. Methodology: Two hundred and twenty-five apparently healthy adult office workers of either gender aged > 20 years were recruited. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated as kg/m2. Subjects were categorized as normal (BMI=18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2); overweight (BMI=25 to 29.9 kg/m2); and obese Class 1 (BMI=30 to 34.9 kg/m2) on the basis of BMI. Lung volumes were measured by digital spirometer and were reported as percentage of predicted values for forced vital capacity (FVC%), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1%) and ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1:FVC). Groups were compared using t-test and ANOVA, correlation was assessed by Pearson's 'r'. Results: Significant differences in lung volumes were found in different BMI categories. Obese subjects had significantly lower FVC% (p < 0.0001), as well as significantly lower FEV1% (p = 0.003) as compared to normal subjects. There were significant linear relationships between obesity and PFTs. BMI had significant negative linear association with FVC% in overweight (r = -0.197) and obese (r = - 0.488); and with FEV1% in obese subjects (r = -0.510). Gender and age had no significant effect on mean values of PFTs. Conclusion: Obese individuals in this sample had significant decline in lung volumes. (author)

  20. The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is presenting a critical challenge to healthcare services. We examined the effect of Body Mass Index in early pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcome. We performed a population register-based cohort study using data from the North Western Perinatal survey (N = 99,403 babies born during 2004-2006), based at The University of Manchester, UK. The main outcome measures were Caesarean section delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, stillbirth, Macrosomia, small for gestational age and large for gestational age. The risk of preterm birth was reduced by almost 10% in overweight (RR = 0.89, [95% CI: 0.83, 0.95]) and obese women (RR = 0.90, [95% CI: 0.84, 0.97]) and was increased in underweight women (RR = 1.33, [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]). Overweight (RR = 1.17, [95% CI: 1.09, 1.25]), obese (RR = 1.35, [95% CI: 1.25, 1.45]) and morbidly obese (RR = 1.24, [95% CI: 1.02, 1.52]) women had an elevated risk of post-term birth compared to normal women. The risk of fetal macrosomia and operative delivery increased with BMI such that morbidly obese women were at greatest risk of both (RR of macrosomia = 4.78 [95% CI: 3.86, 5.92] and RR of Caesarean section = 1.66 [95% CI: 1.61, 1.71] and a RR of emergency Caesarean section = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.45, 1.75]). Excessive leanness and obesity are associated with different adverse pregnancy outcomes with major maternal and fetal complications. Overweight and obese women have a higher risk of macrosomia and Caesarean delivery and lower risk of preterm delivery. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear and is worthy of further investigation.

  1. Body mass index a better predictor of insulin resistance than waist circumference in normoglycemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Preethi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body Mass Index (BMI is the most common method of measuring obesity. Many studies have reported that waist circumference is a stronger predictor of insulin resistance in non-type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate whether waist circumference (WC or body mass index (BMI is a better predictor insulin resistance. Method: 79 normal young adult volunteers in the age range of 18 to 25 years were enrolled for the Study. All subjects underwent a detailed general physical examination including Blood Pressure, body weight, height, hip & waist circumference. BMI (Body Mass Index, waist and hip circumference & waist hip ratio calculated. 2hr OGTT with serum Insulin was performed and Insulin resistance calculated. Result: Simple clinical measures of obesity like height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and their indexes like BMI (body mass index, WHR (waist hip ratio were evaluated and correlated with the measures of Insulin resistance (IR and insulin sensitivity. BMI was found to significantly correlate with most of the IR parameters and there was a trend towards significance with weight. Waist circumference did not correlate significantly with IR parameters. Conclusion: Body Mass Index (BMI is a useful tool in evaluating obesity in normoglycemic subjects. BMI is a better predictor of Insulin Resistance and risk stratification than waist circumference.

  2. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  3. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  4. [Relative validity of self-assessment of silhouette and BMI (body mass index)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence is unquestionable risk factor for pathogenic obesity in adulthood, high mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases and other health disorders, and also may cause the worse social and economical adaptation. Nevertheless, little is yet known about subjective perception of own body, the pathway leading to dissatisfaction of the body, development of chronic stress and behavioural disorders (anorexia, binge eating, bulimia) as a consequence. In Health Promotion Department of the National Institute of Hygiene the multidimensional investigations of adolescents' health and life style were undertaken, and analysis of association between subjective image of body and real body mass was a part of these investigations. Data were obtained from 672 randomly selected schoolchildren aged 14-15 years attending seventeen public and private schools in Warsaw. Respondents informed about their weight and high for calculation BMI. Simultaneously, they were asked, whether they assess themselves as leaner than their peers, the same or thicker. The study showed that girls in comparison with boys more accurately assessed their silhouette. The boys were more likely than girls to perceive themselves as the same as their peers, despite they had real underweight or overweight. Our findings suggest that real mass of body itself account for variance of subjective perceived body in moderate degree, and there are other factors influencing body image at least as real mass of body. PMID:14755858

  5. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  6. Nuclear mass fluctuations with two body random ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass errors associated to different nuclear mass formulas are shown to decrease with increasing atomic number. Full shell model calculations are devoted to study the fluctuations of the nuclear masses, its dependence on the size of the Hilbert space and on the width of the two-body interaction. Ground state energy fluctuations are calculated for 39 nuclei in the sd and pf shells, using a combination of realistic and random interactions. The fluctuations have widths that follow a A-1/3 pattern. (Author)

  7. Body mass index trajectory classes and incident asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzehak, Peter; Wijga, Alet H; Keil, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    The causal link between body mass index (BMI) or obesity and asthma in children is still being debated. Analyses of large longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of incident cases and in which the time-dependent processes of both excess weight and asthma development can be validly analyzed ...

  8. Body Mass Index Of Nigerian Adolescent Urban Secondary School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Body mass index (BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform method of screening for weight status, which may have detrimental health consequences. The aim of our study was to assess the pattern of BMI among Nigerian adolescent secondary school girls and determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among them.

  9. Depression and body mass index, a u-shaped association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de L.M.; Straten, van A.; Herten, van M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Results of studies concerning the association between obesity and depression are conflicting. Some find a positive association, some a negative association and some find no association at all. Most studies, however, examine a linear association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and depression

  10. High frequency body mass measurement, feedback, and health behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, P.; Scherpenzeel, A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze weight and fat percentage measurements of respondents in an online general population panel in the Netherlands, collected using wireless scales, with an average frequency of 1.6 measurements per week. First, we document the existence of a weekly cycle; body mass is lowest on Fridays and h

  11. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children. PMID:21736824

  12. STUDY OF BODY MASS INDEX (BMI, BODY FAT PERCENT (%BF, AND WAIST TO HIP RATIO (WHR IN MALE PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Shabani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate body mass index (BMI, body fat percent (%BF and waist-hip ratio (WHR of physical education male students of Shahid Chamran University and comparison with national and international body composition standards. Material : Subjects were seventy five male students physical education male students of Shahid Chamran University of mean age (23.21±2.78, mean height (174±5.71 and mean weight (70.07±9.43 who were selected randomly. Some of body composition indices were determined with body composition analyzer apparatus (bioelectrical impedance apparatus. Results : Descriptive characteristics of subjects include: body fat percent (19.37±3.62, waist-hip ratio (0.80±0.037 and body mass index (23.18±2.68. To categorize and regulate data we used descriptive analyzes, to calculate Pearson correlation coefficient we used presumption analyzes and to compare the obtained data with national standards we used T-test statistical procedure. There are significant correlations between body mass index and waist-hip ratio (P=0.709, r=0.001, between body mass index and body fat percent (P=0.783, r=0.001 and between body fat percent and waist-hip ratio (P=0.809, r=0.001. There are significant differences between mean body mass index and its national standard (P=0.001, between mean waist-hip ratio and its national standard (P=0.001 and between mean body fat percentage and its national standard (P=0.001. Conclusions : Results revealed that according to national standards of body fat percentage and body mass index of subjects, they were assigned to more than intermediate limitation; it may be due to abnormal nutrition, unregulated exercise or physical activity and heredity.

  13. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Yong Soon

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07-8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men. PMID:27051246

  14. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P Malaysian children. PMID:27252248

  15. Intestinal Microbiota Is Influenced by Gender and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Carmen; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A.; Alcalá-Díaz, Juan F.; Gómez-Delgado, Francisco; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia M.; Landa, Blanca B.; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Clemente, José C.; López-Miranda, José

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota changes are associated with the development of obesity. However, studies in humans have generated conflicting results due to high inter-individual heterogeneity in terms of diet, age, and hormonal factors, and the largely unexplored influence of gender. In this work, we aimed to identify differential gut microbiota signatures associated with obesity, as a function of gender and changes in body mass index (BMI). Differences in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by 16S sequencing in 39 men and 36 post-menopausal women, who had similar dietary background, matched by age and stratified according to the BMI. We observed that the abundance of the Bacteroides genus was lower in men than in women (P 33. In fact, the abundance of this genus decreased in men with an increase in BMI (P<0.001, Q<0.001). However, in women, it remained unchanged within the different ranges of BMI. We observed a higher presence of Veillonella (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.001, Q = 0.019) and Methanobrevibacter genera (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.002, Q = 0.026) in fecal samples in men compared to women. We also observed that the abundance of Bilophila was lower in men compared to women regardless of BMI (P = 0.002, Q = 0.041). Additionally, after correcting for age and sex, 66 bacterial taxa at the genus level were found to be associated with BMI and plasma lipids. Microbiota explained at P = 0.001, 31.17% variation in BMI, 29.04% in triglycerides, 33.70% in high-density lipoproteins, 46.86% in low-density lipoproteins, and 28.55% in total cholesterol. Our results suggest that gut microbiota may differ between men and women, and that these differences may be influenced by the grade of obesity. The divergence in gut microbiota observed between men and women might have a dominant role in the definition of gender differences in the prevalence of metabolic and intestinal inflammatory diseases. PMID:27228093

  16. Effect of body mass index on adenocarcinoma of gastric cardia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhang; Xiang-Qian Su; Xiao-Jiang Wu; Ya-Hang Liu; Hua Wang; Xiang-Nong Zong; Yi Wang; Jia-Fu Ji

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Obesity has been proved as one of the main risk factors for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) in the West.The objective of our research was to evaluate the relationship between obesity and the risk of GCA in people from North China.METHODS: A total of 300 patients who had been diagnosed as GCA and had accepted surgical operation at Beijing Cancer Hospital from 1995 to 2002 were enrolled. Data were collected from pathology materials and hospital records. Two hundred and fifty-eight healthy people who had accepted health examination at the same hospital during the same period were enrolled as controls. Height, weight and gender of them at the time of examination were also collected.Obesity was estimated by body mass index (BMI), computed as weight in kilograms per square surface area (Kg/m2).The degree of obesity was determined by using BMI≤ 18.5,24-27.9 and ≥28 (Kg/m2) as the cut-off points for underweight/normal, overweight and obesity, respectively.Associations with obesity were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). All ORs were adjusted for age and sex.RESULTS: The mean level of BMI was significantly lower in the patient group than that in the control group. The ORs for obesity in age groups 30-59 and 60-79 were 1.15 (95 %CI=0.37-3.65) and 0.16 (95 % CI=0.05-0.44) for males and 0.78 (95 % CI=0.26-2.36) and 0.28 (95 % CI=0.04-2.05)for females, respectively. The ORs for underweight were 2.42 (95 % CI=0.56-10.53) and 4.68 (95 % CI=1.13-19.40)for males in age subgroups 30-59 and 60-79 and 40.7 (95 %CI=9.32-177.92) for females older than 60 yrs. BMI was significantly associated with GCA (P<0.01). Underweight people were at high risk for GCA.CONCLUSION: BMI is an independent risk factor for GCA.Underweight is positively associated with GCA.

  17. Rice Body Formation Within a Peri-Articular Shoulder Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Michele N; Caram, Anthony; Flores, Miguel; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Most commonly associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, rice bodies represent an uncommon, nonspecific, often intra-articular inflammatory process. Presumably, rice bodies represent the sequelae of microvascular infarcts of the joint synovium. However, rice bodies have been seen in pleural fluid, in the setting of bursitis, and within the tendon sheath. The etiology and prognostic significance of rice bodies are not clear. MRI is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of rice body formation. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who presented to her primary care physician with a palpable mass around her right shoulder which was presumed to be a lipoma. An initial ultrasound showed a fluid filled structure with internal debris. Subsequent MRI evaluation was confirmatory for subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis with rice body formation. The salient point of this report is to highlight the importance of patient-specific differential diagnosis. While lipomas are a very common benign soft tissue tumor, patients with RA often have disease-specific sequelae that should be included in the diagnostic deliberation. Thus, when ordering diagnostic testing for patients with a palpable mass and rheumatoid arthritis, MRI--possibly preceded by conventional radiography--is the most appropriate diagnostic algorithm. PMID:27625904

  18. Infant BMI peak, breastfeeding, and body composition at age 3 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Ritz, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the increasing focus on obesity, growth patterns in infancy and early childhood have gained much attention. Although the adiposity rebound has been in focus because of a shown association with adult obesity, not much has been published about the infant peak in body mass index (BMI......). OBJECTIVE: This study links age and BMI at infant peak to duration of breastfeeding and body composition at 3 y of age. DESIGN: Frequent weight and height measurements for 311 Danish children in the SKOT (Complementary and Young Child Feeding - Impact on Short and Long Term Development and Health; in Danish...... questionnaires. Assessment of body composition at age 3 y was made based on bioelectrical impedance, weight, and height. RESULTS: A longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with an earlier peak in infant BMI (P = 0.0003) and a lower prepeak velocity (P

  19. Height of centre of body mass during osteoarthritic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadeh, S; Whittle, M W; Bremble, G R

    1986-05-01

    Early attempts to locate the position of the centre of mass of the body during walking involved the use of cinematography, followed by kinetic analysis of the forces and couples acting about three axes at the ground and centre of mass. These methods, requiring data on the individual body segments, are too lengthy and complex for routine clinical use. A method is described which estimates both the trajectory and the mean height of the centre of mass, using only dynamic data from a single walk across one pair of force plates. Relating a possible trajectory height to the measured force vectors gives a profile for the horizontal velocity. The correct height is determined by seeking the smooth profile corresponding to the known horizontal velocity obtained by integration. Results are presented for 42 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement operations. PMID:23906357

  20. Body mass index and adult female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommsen, Søren; Foldspang, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible role of obesity in the etiology of adult female urinary incontinence (UI). A random population sample of 3,114 women aged 30–59 years were mailed a questionnaire concerning UI and, among other things, body weight and height. The overall...

  1. Evaluation of correction in shaping body mass women first adulthood with different personal features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaylova S.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessed the effectiveness of training method of the "Shaping Classic" on the catabolic program correction of body weight the first mature age women with different personality characteristics. The study involved 20 women aged 26 - 30 years with a body mass index above average and high. Conducted anthropometric measurements. Used physiological tests, step test Prohorovtseva, engine test, psychodiagnostic methods. The efficiency of the program in reducing total body weight and body fat. The positive impact of the program on the functional state of the cardiovascular system and the musculoskeletal system is shown. Found that particular dispositions eating and self-esteem of women may reduce the level of impact of training. It is revealed that these features contribute to devaluing recommendations coach and weaken the motivation to train.

  2. Body Fat Percentages by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry Corresponding to Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Overweight and Obesity in Indian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit, Deepa; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Khadilkar, Vaman; Ekbote, Veena

    2009-01-01

    Background: Indians are suspected to have higher body fat percent at a given body mass index (BMI) than their western counterparts. Objective: To estimate percent body fat in apparently healthy Indian children and adolescents by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and explore linkages of BMI with body fat percent for better health risk assessment. Methods: Age, weight, height of 316 boys and 250 girls (6–17 years) were recorded. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiom...

  3. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  4. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Angquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  5. Body-esteem, body mass index, and risk for disordered eating among adolescents in synchronized swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Claude; Magnan, Claire; Philippe, Roberta Antonini

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dimensions of body-esteem, Body Mass Index, and their relations with eating disorder symptoms among 42 elite adolescent athletes engaged in competitive synchronized swimming (M = 15.4 yr., SD = 1.2) and to compare them with 40 athletes in sports with no emphasis on leanness (M = 16.5 yr., SD = .93), and 50 nonathlete college female students (M = 16.3 yr., SD = 1.1). They completed the Body-esteem Scale and the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Body Mass Index was computed. Analysis showed synchronized swimmers reported greater negative feelings about their appearance than the two other groups and low perceptions of how others evaluate their physical appearance. Participants did not differ on the EAT-26. Regression analyses showed that Body Mass Index and Body-esteem Appearance accounted for 38% of the variance in log-transformed Dieting scores of synchronized swimmers. Results are discussed in relation to the literature. PMID:16491692

  6. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Pakniat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Pre-pregnancy obesity is considered as a significant predictor for neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Several studies have indicated conflicting associations between body mass index (BMI and pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pre-pregnancy BMI on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods:Thiscohort study was conducted from 2010 to 2013 in Qazvin province, Iran. BMI was measured in a total of 1376 pregnant women before their 12th week of pregnancy. The subjects were followed-up until the termination of their pregnancy and childbirth. Data collection was performed through checklists prepared by the researchers, which consisted of three parts: demographic features, obstetric history, and subsequent pregnancy outcome. For data analysis, Chi-square, ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests were performed, using SPSS version 16. In addition, adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were measured. Results: The risk of preeclampsia (OR: 5.36, CI: 2.505-11.49, gestational diabetes mellitus (OR: 5.092, CI: 1.67-15.46, cesarean section (OR: 1.959, CI: 1.37-2.79, and large for gestational age (OR: 4.735, CI: 1.402-15.98 was higher in overweight (25≤BMI≤29.9 kg/m2 and obese groups (BMI>30 kg/m2, compared to women with below-normal and average weight. Conclusion: Pre-pregnancy obesity is strongly associated with certain pregnancy complications and perinatal conditions. Therefore, these complications implicate the need for pre-pregnancy counseling and weight loss in this group of women.

  7. Do early life factors influence body mass index in adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Goldani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of the country. Biological, economic and social variables and newborn anthropometric measurements were obtained shortly after delivery. In 1996, 1189 males from this cohort, 34.3% of the original male population, were submitted to anthropometric measurements and were asked about their current schooling on the occasion of army recruitment. A multiple linear regression model was applied to determine variables associated with BMI. Mean BMI was 22.7 (95%CI = 22.5-23.0. After adjustment, BMI was 1.22 kg/m² higher among infants born with high birth weight (³4000 g, 1.21 kg/m² higher among individuals of low social class at birth and 0.69 kg/m² higher among individuals whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (P < 0.05. The association between social class at birth and BMI remained statistically significant (P < 0.05 even after adjustment for adult schooling. These findings suggest that early life social influences on BMI were more important and were not reversed by late socioeconomic position. Therefore, prevention of overweight and obesity should focus not only on changes in adult life styles but also on factors such as high birth weight.

  8. Comparison of body composition between professional sportswomen and apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.

  9. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  10. Multi-mass schemes for collisionless N-body simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Mimi

    2007-01-01

    We present a general scheme for constructing Monte Carlo realizations of equilibrium, collisionless galaxy models with known distribution function (DF) f_0. Our method uses importance sampling to find the sampling DF f_s that minimizes the mean-square formal errors in a given set of projections of the DF f_0. The result is a multi-mass N-body realization of the galaxy model in which ``interesting'' regions of phase-space are densely populated by lots of low-mass particles, increasing the effective N there, and less interesting regions by fewer, higher-mass particles. As a simple application, we consider the case of minimizing the shot noise in estimates of the acceleration field for an N-body model of a spherical Hernquist model. Models constructed using our scheme easily yield a factor ~100 reduction in the variance in the central acceleration field when compared to a traditional equal-mass model with the same number of particles. When evolving both models with a real N-body code, the diffusion coefficients ...

  11. Measurement of body potassium with a whole-body counter: relationship between lean body mass and resting energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted studies to determine whether the Mayo whole-body counter could be used to measure body potassium, and thus lean body mass (LBM), and whether moderate obesity alters resting energy expenditure when corrected for LBM. Twenty-four nonobese and 18 moderately obese adults underwent body potassium (40K) counting, as well as tritiated water space measurement and indirect calorimetry. LBM values predicted from 40K counting and tritiated water space measurements were highly correlated (P = 0.001; r = 0.88). Resting energy expenditure was closely related to LBM (P less than 0.0001; r = 0.78): kcal/day = 622 kcal + (LBM.20.0 kcal/kg LBM). In this relationship, the obese subjects did not differ from nonobese subjects. In summary, the Mayo whole-body counter can accurately measure LBM, and moderate obesity has no detectable effect on corrected resting energy expenditure

  12. Personality traits and body mass index in a Korean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unjin Shim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. METHODS: We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. RESULTS: Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0 ± 9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3 ± 3.0 kg/m2 and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0 ± 15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2 were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β=0.032, P<0.05. BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β=-0.026, P<0.05. Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β=-0.072, agreeableness β=0.068 and waist circumference (openness to experience: β=-0.202, agreeableness: β=0.227 (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention and treatment of

  13. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Antonis Polymeris; Peter D. Papapetrou; Georgios Katsoulis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as...

  14. Body mass, spleen mass and level of thyroid hormones in juvenile hypothyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksandić Dragutin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of hypothyroidism on body mass and spleen mass of rats was examined during the prenatal and early juvenile periods. Hypothyroidism was induced by the application of propylthiouracil (PTU in drinking water to the mothers from the first day of gravidity and during lactation, and the offspring were sacrificed on the 14th and 21st days after birth. The body mass of the juvenile rats was measured just before they were sacrificed. The concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 in blood serum were determined in control and treated juvenile rats. The results indicate that PTU leads to a reduction in T3 and T4 serum concentrations in treated juvenile rats. Treated juvenile rats had a bigger body mass and spleen mass in comparison with control animals. These data indicate that hypothyroidism induced in the prenatal and early juvenile period leads to an increase in the body mass and spleen mass and disrupts the normal development of the spleen in the course of the examined period. .

  15. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  16. Perception of Affective Body Movements in HRI Across Age Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Krogsager, Anders; Segato, Nicolaj

    2016-01-01

    robots and the signals they produce. In this paper we focus on affective connotations of body movements and investigate how the perception of body movements of robots is related to age. Inspired by a study from Japan, we introduce culture as a variable in the experiment and discuss the difficulties......Social robots are envisioned to move into unrestricted environments where they will be interacting with naive users (in terms of their experience as robot operators). Thus, these robots are also envisioned to exploit interaction channels that are natural to humans like speech, gestures, or body...... movements. A specificity of these interaction channels is that humans do not only convey task-related information but also more subtle information like e.g. emotions or personal stance through these channels. Thus, to be successful and not accidentally jeopardizing an interaction, robots need to be able...

  17. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Willer (Cristen); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); S. Li (Shengxu); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); A.L. Elliott (Amanda); A.U. Jackson (Anne); C. Lamina (Claudia); G. Lettre (Guillaume); N. Lim (Noha); H.N. Lyon (Helen); S.A. McCarroll (Steven); K. Papadakis (Konstantinos); L. Qi (Lu); J.C. Randall (Joshua); R.M. Roccasecca; S. Sanna (Serena); P. Scheet (Paul); M.N. Weedon (Michael); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); J.H. Zhao; L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N. Timpson (Nicholas); P. Almgren (Peter); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S. Bingham (Sheila); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); M.J. Brown (Morris); N.P. Burtt (Noël); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); C. Cooper (Charles); G.D. Smith; E.M. Dennison (Elaine); P. Deodhar (Parimal); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D.M. Evans (David); L. Gianniny (Lauren); C. Gieger (Christian); C.J. Gillson (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); R. Hackett (Rachel); D. Hadley (David); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); J. Hebebrand (Johannes); A. Hofman (Albert); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Johnson (Toby); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); Z. Jovanovic (Zorica); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuokkanen (Mikko); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); E. Lakatta (Edward); J. Luan; R.N. Luben (Robert); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A.R. Ness (Andrew); K. Northstone (Kate); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); C. Purmann (Carolin); M.G. Rees (Matthew); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); J. Saramies (Jouko); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); M.A. Sims (Matthew); K. Song (Kijoung); J. Stephens (Jonathan); S. Stevens (Suzanne); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Y.C.L. Tung (Loraine); T.T. Valle (Timo); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); K.S. Vimaleswaran (Karani); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); D. Waterworth (Dawn); N. Watkins (Nicholas); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G. Zhai (Guangju); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); D. Altshuler (David); M. Caulfield (Mark); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I.S. Farooqi (Sadaf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.R. Jarvelin; M. Laakso (Markku); V. Mooser (Vincent); K.K. Ong (Ken); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.J. Wareham (Nick); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); R.B. Hayes (Richard); D. Hunter (David); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I. Barroso (Inês); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCommon variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts

  18. Standardized uptake value of FDG corrected by lean body mass measured by DEXA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating the metabolic activity of tumor lesion sometimes becomes important to evaluate grading of malignancy, prognosis, or response to therapy. The most used measure of the metabolic activity of [18F]-Fluorodeoxiglucose (FDG) in clinical PET is the Standardized Uptake Value (SUV). It relates the activity measured by the PET scan to the injected dose of FDG divided by the body mass. This approach overestimates SUV in 'heavy' patients, as the proportion of the 'low avid of FDG' fat mass increases. For this reason, different approaches are being evaluated to obtain a more accurate SUV measure. Aims: to compare the measured lean body mass by Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry with the previous methods of correction, to assess the more independent to the body constitution. Material and Methods: FDG metabolism was studied to 15 patients of both sexes, age between 28 and 72 y.o., body weight 55 to 92 Kg. One hour after the IV injection of 0.0045mCi/Kg of FDG, a whole body emission and transmission scan was performed to each subject in a positron emission tomograph (QUEST 250, GE-UGM, USA) for over 1 hour. Body lean mass composition was measured the same or next day by DEXA (Lunar DPX-L, USA.) ROIs were drawn on brain, liver and muscle. SUVbw =[(corrected mCi/g of tissue) / (mCi injected / body weight in grams)] was calculated for each tissue, and then recalculated replacing body weight with the measured lean body mass (SUVlm), calculated lean mass (SUVlc), body mass index (SUVmi) and body surface area (SUVsa). Corrected SUVs were normalized to each SUVbw average for a comparable visualization of results. Results: obtained data was analyzed by linear regression and curve estimation for each case in all tissues with the SPSS statistical software. A positive correlation between SUVbw and subject weight was confirmed for the 3 tissues. In Muscle and liver there was no significant correlation. The liver scanning time was variable ( 90 to 123 minutes after injection). Relating liver

  19. Association of Body Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Women and Men from Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bahtiri, Elton; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered potentially modifiable determinants of bone mass. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the association between body weight and body mass index (BMI) with total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 100 women and 32 men from Kosovo into three BMI groups. All the study subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measureme...

  20. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifespans both in wild populations and in laboratory conditions. Many life-extending manipulations in rodents, such as caloric restriction, also decrease core body temperature. Nonetheless, an inverse relationship between temperature and lifespan can be obscured or reversed, especially when the range of body temperatures is small as in homeotherms. An example is observed in humans: women appear to have a slightly higher body temperature and yet live longer than men. The mechanisms involved in the relationship between temperature and longevity also appear to be less direct than once thought with neuroendocrine processes possibly mediating complex physiological responses to temperature changes. Lastly, we discuss species differences in longevity in mammals and how this relates to body temperature and argue that the low temperature of the long-lived naked mole-rat possibly contributes to its exceptional longevity. PMID:25832892

  1. Body Mass Index and the Measurement of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method of measuring obesity using Body Mass Index (BMI) data. Conventional measures which simply count the number of individuals with BMI in excess of an upper limit ignore the extent by which individuals exceed BMI limits and also the increased risk ratios for various conditions associated very high levels of BMI. This paper suggests that measures currently used in the poverty literature can be usefully applied to measure obesity and provide us with measures which m...

  2. Modeling of Body Mass Index by Newton's Second Law

    OpenAIRE

    Canessa, E.

    2008-01-01

    Since laws of physics exist in nature, their possible relationship to terrestial growth is introduced. By considering the human body as a dynamic system of variable mass (and volume), growing under a gravity field, it is shown how natural laws may influence the vertical growth of humans. This approach makes sense because the non-linear percentile curves of different aspects of human physical growth from childhood to adolescence can be described in relation to physics laws independently of gen...

  3. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Pregnancy Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Hamideh Pakniat; Fatemeh mohammadi; Fatemeh Ranjkesh

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Pre-pregnancy obesity is considered as a significant predictor for neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Several studies have indicated conflicting associations between body mass index (BMI) and pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pre-pregnancy BMI on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods:Thiscohort study was conducted from 2010 to 2013 in Qazvin province, Iran. BMI was measured in a total of 1376 pregnant women before their 12th week of pr...

  4. Body mass index and participation in organized mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Sophie Sell; Njor, Sisse Helle; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women, and early diagnosis is essential for future prognosis. Evidence from mainly cross-sectional US studies with self-reported exposure and outcome found positive association of body mass index (BMI) with non-participation in mammographic sc...... with normal weight, while BMI was not related to screening in premenopausal women. Effect of BMI on mammographic screening participation was not significantly modified by HT, previous screening participation, or morbidities....

  5. Spectroscopic Determination of Masses (and Implied Ages) for Red Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, M.; Hogg, David W.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Ho, A. Y. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter. For red giant stars, tracers luminous enough to be observed across the Galaxy, mass implies a stellar evolution age. It has proven to be extremely difficult to infer ages and masses directly from red giant spectra using existing methods. From the Kepler and apogee surveys, samples of several thousand stars exist with high-quality spectra and asteroseismic masses. Here we show that from these data we can build a data-driven spectral model using The Cannon, which can determine stellar masses to ∼0.07 dex from apogee dr12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to ∼0.2 dex (40%). We show that The Cannon constrains these ages foremost from spectral regions with CN absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 70,000 giants (including 20,000 red clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R∼ 20 kpc). We show that the age information in the spectra is not simply a corollary of the birth-material abundances {{[Fe/H]}} and [α /{Fe}], and that, even within a monoabundance population of stars, there are age variations that vary sensibly with Galactic position. Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  6. Spectroscopic Determination of Masses (and Implied Ages) for Red Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, M.; Hogg, David W.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Ho, A. Y. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter. For red giant stars, tracers luminous enough to be observed across the Galaxy, mass implies a stellar evolution age. It has proven to be extremely difficult to infer ages and masses directly from red giant spectra using existing methods. From the Kepler and apogee surveys, samples of several thousand stars exist with high-quality spectra and asteroseismic masses. Here we show that from these data we can build a data-driven spectral model using The Cannon, which can determine stellar masses to ˜0.07 dex from apogee dr12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to ˜0.2 dex (40%). We show that The Cannon constrains these ages foremost from spectral regions with CN absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 70,000 giants (including 20,000 red clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R˜ 20 kpc). We show that the age information in the spectra is not simply a corollary of the birth-material abundances {{[Fe/H]}} and [α /{Fe}], and that, even within a monoabundance population of stars, there are age variations that vary sensibly with Galactic position. Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  7. Body Weight Dissatisfaction Among Israeli Jewish and Arab Women With Normal or Overweight-Obese Body Mass Index, Israeli INHIS-1, 2003-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Niskar, Amanda; Baron-Epel, Orna; Garty-Sandalon, Noga; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In Israel, 58.9% of Jewish and Arab Israeli women aged 25 to 64 years are overweight or obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2). The objective of this analysis is to describe body weight dissatisfaction differences between Jewish and Arab Israeli women with normal or overweight-obese body mass index. Methods This analysis included 1,393 Jewish and Arab women who participated in the Israeli National Health Interview Survey, 2003-2004. The survey covered a random sample of the Israeli ge...

  8. Recycled Pulsars: Spins, Masses and Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Recycled pulsars are mainly characterized by their spin periods, B-fields and masses. All these quantities are affected by previous interactions with a companion star in a binary system. Therefore, we can use these quantities as fossil records and learn about binary evolution. Here, I briefly review the distribution of these observed quantities and summarize our current understanding of the pulsar recycling process.

  9. The use of body mass changes as a practical measure of dehydration in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gemma; Meir, Rudi; Brooks, Lyndon; Holloway, Kate

    2008-11-01

    Body mass changes, hematocrit, specific gravity and urine colour were recorded during two games of soccer to determine which of these methods was the most practical in a field setting for monitoring dehydration. Members (n=13) of a premiership soccer team with a mean age of 22.6 (+/-4.9) years old, height of 177.8 (+/-7.1)cm and sum of skinfolds (four sites) of 37 (+/-12.8) were invited to participate in this study with 11 participating in each game. Players had weight, hematocrit, specific gravity and urine colour recorded pre- and post-game. Players were allowed to ingest fluid ad libitum throughout the matches with the amount consumed recorded. Urine excretion was also recorded and included in the calculation of final body mass loss (kg). A mean ambient temperature of 21 degrees C and relative humidity 77% was recorded for both games. Pre- and post-game body mass, sweat loss, hematocrit, urine specific gravity and colour were significantly different (pprediction equation for sweat loss. The model predicting from mass change was clearly the best fitting. The results demonstrate that a change in body mass during a game of soccer is an effective method of monitoring dehydration due to sweat loss when compared to other known methods that may be invasive and inappropriate in the field. PMID:17888734

  10. Peak muscle mass in young men and sarcopenia in the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Nielsen, T L; Brixen, K;

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age. The diagnosis of sarcopenia relies in part on normative data on muscle mass, but these data are lacking. This study provides population-based reference data on muscle mass in young men, and these results may be used clinically for the diagnosis of...... sarcopenia in men. INTRODUCTION: The ageing population increases the prevalence of sarcopenia. Estimation of normative data on muscle mass in young men during the peak of anabolic hormones is necessary for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in ageing males. The purposes of this study were to provide population......-based reference data on lean body mass (LBM) in young men during the time of peak levels of GH/IGF-1 and testosterone and further to apply the reference data on a population-based sample of men aged 60-74 years to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, population-based single...

  11. The influence of body mass in endurance bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D P

    1994-01-01

    Bicycling is a complex sport in which an athlete's energy cost is related to two principal forces: air resistance when traveling on flat terrain, and gravity when traveling uphill. Both wind tunnel data and physiological measurements suggest that air resistance scales as body mass to about the 1/3 power. Thus, large cyclists have only slightly greater frontal drags than small cyclists. If expressed relative to body mass, the frontal drag of small cyclists is considerably greater than that of large cyclists. The difference in frontal drag (energy cost) is not made up for by the advantage to small cyclists in relative VO2max (energy supply), since the mass exponent for drag (1/3) is closer to zero than that for VO2max (2/3). Thus, small cyclists should be at a disadvantage in flat time trials, which field data support. The energy cost of riding uphill slightly favors the large cyclist, because the weight of the bicycle represents a relatively smaller load than it does to a small cyclist. The mass exponent is 0.79. Since this exponent is greater than that for VO2max, the small cyclists have an advantage in climbing, which is supported by field data. PMID:8133740

  12. Spectroscopic determination of masses (and implied ages) for red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Melissa; Hogg, David W.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martig, Marie; Ho, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter and for red giant stars it implies a stellar evolution age. Stellar masses and ages have never been derived directly from spectra of red giants. However, using the APOGEE Kepler sample of stars, (the APOKASC sample), with high-quality spectra and astroseismic masses, we can build a data-driven spectral model using THE CANNON (arXiv:1501.07604) to infer stellar mass and therefore age from stellar spectra. We determine stellar masses to 0.07 dex from APOGEE DR12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to 0.2 dex (40 percent). THE CANNON constrains the ages foremost from spectral regions with particular absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 85,000 giants (including 20,000 red-clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R ˜ 20 kpc). Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  13. Increased body mass index is a predisposition for treatment by total hip replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the radiological and epidemiological data of 4,151 subjects followed up from 1976 to 2003 to determine individual risk factors for hip osteoarthritis (OA), hip pain and/or treatment by total hip replacement (THR). Pelvic radiographs recorded in 1992 were assessed for evidence of hip-joint degeneration and dysplasia. Sequential body mass index (BMI) measurements from 1976 to 1992, age, exposure to daily lifting and hip dysplasia were entered into logistic regression analyses. T...

  14. A genome-wide association study of body mass index across early life and childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole M Warrington; Howe, Laura D; Paternoster, Lavinia; Kaakinen, Marika; Herrala, Sauli; Huikari, Ville; Wu, Yan Yan; Kemp, John P.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Pourcain, Beate St; Davey Smith, George; Tilling, Kate; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pennell, Craig E.; Evans, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have investigated the effect of known adult body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BMI in childhood. There has been no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMI trajectories over childhood. Methods: We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of BMI trajectories from 1 to 17 years of age in 9377 children (77 967 measurements) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Ra...

  15. A genome-wide association study of body mass index across early life and childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Warrington, N.; Howe, L; Paternoster, L.; Kaakinen, M.; Herrala, S. (Sauli); Huikari, V.; Wu, Y.; Kemp, J.; Timpson, N.; St Pourcain, B.; Smith, G.; Tilling, K; Jarvelin, M; Pennell, C; Evans, D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have investigated the effect of known adult body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BMI in childhood. There has been no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMI trajectories over childhood. Methods: We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of BMI trajectories from 1 to 17 years of age in 9377 children (77 967 measurements) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Ra...

  16. Comparison of body mass index in children of two different regions of welfare.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Shapouri Moghadam; Mohammad Safarian; Rahim Vakili; Seyed Morteza Ehteshamfar

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic basis of children obesity is of high importance for preventive policies. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of obesity among children living in two different levels of welfare regions in Mashhad northeast of Iran. A total of 625 primary school girls and boys aged 78-127 months were randomly selected, and values of their body mass index (BMI) were measured. The prevalence of both overweight and obesity were higher among students of enriched area in comparison with that of...

  17. Association between health examination items and body mass index among school children in Hualien, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chia-Hsiang; Wang, Jen-Hung; Jan, Rong-Hwa; Huang, Chih-Hao; Cheng, Ching-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of obesity and major physical examination items including dental caries, myopia, pinworm, hematuria, and proteinuria among school children in Hualien, Taiwan. In addition, the health status differences between gender, grader, levels of residence urbanization, and body mass index (BMI) were examined. Methods Cross-sectional studies with a total of 11,080 students (age, 7–14 years) in grades 1, 4, and 7 were evaluated for weight, height, routine physical exam...

  18. Exercise improves body fat, lean mass and bone mass in breast cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, Melinda L; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; Cadmus, Lisa; Mierzejewski, Eileen; Mayne, Susan T; Yu, Herbert; Chung, Gina G.; Jones, Beth; Knobf, M. Tish; DiPietro, Loretta

    2009-01-01

    Given the negative effects of a breast cancer diagnosis and its treatments on body weight and bone mass, we investigated the effects of a 6-month randomized controlled aerobic exercise intervention vs. usual care on body composition in breast cancer survivors. Secondary aims were to examine the effects stratified by important prognostic and physiologic variables. Seventy-five physically inactive postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were recruited through the Yale-New Haven Hospital Tumor Re...

  19. Body mass index as discriminator of the lean mass deficit and excess body fat in institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria Helena; Bolina, Alisson F; Luiz, Raíssa B; de Oliveira, Karoline F; Virtuoso, Jair S; Rodrigues, Rosalina A P; Silva, Larissa C; da Cunha, Daniel F; De Mattia, Ana Lúcia; Barichello, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the discriminating criterion for body mass index (BMI) in the prediction of low fat free mass and high body fat percentage according to sex among older people. Observational analytical study with cross-sectional design was used for this study. All institutionalized older people from the city of Uberaba (Minas Gerais, Brazil) who fit within the inclusion and exclusion criteria were approached. Sixty-five institutionalized older people were evaluated after signing a Free and Informed Consent Form. Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were employed for the analysis, using Student's t-test and multiple linear regression. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the BMI (kg/m(2)) cut-off points. The study complied with all the ethical norms for research involving human beings. In comparing the anthropometric measurements obtained via bioimpedance, elder male had higher mean height and body water volume than females. However, women had higher mean triceps skinfold and fat free mass than men. The BMI cut-off points, as discriminators of low fat free mass percentage and high body fat percentage in women, were ≤22.4 kg/m(2) and >26.6 kg/m(2), respectively; while for men they were ≤19.2 kg/m(2) and >23.8 kg/m(2). The results of this study indicate the need for multicenter studies aimed at suggesting BMI cut-off points for institutionalized older people, taking into account specific sex characteristics. PMID:25771958

  20. Family trios analysis of common polymorphisms in the obestatin/ghrelin, BDNF and AGRP genes in patients with Anorexia nervosa: Association with subtype, body-mass index, severity and age of onset.

    OpenAIRE

    Dardennes, Roland,; Zizzari, Philippe; Tolle, Virginie; Foulon, Christine; Kipman, Amélie; Romo, Lucia; Iancu-Gontard, Dana; Boni, Claudette; Sinet, Pierre-Marie; Bluet-Pajot, Marie-Thérèse; Estour, Bruno; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Guelfi, Julien-Daniel; Rouillon, Frédéric; Gorwood, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) affects 0.3% of young girls with a mortality of 6%/decade and is strongly familial with genetic factors. Ghrelin is an upstream regulator of the orexigenic peptides NPY and AgRP and acts as a natural antagonist to leptin's effects on NPY/AgRP-expressing neurons, resulting in an increase in feeding and body weight. Obestatin which counteracts ghrelin action on feeding is derived from the same propeptide than ghrelin. BDNF has been involved in body weight regulation and it...

  1. Effect of licorice on the reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, D; De Palo, C B; Mattarello, M J; Spinella, P; Zaccaria, M; Ermolao, A; Palermo, M; Fiore, C; Sartorato, P; Francini-Pesenti, F; Karbowiak, I

    2003-07-01

    The history of licorice, as a medicinal plant, is very old and has been used in many societies throughout the millennia. The active principle, glycyrrhetinic acid, is responsible for sodium retention and hypertension, which is the most common side-effect. We show an effect of licorice in reducing body fat mass. We studied 15 normal-weight subjects (7 males, age 22-26 yr, and 8 females, age 21-26 yr), who consumed for 2 months 3.5 g a day of a commercial preparation of licorice. Body fat mass (BFM, expressed as percentage of total body weight, by skinfold thickness and by bioelectrical impedance analysis, BIA) and extracellular water (ECW, percentage of total body water, by BIA) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) did not change. ECW increased (males: 41.8+/-2.0 before vs 47.0+/-2.3 after, p<0.001; females: 48.2+/-1.4 before vs 49.4+/-2.1 after, p<0.05). BFM was reduced by licorice: (male: before 12.0+/-2.1 vs after 10.8+/-2.9%, p<0.02; female: before 24.9+/-5.1 vs after 22.1+/-5.4, p<0.02); plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone were suppressed. Licorice was able to reduce body fat mass and to suppress aldosterone, without any change in BMI. Since the subjects were consuming the same amount of calories during the study, we suggest that licorice can reduce fat by inhibiting 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 at the level of fat cells. PMID:14594116

  2. Plasma surfactant protein D levels and the relation to body mass index in a chinese population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, X M; Wu, Y P; Wei, R; Cai, H X; Tornoe, I; Han, J J; Wang, Y; de Groot, P G; Holmskov, U; Xia, Z L; Sørensen, Grith Lykke

    2007-01-01

    significant effect of age, and (iii) a significant inverse association between serum SP-D and body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.012). The data indicate that racial differences in SP-D expression exist as the median plasma SP-D in the Chinese population was approximately two times lower than the median serum SP......Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a member of the collectin family and is an important component of the pulmonary innate host defence. The protein has a widespread distribution in the human body and is present in multiple epithelia, in endothelium and in blood. Various studies have looked at the...

  3. Childhood body mass index in relation to future risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, M B; Freedman, N D; Gamborg, M; Sørensen, T I A; Baker, J L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Middle-aged obese adults are at substantially elevated risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. It is unclear whether this risk originates earlier in life. METHODS: We assessed associations between childhood body mass index (BMI) and height-measured annually between ages 7 and 13-with adult...... oesophageal adenocarcinoma in a cohort from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. Analyses included 255 053 children born during 1930-1971. Danish Cancer Registry linkage provided outcomes. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression....... RESULTS: During 5.4 million person-years of follow-up, 254 (216 males) incident oesophageal adenocarcinomas occurred. At each examined age, cancer risk increased linearly per unit BMI z-score, although associations were only statistically significant for ages 9-13. The HR for the age of 13 years was 1...

  4. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  5. Turnover of whole body proteins and myofibrillar proteins in middle-aged active men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endurance-trained older men have a higher proportion of lean tissue and greater muscle cell oxidative capacity, reversing age-related trends and suggesting major changes in protein metabolism. In this study, protein turnover was determined in 6 middle-aged (52+/-1 yr) men who were well trained (VO2 max 55.2+/-5.0 ml O2/kg.min) and lean (body fat 18.9+/-2.8%, muscle mass 36.6+/-0.6%). The maintained habitual exercise while consuming 0.6, 0.9 or 1.2 g protein/kg.day for 10-day periods. N flux was measured from 15N in urea after oral 15N-glycine administration. Myofibrillar protein breakdown was estimated from urinary 3-methyl-histidine. Dietary protein had no effect on turnover rates, even when N balance was negative. Whole body protein synthesis was 3.60+/-0.12 g/kg.day and breakdown was 3.40+/-0.14 g/kg.day for all N intakes. Whole body protein flux, synthesis and breakdown were similar to values reported for sedentary young (SY) or sedentary old (SO) men on comparable diets. 3-me-his (3.67+/-0.14 μmol/kg.day) was similar to values reported for SY but higher (p<0.01) than for SO. Myofibrillar protein breakdown per unit muscle mass (185+/-7 μmol 3-me-his/g creatinine) was higher (p<0.01) than for SY or SO. In active middle-aged men, myofibrillar proteins may account for a greater proportion of whole body protein turnover, despite an age-related reduction in muscle mass

  6. An alternative to body mass index for standardizing body weight for stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, A; Walley, T

    2000-09-01

    Although body mass index (BMI) has been adopted by WHO as an international measure of obesity, it lacks a theoretical basis, and empirical evidence suggests it is not valid for all populations. We determined standard weight-for-height using a model calibrated by multivariate analysis of observational data on body dimensions and health status in the USA (NHANES III). A multiple linear regression model based on a simple mathematical formulation accurately described the observed weight variations in this normal adult population. A standardized reference model using just two measurements (upper arm length and sitting height), readily applied in both clinical and research settings using lookup tables, improved explanatory power substantially compared to the best BMI formulation (r(2) increased 16.3% for males, 21.1% for females). Physical dysfunction and self-reported poor health showed strong trends with excess body weight. These findings need confirmation from larger population samples. PMID:10984553

  7. Impact of maternal body mass index on neonatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Kalk P; Guthmann F; Krause K; Relle K; Godes M; Gossing G; Halle H; Wauer R; Hocher B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Maternal body mass index has an impact on maternal and fetal pregnancy outcome. An increased maternal BMI is known to be associated with admission of the newborn to a neonatal care unit. The reasons and impact of this admission on fetal outcome, however, are unknown so far. Objective The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of maternal BMI on maternal and fetal pregnancy outcome with special focus on the children admitted to a neonatal care unit. Methods A coho...

  8. Spectroscopic determination of masses (and implied ages) for red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, M; Rix, H-W; Martig, M; Pinsonneault, Marc H; Ho, A Y Q

    2015-01-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter. For red giant stars, tracers luminous enough to be observed across the Galaxy, mass implies a stellar evolution age. It has proven to be extremely difficult to infer ages and masses directly from red giant spectra using existing methods. From the KEPLER and APOGEE surveys, samples of several thousand stars exist with high-quality spectra and asteroseismic masses. Here we show that from these data we can build a data-driven spectral model using The Cannon, which can determine stellar masses to $\\sim$ 0.07 dex from APOGEE DR12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to $\\sim$ 0.2 dex (40 percent). We show that The Cannon constrains these ages foremost from spectral regions with CN absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 80,000 giants (including 20,000 red-clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center t...

  9. Statistics of n-body simulations; 3, unequal masses

    CERN Document Server

    Giersz, M; Giersz, Mirek; Heggie, Douglas C

    1995-01-01

    We describe results from large numbers of N-body simulations containing from 250 to 1000 stars each. The distribution of stellar masses is a power law, and the systems are isolated. While the collapse of the core exhibits the expected segregation of different masses, we find that the post-collapse evolution is, at a first approximation, homologous. This is quite surprising because there is no reason for supposing that mass segregation should not continue to have a substantial effect on the evolution of the cluster. In fact the spatial distribution of the mean stellar mass is nearly static throughout the post-collapse regime, except for the overall expansion of the systems, and this helps to explain why the post-collapse evolution is nearly self-similar. Self-similarity is also exhibited by the distribution of anisotropy and the profile of departures from equipartition, which show little change during the post-collapse phase. The departures from energy equipartition and isotropy are small in the core and incre...

  10. Body dissatisfaction and body mass in girls and boys transitioning from early to mid-adolescence: additional role of self-esteem and eating habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Mauno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the transition from early to mid-adolescence, gender differences in pubertal development become significant. Body dissatisfaction is often associated with body mass, low self-esteem and abnormal eating habits. The majority of studies investigating body dissatisfaction and its associations have been conducted on female populations. However, some evidence suggests that males also suffer from these problems and that gender differences might already be observed in adolescence. Aims To examine body dissatisfaction and its relationship with body mass, as well as self-esteem and eating habits, in girls and boys in transition from early to mid-adolescence. Methods School nurses recorded the heights and weights of 659 girls and 711 boys with a mean age of 14.5 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory were used as self-appraisal scales. Eating data were self-reported. Results The girls were less satisfied with their bodies than boys were with theirs (mean score (SD: 30.6 (SD 12.2 vs. 18.9 (SD 9.5; p  Conclusions Body mass, self-esteem and eating habits revealed a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction in the transitional phase from early to mid-adolescence in girls and boys, but significant gender differences were also found.

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone

    Full Text Available Total body mass (TBM is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils. This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs. Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths.

  12. Evaluation of Body Mass Index and Survival of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma by Propensity-Matched Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    OuYang, Pu-Yun; Zhang, Lu-Ning; Jie TANG; Lan, Xiao-Wen; Xiao, Yao; Gao, Yuan-Hong; Jun MA; Xie, Fang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The effect of pretreatment body mass index on survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains contradictory. All patients (N = 1778) underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Body mass index was categorized as underweight (

  13. Store Impulse Marketing Strategies and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca; Hunter, Gerald; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified the use of placement and price reduction marketing strategies in different food retail outlets to identify associations between these strategies and the risk of overweight and obesity among customers. Methods. In 2011 we collected dietary and health information from 1372 residents in “food deserts” in Pittsburgh, PA. We audited neighborhood restaurants and food stores (n = 40) including 16 distant food venues at which residents reported shopping. We assessed end-aisle displays, special floor displays, cash register displays, and price reductions for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars; and nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, and products with at least 51% whole grains. Results. Supermarkets and superstores had the largest numbers of displays and price reductions for low-nutrient foods. Exposure to displays of SSBs and foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars and price reduction of SSBs was associated with increased body mass index. Conclusions. In-store marketing strategies of low-nutrient foods appear to be risk factors for a higher body mass index among regular shoppers. Future research is needed to confirm the causal role of marketing strategies in obesity. PMID:25521881

  14. Effect of body mass index on outcome of labour induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Farheen; Naru, Tahira; Sheikh, Sana

    2016-05-01

    The retrospective study to explore the adverse effect of obesity on pregnancy and labour was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, and comprised data of all patients booked between 12-14 weeks and required induction of labour from January 1 to December 31, 2012. Women were grouped into two body mass index categories: normal weight (23 kg/m2). Obesity increased the risk of development of gestational hypertension and diabetes. Therefore obese women were more likely to be induced due to medical indication whether primiparous or multiparous adjusted odds ratio =2.89(95% confidence interval 1.29-6.48) and 2.77 (95% confidence interval 1.07-7.19) respectively. There was increased chance of having caesarean section in primigravida adjusted odds ratio = 1.45 (95% confidence interval 0.72-2.92), duration of caesarean section and blood loss during the procedure were not significantly associated with high body mass index (p>0.05). Obesity may lead to a lot of problems in primigravida, but it did not have major impact. PMID:27183944

  15. The changing understanding of ageing. Part 2: Body composition, metabolism and cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis F. Lawler

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This second of three discussions about ageing biology and diseases continues at the level of the organism, examining the relationship among body composition, late life and diseases. One view of significant age-related mass loss in humans suggests that anabolic failure is associated with various precipitating factors that may share anorexia in common. Lean mass decline with even partial anorexia should alert clinicians to monitor patients for emergence of otherwise subclinical disease. Weight or mass loss and clinical disease also may be independent, thus creating an interwoven and complex view. Recent data from the Portuguese water dog genetics model suggest that heritable factors play a role in end of life body metrics and some histological changes, and that some metric and histological changes are themselves inter-related. While widespread inflammation and hyperplasia were less frequent than expected, there exists nonetheless a disease relationship to the growth hormone (GH-insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1-insulin axis that requires further exploration. Oxidative metabolism and apoptosis are reviewed briefly as examples at the cellular level that may be reflected in gross ageing phenotypes, further underscoring the complex nature of many late-life diseases.

  16. Study on Dosimetry Used TLD Dosimeter and Body Mass Index at Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of study is to expose a more uniform dose depending on the relationship between a body mass index in patients who underwent radiation therapy and an acquired dosimetric information by using a thermoluminescent dosimeter. Since 2006 to August 2011 we investigated 28 people who underwent radiation therapy were enrolled in AMC. Each patient was measured on the head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, thigh, knee joint, and ankle joint using the thermoluminescent dosimeter. The measurement value of each points compared with the prescribed center point, abdominal point, and dose measurements of points on which to base the abdomen and the patient's body mass index (BMI) were compared with reference point, abdomen dose. 28 patients on prescribed dose in the abdomen by which the center point, an average dose was 100.6±5.5, and the other seven measuring points with the average maximum difference among the head, neck, chest, pelvic, thigh, knee, and ankle were 92.8±4.2%, 97.6±6.2%, 96.4±5.5%, 102.6±5.3%, 103.4±7.9%, 95.8±5.9%, 96.1±5.5%. The relationship of abdominal point dose and the patient's body mass index (BMI) was analyzed a scatter plot, and the result of linear relationship analysis by regression method, the regression of the dose (y) was -1.009 BMI (x) plus 123.3 and coefficient of determination (R2) was represented 0.697. The total body irradiation treatment process was evaluated the dose deviation and then the prescribed dose by which the average abdominal dose was satisfied with 100.6±5.5%. Results of the relationship analysis between BMI and dose, if we apply the correction value for each patients, it can be achieved more uniform dose delivery.

  17. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis Polymeris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r=0.95, P 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI.

  18. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeris, Antonis; Papapetrou, Peter D; Katsoulis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20-83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25-29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC) of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r = 0.95, P 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI. PMID:26556418

  19. Increased body mass index is a predisposition for treatment by total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    -joint degeneration and dysplasia. Sequential body mass index (BMI) measurements from 1976 to 1992, age, exposure to daily lifting and hip dysplasia were entered into logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of hip dysplasia ranged from 5.4% to 12.8% depending on the radiographical index used. Radiological hip OA...... prevalence was 1.0--2.5% in subjects <60 years of age and 4.4--5.3% in subjects >or=60 years of age. While radiological OA was significantly influenced by hip dysplasia in men and hip dysplasia and age in women, the risk of THR being performed was only influenced by BMI assessed in 1976. Hip......We investigated the radiological and epidemiological data of 4,151 subjects followed up from 1976 to 2003 to determine individual risk factors for hip osteoarthritis (OA), hip pain and/or treatment by total hip replacement (THR). Pelvic radiographs recorded in 1992 were assessed for evidence of hip...

  20. Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both genetic and environmental factors are known to affect body mass index (BMI), but detailed understanding of how their effects differ during childhood and adolescence is lacking. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the genetic and environmental contributions to BMI variation from infancy to...... were based on 383,092 BMI measurements. Variation in BMI was decomposed into genetic and environmental components through genetic structural equation modeling. RESULTS: The variance of BMI increased from 5 y of age along with increasing mean BMI. The proportion of BMI variation explained by additive...... genetic factors was lowest at 4 y of age in boys (a(2) = 0.42) and girls (a(2) = 0.41) and then generally increased to 0.75 in both sexes at 19 y of age. This was because of a stronger influence of environmental factors shared by co-twins in midchildhood. After 15 y of age, the effect of shared...

  1. In-vivo determination of total body water and lean body mass in subjects by deuterium dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total body water (TBW) estimation is one of a number of basic techniques required for the determination of body composition in normal and malnourished subjects. When combined with total body nitrogen (TBN) analysis by prompt gamma neutron activation, an accurate compartmental model of in vivo body composition can be formed, providing valuable nutritional and other data. This study examines the role of TBW on its own in evaluating lean body mass. Total body water was studied in six male and five female subjects using deuterium oxide and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The lean body mass calculated from the results was compared with the lean body mass deduced from established total body nitrogen measurements. A four-compartment model was also used to calculate lean body mass. Excellent agreement was shown between lean body mass derived from TBW, the four-compartment model and TBN. Hence, TBW can provide a fast, cost-efficient method for evaluating normal subjects. However, for disease-induced malnutrition, or highly developed athletes, both TBN and TBW measurements are essential to establish an accurate picture of their body composition. TBW measurements alone can monitor the hydration state of patients and as such have a useful diagnostic value

  2. Scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small mammals at 2.0 g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    It is postulated that augmentation of gravitational loading should produce a shift in the classic Kleiber mammalian allometric relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass by an increase in both these parameters. Oxygen consumption rate and body mass measurements of 10 male rabbits 8 months of age were obtained initially for 1.0 g, and then over a 9-week period of chronic centrifugation at 2.0 g. Analysis of covariance showed that the positioning constant at 2.0 g is increased by 17 percent from that at 1.0 g at the P less than 0.001 level, and the exponent is increased by 8 percent at the P = 0.008 level. It is concluded that abatement of gravitational loading in spaceflight will result in a lowering of both allometric parameters.

  3. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  4. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawaheer, D; Olsen, J; Lahiff, M;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner.......To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner....

  5. The variations in Body Mass Index of different types of cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Agnihotri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of both active and second hand smoking on Body Mass Index of adult smokers in rural areas of Chandigarh. The relationship of body mass index with smoking status was also assessed in current daily and intermittent smokers. The male subjects (N=240 of 20-30 years and 30-40 years age category were divided into four groups of 30 subjects each based on Global Adult Tobacco Survey Questionnaire, India as follows: Group 1 - Current daily cigarette smokers, Group 2 - current intermittent cigarette smokers, Group 3 - Second hand cigarette smokers and Group 4 - Non-smokers (Control group. One way ANOVA test showed non-significant differences between and within all the groups in body mass index (F=1.11, p>0.05 in 20-30 years age category. In 30-40 years age category, significant differences (F=4.11, p<0.05 were observed between and within all the groups. Post hoc Scheffe test in 30-40 years category also revealed significant mean differences between current daily smokers and non-smokers. Karl Pearson’s correlation test showed a highly significant inverse linear relationship (p<0.001 between pack years and BMI in both current daily and intermittent smokers. Current smoking of moderate intensity has an effect to alter relative fatness (or BMI of the body. There may be no substantial difference in BMI with moderate and light smoking as well as exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in younger adults. The greater the number of cigarettes smoked, the lower the adult smoker's BMI in both current moderate and intermittent light smokers.

  6. Childhood body mass index and height and risk of histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Ulrich, L G;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer risk factors include adult obesity and taller stature, but the influence of size earlier in life is incompletely understood. We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and height were associated with histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer...... childhood ages. Height at all ages was statistically significant and positively associated with all endometrial cancers, except non-oestrogen-dependent cancers. At 7 years, per ~5.2 cm (1 z-score), the risk of endometrioid adenocarcinoma was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.28). Among non-users of...... unopposed oestrogens, associations between BMI and endometrioid adenocarcinoma strengthened, but no effects on height associations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial carcinogenesis is linked to early-life body size, suggesting that childhood BMI and height may be useful indicators for the risk of later...

  7. Thermoneutral zone and scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    A 4-species animal model suitable for experimental study of the effect of change in gravitational loading on the scale relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass is used to study the effect of temperature on metabolic rate in six male animals, 8-10 months of age, of each of the four species in the ambient temperature range 20-36 C. The measurements taken permitted partitioning of total body heat output into sensible heat loss by radiation, conduction and convection, and into latent heat loss by evaporation of water from the body surface. It is shown that the condition of thermoneutrality is important for metabolic scale effect studies, and that the thermoneutral zone for the species considered here is a narrow one.

  8. The association of gut microbiota with body weight and body mass index in preschool children of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Sepp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota has been shown to affect both fat storage and energy harvesting, suggesting that it plays a direct role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal colonization by particular species/groups of the intestinal microbiota is related to body weight values in Estonian preschool children born in different years during the entire 1990s. Methods: Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and quantitative composition of cultivable gut microbiota (staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, enterobacteria, lactobacilli, anaerobic gram-positive cocci, bifidobacteria, eubacteria, bacteroides, clostridia, and candida were studied in 51 healthy 5-year-old children (40 were born between 1993 and 94 and 11 were born between 1996 and 97. Results: At the age of 5 years, median weight was 19.5 kg and median BMI was 15.3 kg/m2. Significantly higher BMI (p=0.006 was found in 5-year-old children born in late versus early 1990s during the development of socioeconomic situation of Estonia (2% rise in gross domestic product. The counts of the different gut bacteria did not show any association with weight and BMI in the 5-year-old children. However, the BMI values were in positive correlation with a relative share of anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, for example, bifidobacteria when adjusted for sex and year of birth (adj R2=0.459, p=0.026 and eubacteria (adj R2=0.484, p=0.014 in the community of cultured intestinal microbiota. The relative share of bacteroides showed a negative correlation with the childrens’ weight (adj R2=− 0.481, p=0.015. Conclusion: The body weight indices of preschool children of the general population are associated with the proportion of anaerobic intestinal microbiota and can be predicted by sex and particular socioeconomic situation from birth to 5 years of age.

  9. Intraspecific variation in avian pectoral muscle mass: constraints on maintaining manoeuvrability with increasing body mass

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Maurine W.; Piersma, Theunis; Hedenstrom, Anders; Brugge, Maarten; Hedenström, Anders; Jackson, Sue

    2007-01-01

    1. Within a single year, long-distance migrants undergo a minimum of four cycles of fuel storage and depletion because their migrations have at least one stopover. Each cycle includes an almost twofold change in body mass (m(b)). Pervasive predation threats beg the question whether escape flight abilities keep up with such large changes in m(b). 2. We derive aerodynamic predictions how pectoral muscle mass (m(pm)) should change with m(b) to maintain constant relative flight power. 3. We teste...

  10. Gender- and Gestational Age-Specific Body Fat Percentage at Birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin P

    2011-08-08

    Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.

  11. Physical activity and bone mineral accrual in boys with different body mass parameters during puberty: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donvina Vaitkeviciute

    Full Text Available The aim of our longitudinal study was to investigate the relationships between physical activity and bone mass in boys with different body mass status during the years surrounding pubertal growth spurt. Two hundred and six boys entering puberty took part in this study. The subjects were divided into underweight (BMI 26.02 groups at baseline according to age related categories. Whole-body DXA scans were performed at baseline, after 12 and 24 months to assess body composition (lean body mass, fat mass, and total body (TB, lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN bone mineral density (BMD parameters. Physical activity was measured by 7-day accelerometry. For longitudinal analysis, multilevel fixed effects regression models were constructed. Biological age, height and lean body mass had an effect for explanation of TB BMD, FN BMD and LS BMD. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, vigorous physical activity (VPA and sedentary time (SED had the significant effect only on FN BMD. Being an underweight boy at the baseline indicated greater chance (p<0.01 to have lower TB BMD in the future (2 years at follow up development, compared to normal weight (estimates = -0.038, overweight (estimates = -0.061 and obese boys (estimates = -0.106.

  12. Effects of Body Mass Index and Full Body Kinematics on Tennis Serve Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Francis KH; Keung, Jackie HK; Lau, Newman ML; Ng, Douglas KS; Chung, Joanne WY; Chow, Daniel HK

    2014-01-01

    Effective training to improve serve speed is important for competitive tennis players. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of anthropometric factors and whole body kinematics of elite players on ball speed and to propose possible training strategies for improving the quality of tennis serves. Body and racket kinematics of tennis serves of 12 male elite Hong Kong players were investigated. The tennis serve was divided into four phases: I) Back-Swing Phase, II) Lead-Leg-Drive Phase, III) Forward-Swing Phase, and IV) Follow-Through Phase. It was shown that racket-side knee range of motion during phases II and III (r=0.705; p<0.05), racket-side knee peak extension velocity during phase II (r=0.751; p<0.01), racket-side hip peak extension velocity during phase II (r=0.657; p<0.05), racket-side shoulder range of motion in the coronal plane during phase III (r=0.616; p<0.05), racket-side elbow peak extension velocity during phase III (r=0.708; p<0.01) and body mass index (r=0.577; p<0.05) were significantly correlated with ball speed. Body mass index and the identified kinematic parameters that were significantly correlated with ball speed could be used as training guidelines for coaches and players to improve serve speed. Players should pay particular attention in training to increasing the extension velocity and range of motion of the identified joints. PMID:25031669

  13. Body Dissatisfaction among Adolescent Boys and Girls: The Effects of Body Mass, Peer Appearance Culture and Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and…

  14. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  15. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. PMID:27333958

  16. Body Acceleration as Indicator for Walking Economy in an Ageing Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Valenti

    Full Text Available In adults, walking economy declines with increasing age and negatively influences walking speed. This study aims at detecting determinants of walking economy from body acceleration during walking in an ageing population.35 healthy elderly (18 males, age 51 to 83 y, BMI 25.5±2.4 kg/m2 walked on a treadmill. Energy expenditure was measured with indirect calorimetry while body acceleration was sampled at 60Hz with a tri-axial accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph, positioned on the lower back. Walking economy was measured as lowest energy needed to displace one kilogram of body mass for one meter while walking (WCostmin, J/m/kg. Gait features were extracted from the acceleration signal and included in a model to predict WCostmin.On average WCostmin was 2.43±0.42 J/m/kg and correlated significantly with gait rate (r2 = 0.21, p<0.01 and regularity along the frontal (anteroposterior and lateral (mediolateral axes (r2 = 0.16, p<0.05 and r2 = 0.12, p<0.05 respectively. Together, the three variables explained 46% of the inter-subject variance (p<0.001 with a standard error of estimate of 0.30 J/m/kg. WCostmin and regularity along the frontal and lateral axes were related to age (WCostmin: r2 = 0.44, p<0.001; regularity: r2 = 0.16, p<0.05 and r2 = 0.12, p<0.05 respectively frontal and lateral.The age associated decline in walking economy is induced by the adoption of an increased gait rate and by irregular body acceleration in the horizontal plane.

  17. Relation between percentage body fat and body mass index among primary school students aged between 6 to 11 years old living in urban Guangzhou%广州市城区6~11岁小学生体脂百分比与体质指数关系的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维蔚; 刘伟佳; 林蓉; 林琳; 吴家刚; 杜琳

    2008-01-01

    [目的] 了解广州市城区小学生体脂的分布情况,分析体脂百分比(percentage of body fat,PBF)和体质指数(body mass index,BMI)的关系,为制定适合我国儿童的肥胖诊断标准提供依据. [方法] 抽取广州市2区全日制小学各1所,采用生物电阻抗法对1 036名6~11岁小学生进行体脂含量测定. [结果] 广州市男女小学生在各年龄段BMI与PBF呈中、高度相关(r=0.65~0.75).以PBF与BMI标准判断肥胖的一致性,得统计量Kappa系数K=0.67,表明两种标准所判定的儿童肥胖率具有较强的一致性. [结论] 应用中国肥胖工作组提出的分年龄、性别判定儿童肥胖的BMI切点对于确定广州市6~11岁小学生体脂水平具有较好的特异性以及灵敏性.制定我国儿童肥胖的评价标准仍需更深入的研究.

  18. Mass extinctions show selective patterns in crinoid body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, A.; Tang, C.; Pelagio, M.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    There have been five major extinctions on planet Earth: the end of the Ordovician, late Devonian, late Permian, late Triassic and the late Cretaceous and through all of these, Crinoids have still managed to prosper. Our project attempts to find a correlation between these five mass extinctions and the body size of Crinoids. Past research has shown that bigger animals are more prone to extinction compared to smaller sized ones because of their complex environmental niches. We hypothesized that small-sized Crinoids would have a higher possibility of survival compared to the larger-sized Crinoids. We first graphed Crinoids' maximum body size and the five major extinctions throughout time for any visual correlation between them. We then used t-tests as our statistical analyses to find any differences between the size of survivors and. There was no mean difference between the mean size of victims and survivors with the exception of the end of the Triassic extinction. There are many possible explanations for this difference in the end of the Triassic such as 1) a rise in atmospheric CO2, 2) a combination was volcanic CO2 and catastrophic dissociation of gas hydrate, and/or 3) a cooling in temperature and oceanic changes occurred.

  19. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  20. Effects of Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui Hong; Liu, Xiang Yu; Zhan, Yi Wei; Zhang, Long; Huang, Yan Jie; Zhou, Hong

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the single and joint effects of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on pregnancy outcomes, electronic medical records of 14,196 women who delivered singleton live infant at a maternal and child health hospital in Beijing, China, in 2012 were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to assess the associations, adjusting for maternal age, height, education, parity, and offspring sex. Women of high prepregnancy BMI or excessive GWG had higher risks of gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage, caesarean delivery, macrosomia, and large for gestational age infant, while women of inadequate GWG had higher risks of preterm delivery, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infant. Findings suggest that antenatal care providers should help pregnant women control their GWG to normal. PMID:26058899

  1. Effect of photoperiod on body mass, and daily energy intake and energy expenditure in young rats

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, P.; Visser, H.; DAAN, S

    1997-01-01

    In this experiment we investigate the effect of photoperiod on locomotor activity, body mass, food intake, growth efficiency (relationship between body mass change and food intake), energy expenditure, and body composition in growing Wistar rats. Two groups of animals were subjected to either a long, LD 18:6 (II = 8), Or Short photoperiod, LD 6:18 (n = 7), during a period of 190 days after weaning. Activity, body mass, food intake, and energy expenditure were measured during the study, as wel...

  2. Effects of aging on whole body and segmental control while obstacle crossing under impaired sensory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Alison C; Deshpande, Nandini

    2014-06-01

    The ability to safely negotiate obstacles is an important component of independent mobility, requiring adaptive locomotor responses to maintain dynamic balance. This study examined the effects of aging and visual-vestibular interactions on whole-body and segmental control during obstacle crossing. Twelve young and 15 older adults walked along a straight pathway and stepped over one obstacle placed in their path. The task was completed under 4 conditions which included intact or blurred vision, and intact or perturbed vestibular information using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). Global task performance significantly increased under suboptimal vision conditions. Vision also significantly influenced medial-lateral center of mass displacement, irrespective of age and GVS. Older adults demonstrated significantly greater trunk pitch and head roll angles under suboptimal vision conditions. Similar to whole-body control, no GVS effect was found for any measures of segmental control. The results indicate a significant reliance on visual but not vestibular information for locomotor control during obstacle crossing. The lack of differences in GVS effects suggests that vestibular information is not up-regulated for obstacle avoidance. This is not differentially affected by aging. In older adults, insufficient visual input appears to affect ability to minimize anterior-posterior trunk movement despite a slower obstacle crossing time and walking speed. Combined with larger medial-lateral deviation of the body COM with insufficient visual information, the older adults may be at a greater risk for imbalance or inability to recover from a possible trip when stepping over an obstacle. PMID:24746603

  3. Investigation of insulin resistance in narcoleptic patients: dependent or independent of body mass index?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engel A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alice Engel1,2, Jana Helfrich1, Nina Manderscheid1, Petra B Musholt3, Thomas Forst3, Andreas Pfützner3, Norbert Dahmen1,21Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz, Germany; 2Fachklinik Katzenelnbogen, Katzenelnbogen, Germany; 3IKFE, Institute for Clinical Research and Development, Mainz, GermanyBackground: Narcolepsy is a severe sleep-wake cycle disorder resulting in most cases from a lack of orexin, the energy balance-regulating hormone. Narcoleptic patients have been reported to suffer from an excess morbidity of Type 2 diabetes, even after correction for their often elevated body mass index.Methods: To explore whether narcolepsy is specifically associated with a propensity to develop insulin resistance, we measured fasting glucose, insulin, and intact proinsulin levels in 43 narcoleptic patients and 47 controls matched for body mass index and age. The proinsulin-to-insulin ratio was calculated. Insulin resistance was determined using the homeostatic model assessment method.Results: Narcoleptic patients did not show elevated insulin resistance parameters.Conclusion: In contrast with earlier reports, we found no evidence that narcolepsy specifically elevates the risk of insulin resistance (and consequently of type 2 diabetes independently of body mass index.Keywords: fasting glucose, insulin, intact proinsulin, narcolepsy, obesity

  4. Socio-Cognitive and Nutritional Factors Associated with Body Mass Index in Children and Adolescents: Possibilities for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    A large national study of schoolchildren aged 6-18 years was conducted to assess nutritional and socio-cognitive factors associated with body mass index (BMI). A questionnaire was used to assess nutritional quality of breakfast, importance of physical activity and food variety score, among 4441 students from randomly selected schools in all states…

  5. Seasonal variation in body mass and energy budget in Chinese bulbuls (pycnonotus sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengsi; Wu; Yuchao; Xiao; Fang; Yang; Limeng; Zhou; Weihong; Zheng; Jinsong; Liu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Seasonal adjustments in body mass and energy budget are important for the survival of small birds in temperate zones. Seasonal changes in body mass, body temperature, gross energy intake(GEI), digestible energy intake(DEI), body fat content, as well as length and mass of the digestive tract, were measured in Chinese Bulbuls(Pycnonotus sinensis) caught in the wild at Wenzhou, China.Methods: Body mass was determined with a Sartorius balance. The caloric contents of the dried food and feces were then determined using a oxygen bomb calorimeter. Total fat was extracted from the dried carcasses by ether extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus. The digestive tract of each bird was measured and weighed, and was then dried to a constant mass.Results: Body mass showed a significant seasonal variation and was higher in spring and winter than in summer and autumn. Body fat was higher in winter than in other seasons. GEI and DEI were significantly higher in winter.The length and mass of the digestive tract were greatest in winter and the magnitude of both these parameters was positively correlated with body mass, GEI and DEI. Small passerines typically have higher daily energy expenditure in winter, necessitating increased food consumption.Conclusions: This general observation is consistent with the observed winter increase in gut volume and body mass in Chinese Bulbuls. These results suggest that Chinese Bulbuls adjust to winter conditions by increasing their body mass, body fat, GEI, DEI and digestive tract size.

  6. Seasonal variation in body mass and energy budget in Chinese bulbuls (pycnonotus sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengsi Wu; Yuchao Xiao; Fang Yang; Limeng Zhou; Weihong Zheng; Jinsong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Background:Seasonal adjustments in body mass and energy budget are important for the survival of small birds in temperate zones. Seasonal changes in body mass, body temperature, gross energy intake (GEI), digestible energy intake (DEI), body fat content, as well as length and mass of the digestive tract, were measured in Chinese Bulbuls (Pycnonotus sinensis) caught in the wild at Wenzhou, China. Methods:Body mass was determined with a Sartorius balance. The caloric contents of the dried food and feces were then determined using a oxygen bomb calorimeter. Total fat was extracted from the dried carcasses by ether extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus. The digestive tract of each bird was measured and weighed, and was then dried to a constant mass. Results:Body mass showed a significant seasonal variation and was higher in spring and winter than in summer and autumn. Body fat was higher in winter than in other seasons. GEI and DEI were significantly higher in winter. The length and mass of the digestive tract were greatest in winter and the magnitude of both these parameters was positively correlated with body mass, GEI and DEI. Small passerines typical y have higher daily energy expenditure in winter, necessitating increased food consumption. Conclusions:This general observation is consistent with the observed winter increase in gut volume and body mass in Chinese Bulbuls. These results suggest that Chinese Bulbuls adjust to winter conditions by increasing their body mass, body fat, GEI, DEI and digestive tract size.

  7. Energy intake, energy dispersion and body mass index interaction in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kucukkomurler, Saime; Istik, Omer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dietary energy intake and energy dispersion among adolescents and to examine its relationship with Body Mass Index (BMI). Adolescents recalled food intake in the past 24 hours and energy intakes/expenditure were calculated. For the relation between BMI and energy intake percentage, ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test were used. This research was performed in 2010 in Istanbul, Turkey. The study was carried out with 265 adolescents, 63.4% girls, aged between 1...

  8. Combined associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with the outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, E.A.; Vaeth, M.; Baker, J.L.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Olsen, J.; Rasmussen, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although both maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) may affect birth weight, their separate and joint associations with complications of pregnancy and delivery and with postpartum weight retention are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate...... prepregnancy BMI with cesarean delivery and were strongly associated with high postpartum weight retention. Moreover, greater weight gains and high maternal BMI decreased the risk of growth restriction and increased the risk of the infant's being born large-for-gestational-age or with a low Apgar score...

  9. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Theo Nikolaidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b the relationship between body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min -1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, sit-and-reach test (SAR, handgrip strength test (HST and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ. Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28 of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7 of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027. BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women. Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively. Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women. Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs.

  10. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Muraro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405. Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2% also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59, 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking.

  11. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking. PMID:26247384

  12. Effect of aging on bone mass in adult women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total-body calcium was measured in 40 adult women by total-body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA). Procedures for normalizing the absolute calcium measurements for the parameters of size and age were developed in order to effect a direct comparison of women of age 30 to 78 yr. The normal total-body calcium (TB/sub Ca/) for an individual can be predicted by a formula developed in the present study to within +- 11 percent (1.62 SD) at the 90 percent confidence level. The TB/sub Ca/ loss can be characterized by two components: one with a slower rate, 0.37 percent/yr, and the other with a faster rate, 1.08 percent/yr. The latter, a more rapid postmenopausal loss, started at 50 to 60 yr and was superimposed on the slower rate of loss that started in the fourth decade and continued throughout life. The bone mineral content (BMC) of the radius, measured by the absorptiometric technique, correlated well with the total-body skeletal calcium in this population (r = 0.813, P less than .001). However, for intercomparisons of the BMC values of individuals, normalization of the BMC values for size and age is required, as it is for the TB/sub Ca/ data. Normalization provided by the ratio of BMC to radius width is not adequate for comparative studies

  13. "If I Had Lots of Money...I'd Have a Body Makeover:" Managing the Aging Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevin, Kathleen F.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a feminist framework to explore embodied aging by analyzing indepth formal interviews with 57 men and women in their 60s, 70s and 80s. Emphasizing intersectionality, I focus on the interpretations and strategies these men and women use to make sense of their aging bodies. Their aging corporeal experiences allow me to examine…

  14. Changes of body mass and thermogenesis in Apodemus chevrieri during cold exposure and rewarming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wan-long

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental cues, such as temperature, play important roles in the regulation of physiology and behavior in small mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass and thermogenic capacity in Apodemus chevrieri. It showed that A. chevrieri increased resting metabolic rate (RMR, nonshivering thermogenesis (NST and energy intake and decreased body mass and body temperature when exposed to the cold while showed a significant increase in body mass and body temperature after rewarming. The decrease of body temperature can reduce the difference in temperature in environment, save energy consumption. The increase in body mass after rewarming was associated with the higher energy intake. Together, these data supported our hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce changes in body mass and metabolism in A. chevrieri.

  15. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  16. Representativeness and optimal use of body mass index (BMI) in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskaran, K; Forbes, H. J.; Douglas, I.; Leon, D. A.; Smeeth, L

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the completeness and representativeness of body mass index (BMI) data in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), and determine an optimal strategy for their use. Design: Descriptive study. Setting: Electronic healthcare records from primary care. Participants: A million patient random sample from the UK CPRD primary care database, aged ≥16 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures: BMI completeness in CPRD was evaluated by age, sex and calendar period. CPR...

  17. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from 40K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values

  18. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  19. Fe and Cu isotope mass balances in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, V.; Albarede, F.; Jaouen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The ranges of the Fe and Cu isotope compositions in the human body are large, i.e. ~3% and ~2%, respectively. Both isotopic fractionations appear to be mainly controlled by redox conditions. The Fe and Cu isotope compositions of the tissues analyzed so far plot on a mixing hyperbolae between a reduced and an oxidized metals pools. The reduced metals pool is composed by erythrocytes, where Fe is bounded to hemoglobin as Fe(II) and Cu to superoxide-dismutase as Cu(I). The oxidized metals pool is composed by hepatocytes, where Fe and Cu are stored as Fe(III) ferritin and as Cu(II) ceruloplasmine, respectively. The position of each biological component in the δ56Fe-δ65Cu diagram therefore reflects the oxidation state of Fe and Cu of the predominant metal carrier protein and allows to quantify Fe and Cu fluxes between organs using mass balance calculations. For instance, serum and clot Fe and Cu isotope compositions show that current biological models of erythropoiesis violates mass conservation requirements, and suggest hidden Fe and Cu pathways during red blood cells synthesis. The results also show that a coupled Fe-Cu strong gender isotopic effect is observed in various organs. The isotopic difference between men and women is unlikely to be due to differential dietary uptake or endometrium loss, but rather reflects the effect of menstrual losses and a correlative solicitation of hepatic stores. We speculate that thorough studies of the metabolism of stable isotopes in normal conditions is a prerequisite for the understanding of the pathological dysregulations.

  20. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nurul-Fadhilah

    Full Text Available Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2% fell in the normal body mass index (BMI ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50% were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI, BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  1. Effects of body mass index on sleep patterns during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to profile sleep patterns during pregnancy according to body mass index (BMI) and to correlate labour outcomes with both BMI and hours sleep. Data were collected from 200 postpartum women detailing sleep characteristics before and during pregnancy. A validated sleep questionnaire was employed, which comprised of questions about sleep apnoea, snoring, subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication and daytime dysfunction. Descriptive analyses were used. With advancing gestation, the mean (SD) number of hours sleep per night declined: pre-pregnancy 8.1 (SD 1.4); 1st trimester 8.3 (SD 1.8); 2nd trimester 7.7 (SD 1.7) and 3rd trimester 6.7 (SD 2.2). In the 18.5-24.9 BMI group, there was a marked difference in hours sleep per night from pre-pregnancy to 1st (8.6 h, p = 0.007), 2nd (7.9 h, p = 0.023) and 3rd (6.4 h, p = 0.000) trimesters in primiparous women. In the 25-29.9 BMI group, there was a difference from pre-pregnancy to 3rd trimester (p = 0.000). These changes were not reflected in a clinically significant difference in birth weight or mode of delivery.

  2. Body mass index and psychiatric disorders: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bowden, Jack; Loret de Mola, Christian; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Davey Smith, George; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Observational studies suggest that obesity is associated with psychiatric traits, but causal inference from such studies has several limitations. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization methods (inverse variance weighting, weighted median and MR-Egger regression) to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with three psychiatric traits using data from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits and Psychiatric Genomics consortia. Causal odds ratio estimates per 1-standard deviation increment in BMI ranged from 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62; 1.25) to 1.23 (95% CI: 0.65; 2.31) for bipolar disorder; 0.93 (0.78; 1.11) to 1.41 (0.87; 2.27) for schizophrenia; and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.92; 1.44) to 1.40 (95% CI: 1.03; 1.90) for major depressive disorder. Analyses removing potentially influential SNPs suggested that the effect estimates for depression might be underestimated. Our findings do not support the notion that higher BMI increases risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although the point estimates for depression were consistent in all sensitivity analyses, the overall statistical evidence was weak. However, the fact that SNP-depression associations were estimated in relatively small samples reduced power to detect causal effects. This should be re-addressed when SNP-depression associations from larger studies become available. PMID:27601421

  3. Body mass index and risk of autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Basit, Saima; Andersson, Mikael;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A possible aetiological link between obesity and certain autoimmune diseases (ADs) has been suggested. We investigated the associations between body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and 43 ADs. METHODS: 75,008 women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed during a median......-up, 2430 women (3.2%) developed a total of 2607 new-onset ADs. Risk of any autoimmune disease was increased in obese women (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.46) compared with normal weight women (18.5-≤25 kg/m2). Obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were at increased risk of sarcoidosis (HR 3.59; 95% CI, 2.31 to 5.......57) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (HR 2.67; 95% CI, 1.71 to 4.17). Risk of dermatitis herpetiformis increased by 14% (95% CI, 1% to 30%) per BMI unit. Conversely, risk of celiac disease and Raynaud's phenomenon decreased by 7% (95% CI, 1% to 13%) and 12% (95% CI, 4% to 19%) per BMI unit, respectively...

  4. The effect of boron supplementation on lean body mass, plasma testosterone levels, and strength in male bodybuilders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Green, N. R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of boron supplementation was investigated in 19 male bodybuilders ages 20-27 years. Ten were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement while 9 were given a placebo every day for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on Days 1 and 49 of the study. Plasma boron values were significantly (p bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser trained bodybuilders, and that boron supplementation had no effect on these measures.

  5. Body Mass and Fat Mass in Refractory Asthma: An Observational 1 Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Bafadhel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthma and obesity are common; however the impact of obesity upon asthma remains uncertain. Objectives. To assess relationships between obesity and fat mass with airway inflammation, lung function, and disease control in patients with refractory asthma. Methods. 151 refractory asthma patients were characterised for measures of airway inflammation, lung function, Juniper asthma control questionnaire (JACQ, body mass index (BMI, and fat mass index (FMI derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients were reassessed over 12 months. Results. 74% of patients had an elevated BMI. BMI and FMI correlated (r=0.9, P<.001. FMI and JACQ correlated in men (r=0.3, P=.01. After 12 months 23% lost weight. Weight change over 12 months correlated with FEV1 change (r=−0.3, P=.03, but not with change in JACQ or exacerbations. Conclusion. Increased fat mass is common in refractory asthma and is associated with asthma symptom control in men. Loss of weight is associated with improvement in lung function in refractory asthma.

  6. Association of Maternal Body Mass Index with Adverse Maternal and Prenatal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahele Alijahan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to determine association between abnormal maternal body mass index and adverse maternal/prenatal outcomesMaterials and Methods: In this descriptive-correlation study 8270 pregnant women referred to rural and urban health centers of Ardabil district (from Mar 2009 to Dec 2010 were studied. Data were collected from prenatal healthcare records using a self designed questionnaire. Women with twin pregnancy, less than 18 and above 35 of age, and women with systemic or chronic disease were excluded from the study. The variables examined in this study include, demographic information (e.g. age, social and economy status, and literacy, present pregnancy information (e.g. parity, hemoglobin level, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and prenatal information (e.g. preterm delivery, low birth weight, and congenital malformation. Data were analyzed through Kruscal wallis, chi-square, and logistic regression tests using SPSS-16.Results: Eight point two, 25 and 15.4% pregnant of women were underweight, overweight, and obese, respectively. Obese women were at increased risk for macrosomia (OR=1.820, CI: 1.345-2.447, p=0.001, unwanted pregnancy (OR= 1.436, CI: 1.198-1.720, p=0.001, pregnancy induced hypertension (OR= 1.633, CI: 1.072-2.486, p=0.022, preeclampsia (OR= 4.666, CI: 2.353-9.2550, p=0.001, and still birth (OR= 2.602, CI: 1.306-5.184, p=0.007. However, the risk of low birth weight delivery in underweight women were 1.6 times higher than the normal cases (OR= 1.674, CI: 0962-2.912, p=0.068.Conclusion: Considering high prevalence of abnormal maternal body mass index and its associated adverse maternal and prenatal outcomes; consultation before pregnancy is recommended in order to achieve normal body mass index and reduce the relevant complications.

  7. Waist Circumference, Weight, and Body Mass Index of Iranians Based on National Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Larijani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is an important and life-threatening disease, associated with different chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We sought to address the paucity of information on the trends of anthropometric indices such as weight, waist circumference, and body mass index in the adult population of Iran. Methods: We drew upon data from the First Non-communicable Disease Survey in Iran in 2005. In total, 79,611 participants between 20 and 64 years old were selected via the random multistage cluster sampling. The Lambda Median Scale method was applied to construct normal curves for anthropometric indices.Results: The mean of waist circumference in both genders increased with age and in all the age groups except those between 20 and 24 years old was higher in the women. The mean of body mass index was higher in all the age brackets in the women, but the means of weight and height were higher in the men. The association of theses indices with diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia was stronger in men. Conclusion: The ranges of waist circumference and body mass index in Iranian population are different from those of other countries. The higher body mass index and waist circumference in females and the direct association between obesity and chronic diseases, is advisable that the effects of this phenomenon be fully investigated and due heed be paid to the importance of lifestyle modification.

  8. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    OpenAIRE

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)...

  9. In vivo organ mass of Korean adults obtained from whole-body magnetic resonance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo organ mass of the Korean adult, male and female were presented for the purpose of radiation protection. A total of 121 healthy volunteers (66 males and 55 females), whose body dimensions were close to that of average Korean adults, were recruited for this study. Whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained, and contours of 15 organs (brain, eye, gall bladder, heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, stomach, spleen, testes, thymus, thyroid, urinary bladder and uterus) and 9 bones (femur, tibia + fibula, humerus, radius + ulna, pelvis, cervical spine, thoracic and lumber spine, skull and clavicle) were segmented for organ volume rendering by anatomists using commercial software. Organ and bone masses were calculated by multiplying the Asian reference densities of the corresponding organs and bones by the measured volumes. The resulting organ and bone masses were compared with those of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Asian reference data. Significantly large standard deviation was shown in the moving organs of the respiratory and circulatory systems and in the alimentary and urogenital organs that are variable in volume in a single person. Gall bladder and pancreas showed unique Korean organ masses compared with those of ICRP and the Asian reference adults. Different from anatomical data based on autopsy, the in vivo volume and mass in this study can more exactly describe the organ volume of a living human subject for radiation protection. A larger sample size would be required for obtaining statistically more reliable results. It is also needed to establish the reference organ mass of younger age groups for which it is difficult to recruit volunteers and to immobilise the subjects for long-time MR scanning. At present, the data from this study will contribute to the establishment of a Korean reference database. (authors)

  10. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  11. SCREENING OF BODY MASS INDEX AND FUNCTIONAL FLATFOOT IN ADULT: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Chougala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a relation between flatfoot and increased Body Mass Index (BMI. Increased weight leads to increase plantar pressure causing reduced distance between ground and arches of the foot. The purpose of the present study is to estimate the prevalence of flat feet in college going students, to determine the relationship between flat foot and Body Mass Index (BMI, and to compare prevalence of flat foot among college boys and girls. Materials and Method: Samples were taken according to willingness for participation; informed consent was given and signed from them. Height and weight of subjects were measured by using standard apparatus. Total numbers of males screened were 46 and females were 182. BMI was considered as the index of obesity .The international BMI cut–off values were used to determine obesity (BMI> 95th percentile, and foot structure assessment was performed with Denis Method. Significant relationship between obesity and flatfoot was observed. Result: A significant relationship (P≤0.01 was found between the prevalence of flatfoot and BMI. Also males were found to have higher prevalence of flatfoot than women in the age group of 18-25 years. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that there is relationship between increased weight of person and structure of the foot. Males are more prone to flatfoot than females in the age group of 18-25 years.

  12. Effect of Body Mass Index on Processing Time and Morbidity in Elderly Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Bas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to assess the reliability of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG applications and to investigate the relationship between body mass index and duration of the procedure and complication rates of geriatric patients. Material and Method: Between 2011 February and 2014 December, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and complication rates of 97 geriatric patients to whom PEG was applied by the pull method under superficial anesthesia. All patients were evaluated in terms of age, sex, PEG indications, and complications, time of procedure, body mass index (BMI, antibiotic prophylaxis and follow up period. Results: 51(53% of our patients were female and 46(47% were male with a mean age of 72 ± 4. Cerebrovasculer disease was seen in 41(42% cases, malign disease which cause an obstruction in 19(19,5% cases, dementia in 16(16,5% cases and other disease in 21(22% cases as etiologic causes. The BMI of the patients were 25±3(17-32kg/m². The mean time of duration of the procedure was 8,6±1,6 minute. It was found statistically significance between BMI (up to 25 kg/m² and prolonged duration of procedure (p

  13. Evaluation of body mass index and basal metabolic rate, step number of days in boys children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Saygın

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study, evaluation was carried out to body mass index and basal metabolic rate, step number of days in boys children.This study attended 588 boys child among aged 7-11 who are receiving education in Muğla Primary Schools in the education period of 2009-2010. Permission was taken from Muğla Provincial directorate for national education, schools directors and physical education teachers.In order to determine the levels of step number of days with pedometer device 2 consecutive week days and 1 weekend day to a total of three days measurements were made. In order to determine body mass index (BMI formula (body weight / height ² were used. In order to determine rate of basal metabolism (BMR formula (66.743+13.752 x Ağırlık (kg+5.003*Boy (cm-6.755 x Yaş (yıl were used.Statistical analysis were made in the SPSS (version 15.0 packaged sortware. Children’s body weight, height, BMI, physical activity level and basal metabolic rate (BMR were compared with respect to the variable age. To determine differences occording to age one-way analysis (ANOVA, and it was used Tukey HSD test to determine which age group stems differences in as a result of anova.Among children’s height, weight, physical activity levels, BMR and BKI values differences were found in the level of p<0,001. Among physical activity levels and age (r=-0,41, height (ı=-0,51, weight (r=-0,83, BMI (r=-0,89 and BMR (r=-0,83 levels of children negative relation was found in the level of p<0,001.According to the findings in children have not seen level of physical activity "very good". It was respected “good” level (10,00%, “medium” level (53,07%, “bad” level (28,91% and “very poor” level (7,99%.As a result, the average level of step number days of boys said that a moderate level. Physical activity levels in children is thought to remain limited because of factors such as Living conditions with the service to commute to school, an intensive exam preparation, private

  14. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to overw

  15. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  16. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one sub

  17. Estimating the size of European rabbits consumed by predators: Relationship between body mass and tooth dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Javier; Haydon, Daniel T; Palomares, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    A method for estimating body mass of European rabbits Oryctolagus cunicnlus (Linnaeus, 1758) based on tooth dimensions is proposed. Regression models identified significant relationships between the body mass of 87 rabbits and individual tooth length, breadth, product of tooth length and breadth, and whether or not the individual was infected with myxomatosis. Dimensions of 10 of 14 different teeth explained over 80% of variation in body mass, and those teeth were ...

  18. %612729 LEAN BODY MASS QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS 1; LBMQTL1 [OMIM

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 612729 FIELD TI %612729 LEAN ... BODY MASS QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS 1; LBMQTL1 FIELD TX MAP ... bSNP rs7832552, were significantly associated with lean ... body mass (LBM; corrected p = 7.55 x 10(-8) and 7. ... n studies identified TRHR as an important gene for lean ... body mass. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 84: 418-423, 2009. F ...

  19. Diagnostic Performance of Body Mass Index Using the Western Pacific Regional Office of World Health Organization Reference Standards for Body Fat Percentage

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jong Lull; Cho, Jung Jin; Park, Kyung Mi; Noh, Hye Mi; Park, Yong Soon

    2015-01-01

    Associations between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), and health risks differ between Asian and European populations. BMI is commonly used to diagnose obesity; however, its accuracy in detecting adiposity in Koreans is unknown. The present cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the accuracy of BMI in determining BF%-defined obesity in 6,017 subjects (age 20-69 yr, 43.6% men) from the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We assessed the diagnostic pe...

  20. Body Mass Index, Body Esteem, and Unprotected Receptive Anal Intercourse among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Seek Partners Online

    OpenAIRE

    Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Research examining the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sexual risk outcomes among men who have sex with men (MSM) has yielded inconsistent results. Using a web-based survey, single-identified (e.g., not in a relationship) young MSM (N = 431) between the ages of 18 and 24 years who sought romantic partners online were asked to respond to items regarding their BMI, body image (e.g., attribution, dissatisfaction, and pride), and sexual risk behaviors. We used Poisson regressions t...

  1. State Requirements and Recommendations for School-Based Screenings for Body Mass Index or Body Composition, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Linchey, Jennifer; Madsen, Kristine A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We present a comprehensive picture of state requirements and recommendations for body mass index (BMI) and body composition screening of children and explore the association between pediatric obesity prevalence and state screening policies. Methods Researchers completed telephone interviews with contacts at the departments of education for all 50 states and reviewed state content standards for physical education. Results Twenty states (40%) require BMI or body composition screeni...

  2. Body Mass Index and Percentage of Body Fat as Indicators for Obesity in an Adolescent Athletic Population

    OpenAIRE

    Etchison, William C.; Bloodgood, Elizabeth A.; Minton, Cholly P.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Collins, Mary Ann; Hunter, Stephen C.; Dai, Hongying

    2011-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is widely accepted in determining obesity. Skinfold thickness measurements have been commonly used to determine percentage of body fat. Hypothesis: The authors hypothesize that because BMI does not measure fat directly but relies on body weight alone, a large percentage of athletic adolescents will be misclassified as obese by BMI. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: To compare BMI and skinfold measurements as indicators for obesity in the adolescent athl...

  3. Trends in Parent-Child Correlations of Childhood Body Mass Index during the Development of the Obesity Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2014-01-01

    .001), whereas the increase in father-daughter correlations were insignificant both at ages 7-7 (0.001/year, p = 0.37) and at ages 13-7 years (0.001/year, p = 0.18). CONCLUSION: During the obesity epidemics development, the intergenerational resemblance with mothers remained stable, whereas the father-child BMI......BACKGROUND: The intergenerational resemblance in body mass index may have increased during the development of the obesity epidemic due to changes in environment and/or expression of genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates trends in intergenerational correlations of childhood...... body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) during the emergence of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: The study population was derived from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, which includes height and weight measurements since birth year 1930. Mothers and fathers with BMIs available at ages 7 (n = 25,923 and...

  4. The Joint Effects of Body Mass Index and MAOA Gene Polymorphism on Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the joint effects of the body mass index and the MAOA gene polymorphism on depressive symptoms. In two independent Chinese samples, we measured adolescents' depressive symptoms and body mass index and collected their DNA. The results indicated that the main effects of the MAOA gene polymorphism on depressive symptoms were significant. However, the main effects of body mass index and the interaction of the MAOA gene polymorphism and body mass index on depressive symptoms were not significant. By using Chinese adolescents, this study confirmed that the MAOA gene polymorphism directly influenced adolescents' depressive symptoms. PMID:26207137

  5. Body mass scaling of passive oxygen diffusion in endotherms and ectotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillooly, James F; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Rong, Yue; McLamore, Eric S

    2016-05-10

    The area and thickness of respiratory surfaces, and the constraints they impose on passive oxygen diffusion, have been linked to differences in oxygen consumption rates and/or aerobic activity levels in vertebrates. However, it remains unclear how respiratory surfaces and associated diffusion rates vary with body mass across vertebrates, particularly in relation to the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption rates. Here we address these issues by first quantifying the body mass dependence of respiratory surface area and respiratory barrier thickness for a diversity of endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, amphibians, and reptiles). Based on these findings, we then use Fick's law to predict the body mass scaling of oxygen diffusion for each group. Finally, we compare the predicted body mass dependence of oxygen diffusion to that of oxygen consumption in endotherms and ectotherms. We find that the slopes and intercepts of the relationships describing the body mass dependence of passive oxygen diffusion in these two groups are statistically indistinguishable from those describing the body mass dependence of oxygen consumption. Thus, the area and thickness of respiratory surfaces combine to match oxygen diffusion capacity to oxygen consumption rates in both air- and water-breathing vertebrates. In particular, the substantially lower oxygen consumption rates of ectotherms of a given body mass relative to those of endotherms correspond to differences in oxygen diffusion capacity. These results provide insights into the long-standing effort to understand the structural attributes of organisms that underlie the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption. PMID:27118837

  6. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL BODY MASS INDEX AND WEIGHT GAIN WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN EASTERN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sananpanichkul, Panya; Rujirabanjerd, Sinitdhorn

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to determine the association between maternal body mass index and pregnancy weight gain with low birth weight newborns (LBWN) at Phrapokklao Hospital in eastern Thailand. We evaluated the files of 2,012 women who delivered at the hospital. Data obtained from the charts were parity, maternal age, body mass index (BMI), prepregnancy weight, weight gained during pregnancy, gestational age, hematocrit level, referral status, place of residence, fetal presentation, completion of antenatal care visits and maternal HIV infection. Sixty-five point two percent of subjects were aged 20-34 years old. Fifty-seven percent of subjects had a normal BMI and 13.2% were anemic. Thirty- seven point five percent, 32.9% and 29.6% gained too little, the correct amount and too much weight during pregnancy, respectively. Primiparity, too little weight gain and gestational age less than 37 weeks at delivery were all significantly associated with LBWN. Preterm babies were 25 times more likely to have a low birth weight than term infants (adjusted OR = 24.995; 95% CI: 16.824-37.133, p < 0.001). When maternal weight gain of any BMI group was inadequate, the subject had a 3.4 times greater risk (adjusted OR = 3.357; 95% CI: 22.114-5.332, p < 0.001) of having a LBWN. Primiparous women had a 1.7 times (adjusted OR=1.720; 95% CI: 1.182-2.503, p-0.005) greater risk of having a LBWN. The results from this study may be useful to plan maternal health programs for eastern Thailand. PMID:26867367

  7. Reference man and woman more fully characterized: Variations on the basis of body size, age, sex, and race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total body neutron activation analysis, prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis, and whole body counting have been used to determine the elemental composition of the human body. The total body elements measured were potassium, nitrogen, calcium, sodium, chlorine, and phosphorus. Total body water was also determined by the dilution principle using tritiated water. Observations were made in an adult US population that totaled 1374 and ranged in age from 20 to 90 yr. The dataset for the white population consisted of 175 males and 1134 females observations; for the black population, it consisted of 30 male and 35 female observations. The variation in the elemental composition of both males and females in any 5-yr age group was large and ranged up to 20% (SD). Age-, race-, sex-, and size-specific differences were evident. When equations were developed that predicted the elemental composition of the adult on the basis of age, weight, and height, the variation in the age groups was reduced approximately in half. Age-specific mean values for the 20- to 29-yr-old white population were also compared with values for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-23 Reference Man. The open-quotes averageclose quotes young adult male was larger than Reference Man; the in vivo data also indicated a larger skeletal mass, more lean tissues and body water, but lower body sodium. When in vivo prediction equations were used to adjust for size differences, good agreement was found between the expected values and those for Reference Man. The ICRP-23 does not contain elemental data for Reference Woman; therefore, the in vivo data in the present study provide the first estimates of body composition for Reference Woman

  8. DOES BODY MASS INDEX INFLUENCE NASAL MUCOCILIARY CLEARANCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilselvan K, Latha R, Nirmala N, Susiganeshkumar E, Thananjayam A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The respiratory system is constantly exposed to particulate matter suspended in the inhaled air and one among the efficient mechanisms to trap and expel the particulate substances is the nasal and bronchial mucociliary clearance mechanism. This mucociliary clearance mechanism is influenced by both physiological and pathological factors that alter the functioning of the respiratory cilia and the overlying mucosal layer that traps the particulate agents. As Body mass index (BMI determines the health of a person by influencing various physiological parameters, this study has been planned to study the effect of normal and abnormal BMI (overweight and obese range on the nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC. Aim: To evaluate the effect of BMI on nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC. Materials & Methods: NMC was measured in 20 volunteers with normal BMI (18.5-22.9 Kg/m2 and 20 volunteers with BMI in overweight and obese range (23 Kg/m2 and above. The NMC time was recorded by the time the volunteers appreciated the sweet taste following the placement of ¼ of saccharin tablet (1mm x 1mm in the nostril referred as saccharin transit time (STT.Results: NMC was found to be prolonged in overweight and obese population and BMI has positive correlation with NMC as calculated by Pearson correlation with r value of 0.591 and p value 0.001 which is statistically significant. Conclusion: NMC time is prolonged in abnormal BMI referring to the impairment in the mucociliary escalator mechanism thus predisposing to disease states.

  9. Correlation between body mass index and faecal microbiota from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, A; Fernandes, M R; Rodrigues, V A A; Groppo, F C; Cardoso, A L; Avila-Campos, M J; Nakano, V

    2016-03-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing problem at the global level and considered as a risk factor for obesity development and the associated co-morbidities in adult life. In this study, the occurrence of Bacteroides fragilis group, Clostridium spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Escherichia coli in 84 faecal samples from 30 obese, 24 overweight and 30 lean children was verified by culture technique and quantitative determination by quantitative PCR. In addition, Lactobacillus spp. and Methanobrevibacter smithii were also analysed. A correlation between the body mass index (BMI) and these bacteria was sought. Bacteroides vulgatus, Clostridium perfringens and Bifidobacterium adolescentis were most prevalent in all samples evaluated by culture-method. The B. fragilis group were found at high concentrations in obese and overweight children when compared with the lean ones (p 0.015). The obese and overweight children harboured higher numbers of Lactobacillus spp. than lean children (p 0.022). The faecal concentrations of the B. fragilis group (r = 0.24; p 0.026) and Lactobacillus spp. (r = 0.44; p 0.002) were positively correlated with BMI. Bifidobacterium spp. were found in higher numbers in the lean group than the overweight and obese ones (p 0.042). Furthermore, a negative correlation between BMI and Bifidobacterium spp. copy number (r = -0.22; p 0.039) was observed. Our findings show some difference in the intestinal microbial ecosystem of obese children compared with the lean ones and a significant association between number of Lactobacillus spp. and B. fragilis group and BMI. PMID:26551842

  10. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Heterotopic Ossification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of different body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker for heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients who underwent surgical repair (SR) for displaced acetabular fractures (DAF) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective study of 395 patients. All patients underwent SR for DAF followed by RT ± indomethacin. All patients received postoperative RT, 7 Gy, within 72 h. The patients were separated into four groups based on their BMI: 30. The end point of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RT ± indomethacin in preventing HO in patients with different BMI. Results: Analysis of BMI showed an increasing incidence of HO with increasing BMI: 30 (31%), 51 of 167. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the correlation between odds of HO and BMI is significant, p < 0.0001. As the BMI increased, the risk of HO and Brooker Classes 3, 4 HO increased. The risk of developing HO is 1.0× (10%) more likely among those with higher BMI compared with those with lower BMI. For a one-unit increase in BMI the log odds of HO increases by 1.0, 95% CI (1.06–1.14). Chi-square test shows no significant difference among all other factors and HO (e.g., indomethacin, race, gender). Conclusions: Despite similar surgical treatment and prophylactic measures (RT ± indomethacin), the risk of HO appears to significantly increase in patients with higher BMI after DAF. Higher single-fraction doses or multiple fractions and/or combination therapy with nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may be of greater benefit to these patients.

  11. Correlation of Gastrophageal Reflux Disease symptoms with Body Mass Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim was to find a correlation between symptoms of gastrophageal refluxdisease (GERD) and body mass index (BMI). A total of 603 patients whopresented at Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital and Surgimed Hospital Lahore withsymptoms of GERD, were included and interviewed according to a validated GERDquestionnaire. It included questions regarding GERD symptoms and theirseverity/frequency. Symptoms were defined: frequent if occurred daily;occasional if weekly and severe if they were sufficiently intense to changelife style. Height and weight were also recorded and their BMI calculated. Weused logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associationbetween the presence of each specific GI symptom and BMI. The odds ratios(OR) for a given specific symptom and 95% confidence intervals (CI) werecomputed from the coefficients in logistic regression models. The prevalenceof obesity was 25.3%, while 38.1% were overweight. There was an increase inreporting of GI symptoms in obese individuals compared to those with normalBMI who were taken as reference group. Frequent nausea, vomiting, earlysatiety, epigastric pain, heart burn, regurgitation, postprandial fullnessand dysphagia were present in 10.4, 5.6, 8.9, 17.2, 10.2, 22.1, 23.5 and21.7%, respectively, of obese subjects compared to 7.9, 1.2, 6.5, 3.5, 4.4,17.1 and 16.6% of normal BMI subjects. BMI showed a positive relationshipwith frequent vomiting (P=0.02), epigastric pain (P=0.03), regurgitation offood (P=0.02) and postprandial fullness (0.01). The majority of GERD symptomshave a greater likelihood of occurring with increasing BMI. (author)

  12. Leptin and body mass index in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Nasrin; Haghnazari, Lida; Rasolinia, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with obesity. Human and animal studies showed a direct relationship between leptin level and obesity, however, results from different studies were mixed. This study investigated the status of leptin level in PCOS and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) in a group of Iranian women with PCOS. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 women with PCOS and 36 healthy women were assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. Those in the PCOS group were not prescribed any medications for 3 months prior to the study. Fasting blood samples were then collected during the 2nd or 3rd day of menstruation for laboratory measurement of serum total leptin, blood glucose (fasting blood sugar), serum insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone (LH). Results: Mean BMI of the PCOS and control groups were 26.62 ± 4.03 kg/m2 and 23.52 ± 2.52 kg/m2, respectively (P = 0.006). The mean total leptin in the PCO group was also 10.69 ± 5.37 ng/mL and 5.73 ± 2.36 ng/mL in the control group (P = 0.0001). A significant relationship was found between leptin level and BMI as well as LH level among women with PCOS (P 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated an increased leptin level among women with PCOS that positively associated with BMI and LH. PMID:27186548

  13. Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

  14. Body-image perceptions across sex and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullari, S; Rohrer, J M; Bahm, C

    1998-12-01

    Weight dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and body-image distortion measures were used with 98 fifth and eighth graders and 57 undergraduate students. Measures included the Piers-Harris Self-concept Scale and the Kids Eating Disorder Survey for the young children, the Interpersonal Behavior Survey, and a seven-item mistaken beliefs scale for the college sample. Body dissatisfaction and Body-image distortion were assessed with a figure-drawing procedure. Significant differences in both weight dissatisfaction and body dissatisfaction were found between males and females in the eighth grade and undergraduate groups. There were no significant sex differences in body-image distortion in the fifth or eighth grades, but significant differences in body-image distortion between men and women were found in the college sample. The direction of body-image distortion for both the 20 men and the 37 women was consistent with their ideal weight. In the college sample, there was a significant correlation between body-image dissatisfaction and self-confidence for the women but not for the men. PMID:9885045

  15. A Prospective Examination of the Mechanisms Linking Childhood Physical Abuse to Body Mass Index in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Melville M; Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. This article examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of childhood physical abuse (N = 78) and nonmaltreated comparisons (N = 349) were followed up and assessed in adulthood at three time points (1989-1995, 2000-2002, and 2003-2005) when participants were of age 29.2, 39.5, and 41.2, respectively. At age 41, average BMI of the current sample was 29.97, falling between overweight and obese categories. Meditation analyses were conducted, controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, and self-reported weight. Childhood physical abuse was positively associated with subsequent generalized anxiety, major depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at age 29.2 and higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress predicted higher BMI at age 41.2. In contrast, higher levels of anxiety predicted lower BMI. Coping did not mediate between physical abuse and BMI. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between physical abuse and BMI for women, but not for men. These findings illustrate the complexity of studying the consequences of physical abuse, particularly the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and adult health outcomes. PMID:25648448

  16. Body Mass Transitions Through Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Multistate Life Table Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Melanie K; Krueger, Patrick M; McCormick, Emily; Davidson, Arthur; Main, Deborah S

    2016-04-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is well documented, but prevalence estimates offer little insight into rates of transition to higher or lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) categories. We estimated the expected numbers of years children would live as normal weight, overweight, and obese by race/ethnicity and sex, given rates of transition across BMI status levels. We used multistate life table methods and transition rates estimated from prospective cohort data (2007-2013) for Denver, Colorado, public schoolchildren aged 3-15 years. At age 3 years, normal-weight children could expect to live 11.1 of the following 13 years with normal weight status, and obese children could expect to live 9.8 years with obese status. At age 3 years, overweight children could expect to live 4.5 of the following 13 years with normal weight status, 5.1 years with overweight status, and 3.4 years with obese status. Whites and Asians lived more years at lower BMI status levels than did blacks or Hispanics; sex differences varied by race/ethnicity. Children who were normal weight or obese at age 3 years were relatively unlikely to move into a different BMI category by age 15 years. Overweight children are relatively likely to transition to normal weight or obese status. PMID:26984962

  17. Looking age-appropriate while growing old gracefully: A qualitative study of ageing and body image among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Glen S; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Williamson, Heidi; Christopher, Gary; Harcourt, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Body dissatisfaction can be significantly detrimental to wellbeing. Little is known about older adults' body image, despite the fact that ageing causes unique bodily changes and that sociocultural pressures to resist these changes abound. We conducted six focus groups with a UK community sample of White British and South Asian older adults aged 65-92 years. Thematic analysis highlighted four themes: appearance indicates capability and identity; physical ability trumps appearance; felt pressures to age 'gracefully' while resisting appearance changes; and gender and cultural differences. These findings suggest that older adults' body image can have important implications for their wellbeing and merits researchers' attention. PMID:24776689

  18. A general purpose nonlinear rigid body mass finite element for application to rotary wing dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, B. K.; Straub, F. K.; Ruzicka, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System employs the present formulation of the general-purpose nonlinear rigid body mass finite element, which represents the hub masses, blade tip masses, and pendulum vibration absorbers. The rigid body mass element has six degrees of freedom, and accounts for gravitational as well as dynamic effects. A consequence of deriving the element's equations from various physical principles is that, prior to the transformation which couples the rigid body mass element to the rotor blade finite element, the forces obtained for each element are fundamentally different; this is true notwithstanding the degrees-of-freedom of each element are parameterized using the same coordinates.

  19. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on offspring overweight in early infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with anthropometry in the offspring from birth to 12 months old in Tianjin, China. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2011, health care records of 38,539 pregnant women had been collected, and their children had been measured body weight and length at birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. The independent and joint associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines with anthropometry in the offspring were examined using General Linear Model and Logistic Regression. RESULTS: Prepregnancy BMI and maternal GWG were positively associated with Z-scores for birth weight-for-gestational age, birth length-for-gestational age, and birth weight-for-length. Infants born to mothers with excessive GWG had the greatest changes in Z-scores for weight-for-age from birth to Month 3, and from Month 6 to Month 12, and the greatest changes in Z-scores for length-for-age from birth to months 3 and 12 compared with infants born to mothers with adequate GWG. Excessive GWG was associated with an increased risk of offspring overweight or obesity at 12 months old in all BMI categories except underweight. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater weight gain and length gain of offspring in early infancy. Excessive GWG was associated with increased infancy overweight and obesity risk.

  20. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...... to 13 years with risk of thyroid cancer in later life. The study population included 321,085 children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born between 1930 and 1989 in Copenhagen, Denmark, with measurements of height and weight from 7 to 13 years of age. These data were linked with...... = 38.6 years), 171 women and 64 men were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Both height and BMI were positively associated with thyroid cancer risk, and these associations were similar by age at measurement. Using age 10 as an example, HRs per 1 unit increase in SDS for height (~6-7 cm) and BMI (~1.5-2 kg...

  1. Association between body mass index and in-hospital outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Meng, Qingrui; Vin-Raviv, Neomi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Importance: Over one-third of American adults (36%) are obese and more than two-thirds (69%) are overweight. The impact of obesity on hospitalization outcomes is not well understood. Objective: To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and overall, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific in-hospital mortality; postsurgical complications; and hospital length of stay (LOS). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Representative sample of US hospitals included in the Health Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Participants: We obtained data for patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of cancer, COPD, asthma, and CVD. Main Outcome: In-hospital mortality, postsurgical complications, and hospital LOS. Results: A total of 800,417 patients were included in this analysis. A higher proportion of Blacks (26.8%; 12.5%) and Whites (23.3%; 8.7%) had BMI of 40 to 49.9 and ≥50, respectively, compared with Hispanics (20.4%; 7.3%). Compared with normal BMI patients, the odds of in-hospital mortality increased 3.6-fold (odds ratio [OR] 3.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.37–3.89) for preobese patients, 6.5-fold (OR: 6.52, 95% CI: 5.79–7.34) for patients with BMI: 30 to 31.9, 7.5-fold (OR: 7.57, 95% CI: 6.67–8.59) for patients with BMI: 34 to 35.9, and 1.6- fold (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.56–1.79) for patients with BMI ≥ 50. Compared with normal BMI patients, preobese and overweight patients had shorter hospital stays (β preobese: −1.58, 95% CI: −1.63, −1.52); however, no clear trends were observed for postsurgical complications. Conclusions: The majority of hospitalized patients in this analysis had a BMI > 30, and higher BMI was associated with increased risk of mortality and longer hospital stay. PMID:27428218

  2. Cross-Sectional Associations between Body Mass Index and Hyperlipidemia among Adults in Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Wenwang; Su, Yingying; Yang, Guang; Ma, Yue; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Shangchao; Wang, Shibin; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Yu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that body mass index (BMI) is closely related to hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to estimate the cross-sectional relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and hyperlipidemia. Methods: We recruited 21,435 subjects (aged 18–79 years and residing in Jilin province, China) using the multistage stratified cluster random sampling method. Subjects were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire and physically examined. We analyzed the cross-sectional relationship between BMI and hyperlipidemia. Results: The prevalence of hyperlipidemia was 51.09% (52.04% in male and 50.21% in female). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.89% and 6.23%, respectively. Our study showed that underweight (OR = 0.499, 95% CI: 0.426–0.585), overweight (OR = 2.587, 95% CI: 2.428–2.756), and obesity (OR = 3.614, 95% CI: 3.183–4.104) were significantly associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001) in the age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression. After further adjusting for age, gender, region, district, ethnicity, education, marital status, main occupation, monthly family income per capita, smoking, drinking, exercise, central obesity, waist and hip, underweight (OR = 0.729, 95% CI: 0.616–0.864), overweight (OR = 1.651, 95% CI: 1.520–1.793), and obesity (OR = 1.714, 95% CI: 1.457–2.017) were independently associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001). The restricted cubic spline model illustrated a nonlinear dose-response relationship between levels of BMI and the prevalence of hyperlipidemia (Pnonlinearity < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the continuous variance of BMI was significantly associated with the prevalence of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27213419

  3. Bone mineral density, body mass index and cigarette smoking among Iranian women: implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Nguyen D

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While risk factors of osteoporosis in Western populations have been extensively documented, such a profile has not been well studied in Caucasians of non-European origin. This study was designed to estimate the modifiable distribution and determinants of bone mineral density (BMD among Iranian women in Australia. Methods Ninety women aged 35 years and older completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN using DXA (GE Lunar, WI, USA, and was expressed in g/cm2 as well as T-score. Results In multiple regression analysis, advancing age, lower body mass index (BMI, and smoking were independently associated with LS and FN BMD, with the 3 factors collectively accounting for 30% and 38% variance of LS and FN BMD, respectively. LS and FN BMD in smokers was 8% lower than that in non-smokers. Further analysis of interaction between BMI and smoking revealed that the effect of smoking was only observed in the obese group (p = 0.029 for LSBMD and p = 0.007 for FNBMD, but not in the overweight and normal groups. Using T-scores from two bone sites the prevalence of osteoporosis (T-scores ≤ -2.5 was 3.8% and 26.3% in pre-and post-menopausal women, respectively. Among current smokers, the prevalence was higher (31.3% than that among ex-smokers (28.6% and non-smokers (7.5%. Conclusion These data, for the first time, indicate that apart from advancing age and lower body mass index, cigarette smoking is an important modifiable determinant of bone mineral density in these Caucasians of non-European origin.

  4. Cross-Sectional Associations between Body Mass Index and Hyperlipidemia among Adults in Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwang Rao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is evidence that body mass index (BMI is closely related to hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to estimate the cross-sectional relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI and hyperlipidemia. Methods: We recruited 21,435 subjects (aged 18–79 years and residing in Jilin province, China using the multistage stratified cluster random sampling method. Subjects were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire and physically examined. We analyzed the cross-sectional relationship between BMI and hyperlipidemia. Results: The prevalence of hyperlipidemia was 51.09% (52.04% in male and 50.21% in female. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.89% and 6.23%, respectively. Our study showed that underweight (OR = 0.499, 95% CI: 0.426–0.585, overweight (OR = 2.587, 95% CI: 2.428–2.756, and obesity (OR = 3.614, 95% CI: 3.183–4.104 were significantly associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001 in the age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression. After further adjusting for age, gender, region, district, ethnicity, education, marital status, main occupation, monthly family income per capita, smoking, drinking, exercise, central obesity, waist and hip, underweight (OR = 0.729, 95% CI: 0.616–0.864, overweight (OR = 1.651, 95% CI: 1.520–1.793, and obesity (OR = 1.714, 95% CI: 1.457–2.017 were independently associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001. The restricted cubic spline model illustrated a nonlinear dose-response relationship between levels of BMI and the prevalence of hyperlipidemia (Pnonlinearity < 0.001. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the continuous variance of BMI was significantly associated with the prevalence of hyperlipidemia.

  5. Obesity in young Dutch adults: II, daily life-style and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecke, J A; Burema, J; Frijters, J E; Hautvast, J G; van der Wiel-Wetzels, W A

    1983-01-01

    The relationships between aspects of daily life-style and age, level of education, and body mass index (BMI; weight/height) were studied in young adult males (n = 1765) and females (n = 2092) in three age groups (19-21, 24-26 and 29-31 yr) in a Dutch population. By means of principal-components analysis five conceptually meaningful factors could be distinguished within the aspects of daily life-style which were considered. These factors were interpreted as constructs of: (1) slimming behaviour; (2) behaviour characterized by the consumption of coffee and alcohol, smoking habits and the number of hours sleep per night (CASS behaviour); (3) eating sweet and savoury snacks between meals; (4) health-conscious behaviour; and (5) physical activity. After adjustments were made for age and level of education, multiple regression analysis showed that slimming behaviour was positively related to BMI in both sexes, CASS behaviour was positively related to BMI in males, and health-conscious behaviour was inversely related to BMI in both sexes. An observed positive relationship between BMI and occupational physical activity in males could be explained by a confounding effect of socio-economic status. The observed weak positive relationship between number of hours active sport per month and BMI in males is possibly due to a difference in lean body mass. The consumption of sweet and savoury snacks was not related to BMI in either sex. These findings suggest that the daily life-style variables should be interpreted as indicators of more general types of behaviour, some of which may be important determinants of obesity. PMID:6840963

  6. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. PMID:26989980

  7. Relationship of Body Mass Index with periodontal health status of green marble mine laborers in Kesariyaji, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is evident from literature that an increased body mass index (BMI may be a potential risk factor for periodontitis. Association between BMI and periodontitis has been ascribed to unhealthy dietary patterns with insufficient micronutrients and excess sugar and fat content. The present study population has been plagued by unhealthy nutritional practices, hence the present study intended to assess the relation between BMI and periodontal status among green marble mine laborers of Kesariyaji, in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India. The study sample comprised of 513 subjects aged 18-54 years, drawn using the stratified cluster sampling procedure. BMI was calculated as the ratio of the subject's body weight (in kg to the square of their height (in meters. Periodontal status was recorded using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI. Binary multiple logistic regression analysis was executed to assess the relation between body mass index and periodontitis. The dependent variable for logistic regression analysis was categorized into control group (scores 0 - 2 of the CPI and periodontitis group (scores 3 and 4 of the CPI. The overall prevalence of periodontal disease was 98.2%. Caries status and mean number of teeth present deteriorated with the poor periodontal status. Subjects had an increased risk of periodontitis by 57% for each 1kg/m² increase in the body mass index, which means that a higher body mass index could be a potential risk factor for periodontitis among the adults aged 18 to 54 years. In conclusion, evaluation of the body mass index could be used in periodontal risk assessment.

  8. Relationship Not Found Between Blood and Urine Concentrations and Body Mass Index in Humans With Apparently Adequate Boron Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Fulya; Aysan, Erhan; Hasbahceci, Mustafa; Arpaci, Beyza; Gecer, Salih; Demirci, Selami; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2016-06-01

    The impact of boron on the development of obesity remains controversial in the analysis of experimental and clinical data. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between blood and urine boron concentrations and obesity in normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects in different age groups. A total of 105 subjects were categorized into 12 groups based on body mass index and three different age levels: as young adult (18 to 34 years old), adult (35 to 54 years old), and older adult (greater than 55 years old). Age, gender, body mass index, and blood and urine boron concentrations were recorded for each subject. There were 50 women and 55 men, with a mean age of 44.63 ± 17.9 years. Blood and urine boron concentrations were similar among the groups (p = 0.510 and p = 0.228, respectively). However, a positive correlation between age and blood boron concentration (p = 0.001) was detected in contrast to the presence of a negative correlation between age and urine boron concentration (p = 0.027). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between gender, age, and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject, and blood and urine boron concentrations. Although the relationship between boron and obesity has not been confirmed, changes of blood and urine boron concentrations with age may have some physiologic sequences to cause obesity. PMID:26458903

  9. Energy Cost of Walking in Boys Who Differ in Adiposity but Are Matched For Body Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Beatriz Volpe; Bar-Or, Oded

    2003-01-01

    Compared the energy cost of treadmill walking in pairs of obese and lean adolescent boys matched for total body mass. Results found no intergroup differences in the net energy cost at the two lower speeds, but obese boys expended more energy at a higher speed. Heart rate was considerably higher in obese boys. Body mass, rather than adiposity, was…

  10. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  11. Sauna-induced body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between basic somatic features (body mass and height and body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men exposed to thermal stress in a dry sauna.

  12. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN'S HEIGHT AND BODY MASS INDEX IN LITHUANIA, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomlinov, Andrej; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal the ethnic and socioeconomic factors associated with height and body mass index (BMI) of children during the period of political and social transition in Lithuania in 1990-2008. Data were derived from the personal health records of 1491 children (762 boys and 729 girls) born in 1990 in Vilnius city and region. Height and BMI from birth up to the age of 18 years were investigated. Children were divided into groups according to their ethnicity, place of residence, father's and mother's occupation and birth order. Height and BMI were compared between the groups; a Bonferroni correction was applied. A multiple linear regression model was used to measure the effects of the independent variables on height and BMI. Girls living in Vilnius city were significantly taller in later life at the ages of 8 and 11 years. Sons of mothers employed as office workers appeared to be significantly taller at the ages of 7, 12, 14 and 15 years compared with the sons of labourers. First-born girls were taller at the age of 7 years than later-born girls of the same age (124.48±5.11 cm and 122.92±5.14 cm, respectively, pbirth compared with first-borns; however, first-born girls had higher BMIs at the age of 11 years compared with their later-born peers (17.78±2.87 kg/m² and 16.79±2.14 kg/m² respectively, pbirth order (pbirth. In general, ethnicity, place of residence, father's and mother's occupation and birth order were not associated with children's height and BMI in most age groups. PMID:26165167

  13. A study on body mass index and its correlation with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chand Jain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and increases in body weight are among the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Body mass index is also known as obesity index. Body mass index is a strong and independent risk factor for being diagnosed in cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a high risk of type 2 diabetes in those who have a higher body mass index. The present study has been done with the objective of finding correlation between BMI and type 2 diabetes. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1638-1641

  14. A study on body mass index and its correlation with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and increases in body weight are among the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Body mass index is also known as obesity index. Body mass index is a strong and independent risk factor for being diagnosed in cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a high risk of type 2 diabetes in those who have a higher body mass index. The present study has been done with the objective of finding correlation ...

  15. Contribution of the BMI Level or the Body Fat Percentage Level to Bone-Mass

    OpenAIRE

    高畑,陽子; 穴井,孝信

    2011-01-01

    It is unclear which body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage level has the strongest effect on the bone mass in young women.We examined the data gathered from 233 adolescent girls in a junior high,high school,and university to ascertain the relationship between BMI or body fat percentage and bone mass. The transmission index (TI) of the calcaneus was measured using an ultrasound bone densitometer. The subjects were classified into 3 groups by BMI and body fat percentage se...

  16. Water mass age and aging driving chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the dark global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá, T. S.; Reche, I.; Álvarez, M.; Khatiwala, S.; Guallart, E. F.; Benítez-Barrios, V. M.; Fuentes-Lema, A.; Romera-Castillo, C.; Nieto-Cid, M.; Pelejero, C.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; Ortega-Retuerta, E.; Marrasé, C.; Álvarez-Salgado, X. A.

    2015-07-01

    The omnipresence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the open ocean enables its use as a tracer for biochemical processes throughout the global overturning circulation. We made an inventory of CDOM optical properties, ideal water age (τ), and apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) along the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean waters sampled during the Malaspina 2010 expedition. A water mass analysis was applied to obtain intrinsic, hereinafter archetypal, values of τ, AOU, oxygen utilization rate (OUR), and CDOM absorption coefficients, spectral slopes and quantum yield for each one of the 22 water types intercepted during this circumnavigation. Archetypal values of AOU and OUR have been used to trace the differential influence of water mass aging and aging rates, respectively, on CDOM variables. Whereas the absorption coefficient at 325 nm (a325) and the fluorescence quantum yield at 340 nm (Φ340) increased, the spectral slope over the wavelength range 275-295 nm (S275-295) and the ratio of spectral slopes over the ranges 275-295 nm and 350-400 nm (SR) decreased significantly with water mass aging (AOU). Combination of the slope of the linear regression between archetypal AOU and a325 with the estimated global OUR allowed us to obtain a CDOM turnover time of 634 ± 120 years, which exceeds the flushing time of the dark ocean (>200 m) by 46%. This positive relationship supports the assumption of in situ production and accumulation of CDOM as a by-product of microbial metabolism as water masses turn older. Furthermore, our data evidence that global-scale CDOM quantity (a325) is more dependent on aging (AOU), whereas CDOM quality (S275-295, SR, Φ340) is more dependent on aging rate (OUR).

  17. Role of body mass index on physical fitness index in two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroonrashid M.Hattiwale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI is an index of weight adjusted for hieght. It is one of the useful tools for diagnosing obesity or malnutrition; however, such diagnosis should take into account a person's age, gender, fitness, and ethnicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the BMI and physical fitness index (PFI of healthy subjects consists of early part and late part of youth of north interior Karnataka, India and also to find out the influence of BMI on PFI in same subjects as such study in this area is least done by competent researchers. Twenty five young, healthy adults belonging to age group of 17-21 years were selected as Group I and fifteen young healthy adults belonging to age group of 29-40 were selected as Group II subjects in this study. The present study reveals that physical anthropometric parameters were found to be within the expected range of normal in both Group I and Group II subjects of north interior Karnataka which reflects the adequate nutrition, socioeconomic status and normal life style of these individuals. In this study, no correlation was found between BMI and PFI score and a positive correlation was observed between BMI and waist hip ratio in both the age groups

  18. The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Dental Development by Demirjian's Method in 4- to 15-Year-Old Children in Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Anbiaee; Anousheh Rashed Mohassel; Ali Bagherpour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and dental development. Methods: The dental ages of 196 children were calculated according to Demirjian’s method. The chronological age, weight, and height were recorded. Dental development was defined as dental age minus chronological age. Children were classified into three groups according to their BMI: underweight, normal, or overweight and obese. We used One-way analysis of variance...

  19. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K;

    1999-01-01

    Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p < 0.000001, < 0.000002 and p < 0.001, respectively). In predialysis uremic patients the plasma leptin concentration was slightly elevated as compared with controls 10...

  20. Relationship of Heath and Carter's Second Component to Lean Body Mass and Height in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, M. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The Heath and Carter approach to determining somatotypes is less accurate than is regression analysis, mainly because of the lack of association between skeletal widths and lean body mass as measured by body density and whole-body fat percentage, holding constant muscle circumference. (Author)

  1. Assessing the Influence of Sleep-Wake Variables on Body Mass Index (BMI in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has established an association between overweight/obesity and sleep duration, suggesting that short sleep duration and timing of sleeping may lead to overweight. Most of these studies considered sleep-length rather than any other aspects associated with the sleep and wake rhythm, e.g. chronotype, which is a measure of timing of sleeping (‘when to sleep’; based on the midpoint of sleep. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different factors of the sleep-wake cycle and of co-variates on the Body Mass Index in a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Nine hundred and thirteen pupils (406 boys, 507 girls from Southwestern Germany participated in this study. Mean age was 13.7 ± 1.5 (SD years and range was between 11 – 16 years. We found that chronotype (β = .079 and social jetlag (β = .063 showed a significant influence on Body Mass Index (BMI, while sleep duration did not. Social jetlag is the absolute difference between mid-sleep time on workdays and free days. Further, screen time (in front of TV, computer, β = .13 was positively related with BMI. Self-efficacy on nutrition (β = -.11, a psychological variable important in health-behaviour models, showed an influence with high scores on self-efficacy related to lower BMI. A high BMI was correlated with low fast-food consumption (β = -.12 suggesting that adolescents with high BMI may exert some control over their eating.

  2. Sauna-Induced Body Mass Loss in Young Sedentary Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and body mass loss (BML induced by thermal stress in a dry sauna. The study was conducted on a group of 674 sedentary students, 326 women and 348 men aged 19-20. The correlations between BMI scores and BML were determined. The subjects were placed in supine position in a dry sauna for two sessions of 10 minutes each with a 5-minute break. The influence of BMI on the amount of BML in the sauna was determined by nonlinear stepwise regression. The smallest BML was noted in underweight subjects; students with normal weight lost more weight, whereas the greatest BML was reported in overweight and obese subjects. Persons with a high BMI are at higher risk of dehydration, and they should pay particular attention to replenishing fluids during a visit to the sauna. The proposed equations for calculating BML based on a person's BMI can be useful in estimating the amount of fluids that should be replenished by both men and women during a visit to a dry sauna.

  3. CHANGES OF BODY MASS AND THERMOGENESIS IN APODEMUS CHEVRIERI DURING COLD EXPOSURE AND REWARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Wan-long; Zheng Jia; Zhang Di; Zhang lin; Wang Zheng-kun

    2013-01-01

    Environmental cues, such as temperature, play important roles in the regulation of physiology and behavior in small mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass and thermogenic capacity in Apodemus chevrieri. It showed that A. chevrieri increased resting metabolic rate (RMR), nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and energy intake and decreased body mass and body temperature when exposed to the cold while sho...

  4. Gestational weight gain and body mass index in children: results from three german cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Beyerlein

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies suggested potential priming effects of gestational weight gain (GWG on offspring's body composition in later life. However, consistency of these effects in normal weight, overweight and obese mothers is less clear. METHODS: We combined the individual data of three German cohorts and assessed associations of total and excessive GWG (as defined by criteria of the Institute of Medicine with offspring's mean body mass index (BMI standard deviation scores (SDS and overweight at the age of 5-6 years (total: n = 6,254. Quantile regression was used to examine potentially different effects on different parts of the BMI SDS distribution. All models were adjusted for birth weight, maternal age and maternal smoking during pregnancy and stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight status. RESULTS: In adjusted models, positive associations of total and excessive GWG with mean BMI SDS and overweight were observed only in children of non- overweight mothers. For example, excessive GWG was associated with a mean increase of 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.15 units of BMI SDS (0.13 (0.02, 0.24 kg/m(2 of 'real' BMI in children of normal-weight mothers. The effects of total and excessive GWG on BMI SDS increased for higher- BMI children of normal-weight mothers. DISCUSSION: Increased GWG is likely to be associated with overweight in offspring of non-overweight mothers.

  5. Association Between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index Among Hamedan Elementary School Children in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haeri Maybodi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Excessive weight in children is a major public health concern. The intake of refined carbohydrates, especially sugars and the prevalence of dental caries are well documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental caries and BMI in elementary school children.Materials and Methods: The sampling technique used in the present study was a cluster random sampling. A total of 1000 pupils (500 girls, 500 boys aged 6-11 years from 20 private and state elementary schools (10 boys, 10 girls. The weight status was measured in children by assessment of body mass index (BMI (=bodyweight/body height2 kg/m2 corresponding to gender and age-ranked percentages.To assess the caries frequency the decayed filled teeth (DFT index for permanent dentition and the dft index for primary dentition were used since they give good perception about the situation of tooth caries in young patients.Results: The highest mean total dft/DFT was seen in normal weight and lowest average in at risk of overweight children. There was not a statistically significant relationship found between high weight and caries frequency in the first (p=0.08 and permanent dentitions (p=0.06.Conclusion: The results of this preliminary study do not support an association between dental caries and obesity.

  6. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease stratified by body mass index categories in patients with wheelchair-dependent paraplegia after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Flank, Peter; Wahman, Kerstin; Levi, Richard; Fahlström, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess risk factors for cardiovascular disease at different body mass index values in persons with wheelchair-dependent paraplegia after spinal cord injuries. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 135 individuals, age range 18-79 years, with chronic (>= 1 year) post-traumatic paraplegia. Methods: Body mass index was stratified into 6 categorical groups. Cardiovascular disease risk factors for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and a serum lipid profile were analyse...

  7. Body Mass-Related Predictors of the Female Athlete Triad Among Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad. PMID:26252427

  8. Monitoring of wine aging process by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of wine samples by direct insertion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, without pre-treatment or chromatographic separation, in a process denominated fingerprinting, has been applied to several samples of wine produced with grapes of the Pinot noir, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties from the state o Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The ESI-MS fingerprints of the samples detected changes which occurred during the aging process in the three grape varieties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the negative ion mode fingerprints was used to group the samples, pinpoint the main changes in their composition, and indicate marker ions for each group of samples.

  9. Exploring the relation between body mass index, diet, and dental caries among 6-12-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    A Elangovan; J Mungara; Joseph, E

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Childhood overweight and obesity are becoming a major public health concern all over the world. Change in lifestyles and economic growth have led to sedentary lifestyle and altered dietary patterns. There are conflicting reports in the literature regarding the association between body mass index (BMI) and dental caries from various parts of the world. The aim of the present study was to determine if there is an association between BMI-for-age and dental caries in children ...

  10. Quality of life and body mass index in overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome during a lifestyle modification program

    OpenAIRE

    De Frène, Veerle; Verhofstadt, Lesley; Lammertyn, Jan; STUYVER, ISABELLE; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including an acne parameter, of overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a lifestyle modification program. Design: Prospective longitudinal within-patient study. Setting: Department of Reproductive Medicine of the Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Participants: Thirty-three overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS between age 18 and 43 years. ...

  11. Developmental trajectories of body mass index and emotional-behavioral functioning of underweight children: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Almenara, Carlos A.; Jezek, Stanislav; Erriu, Michela; Tambelli, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have addressed developmental trajectories from childhood to adolescence of internalizing/externalizing problems, limited attention has been given to underweight children. Two groups were recruited for this study from a community sample: underweight (Ug, N = 80, 50% female) and normal weight (NWg, N = 80, 50% female) to examine the developmental trajectories of body mass index and emotional-behavioral functioning of underweight children from the age two years, and thei...

  12. Nutrition and physical activity randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children's body mass index.

    OpenAIRE

    Alkon, A; Crowley, AA; Neelon, SE; Hill, S.; Pan, Y.; Nguyen, V.; Rose, R.; Savage, E; Forestieri, N; Shipman, L; Kotch, JB

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children's body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A seven-month randomized control tr...

  13. Association Between Self-Reported Household Practices and Body Mass Index of US Children and Adolescents, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Mâsse, Louise C.; Blanck, Heidi M; Valente, Maria; Atienza, Audie A.; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Weber, Deanne; Yaroch, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Parents can set household practices that influence children’s behaviors. The objective of this study was to determine whether children (children and adolescents aged 9–18 y) who live in a household that has healthful practices related to behaviors associated with obesity have a lower body mass index (BMI). Methods We analyzed data from the 2005 Styles mail panel survey (N = 1,685 parents and children). We used multiple logistic regression to assess associations between 4 househol...

  14. 生物电阻抗法测量7~10岁儿童总体水含量和去脂体重的预测模型%A Bioelectrical Impedance Prediction Equation for the Assessment of Total Body Water and Fat-free Mass among Chinese Children Aged 7-10 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓君; 胡小琪; 徐海泉; 郭向晖; 李振英; 刘爱玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) prediction equation for the assessment of body composition among Chinese children. Methods A total of 409 children (220 boys, 189 girls) aged 7-10 years were recruited in Beijing. Body height, weight, resistance and reactance measured by BIA were collected. Total body water (TBW) and fat-free mass (FFM) measured by deuterium dilution technique was used as reference. The multiple stepwise regression analysis was employed to set up equations. Pure error (PE) and Bland-Altman approach was used to cross-validate the prediction equations. Results The prediction equation for TBW was: -6.893 + 0.410xgender(boy=l, girl=0)+0.273xage(year)+0.174xweight(kg) + 0.081 xheight(cm)+ 0.206xRI (cmVft) [R2=0.90, root mean square error (RMSE) = 1.2 kg ], and for FFM was: -9.742 +0.784x gender (boy=l, girl=0)+0.429xage(year)+0.227xweight (kg)+0.104xheight (cm) + 0.269xRI(cm2/fi) (/?2=0.90, RMSE=1.6 kg). No significant difference between predicted TBW,FFM and measured TBW,FFM was found. PE was 1.4 and 1.8 kg for TBW equation and FFM equation, respectively. However, the mean of predicted and measured TBW,FFM correlated positively with the difference between the predicted and measured values ( correlation coefficient 0.24 for TBW and 0.23 for FFM,P<0.01). The two equations performed well in different BMI groups. Conclusion The developed BIA prediction equations for the estimation of TBW and FFM have a high accuracy and precision and are valid for the assessment of body composition among Chinese children aged 7-10 years.%目的 利用生物电阻抗方法测量儿童的体成分,建立适合我国儿童体成分的预测方程.方法 在北京市采用目的抽样法选取409名7~10岁的儿童(男生220名,女生189名),测量身高和体重,采用生物电阻抗仪测量全身电阻抗和电容抗,采用单标水法测量的总体水(total body water,TBW)和去脂体重(fat-free mass,FFM)作为标准,用多元线性逐步

  15. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifes...

  16. Body mass growth in common marmosets: toward a model of pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Suzette D; Power, Michael L; Ross, Corinna N; Rutherford, Julienne N

    2013-01-01

    While much is known about adult obesity in nonhuman primates, very little is known regarding development of childhood adiposity. As small monkeys that are easy to handle and have a relatively fast life history, common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) offer interesting opportunities to examine the question of fat versus lean mass growth in a nonhuman primate. This article provides an overview of our understanding of early life growth in mass in marmoset monkeys, based primarily upon our past 20 years of research, culminating in our recent findings on early life obesity in this species. Common marmosets display variance in early life growth patterns that is related to both pre- and postnatal factors and the marmoset uterine environment is exquisitely designed to reflect resources available for the gestation of multiple offspring, making them an interesting model of developmental programming. We have demonstrated that obesity can be generated in very early life in captive marmosets, with excess adiposity evident by one month of age, making this species a potentially valuable model in which to study pediatric obesity and its sequelae. Birth weight is associated with adiposity in animals vulnerable to obesity. Early life exposure to higher fat diets enhances the chances of postweaning obesity development. However, overall higher food consumption is also associated with obesity development at later ages. One unexpected finding in our studies has been the relatively high body fat percentage of neonatal (12-18%) marmosets suggesting that hypotheses regarding the uniqueness of high human neonatal adiposity merit further examination. PMID:23283661

  17. Body-Mind-Spirit Practice for Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Yoon, Hyunsook; Lee, Jungui; Yoon, Jiyoung; Chang, Eunjin

    2012-01-01

    This community-based, health promotion intervention for seniors provided a comprehensive review of the effect of body-mind-spirit (BMS) interventions on health behaviors. The 12-week curriculum offered sessions on exercise, nutrition, sexuality, leisure, stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, forgiveness, and happiness. Gerontological…

  18. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample: findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat free mass index (FFMI, fat free mass/weight(2)). Objectives: We explored...... mortality and 2.4 (1.4-4.0) for COPD-related mortality. FFMI was also a predictor of overall mortality when analyses were restricted to subjects with normal BMI. Conclusions: FFMI provides information in addition to BMI and assessment of fat free mass should be considered in the routine assessment of COPD....

  19. Analytical Treatment of the Two-Body Problem with Slowly Varying Mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W. A. Rahoma; F. A. Abd El-Salam; M. K. Ahmed

    2009-09-01

    The present work is concerned with the two-body problem with varying mass in case of isotropic mass loss from both components of the binary systems. The law of mass variation used gives rise to a perturbed Keplerian problem depending on two small parameters. The problem is treated analytically in the Hamiltonian frame-work and the equations of motion are integrated using the Lie series developed and applied, separately by Delva (1984) and Hanslmeier (1984). A second order theory of the two bodies eject mass is constructed, returning the terms of the rate of change of mass up to second order in the small parameters of the problem.

  20. Body mass index and abdominal circumference among teens in the countryside of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionara Holanda de Moura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric techniques, establishing the diagnosis of overweight / obesity as body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, are increasingly important. With this research we aimed to learn about BMI and relate it to the WC of adolescent students in two institutions in Piaui. This descriptive cross-sectional study of quantitative prevalence. It carried out in two public schools in Picos - PI with 145 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years for both sexes. Data collection was performed through a form from the months of August to December 2010. The prevalence of overweight was 3.7%. Overweight was significantly associated with increased WC (<0.0001. These results emphasize the relevance of conducting prevention and control of excess weight so that the health of adolescents should be maintained.

  1. Influence of body mass index on mortality after surgery for perforated peptic ulcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buck, David Levarett; Møller, M H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a strong predictor of mortality in the general population. In spite of the medical hazards of obesity, a protective effect on mortality has been suggested in surgical patients: the obesity paradox. The aim of the present nationwide cohort study was to examine...... surgical treatment for PPU, 1699 (63·7 per cent) had BMI recorded. Median age was 69·4 (range 17·6-100·9) years and 53·7 per cent of the patients were women. Some 1126 patients (66·3 per cent) had at least one of six co-morbid diseases; 728 (42·8 per cent) had an American Society of Anesthesiologists grade...... between obesity and mortality. CONCLUSION: Being underweight was associated with increased mortality in patients with PPU, whereas being overweight or obese was neither protective nor an adverse prognostic factor....

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in blood related to lower body mass in common loons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruk, James D; Adams, Evan M; Uher-Koch, Hannah; Kovach, Kristin A; Long, Darwin; Perkins, Christopher; Schoch, Nina; Evers, David C

    2016-09-15

    We captured 93 wintering adult and subadult Common Loons (Gavia immer) in coastal Louisiana from 2011 to 2015 following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We tested blood samples for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and measured physiological variables including hematocrit, hemoglobin and total blood protein. PAH concentrations in loon blood differed from year to year and by age class. High PAH concentrations were significantly related to lower body masses in both adult and subadult birds and higher serum protein levels in adults only. PAH concentrations had marginal relations with both hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. The types of PAHs detected also underwent a major shift over time. The PAHs detected in 2011, 2012, and 2015 were primarily low molecular weight (three carbon rings); however, in 2013, most detected PAHs were high molecular weight (four carbon rings). It is unclear what events led to the increase in PAH concentrations and the shift in type of PAHs over time. PMID:27177142

  3. The relation between drinking pattern and body mass index and waist and hip circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J S; Heitmann, B. L.; Tjønneland, A M; Overvad, O K; Sørensen, T I A; Grønbaek, M N

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the association between alcohol drinking pattern and obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population study with assessment of quantity and frequency of alcohol intake, waist and hip circumference, height, weight, and lifestyle factors including diet. SUBJECTS: In all, 25 325 men...... and 24 552 women aged 50-65 y from the Diet, Cancer and Health Study, Denmark, 1993-1997 participated in the study. MEASUREMENTS: Drinking frequency, total alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and waist and hip circumference. RESULTS: Among men, total alcohol intake was positively associated with...... high BMI (>/=30 kg/m(2)), large waist circumference (>/=102 cm) and inversely associated with small hip circumference (<100 cm). Among women, the total alcohol was associated with high BMI, large waist (>/=88 cm), and small hips only for the highest intake (28+ drinks/week). The most frequent drinkers...

  4. Comparison of body mass index in children of two different regions of welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Shapouri Moghadam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic basis of children obesity is of high importance for preventive policies. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of obesity among children living in two different levels of welfare regions in Mashhad northeast of Iran. A total of 625 primary school girls and boys aged 78-127 months were randomly selected, and values of their body mass index (BMI were measured. The prevalence of both overweight and obesity were higher among students of enriched area in comparison with that of resource restricted (P<0.05.The prevalence of overweight concerns in urban and rural areas. These results highlight the relation between socio-economic status and prevalence of obesity among children.

  5. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  6. Ultrasonography assessment of renal size and its correlation with body mass index in adults without known renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many conditions affect renal size. To evaluate abnormalities in renal size, knowledge of standardised values for normal renal dimensions is essential as it shows variability in the values of normal renal size depending on body size, age and ethnicity. Ultrasound, being an easily available, non-invasive, safe and less expensive modality, is widely used for evaluation of renal dimensions and repeated follow-ups. The objectives of this study were to determine renal size by ultrasound in adults without any known renal disease, and to determine the relationship of renal size with body mass index. Methods: Study was conducted in the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Shifa International Hospital and PIMS Islamabad. Renal size was assessed by ultrasound in 4,035 adult subjects with normal serum creatinine and without any known renal disease, between November 2002 and December 2010. Renal length, width, thickness and volume were obtained and mean renal length and volume were correlated with body mass index and other factors like age, side, gender, weight and height of the subjects. Results: Mean renal length on right side was 101.6+-8.9 mm, renal width 42.7+-7.1 mm, and parenchymal thickness 14.4+-2.9 mm. On left side, mean renal length was 102.7+-9.2 mm, width 47.6+-7.0 mm, and parenchymal thickness 15.1+-3.1 mm. Mean renal volume on right was 99.8+-37.2 cm/sup 3/ and on left was 124.4+-41.3 cm/sup 3/. Left renal size was significantly larger than right in both genders. Relationship of mean renal length was significant when correlated with age, side, gender, height and weight, and body mass index. Renal volumes also showed a similar relationship with side, gender, height and weight, and body mass index; but with age such a relationship was seen only for left kidney. Conclusion: Pakistani population has mean renal size smaller than reference values available in international literature. Renal length and volume have a direct relationship with body mass index. Mean renal

  7. Whole-Body Vibration Partially Reverses Aging-Induced Increases in Visceral Adiposity and Hepatic Lipid Storage in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Theo H.; Havinga, Rick; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Groen, Albert K.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M.; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    At old age, humans generally have declining muscle mass and increased fat deposition, which can increase the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. While regular physical activity postpones these age-related derangements, this is not always possible in the elderly because of disabilities or risk of injury. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training may be considered as an alternative to physical activity particularly in the frail population. To explore this possibility, we characterized whole-body and organ-specific metabolic processes in 6-month and 25-month old mice, over a period of 14 weeks of WBV versus sham training. WBV training tended to increase blood glucose turnover rates and stimulated hepatic glycogen utilization during fasting irrespective of age. WBV was effective in reducing white fat mass and hepatic triglyceride content only in old but not in young mice and these reductions were related to upregulation of hepatic mitochondrial uncoupling of metabolism (assessed by high-resolution respirometry) and increased expression of uncoupling protein 2. Because these changes occurred independent of changes in food intake and whole-body metabolic rate (assessed by indirect calorimetry), the liver-specific effects of WBV may be a primary mechanism to improve metabolic health during aging, rather than that it is a consequence of alterations in energy balance. PMID:26886917

  8. Whole-Body Vibration Partially Reverses Aging-Induced Increases in Visceral Adiposity and Hepatic Lipid Storage in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaffien C Reijne

    Full Text Available At old age, humans generally have declining muscle mass and increased fat deposition, which can increase the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. While regular physical activity postpones these age-related derangements, this is not always possible in the elderly because of disabilities or risk of injury. Whole-body vibration (WBV training may be considered as an alternative to physical activity particularly in the frail population. To explore this possibility, we characterized whole-body and organ-specific metabolic processes in 6-month and 25-month old mice, over a period of 14 weeks of WBV versus sham training. WBV training tended to increase blood glucose turnover rates and stimulated hepatic glycogen utilization during fasting irrespective of age. WBV was effective in reducing white fat mass and hepatic triglyceride content only in old but not in young mice and these reductions were related to upregulation of hepatic mitochondrial uncoupling of metabolism (assessed by high-resolution respirometry and increased expression of uncoupling protein 2. Because these changes occurred independent of changes in food intake and whole-body metabolic rate (assessed by indirect calorimetry, the liver-specific effects of WBV may be a primary mechanism to improve metabolic health during aging, rather than that it is a consequence of alterations in energy balance.

  9. Efeito de intervenções sobre o índice de massa corporal em escolares Efecto de las intervenciones con actividad física y educación nutricional sobre el índice de masa corporal en escolares Effect of interventions on the body mass index of school-age students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roggia Friedrich

    2012-06-01

    -análisis de estudios controlados aleatorios disponibles en las siguientes bases de datos electrónicas en el período de 1998 a 2010: PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science y Cochrane Library, con las palabras claves: estudio controlado aleatorio, sobrepeso, obesidad, índice de masa corporal, niño, adolescente, actividad física, educación nutricional y escuelas. Se usó la medida de sumario basada en la diferencia de los promedios estandarizados con intervalo de 95% de confianza. La prueba de inconsistencia se utilizó para evaluar la heterogeneidad de los estudios. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 995 estudios, de los cuales 23 fueron incluidos y realizados tres meta-análisis. Intervenciones aisladas con actividad física no presentaron efecto significativo en la reducción del índice de masa corporal, con diferencia de los promedios estandarizados: -0,02 (IC95% -0,08;0.04. Resultado semejante (n=3.524 se observó en las intervenciones aisladas con educación nutricional, con diferencia de los promedios estandarizados: -0,03 (IC95% -0,10;0,04. Al combinarse las intervenciones con actividad física y educación nutricional, el resultado del meta-análisis (n=9.997 presentó efecto estadísticamente significativo en la reducción del índice de masa corporal en escolares, con diferencia de los promedios estandarizados: -0,37 (IC95% -0.63;-0,12. CONCLUSIONES: Las intervenciones combinadas de actividad física y educación nutricional tuvieron más efectos positivos en la reducción del índice de masa corporal en escolares que al ser aplicadas aisladamente.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of intervention programs using nutritional education, physical activity or both on the reduction of body mass index in school-age students. METHODS: The systematic review with meta-analysis included randomized controlled studies available from the following electronic databases for the years 1998 to 2010: PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library. The

  10. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  11. Effect of body mass index on in vitro fertilization outcomes in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sathya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background :Obesity has become a major health problem across the world. In women, it is known to cause anovulation, subfecundity, increased risk of fetal anomalies and miscarriage rates. However, in women going for assisted reproduction the effects of obesity on egg quality, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy, live birth rates are controversial. Objectives :To assess the effect of women′s body mass index (BMI on the reproductive outcome of non donor In vitro fertilization (IVF/Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. The effects of BMI on their gonadotrophin levels (day 2 LH, FSH, gonadotrophin dose required for ovarian stimulation, endometrial thickness and oocyte/embryo quality were looked at, after correcting for age and poor ovarian reserve. Materials and Methods : Retrospective study of medical records of 308 women undergoing non donor IVF cycles in a University affiliated teaching hospital. They were classified into three groups: normal weight (BMI25 30 kg/m 2 . All women underwent controlled ovarian hyper stimulation using long agonist protocol. Results : There were 88 (28.6% in the normal weight group, 147 (47.7% in the overweight and 73 (23.7% in the obese group. All three groups were comparable with respect to age, duration of infertility, female and male causes of infertility. The three groups were similar with respect to day 2 LH/FSH levels, endometrial thickness and gonadotrophin requirements, oocyte quality, fertilization, cleavage rates, number of good quality embryos and clinical pregnancy rates. Conclusion :Increase in body mass index in women does not appear to have an adverse effect on IVF outcome. However, preconceptual counselling for obese women is a must as weight reduction helps in reducing pregnancy-related complications.

  12. EFFECTS OF BODY MASS-BASED SQUAT TRAINING IN ADOLESCENT BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Takai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of body mass-based squat training on body composition, muscular strength and motor fitness in adolescent boys. Ninety-four boys (13.7 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.60 ± 0.09 m, 50.2 ± 9.6 kg participated in this study and were randomly assigned to training (n = 36 or control (n = 58 groups. The training group completed body mass-based squat exercise training (100 reps/day, 45 sessions for 8 weeks. Body composition and muscle thickness at the thigh anterior were determined by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer and ultrasound apparatus, respectively. Maximal voluntary knee extension strength and sprint velocity were measured using static myometer and non-motorized treadmill, respectively. Jump height was calculated using flight time during jumping, which was measured by a matswitch system. The 8-wk body mass-based squat training significantly decreased percent body fat (4.2% and significantly increased the lean body mass (2.7%, muscle thickness (3.2% and strength of the knee extensors (16.0%, compared to control group. The vertical jump height was also significantly improved by 3.4% through the intervention. The current results indicate that body mass-based squat training for 8 weeks is a feasible and effective method for improving body composition and muscular strength of the knee extensors, and jump performance in adolescent boys.

  13. Effects of prepubertal-onset exercise on body weight changes up to middle age in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-03-15

    The present study was conducted to examine whether prepubertal-onset exercise might help adults maintain long-term body weight (BW) reduction and increased energy metabolism after the cessation of exercise. Furthermore, the effects of the exercise regimen were compared with those of food restriction. Twenty-three male obese-diabetic [Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF)] rats were randomly assigned to prepubertal-onset exercise (Childhood-Ex), food restriction (Childhood-Diet), and sedentary control (OLETF-Sed) groups. Childhood-Ex rats exercised voluntarily every day using a rotating wheel, while the food volume of the Childhood-Diet group was restricted to achieve a BW similar to that recorded in the Childhood-Ex group. Both treatments were conducted at 5-19 wk of age; after this period, the rats were kept sedentary and allowed ad libitum food intake until 45 wk of age. BW was significantly lower, and percent lean body mass was significantly higher, in the Childhood-Ex group compared with those in the Childhood-Diet and OLETF-Sed groups throughout maturation and middle age after cessation of the interventions. The Childhood-Ex group also demonstrated higher citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, and phosphofructokinase activity levels, as well as uncoupling protein-3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. This study revealed that inhibited BW gain in an animal model of human obese diabetes by prepubertal-onset exercise lasted for a long period after the completion of the exercise intervention. This effect may be facilitated by increased energy metabolism. However, these benefits were not found by prepubertal food restriction treatment. Importantly, to allow translation of our work, these novel insights need to be assessed in obese human individuals. PMID:24458753

  14. Effect of aging on body systems of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, J E

    1989-01-01

    A common property of all aging systems is that of progressive and irreversible change, which may be hastened by the effects of disease, stress, nutrition, exercise, genetics, and environment. Current knowledge and technology provide increasing opportunity to effect change and improvement in the pursuit of health, longevity, and enhanced quality of animal life. Older animals seldom have a single disease, but rather each one represents a unique combination of varying levels of loss of function at both the cellular and systems level. Veterinarians should not accept that poor health and old age are inevitable companions. Knowledge of the common pathologic changes associated with age and their effect on function allows the clinician to plan more effectively and manage health care programs. PMID:2646811

  15. Anthropometric parameters: weight height, body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat image in the

  16. Influence of postdischarge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne;

    Background: New research has shown that type of nutrition in early life may affect not only growth but also later body composition and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre trial on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been...... established and described previously2. Inclusion criteria were gestational age ≤32+0 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected aged, the infants received 3 different types of nutrition: A: human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier C: preterm formula. At 6 years of age, a dexa scan was performed......: It seems that HM is the preferable nutrition for preterm born children if a lower fat mass and higher muscle mass is regarded optimal. The results are not all significant, which might be due to the small sample size. Investigations of the remaining infants are awaited....

  17. Brain structure and cognitive correlates of body mass index in healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzenius, Jacob D.; Laidlaw, David H.; Cabeen, Ryan P.; Conturo, Thomas E.; McMichael, Amanda R.; Lane, Elizabeth M.; Heaps, Jodi M.; Salminen, Lauren E.; Baker, Laurie M.; Scott, Staci E.; Cooley, Sarah A.; Gunstad, John; Paul, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, commonly measured with body mass index (BMI), is associated with numerous deleterious health conditions including alterations in brain integrity related to advanced age. Prior research has suggested that white matter integrity observed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is altered in relation to high BMI, but the integrity of specific white matter tracts remains poorly understood. Additionally, no studies have examined white matter tract integrity in conjunction with neuropsychological evaluation associated with BMI among older adults. The present study examined white matter tract integrity using DTI and cognitive performance associated with BMI in 62 healthy older adults (20 males, 42 females) aged 51 to 81. Results revealed that elevated BMI was associated with lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in the uncinate fasciculus, though there was no evidence of an age by BMI interaction relating to FA in this tract. No relationships were observed between BMI and other white matter tracts or cognition after controlling for demographic variables. Findings suggest that elevated BMI is associated with lower structural integrity in a brain region connecting frontal and temporal lobes and this alteration precedes cognitive dysfunction. Future studies should examine biological mechanisms that mediate the relationships between BMI and white matter tract integrity, as well as the evolution of these abnormalities utilizing longitudinal designs. PMID:25448431

  18. Study on the Distribution of Body Mass Index among Children and Adolescents Aged 7~18 Years in Hangzhou%杭州市7~18岁儿童青少年体质指数标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨茹莱; 刘朝晖; 徐艳华; 周雪莲

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the body mass index (BMI) distribution and the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Hangzhou. Methods Based on the BMI reference criteria for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents which was set up by the Working Group On Obesity in Chinese (WGOC), totally 21536 children and adolescents aged 7 ~ 18 yeas were sampled, which from 17 primary schools and 12 high schools. Results The P85 and P95 of BMI in male students were higher than WGOC criteria for overweight and obesity. The P85 of BMI in female students aged 7~10 years was higher than WGOC criteria for overweight, while those in older aged groups were lower than the WGOC criteria; the P95 of BMI in all age groups were lower than WGOC criteria for obesity. The provalonce rates of overweight and obesity were 23.5% and 10.0% respectively for boys and 14.0% and 4.9% respectivdy for girls. Conclusions The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Hangzhou are high, especially in boys. The emphasis of school health work should be put on prevention and control of them, such as carrying out health education, leading students and their parents to set up right life style and healthy concept.%目的 研究杭州市7~18岁儿童青少年体质指数(BMI)分布、超重和肥胖的检出率.方法 抽取21536名杭州城区17所小学和12所中学学生作为研究对象,以国际生命科学会中国肥胖问题工作组(WGOC)颁布的"中国儿童青少年超重、肥胖体质指数筛查分类标准"作为参考标准,对学龄儿童青少年进行体质指数研究.结果 杭州市男性学龄儿童青少年超重(P85)和肥胖(P95)普遍要高于WCOC标准;女性学龄儿童青少年超重(P85)7~10岁组要稍高于WCOC标准,大于10岁各年龄组的超重BMI值都要低于WGOC标准;而肥胖(P95)各年龄组的值均低于WGOC标准.各年龄组超重与肥胖检出率男生平均高达23.5%和10

  19. Common endocrine control of body weight, reproduction, and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.

  20. Age and body weight of Moroccan local cattle at puberty: Effect of season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroccan local cattle are a distinct breed comprising almost 90% of the total cattle population of 2.5 million. The age and the body weight of some 1662 heifers attaining puberty were determined under two production systems by monitoring plasma progesterone levels as an indicator of the first ovulation. The effect of season on these parameters was also studied. Ovarian cyclicity commenced in 50% of heifers by the age of 16.5 months and at a body weight of 144 kg (70% of the mature body weight). The time of puberty was correlated with both age and body weight and was influenced by both the season of the year at which puberty was reached and the system of rearing. The mean age at which behavioural oestrus was first observed and the heifer inseminated was 26.5 months. Fifty per cent of 546 heifers were pregnant by 27 months of age. (author). 18 refs, 7 figs

  1. Variation in body mass and morphological characters in Macaca mulatta brevicaudus from Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Lyu, Mu-Yang; Wu, Cheng-Feng; Chu, Yuan-Meng-Ran; Han, Ning; Yang, Danhe; Hu, Kaijin

    2016-06-01

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most widely distributed nonhuman primate species in the world, with six subspecies distributed through China. From 2012 to 2014, we conducted studies on the body mass and morphological variation of the southernmost subspecies M. m. brevicaudus in Nanwan Nature Reserve for Rhesus Macaque, Hainan, China. We compared measurements with other populations of this species. We also investigated the inter-group body mass variation from seven provisioned free-ranging groups in our study site. Our results show that M. m. brevicaudus has the smallest body size, the smallest body mass, and the shortest tail among rhesus macaque subspecies. Its sexual dimorphism score is also among the lowest, which is similar to other southern distributed subspecies in China, but smaller than northern distributed subspecies. We found that the average body mass of female macaques is not correlated with their dominance ranks. There are significant differences in body mass among the seven adjacent study groups at the same site, suggesting the existence of inter-group competition. Average body mass of a group is better described by a quadratic function of group size than a linear one as predicted by the socio-ecological model. Am. J. Primatol. 78:679-698, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848718

  2. Body composition and bone mineral mass in normal and obese female population using dual X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been observed that a greater percentage of body fat is associated with augmented bone mineral mass. Objective: The goal of this work was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD in g/cm2) and content (BMC in g) and soft tissue components, fat and lean mass (in g) in whole body of adult female population in Chile. Method: We studied 185 volunteers, asymptomatic, excluding those using estrogens, regular medication, tobacco (>10 cigarettes/day), excessive alcohol intake or with prior oophorectomy. They were separated in 111 pre and 74 post menopausal and according to body mass index (BMI) they were 37 women > 30 kg/m2 and 148 2. A Lunar Dual X-Ray absorptiometer was used to determine whole BMD and BMC. Results: Post menopausal women were older and smaller [p:0.0001], with higher body mass index [p:0.0007] and with lower BMD and BMC and higher fat mass than the pre menopausal group; In the whole group, women with BMI ≥ 30 (obese) were compared with normal weight observing no difference in BMD. The fat mass incremented significantly with age. Obese women > 50 years presented greater BMC than the non-obese. The percentage of fat corresponded to 48% in the obese group and to 39% in the non-obese [p<0.0001]. Conclusion: Fat mass somehow protect bone mineral loss in older normal population, probably associated to multifactorial causes including extra ovaric estrogen production. Postmenopausal women presented lower mineral content than premenopausal, as it was expected

  3. Body mass index reference curves for 27 200 health child and adolescent aged 0- 18 years in Shaanxi%陕西省27200名0~18岁健康儿童体质指数参考曲线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚磊; 徐勇勇; 江逊; 侯茹兰

    2003-01-01

    目的用于儿童青少年超重和肥胖评价的方法很多,各种方法各有优缺点,尚未形成一种统一的评价方法,由此造成不同地区儿童青少年肥胖及超重发病率缺乏可比性.近年来, WHO肥胖工作组的专家建议在儿童肥胖的常规评价中应采用体质指数 (BMI)的年龄别百分位数.但是到目前为止,中国还没有 BMI的年龄别百分位数报道.本文提供了陕西省 0- 18岁儿童的 BMI的年龄别百分位数曲线.方法采用 LMS法拟合曲线;所有分析均采用由 TJ Cole教授提供的 LMS法的特殊软件,分性别和地区进行分析.结果 BMI中位数曲线由生命早期的 12.70 kg/m2迅速增加, 8个月达高峰,为 17.02 kg/m2,然后下降,达 6岁左右的 14.61 kg/m2最低点后平稳变化.城市儿童脂肪重聚比乡村儿童早 2年,男生比女生早 1年,脂肪重聚后,女生的 BMI增加比男生快,城市儿童的增加比乡村儿童的快,随着青春期的开始,女生 BMI逐渐大于男生,乡村男女生之间的差别大于城市的.陕西省儿童青少年超重百分位数所在曲线男女生分别为 P95.3和 P94.5,肥胖所在百分位数曲线男女生分别为 P99.5和 P99.8,明显低于欧美等发达国家的标准.结论通过 LMS法,建立了陕西省儿童青少年 BMI的年龄别百分位数曲线,百分位数曲线、超重与肥胖的界值可用于陕西省 0- 18岁儿童青少年营养状况的评价,不同性别、地区间的差别可帮助理解肥胖的原因及预防.%Aim There are several method for obesity and overweight assessment in child and adolescent, because these method are all have their own merits and defects, there is no one method can be used as a standard method in child obesity and overweight assessment, the detecting rate of obesity and overweight in different areas have no comparative. Recently, Expert on obesity work group of WHO recommended that age-related body mass index(BMI) be used rountinely to evaluate obesity in

  4. Quantitative Interpretation of Tracks for Determination of Body Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Schanz, Tom; Lins, Yvonne; Viefhaus, Hanna; Barciaga, Thomas; Läbe, Sashima; Preuschoft, Holger; Witzel, Ulrich; Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the biology of extinct animals, experimentation with extant animals and innovative numerical approaches have grown in recent years. This research project uses principles of soil mechanics and a neoichnological field experiment with an African elephant to derive a novel concept for calculating the mass (i.e., the weight) of an animal from its footprints. We used the elephant's footprint geometry (i.e., vertical displacements, diameter) in combination with soil mechanical a...

  5. Numerical simulation of tidal evolution of a viscoelastic body modelled with a mass-spring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouard, Julien; Quillen, Alice C.; Efroimsky, Michael; Giannella, David

    2016-05-01

    We use a damped mass-spring model within an N-body code to simulate the tidal evolution of the spin and orbit of a self-gravitating viscoelastic spherical body moving around a point-mass perturber. The damped mass-spring model represents a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic solid. We measure the tidal quality function (the dynamical Love number k2 divided by the tidal quality factor Q) from the numerically computed tidal drift of the semimajor axis of the binary. The shape of k2/Q, as a function of the principal tidal frequency, reproduces the kink shape predicted by Efroimsky for the tidal response of near-spherical homogeneous viscoelastic rotators. We demonstrate that we can directly simulate the tidal evolution of spinning viscoelastic objects. In future, the mass-spring N-body model can be generalized to inhomogeneous and/or non-spherical bodies.

  6. Gestational weight gain, prepregnancy body mass index related to pregnancy outcomes in KAZERUN, FARS, IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabaei, Mozhgan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between pregnancy outcomes and prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain among pregnant women who regularly attended health centers of Kazerun, Fars, Iran.

  7. Scaling of Body Masses and Orbital Periods in the Solar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller H.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that the sequence of sorted by value body masses of planets and largest planetoids is connected by a constant scaling exponent with the sequence of their sorted by value orbital periods.

  8. Associations between lifestyle patterns and body mass index in a sample of Greek children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontogianni, Meropi D; Farmaki, Anastasia-Eleni; Vidra, Nikoletta; Sofrona, Stavroula; Magkanari, Flora; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although eating and physical activity behaviors have been previously individually investigated with regard to overweight in children, multidimensional lifestyle patterns, based on these behaviors, have not been explored. OBJECTIVE: To assess lifestyle patterns in relation to body mass in

  9. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Willer, Cristen J; Berndt, Sonja I;

    2010-01-01

    in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with body mass index (P R, POMC, SH2B1 and BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators...

  10. Containment of a diffuse ionized mass orbiting around a magnetized central body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The containment of a diffused and ionized mass orbiting around a magnetized central body is studied and the condition equation is established. Some qualitative and quantitative applications to the planetary cosmogony problems are developed. (Auth.)

  11. Three-dimensional body scanning system for apparel mass-customization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bugao; Huang, Yaxiong; Yu, Weiping; Chen, Tong

    2002-07-01

    Mass customization is a new manufacturing trend in which mass-market products (e.g., apparel) are quickly modified one at a time based on customers' needs. It is an effective competing strategy for maximizing customers' satisfaction and minimizing inventory costs. An automatic body measurement system is essential for apparel mass customization. This paper introduces the development of a body scanning system, body size extraction methods, and body modeling algorithms. The scanning system utilizes the multiline triangulation technique to rapidly acquire surface data on a body, and provides accurate body measurements, many of which are not available with conventional methods. Cubic B-spline curves are used to connect and smooth body curves. From the scanned data, a body form can be constructed using linear Coons surfaces. The body form can be used as a digital model of the body for 3-D garment design and for virtual try-on of a designed garment. This scanning system and its application software enable apparel manufacturers to provide custom design services to consumers seeking personal-fit garments.

  12. Skinfold thickness, body mass index and ischaemic heart disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Imeson, J D; Haines, A P; Meade, T W

    1989-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between obesity and subsequent incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). DESIGN: Prospective cohort survey. SETTING: Study of three occupational groups, with follow up examinations. SUBJECTS: 3500 people recruited between 1972 and 1978 (80% response rate), and followed up between 1978 and 1984. This report is based on subgroup of 1511 white men aged 40-64 at entry. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Information was obtained on smoking and family hi...

  13. Body composition and energy intake - skeletal muscle mass is the strongest predictor of food intake in obese adolescents: The HEARTY trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jameason D; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P; Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Phillips, Penny; Doucette, Steve; Goldfield, Gary

    2016-06-01

    There has been renewed interest in examining the relationship between specific components of energy expenditure and the overall influence on energy intake (EI). The purpose of this cross-sectional analysis was to determine the strongest metabolic and anthropometric predictors of EI. It was hypothesized that resting metabolic rate (RMR) and skeletal muscle mass would be the strongest predictors of EI in a sample of overweight and obese adolescents. 304 post-pubertal adolescents (91 boys, 213 girls) aged 16.1 (±1.4) years with body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex OR at or above the 85th percentile plus an additional diabetes risk factor were measured for body weight, RMR (kcal/day) by indirect calorimetry, body composition by magnetic resonance imaging (fat free mass (FFM), skeletal muscle mass, fat mass (FM), and percentage body fat), and EI (kcal/day) using 3 day food records. Body weight, RMR, FFM, skeletal muscle mass, and FM were all significantly correlated with EI (p fat intake (p body's lean tissue is related to absolute levels of EI in a sample of inactive adolescents with obesity. PMID:27111402

  14. Effects of a short-term whole body vibration intervention on lean mass in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Gómez-Cabello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To clarify whether a short-term whole body vibration (WBV training has an effect on lean mass (LM in the elderly. Method: 49 non-institutionalized elderly (20 men participated in the study. Participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to the WBV or control group. A total of 24 elderly trained squat positioned on a vibration platform 3 times per week for 11 weeks. LM at the whole body, upper and lower limbs was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the effects of the intervention on the studied variables and also to determinate the changes within group throughout the intervention period including age and height as covariates. Results: 11 weeks of WBV training led to no changes in none of the LM parameters. Conclusion: A short-term WBV therapy is not enough to cause significant changes on LM in non-institutionalized seniors.

  15. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke S.C. McCowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival.

  16. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Luke S C; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual's entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual's future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  17. Structural brain differences and cognitive functioning related to body mass index in older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Katrin; Birdsill, Alex C; Glisky, Elizabeth L; Ryan, Lee

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about the effect of obesity on brain structures and cognition in healthy older adults. This study examined the association between body mass index (BMI), regional volume differences in gray and white matter measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cognitive functioning in older females. Participants included 95 community-dwelling older females (ages 52-92 years) who underwent extensive neuropsychological testing and high-resolution MRI scanning. Optimized voxel-based morphometry techniques were employed to determine the correlation between BMI and regional gray and white matter volumes. Volumes of significant regions were then correlated with cognitive functioning. Higher BMI was associated with decreased gray matter volumes in the left orbitofrontal, right inferior frontal, and right precentral gyri, a right posterior region including the parahippocampal, fusiform, and lingual gyri, and right cerebellar regions, as well as increased volumes of white matter in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, even when hypertension was considered. Compared to normal weight women, obese women performed poorer on tests of executive functioning. Smaller gray matter volume in the left orbitofrontal region was associated with lower executive functioning. Additionally, despite the lack of significant group differences in memory and visuomotor speed, gray and white matter volumes predicted performance on these measures. The results provide additional evidence for a negative link between increased body fat and brain functioning in older females. PMID:19998366

  18. The CROES percutaneous nephrolithotomy global study: the influence of body mass index on outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuller, Andrew; Razvi, Hassan; Denstedt, John D;

    2012-01-01

    In addition to more commonly forming stones, obese patients present a number of challenges when undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We evaluated percutaneous nephrolithotomy outcomes in 3,709 patients stratified by body mass index.......In addition to more commonly forming stones, obese patients present a number of challenges when undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We evaluated percutaneous nephrolithotomy outcomes in 3,709 patients stratified by body mass index....

  19. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrom, A; Kvist, A.; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Lindström, Åke

    2000-01-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting;and fuelling. Four knots hew repeatedly for 10h periods in a wind tunnel. Over this period, pectoral muscle thickness decreased in parallel with the decrease in body mass. The change in pectoral muscle thickness during flight wats indistinguishable from...

  20. Dietary Intake in Body Mass Index Differences in Community-Based Japanese Patients with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Haruyuki Ito; Takako Kumagai; Midori Kimura; Shotaro Koike; Takeshi Shimizu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with schizophrenia reportedly have a high prevalence of obesity. One of the reasons is a poor choice of diet. The goal of this study was to clarify characteristics of the dietary intake across the strata of the body mass index (BMI) and to compare the general population and patients with schizophrenia in Japan. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 51 patients with schizophrenia residing in rural areas in 2011. Anthropometric indices (of height, weight, body mass in...

  1. Body mass affects seasonal variation in sickness intensity in a seasonally breeding rodent

    OpenAIRE

    Carlton, Elizabeth D.; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-01-01

    Species that display seasonal variation in sickness intensity show the most intense response in the season during which they have the highest body mass, suggesting that sickness intensity may be limited by an animal's energy stores. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) display lower body masses and less intense sickness when housed in short, winter-like days as opposed to long, summer-like days. To determine whether reduced sickness intensity displayed by short-day hamsters is a product of s...

  2. The Individual Association Between Food Store Types and Body Mass Index in Los Angeles County

    OpenAIRE

    Capone-Newton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Using the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), detailed individual-level data on shopping location, store name, and body mass index are analyzed to assess relationships between body mass index and food store types. The analysis groups similar store brands to create unique food store types, providing finer discrimination than industrial classification or annual sales volume. Seven food store types are created: English-language major supermarket chains, discount food stores...

  3. No evidence for directional evolution of body mass in herbivorous theropod dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Zanno, Lindsay E.; Peter J Makovicky

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between large body size and digestive efficiency has been hypothesized to have driven trends of increasing mass in herbivorous clades by means of directional selection. Yet, to date, few studies have investigated this relationship from a phylogenetic perspective, and none, to our knowledge, with regard to trophic shifts. Here, we reconstruct body mass in the three major subclades of non-avian theropod dinosaurs whose ecomorphology is correlated with extrinsic evidence of at le...

  4. Environment-dependent genetic correlations between development time and body mass in a scorpionfly

    OpenAIRE

    Engqvist, Leif

    2007-01-01

    Development time and body mass at maturation are two important fitness traits fundamental for our understanding of life history theory. Generally, fast development is associated with small adult body mass, as it will take longer to grow large. However, the strength of this trade-off may depend on average food availability, as the potential benefit of long development will depend on the rate of food intake. Here, I report results of a food manipulation experiment during larval development of t...

  5. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. PMID:24854827

  6. GFR prediction from cystatin C and creatinine in children: body cell mass increases accuracy of the estimate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Bøgsted, Martin;

    ) aged 2-14 years (mean 8.8 years). GFR was 14-147 mL/min/1.73m2 (mean 97 mL/min/1.73m2). BCM was estimated using bioimpedance spectroscopy (Xitron Hydra 4200). Log-transformed data on BCM/CysC, serum creatinine (SCr), body-surface-area (BSA), height x BSA/SCr, serum CysC, weight, sex, age, height, serum......AIM: To derive an accurate prediction model for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children based primarily on the endogenous renal function marker cystatin C (CysC) and body cell mass (BCM). THEORY: Cystatin C is produced at a constant rate in all cells of the body and is excreted by...... glomerular filtration followed by catabolization in the tubular cells. We hypothesized that production rate is proportional to body cell mass (BCM) and inferred GFR (mL/min) to be proportional to BCM/CysC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GFR was determined with 51Cr-EDTA-clearance in 131 children (52 girls, 79 boys...

  7. Prediction of renal function (GFR) from cystatin C and creatinine in children: Body cell mass increases accuracy of the estimate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Bøgsted, Martin;

    ) aged 2-14 years (mean 8.8 years). GFR was 14-147 mL/min/1.73m2 (mean 97 mL/min/1.73m2). BCM was estimated using bioimpedance spectroscopy (Xitron Hydra 4200). Log-transformed data on BCM/CysC, serum creatinine (SCr), body-surface-area (BSA), height x BSA/SCr, serum CysC, weight, sex, age, height, serum......AIM: To derive an accurate prediction model for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children based primarily on the endogenous renal function marker cystatin C (CysC) and body cell mass (BCM). THEORY: Cystatin C is produced at a constant rate in all cells of the body and is excreted by...... glomerular filtration followed by catabolization in the tubular cells. We hypothesized that production rate is proportional to body cell mass (BCM) and inferred GFR (mL/min) to be proportional to BCM/CysC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GFR was determined with 51Cr-EDTA-clearance in 131 children (52 girls, 79 boys...

  8. Age and Embodied Masculinities: Mid-Life Gay and Heterosexual Men Talk about their Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Lodge, Amy C.; Umberson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This article integrates critical gerontology and masculinities theories to examine how midlife gay and heterosexual men experience their bodies in relation to cultural discourses of aging. Analyses of in-depth interviews with 15 gay and 15 heterosexual men ages 40–60 reveal that while both groups of men describe their bodies as deteriorating or declining in terms of functionality and are often distressed by these changes, midlife gay men also articulate a concern with a perceived decline in b...

  9. Towards Precise Ages and Masses of Free Floating Planetary Mass Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Canty, James; Roche, Patrick; Pinfield, David

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the substellar initial mass function (IMF) in very young clusters is hampered by the possibility of the age spread of cluster members. This is particularly serious for candidate planetary mass objects (PMOs), which have a very similar location to older and more massive brown dwarfs on the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD). This degeneracy can be lifted by the measurement of gravity-sensitive spectral features. To this end we have obtained medium resolution (R~5000) Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) K band spectra of a sample of late M- / early L-type dwarfs. The sample comprises old field dwarfs and very young brown dwarfs in the Taurus association and in the Sigma Orionis cluster. We demonstrate a positive correlation between the strengths of the 2.21micron NaI doublet and the objects' ages. We demonstrate a further correlation between these objects' ages and the shape of their K band spectra. We have quantified this correlation in the form of a new index, the H2(K) index. This ...

  10. Estimation of body mass index from the metrics of the first metatarsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Tyler E.

    Estimation of the biological profile from as many skeletal elements as possible is a necessity in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts; this includes non-standard aspects of the biological profile, such as body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure that allows for understanding of the composition of an individual and is traditionally divided into four groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. BMI estimation incorporates both estimation of stature and body mass. The estimation of stature from skeletal elements is commonly included into the standard biological profile but the estimation of body mass needs to be further statistically validated to be consistently included. The bones of the foot, specifically the first metatarsal, may have the ability to estimate BMI given an allometric relationship to stature and the mechanical relationship to body mass. There are two commonly used methods for stature estimation, the anatomical method and the regression method. The anatomical method takes into account all of the skeletal elements that contribute to stature while the regression method relies on the allometric relationship between a skeletal element and living stature. A correlation between the metrics of the first metatarsal and living stature has been observed, and proposed as a method for valid stature estimation from the boney foot (Byers et al., 1989). Body mass estimation from skeletal elements relies on two theoretical frameworks: the morphometric and the mechanical approaches. The morphometric approach relies on the size relationship of the individual to body mass; the basic relationship between volume, density, and weight allows for body mass estimation. The body is thought of as a cylinder, and in order to understand the volume of this cylinder the diameter is needed. A commonly used proxy for this in the human body is skeletal bi-iliac breadth from rearticulated pelvic girdle. The mechanical method of body mass estimation relies on the

  11. Daily variation in body mass and thermoregulation in male Hwamei(Garrulax canorus) at different seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidan; Zhao; Runmei; Wang; Yunan; Wu; Mengsi; Wu; Weihong; Zheng; Jinsong; Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acclimatization to winter conditions is an essential prerequisite for survival of small passerines of the northern temperate zone. In the present study, we measured diurnal variations in body mass, body temperature and basal metabolic rate(BMR) for seasonally acclimatized Hwameis(Garrulax canorus).Methods: Body mass was determined with a Sartorius balance. Metabolic rates of Hwameis were measured with an open-circuit respirometry system.Results: Body masses varied with time of day and were higher in daytime for Hwameis in both summer and winter, and body masses in winter were higher compared to that in summer. Body temperatures of Hwameis were higher in daytime, and the summer acclimatized birds had significantly higher body temperatures compared to the winter acclimatized birds. BMRs of Hwameis were significantly higher during the daytime compared to the nighttime of the daily cycle in both summer and winter, and Hwameis in winter had significantly higher BMRs than that in summer.Conclusions: This result showed that Hwameis rely mostly on metabolic capacity to maintain their body temperature in cold weathers, and Hwameis exhibited daily and seasonal flexibility in morphology and physiology which is important under changing environmental conditions.

  12. Cerebral serotonin transporter binding is inversely related to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erritzoe, D; Frokjaer, V G; Haahr, M T;

    2010-01-01

    ) in animal models is inversely related to food intake and body weight and some effective anti-obesity agents involve blockade of the serotonin transporter (SERT). We investigated in 60 healthy volunteers body mass index (BMI) and regional cerebral SERT binding as measured with [(11)C]DASB PET. In a linear...

  13. Accuracy of Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Classifying Obesity in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; David Langer, Raquel; de Fátima Guimarães, Roseane; Contiero San Martini, Mariana; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; de Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Moreira Gonçalves, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of two international Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs for classifying obesity compared to the percentage of fat mass (%FM) assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in a Chilean sample of children and adolescents; Material and Methods: The subjects studied included 280 children and adolescents (125 girls and 155 boys) aged 8 to 17 years. Weight and height were measured. The BMI was calculated. Two international references (IOFT and WHO) were used as cut-off points. The %FM was assessed by DXA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the performance of BMI in detecting obesity on the basis of %FM; Results: A high correlation was observed between the %FM measured by the DXA and the Z-scores of IOTF and WHO scores in the Chilean adolescents separated by sex (r = 0.78–0.80). Differences occurred in both references (IOFT and WHO) in relation to the criteria (p < 0.001). Both references demonstrated a good ability to predict sensitivity (between 84% and 93%) and specificity (between 83% and 88%) in both sexes of children and adolescents; Conclusions: A high correlation was observed between the Z-score of the BMI with the percentage of fat determined by the DXA. Despite this, the classifications using the different BMI cut-off points showed discrepancies. This suggests that the cut-off points selected to predict obesity in this sample should be viewed with caution. PMID:27164119

  14. Age and sex dependence of body potassium based on studies of 40K under Indian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium plays an important role in human life 40K is a naturally occurring radioisotope of potassium (K) with an abundance of 0.0118%. The measurement of body 40K in a whole-body counter (WBC) provides a sensitive technique to estimate the total body potassium (TBK). Information on TBK of Indians with age and sex is scanty. Therefore, a systematic study was taken up to generate this information using a sensitive WBC

  15. Types of Body Posture and their Characteristics in Boys 10 to 13 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Paušić, Jelena; Dizdar, Dražen

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to determine the types of body posture of boys (n=273), 10 to13 years of age, by means of the body posture assessment method based on the software Posture Image Analyzer. The results should enable better understanding of postural issues, as well as timely and more precise selection of kinesitherapeutic procedures. Values of 5 front view and 4 sagittal view indicators of standing body posture were measured by means of subjects’ photographs and softwar...

  16. Gender and Age Patterns in Emotional Expression, Body Image, and Self-Esteem: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kilmartin, Christopher T.; Forssmann-Falck, Renate; Kliewer, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Used written narratives to examine gender and age patterns in body image, emotional expression, and self-esteem for 209 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results indicate that boys restrict emotional expression in adolescence, whereas girls increase emotional expression in the same period. Girls also are more influenced by body image. (SLD)

  17. Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

  18. Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Early Menarche of Adolescent Girls in Seoul

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Oh, In-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Sik; Choe, Bong-Keun; Yoon, Tai-Young; Choi, Joong-Myung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The object of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and early menarche in adolescent girls in Seoul. Methods A retrospective study was conducted with 144 middle school students in Seoul who provided informed consent. We measured their body composition, and used the questionnaire survey method for data collection from November to December 2008. Past elemental body composition data were collected from elementary school health records of first year...

  19. Reactivity and its association with body mass index across days on food checklists

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Midthune, Douglas; Dodd, Kevin W.; Potischman, Nancy; Subar, Amy F; Thompson, Frances E.

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing relationships between diet, body weight, and health is complicated by reporting errors in dietary intake data that are associated with body weight. The objectives of this study were to assess changes in reporting across days (reactivity) on food checklists and associations between reactivity and body mass index (BMI) using data from two cross-sectional studies: 1) the Recontacting Participants in the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition study (n = 297), which was conducted in...

  20. The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Dental Development by Demirjian's Method in 4- to 15-Year-Old Children in Mashhad The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Dental Development by Demirjian's Method in 4- to 15-Year-Old Children in Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Anbiaee; Anousheh Rashed Mohassel; Ali Bagherpour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and dental development. Methods: The dental ages of 196 children were calculated according to Demirjian’s method. The chronological age, weight, and height were recorded. Dental development was defined as dental age minus chronological age. Children were classified into three groups according to their BMI: underweight, normal, or overweight and obese. We used One-way analysis of variance...

  1. Wolf body mass cline across Minnesota related to taxonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent genetic studies suggest that in northern Minnesota two species of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758 or western wolf and Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775 (= Canis rufus Audubon and Bachman, 1851) or eastern wolf) meet and hybridize. However, little morphological information is available about these two types of wolves in Minnesota. We analyzed the mass of 950 female wolves and 1006 males older than 1 year from across northern Minnesota and found that it increased from 26.30 ?? 0.56 kg (mean ?? SE) for females and 30.60 ?? 0.72 kg for males in northeastern Minnesota to 30.01 ?? 0.43 kg for females and 35.94 ?? 0.45 kg for males in northwestern Minnesota (females: r2 = 0.79, P < 0.02; males: r2 = 0.63, P = 0.06). These mass differences add morphological information to the identities of eastern and western wolves and support the view that ranges of the two species meet in Minnesota. ?? 2008 NRC.

  2. Developmental trajectories of body mass index among Japanese children and impact of maternal factors during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyori Haga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to 1 determine the distinct patterns of body mass index (BMI trajectories in Japanese children, and 2 elucidate the maternal factors during pregnancy, which contribute to the determination of those patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All of the children (1,644 individuals born in Koshu City, Japan, between 1991 and 1998 were followed in a longitudinal study exploring the subjects' BMI. The BMI was calculated 11 times for each child between birth and 12 years of age. Exploratory latent class growth analyses were conducted to identify trajectory patterns of the BMI z-scores. The distribution of BMI trajectories were best characterized by a five-group model for boys and a six-group model for girls. The groups were named "stable thin," "stable average," "stable high average," "progressive overweight," and "progressive obesity" in both sexes; girls were allocated to an additional group called "progressive average." Multinomial logistic regression found that maternal weight, smoking, and skipping breakfast during pregnancy were associated with children included in the progressive obesity pattern rather than the stable average pattern. These associations were stronger for boys than for girls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Multiple developmental patterns in Japanese boys and girls were identified, some of which have not been identified in Western countries. Maternal BMI and some unfavorable behaviors during early pregnancy may impact a child's pattern of body mass development. Further studies to explain the gender and regional differences that were identified are warranted, as these may be important for early life prevention of weight-associated health problems.

  3. Walking, body mass index, and self-rated health in a representative sample of Spanish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Romo-Perez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity and physical inactivity (PI are risk factors for chronic diseases and are associated with lifestyle and environmental factors. The study tested the association between PI, body mass index (BMI, and self-rated health in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population (N = 21,486. The sample included 41.5% men, with mean age 52.3 years (± 18.03, and age range 20-82 years. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%/12.7% in women and 52.1%/12.7% in men (p < 0.001 for obesity in both sexes. 53% of women and 57.5% of men met recommended levels of physical activity by walking (≥ 150 minutes/week. According to logistic regression analysis, individuals that walked less had higher risk of overweight or obesity. Data from the population-based surveillance study support suggestions that regular walking by adults is associated with positive self-rated health and better BMI profile. Obesity and low/very low self-rated health have low prevalence rates to meet the recommendations.

  4. Higher body mass index is associated with episodic memory deficits in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Lucy G; Simons, Jon S; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-11-01

    Obesity has become an international health crisis. There is accumulating evidence that excess bodyweight is associated with changes to the structure and function of the brain and with a number of cognitive deficits. In particular, research suggests that obesity is associated with hippocampal and frontal lobe dysfunction, which would be predicted to impact memory. However, evidence for such memory impairment is currently limited. We hypothesised that higher body mass index (BMI) would be associated with reduced performance on a test of episodic memory that assesses not only content, but also context and feature integration. A total of 50 participants aged 18-35 years, with BMIs ranging from 18 to 51, were tested on a novel what-where-when style episodic memory test: the "Treasure-Hunt Task". This test requires recollection of object, location, and temporal order information within the same paradigm, as well as testing the ability to integrate these features into a single event recollection. Higher BMI was associated with significantly lower performance on the what-where-when (WWW) memory task and all individual elements: object identification, location memory, and temporal order memory. After controlling for age, sex, and years in education, the effect of BMI on the individual what, where, and when tasks remained, while the WWW dropped below significance. This finding of episodic memory deficits in obesity is of concern given the emerging evidence for a role for episodic cognition in appetite regulation. PMID:26447832

  5. Health behaviour and body mass index among problem gamblers: results from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algren, Maria H; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael; Larsen, Christina V L; Juel, Knud

    2015-06-01

    Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy behaviour and obesity. The odds of smoking was significantly higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. Further, the odds of high-risk alcohol drinking and illicit drug use were significantly higher among problem gamblers. The prevalence of sedentary leisure activity, unhealthy diet pattern and obesity was higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. The associations found in this study remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, educational and cohabiting status as well as other risk factors. Our findings highlight the presence of a potential, public health challenge and elucidate the need for health promotion initiatives targeted at problem gamblers. Furthermore, more research is needed in order to understand the underlying social mechanism of the association between problem gamblers and unhealthy behaviour. PMID:24390713

  6. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene polymorphism is associated with Alzheimer's disease and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šerý, Omar; Hlinecká, Lýdia; Povová, Jana; Bonczek, Ondřej; Zeman, Tomáš; Janout, Vladimír; Ambroz, Petr; Khan, Naim A; Balcar, Vladimir J

    2016-03-15

    Dementias of old age, in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD), pose a growing threat to the longevity and quality of life of individuals as well as whole societies world-wide. The risk factors are both genetic and environmental (life-style) and there is an overlap with similar factors predisposing to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Using a case-control genetic approach, we have identified a SNP (rs10507391) in ALOX5 gene, previously associated with an increased risk of stroke, as a novel genetic risk factor for AD. ALOX5 gene encodes a 5'-lipoxygenase (5'-LO) activating protein (FLAP), a crucial component of the arachidonic acid/leukotriene inflammatory cascade. A-allele of rs4769874 polymorphism increases the risk of AD 1.41-fold (p<0.0001), while AA genotype does so 1.79-fold (p<0.0001). In addition, GG genotype of rs4769874 polymorphism is associated with a modest increase in body mass index (BMI). We discuss potential biochemical mechanisms linking the SNP to AD and suggest possible preventive pharmacotherapies some of which are based on commonly available natural products. Finally, we set the newly identified AD risk factors into a broader context of similar CVD risk factors to generate a more comprehensive picture of interacting genetics and life-style habits potentially leading to the deteriorating mental health in the old age. PMID:26944113

  7. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827

  8. The relevance body mass index on the oxidative stress status of Alzheimer’s disease pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Loredana Sandu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While dementia affects 6-10% of persons 65 years or older, industrialized countries have witnessed analarming rise in obesity. Obesity affects over 500 million people worldwide, and has far reached negative health effects.In addition, oxidative stress is a risk factor for metabolic diseases and was previously shown to be independentlyassociated with obesity.Current status of research: Researchers investigated the relationship between body mass index (BMI, age andoxidative stress. In this way, convincing evidences demonstrated that oxidative stress is a prominent feature in Alzheimerdisease and links oxidative stress to the development of neuronal death and neural dysfunction, which suggests a keypathogenic role for oxidative stress in AD. Moreover, the disease progression is enhanced by oxidative stress. Also, whilemany hypotheses have been provided as the causes of the disease, the exact mechanisms remain elusive and difficult toverify. Results demonstrate that oxidative stress increases with the increasing of BMI and age, as a sequel to an impairedantioxidant status, an increase of peroxides and uric acid and a disadvantaged lipid profile.Conclusions: Future studies are needed to understand optimal weight and biological mechanisms. Oxidative stress andinflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and its related complications.

  9. Risk of asthma in adult twins with type 2 diabetes and increased body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Duffy, D L; Kyvik, K O; Skytthe, A; Backer, V

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between asthma, type 2 diabetes and increased body mass index (BMI) in adult twins. METHODS: We performed record linkage between questionnaire-defined asthma and BMI, and hospital discharge diagnoses of type 2 diabetes in 34,782 Danish twins, 20-71 years of age....... RESULTS: The risk of asthma was increased in subjects with type 2 diabetes relative to nondiabetic subjects both in men (13.5%vs 7.5%), P = 0.001 and in women (16.6%vs 9.6%), P = 0.001. The result remained significant after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, marital status...... between asthma and type 2 diabetes, 0.20 (0.01-0.40), P = 0.047; between asthma and BMI in women, 0.15 (0.07-0.22), P < 0.000; and between BMI and type 2 diabetes, 0.40 (0.29-0.43), P < 0.000. CONCLUSIONS: Asthma, type 2 diabetes and increased BMI are strongly associated in adults, particularly in women...

  10. 24 weeks of Pilates-aerobic and educative training to improve body fat mass in elderly Serbian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutjes AWS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anne WS Rutjes,1 Marcello Di Nisio2,31Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 2Department of Medical, Oral, and Biotechnological Sciences, University G D'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy; 3Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the NetherlandsWe read with interest the article by Ruiz-Montero et al, in which the authors used a before-and-after study design to examine changes in body composition (fat mass and lean body mass related to an aerobic-Pilates program in elderly Serbian women.1 The authors concluded that "a combined program of aerobic and Pilates, carried out under the supervision of an instructor, at least twice a week, produces health benefits in functionally independent women over the age of 60". This conclusion is overly optimistic and not supported by the evidence provided. View original paper by Ruiz-Montero and colleagues.

  11. Effect of gender, facial dimensions, body mass index and type of functional occlusion on bite force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Koç

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Some factors such as gender, age, craniofacial morphology, body structure, occlusal contact patterns may affect the maximum bite force. Thus, the purposes of this study were to determine the mean maximum bite force in individuals with normal occlusion, and to examine the effect of gender, facial dimensions, body mass index (BMI, type of functional occlusion (canine guidance and group function occlusion and balancing side interferences on it. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-four individuals aged 19-20 years-old were selected for this study. Maximum bite force was measured with strain-gauge transducers at first molar region. Facial dimensions were defined by standardized frontal photographs as follows: anterior total facial height (ATFH, bizygomathic facial width (BFW and intergonial width (IGW. BMI was calculated using the equation weight/height². The type of functional occlusion and the balancing side interferences of the subjects were identified by clinical examination. RESULTS: Bite force was found to be significantly higher in men than women (p0.05. BMI and bite force correlation was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The average bite force did not differ in subjects with canine guidance or group function occlusion and in the presence of balancing side interferences (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Data suggest that bite force is affected by gender. However, BMI, type of functional occlusion and the presence of balancing side interferences did not exert a meaningful influence on bite force. In addition, transverse facial dimensions showed correlation with bite force in only men.

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of body mass index in determining obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnoosh Samadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to determine sensitivity and specificity of body mass index (BMI based on Center for Disease Control 2000 (CDC percentiles compared to fat mass index (FMI as an indicator of being really obese in children. Obesity was compared based on these two indexes among children under study. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 410 primary school girls aged 8-10 years, in the city of Esfahan. Weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated based on weight divided by height squared. Fat mass was measured by body composition analyzer (BCA and FMI was calculated by dividing fat mass by height squared. FMI at or above the 90 th percentile and FMI less than 90 th percentile of reference data were considered as criterion for defining real obesity and normal adiposity, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to assess the performance of BMI in detecting obesity on the basis of FMI. Furthermore, the rate of agreement between two indices was calculated using Kappa coefficient P number. Results: Mean and standard deviation of FMI and BMI in all children were 6 ± 2.1 (kg/m 2 and 19.4 ± 3 (kg/m 2 , respectively. The area under the ROC curve for obesity was 0.75. The cutoff point, sensitivity, and specificity of BMI to classify children as obese compared to FMI were 21.2 kg/m 2 , 79%, and 73%, respectively. In this cutoff point for BMI (21.2 kg/m 2 , the agreement rate between BMI and FMI for determining obesity status was 0.5 (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Our results indicated 79% of children who were recognized as obese based on FMI, were also classified as obese according to BMI. Twenty-seven percent of children, who were non-obese, were identified as obese based on BMI. It appears that FMI compared to BMI is more accurate in determining obesity, but further studies are required.

  13. 24-weeks Pilates-aerobic and educative training to improve body fat mass in elderly Serbian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Montero PJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Jesús Ruiz-Montero,1 Alfonso Castillo-Rodriguez,2 Milena Mikalacki,3 Čokorilo Nebojsa,3 Darinka Korovljev3 1Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 2Faculty of Sport, University of Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain; 3Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in anthropometric measurements using an aerobic and Pilates exercise program which lasted 24 weeks. Method: This was a clinical intervention study of 303 women over the age of 60 living in Novi Sad, Serbia. Changes in body mass index and skinfold thickness were estimated through height, weight, and anthropometric measurements. The program comprised Pilates exercises for upper- and lower-body strength, agility, and aerobic capacity. Results: Fat mass (FM improved significantly (pre-test, 32.89%, 8.65; post-test, 28.25%, 6.58; P<0.01. Bone diameters and muscle perimeters showed no significant changes pre- and post-test (P>0.05, but there was a higher correlation between FM (% and waist–hip ratio (rho, 0.80; P<0.01. Conclusion: A mixed program of aerobics and Pilates, controls and improves baseline muscle mass and decreases FM values, without causing deterioration during practice and follow-up exercises. Keywords: lean body mass, anthropometric measures, educative program

  14. PHYSICAL SELF-PERCEPTIONS AND SELF-ESTEEM IN RELATION TO BODY MASS STATUS AMONG FEMALE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dolenc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the physical self-concept and self-esteem in adolescent girls aged between 13 and 18 years in relation to their body mass status. The Slovenian version of the Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ was used to determine the multidimensional physical self-concept among participants. The results indicated that overweight girls reported greater body dissatisfaction in terms self-perceived body fat and physical appearance compared to normal-weight girls. Overweight girls also achieved significantly lower scores in the self-perceived physical abilities, as well as global physical-self and self-esteem than normal-weight peers. As expected, underweight girls reported the lowest amount of body fat. Moreover, they reported lower levels of physical activity than normal-weight peers and had less physical strength compared to the other body mass index categories. The findings has significant implications for the work with adolescent girls in terms of developing appropriate educational intervention and physical education programmes aimed towards reinforcing and increasing self-esteem and promoting active lifestyle.

  15. Assessment of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis: whole-body bioimpedance vs body mass index, skinfolds, and leg-to-leg bioimpedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.M.; Roos, de N.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Berkhout, van F.T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage estimated from BMI, skinfolds, or leg-to-leg bioimpedance are good indicators of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Body fat percentage measured by whole-body bioimpedance was used as the reference

  16. Body Image: Relationhsip to Attachment, Body Mass Index and Dietary Practices among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sira, Natalia

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self-worth and mental health across the life span. It is related to self-esteem, sexuality, family relationships and identity. Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends, not only on inner-biological, but also a psychological and socio-cultural components, the purpose of this study was to examine variables that are related to and infl...

  17. Body mass index cut-offs for overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents aged 2-18 years%中国2~18岁儿童青少年超重和肥胖筛查体重指数界值点的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 宗心南; 季成叶; 米杰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the body cut-offs of mass index (BMI) for the purpose of screening overweight and obesity for Chinese children and adolescents aged 2-18 years. Methods Based on the BMI growth reference values for Chinese children aged 0-18, using the common methods to establish the BMI cut-offs for screening overweight and obesity. These methods were having the same empirical percentile or Z scores and the BMI value at 18 years consistent with adults.Three sets of BMI cut-offs, including (BMI24, BMI28) , (P85, P95) and (Z1, Z2) , were initially identified. Differences were compared on different cut-off points and prevalence rates of overweight and obesity with different BMI reference, different values and "prevalence" of overweight and obesity based on "2004 Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Study ". Cut-offs standards which recommended by the Chinese Working Group on Obesity for Children (WGOC) and by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) were also used. Finally the appropriate cut-offs were defined. Results Three sets of BMI cut-offs for screening overweight and obesity for Chinese children and adolescents aged 2-18 years were obtained according to the above mentioned methods for selection. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity defined by those cut-offs appeared not to be significantly different. Compared with the WGOC, the BMI cut-off points for screening overweight and obesity for both boys and girls from our study were very close to the WGOC', but cut-off points for screening overweight for girls aged 8.5-15.5 y was 0.3-1.0 kg/m2 lower than the WGOC'. Going through the database on screening of "2004 Beijing Children's Metabolic Syndrome Survey ", the prevalence of overweight for girls was about 3.4% higher than using the cut-offs of WGOC. Conclusion Results from this study suggested that the BMI cut-offs passed through the cut-off point of BMI24 and BMI28 at 18 years was appropriate for screening overweight and obesity in

  18. Fitness in animals correlates with proximity to discontinuities in body mass distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Vila-Gispert, Anna; Almeida, David

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous structure in landscapes may cause discontinuous, aggregated species body-mass patterns, reflecting the scales of structure available to animal communities within a landscape. Empirical analyses have shown that the location of species within body mass aggregations, which reflect this scale-specific organization, is non-random with regard to several ecological phenomena, including species extinctions. The propensity of declining species to have body masses proximate to discontinuities suggests that transition zones between scaling regimes ultimately decreases the ecological fitness for some species. We test this proposition using vulnerable and unthreatened fish species in Mediterranean streams with differing levels of human impact. We show that the proximity to discontinuities in body mass aggregations (“distance-to-edge”) of more vs. less fit individuals within vulnerable and unthreatened populations differs. Specifically, regression analysis between the scaled mass index, a proxy of animal fitness, and distance-to-edge reveals negative and positive relationships for vulnerable and unthreatened species, respectively. That is, fitness is higher close to discontinuities in vulnerable populations and toward the center of body mass aggregation groups in unthreatened populations. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the discontinuity framework for scrutinizing non-random patterns of environmental impact in populations. Further exploration of the usefulness of this method across other ecosystems and organism groups is warranted.

  19. Age and embodied masculinities: midlife gay and heterosexual men talk about their bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Amy C; Umberson, Debra

    2013-08-01

    This article integrates critical gerontology and masculinities theories to examine how midlife gay and heterosexual men experience their bodies in relation to cultural discourses of aging. Analyses of in-depth interviews with 15 gay and 15 heterosexual men ages 40-60 reveal that while both groups of men describe their bodies as deteriorating or declining in terms of functionality and are often distressed by these changes, midlife gay men also articulate a concern with a perceived decline in bodily appearance. Both gay and heterosexual midlife men frame their bodies as fundamentally different from women's, possibly in an attempt to protect a masculine identity in response to the threat that aging bodies pose to that identity. We argue that midlife men's embodied experiences are shaped by a discourse of midlife decline as well as inequalities between gay and heterosexual men. We also discuss the implications of embodiment for midlife men's well-being. PMID:23849420

  20. Increasing trends in central obesity among Chinese adults with normal body mass index, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Central obesity is thought to be more pathogenic than overall obesity and studies have shown that the association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality was strongest in those with a normal body mass index (BMI). The objective of our study was to determine secular trends in the prevalence of central obesity (WC ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) among Chinese adults with normal BMI from 1993 to 2009 and to examine the impact of performance of combined BMI and WC on the prevalence of obesity in Chinese adults. Methods We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted from 1993 to 2009. From which we included a total of 52023 participants aged ≥ 18 years. Results The age-standardized prevalence of central obesity among Chinese adults with BMI < 25 kg/m2 increased from 11.9% in 1993 to 21.1% in 2009 (P for linear trend <0.001). The upward trends were noted in both genders, all ages, rural/urban settings, and education groups (all P for linear trend <0.001), with greater increments in men, participants aged 18–64 years, and rural residents (P for interaction terms survey × sex, survey × age, and survey × rural/urban settings were 0.042, 0.003, and < 0.001, respectively). Trends in the prevalence of central obesity were similar when a more stringent BMI < 23 kg/m2 cut point (Asian cut point) was applied. Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension within normal BMI category. More than 65% individuals with obesity would be missed if solely BMI was measured. Conclusions We observed an upward trend in the prevalence of central obesity among participants with normal BMI irrespective of sex, age, rural/urban settings, and education level. Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension within normal BMI category. Approximately two thirds of the individuals with obesity would be missed if WC was not measured. It is, therefore, urgent to emphasize the importance of