WorldWideScience

Sample records for age body height

  1. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins...

  2. Changes in Spinal Canal Diameter and Vertebral Body Height with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose All structures of the spine, including the spinal canal, change continuously with age. The purpose of this study was to determine how the spinal canal of the lumbar spine changes with age. The L4/5 is the most common site of spinal stenosis and has the largest flexion-extension motion, whereas the T5/6 has the least motion. Therefore, we measured the spinal canal diameter and vertebral body height at T5, T6, L4, and L5 with age. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of aged 40 to 77 years. We reviewed whole spine sagittal MRIs of 370 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) (Group 2) and 166 herniated cervical disc (HCD) (Group 1). Each group was divided into four age groups, and demographic parameters (age, gender, height, weight, BMI), the mid-spinal canal diameter, and mid-vertebrae height at T5, T6, L4, L5 were compared. Within- and between-group comparisons were made to evaluate changes by age and correlations were carried out to evaluate the relationships between all parameters. Results Height, weight, and all radiologic parameters were significantly lower in Group 2 than Group 1. Group 1 did not show any differences, when based on age, but in Group 2, height, weight, and T6, L4, and L5 height were significantly decreased in patients in their 70's than patients in their 40's, except for spinal canal diameter. Age was associated with all parameters except spinal canal diameter. Conclusion Vertebral height decreased with age, but spinal canal diameter did not change in patients with either LSS or HCD. Mid-spinal canal diameter was not affected by aging. PMID:24142657

  3. Austrian height and body proportion references for children aged 4 to under 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiss, Andreas; Lassi, Michael; Blümel, Peter; Borkenstein, Martin; Kapelari, Klaus; Mayer, Michael; Schemper, Michael; Häusler, Gabriele

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences between national and the WHO reference curves in children older than 5 years. Moreover, reference curves for body proportions (sitting height, subischial leg length and their ratio) based on state-of-the-art statistics are not available. To develop reference curves for height and body proportions for use in Austria and compare the curves with WHO reference curves. To estimate and statistically investigate extreme percentiles. A sample of ∼14 500 children between 4-19 years of age was drawn via schooling institutions, stratified by provinces according to age- and sex-specific population proportions. GAMLSS models were used for a flexible estimation of percentile curves. After the age of 5 years national reference curves are more suitable than the WHO reference curves for clinical use in Austria. These height curves are very similar to the German reference curves published recently. Therefore, these reference curves for criteria of body proportions are recommended for use in other populations. Further validation studies are needed to establish whether the recently recommended -2.5 and -3.0 SD for height are a sensitive and specific cut-off in the diagnostic work-up for children with a suspected growth disorder using this new Austrian height chart.

  4. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years...... of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer...... statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited...

  5. Adult body height is a good predictor of different dimensions of cognitive function in aged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Hugo Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adult height, weight and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aim to assess the value of adult height and weight to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals.Methods and Findings: Cross-sectional study performed between 2010 and 2012 in the Portuguese general community. A total of 1050 participants were included in the study and randomly selected from local area health authority registries. The cohort was representative of the general Portuguese population with respect to age (above 50 years of age and gender. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of tests grouped in two dimensions: general executive function and memory. Two-step hierarchical multiple linear regression models were conducted to determine the predictive value of anthropometric measures in cognitive performance and mood before and after correction for possible confounding factors (gender, age, school years, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits. We found single associations of weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter and age with executive function, memory and depressive symptoms. However, when included in a predictive model adjusted for gender, age, school years and lifestyle factors only height prevailed as a significant predictor of general executive function (β=0,139; p<0,001 and memory (β=0,099; p<0,05. No relation was found between mood and any of the anthropometric measures studied.Conclusions and Relevance: Height is an independent predictor of cognitive function in late-life and its effects on the general and executive function and memory are

  6. Associations among height, body mass index and intelligence from age 11 to age 78 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M

    2016-09-29

    Intelligence is related to both height and body mass index (BMI) at various stages of life. Several studies have demonstrated longitudinal relationships between these measures, but none has established whether height and intelligence, or BMI and intelligence are linked from childhood through to older age. We assessed the relations between these measures over an interval of up to 67 years using data from the 36-Day Sample, an initially-representative sample of Scottish people born in 1936, assessed at age 11 years (N = 6,291) and again at 77-78 years (N = 722). This paper focuses on the 423 participants (6.7 % of the original sample) who provided relevant data in late adulthood. Height and intelligence were significantly positively associated in childhood (β = .23) and late adulthood (β = .21-.29). Longitudinal correlations also showed that childhood intelligence predicted late-adulthood height (β = .20), and childhood height predicted late-adulthood cognitive ability (β = .12-.14). We observed no significant relationship between BMI and intelligence either in childhood or in late adulthood, nor any longitudinal association between the two in this sample. Our results on height and intelligence are the first to demonstrate that their relationship spans almost seven decades, from childhood through to late adulthood, and they call for further investigation into the mechanisms underlying this lifelong association.

  7. New Finnish growth references for children and adolescents aged 0 to 20 years: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and body mass index-for-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Antti; Sankilampi, Ulla; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Kesseli, Kari; Dunkel, Leo

    2011-05-01

    Growth curves require regular updates due to secular trends in linear growth. We constructed contemporary growth curves, assessed secular trends in height, and defined body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for thinness, overweight, and obesity in Finnish children. Mixed cross-sectional/longitudinal data of 73,659 healthy subjects aged 0-20 years (born 1983-2008) were collected from providers in the primary health care setting. Growth references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were fitted using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). BMI percentile curves passing through BMIs 30, 25, 18.5, 17, and 16 kg/m(2) at the age of 18 years were calculated to define limits for obesity, overweight, and various grades of thinness. Increased length/height-for-age was seen in virtually all age-groups when compared to previous Finnish growth data from 1959 to 1971. Adult height was increased by 1.9 cm in girls and 1.8 cm in boys. The largest increases were seen during the peripubertal years: up to 2.8 cm in girls and 5.6 cm in boys. Median weight-for-length/height had not increased. New Finnish references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were constructed and should be implemented to monitor growth of children in Finland.

  8. Evaluation of skeletal and dental age using third molar calcification, condylar height and length of the mandibular body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedarisetty, Sunil Gupta; Rao, Guttikonda Venkateswara; Rayapudi, Naveen; Korlepara, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    To identify the most reliable method for age estimation among three variables, that is, condylar height, length of mandibular body and third molar calcification by Demirjian's method. Orthopantomograms and lateral cephalograms of 60 patients with equal gender ratio were included in the study, among each gender 15 subjects were below 18 years and 15 subjects were above 18 years. Lateral cephalograms were traced, height of condyle and mandibular body are measured manually on the tracing paper, OPG's were observed on radiographic illuminator and maturity score of third molar calcification was noted according to Demirjian's method. All the measurements were subjected to statistical analysis. The results obtained are of no significant difference between estimated age and actual age with all three parameters (P > 0.9780 condylar height, P > 0.9515 length of mandibular body, P > 0.8611 third molar calcification). Among these three, length of mandibular body shows least standard error test (i.e. 0.188). Although all three parameters can be used for age estimation, length of mandibular body is more reliable followed by height of condyle and third molar calcification.

  9. New reference centiles for boys' height, weight and body mass index used voice break as the marker of biological age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Rebekka; Hermanussen, Michael; Scheffler, Christiane

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to develop the first references for body height, body weight and body mass index (BMI) for boys based on the individual developmental tempo with respect to their voice break status. We re-analysed data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS study) on body height, body weight and body mass index based on the voice break, or mutation, in 3956 boys aged 10-17 years. We used the LMS method to construct smoothed references centiles for the studied variables in premutational, mutational and postmutational boys. Body height, body weight and BMI differed significantly (p voice break. On average, boys were 5.9 cm taller, 5.8 kg heavier and had a 0.7 kg/m² higher BMI with every higher stage of voice break. Currently used growth references for chronological age in comparison with maturity-related references led to an average of 5.4% of boys being falsely classified as overweight. These newly developed growth references allowed convenient classifications of underweight and overweight or obese boys with respect to their voice break status. They should be added to currently used references centiles for the body mass index to avoid misclassifying boys' weight. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Heritability of adult body height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Sammalisto, Sampo; Perola, Markus

    2003-01-01

    A major component of variation in body height is due to genetic differences, but environmental factors have a substantial contributory effect. In this study we aimed to analyse whether the genetic architecture of body height varies between affluent western societies. We analysed twin data from...... eight countries comprising 30,111 complete twin pairs by using the univariate genetic model of the Mx statistical package. Body height and zygosity were self-reported in seven populations and measured directly in one population. We found that there was substantial variation in mean body height between...... countries; body height was least in Italy (177 cm in men and 163 cm in women) and greatest in the Netherlands (184 cm and 171 cm, respectively). In men there was no corresponding variation in heritability of body height, heritability estimates ranging from 0.87 to 0.93 in populations under an additive genes...

  11. DMSA scan nomograms for renal length and area: Related to patient age and to body weight, height or surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.M.; Que, L.; Rutland, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To create nomograms for renal size as measured from DMSA renal studies, and to test the nomograms for their ability to separate normal from abnormal kidneys. Method: Renal length was measured from posterior oblique views and renal area from posterior views. Results from 253 patients with bilateral normal kidneys were used to create nomograms for renal size relative to patient age, body height, weight or body surface area (BSA). The nomograms enclosed 95% of the normal kidneys, thus indicating the range for 95% confidence limits, and hence the specificity. Each nomogram was then tested against 46 hypertrophied kidneys and 46 damaged kidneys. Results: The results from nomograms of renal length and renal area, compared to age, body height, body weight and BSA are presented. For each nomogram, the range is presented as a fraction of the mean value, and the number of abnormal kidneys (hypertrophied or damaged) outside the normal range is presented as a percentage (indicating the sensitivity). Conclusion: Renal Area was no better than renal length for detecting abnormal kidneys. Patient age was the least useful method of normalisation. BSA normalisation produced the best results most frequently (narrower ranges and highest detection of abnormal kidneys)

  12. Energy cost during walking in association with age and body height in children and young adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, Eline A M; Balemans, Astrid C J; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Buizer, Annemieke I; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2017-05-01

    This cross-sectional study into children and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) aimed to assess the association of gross energy cost (EC), net EC and net nondimensional (NN) EC during walking with age and body height, compared to typically developing (TD) peers. Data was collected in 128 participants with CP (mean age 11y9mo; GMFCS I,n=48; II,n=56; III, n=24) and in 63 TD peers (mean age 12y5mo). Energy cost was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption during over-ground walking at comfortable speed. Outcome measures derived from the assessment included the gross and net EC, and NN EC. Differences between the groups in the association between gross, net and NN EC with age and body height, were investigated with regression analyses and interaction effects (penergy cost outcomes showed a decline with growth, indicating that correcting for this decline is required when evaluating changes in gross EC, and, to a lesser extent, in net and NN EC in response to treatment or from natural course over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. INFLUENCE OF BODY HEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT AND THE AGE ON THE RESULTS ACHIEVED BY MAN-MARATHONERS IN A MARATHON RACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Rašiti Naser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The research is conducted on a sample of 100 successful man marathoners who has taken part in ten of the most popular marathon races. The sample of entities includes ten of the best placed marathoners in each race held during the year 2008. The aim of the research is to assess the influence of the body height, weight and the age of the marathoners on the final result in the race. The collected data is processed by the basic descriptive parameters. The entities have the average weight of 56.94 kg, with the average height of 168.98 cm, at the average age of 29.75, with the achieved average result of 2:13.23 hours in the race. In the intercorrelation matrix only one significant coefficient of correlation is obtained (p<0.001 between the body height and body weight. By the regressive analysis the influence of the predictory variables (height, weight and age on the criteria variable – sig. =0, 21 (the result of the marathon is not confirmed, which provides only 15% (RO²=.302 of analysis in the common ground of variability. The rest of 91% in analysing the total variability of the criteria variable can be ascribed to some other anthropologic characteristics, and mainly to the functional characteristics of anaerobic type.

  14. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Jelenkovic, A.; Sund, R.; Sung, J.; Hopper, J.L.; Ooki, S.; Heikkilä, K.; Aaltonen, S.; Tarnoki, A.D.; Tarnoki, D.L.; Willemsen, G.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Saudino, K.J.; Cutler, T.L.; Nelson, T.L.; Whitfield, K.E.; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Fisher, A.; He, M.; Ding, X.; Bjerregaard-Andersen, M.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Sodemann, M.; Song, Y.M.; Yang, S.; Lee, K.; Jeong, H.U.; Knafo-Noam, A.; Mankuta, D.; Abramson, L.; Burt, S.A.; Klump, K.L.; Ordonana, J.R.; Sanchez-Romera, J.F.; Colodro-Conde, L.; Harris, J.R.; Brandt, I.; Sevenius Nilsen, T.; Craig, J.M.; Saffery, R.; Ji, F.; Ning, F.; Pang, Z.; Dubois, L.; Boivin, M.; Brendgen, M.; Dionne, G.; Vitaro, F.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Pedersen, N.L.; Dahl Aslan, A.K.; Tynelius, P.; Haworth, C.M.A.; Plomin, R.; Rebato, E.; Rose, R.J.; Goldberg, J.H.; Rasmussen, F.; Hur, Y.M.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kaprio, J.; Silventoinen, K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of

  15. INFLUENCE OF BODY HEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT AND THE AGE ON THE RESULTS ACHIEVED BY MAN-MARATHONERS IN A MARATHON RACE

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Rašiti Naser; Vlora Ajvazi; Adem Nura; Halim Hajredini

    2011-01-01

    The research is conducted on a sample of 100 successful man marathoners who has taken part in ten of the most popular marathon races. The sample of entities includes ten of the best placed marathoners in each race held during the year 2008. The aim of the research is to assess the influence of the body height, weight and the age of the marathoners on the final result in the race. The collected data is processed by the basic descriptive parameters. The entities have the average weight of 56.94...

  16. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age: A Study of the CODATwins Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelenkovic, A.; Yokoyama, Y.; Sund, R.; Honda, C.; Bogl, L.H.; Aaltonen, S.; Ji, F.; Ning, F.; Pang, Z.; Ordoñana, J.R.; Sánchez-Romera, J.F.; Colodro-Conde, L.; Burt, S.A.; Klump, K.L.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Kandler, C.; McAdams, T.A.; Eley, T.C.; Gregory, A.M.; Saudino, K.J.; Dubois, L.; Boivin, M.; Tarnoki, A.D.; Tarnoki, D.L.; Haworth, C.M.A.; Plomin, R.; Öncel, S.Y.; Aliev, F.; Stazi, M.A.; Fagnani, C.; D'Ippolito, C.; Craig, J.M.; Saffery, R.; Siribaddana, S.H.; Hotopf, M.; Sumathipala, A.; Rijsdijk, F.; Spector, T.D.; Mangino, M.; Lachance, G.; Gatz, M.; Butler, D.A.; Bayasgalan, G.; Narandalai, D.; Freitas, D.L.; Maia, J.A.; Harden, K.P.; Tucker-Drob, E.M.; Kim, B.; Chong, Y.; Hong, C.; Shin, H.J.; Christensen, K.; Skytthe, A.; Kyvik, K.O.; Derom, C.A.; Vlietinck, R.F.; Loos, R.J.F.; Cozen, W.; Hwang, A.E.; Mack, T.M.; He, M.; Ding, X.; Chang, B.; Silberg, J.L.; Eaves, L.J.; Maes, H.H.; Cutler, T.L.; Hopper, J.L.; Aujard, K.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Pedersen, N.L.; Dahl Aslan, A.K.; Song, Y.M.; Yang, S.; Lee, K; Baker, L.A.; Tuvblad, C.; Bjerregaard-Andersen, M.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Sodemann, M.; Heikkilä, K.; Tan, Q.; Zhang, D.; Swan, G.E.; Krasnow, R.; Jang, K.L.; Knafo-Noam, A.; Mankuta, D.; Abramson, L.; Lichtenstein, P.; Krueger, R.F.; McGue, M.; Pahlen, S.; Tynelius, P.; Duncan, G.E.; Buchwald, D.; Corley, R.P.; Huibregtse, B.M.; Nelson, T.L.; Whitfield, K.E.; Franz, C.E.; Kremen, W.S.; Lyons, M.J.; Ooki, S.; Brandt, I.; Sevenius Nilsen, T.; Inui, F.; Watanabe, N.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Fisher, A.; Rebato, E.; Martin, N.G.; Iwatani, Y.; Hayakawa, K.; Sung, J.; Harris, J.R.; Willemsen, G.; Busjahn, A.; Goldberg, J.H.; Rasmussen, F.; Hur, Y.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Sorensen, T.I.A.; Kaprio, J.; Silventoinen, K.

    2015-01-01

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins

  17. Beverage Consumption Patterns at Age 13 to 17 Years Are Associated with Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index at Age 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A; Van Buren, John M; Warren, John J; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Levy, Steven M

    2017-05-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with obesity in children and adults; however, associations between beverage patterns and obesity are not understood. Our aim was to describe beverage patterns during adolescence and associations between adolescent beverage patterns and anthropometric measures at age 17 years. We conducted a cross-sectional analyses of longitudinally collected data. Data from participants in the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study having at least one beverage questionnaire completed between ages 13.0 and 14.0 years, having a second questionnaire completed between 16.0 and 17.0 years, and attending clinic examination for weight and height measurements at age 17 years (n=369) were included. Beverages were collapsed into four categories (ie, 100% juice, milk, water and other sugar-free beverages, and SSBs) for the purpose of clustering. Five beverage clusters were identified from standardized age 13 to 17 years mean daily beverage intakes and named by the authors for the dominant beverage: juice, milk, water/sugar-free beverages, neutral, and SSB. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m 2 ) at age 17 years were analyzed. We used Ward's method for clustering of beverage variables, one-way analysis of variance and χ 2 tests for bivariable associations, and γ-regression for associations of weight or BMI (outcomes) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Linear regression was used for associations of height (outcome) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Participants with family incomes beverage cluster membership. For example, on average, male and female members of the neutral cluster were 4.5 cm (P=0.010) and 4.2 cm (P=0.034) shorter, respectively, than members of the milk cluster. For members of the juice cluster, mean BMI was lower than for members of the milk cluster (by 2.4 units), water/sugar-free beverage cluster (3.5 units), neutral cluster (2.2 units), and SSB cluster (3.2 units) (all

  18. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.

  19. Determinants of variation in adult body height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri

    2003-04-01

    Final body height is achieved as the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this article is to review past studies on body height that have followed different scientific traditions. In modern Western societies, about 20% of variation in body height is due to environmental variation. In poorer environments, this proportion is probably larger, with lower heritability of body height as well as larger socioeconomic body height differences. The role of childhood environment is seen in the increase in body height during the 20th century simultaneously with the increase in the standard of living. The most important non-genetic factors affecting growth and adult body height are nutrition and diseases. Short stature is associated with poorer education and lower social position in adulthood. This is mainly due to family background, but other environmental factors in childhood also contribute to this association. Body height is a good indicator of childhood living conditions, not only in developing countries but also in modern Western societies. Future studies combining different scientific traditions in auxology are needed to create a more holistic view of body height.

  20. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age: A Study of the CODATwins Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Bogl, Leonie H; Aaltonen, Sari; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Kim, Bia; Chong, Youngsook; Hong, Changhee; Shin, Hyun Jung; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-10-01

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.

  1. Is being female a risk factor for shallow anterior chamber? The associations between anterior chamber depth and age, sex, and body height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cherng Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: To analyze the association between anterior chamber depth (ACD and age, sex, and body height (BH. Materials and Methods: One thousand four hundred eighty eyes of 1480 adults 40 years of age and older receiving preoperative evaluation for cataract surgery were recruited consecutively from June 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010. ACD was measured with the Zeiss IOLMaster. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the correlations, and receiving operator characteristic (ROC curves and the area under the curve (AUC were used for evaluating the predictability of an ACD less than 2.70 mm. Results: ACD was negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with BH in both univariate and multivariate regression analysis (P < 0.001. Sex was associated with ACD in univariate analysis, but not after adjustment with age and BH. In predicting an ACD less than 2.70 mm, the AUCs of ROC curves for ′age and sex′, ′age and BH′, and ′age, sex, and BH′ were 0.687, 0.689, and 0.689, respectively. Conclusion: Age and BH were independent associating factors of ACD; however, sex was not. Older people and shorter ones likely had shallower ACD, and therefore were predisposed to Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG. The predictability of ACD by age and BH solely was low, and adding sex did not increase it.

  2. Obesity in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia in the Minnesota cohort: importance of adjusting body mass index for height-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Forlenza, Gregory P; Yaw Addo, O; Kyllo, Jennifer; Lteif, Aida; Hindmarsh, P C; Petryk, Anna; Gonzalez-Bolanos, Maria Teresa; Miller, Bradley S; Thomas, William

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate obesity and overweight in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and associations with glucocorticoids, fludrocortisone and disease control. Adjusting body mass index-for-height-age (BMI HA ) percentile is proposed to correct misclassification of obese/overweight status in CAH children with advanced bone age and tall-for-age stature. Longitudinal. One hundred and ninety-four children with CAH seen from 1970 to 2013: 124 salt wasting (SW); 70 simple virilizing (SV); 102 females. Body mass index (BMI) end-points were overweight (85-94 percentile) and obese (≥95 percentile). Approximately 50% of the children had at least one BMI measurement ≥95 percentile and about 70% had at least one ≥85 percentile. Using BMI HA percentiles, obesity incidence decreased slightly in SW children (47-43%) and markedly in SV children (50-33%); however, overweight status was not reduced. Only 6% of SW and 1% of SV children were persistently obese (≥3 clinic visits) when BMI HA was applied, whereas overweight status persisted in 35% of SW and 33% of SV children. Most obesity or overweight when using BMI HA occurred before age 10 and there was no association with hydrocortisone (HC) or fludrocortisone dosing. Adiposity rebound for SW children occurred by 3·3 years and in SV females by age 3·8 years, over a year earlier than the adiposity rebound for healthy children. Children with CAH are at higher risk for early onset obesity and overweight with or without using BMI HA but rates of persistent obesity were lower than previously reported. Careful HC dosing during early childhood is needed to prevent increased weight gain and an early adiposity rebound. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Body composition at birth and height at 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Wells, Jonathan C; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is associated with childhood stunting, but equivalent associations for birth body composition (BC) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of BC with height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at 2 years of age. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, fat mass (FM) and fat...

  4. Strong or Weak Handgrip? Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Steiber

    Full Text Available Handgrip strength is an important biomarker of healthy ageing and a powerful predictor of future morbidity and mortality both in younger and older populations. Therefore, the measurement of handgrip strength is increasingly used as a simple but efficient screening tool for health vulnerability. This study presents normative reference values for handgrip strength in Germany for use in research and clinical practice. It is the first study to provide normative data across the life course that is stratified by sex, age, and body height. The study used a nationally representative sample of test participants ages 17-90. It was based on pooled data from five waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006-2014 and involved a total of 11,790 persons living in Germany (providing 25,285 observations. Handgrip strength was measured with a Smedley dynamometer. Results showed that peak mean values of handgrip strength are reached in men's and women's 30s and 40s after which handgrip strength declines in linear fashion with age. Following published recommendations, the study used a cut-off at 2 SD below the sex-specific peak mean value across the life course to define a 'weak grip'. Less than 10% of women and men aged 65-69 were classified as weak according to this definition, shares increasing to about half of the population aged 80-90. Based on survival analysis that linked handgrip strength to a relevant outcome, however, a 'critically weak grip' that warrants further examination was estimated to commence already at 1 SD below the group-specific mean value.

  5. Assessing cardiometabolic risk in middle-aged adults using body mass index and waist-height ratio: are two indices better than one? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Seán R; Perry, Ivan J; Phillips, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    A novel obesity classification method has been proposed using body mass index (BMI) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) together. However, the utility of this approach is unclear. In this study we compare the metabolic profiles in subjects defined as overweight or obese by both measures. We examine a range of metabolic syndrome features, pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute-phase response proteins, coagulation factors and white blood cell counts to determine whether a combination of both indices more accurately identifies individuals at increased obesity-related cardiometabolic risk. This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 1856 men and women aged 46-73 years. Metabolic and anthropometric profiles were assessed. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to compare lipid, lipoprotein, blood pressure, glycaemic and inflammatory biomarker levels between BMI and WHtR tertiles. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to determine cardiometabolic risk feature associations with BMI and WHtR groupings. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate index discriminatory ability. The combination of BMI and WHtR tertiles identified consistent metabolic variable differences relative to those characterised on the basis of one index. Similarly, odds ratios of having cardiometabolic risk features were noticeably increased in subjects classified as overweight or obese by both measures when compared to study participants categorised by either BMI or WHtR separately. Significant discriminatory improvement was observed for detecting individual cardiometabolic risk features and adverse biomarker levels. In a fully adjusted model, only individuals within the highest tertile for both indices displayed a significant and positive association with pre-diabetes, OR: 3.4 (95 % CI: 1.9, 6.0), P < 0.001. These data provide evidence that the use of BMI and WHtR together may improve body fat classification. Risk stratification using a

  6. Height, aging and cognitive abilities across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Cahit; Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that as a marker of childhood circumstances, height is correlated with cognitive functioning at older ages. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and about 17,000 respondents from 11 countries, we find that height is positively and significantly associated with cognitive functioning in later life despite controlling for a myriad of possible confounding factors. A 10 cm increase in height is associated with a 0.04 standard deviation increase in a summary cognitive score (mean 0.02, std. dev. 0.77). We find that being born in a country where the infant mortality rate at the time of birth is high has a negative and significant influence on cognitive functioning in later life. A 10% increase in the infant mortality rate is associated with a 0.1 standard deviation decrease in the summary cognitive score. We also find some evidence that height serves as a protective factor against age related deterioration in cognitive functioning. For persons of average stature, age related decreases in cognition scores are 3-5 percentage points smaller if they move up a quartile in the height distribution. Our results also suggest that there is a significant positive association between height and cognitive abilities across countries for this pre-1950 birth cohort of respondents, with correlations ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Height and Body Mass on the Mating Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Frederick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available People with traits that are attractive on the mating market are better able to pursue their preferred mating strategy. Men who are relatively tall may be preferred by women because taller height is a cue to dominance, social status, access to resources, and heritable fitness, leading them to have more mating opportunities and sex partners. We examined height, education, age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI as predictors of sexual history among heterosexual men and women (N = 60,058. The linear and curvilinear associations between self-reported height and sex partner number were small for men when controlling for education, BMI, and ethnicity (linear β = .05; curvilinear β = −.03. The mean and median number of sex partners for men of different heights were: very short (9.4; 5, short (11.0; 7, average (11.7; 7, tall (12.0; 7, very tall (12.1; 7, and extremely tall (12.3; 7. Men who were “overweight” reported a higher mean and median number of sex partners than men with other body masses. The results for men suggested limited variation in reported sex partner number across most of the height continuum, but that very short men report fewer partners than other men.

  8. Developmental charts for children with osteogenesis imperfecta, type I (body height, body weight and BMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Krzysztof; Syczewska, Malgorzata

    2017-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of type I collagen. Type I is the most common, which is called a non-deforming type of OI, as in this condition, there are no major bone deformities. This type is characterised by blue sclera and vertebral fractures, leading to mild scoliosis. The body height of these patients is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but there are no data proving this in the literature. The aim of this study is the preparation of the developmental charts of children with OI type I. The anthropometric data of 117 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were used in this study (61 boys and 56 girls). All measurements were pooled together into one database (823 measurements in total). To overcome the problem of the limited number of data being available in certain age classes and gender groups, the method called reverse transformation was used. The body height of the youngest children, aged 2 and 3 years, is less than that of their healthy peers. Children between 4 and 7 years old catch up slightly, but at later ages, development slows down, and in adults, the median body height shows an SDS of -2.7. These results show that children with type I OI are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old, and, ultimately, their body height is impaired. What is Known: • The body height of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but in the known literature, there is no measurement data supporting this opinion. What is New: • Children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old and, ultimately, their final body height is impaired. • The developmental charts for the body height, body weight and BMI of children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are shown.

  9. Variation of facial features among three African populations: Body height match analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taura, M G; Adamu, L H; Gudaji, A

    2017-01-01

    Body height is one of the variables that show a correlation with facial craniometry. Here we seek to discriminate the three populations (Nigerians, Ugandans and Kenyans) using facial craniometry based on different categories of body height of adult males. A total of 513 individuals comprising 234 Nigerians, 169 Ugandans and 110 Kenyans with mean age of 25.27, s=5.13 (18-40 years) participated. Paired and unpaired facial features were measured using direct craniometry. Multivariate and stepwise discriminate function analyses were used for differentiation of the three populations. The result showed significant overall facial differences among the three populations in all the body height categories. Skull height, total facial height, outer canthal distance, exophthalmometry, right ear width and nasal length were significantly different among the three different populations irrespective of body height categories. Other variables were sensitive to body height. Stepwise discriminant function analyses included maximum of six variables for better discrimination between the three populations. The single best discriminator of the groups was total facial height, however, for body height >1.70m the single best discriminator was nasal length. Most of the variables were better used with function 1, hence, better discrimination than function 2. In conclusion, adult body height in addition to other factors such as age, sex, and ethnicity should be considered in making decision on facial craniometry. However, not all the facial linear dimensions were sensitive to body height. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The Sitting-Height Index of Build, (Body Mass/(Sitting Height3, as an Improvement on the Body Mass Index for Children, Adolescents and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Burton

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI is unsatisfactory in being affected by both relative leg length and height, and, for use with children and adolescents, therefore needs to be interpreted in relation to age. The sitting-height index of build (body mass/(sitting height3, is largely free of these disadvantages. Furthermore, because that index is independent of relative leg length, the latter can be treated as a separate indicator of nutritional history and health risks. Past studies on white children and adults have shown body mass to be approximately proportional to (sitting height3. Moreover, multiple regression of (body mass1/3 on sitting height and leg length, using year-by-year averages, has indicated that leg length is an insignificant predictor of body mass. The present study used data for individuals, namely 2–20 years old males and females, black as well as white. Regression analysis as above again showed leg length to be an insignificant predictor of body mass, but only above the age of about nine years. However, sitting height is still a stronger predictor of body mass than leg length at all ages. The advantages of the sitting-height index of build for use with young people are confirmed.

  11. Body height and occupational success for actors and actresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Burger, Christoph

    2010-08-01

    The association of body height with occupational success has been frequently studied, with previous research mainly finding a positive effect among men and positive or null effects among women. Occupational success has almost exclusively been measured so far by short-term success variables (e.g., annual income). In the present study, the relationship of success and height was examined in a group of actors and actresses using a large online database about movies (Internet Movie Database) where heights of actors and actresses are stated. The number of roles played in movies and television series during each actor's lifetime was used as a measure of long-term occupational success. No height effect was found for male actors but a significant negative effect was found for actresses, even after controlling for possible confounding influences (age and birth year). Compared to the general population, actors and actresses were significantly taller; however, actresses who were shorter than average were more likely to achieve greater occupational success, in terms of being featured in more movies.

  12. Height prediction equations for even-aged upland oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Hilt; Martin E. Dale

    1982-01-01

    Forest growth models that use predicted tree diameters or diameter distributions require a reliable height-prediction model to obtain volume estimates because future height-diameter relationships will not necessarily be the same as the present height-diameter relationship. A total tree height prediction equation for even-aged upland oak stands is presented. Predicted...

  13. Height and Body Composition Determine Arm Propulsive Force in Youth Swimmers Independent of a Maturation Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Tatiane; Costa, Manoel; Oliveira, Saulo; Júnior, Marcos Barbosa; Ritti-Dias, Raphael; Santos, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, body composition and propulsive force in swimmers aged 9–17 years. Anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass, sitting height, arm span, arm muscle area and body composition) and the propulsive force of the arm (tethered swimming test) were evaluated in 56 competitive male swimmers. Tanner’s stages of genital maturation (P1–5) were used. The data analysis included correlations and multiple linear...

  14. Height-age and height-diameter relationships for monocultures and mixtures of eastern cottonwood clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Knowe; G. Sam Foster; Randall J. Rousseau; Warren L Nance

    1998-01-01

    Data from an eastern cottonwood clonal mixing study in Mississippi and Kentucky, USA, were used to test the effects of planting locations and genetics (clonal proportions) on height-age and height-d.b.h. functions. Planting locations, which accounted for 5.6 percent of the variation in observed dominant height growth (p = 0.0001), were more important than clonal...

  15. The influences of height and age on waist circumference as an index of adiposity in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, T.S.; Seidell, J C; Currall, J E; Morrison, C E; Deurenberg, P.; Lean, M.E.J.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influences of height and age on the differences in waist circumference between individuals of different stature. SUBJECTS: 3319 males and 4358 females from four studies in the UK and the Netherlands. MEASUREMENTS: Waist circumference, body weight, height, and age. RESULTS:

  16. Height and Body Composition Determine Arm Propulsive Force in Youth Swimmers Independent of a Maturation Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Tatiane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, body composition and propulsive force in swimmers aged 9-17 years. Anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass, sitting height, arm span, arm muscle area and body composition and the propulsive force of the arm (tethered swimming test were evaluated in 56 competitive male swimmers. Tanner’s stages of genital maturation (P1-5 were used. The data analysis included correlations and multiple linear regression. The propulsive force of the arm was correlated with body height (r = 0.34; p =0.013, arm span (r = 0.29; p =0.042, sitting height (r = 0.36; p =0.009, % body fat (r = 0.33; p =0.016, lean body mass (r = 0.34; p =0.015 and arm muscle area (r = 0.31; p =0.026. Using multiple linear regression models, the percent body fat and height were identified as significant predictors of the propulsive force of the arm after controlling for the maturation stage. This model explained 22% (R2 = 0.22 of associations. In conclusion, the propulsive force of swimmers was related to body height and percent body fat

  17. Correlation among body height, intelligence, and brain gray matter volume in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Wu, Kai; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-16

    A significant positive correlation between height and intelligence has been demonstrated in children. Additionally, intelligence has been associated with the volume of gray matter in the brains of children. Based on these correlations, we analyzed the correlation among height, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and gray matter volume applying voxel-based morphometry using data from the brain magnetic resonance images of 160 healthy children aged 5-18 years of age. As a result, body height was significantly positively correlated with brain gray matter volume. Additionally, the regional gray matter volume of several regions such as the bilateral prefrontal cortices, temporoparietal region, and cerebellum was significantly positively correlated with body height and that the gray matter volume of several of these regions was also significantly positively correlated with full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that gray and white matter volume may mediate the correlation between body height and intelligence in healthy children. Additionally, the correlations among gray and white matter volume, height, and intelligence may be at least partially explained by the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormones. Given the importance of the effect of environmental factors, especially nutrition, on height, IQ, and gray matter volume, the present results stress the importance of nutrition during childhood for the healthy maturation of body and brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Shoulder height, body mass and shape of proboscideans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Larramendi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been a growing interest in proboscideans’ body size, given that mass is highly correlated with biological functions. Different allometric equations have been proposed in the recent decades to estimate their body masses, based on a large number of living examples. However, the results obtained by these formulae are not accurate because extinct animals often had different body proportions and some were outside the size range of extant samples. Here the body mass of a large number of extinct proboscideans has been calculated by the Graphic Double Integration volumetric method which is based on technical restorations from graphical reconstructions of fossils employing photos, measurements and comparative anatomy of extant forms. The method has been tested on extant elephants with highly accurate results. The reconstructions necessary to apply this method give important information such as body proportions. On the other hand, equations to calculate the skeletal shoulder height have been developed, with a large number of published shoulder heights being recalculated. From the shoulder heights, several equations were created to find out the body mass of a series of extant and extinct species. A few of the largest proboscideans, namely Mammut borsoni and Palaeoloxodon namadicus, were found out to have reached and surpassed the body size of the largest indricotheres. Bearing this in mind, the largest land mammal that ever existed seems to be within the order of Proboscidea, contrary to previous understanding.

  19. Aortic and Hepatic Contrast Enhancement During Hepatic-Arterial and Portal Venous Phase Computed Tomography Scanning: Multivariate Linear Regression Analysis Using Age, Sex, Total Body Weight, Height, and Cardiac Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takanori; Nakaura, Takeshi; Funama, Yoshinori; Higaki, Toru; Kiguchi, Masao; Imada, Naoyuki; Sato, Tomoyasu; Awai, Kazuo

    We evaluated the effect of the age, sex, total body weight (TBW), height (HT) and cardiac output (CO) of patients on aortic and hepatic contrast enhancement during hepatic-arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP) computed tomography (CT) scanning. This prospective study received institutional review board approval; prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all 168 patients. All were examined using our routine protocol; the contrast material was 600 mg/kg iodine. Cardiac output was measured with a portable electrical velocimeter within 5 minutes of starting the CT scan. We calculated contrast enhancement (per gram of iodine: [INCREMENT]HU/gI) of the abdominal aorta during the HAP and of the liver parenchyma during the PVP. We performed univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis between all patient characteristics and the [INCREMENT]HU/gI of aortic- and liver parenchymal enhancement. Univariate linear regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant correlations between the [INCREMENT]HU/gI and the age, sex, TBW, HT, and CO (all P linear regression analysis showed that only the TBW and CO were of independent predictive value (P linear regression analysis only the TBW and CO were significantly correlated with aortic and liver parenchymal enhancement; the age, sex, and HT were not. The CO was the only independent factor affecting aortic and liver parenchymal enhancement at hepatic CT when the protocol was adjusted for the TBW.

  20. Body Height and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Bosnian and Herzegovinian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Popovic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropologists recognized the tallness of nations in the Dinaric Alps long time ago. As the modern Bosnian and Herzegovinian fall more into the Dinaric racial classification, the purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Bosnian and Herzegovinian adults as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height and body height, which vary in different ethnic and racial groups. The nature and scope of this study analyzes 212 students (178 men, aged 22.42±2.79 and 34 women, aged 21.56±2.06 from the University of Banjaluka to be subjects. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the ISAK. Means and standard deviations were obtained. A comparison of means of body heights and arm spans within each gender group and between genders were carried out using a t-test. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. The results have shown that male Bosnian and Herzegovinians are 183.87±7.11 cm tall and have an arm span of 184.50±8.28 cm, while female Bosnian and Herzegovinians are 171.82±6.56 cm tall and have an arm span of 169.85±8.01 cm. Compared to other studies, the results of this one have shown that both genders make Bosnian and Herzegovinian population one of the tallest nations on the earth, maybe the tallest one. Moreover, the arm span reliably predicts body height in both genders. However, the estimation equations, which were obtained in Bosnian and Herzegovinians, are substantially different alike in other populations, since arm span was close to body heights: in men 0.73±1.17 cm more than the body height and in women 1.97±1.45 centimeters less than the body height. This confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each

  1. Leg length, sitting height, and body proportions references for achondroplasia: New tools for monitoring growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Mariana; Ramos Mejía, Rosario; Fano, Virginia

    2018-04-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of inherited disproportionate short stature. We report leg length, sitting height, and body proportion curves for achondroplasia. Seven centile format of sitting height, leg length, sitting height/leg length ratio, sitting height/height ratio, and head circumference/height ratio were estimated by the LMS method. The Q-test was applied to assess the goodness of fit. For comparison, centiles of sitting height and leg length were graphed using Argentine national growth references for achondroplasia and non-achondroplasia populations. The sample consisted of 342 children with achondroplasia (171 males, 171 females) aged 0-18 years. The median (interquartile range) number of measurements per child was 6 (3, 12) for sitting height and 8 (3, 13) for head circumference. Median leg length increased from 14 cm at age 1 week to 44 and 40 cm (males and females, respectively) in achondroplasia adolescents which is 3.5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children at age 1 week and, 38 cm shorter at adolescence. Median sitting height increased from 34 cm at birth to 86 and 81 in adolescents' boys and girls respectively, only 5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children. Sitting height/leg length decreased from 2.61 at birth to approximately 1.90 at adolescent. Median head circumference/height ratio decreased from 0.79 at birth to 0.46 at 18 years in both sexes. Growth of lower limbs is affected early in life and becomes more noticeable throughout childhood. The disharmonic growth between the less affected trunk and the severely affected limbs determine body disproportion in achondroplasia. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Total body height estimation using sacrum height in Anatolian Caucasians: multidetector computed tomography-based virtual anthropometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Inonu University Medical Faculty, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Malatya (Turkey); Celbis, Osman [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Forensic Medicine, Malatya (Turkey); Harma, Ahmet [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Malatya (Turkey); Alicioglu, Banu [Trakya University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Edirne (Turkey); Trakya University Health Sciences Institute, Department of Anatomy, Edirne (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Estimation of total body height is a major step when a subject has to be identified from his/her skeletal structures. In the presence of decomposed skeletons and missing bones, estimation is usually based on regression equation for intact long bones. If these bones are fragmented or missing, alternative structures must be used. In this study, the value of sacrum height (SH) in total body height (TBH) estimation was investigated in a contemporary population of adult Anatolian Caucasians. Sixty-six men (41.6 {+-} 14.9 years) and 43 women (41.1 {+-} 14.2 years) were scanned with 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to obtain high-resolution anthropometric data. SH of midsagittal sections was electronically measured. The technique and methodology were validated on a standard skeletal model. Sacrum height was 111.2 {+-} 12.6 mm (77-138 mm) in men and 104.7 {+-} 8.2 (89-125 mm) in women. The difference between the two sexes regarding SH was significant (p < 0.0001). SH did not significantly correlate with age in men, whereas the correlation was significant in women (p < 0.03). The correlation between SH and the stature was significant in men (r = 0.427, p < 0.0001) and was insignificant in women. For men the regression equation was [Stature = (0.306 x SH)+137.9] (r = 0.54, SEE = 56.9, p < 0.0001). Sacrum height is not susceptible to sex, or to age in men. In the presence of incomplete male skeletons, SH helps to determine the stature. This study is also one of the initial applications of MDCT in virtual anthropometric research. (orig.)

  3. Total body height estimation using sacrum height in Anatolian Caucasians: multidetector computed tomography-based virtual anthropometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, Hakki Muammer; Celbis, Osman; Harma, Ahmet; Alicioglu, Banu

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of total body height is a major step when a subject has to be identified from his/her skeletal structures. In the presence of decomposed skeletons and missing bones, estimation is usually based on regression equation for intact long bones. If these bones are fragmented or missing, alternative structures must be used. In this study, the value of sacrum height (SH) in total body height (TBH) estimation was investigated in a contemporary population of adult Anatolian Caucasians. Sixty-six men (41.6 ± 14.9 years) and 43 women (41.1 ± 14.2 years) were scanned with 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to obtain high-resolution anthropometric data. SH of midsagittal sections was electronically measured. The technique and methodology were validated on a standard skeletal model. Sacrum height was 111.2 ± 12.6 mm (77-138 mm) in men and 104.7 ± 8.2 (89-125 mm) in women. The difference between the two sexes regarding SH was significant (p < 0.0001). SH did not significantly correlate with age in men, whereas the correlation was significant in women (p < 0.03). The correlation between SH and the stature was significant in men (r = 0.427, p < 0.0001) and was insignificant in women. For men the regression equation was [Stature = (0.306 x SH)+137.9] (r = 0.54, SEE = 56.9, p < 0.0001). Sacrum height is not susceptible to sex, or to age in men. In the presence of incomplete male skeletons, SH helps to determine the stature. This study is also one of the initial applications of MDCT in virtual anthropometric research. (orig.)

  4. Employers' Preferences for Gender, Age, Height and Beauty: Direct Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Kuhn; Kailing Shen

    2009-01-01

    We study firms' advertised preferences for gender, age, height and beauty in a sample of ads from a Chinese internet job board, and interpret these patterns using a simple employer search model. We find that these characteristics are widely and highly valued by Chinese employers, though employers' valuations are highly specific to detailed jobs and occupations. Consistent with our model, advertised preferences for gender, age, height and beauty all become less prevalent as job skill requireme...

  5. Components of adult height and height loss. Secular trend and effects of aging in women in the DOM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leer, E M; van Noord, P.A.H.; Seidell, J C

    Between 1984 and 1987, adult height, sitting height, arm span, and iliac crest height were measured in 13,386 women of the DOM project. Combined effects of secular trends between cohorts born in 1911 to 1945 and aging between ages 40 to 74 years showed a decrease in stature of 4.9 +/- 0.3 cm (mean

  6. Histologically Measured Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Correlates with Body Height as Strongly as with Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac myocytes are presumed to enlarge with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. This study correlates histologically measured myocytes with lean and fat body mass. Cases of LVH without coronary heart disease and normal controls came from forensic autopsies. The cross-sectional widths of myocytes in H&E-stained paraffin sections followed log normal distributions almost to perfection in all 104 specimens, with constant coefficient of variation across the full range of ventricular weight, as expected if myocytes of all sizes contribute proportionately to hypertrophy. Myocyte sizes increased with height. By regression analysis, height2.7 as a proxy for lean body mass and body mass index (BMI as a proxy for fat body mass, exerted equal effects in the multiple correlation with myocyte volume, and the equation rejected race and sex. In summary, myocyte sizes, as indexes of LVH, suggest that lean and fat body mass may contribute equally.

  7. Nationwide age references for sitting height, leg length, and sitting height/height ratio, and their diagnostic value for disproportionate growth disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriks, A.M.; Buuren, S. van; Heel, W.J.M. van; Dijkman-Neerincx, R.H.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Wit, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To obtain age references for sitting height (SH), leg length (LL), and SH/H ratio in the Netherlands; to evaluate how SH standard deviation score (SDS), LL SDS, SH/H SDS, and SH/LL SDS are related to height SDS; and to study the usefulness of height corrected SH/H cut-off lines to detect

  8. Preliminary radiation protection tests for the body height and body weight of the Chinese reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Z.Y.; Chang, Z.Y.; Lan, W.Z.; Yin, G.A.; Li, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation protection standard recommended by ICRP was evaluated in terms of its suitability for Chinese people. The body height and weight of 100,325 healthy Chinese were measured and anatomical data collected from usable corpses of persons who died by accident or sudden death. The data included the size and weight of certain organs. 18 refs

  9. The 2014 Danish references from birth to 20 years for height, weight and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    in body mass index (BMI) above median levels was found. Reference curves for height were superimposable with standard curves based on the selective WHO criteria. Danish children were longer/taller and heavier and they had larger head circumferences than those reported in the recent multiethnic WHO......AIM: To construct new Danish growth charts for 0- to 20-year-olds and to compare them with Danish references from 1982 and with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for children aged 0-5 years from 2006, by applying similar inclusion and exclusion criteria. METHODS: Anthropometric data from...... three contemporary Danish population-based studies were combined. References for height were based on healthy Caucasian children born at term. A total of 12,671 height measurements (8055 in boys and 4616 in girls) were included. Reference charts were developed using the generalised additive models...

  10. The 2014 Danish references from birth to 20 years for height, weight and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar; Mouritsen, Annette; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Hagen, Casper P; Mieritz, Mikkel G; Jørgensen, Niels; Wolthers, Ole D; Heuck, Carsten; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M; Juul, Anders

    2014-02-01

    To construct new Danish growth charts for 0- to 20-year-olds and to compare them with Danish references from 1982 and with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for children aged 0-5 years from 2006, by applying similar inclusion and exclusion criteria. Anthropometric data from three contemporary Danish population-based studies were combined. References for height were based on healthy Caucasian children born at term. A total of 12,671 height measurements (8055 in boys and 4616 in girls) were included. Reference charts were developed using the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape. From prepubertal ages, a secular increase in height was observed for both genders. The differences were most pronounced in puberty, and final heights were increased by 1.4 cm in boys and 2.9 cm in girls compared to 1982 references. In boys, but not girls an upward shift in body mass index (BMI) above median levels was found. Reference curves for height were superimposable with standard curves based on the selective WHO criteria. Danish children were longer/taller and heavier and they had larger head circumferences than those reported in the recent multiethnic WHO standards. We recommend national implementation of these contemporary 2014 Danish references for anthropometric measurements. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Falls from ladders: age matters more than height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con, Jorge; Friese, Randall S; Long, Dustin M; Zangbar, Bardiya; O'Keeffe, Terence; Joseph, Bellal; Rhee, Peter; Tang, Andrew L

    2014-10-01

    Falls from ladders account for a significant number of hospital visits. However, the epidemiology, injury pattern, and how age affects such falls are poorly described in the literature. Patients ≥18 y who suffered falls from ladders over a 5½-y period were identified in our trauma registry. Dividing patients into three age groups (18-45, 46-65, and >66 y), we compared demographic characteristics, clinical data, and outcomes including injury pattern and mortality. The odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with the group 18-45 y as reference; group means were compared with one-way analysis of variance. Of 27,155 trauma patients, 340 (1.3%) had suffered falls from ladders. The average age was 55 y, with a male predominance of 89.3%. Average fall height was 9.8 ft, and mean Injury Severity Score was 10.6. Increasing age was associated with a decrease in the mean fall height (P 66 y: OR, 5.3; confidence interval [CI], 2.5-11.5). In univariate analysis, patients in the >66-y age group were more likely to sustain traumatic brain injuries (OR, 3.4; CI, 1.5-7.8) and truncal injuries (OR, 3.6; CI, 1.9-7.0) and less likely to sustain hand and/or forearm fractures (OR, 0.3; CI, 0.1-0.9). Older people are particularly vulnerable after falling from ladders. Although they fell from lower heights, the elderly sustained different and more severe injury patterns. Ladder safety education should be particularly tailored at the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Body height estimation from post-mortem CT femoral F1 measurements in a contemporary Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Näf, Maya; Siegmund, Frank; Jackowski, Christian; Lösch, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed at the comparison of body height estimations from cadaver length with body height estimations according to Trotter and Gleser (1952) and Penning and Riepert (2003) on the basis of femoral F1 section measurements in post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) images. In a post-mortem study in a contemporary Swiss population (226 corpses: 143 males (mean age: 53 ± 17 years) and 83 females (mean age: 61 ± 20 years)) femoral F1 measurements (403 femora: 199 right and 204 left; 177 pairs) were conducted in PMCT images and F1 was used for body height estimation using the equations after Trotter and Gleser (1952, "American Whites"), and Penning and Riepert (2003). The mean observed cadaver length was 176.6 cm in males and 163.6 cm in females. Mean measured femoral length F1 was 47.5 cm (males) and 44.1cm (females) respectively. Comparison of body height estimated from PMCT F1 measurements with body height calculated from cadaver length showed a close congruence (mean difference less than 0.95 cm in males and less than 1.99 cm in females) for equations both applied after Penning and Riepert and Trotter and Gleser. Femoral F1 measurements in PMCT images are very accurate, reproducible and feasible for body height estimation of a contemporary Swiss population when using the equations after Penning and Riepert (2003) or Trotter and Gleser (1952). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...

  14. Changes in height, body weight, and body composition in American football players from 1942 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzell, Anthony R; Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Kraemer, William J; Otieno, Sango

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to document changes in height (cm), body weight (kg), and body composition (%fat) of American football players from 1942 to 2011. Published articles were identified from databases and cross-referencing of bibliographies. Studies selected met the requirements of (1) having 2 of 3 dependent (height, body weight, and body composition) variables reported in the results; (2) containing a skill level of college or professional; (3) providing measured not self-reported data; and (4) published studies in English language journals. The data were categorized into groups based on skill level (college and professional). The player positions were grouped into 3 categories: mixed linemen (offensive and defensive linemen, tight ends, and linebackers), mixed offensive backs (quarterback and running backs), and mixed skilled positions (defensive backs and wide receivers). Linear regression was used to provide slope estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Unpaired t-tests were used to determine whether an individual regression slope was significantly different from zero. Statistical significance was set at p offensive backs 0.089-0.298 kg·y(-1); mixed skilled 0.078-0.334 kg·y(-1)). The college level mixed linemen showed a significant increase over time for height (95% CI: 0.034-0.188 cm·y(-1)) and body composition (0.046-0.275% fat per year). Significant increases in body weight over time were found for professional level mixed lineman (95% CI: 0.098-0.756 kg·y(-1)) and mixed offensive backs (95% CI: 0.1800-0.545 kg·y(-1)). There were no other significant changes at the professional level. These data demonstrate that body weight of all college players and professional mixed lineman have significantly increased from 1942 to 2011.

  15. Media and the ageing body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Cecilie; Petersen, Line Nybro

    2018-01-01

    In this introductory article we offer a frame for understanding the relationship between the ageing body and the media as the focus for this special issue. As societies age, issues of representations of old bodies and people’s practices and embodied experiences with media technologies requires...... a deeper investigation. At the same time, contemporary society is undergoing processes of mediatization, which invites us to think of the ways in which media can be said to play a role in changing practices or changing representations regarding the older body. The introduction is concerned...... with this duality: the changing sociocultural conditions for the ageing body and the changing authority of media and its role for the ageing body. Finally, we briefly introduce the articles that are part of the special issue ‘The ageing body and the media’....

  16. Pubertal Development and Prepubertal Height and Weight Jointly Predict Young Adult Height and Body Mass Index in a Prospective Study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Aryeh D; Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-07-01

    Height and adiposity track over childhood, but few studies, to our knowledge, have longitudinally examined the mediating relation of the timing and progression of puberty. We assessed interrelations between prepubertal height and body mass index, the progression through puberty, and young adult height and adiposity. We analyzed data from the Birth to Twenty Plus study (females, n = 823; males, n = 765). Serial measures of anthropometry and pubertal development were obtained between ages 9 and 16 y. We used latent class growth analysis to categorize pubertal development with respect to pubic hair (females and males), breasts (females), and genitalia (males) development. Adult height and weight were obtained at ages 18 to 20 y. Among females, higher latent class (earlier initiation and faster progression through puberty) was associated with an increased risk of obesity [pubic hair class 3 compared with class 1: RR, 3.41 (95% CI: 1.57, 7.44)] and inconsistent associations with height. Among males, higher latent class was associated with increased adult height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: 2.43 cm (95% CI: 0.88, 4.00)] and increased risk of overweight/obesity [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: OR, 3.44 (95% CI: 1.44, 8.20)]. In females, the association with adult height became inverse after adjusting for prepubertal height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: females, -1.31 cm (95% CI: -2.32, -0.31)]; in males, the association with height was attenuated with this adjustment [-0.56 cm (95% CI: -1.63, 0.52)]. Associations with adiposity were attenuated after adjusting for prepubertal adiposity. Progression through puberty modifies the relation between prepubertal and adult anthropometry. Screening for early or rapid progression of puberty might identify children at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese adults.

  17. Body Height and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Bosnian and Herzegovinian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Stevo Popovic; Dusko Bjelica; Gabriela Doina Tanase; Rajko Milašinović

    2015-01-01

    Anthropologists recognized the tallness of nations in the Dinaric Alps long time ago. As the modern Bosnian and Herzegovinian fall more into the Dinaric racial classification, the purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Bosnian and Herzegovinian adults as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height and body height, which vary in different ethnic and racial groups. The nature and scope of this study analyzes 212 students (178 men, a...

  18. Scaling of adult regional body mass and body composition as a whole to height: Relevance to body shape and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuna, John M; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht(2) ), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht(2) ? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass [head (MH), trunk, arms, and legs] and whole-body composition [fat, lean soft tissue (LST), and bone mineral content (BMC)] in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 17,126) and Korean NHANES (n = 8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four population groups: regional mass powers, head (∼0.8-1) body composition, LST (∼2.0-2.3) body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and population groups as Ht(∼2) , tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., MH/MB ∝ Ht(-∼1) ) and composition. Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as represented by stature, a finding that reveals a previously unrecognized phenotypic heterogeneity as defined by BMI. These observations provide new pathways for exploring mechanisms governing the interrelations between adult stature, body morphology, biomechanics, and metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Inaccurate self-report of height and its impact on misclassification of body mass index in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Xiaodan; Sperrazza, Jill N; Marshall, Britt A; Hovey, Kathleen M; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2017-05-01

    Self-reported height is commonly used in population obesity research. Evidence has also shown a positive association between depression and obesity. We examined the extent of height misreporting and its impact on body mass index (BMI) calculations and classification, and explored whether depression is associated with height misreporting. The Buffalo Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease Follow-up Study enrolled 1,015 postmenopausal women between 2002 and 2006. Participants self-reported their height on a questionnaire before stadiometer measurement at the clinical visit. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Odds ratios and 95% CI for association between depression and height misreporting were estimated using logistic regression. Overall, 446 women (43.9%) misreported height by greater than 1/2 inch, of which 296 (29.2%) underestimated and 150 (14.8%) overestimated their height. Height misreporting influenced BMI calculations by ≥1 unit in 12% of women, and influenced classification into WHO BMI categories in 8% of women. After adjusting for age, race, education, and measured BMI, women with significant depressive symptoms were more likely to misreport their height (odds ratio = 1.65, 95% CI, 1.04-2.61). Height misreporting was common in older women and significantly influenced BMI calculations and classification. Obtaining objective data is thus important for studies investigating obesity-disease associations in this population, especially in those with significant depressive symptoms.

  20. Heritability of adult body height: a comparative study of twin cohorts in eight countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silventoinen, K.; Sammalisto, S.; Perola, M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Cornes, B.; Davis, C.; Dunkel, L.; de Lange, M.; Harris, J.R.; Hjemborg, J.V.B.; Luciano, M; Martin, N.G.; Mortensen, J.; Nistico, L.; Pedersen, N.L.; Skytthe, A.; Spector, T.D.; Stazi, M.A.; Willemsen, A.H.M.; Kaprio, J

    2003-01-01

    A major component of variation in body height is due to genetic differences, but environmental factors have a substantial contributory effect. In this study we aimed to analyse whether the genetic architecture of body height varies between affluent western societies. We analysed twin data from eight

  1. The prevalence of low back pain and associations with body fatness, fat distribution and height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, T.S.; Schouten, J S; Lean, M.E.J.; Seidell, J C

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of low back pain symptoms with waist circumference, height, waist to hip ratio and body mass index, and to test the interactions between (1) waist circumference and height, and (2) waist to hip ratio and body mass index. SETTING: Cross-sectional study set in

  2. Growth pattern and growth prediction of body height in children with mucopolysaccharidosis type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozdzynska, Agnieszka; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Jurecka, Agnieszka; Cieslik, Joachim

    2011-03-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the level, degree and direction of deviation in the ontogenesis of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) in comparison with the healthy population. The anthropometric data of a longitudinal study on 28 patients with MPS II, aged from 0.5 to 21 years, were used to analyse the general growth patterns in terms of height, weight and head circumference. The growth trend was assessed with the straight-line regression model. The mathematical structural growth model was used to evaluate the structure of body height growth. A statistically significant negative growth trend for all features was found. Analysis of development structure revealed an earlier onset of the adolescent growth spurt among healthy boys and a lower current velocity of growth than expected values. During the first 3 years of life, all observed anthropometric features grew faster than normal. They slowed down by the end of the third year and, in subsequent years, reached lower values when compared with the reference charts. The values obtained from the BTT model showed the structure of body height growth, with particular emphasis on the pubertal spurt, was significantly different from the reference charts. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  3. Upper body segment to lower body segment and arm span to height ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-01-17

    Jan 17, 2013 ... AA subjects, the upper body segment to lower body segment ratio decreased as the age increased. Once again this is a natural trend, in keeping with reference values of 1.7 at birth, 1.3 at 3years, and 1.0 after age. 7years.7, 14 This indicates that in the prepubertal years growth occurs more in the limbs than ...

  4. Scaling of human body mass with height: the body mass index revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, N J

    2010-03-03

    We adapt a biomechanical argument of Rashevsky, which places limits on the stress experienced by a torso supported by the legs, to deduce that body mass m of growing children should scale as the p th power of height h with 7/3 < p < 8/3. Further arguments based on stability and heat loss suggest that p should be close to 8/3. The arguments are extended to suggest that waist circumference w should scale as hq with q near the lower end of 2/3 < or = q < or = 1. Data from Hong Kong and British children are consistent with these hypotheses. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aging changes in body shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Aging changes in body shape URL of this page: // ...

  6. Colombian reference growth curves for height, weight, body mass index and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Paola; Merker, Andrea; Briceño, Germán; Colón, Eugenia; Line, Dionne; Abad, Verónica; Del Toro, Kenny; Chahín, Silvia; Matallana, Audrey Mary; Lema, Adriana; Llano, Mauricio; Céspedes, Jaime; Hagenäs, Lars

    2016-03-01

    Published Growth studies from Latin America are limited to growth references from Argentina and Venezuela. The aim of this study was to construct reference growth curves for height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and head circumference of Colombian children in a format that is useful for following the growth of the individual child and as a tool for public health. Prospective measurements from 27 209 Colombian children from middle and upper socio-economic level families were processed using the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Descriptive statistics for length and height, weight, BMI and head circumference for age are given as raw and smoothed values. Final height was 172.3 cm for boys and 159.4 cm for girls. Weight at 18 years of age was 64.0 kg for boys and 54 kg for girls. Growth curves are presented in a ± 3 SD format using logarithmic axes. The constructed reference growth curves are a start for following secular trends in Colombia and are also in the presented layout an optimal clinical tool for health care. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Assortative mating by body height and BMI: Finnish twins and their spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lahelma, Eero; Viken, Richard J; Rose, Richard J

    2003-01-01

    Assortative mating by body height and weight is well established in various populations, but its causal mechanisms remain poorly understood. We analyzed the effect of phenotypic assortment and social homogamy on spousal correlations for body height and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)). Our data derived from a questionnaire administered to the adult Finnish Twin Cohort in 1990 (response rate 77%) yielding results from 922 monozygotic and 1697 dizygotic adult twin pairs who reported information about their body height and weight and that of their spouses. Assortative mating was evident for body height and BMI. For body height, the effects of social homogamy (0.24 in men and 0.29 in women) and phenotypic assortment (0.27 and 0.28, respectively) were about the same. For BMI, the effect of social homogamy was stronger (0.31 in men and 0.28 in women) than the effect of phenotypic assortment (0.13 in both men and women). When assortative mating was taken into account, shared environmental factors had no effect on phenotypic variation in body height or BMI. Our results show that assortative mating needs to be considered in population genetic studies of body height and weight. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Relationships of 35 lower limb muscles to height and body mass quantified using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsfield, Geoffrey G; Meyer, Craig H; Hart, Joseph M; Abel, Mark F; Blemker, Silvia S

    2014-02-07

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body and serves various physiological functions including the generation of movement and support. Whole body motor function requires adequate quantity, geometry, and distribution of muscle. This raises the question: how do muscles scale with subject size in order to achieve similar function across humans? While much of the current knowledge of human muscle architecture is based on cadaver dissection, modern medical imaging avoids limitations of old age, poor health, and limited subject pool, allowing for muscle architecture data to be obtained in vivo from healthy subjects ranging in size. The purpose of this study was to use novel fast-acquisition MRI to quantify volumes and lengths of 35 major lower limb muscles in 24 young, healthy subjects and to determine if muscle size correlates with bone geometry and subject parameters of mass and height. It was found that total lower limb muscle volume scales with mass (R(2)=0.85) and with the height-mass product (R(2)=0.92). Furthermore, individual muscle volumes scale with total muscle volume (median R(2)=0.66), with the height-mass product (median R(2)=0.61), and with mass (median R(2)=0.52). Muscle volume scales with bone volume (R(2)=0.75), and muscle length relative to bone length is conserved (median s.d.=2.1% of limb length). These relationships allow for an arbitrary subject's individual muscle volumes to be estimated from mass or mass and height while muscle lengths may be estimated from limb length. The dataset presented here can further be used as a normative standard to compare populations with musculoskeletal pathologies. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Ultrasound measured testicular volume in Nigerian adults: Relationship of the three formulae with height, body weight, body-surface area, and body-mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubogwu Chimezie Innocent

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measurement of testicular volume is one of the ways of assessing testicular function. Ultrasonography is an important and accurate radiological method for measurement of testicular volume. Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship of ultrasound measured testicular volume using the three formulae with the subjects' height, body weight, body surface area (BSA, and body mass index (BMI in adults. Methodology: One hundred twenty-five adult male subjects comprising staff and students of a University Teaching Hospital were recruited into the study. Height and body weight were measured while the BMI and BSA were calculated. Ultrasound measurement of the height, length, and width of both testes were done and used to calculate the volumes using the three formulae. Results: The subjects' age ranged from 19 to 29 years with a mean of 23.48 ± 2.26 yrs. The mean ultrasound measured volumes for the right and left testes were 15.38 ± 3.29 ml and 15.29 ± 3.89 ml using the prolate ellipsoid formula; 22.86 ± 5.43 ml and 23.54 ± 6.88 ml by the prolate spheroid formula; 21.20 ± 5.28 ml and 20.87 ± 5.35 ml by the Lambert formula, respectively. The calculated mean for height, body weight, BMI, and BSA were 174.64 ± 6.36 cm, 68.68 ± 8.25 kg, 22.48 ± 2.17 kg/m2, and 1.82 ± 0.13 m2, respectively. The right testes showed a negative correlation, while the left and combined testicular volumes showed a positive correlation with the subjects' height, body weight, BMI, and BSA for all the three formulae. Conclusion: The right testicular volume showed negative correlation, while the left and combined testicular volumes showed a positive correlation with the height, body weight, BSA, and BMI in Nigerian adults.

  10. Body Height and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements of both Gender Adolescents from Central Region in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Arifi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on measurements of Central region Kosovar adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the Body Height of adolescents from Central region as well relationship between arm span and Body Height in both Kosovar genders. A total measured subject participated in this research was 193 out of which (93 girls and 100 boys, females average of age is 18.15±0.35 years old (range 18-20 years and for male 18.26±0.44 years old (range 18-20 years. The anthropometric measurements were done by trained people and were taken according to the ISAK manual. Relationship between Body Height and arm span has been analyzed by the simple correlation coefficient at a 95% confidence interval. The linear regression analysis was carried out to examine extent to which arm span can reliably predict of Body Height. Statistical importance was placed at level p<0.05. As a result anthropometric measurements for both sexes showed that the average of Body Height for boys adolescents from Central region are 180.62±5.88 centimeters and have the arm span average of 181.36±7.08 centimeters, while girls from Central 166.77±4.71 centimeters tall, and have the arm span average of 167.08±5.03 centimeters. The results have shown that the arm span was estimated as a reliable indicator of Body Height assessment to the both genders adolescents from Central region of Kosovo population. This study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Kosovo.

  11. Relationship between Arm Span Measurements and Body Height in Dinaric Alpes Population: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Masanovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Several researches have reported the benefit of using various body parameters in predicting standing height, and arm span happened to be one of the most reliable ones in adults. On the other hand, it is well-known the tallness and body proportions are specific in the area that are covered by Dinaric Alpes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between arm span measurements and body height in Dinaric Alpes population. The most visible electronic database (Google Scholar was searched for original research articles available until September 2017. Then research findings were summarized and relationship between arm span measurements and body height in Dinaric Alpes population were identified, as well as areas of future research were recommended. The assessment of body height using various anthropometric measures is very typical from the past centuries and it has been attempted to be studied by many researchers. However, it is important to underline that the arm span has been obtained as the most reliable body indicator for predicting the true height of an individual. However, the studies sampled with the populations lived at Dinaric Alpes mountains have specific estimates. Therefore, all above-mentioned have confirmed the necessity for developing separate body height models for each population on account of ethnic as well as regional differences.

  12. Utilization of arm span instead of height in body mass index calculation in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz O

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozlem Yilmaz, Fatih Tufan, Gulistan Bahat, Mehmet Akif Karan Department of Geriatrics, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Fatih, Istanbul, TurkeyWe read with interest the article by Falsarella et al.1 The authors investigated the relationship between body composition and frailty in community-dwelling elderly individuals aged 65 years or older. The findings of this study have considerable importance in terms of evolving preventive, diagnostic, and treatment measures for frailty in the elderly population. We would like to make a comment on this well-designed study. For calculating body mass index (BMI, using arm span instead of height would be more accurate.2 Conditions such as kyphosis and asymptomatic vertebral fractures are commonly seen in elderly individuals (especially in frail ones, and calculation of BMI using height may result in overestimation of BMI in these circumstances. In this way, subjects with low BMI may be considered to have normal BMI, and this may result in underestimation of malnutrition, which is an important contributor to frailty phenotype.View original paper by Falsarella and colleagues.

  13. Adjusting adiposity and body weight measurements for height alters the relationship with blood pressure in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willig, Amanda L.; Casazza, Krista; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Franklin, Frank A.; Amaya, Michelle; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adiposity measures are associated with increased pediatric blood pressure. However, this correlation can be confounded by the relationship of both variables to height. We evaluated whether adiposity and anthropometric measures were associated with pediatric blood pressure before and after adjusting each value for height. METHODS Participants included 281 African-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American children aged 7–12 years. Blood pressure percentiles were calculated according to pediatric guidelines using the average of four measurements. Total fat mass was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Socioeconomic status was calculated with the Hollingshead index. Adiposity measures were indexed for height using log-log regression analysis. Partial correlations identified measures associated with blood pressure. Linear regression was used to test the association of those measures with absolute blood pressure, while logistic regression was used to evaluate the odds for hypertension. RESULTS More African-Americans (16.3%) presented with potential hypertension than European-American (5.1%) or Hispanic-American (2.7%) children. After adjusting for covariates, fat mass, body mass index, and waist circumference were positively significantly associated with absolute blood pressure and hypertension in African-American and European-American children (P < 0.05). When these measures were height-indexed, only waist remained significantly positively associated with hypertension risk in these two groups. No measures were significantly associated with blood pressure among Hispanic-American children. CONCLUSIONS In this multiethnic pediatric population, waist circumference was the strongest significant adiposity predictor of hypertension risk among African-American and European-American children. Additional research is needed to determine which environmental and genetic factors contribute to pediatric hypertension, particularly among Hispanic

  14. A Prospective Study of Height and Body Mass Index in Childhood, Birth Weight, and Risk of Adult Glioma Over 40 Years of Follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2014-01-01

    Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth...... and differentiation. The Copenhagen School Health Records Register includes data on 320,425 Danish schoolchildren born between 1930 and 1989, with height and weight measurements from ages 7-13 years and parentally recorded birth weights. We prospectively evaluated associations between childhood height and BMI, birth...... weight, and adult glioma risk. During follow-up (1968-2010), 355 men and 253 women aged ≥18 years were diagnosed with glioma. In boys, height at each age between 7 and 13 years was positively associated with glioma risk; hazard ratios per standard-deviation score at ages 7 (approximately 5.1 cm) and 13...

  15. Anthropometric parameters: weight height, body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Candela, V.; Busto, C.; Avila, R.; Marrero, M. G.; Liminana, J. M.; Orengo, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat image in the

  16. Study of weight, height, body mass index, energy and nutrients intake of 11-14 years old girls, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeqipoor H

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive, analytical cross-sectional syudy was conducted in 1996 on 350 female students 11-14 years old in the center of Tehran, Iran. The general objective was determining energy and nutrient intakes and weight, height and BMI (Body Mass Index of the girls, using anthropometric measurements, interviews (24-hour dietary recall and food consumption frequency, and the NCHS standards. The results were as follows: 1 Based on weight for age and the Z-score, 20% of the girls suffered from mild past and present malnutrition. 2 Based on height for age and BMI, 16.6%, 12.5%, and 1.3% suffered from mild past malnutrition, severe present malnutrition and overweight, respectively. 3 The height curves were normal, as compared to the respective standards. 4 The BMI curves were quite different from the respective standards. 5 On the whole, 53.7%, 49.7%, 86.0%, 59.0%, 67.7%, 76.5% and 88.0% of the girls had low intakes of energy, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B12, folic acid, calcium, and iron, respectively. 6 A positive linear correlation was observed between energy intake and height, vitamin A intake and weight, zinc intake and height, and carbohydrate intake and height.

  17. Height-for-age z scores increase despite increasing height deficits among children in 5 developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D; Adair, Linda S; Behrman, Jere R; Bhargava, Santosh K; Dearden, Kirk A; Gigante, Denise; Norris, Shane A; Richter, Linda M; Fall, Caroline H D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-09-01

    Growth failure remains a persistent challenge in many countries, and understanding child growth patterns is critical to the development of appropriate interventions and their evaluation. The interpretation of changes in mean height-for-age z scores (HAZs) over time to define catch-up growth has been a subject of debate. Most studies of child growth have been cross-sectional or have focused on children through age 5 y. The aim was to characterize patterns of linear growth among individuals followed from birth into adulthood. We compared HAZs and difference in height (cm) from the WHO reference median at birth, 12 mo, 24 mo, mid-childhood, and adulthood for 5287 individuals from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Mean HAZs were <0 at birth in the 3 cohorts with data and ranged from -0.6 (Brazil) to -2.9 (Guatemala) at age 24 mo. Between 24 mo and mid-childhood, HAZ values increased by 0.3-0.5 in South Africa, Guatemala, and the Philippines and were unchanged in Brazil and India. Between mid-childhood and adulthood, mean HAZs increased in all cohorts but remained <0 in adulthood [mean range: -0.3 (Brazil) to -1.8 (Guatemala and Philippines)]. However, from 24 mo to adulthood, height differences from the reference median became greater. From age 2 y to adulthood, mean HAZs increased, even though height deficits relative to the reference median also increased. These 2 metrics may result in different interpretations of the potential for and the impact of catch-up growth in height. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Height gain of vertebral bodies and stabilization of vertebral geometry over one year after vertebroplasty of osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitton, Michael B.; Morgen, Nadine; Herber, Sascha; Dueber, Christoph [University Hospital of Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz (Germany); Drees, Philipp; Boehm, Bertram [University Hospital, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Department of Orthopedia, Mainz (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    The height gain of vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty and geometrical stability was evaluated over a one-year period. Osteoporotic fractures were treated with vertebroplasty. The vertebral geometry and disc spaces were analysed using reformatted computed tomography (CT) images: heights of the anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral walls, disc spaces, endplate angles, and minimal endplate distances. Vertebrae were assigned to group I [severe compression (anterior height/posterior height) <0.75] and group II (moderate compression index >0.75). A total of 102 vertebral bodies in 40 patients (12 men, 28 women, age 70.3 {+-} 9.5) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 12 months. Group I showed a greater benefit compared with group II with respect to anterior height gain (+2.1 {+-} 1.9 vs +0.7 {+-} 1.6 mm, P < 0.001), reduction of endplate angle (-3.6 {+-} 4.2 vs -0.8 {+-} 2.3 , P < 0.001), and compression index (+0.09 {+-} 0.11 vs +0.01 {+-} 0.06, P < 0.001). At one-year follow-up, group I demonstrated preserved anterior height gain (+1.5 {+-} 2.8 mm, P < 0.015) and improved endplate angle (-3.4 {+-} 4.9 , P < 0.001). In group II, the vertebral heights returned to and were fixed at the pre-interventional levels. Vertebroplasty provided vertebral height gain over one year, particularly in cases with severe compression. Vertebrae with moderate compression were fixed and stabilized at the pre-treatment level over one year. (orig.)

  19. Arm span?height difference is correlated with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in aged Japanese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Eguchi, Hitoshi; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Fujiwara, Motoshi; Nishii, Midori; Tokushima, Yoshinori; Eguchi, Naoko; Tago, Masaki; Sakanishi, Yuta; Tomonaga, Motosuke; Yoshioka, Tsuneaki; Hyakutake, Masaki; Emura, Sei; Koizumi, Shunzo; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Edakuni, Genichiro

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated an association between the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and aging plus height. In this study we investigated whether the arm span?height difference was related to GERD symptoms with a focus on aged subjects in the general population, since the arm span reflects the height in young adulthood before decreasing due to vertebral deformities from aging. A total of 285 elderly individuals (105 females) who visited nursing homes for the elderly i...

  20. Weight-for-length/height growth curves for children and adolescents in China in comparison with body mass index in prevalence estimates of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xinnan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yaqin; Wu, Huahong

    2017-05-01

    It is important to update weight-for-length/height growth curves in China and re-examine their performance in screening malnutrition. To develop weight-for-length/height growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 94 302 children aged 0-19 years with complete sex, age, weight and length/height data were obtained from two cross-sectional large-scaled national surveys in China. Weight-for-length/height growth curves were constructed using the LMS method before and after average spermarcheal/menarcheal ages, respectively. Screening performance in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity was compared between weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) criteria based on a test population of 21 416 children aged 3-18. The smoothed weight-for-length percentiles and Z-scores growth curves with length 46-110 cm for both sexes and weight-for-height with height 70-180 cm for boys and 70-170 cm for girls were established. The weight-for-height and BMI-for-age had strong correlation in screening wasting, overweight and obesity in each age-sex group. There was no striking difference in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity between two indicators except for obesity prevalence at ages 6-11. This set of smoothed weight-for-length/height growth curves may be useful in assessing nutritional status from infants to post-pubertal adolescents.

  1. [Influence of the war events on body weight and height in children enrolling the first grade of elementary school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakić, Marijana; Jakić, Marko

    2005-01-01

    Physical growth is usually estimated by body weight and height measurements. Both parameters are strongly influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The study investigated the effect of war related psychological stress and socioeconomic deterioration on growth of children who were born and grew during the war-years. We compared body weight and height in 2 groups of preschool children at time of admission to the first grade of elementary school. In the first group of children, school entry medical examination was performed in spring 1990 and 1991 (pre-war group), while the second group of children had school entry medical examination in spring 1998, 1999 and 2000 (war group). The mean body weight of children in pre-war group (n = 200; 98 girls) was M = 24.52, SD = 4.16 kg, height M = 122.50, SD = 4.71 cm, and the average age was M = 6.67, SD = 0.33 years. The war-group (n = 214; 100 girls) were of the same mean age (M = 6.67, SD = 0.34 years), but they were 500 g lighter and 5 mm lower in average. However, the differences in body weight and height were not statistically significant (t(weight) = 1.21, p > 0.05; t(height) = 1.13, p > 0.05). The two groups matched in gender (chi2-test = 0.13, p > 0.05). More educated parent of every child in pre-war group was employed, while 4 more educated parents (1.87%) in war-group were unemployed, but the difference was not statistically significant (chi2-test = 2.07, p > 0.05). We conclude that growth of preschool children in our region was not statistically significantly affected by stressful war events and war related socioeconomic situation. One could expect that these influences might be significant if we could examine the secular growth trend if there had been no war.

  2. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Juntaping, Kanokkarn; Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Traisathit, Patrinee

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The height-weight difference index (HWDI) is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF%) is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Objective. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Method. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% i...

  3. Short-term secular change in height, body mass and Tanner-Whitehouse 3 skeletal maturity of Madeira youth, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Duarte; Malina, Robert M; Maia, José; Lefevre, Johan; Stasinopoulos, Mikis; Gouveia, Élvio; Claessens, Albrecht; Thomis, Martine; Lausen, Berthold

    2012-05-01

    Secular trends in height and weight are reasonably well documented in Europe. Corresponding observations for skeletal maturation are lacking. To assess secular trends in height, body mass and skeletal maturity of Portuguese children and adolescents and to provide updated reference values for skeletal maturity scores (SMSs). Data for 2856 children and adolescents of 4-17 years, 1412 boys and 1444 girls, from The 'Madeira Growth Study' (MGS; 1996-1998) and from the'Healthy Growth of Madeira Children Study' (CRES; 2006) were used. Height and body mass were measured. Skeletal maturity was assessed with the Tanner-Whitehouse 2 and 3 methods. Children from CRES were taller and heavier than peers from MGS. Differences in height reached 5.8 cm in boys and 5.5 cm in girls. RUS SMSs did not differ consistently between surveys boys, while higher RUS scores were observed in CRES girls. Adult RUS SMSs for MGS and CRES combined were attained at 15.8 years in boys and 14.8 years in girls. Corresponding ages for adult Carpal SMSs were 14.4 and 14.0, respectively. The short-term trends for height and mass were not entirely consistent with the trends in RUS and Carpal SMSs and SAs.

  4. Height gain at adult-height age in 184 short patients treated with growth hormone from prepubertal age to near adult-height age is not related to GH secretory status at GH therapy onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, A; Audí, L; Fernández-Cancio, M; Yeste, D; Gussinye, M; Campos, A; Albisu, M A; Clemente, M; Bel, J; Nosás, R; Rabanal, M; Del Pozo, C; Gómez, J M; Mesa, J

    2013-01-01

    GH release after stimuli classifies short children as severe idiopathic isolated GH deficiency (IIGHD), mild IIGHD, dissociated GH release (DGHR) and normal GH release (NGHR) and anthropometric birth data as adequate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA). GH release after stimuli classifies AGA patients as IIGHD or as idiopathic short stature (ISS). To compare height gain induced by GH therapy (31.8 ± 3.5 µg/kg/day, 7.7 ± 1.6 years) started at prepubertal age and stopped at near adult-height age. A retrospective longitudinal multicenter study including 184 short patients classified as severe IIGHD n = 25, mild IIGHD n = 75, DGHR n = 55 and NGHR n = 29; or as IIGHD n = 78, ISS n = 57 and SGA n = 49. Height gain was evaluated throughout GH therapy and at adult-height age. Height-SDS gain at adult-height age was similar among severe IIGHD (1.8 ± 0.8 SDS), mild IIGHD (1.6 ± 0.6 SDS), DGHR (1.7 ± 0.7 SDS) and NGHR (1.6 ± 0.7 SDS), or among IIGHD (1.7 ± 0.7 SDS), ISS (1.7 ± 0.6 SDS) and SGA (1.6 ± 0.8 SD). GH-release stimuli are of little help for deciding on GH therapy in the clinical management of prepubertal children with IIGHD, ISS or SGA. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Height, body mass index, and socioeconomic status: mendelian randomisation study in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Jones, Samuel E; Beaumont, Robin; Astley, Christina M; Lovell, Rebecca; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Tuke, Marcus; Ruth, Katherine S; Freathy, Rachel M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Wood, Andrew R; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2016-03-08

    To determine whether height and body mass index (BMI) have a causal role in five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation study to test for causal effects of differences in stature and BMI on five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation exploits the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at conception and thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. UK Biobank. 119,669 men and women of British ancestry, aged between 37 and 73 years. Age completed full time education, degree level education, job class, annual household income, and Townsend deprivation index. In the UK Biobank study, shorter stature and higher BMI were observationally associated with several measures of lower socioeconomic status. The associations between shorter stature and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in men, and the associations between higher BMI and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in women. For example, a 1 standard deviation (SD) higher BMI was associated with a £210 (€276; $300; 95% confidence interval £84 to £420; P=6 × 10(-3)) lower annual household income in men and a £1890 (£1680 to £2100; P=6 × 10(-15)) lower annual household income in women. Genetic analysis provided evidence that these associations were partly causal. A genetically determined 1 SD (6.3 cm) taller stature caused a 0.06 (0.02 to 0.09) year older age of completing full time education (P=0.01), a 1.12 (1.07 to 1.18) times higher odds of working in a skilled profession (P=6 × 10(-7)), and a £1130 (£680 to £1580) higher annual household income (P=4 × 10(-8)). Associations were stronger in men. A genetically determined 1 SD higher BMI (4.6 kg/m(2)) caused a £2940 (£1680 to £4200; P=1 × 10(-5)) lower annual household income and a 0.10 (0.04 to 0.16) SD (P=0.001) higher level of deprivation in women only. These data support evidence that height and BMI play an important partial role in determining several aspects of a person

  6. Sexual Dimorphism and Estimation of Height from Body Length Anthropometric Parameters among the Hausa Ethnic Group of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Aliyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the sexual dimorphism in length and other anthropometric parameters. To also generate formulae for height estimation using anthropometric measurements of some length parameters among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 500 subjects participated in this study which was mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 16-27 years, anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard protocols. It was observed that there was significant sexual dimorphism in all the parameters except for body mass index. In all the parameters males tend to have significantly (P < 0.05 higher mean values except biaxillary distances. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length, followed by knee height, thigh length, sitting height, hand length, foot length, humeral length, forearm length and weight respectively. There were weak and positive correlations between height and neck length as well as biaxillary length. The demi span length showed the strongest correlation coefficient and low standard error of estimate indicating the strong estimation ability than other parameters. The combination of two parameters tends to give better estimations and low standard error of estimates, so also combining the three parameters gives better estimations with a lower standard error of estimates. The better correlation coefficient was also observed with the double and triple parameters respectively. Male Hausa tend to have larger body proportion compared to female. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length. Body length anthropometric proved to be useful in estimation of stature among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna state Nigeria.

  7. Hip fracture and anthropometric variations: dominance among trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight during sideways fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Roychowdhury, Amit; Pal, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture depends on various anthropometric parameters such as trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight. The objective was to evaluate the responses to the variations in anthropometric parameters during sideways fall, and to identify the most dominant parameter among them. Seven finite element models were developed having anthropometric variations in trochanteric soft tissue thickness (5-26 mm), body height (1.70-1.88 m), and body weight (63-93.37 kg). These were simulated for sideways fall with ANSYS-LS-DYNA® code. Significant effect of trochanteric soft tissue thickness variation was found on 'normalized peak impact force with respect to the body weight' (p=0.004, r²=0.808) and strain ratio (p=0.083, r²=0.829). But, variation in body height was found to be less significant on normalized peak impact force (p=0.478, r²=0.105) and strain ratio (p=0.292, r²=0.217). Same was true for the variation in body weight on normalized peak impact force (p=0.075, r²=0.456) and strain ratio (p=0.857, r²=0.007). The risk factor for fracture was also well correlated to the strain ratio for the inter-trochanteric zone (pfractures are clinically observed to happen. Trochanteric soft tissue thickness was found likely to be the most dominant parameter over body height and body weight, signifying that a slimmer elderly person, taller or shorter, with less trochanteric soft tissue thickness should be advised to take preventive measures against hip fracture under sideways fall. © 2013.

  8. A prospective study of measured body size and height and risk of keratinocyte cancers and melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, Petra H; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Williams, Gail M; Green, Adèle C

    2016-02-01

    The potential influence of measured body weight and height on keratinocyte skin cancer risk has scarcely been studied. Some evidence indicates melanoma risk increases as self-reported height increases, but an association with body mass index (BMI) is less certain. We measured body weight and height of 1171 Australian men and women in a community-based skin cancer study in Queensland and prospectively examined the association of BMI, body surface area (BSA) and height and incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma while accounting for skin phenotype, sun exposure, clinical/cutaneous signs of chronic photodamage and other risk factors. During 16 years of follow-up, 334 and 188 participants newly developed BCC and SCC, respectively; 28 participants were diagnosed with primary melanoma. BMI and BSA were unrelated to skin cancer incidence. After full adjustment, height was significantly associated with SCC development in men (relative risk (RR)=1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.11-2.48, for ≥175cm vs ≤171cm, Ptrend=0.017), and BCC in women (Ptrend=0.043). Melanoma in men, was similarly positively associated with height (RR per 5cm increment=1.55; 95%CI 0.97-2.47, P=0.067) though not significantly. This study shows that after adjusting for sun exposure tall stature may be a risk factor for the most common types of skin cancer BCC, SCC, and melanoma, while body mass and surface area appear unrelated to risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Arch height index normative values of college-aged women using the arch height index measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimar, Wendi H; Shroyer, Justin F

    2013-01-01

    The arch height index measurement system (AHIMS) device has been found to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the arch height index (AHI) of the feet of individuals; however, normative data for the AHI are lacking for various populations. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to establish population normative AHI values for college-aged females and to compare the observed AHI data across right and left feet. Seventy-nine college-aged females served as study participants, and both feet were measured using the AHIMS in the seated and standing positions. The AHI was calculated as the ratio of the dorsum height of the foot at half the total foot length to the length of the foot from the heel to the base of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The mean ± SD AHI values for the left and right feet in the seated position were 0.355 ± 0.031 and 0.369 ± 0.034, respectively. The mean ± SD AHI values for the left and right feet in the standing position were 0.338 ± 0.031 and 0.343 ± 0.033, respectively. There were significant differences observed between the left and right feet for the seated (P feet of the participants sampled. Although normative values were obtained, we caution against using these values to classify foot arch types based solely on a sample of the population studied.

  10. The Influence of Secular Trends in Body Height and Weight on the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lian Guo; Sun, Li Li; Wu, Shao Wei; Yang, Yi De; Li, Xiao Hui; Wang, Zheng He; Wu, Lu; Wang, Fu Zhi; Ma, Jun

    2016-12-01

    To explore the influence of secular trends in body height and weight on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. The data were obtained from five cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health. Overweight/obesity was defined as BMI-for-age Z-score of per the Wold Health Organization (WHO) reference values. Body height and weight for each sex and age were standardized to those reported in 1985 (standardized height: SHY; standardized weight: SWY) and for each sex and year at age 7 (standardized height: SHA; standardized weight: SWA) using the Z-score method. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in Chinese children was 20.2% among boys and 10.7% among girls in 2010 and increased continuously from 1985 to 2010. Among boys and girls of normal weight, SHY and SHA were significantly greater than SWY and SWA, respectively (P overweight/obesity, SHY was significantly lower than SWY (P overweight boys aged 7-8 years and girls aged 7-9 years. SHY/SHW and SHA/SWA among normal-weight groups were greater than among overweight and obese groups (P overweight/obesity among Chinese children may be related to a rapid increase in body weight before age 9 and lack of secular increase in body height after age 12. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  11. Active numerical model of human body for reconstruction of falls from height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowicz, Marcin; Kędzior, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Falls from height constitute the largest group of incidents out of approximately 90,000 occupational accidents occurring each year in Poland. Reconstruction of the exact course of a fall from height is generally difficult due to lack of sufficient information from the accident scene. This usually results in several contradictory versions of an incident and impedes, for example, determination of the liability in a judicial process. In similar situations, in many areas of human activity, researchers apply numerical simulation. They use it to model physical phenomena to reconstruct their real course over time; e.g. numerical human body models are frequently used for investigation and reconstruction of road accidents. However, they are validated in terms of specific road traffic accidents and are considerably limited when applied to the reconstruction of other types of accidents. The objective of the study was to develop an active numerical human body model to be used for reconstruction of accidents associated with falling from height. Development of the model involved extension and adaptation of the existing Pedestrian human body model (available in the MADYMO package database) for the purposes of reconstruction of falls from height by taking into account the human reaction to the loss of balance. The model was developed by using the results of experimental tests of the initial phase of the fall from height. The active numerical human body model covering 28 sets of initial conditions related to various human reactions to the loss of balance was developed. The application of the model was illustrated by using it to reconstruct a real fall from height. From among the 28 sets of initial conditions, those whose application made it possible to reconstruct the most probable version of the incident was selected. The selection was based on comparison of the results of the reconstruction with information contained in the accident report. Results in the form of estimated

  12. Childhood body mass index and height and risk of histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J.; Gamborg, M.; Ulrich, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer risk factors include adult obesity and taller stature, but the influence of size earlier in life is incompletely understood. We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and height were associated with histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer. METH...

  13. Genome-wide genetic homogeneity between sexes and populations for human height and body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Jian; Bakshi, Andrew; Zhu, Zhihong; Hemani, Gibran; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Nolte, Ilja M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Snieder, Harold; Study, Lifelines Cohort; Esko, Tonu; Milani, Lili; Maegi, Reedik; Metspalu, Andres; Hamsten, Anders; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Ingelsson, Erik; Visscher, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex-specific genetic effects have been proposed to be an important source of variation for human complex traits. Here we use two distinct genome-wide methods to estimate the autosomal genetic correlation (r(g)) between men and women for human height and body mass index (BMI), using individual-level

  14. Height, body mass index, and ovarian cancer: A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Rivera, C.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Adami, H.-O.; Arslan, A.; Beeson, W.L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Folsom, A.R.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Hankinson, S.E.; Lacey Jr., J.V.; Leitzmann, M.; Lukanova, A.; Marshall, J.R.; Miller, A.B.; Patel, A.V.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Ross, J.A.; Wolk, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although many studies have investigated the association between anthropometry and ovarian cancer risk, results have been inconsistent. Methods: The associations of height, body mass index (BMI), and ovarian cancer risk were examined in a pooled analysis of primary data from 12

  15. Morphometric analysis of the relationships between intervertebral disc and vertebral body heights: an anatomical and radiographic study of the human thoracic spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Maria E; Herkommer, Andrea; Reinehr, Michael; Böckers, Tobias M; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to provide anatomical data on the heights of the human intervertebral discs for all levels of the thoracic spine by direct and radiographic measurements. Additionally, the heights of the neighboring vertebral bodies were measured, and the prediction of the disc heights based only on the size of the vertebral bodies was investigated. The anterior (ADH), middle (MDH) and posterior heights (PDH) of the discs were measured directly and on radiographs of 72 spine segments from 30 donors (age 57.43 ± 11.27 years). The radiographic measurement error and the reliability of the measurements were calculated. Linear and non-linear regression analyses were employed for investigation of statistical correlations between the heights of the thoracic disc and vertebrae. Radiographic measurements displayed lower repeatability and were shorter than the anatomical ones (approximately 9% for ADH and 37% for PDH). The thickness of the discs varied from 4.5 to 7.2 mm, with the MDH approximately 22.7% greater. The disc heights showed good correlations with the vertebral body heights (R2, 0.659–0.835, P-values vertebral body height posterior. For the creation of parameterized models of the human thoracic discs, the use of the prediction equations could eliminate the need for direct measurement on intervertebral discs. Moreover, the error produced by radiographic measurements could be reduced at least for the PDH. PMID:21615399

  16. Heritability of body height and educational attainment in an international context: comparison of adult twins in Minnesota and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Krueger, Robert F; Bouchard, Thomas J; Kaprio, Jaakko; McGue, Matt

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the association between self-reported height and education in Minnesota and Finland. Our data included 1,598 twin pairs in Minnesota and 5,454 twin pairs in Finland born between 1936 and 1955. Correlations between education and height were found in Minnesota (r = 0.09 in men and 0.11 in women) and in Finland (r = 0.17 and 0.14, respectively) after adjustment for age. This trait correlation was mainly because of the correlation between shared environmental factors in Minnesota (r(C) = 0.38 and 0.36, respectively) and in Finland (r(C) = 0.74 and 0.37, respectively). An unshared environmental correlation was found only in Finland (r(E) = 0.13 and 0.06, respectively). Our results indicate that the association between body height and education is overwhelmingly due to the correlation of the shared environmental factors affecting these two traits. The differences between Minnesota and Finland are possibly associated with average higher education in Minnesota, which decreases the effect of the childhood environment on education, seen as a weaker correlation between height and education. Nonfamilial factors affecting education are possibly different in Minnesota than in Finland, since in Finland they are partly associated with the factors affecting height. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Use of self-reported measures of height, weight and body mass index in a rural population of Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Poliana Cardoso; de Carvalho, Maria Bernadete; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2015-01-01

    To assess the validity of using self-reported anthropometric data for diagnosis of nutritional status of adults in a rural population of northeast Brazil. A population-based survey was conducted on a sample of 797 individuals aged 18 years or more. The proportion of individuals who knew their anthropometric measures was calculated. For agreement analysis between those who reported their measures the following indicators were obtained: differences between averages (weight, height, body mass index), intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), Kappa statistic, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (VPN). Bland-Altman graphics were also obtained. More than half of the respondents (58.5%) did not know their weight or height. Weight was the most known measure among all. The magnitude of the mean difference for weight, height and body mass index (BMI) (0.43 kg, 0.31 cm, 0.32 kg/m2, respectively) was small, indicating good agreement, with a trend toward overestimation. ICC for weight, height and BMI were 0.96; 0.60; and 0.53, respectively. Kappa statistic indicated good agreement in all strata. General measures of sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 84.2; 82; 90.7 and 71.3%, respectively. Elderly, those with low schooling and those who do not often weigh were less accurate on their measures. The use of self-reported measures should be done with caution in epidemiological studies in rural populations.

  18. Height growth to age 8 of larch species and hybrids in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don E. Riemenschneider; Hans Nienstaedt

    1983-01-01

    Height growth of tamarack; Siberian, European and Japanese larch; and hybrids between the European and Japanese larch were compared in an 8-year-old test in north-central Wisconsin. Hybrids were tallest and best reached 469 cm (15.4 feet) in mean height at age 8 years from seed. Hybrids exceeded European larch mean height by 12% and tamarack by 23%. Breeding...

  19. Height growth of triplets from birth to 12 years of age in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sugimoto, Masako; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2011-10-01

    We analyzed the characteristics associated with the growth in height of Japanese triplets from birth to 12 years of age. The study included 376 mothers and their 1,128 triplet children, who were born between 1978 and 2006. Data were collected through a mailed questionnaire sent to the mothers asking for information recorded in medical records. For these births, data on triplets' length and height growth, gestational age, sex, parity, maternal age at delivery, and maternal height were obtained from records in the Maternal and Child Health Handbooks and records in the school which children receive health check-ups. The height deficit of the triplets compared to the general population of Japan remained between 2% and 5% until 12 years of age. Moreover, at 12 years of age, the differences of height between the general population and triplets were approximately -3.6 cm for male and -4.4 cm for female. Maternal height showed the strongest contribution to height of triplets from 6 to 12 years of age. In conclusion, triplets remain shorter than singletons until 12 years of age.

  20. Normal-weight adults consume more fiber and fruit than their age- and height-matched overweight/obese counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jaimie N; Hodges, Valerie A; Gillham, M Beth

    2006-06-01

    To assess differences in dietary intake of overweight/obese subjects and sex-, age-, and height-matched controls and to identify dietary components associated with increased deposition of body fat. A convenience sample of 52 overweight/obese and 52 normal-weight adults matched for sex, age (+/-1 year), and height (+/-1 inch) were recruited from the local area. Dietary intake was assessed with the Block 60-item food frequency questionnaire, physical activity was measured by the Yale Physical Activity Survey, and percent body fat was measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Independent t tests compared between-group consumption of dietary components. The ability of dietary components to predict percent body fat before and after controlling for age-, sex-, and physical activity-related energy expenditure and other macronutrients was assessed with multiple regression analyses. Spearman correlation coefficients examined relationships among nutrients, Food Guide Pyramid servings, and percent body fat. Overweight/obese subjects consumed more total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol and less carbohydrate, complex carbohydrate, and dietary fiber than control subjects. Reported intake of dietary fiber was inversely related to percent body fat without (R(2)=0.052, P=0.02) and with (R(2)=0.045, P=0.013) control for potential confounding factors. Servings of fruit per day were negatively related to percent body fat (r=-0.40, Pfiber and fruit intake, plays a role in the etiology of obesity.

  1. Population genetic differentiation of height and body mass index across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Hemani, Gibran; Medina-Gomez, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Across-nation differences in the mean values for complex traits are common(1-8), but the reasons for these differences are unknown. Here we find that many independent loci contribute to population genetic differences in height and body mass index (BMI) in 9,416 individuals across 14 European...... countries. Using discovery data on over 250,000 individuals and unbiased effect size estimates from 17,500 sibling pairs, we estimate that 24% (95% credible interval (CI) = 9%, 41%) and 8% (95% CI = 4%, 16%) of the captured additive genetic variance for height and BMI, respectively, reflect population...... genetic differences. Population genetic divergence differed significantly from that in a null model (height, P genetic correlation for tall and slender individuals (r = -0.80, 95% CI = -0.95, -0.60), consistent with correlated selection...

  2. Height, weight and body mass index in early adulthood and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E L; Reinisch, J M

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the possible associations between height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) during early adulthood and the development of schizophrenia. METHOD: This prospective study is based on an all-male sample of 3210 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, comprising...... individuals born between 1959 and 1961. In 1999, cases of schizophrenia were identified in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the cases were compared with the cohort pool of controls with respect to height, weight, and BMI from draft records. The effect of low BMI was adjusted for parental social....... No significant differences between cases and controls were observed with respect to adult height. CONCLUSION: Independent of several possible confounders, an inverse relationship between young adult BMI and risk of later development of schizophrenia was demonstrated in this all-male sample....

  3. Adult height of prepubertal short children born small for gestational age treated with GH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosilio, Myriam; Carel, Jean-Claude; Ecosse, Emmanuel; Chaussainon, Jean-Louis

    2005-06-01

    Human GH (hGH) treatment leads to catch-up growth in children with short stature born small for gestational age (SGA). However, long-term efficacy and safety results in this patient group remain scarce. The present study assessed the efficacy and safety of late childhood treatment with biosynthetic hGH (Humatrope) in a group of short children born SGA (height hGH dose of 0.067 mg/kg for 2 years, and then received no treatment for the following 2 years. After the fourth year on study, patients whose height had decreased more than 0.5 SDS but who still showed growth potential based on bone age were allowed to resume treatment until they reached adult height. Height gain SDS was assessed for 11 girls and 24 boys (mean age+/-s.d. 9.6+/-0.9 years) at the end of the 2 years of hGH treatment, during the subsequent 2-year off-treatment period, and upon reaching adult height. At the end of the initial 2-year treatment period, 83% of patients had reached a height within the normal range, with a mean increase in height SDS vs baseline of 1.3+/-0.3 (P Fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were not significantly modified during treatment. High-dose hGH treatment for a minimum of 2 years in short children born SGA was well tolerated and resulted in a significant increase in adolescent and adult height.

  4. [Validity of self-reported height, weight and body mass index in the adult population of Brasilia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Priscilla Marcondelli Dias; Silva, Eduardo Freitas da; Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo da

    2013-03-01

    To assess the validity of self-reported weight, height and body mass index (BMI) estimates from adults in Brasilia and to identify factors associated to differences between measured and self-reported values. In a cluster sampling 250 households were selected and weight and height were measured in all adults after an interview. Bland & Altman (B&A) was used to determined agreement between measured and self-reported parameters. The multiple analysis of variance was used to determine the associated factors. Sensitivity and specificity were used for excess weight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Interviews and measurements were done in 469 individuals. B&A showed bias (difference between measured and self-reported values) was not significant for weight (- 0.17 kg, p = 0.1) and significant for height (- 1 cm, p Brasilia, self-reported height can be used for subgroups of women with more than 12y of study and men under 60y of age. Men with adequate BMI over estimate their weight when compared to overweight and obese men. Self-reported measures can be used for excess weight population follow-up.

  5. Secular changes in height, weight and body mass index in Hong Kong Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Youfa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large population growth surveys of children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 y were undertaken in Hong Kong in 1963 and 1993. The global epidemic of obesity is a major public health concern. To monitor the impact of this epidemic in Hong Kong children and to identify secular changes in growth, a further growth survey was undertaken in 2005/6. Methods Cross-sectional height and weight measurements of 14,842 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 y from Hong Kong's 18 districts were obtained during the 2005/6 school year. Percentile curves were constructed using LMS method and sex-specific percentile values of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and BMI-for-age were compared with those data from 1963 and 1993. Results Secular changes in height, weight and BMI were noted between 1963 and 1993 and between 1993 and 2005/6. In the latter period, greater changes were observed at younger ages, and particularly in boys. On an annual basis, the 1993–2005/6 changes were less than those during 1963–1993. Using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs, 16.7% of children were overweight or obese in 2005/6, which was a 5.1% increase since 1993. Conclusion These data provide policy-makers with further evidence of the secular changes in child growth and the increasing obesity epidemic among Hong Kong children.

  6. Height, weight and body mass index in early adulthood and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E L; Reinisch, J M

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the possible associations between height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) during early adulthood and the development of schizophrenia. METHOD: This prospective study is based on an all-male sample of 3210 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, comprising...... status when the cohort members were 1 year old, birth weight, birth length, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. RESULTS: Forty-five cases of schizophrenia had a lower young adult mean body weight and BMI than controls. A significant inverse relationship between BMI and risk of later schizophrenia was found...

  7. Relationship between age and body weight on some linear body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between age and body weight on some linear body measurement of white bornu goats reared under semi-intensive system in a southern Nigeria ... Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... Parameters measured include distance between eyes, ear length, ear width and length, tail, and body weight.

  8. Mandibular growth as related to cervical vertebral maturation and body height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, L; Baccetti, T; McNamara, J A

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the validity of 6 stages of cervical vertebral maturation (Cvs1 through Cvs6) as a biologic indicator for skeletal maturity in 24 subjects (15 females, 9 males). The method was able to detect the greatest increment in mandibular and craniofacial growth during the interval from vertebral stage 3 to vertebral stage 4 (Cvs3 to Cvs4), when the peak in statural height also occurred. The prevalence rate of examined subjects who presented with the peak in body height at this interval was 100% for boys and 87% for girls. Statural height and total mandibular length (Co-Gn) showed significant increments during the growth interval Cvs3 to Cvs4 when compared with the growth interval Cvs2 to Cvs3, and significant growth deceleration occurred during the interval Cvs4 to Cvs5 when compared with Cvs3 to Cvs4. Ramus height (Co-Goi) and S-Gn also showed significant deceleration of growth during the interval Cvs4 to Cvs5 when compared with Cvs3 to Cvs4. Cervical vertebral maturation appears to be an appropriate method for the appraisal of mandibular skeletal maturity in individual patients on the basis of a single cephalometric observation and without additional x-ray exposure. The accuracy of the cervical vertebral method in the detection of the onset of the pubertal spurt in mandibular growth provides helpful indications concerning treatment timing of mandibular deficiencies.

  9. Whole-body vibration training increases vertical jump height in a dance population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, Matthew; Guinan, Danielle; Hawkey, Adam

    2010-03-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has gained popularity with the strength and conditioning environment. Previous research reported improvements in strength and power after WBV interventions in untrained individuals with little hypertrophical development of the muscles, suggesting that the improvements are because of neuromuscular adaptations. The present intervention study recruited moderately trained individuals that have jumping as integral to their training. Participants were randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The intervention group was exposed to WBV at 35 Hz for 5 minutes twice a week, whereas the control group was exposed to a similar isometric contraction stress. Results indicated that after a 6-week intervention, vertical jump height increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the intervention group than in the control group. The study concluded that WBV was able to maintain vertical jump height with very little intervention time (10 minutes a week) and therefore should be considered as an intervention form for maintaining jump performance.

  10. Calcium supplements in healthy children do not affect weight gain, height, or body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzenberg, Tania; Shaw, Kelly; Fryer, Jayne; Jones, Graeme

    2007-07-01

    Calcium intake is a potential factor influencing weight gain and may reduce body weight, but the evidence for this in children is conflicting. The aim of this study was to use data from randomized controlled trials to determine whether calcium supplementation in healthy children affects weight or body composition. This study is a systematic review. We identified potential studies by searching the following electronic bibliographic databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, MANTIS, ISI Web of Science, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and Human Nutrition up until April 1, 2005 and hand-searched relevant conference abstracts. Studies were included if they were placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials of calcium supplementation, with at least 3 months of supplementation, in healthy children and with outcome measures including weight. Meta-analyses were performed using fixed effects models and weighted mean differences for weight and height and standardized mean differences (SMDs) for body composition measures. There were no statistically significant effects of calcium supplementation on weight [+0.14 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.28, +0.57 kg], height (+0.22 cm; 95% CI, -0.30, +0.74 cm), body fat (SMD, +0.04; 95% CI, -0.08, +0.15), or lean mass (SMD, +0.14; 95% CI, -0.03, +0.31). There is no evidence to support the use of calcium supplementation as a public health intervention to reduce weight gain or body fat in healthy children. Although our results do not rule out an effect of dietary supplementation with dairy products on weight gain or body composition, there is little evidence to support this hypothesis.

  11. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntaping, Kanokkarn; Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Traisathit, Patrinee

    2017-01-01

    The height-weight difference index (HWDI) is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF%) is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% in 2,771 healthy adult Thais. HWDI was calculated as the difference between height and weight. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between HWDI and BF%. Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analysis were used to construct the BF% prediction model. HWDI and BF% were found to be inverse which related to a tendency toward a linear relationship. Results of a multivariate linear regression analysis, which included HWDI and age as variables in the model, predicted BF% to be 34.508 - 0.159 (HWDI) + 0.161 (age) for men and 53.35 - 0.265 (HWDI) + 0.132 (age) for women. The prediction model provides an easy-to-use obesity evaluation tool that should help awareness of underweight and obesity conditions.

  12. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokkarn Juntaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The height-weight difference index (HWDI is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF% is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Objective. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Method. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% in 2,771 healthy adult Thais. HWDI was calculated as the difference between height and weight. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between HWDI and BF%. Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analysis were used to construct the BF% prediction model. Results. HWDI and BF% were found to be inverse which related to a tendency toward a linear relationship. Results of a multivariate linear regression analysis, which included HWDI and age as variables in the model, predicted BF% to be 34.508 − 0.159 (HWDI + 0.161 (age for men and 53.35 − 0.265 (HWDI + 0.132 (age for women. Conclusions. The prediction model provides an easy-to-use obesity evaluation tool that should help awareness of underweight and obesity conditions.

  13. Assortive mating for personaltiy traits, educational level, religious affiliation, height, weight, adn body mass index in parents of Korean twin sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2003-12-01

    The degree of assortative mating for psychological and physical traits in Asian societies in relatively unknown. The present study examined assortative mating for educational level, personality traits, religious affiliation, height, weight, and body mass index in a korean sample. Age-adjusted spouse correlations were high for educational level (r = .63) and religious affiliation (r = .67), modest for most personality traits (rs = -.01 to .26), and trivial for height (r = .04), weight (r = .05)m and body mass index (r = .11). These results were remarkably similar to those found from the western samples. Implications of the present findings in behavior genetic studies and human mating patterns were briefly discussed.

  14. Long-term effect of whole body vibration training on jump height: meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Hamlin, Michael J; Ross, Jenny J; Manimmanakorn, Apiwan

    2014-06-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is widely promoted as a means of improving muscle strength, but the evidence of a performance benefit is unclear with some reporting improvements and others finding none. The objective of this study was to analyze the current evidence for the effectiveness of WBV on jump height. We included randomized controlled trials or matched design studies comparing the effect of WBV training on countermovement and squat jump (SJ) height, which were gathered from MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Sciencedirect, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar, and SPORTDiscus databases. The overall effect of WBV training (from the 15 studies included) compared with having no additional exercise on countermovement jump height yielded a positive standardized mean difference of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.99). The effect of WBV training on SJ height was 0.68 (0.08-1.11). Vibration exercise consisting of a higher frequency (>30 Hz, 0.86, 0.62-1.10), higher amplitude (>3 mm, 0.84, 0.52-1.17), longer exposure duration (>10 minutes per session, 0.92, 0.48-1.36), longer training period (>12 weeks, 0.87, 0.56-1.19) and among nonathletes (0.96, 0.63-1.30) had greater benefit for jump height improvement than a lower frequency (≤ 30 Hz, 0.56, 0.13-0.99), lower amplitude (≤ 3 mm, 0.66, 0.35-0.98), shorter exposure duration (≤ 10 minutes per session, 0.68, 0.45-0.92), intermediate training period (4-12 weeks, 0.72, 0.35-1.09), shorter training period (effect of WBV training compared with a standard cardiovascular-type exercise group from 4 studies was 0.63 (0.10-1.15). In conclusion, WBV training produces a moderate-to-large effect on jump height. Vibration training protocols with higher frequencies, higher amplitudes, longer exposures per session, and longer training periods are more likely to enhance muscle power.

  15. Penis size interacts with body shape and height to influence male attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautz, Brian S; Wong, Bob B M; Peters, Richard A; Jennions, Michael D

    2013-04-23

    Compelling evidence from many animal taxa indicates that male genitalia are often under postcopulatory sexual selection for characteristics that increase a male's relative fertilization success. There could, however, also be direct precopulatory female mate choice based on male genital traits. Before clothing, the nonretractable human penis would have been conspicuous to potential mates. This observation has generated suggestions that human penis size partly evolved because of female choice. Here we show, based upon female assessment of digitally projected life-size, computer-generated images, that penis size interacts with body shape and height to determine male sexual attractiveness. Positive linear selection was detected for penis size, but the marginal increase in attractiveness eventually declined with greater penis size (i.e., quadratic selection). Penis size had a stronger effect on attractiveness in taller men than in shorter men. There was a similar increase in the positive effect of penis size on attractiveness with a more masculine body shape (i.e., greater shoulder-to-hip ratio). Surprisingly, larger penis size and greater height had almost equivalent positive effects on male attractiveness. Our results support the hypothesis that female mate choice could have driven the evolution of larger penises in humans. More broadly, our results show that precopulatory sexual selection can play a role in the evolution of genital traits.

  16. The female aging body: A systematic review of female perspectives on aging, health, and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Erin; Ward, Pamela; Mandville-Anstey, Sue Ann; Coombs, Alyssa

    2018-03-20

    While most body image research has focused on young female populations, evidence has shown that as few as 12% of older women are satisfied with their body size. Recent studies have also highlighted how anti-aging discourses are promoting unrealistic body norms, which have shown to contribute to poor body image and altered health behaviors. A systematic review of empirical studies focused on older women's perspectives of health, body image, and the aging body is presented. Findings support that body image is a persistent, lifelong issue for women and should be considered when implementing healthy aging policies and practices.

  17. Weight, height, body mass index and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdaninia Mariam

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women in Iran have a relatively high body mass index. To investigate whether the condition contributes to excess breast cancer cases, a case-control study was conducted to assess the relationships between anthropometric variables and breast cancer risk in Tehran, Iran. Methods All incident cases of breast cancer in the Iranian Centre for Breast Cancer (ICBC were identified through the case records. Eligible cases were all postmenopausal women with histological confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during 1996 to year 2000. Controls were randomly selected postmenopausal women attending the ICBC for clinical breast examination during the same period. The body mass index (BMI was calculated based on weights and heights as measured by the ICBC nursing staff. Both tests for trend and logistic regression analysis were performed to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals as measures of relative risk. Results In all, 116 breast cancer cases and 116 controls were studied. There were no significant differences between cases and control with regard to most independent variables studied. However, a significant difference was observed between cases and controls indicating that the mean BMI was higher in cases as compared to controls (P = 0.004. Performing logistic regression analysis while controlling for age, age at menopause, family history of breast cancer and parity, the results showed that women with a BMI in the obese range had a three fold increased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR = 3.21, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.15–8.47]. Conclusion The results suggest that obesity in postmenopausal women could increase risk of breast cancer and it merits further investigation in populations such as Iran where it seems that many women are short in height, and have a relatively high body mass index.

  18. Web-Based Self-Reported Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Among Swedish Adolescents: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, Inger; Nilsson, Sara; Bergström, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Web-collected height and weight are increasingly used in epidemiological studies; however, the validity has rarely been evaluated. Objective The aim of the study was to validate self-reported height, weight, and corresponding body mass index (BMI) among Swedish adolescents aged approximately 16 years. A secondary aim was to investigate possible prediction factors for validity of self-reported BMI. Methods The study included 1698 adolescents from the population-based cohort BAMSE. Height and weight were collected through a Web-based questionnaire and subsequently measured using standard procedures. Differences between reported and measured height, weight, and corresponding BMI were compared by t tests and agreement was evaluated by Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman plots. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to investigate whether lifestyle and demographic factors predicted validity of self-reported BMI. Results On average, weight was underestimated by 1.1 kg and height was overestimated by 0.5 cm, leading to an underestimation of BMI by 0.5 kg/m2. Correlation coefficients were .98 for height, .97 for weight, and .94 for BMI, and highly significant. Females underestimated weight to a higher extent than males and overweight and obese participants underestimated weight to a higher extent than normal-weight participants, which resulted in higher underestimation of BMI. Underweight participants, on the contrary, overestimated weight and correspondingly BMI. Overall, a high proportion of participants were classified into the correct BMI category; however, among overweight and obese participants, only 60.2% (139/231) and 46% (20/44) were correctly classified, respectively. In the multivariable prediction model, only gender and BMI status significantly predicted discrepancy between reported and measured BMI. Conclusions Web-collected BMI may be used as a valid, quick, and cost-effective alternative to measured BMI among Swedish adolescents. The

  19. Body Composition at 3-years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    Background: Birth weight and high weight gain the first years of life is associated with later body composition and increased risk of obesity. A detailed description of body composition at 3 years of age and factors related to the distribution of fat and fat-free mass is interesting, since body...... with later increased adiposity risk. Growth in early childhood is highly related to the levels of insulin-like growth factor-I. Objectives: Data used in this thesis is from the prospective cohort study SKOT which includes 330 children examined at 9, 18 and 36 months of age. The main objective with this Ph......D study was to look at which factors were related to body composition at 3 years of age with a special focus on factors related to later obesity risk. A methodological objective was to be able to predict body composition by using bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry. Secondly, an objective...

  20. Use of national and international growth charts for studying height in European children: development of up-to-date European height-for-age charts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Bonthuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth charts based on data collected in different populations and time periods are key tools to assess children's linear growth. We analyzed the impact of geographic factors and the secular trend on height-for-age charts currently used in European populations, developed up-to-date European growth charts, and studied the effect of using different charts in a sample of growth retarded children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In an international survey we obtained 18 unique national height-for-age charts from 28 European countries and compared them with charts from the World Health Organization (WHO, Euro-Growth reference, and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. As an example, we obtained height data from 3,534 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD from 13 countries via the ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry, a patient group generally suffering from growth retardation. National growth charts showed a clear secular trend in height (mean height increased on average 0.6 cm/decade and a North-South height gradient in Europe. For countries without a recent (>1990 national growth chart novel European growth charts were constructed from Northern and Southern European reference populations, reflecting geographic height differences in mean final height of 3.9 cm in boys and 3.8 cm in girls. Mean height SDS of 2- to 17-year-old ESRD patients calculated from recent national or derived European growth charts (-1.91, 95% CI: -1.97 to -1.85 was significantly lower than when using CDC or WHO growth charts (-1.55, 95% CI: -1.61 to -1.49 (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Differences between height-for-age charts may reflect true population differences, but are also strongly affected by the secular trend in height. The choice of reference charts substantially affects the clinical decision whether a child is considered short-for-age. Therefore, we advocate using recent national or European height-for-age charts derived from recent national data when monitoring growth

  1. Use of national and international growth charts for studying height in European children: development of up-to-date European height-for-age charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Verrina, Enrico; Edefonti, Alberto; Molchanova, Elena A; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J

    2012-01-01

    Growth charts based on data collected in different populations and time periods are key tools to assess children's linear growth. We analyzed the impact of geographic factors and the secular trend on height-for-age charts currently used in European populations, developed up-to-date European growth charts, and studied the effect of using different charts in a sample of growth retarded children. In an international survey we obtained 18 unique national height-for-age charts from 28 European countries and compared them with charts from the World Health Organization (WHO), Euro-Growth reference, and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). As an example, we obtained height data from 3,534 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from 13 countries via the ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry, a patient group generally suffering from growth retardation. National growth charts showed a clear secular trend in height (mean height increased on average 0.6 cm/decade) and a North-South height gradient in Europe. For countries without a recent (>1990) national growth chart novel European growth charts were constructed from Northern and Southern European reference populations, reflecting geographic height differences in mean final height of 3.9 cm in boys and 3.8 cm in girls. Mean height SDS of 2- to 17-year-old ESRD patients calculated from recent national or derived European growth charts (-1.91, 95% CI: -1.97 to -1.85) was significantly lower than when using CDC or WHO growth charts (-1.55, 95% CI: -1.61 to -1.49) (Pdiseased European children.

  2. Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Wijga, Alet H.

    Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded

  3. Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Brunekreef, B.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Smit, H.A.; van de Kerkhof, M.; de Jongste, J.C.; Gerritsen, J.; Wijga, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded

  4. Accuracy of self-reported body weight, height and waist circumference in a Dutch overweight working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, J.C.; Wier, M.F. van; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, W. van

    2008-01-01

    Background. In population studies, body mass index (BMI) is generally calculated from self-reported body weight and height. The self-report of these anthropometrics is known to be biased, resulting in a misclassification of BMI status. The aim of our study is to evaluate the accuracy of

  5. Genetic influences on the difference in variability of height, weight and body mass index between Caucasian and East Asian adolescent twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Y-M; Kaprio, J; Iacono, W G; Boomsma, D I; McGue, M; Silventoinen, K; Martin, N G; Luciano, M; Visscher, P M; Rose, R J; He, M; Ando, J; Ooki, S; Nonaka, K; Lin, C C H; Lajunen, H R; Cornes, B K; Bartels, M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Cherny, S S; Mitchell, K

    2008-10-01

    Twin studies are useful for investigating the causes of trait variation between as well as within a population. The goals of the present study were two-fold: First, we aimed to compare the total phenotypic, genetic and environmental variances of height, weight and BMI between Caucasians and East Asians using twins. Secondly, we intended to estimate the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to differences in variability of height, weight and BMI between Caucasians and East Asians. Height and weight data from 3735 Caucasian and 1584 East Asian twin pairs (age: 13-15 years) from Australia, China, Finland, Japan, the Netherlands, South Korea, Taiwan and the United States were used for analyses. Maximum likelihood twin correlations and variance components model-fitting analyses were conducted to fulfill the goals of the present study. The absolute genetic variances for height, weight and BMI were consistently greater in Caucasians than in East Asians with corresponding differences in total variances for all three body measures. In all 80 to 100% of the differences in total variances of height, weight and BMI between the two population groups were associated with genetic differences. Height, weight and BMI were more variable in Caucasian than in East Asian adolescents. Genetic variances for these three body measures were also larger in Caucasians than in East Asians. Variance components model-fitting analyses indicated that genetic factors contributed to the difference in variability of height, weight and BMI between the two population groups. Association studies for these body measures should take account of our findings of differences in genetic variances between the two population groups.

  6. Rural-urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2018-03-01

    The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.

  7. Effects of Aqua Aerobics on Body Composition, Body Mass, Lipid Profile, and Blood Count in Middle-Aged Sedentary Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kantyka Joanna; Herman Damian; Roczniok Robert; Kuba Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effects of aqua aerobics on body weight and composition, lipid profile, and selected blood count parameters in middle-aged sedentary females. Methods. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (age 56.20 ± 2.57 years, height 162.80 ± 4.76 cm, weight 74.03 ± 3.84 kg) that participated in aqua aerobics classes three times a week for three months and a control group (mean age 56.44 ± 3.28 years, height 165...

  8. Kinect Who’s Coming - Applying Kinect to Human Body Height Measurement to Improve Character Recognition Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of relevant research on character recognition has been carried out, but a certain amount of time is needed to compare faces from a large database. The Kinect is able to obtain three-dimensional coordinates for an object (x & y axes and depth, and in recent years research on its applications has expanded from use in gaming to that of image measurement. This study uses Kinect skeleton information to conduct body height measurements with the aim of improving character recognition performance. Time spent searching and comparing characters is reduced by creating height categories. The margin of error for height used in this investigation was ± 5 cm; therefore, face comparisons were only executed for people in the database within ±5 cm of the body height measured, reducing the search time needed. In addition, using height and facial features simultaneously to conduct character recognition can also reduce the frequency of mistaken recognition. The Kinect was placed on a rotary stage and the position of the head on the body frame was used to conduct body tracking. Body tracking can be used to reduce image distortion caused by the lens of the Kinect. EmguCV was used for image processing and character recognition. The methods proposed in this study can be used in public safety, student attendance registration, commercial VIP recognition and many others.

  9. Body Height Preferences and Actual Dimorphism in Stature between Partners in Two Non-Western Societies (Hadza and Tsimane'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Sorokowski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body height influences human mate preferences and choice. A typical finding in Western societies is that women prefer men who are taller than themselves and, equivalently, men prefer women who are shorter than themselves. However, recent reports in non-Western societies (e.g., the Himba in Namibia challenge the view on the universality of such preferences. Here we report on male and female height preferences in two non-Western populations—the Hadza (Tanzania and the Tsimane' (Bolivia—and the relationships between body height preferences and the height of actual partners. In the Hadza, most individuals preferred a sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS with the man being much taller than the woman. Preferences for SDS and actual partner SDS were positively and significantly correlated in both men and women, suggesting that people who preferred larger height differences also had larger height differences with their partners. In the Tsimane', the majority of men preferred an SDS with the man being taller than the woman, but women did not show such a preference. Unlike in the Hadza, SDS preference was not significantly correlated to actual partner SDS. We conclude that patterns of height preferences and choices in the Hadza and Tsimane' are different than those observed in Western societies, and discuss possible causes for the observed differences between non-Western and Western societies.

  10. Body height preferences and actual dimorphism in stature between partners in two non-Western societies (Hadza and Tsimane').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Butovskaya, Marina; Stulp, Gert; Huanca, Tomas; Fink, Bernhard

    2015-06-16

    Body height influences human mate preferences and choice. A typical finding in Western societies is that women prefer men who are taller than themselves and, equivalently, men prefer women who are shorter than themselves. However, recent reports in non-Western societies (e.g., the Himba in Namibia) challenge the view on the universality of such preferences. Here we report on male and female height preferences in two non-Western populations--the Hadza (Tanzania) and the Tsimane' (Bolivia)--and the relationships between body height preferences and the height of actual partners. In the Hadza, most individuals preferred a sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS) with the man being much taller than the woman. Preferences for SDS and actual partner SDS were positively and significantly correlated in both men and women, suggesting that people who preferred larger height differences also had larger height differences with their partners. In the Tsimane', the majority of men preferred an SDS with the man being taller than the woman, but women did not show such a preference. Unlike in the Hadza, SDS preference was not significantly correlated to actual partner SDS. We conclude that patterns of height preferences and choices in the Hadza and Tsimane' are different than those observed in Western societies, and discuss possible causes for the observed differences between non-Western and Western societies.

  11. Brazilian pediatric reference data for quantitative ultrasound of phalanges according to gender, age, height and weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Moreira Gonçalves

    Full Text Available To establish normative data for phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (QUS measures in Brazilian students.The sample was composed of 6870 students (3688 females and 3182 males, aged 6 to 17 years. The bone status parameter, Amplitude Dependent Speed of Sound (AD-SoS was assessed by QUS of the phalanges using DBM Sonic BP (IGEA, Carpi, Italy equipment. Skin color was obtained by self-evaluation. The LMS method was used to derive smoothed percentiles reference charts for AD-SoS according to sex, age, height and weight and to generate the L, M, and S parameters.Girls showed higher AD-SoS values than boys in the age groups 7-16 (p<0.001. There were no differences on AD-SoS Z-scores according to skin color. In both sexes, the obese group showed lower values of AD-SoS Z-scores compared with subjects classified as thin or normal weight. Age (r2 = 0.48 and height (r2 = 0.35 were independent predictors of AD-SoS in females and males, respectively.AD-SoS values in Brazilian children and adolescents were influenced by sex, age and weight status, but not by skin color. Our normative data could be used for monitoring AD-SoS in children or adolescents aged 6-17 years.

  12. Careveillance of Aging Bodies As Proxemic Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    New healthcare technologies are increasingly used for augmenting old age homecare. These are often designed to improve risk awareness and render healthcare data more visible and mobile. At the same time this situation raises questions about how human-technological relationalities effect old age...... homecare and its surveilled bodies. This article pursues such questions with converging ideas from anthropology, science and technology studies (STS) and surveillance studies. It selects three positional sites of old age home care surveillance – or simply ‘careveillance' – where human......-technological relationalities are apparent. These are distinguished as 'watching over,' 'watching out for' and 'looking after' and explored in terms of their effects on aging bodies. Drawing on several ethnographic fieldwork encounters from the United States, the article proposes that careveillance effect embodied...

  13. Changes in the body posture of women occurring with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzał-Grabiec, Justyna; Snela, Sławomir; Rykała, Justyna; Podgórska, Justyna; Banaś, Agnieszka

    2013-10-12

    A current topic in the field of geriatrics still needing a great deal of study is the changes in body posture occurring with age. Symptoms of these changes can be observed starting between the ages of 40-50 years with a slow progression that increases after 60 years of age. The aims of this study were to evaluate parameters characterizing the posture of women over the age of 60 years compared with a control group and to determine the dynamics of body posture changes in the following decades. The study included 260 randomly selected women. The study group consisted of 130 women between the ages of 60-90 years (Older Women). The control group (Younger Women) consisted of 130 women between the ages of 20-25 years (posture stabilization period). The photogrammetric method was used to evaluate body posture using the phenomenon of the projection chamber. The study was conducted according to generally accepted principles. In the analysis of parameters characterizing individual slope curves, results were varied among different age groups. The lumbar spine slope did not show significant differences between different age groups (p = 0.6952), while statistically significant differences (p = 0.0000) were found in the thoracic-lumbar spine slope (p = 0.0033) and upper thoracic spine slope. Body angle was shown to increase with age (p = 0.0000). Thoracic kyphosis depth significantly deepened with age (p = 0.0002), however, the thoracic kyphosis angle decreased with age (p = 0.0000). An increase in asymmetries was noticed, provided by a significantly higher angle of the shoulder line (p = 0.0199) and the difference in height of the lower shoulder blade angle (p = 0.0007) measurements in the group of older women. Changes in the parameters describing body posture throughout consecutive decades were observed. Therapy for women over the age of 60 years should involve strengthening of the erector spinae muscles and controlling body posture with the aim of reducing trunk inclination

  14. Interactions of osteoporosis candidate genes for age at menarche, age at natural menopause, and maximal height in Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Cui, Bin; Liu, Jian-min; Zhang, Min-jia; Zhao, Hong-yan; Sun, Li-hao; Tao, Bei; Zhang, Lian-zhen; Ning, Guang

    2011-09-01

    Age at menarche (AAM), age at natural menopause (ANM), and maximal height are closely related to bone mineral densities and osteoporosis. It is still unclear whether osteoporosis susceptibility genes are also associated with AAM, ANM, and maximal height in Chinese women. In this relatively large cross-sectional sample of 722 Han Chinese postmenopausal women, 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 12 osteoporosis candidate genes that were identified from genome-wide association studies and replicated in our previous study were studied. The effects of a single gene on the AAM, ANM, and maximal height were investigated by linear regression analysis, whereas the gene-gene interactions were determined by a generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction method. It was revealed that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene (rs3130340) was associated with ANM even after Bonferroni correction (P = 0.001). A significant gene-gene interaction for ANM involving rs3130340 in MHC, rs1038304 and rs4870044 in estrogen receptor-α gene (ESR1), and a significant three-SNP interaction model (SNP rs2273061 in jagged1, SNP rs6929137 in ESR1, and SNP rs2306033 in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4) for maximal height were identified. No single or combined effect of tested SNPs on AAM was discovered. Our study indicates that osteoporosis susceptibility SNPs, such as ESR1 (rs1038304, rs4870044, rs6929137), MHC (rs3130340), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (rs2306033), and jagged1 (rs2273061), might independently and/or in an interactive manner influence ANM and maximal height. All the SNPs tested had no association with AAM.

  15. Genetic regulation of growth in height and weight from 3 to 12 years of age: a longitudinal study of Dutch twin children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Bartels, Meike; Posthuma, Daniëlle; Estourgie-van Burk, G Frederiek; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2007-04-01

    Human growth is a complex and poorly understood process. We studied the effect of genetic and environmental factors on height and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) based on maternal reports at 3, 4, 5, 7, 10 and 12 years of age in a large longitudinal cohort of Dutch twins (7755 complete twin pairs at age 3). Several multivariate variance component models for twins were fitted to the data using the Mx statistical package. The first-born twin was taller until age 10 and heavier until age 12 than the second-born co-twin. Heritability estimates were high for height (a(2) = .58-.91) and BMI (a(2) = .31-.82), but common and unshared environmental factors were also important. The phenotypic correlations across the ages for height and BMI were mainly explained by correlated additive genetic factors (r(a) = .77-.96 for height and .43-.92 for BMI), but common (r(c) = .40-.84 and .09-.78, respectively) and specific environmental correlations (r(e) = .50-.81 and .42-.80, respectively) were also significant. Additive genetic factors decreased with increasing age difference for both height and BMI. However, the full Cholesky model, which does not make any assumptions regarding the underlying genetic structure, had the best fit. High genetic correlations across the ages, especially for height, may help further molecular genetic studies of human growth. Environmental factors affecting height and BMI during growth period are also important, and further studies are needed to identify these factors and test whether they interact with genetic factors.

  16. Use of National and International Growth Charts for Studying Height in European Children: Development of Up-To-Date European Height-For-Age Charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Verrina, Enrico; Edefonti, Alberto; Molchanova, Elena A.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Growth charts based on data collected in different populations and time periods are key tools to assess children's linear growth. We analyzed the impact of geographic factors and the secular trend on height-for-age charts currently used in European populations, developed up-to-date

  17. Combined effect of body mass index and waist-height ratio on incident diabetes; a population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Muhei; Toda, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Shinobu; Ushigome, Emi; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Oda, Yohei; Fukui, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impact of combined effect of body mass index and waist-to-height ratio on risk of diabetes. Overweight and abdominal obesity were defined as body mass index ≥23 kg/m2 and waist-to-height ratio ≥0.5, respectively. We divided participants into four groups according to presence of overweight and/or abdominal obesity. About 20% individuals with overweight did not complicated with an abdominal obesity. Among 3,737 participants, 286 participants had diabetes at baseline-examinat...

  18. Measurement of kyphosis and vertebral body height loss in traumatic spine fractures: an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiqi, Said; Verlaan, Jorrit-Jan; Lehr, A Mechteld; Chapman, Jens R; Dvorak, Marcel F; Kandziora, Frank; Rajasekaran, S; Schnake, Klaus J; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Oner, F Cumhur

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether wide variations are seen in the measurement techniques preferred by spine surgeons around the world to assess traumatic fracture kyphosis and vertebral body height loss (VBHL). An online survey was conducted at two time points among an international community of spine trauma experts from all world regions. The first survey (TL-survey) focused on the thoracic, thoracolumbar and lumbar spine, the second survey (C-survey) on the subaxial cervical spine. Participants were asked to indicate which measurement technique(s) they used for measuring kyphosis and VBHL. Descriptive statistics, frequency analysis and the Fisher exact test were used to analyze the responses. Of the 279 invited experts, 107 (38.4 %) participated in the TL-survey, and 108 (38.7 %) in the C-survey. The Cobb angle was the most frequently used for all spine regions to assess kyphosis (55.6-75.7 %), followed by the wedge angle and adjacent endplates method. Concerning VBHL, the majority of the experts used the vertebral body compression ratio in all spine regions (51.4-54.6 %). The most frequently used combination for kyphosis was the Cobb and wedge angles. Considerable differences were observed between the world regions, while fewer differences were seen between surgeons with different degrees of experience. This study identified worldwide variations in measurement techniques preferred by treating spine surgeons to assess fracture kyphosis and VBHL in spine trauma patients. These results establish the importance of standardizing assessment parameters in spine trauma care, and can be taken into account to further investigate these radiographic parameters.

  19. Nutritional status and height, weight and BMI centiles of school-aged children and adolescents of 6-18-years from Kinshasa (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhendwa, Rudahaba Augustin; Roelants, Mathieu; Thomis, Martine; Nkiama, Constant E

    2017-09-01

    The last study to establish centiles of main anthropometric measurements in Kinshasa was conducted over 60 years ago, which questions its current adequacy to describe or monitor growth in this population. To assess the nutritional status of school-aged children and adolescents and to estimate centile curves of height, weight and body mass index (BMI). A representative sample of 7541 school-aged children and adolescents (48% boys) aged 6-18 years was measured between 2010-2013. Smooth centiles of height, weight and BMI-for-age were estimated with the LMS method and compared with the WHO 2007 reference. Nutritional status was assessed by comparing measurements of height and BMI against the appropriate WHO cut-offs. Compared to the WHO reference, percentiles of height and BMI were generally lower. This difference was larger in boys than in girls and increased as they approached adolescence. The prevalence of short stature ( 1 SD) was higher in girls (8.6%) than in boys (4.5%). Children from Kinshasa fall below WHO centile references. This study established up-to-date centile curves for height, weight and BMI by age in children and adolescents. These reference curves describe the current status of these anthropometric markers and can be used as a basis for comparison in future studies.

  20. Report on childhood obesity in China (5) Body weight, body dissatisfaction, and depression symptoms of Chinese children aged 9-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.P.; Ma, G.S.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.Q.; Cui, Z.H.; Wang, D.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. METHODS: The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n = 3886, aged 9 or 10 years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the

  1. [Agreement in height for age between growth references: Caldas, Colombia. 2006-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjumea Rincón, María Victoria; Rueda Osorio, Aníbal; Rodríguez Leyton, Mylene

    2012-01-01

    different anthropometric references have been proposed and even used in Colombia. However, there are few previous studies reporting results when these references are used and there is no consensus about the ideal reference to be adopted. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concordance between three different anthropometric references in the assessment of height for age in a population under 17 years of age that attended the nutritional program at CONFAMILIARES, Caldas, Colombia, between 2006 and 2009. a descriptive study of 31.961 children under 17 years attending the nutrition program CONFAMILIARES, Caldas, Colombia between 2006 and 2009. The variables were the height for age and sex. Anthropometric classification with references from the National Center for Health Statistics of the United States (NCHS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) was carried out with Anthro and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) with EpiInfo 6.04. Z score was calculated differentiated by sex. Kappa coefficient was estimated to assess the correlation between anthropometric categories and classified it with cutoff Altman DG. the highest concordance was found between the NCHS reference and WHO (girls: 0,854; children: 0,899, p = 0,000), followed by the CDC versus the NCHS (girls: 0,787; children: 0,860, p = 0,000) and the CDC compared with WHO (girls: 0,754; children: 0,829, p = 0,000). according to the results could be used any of the three growth references for assessing the height for age in this population.

  2. Height at Ages 7-13 Years in Relation to Developing Type 2 Diabetes Throughout Adult Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise G; Jensen, Britt W; Baker, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    type 2 diabetes, including potential influences of birthweight and childhood body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We followed 292 827 individuals, born 1930-83, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register in national registers for type 2 diabetes (11 548 men; 7472 women). Weights and heights were......-average heights at 13 years. No consistent associations were observed among women. These associations were not affected by birthweight. After adjustment for BMI, below-average childhood heights were inversely associated with type 2 diabetes among men (HR range: 0.91-0.93 per z-score) but above-average heights...... were not. Among women, after adjustment for BMI, below- and above-average heights in childhood were inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (HR range: 0.91-0.95). Greater height growth from 7 to 13 years was positively associated with type 2 diabetes in men and women. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment...

  3. Childhood body mass index and height in relation to site-specific risks of colorectal cancers in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt W; Gamborg, Michael; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    As colorectal cancers have a long latency period, their origins may lie early in life. Therefore childhood body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and height may be associated with adult colorectal cancer. Using a cohort design, 257,623 children from The Copenhagen School Health Records Register born from...

  4. Validity of Proxy-Reported Height and Weight to Derive Body Mass Index in Adults Participating in Special Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobranowski, Kristin; Lloyd, Meghann; Côté, Pierre; Balogh, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are common in adults with intellectual disabilities, which complicates their health. To meet their health needs, individuals with intellectual disability frequently rely on proxies to answer questions on their behalf. In the general population, the use of proxy-reported height and weight to compute body mass…

  5. Self-reported and measured weight, height and body mass index (BMI) in Italy, the Netherlands and North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, A.J.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Choi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Self-reported values of height and weight are used increasingly despite warnings that these data - and derived body mass index (BMI) values - might be biased. The present study investigates whether differences between self-reported and measured values are the same for populations from

  6. Source of parental reports of child height and weight during phone interviews and influence on obesity prevalence estimates among children aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Miles, Donna; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Ford, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We compared parental reports of children's height and weight when the values were estimated vs. parent-measured to determine how these reports influence the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity. In the 2007 and 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged 3-17 years. When parents reported the values were not measured (by doctor, school, or home), they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences. About 80% (n=509) of the 638 parents who reported an unmeasured height and/or weight participated in a callback and provided updated measures. Children originally classified as obese were subsequently classified as obese (67%), overweight (13%), and healthy weight (19%). An estimated 28% of younger children (children (aged ≥10 years) were reclassified on callback. Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available.

  7. Effects of body weight, height, and rib cage area moment of inertia on blunt chest impact response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpara, Hideyuki; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of body weight, height, and rib cage area moment of inertia on human chest impact responses in frontal pendulum impacts. A series of parametric studies was conducted with 11 cases of finite element (FE) analysis using a commercially available three-dimensional (3-D) FE model of the whole human body, Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Selected parameters in this study were body weight, height, and area moment of inertia of the rib cage and of the ribs alone. Three body sizes assumed were those of a large male (AM95), a mid-sized male (AM50), and a small female (AF05). The initial impact response, maximum chest force, maximum deflection, maximum compression ratio, and the number of rib fractures and fractured ribs were examined for statistical analysis. Body weight and height of the human body do not show any correlation with any injury variable considered in this study. However, area moment of inertia of the rib cage correlated (r = -0.86 and p = 0.001) with maximum chest compression ratio, which is the best predictor of the number of rib fractures. The area moment of inertia of the rib cage or ribs alone would affect the response and injury variables in frontal pendulum impacts.

  8. Influence of age, sexual maturation, anthropometric variables and body composition on flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Donassolo Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Since flexibility is an important component of health-related physical fitness at all ages, this parameter should be evaluated in chi ldren and adolescent s because the abi l ity to acquire and maintain levels of flexibility is greater in this age group. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate body weight, height, BMI and flexibility according to chronological age and sexual maturat ion and to determine the influence of these var iables on flexibi l ity in student s f rom publ ic and private schools. A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted. The sample consisted of 2604 girls aged 8 to 17 years. Body weight, height, BMI, sexual maturation, and flexibility were evaluated. The data were analyzed descriptively using the following inferential tests: two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by the Tukey post-hoc test, Pearson’s and Spearman’s simple correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The SPSS® 13.0 program was used for all statistical analyses, with a level of significance of p<0.05. Significant differences with increasing age and maturation stage were observed for the variables body weight, height and BMI when compared to the subsequent year. In conclusion, body wei-ght and height increased with increasing age, especially between 8 and 13 years, and flexibility remained stable throughout childhood and adolescence.

  9. Boom, bust, and the human body: further evidence on the relationship between height and business cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder, Marco; Woitek, Ulrich

    2005-12-01

    Historical time series for average human height exhibit short- and medium-term cycles that can be associated with business cycles in the 19th and 20th century. Using spectral analysis, we calculate the proportion of cyclical fluctuations in height series attributable to economic cycles. We also analyze the extent to which these cyclical phenomena change over time. In the U.S., the association between height cycles and business cycles was weaker among richer segments of the society, and weaker among men than among women. Additionally, the relationship diminished over time, probably with the rich preceding the population at large.

  10. Prediction model for adult height of small for gestational age children at the start of growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria); Th. Stijnen (Theo); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractContext: GH treatment is approved for short children born small for gestational age (SGA). The optimal dose is not yet established. Objective: Our objective was to develop a model for prediction of height at the onset of puberty and of adult height (AH). Design and Setting: Two GH

  11. Prediction model for adult height of small for gestational age children at the start of growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ridder, Maria A. J.; Stijnen, Theo; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    Context: GH treatment is approved for short children born small for gestational age (SGA). The optimal dose is not yet established. Objective: Our objective was to develop a model for prediction of height at the onset of puberty and of adult height (AH). Design and Setting: Two GH studies were

  12. The U-shaped association of body mass index with mortality: Influence of the traits height, intelligence, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Osler, Merete; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Zimmermann, Esther; Christensen, Gunhild Tidemann; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2016-10-01

    The U-shaped association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality may depend on other traits with permanent health effects. Whether the association between BMI and mortality depends on levels of health-related traits known to be inversely associated with mortality throughout adult life such as height, intelligence, and education was investigated. The study was based on a cohort of young men with data on weight, height, intelligence test score, and education from the Danish Conscription Database. In total, 346,500 men born 1939 to 1959 were followed until December 2013. The association between BMI and mortality was analyzed using Cox-regression models including interactions between BMI and height, intelligence, and education, respectively. BMI and mortality showed the U-shaped association from the start of the follow-up period, and it persisted through the subsequent 56 years. As expected, the mortality was inversely associated with height, intelligence, and education, but the U shape of the association between BMI and mortality was unaffected by the levels of these traits except at higher BMI values, where the slopes were steeper for men with higher levels of height, intelligence, and education. High and low BMI was associated with higher mortality throughout life regardless of the levels of height, intelligence, and education. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  13. Size matters! Body height and labor market discrimination : a cross-European analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cinnirella, Francesco; Winter, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Taller workers earn on average higher salaries. Recent research has proposed cognitive abilities and social skills as explanations for the height-wage premium. Another possible mechanism, employer discrimination, has found little support. In this paper, we provide some evidence in favor of the discrimination hypothesis. Using a cross section of 13 countries, we show that there is a consistent height-wage premium across Europe and that it is largely due to occupational sorting. We show that he...

  14. Growth references for 0-19 year-old Norwegian children for length/height, weight, body mass index and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júlíusson, Pétur B; Roelants, Mathieu; Nordal, Eirin; Furevik, Liv; Eide, Geir Egil; Moster, Dag; Hauspie, Roland; Bjerknes, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Previous growth references for Norwegian children were based on measurements from the 1970s and 1980s. New reference data, collected through the Bergen Growth Study and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, are presented as LMS values. A cross-sectional sample of children aged 0-19 years in stratified randomized design measured in 2003-2006 as a part of the Bergen Growth Study (n = 7291) and birth data of children born in 1999-2003 from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (n = 12 576) was used to estimate the new references by the means of the LMS method. Measurement reliability was assessed by test-rest studies. New references were constructed for length/height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and head circumference. Length/height and weight for children aged 0-4 years were similar to previous Norwegian references, but mean height increased up to a maximum of 3.4 cm in boys and 2.5 cm in girls during the pubertal years. Mean height was similar to (or slightly higher) in comparison with other recent European references. Reliability of the measurements compared well with published estimates. Because of the observed secular trends in growth, it is advised to use the new references, which have been endorsed by the Norwegian Department of Health.

  15. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-20

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and functional parameters. Low muscle mass was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean height-adjusted (hSMI) or weight-adjusted (wSMI) muscle mass of a young reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.7% vs. 0.4% (male/female) by hSMI, and 4.0% vs. 10.7% (male/female) by wSMI. The κ coefficients for these two criteria were 0.39 vs. 0.03 (male/female), and 0.17 in all subjects. Serum myostatin levels correlated positively with gait speed (r = 0.142, p = 0.007) after adjustment for gender. hSMI correlated with grip strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. wSMI correlated with grip strength, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. Since hSMI correlated more closely with grip strength and more muscular functions, we recommend hSMI in the diagnosis of low muscle mass.

  16. Basal body temperature as a biomarker of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsick, Eleanor M; Meier, Helen C S; Shaffer, Nancy Chiles; Studenski, Stephanie A; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Scattered evidence indicates that a lower basal body temperature may be associated with prolonged health span, yet few studies have directly evaluated this relationship. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between early morning oral temperature (95.0-98.6 °F) and usual gait speed, endurance walk performance, fatigability, and grip strength in 762 non-frail men (52 %) and women aged 65-89 years participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Since excessive adiposity (body mass index ≥35 kg/m 2 or waist-to-height ratio ≥0.62) may alter temperature set point, associations were also examined within adiposity strata. Overall, controlling for age, race, sex, height, exercise, and adiposity, lower temperature was associated with faster gait speed, less time to walk 400 m quickly, and lower perceived exertion following 5-min of walking at 0.67 m/s (all p ≤ 0.02). In the non-adipose (N = 662), these associations were more robust (all p ≤ 0.006). Direction of association was reversed in the adipose (N = 100), but none attained significance (all p > 0.22). Over 2.2 years, basal temperature was not associated with functional change in the overall population or non-adipose. Among the adipose, lower baseline temperature was associated with greater decline in endurance walking performance (p = 0.006). In longitudinal analyses predicting future functional performance, low temperature in the non-adipose was associated with faster gait speed (p = 0.021) and less time to walk 400 m quickly (p = 0.003), whereas in the adipose, lower temperature was associated with slower gait speed (p = 0.05) and more time to walk 400 m (p = 0.008). In older adults, lower basal body temperature appears to be associated with healthy aging in the absence of excessive adiposity.

  17. The validity of self-reported vs. measured body weight and height and the effect of self-perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Bugrul, Necati; Sarı, Ahu Ozturk; Metintas, Selma

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to assess the validity of self-reported body weight and height and the possible influence of self-perception of body mass index (BMI) status on the actual BMI during the adolescent period. This cross sectional study was conducted on 3918 high school students. Accurate BMI perception occurred when the student's self-perception of their BMI status did not differ from their actual BMI based on measured height and weight. Agreement between the measured and self-reported body height and weight and BMI values was determined using the Bland-Altman metod. To determine the effects of "a good level of agreement", hierarchical logistic regression models were used. Among male students who reported their BMI in the normal region, 2.8% were measured as overweight while 0.6% of them were measured as obese. For females in the same group, these percentages were 1.3% and 0.4% respectively. Among male students who perceived their BMI in the normal region, 8.5% were measured as overweight while 0.4% of them were measured as obese. For females these percentages were 25.6% and 1.8% respectively. According to logistic regression analysis, residence and accurate BMI perception were significantly associated with "good agreement" ( p ≤ 0.001). The results of this study demonstrated that in determining obesity and overweight statuses, non-accurate weight perception is a potential risk for students.

  18. The morphology of human hyoid bone in relation to sex, age and body proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, P; Hejna, P; Zátopková, L; Šafr, M

    2013-06-01

    Morphological aspects of the human hyoid bone are, like many other skeletal elements in human body, greatly affected by individual's sex, age and body proportions. Still, the known sex-dependent bimodality of a number of body size characteristics overshadows the true within-group patterns. Given the ambiguity of the causal effects of age, sex and body size upon hyoid morphology the present study puts the relationship between shape of human hyoid bone and body proportions (height and weight) under scrutiny of a morphological study. Using 211 hyoid bones and landmark-based methods of geometric morphometrics, it was shown that the size of hyoid bones correlated positively with measured body dimensions but showed no correlation if the individual's sex was controlled for. For shape variables, our results revealed that hyoid morphology is clearly related to body size as expressed in terms of the height and weight. Yet, the hyoid shape was shown to result primarily from the sex-related bimodal distribution of studied body size descriptors which, in the case of the height-dependent model, exhibited opposite trends for males and females. Apart from the global hyoid shape given by spatial arrangements of the greater horns, body size dependency was translated into size and position of the hyoid body. None of the body size characters had any impact on hyoid asymmetry. Ultimately, sexually dimorphic variation was revealed for age-dependent changes in both size and shape of hyoid bones as male hyoids tend to be more susceptible to modifications with age than female bones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Adult phantoms as function of body mass, height and posture by using caucasian anthropomorphic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Richard; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Khoury, Helen Jamil; Milian, Felix Mas

    2011-01-01

    The CALLDose X 4.0 computer program uses conversion coefficients for the MASH and FASH adult phantoms on the vertical and supine postures, representing the standard man and woman according to ICRP 90 and are called 'basic phantoms'. For improving the representation of real patients in the CALLDose X , this paper developed adults phantoms as function of mass and height by using anthropometric data from nine of them prevailing caucasian countries

  20. Body Conventions and the Fear of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Cristine Fort

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The binomial beauty and youth, so commonly used in women's representations in the media, translates aesthetic standards that have already been questioned, but still serve as a parameter for readers' comments and comparisons in the press of women who were beautiful in their youth and now they no longer have the expected image. To discuss this scenario, we choose examples that point to the female aging of public figures, adopting as background for reflection the perspectives of idadismo pointed out by Castro (2015, 2016, the concept of the body as capital of Goldenberg (2006, 2010, 2012, 2015; and fear in Augé (2013, Altheide (2002 and Bauman (2008. In discussing how the media increases the nonconformity with the body itself, we also address the efforts that have been observed in the area of ​​persuasive communication with the presence of people considered outside the stereotype of beauty hitherto imposed, as well as discussing reactions of whom wants that the famous people be always young and beautiful.

  1. Associations between adiposity, hormones, and gains in height, whole-body height-adjusted bone size, and size-adjusted bone mineral content in 8- to 11-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni

    2016-01-01

    We examined fat-independent associations of hormones with height and whole-body bone size and mineral content in 633 school children. IGF-1 and osteocalcin predict growth in height, while fat, osteocalcin, and in girls also, IGF-1 predict growth in bone size. Leptin and ghrelin are inversely......, adiponectin, leptin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), osteocalcin, and intact parathyroid hormone, and subsequent changes in height and in whole-body height-adjusted bone area "BAheight" and size-adjusted bone mineral content "BMCsize" in 8- to 11-year-olds. METHODS: Analyses were carried out...... associated with bone size in girls. INTRODUCTION: Obesity causes larger bone size and bone mass, but the role of hormones in this up-regulation of bone in obesity is not well elucidated. We examined longitudinal associations between baseline body fat mass (FM), and fat-independent fasting levels of ghrelin...

  2. Relative effect of genetic and environmental factors on body height: differences across birth cohorts among Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, K; Kaprio, J; Lahelma, E; Koskenvuo, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the change in heritability of adult body height across birth cohorts in Finland. METHODS: In 1981, cross-sectional questionnaires were completed by 10,968 twin pairs born before 1958. The effect of genetic factors was estimated via genetic modeling. RESULTS: Heritability increased from the cohort born before 1929 (0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65, 0.88 in men; 0.66, 95% CI = 0.55, 0.77 in women) to that born in 1947 through 1957 (0.81, 95% CI = 0.73, 0.87 in men; 0.82, 95% CI = 0.75, 0.89 in women). CONCLUSIONS: Heritability of height increased across Finnish birth cohorts born in the first half of this century and leveled off after World War II. Environmental factors, compared with genetic factors, appear to be more important among women than men. PMID:10754982

  3. Effects of Aqua Aerobics on Body Composition, Body Mass, Lipid Profile, and Blood Count in Middle-Aged Sedentary Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantyka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effects of aqua aerobics on body weight and composition, lipid profile, and selected blood count parameters in middle-aged sedentary females. Methods. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (age 56.20 ± 2.57 years, height 162.80 ± 4.76 cm, weight 74.03 ± 3.84 kg that participated in aqua aerobics classes three times a week for three months and a control group (mean age 56.44 ± 3.28 years, height 165.00 ± 3.91 cm, weight 70.01 ± 11.36 kg not involved in any kind of targeted exercise. The aqua aerobics classes were tailored to suit the age and abilities of the participants, with workout intensity controlled and maintained at approximately 128-137 bpm. Results. Significant differences between the experimental and control groups were found for body weight, total body water, fat-free mass, and skeletal muscle mass. A significant increase in post-intervention hemoglobin and erythrocyte counts was observed in the experimental group. Conclusions. Future studies should determine the intensity of physical activity with the most beneficial effect on blood variables in middle-aged and older individuals.

  4. Height loss with advancing age in a hospitalized population of Polish men and women: magnitude, pattern and associations with mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Piotr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The connection between the rate of height loss in older people and their general health status has been well documented in the medical literature. Our study was aimed at furthering the characterization of this interrelationship in the context of health indices and mortality in a hospitalized population of Polish adults. Data were collated from a literature review and from a longitudinal study of aging carried out in the Polish population which followed 142 physically healthy inmates, including 68 men and 74 women, for at least 25 years from the age of 45 onwards. Moreover, cross-sectional data were available from 225 inmates, including 113 men and 112 women. These subjects were confined at the same hospital. ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis were employed. The results indicate that the onset of height loss emerges in the fourth and five decade of life and there is a gradual acceleration of reduction of height at later stages of ontogeny in both sexes. Postmenopausal women experience a more rapid loss of height compared with men. The individuals who had higher rate of loss of height (≥3 cm/decade tend to be at greater risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In conclusion, our findings suggest that a systematic assessment of the rate of loss of height can be useful for clinicians caring for elderly people because of its prognostic value in terms of morbidity and mortality.

  5. evaluatiOn Of discriminant rOle Of mOther’s educatiOn and family size in shaping bOdy height Of children frOm the cOpper basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Fugiel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Growth of the children influence several environmental factors, including urban development level of the place of residence, parents” education and number of children in family. Many survey results reveal that body height is a sensitive measure of environmental interaction and physical growth in a period of progressive growth. The aim of the research was to determine if mother’s education and number of children in family are among the factors which modify the body height in ecologically endangered environment, urban and rural. Material and methods. 2599 boys and girls aged 7– 15 were examined. Children represented primary and secondary schools in Polkowice and rural region schools near Legnica and Głogów. Surveys were performed in the years 2007 and 2008. Every subject was examined for body height and data from questionnaire provided information on mother’s education and number of children in family. Results. Reportedly, it was noticed, that groups of boys and girls are different in body height which depend on level of urbanization of living environment and socio-economic standards. Conclusions. Collected results reveal that such factors as mother’s education and number of children in the family make differences in body height of young generation and they occur in both environments – urban and rural – with different intensity.

  6. The relationship between foot posture, body mass, age and ankle, lower-limb and whole-body flexibility in healthy children aged 7 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Fiona; Rome, Keith; Evans, Angela Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The complex relationship between foot posture, flexibility, body mass and age in children is not well understood. The objectives of this post hoc analysis were to explore the relationships between foot posture, flexibility, body mass in children aged seven to 15 years. Thirty healthy, asymptomatic children (20 girls, 10 boys) aged 7 to 15 years with a mean age (SD) of 10.7 (2.3) years, were recruited through the Auckland University of Technology (AUT) Podiatry Clinic, Auckland, New Zealand. Clinical data were collected by a podiatrist with 20 years' experience and included: height and weight (for Body Mass Index), Foot Posture Index-6 (FPI), Beighton score, Lower Limb Assessment Scale score (LLAS); and ankle lunge angle. For this post hoc analysis, Pearson's test and Spearman's rho were used to explore relationships between variables. Statistical significance level was p posture between girls and boys (p = 0.21). In this sample of healthy, asymptomatic children age 7 to 15 years, children with a more pronated foot type exhibited greater lower limb and whole-body flexibility, but not greater ankle joint flexibility. There was strong agreement between lower-limb and whole-body flexibility. This study highlights the importance of assessing the paediatric flat foot in the context of a developing body.

  7. Study of growth in rural school children from Buenos Aires, Argentina using upper arm muscle area by height and other anthropometric dimensions of body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, A; Guimarey, L; Frisancho, A R

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective was to compare growth and body composition in an infantile rural population by means of the upper arm muscle area by height and other antropometric measurements. Research was carried out by way of a cross sectional study, including 80% (321 6-13 year olds) of the schoolchildren living in General Lavalle, a rural community of about 3000 inhabitants. The methods and procedures included the evaluation of mother's educational levels and anthropometric measurements. Height (H), weight, mid upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfold (TS) were measured. The body mass index (BMI), the upper arm muscle area (UAMA), the upper arm fat area (UAFA) and the upper arm muscle area by height (UAMAH) were calculated. Variables were grouped by gender and age and transformed into z-scores, using the US anthropometric standards as reference. The results showed that: (1) the mother educational status was, in relation to z-scores, as in an urban population, and (2) the z-scores for BMI, UAFA and TS were above the reference, while the ones for H, UAMA and UAMAH were below the reference. The differences between z-scores in relation to mother's educational levels were statistically significant (p children of General Lavalle tend to be fatty and overweight, while their muscle mass and H are proportionally low, but with values within the reference. Thus, low muscle mass and H are, in general terms, indicative of low protein reserves, the systematically low-anthropometry found for UAMAH suggests that this index should be used in conjunction with other indexes (e.g. BMI, UAFA) to obtain a more complete assessment of body composition and nutritional status.

  8. Secular trends in height and weight for healthy Han children aged 0-7 years in China, 1975-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xin-Nan; Li, Hui; Zhu, Zong-Han

    2011-01-01

    To report the secular growth changes of Chinese children aged 0-7 years between 1975 and 2005. Height and weight measurements obtained from four consecutive national surveys were used to analyze the secular trends. Urban-rural difference and regional difference in growth were compared, respectively. A rapid positive secular trend was observed in China over the last three decades, increased by 5.3 and 5.0 cm in height for urban boys and girls at age 6-7 years, respectively. Urban-rural height difference has continuously reduced, but weight difference has gradually widened after 3-years old which results from the excessive weight increase of urban children, 2.68 kg for rural boys aged 6-7 years but 3.26 kg for urban during the 30 years. Clear regional differences in growth are not narrowing over time. Generally, the growth level in eastern China is higher than central-western, successively higher than southern. The rapid positive secular trends will still continue with the rapid socio-economic development in China. Urban-rural height difference will further narrow. Currently no sufficient evidence indicates that growth difference in inter-city has reduced. Weight increases rapidly for urban children, which does not match with height. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Height, age at first birth, and lifetime reproductive success: a prospective cohort study of Finnish male and female twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Helle, Samuli; Nisén, Jessica; Martikainen, Pekka; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-04-01

    The associations between height and reproductive success in humans have attracted long-time scientific interest, but in addition to rather mixed previous results, little is still known about the background mechanisms of these associations. We analyzed the association of adult height with age at first birth and lifetime reproductive success using a twin study design that is able to optimally take into account family background and estimate the contributions of genetic and environmental factors. Information on live births as of June 2009 for 7,830 Finnish twins born 1950-1957 was extracted from the national population register. We found evidence for non-linear associations in men, as men in the third sex-specific height quintile had the highest probability of having one to two children, or three or more children at individual level analyses, and also to have any children when analyzing twin pairs discordant for height. Furthermore, the probability of having a spouse was highest in the third height category in men. Short stature was associated with earlier age at first birth in females, explained by correlated genetic factors, but not with lifetime number of children or having a spouse. Our results suggest that average stature may give some advantage for reproduction in males. In females, genetic factors explained the association between short stature and young age at first birth, which may suggest the role of hormonal factors.

  10. Body size of young adult Polish college-age women born before, during, and after WWII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liczbińska, Grażyna; Czapla, Zbigniew; Malina, Robert M; Piontek, Janusz

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the young adult body size of Polish female university students born before, during, and after WWII. Age, height, and weight of 492 students measured between 1956 and 1972 were accessed from the Department of Anthropology archives (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań). The sample was divided into three birth year cohorts relative to WWII: before (n = 120), during (n = 196), and after (n = 176). Birth years spanned 1935 through 1952. BMI was calculated. Body size among birth cohorts was compared with age of the student and education level of the father as covariates (ANCOVA). The birth cohorts differed significantly in height (P < .01), but not in weight and BMI. Women born during WWII were shorter than women born before and after the war; heights of latter cohorts did not differ. The trend for weight was similar, but differences were not significant. Birth cohorts did not differ in BMI. Young adult heights of women born during WWII were shorter than the heights of women born before and immediately after the war, although differences were relatively small. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Influence of Perceived Height, Masculinity, and Age on Each Other and on Perceptions of Dominance in Male Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batres, Carlota; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have examined the individual effects of facial cues to height, masculinity, and age on interpersonal interactions and partner preferences. We know much less about the influence of these traits on each other. We, therefore, examined how facial cues to height, masculinity, and age influence perceptions of each other and found significant overlap. This suggests that studies investigating the effects of one of these traits in isolation may need to account for the influence of the other two traits. Additionally, there is inconsistent evidence on how each of these three facial traits affects dominance. We, therefore, investigated how varying such traits influences perceptions of dominance in male faces. We found that increases in perceived height, masculinity, and age (up to 35 years) all increased facial dominance. Our results may reflect perceptual generalizations from sex differences as men are on average taller, more dominant, and age faster than women. Furthermore, we found that the influences of height and age on perceptions of dominance are mediated by masculinity. These results give us a better understanding of the facial characteristics that convey the appearance of dominance, a trait that is linked to a wealth of real-world outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Self-reported versus measured body height and weight in Polish adult men: the risk of underestimating obesity rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopuszańska, Monika; Lipowicz, Anna; Kołodziej, Halina; Szklarska, Alicja; Bielicki, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    In some epidemiological studies, self-reported height and weight are often used to save time and money. Self-reported height and weight are commonly used to assess the prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between self-reported and measured height and weight in adult men, and to determine how the accuracy of self-reported data depended on age and education. The prevalence of obesity was also calculated based both on self-reported and measured data. Data were collected during two population studies carried out in Wroclaw in 2010. One study included 1,194 19-year-old males who reported for the health examination mandated by the National Conscription Board (younger group). The other group included 355 men between 35 and 80 years old who reported for a ten-year follow-up (older group). Data were analyzed separately for both age groups. Both younger and older subjects overestimated their height by 1.4 cm and 1.0 cm (1.4 cm, 95 % CI: 1.26, 1.51, and 1.0 cm, 95 % CI: 0.85, 1.26, respectively). On average, younger subjects overestimated their weight by 0.7 kilograms (95 % CI: 0.55, 0.92), whereas older subjects underestimated their weight by 0.9 kilograms (95 % CI: -1.15, -0.48). The lower the level of education, the more the subjects overestimated their height. Adult men systematically overestimate their height and underestimate their weight. The magnitude of the inaccuracy depends on level of education. When self-reported data are used, the prevalence of obesity is generally underestimated. Using self-reported data to calculate BMI can lead to a substantial underestimation of the proportion of underweight and obese individuals in a population. Finally, using self-reported values for height in studies on social inequality may lead to false conclusions. Background: In some epidemiological studies, self-reported height and weight are often used to save time and money. Self-reported height and weight are commonly used to assess the

  13. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Alberto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73 competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively. After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90°s-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  14. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  15. Validity of self-reported weight, height, and body mass index among African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bo; Llanos, Adana A M; Lin, Yong; Szamreta, Elizabeth A; Plascak, Jesse J; Oh, Hannah; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B; Demissie, Kitaw; Hong, Chi-Chen; Bandera, Elisa V

    2018-03-13

    Self-reported weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) are commonly used in cancer epidemiology studies, but information on the validity of self-reports among cancer survivors is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of these self-reported measures among African American (AA) breast cancer survivors, known to have high obesity prevalence. We compared the self-reported and measured values among 243 participants from the Women's Circle of Health Follow-Up Study (WCHFS), a population-based longitudinal study of AA breast cancer survivors. Multivariable-adjusted linear regressions were used to identify factors associated with reporting errors. We also examined the associations of self-reported and measured BMI with obesity-related health outcomes using multivariable logistic regressions, with hypertension as an example, to evaluate the impact of misreporting. We found that self-reported and measured values were highly correlated among all and when stratified by participants' characteristics (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.99, 0.84, and 0.96 for weight, height, and BMI, respectively). The agreement between BMI categories (normal, overweight and obese) based on self-reported and measured data was excellent (kappa = 0.81). Women who were older, never smoked, had higher grade tumors, or had greater BMI tended to have overestimated BMI calculated from self-reported weight and height. The BMI-hypertension association was similar using self-reported (OR per 5 kg/m 2 increase 1.63; 95% CI 1.27-2.10) and measured BMI (1.58; 95% CI 1.23-2.03). Self-reported weight, height, and BMI were reasonably accurate in the WCHFS. Our study supports the use of these self-reported values among cancer survivors when direct measurements are not possible.

  16. A height-for-age growth reference for children with achondroplasia: Expanded applications and comparison with original reference data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover-Fong, Julie; McGready, John; Schulze, Kerry; Alade, Adekemi Yewande; Scott, Charles I

    2017-05-01

    The height-for-age (HA) reference currently used for children with achondroplasia is not adaptable for electronic records or calculation of HA Z-scores. We report new HA curves and tables of mean and standard deviation (SD) HA, for calculating Z-scores, from birth-16 years in achondroplasia. Mixed longitudinal data were abstracted from medical records of achondroplasia patients from a single clinical practice (CIS, 1967-2004). Gender-specific height percentiles (5, 25, 50, 75, 95th) were estimated across the age continuum, using a 2 month window per time point smoothed by a quadratic smoothing algorithm. HA curves were constructed for 0-36 months and 2-16 years to optimize resolution for younger children. Mean monthly height (SD) was tabulated. These novel HA curves were compared to reference data currently in use for children with achondroplasia. 293 subjects (162 male/131 female) contributed 1,005 and 932 height measures, with greater data paucity with age. Mean HA tracked with original achondroplasia norms, particularly through mid-childhood (2-9 years), but with no evidence of a pubertal growth spurt. Standard deviation of height at each month interval increased from birth through 16 years. Birth length was lower in achondroplasia than average stature and, as expected, height deficits increased with age. A new HA reference is available for longitudinal growth assessment in achondroplasia, taking advantage of statistical modeling techniques and allowing for Z-score calculations. This is an important contribution to clinical care and research endeavors for the achondroplasia population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The growth of different body length dimensions is not predictive for the peak growth velocity of sitting height in the individual child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Iris; Gerver, W. J. M.; Kingma, Idsart; Wapstra, Frits Hein; Verkerke, Gijsvertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the differences in timing of the peak growth velocity (PGV) between sitting height, total body height, subischial leg length, and foot length can be used to predict whether the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is before or past

  18. Validation of adult height prediction based on automated bone age determination in the Paris Longitudinal Study of healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D. [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Filderklinik, Filderstadt (Germany); Schittenhelm, Jan [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Thodberg, Hans Henrik [Visiana, Holte (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    An adult height prediction model based on automated determination of bone age was developed and validated in two studies from Zurich, Switzerland. Varied living conditions and genetic backgrounds might make the model less accurate. To validate the adult height prediction model on children from another geographical location. We included 51 boys and 58 girls from the Paris Longitudinal Study of children born 1953 to 1958. Radiographs were obtained once or twice a year in these children from birth to age 18. Bone age was determined using the BoneXpert method. Radiographs in children with bone age greater than 6 years were considered, in total 1,124 images. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and the observed adult height was 2.8 cm for boys in the bone age range 6-15 years and 3.1 cm for girls in the bone age range 6-13 years. The bias (the average signed difference) was zero, except for girls below bone age 12, where the predictions were 0.8 cm too low. The accuracy of the BoneXpert method in terms of root mean square error was as predicted by the model, i.e. in line with what was observed in the Zurich studies. (orig.)

  19. Standardized of Height, Weight and Body Mass Index (BMI in Healthy 6-11-year-old Schoolgirls and Schoolboys,Yazd City 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mozaffari-Khosravi

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Due to the differences seen between the curves for height, weight and body mass index in Yazdian children and foreign standards, it is better to use the norms of this study for Yazdi children 6-11 years old.

  20. Height, weight and body mass index in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Camilla; Rinnström, Daniel; Dellborg, Mikael; Thilén, Ulf; Sörensson, Peder; Nielsen, Niels-Erik; Christersson, Christina; Wadell, Karin; Johansson, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    High BMI is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and, in contrast, low BMI is associated with worse prognosis in heart failure. The knowledge on BMI and the distribution in different BMI-classes in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are limited. Data on 2424 adult patients was extracted from the Swedish Registry on Congenital Heart Disease and compared to a reference population (n=4605). The prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25) was lower in men with variants of the Fontan procedure, pulmonary atresia (PA)/double outlet right ventricle (DORV) and aortic valve disease (AVD) (Fontan 22.0% and PA/DORV 15.1% vs. 43.0%, p=0.048 and p<0.001) (AVD 37.5% vs. 49.3%, p<0.001). Overt obesity (BMI ≥ 30) was only more common in women with AVD (12.8% vs. 9.0%, p=0.005). Underweight (BMI<18.5) was generally more common in men with CHD (complex lesions 4.9% vs. 0.9%, p<0.001 and simple lesions 3.2% vs. 0.6%, <0.001). Men with complex lesions were shorter than controls in contrast to females that in general did not differ from controls. Higher prevalence of underweight in men with CHD combined with a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in men with some complex lesions indicates that men with CHD in general has lower BMI compared to controls. In women, only limited differences between those with CHD and the controls were found. The complexity of the CHD had larger impact on height in men. The cause of these gender differences as well as possible significance for prognosis is unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ju Mizuno,1 Toru Takahashi2 1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 2Faculty of Health and Welfare Science, Okayama Prefectural University, Soja-shi, Okayama, Japan Background: Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Methods: Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch®. We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT®. Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI] were analyzed. Results: All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. Conclusion: EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS. Keywords: well-leg compartment syndrome, pressure-distribution measurement system, peak contact pressure

  2. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females) participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch(®). We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT(®)). Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were analyzed. All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS.

  3. Relations between BMI, body mass and height, and sports competence among participants of the 2010 Winter Olympic Games: does sport metabolic demand differentiate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanula, Arkadiusz; Roczniok, Robert; Gabryś, Tomasz; Szmatlan-Gabryś, Urszula; Maszczyk, Adam; Pietraszewski, Przemysław

    2013-12-01

    This study characterizes the athletes participating in the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in terms of body height, body mass and BMI. The studied sample consisted of athletes in the top 20 places of each of 14 sports disciplines (1460 cases). Data on the athletes' age, height, body mass, and sports specialization were obtained from the Olympic Games' official website and from the International Ski Federation. The sampled athletes were grouped according to the predominant type of energy metabolism during competition. The anaerobic-glycolytic disciplines, such as cross-country sprint, figure skating, short track, and speed skating (500, 1000 and 1500 m), were found to have the youngest female athletes: 25.0 yr. (SD = 4.7). In the endurance sports (aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic), the female athletes were the oldest, being respectively 28.6 yr. (SD = 4.9) and 28.1 yr. (SD = 4.5) old. In the speed disciplines (anaerobic-alactic), the female athletes were the tallest (M = 172 cm; SD = 8.3). The male athletes in the anaerobic-alactic sports were the tallest (M = 181.8 cm, SD = 6.7) and those in the anaerobic-glycolytic sports were the shortest (M = 179.2 cm, SD = 6.7). The large differences in body mass among the groups of athletes, which appear to be related to the predominant type of metabolism during competition, show that this parameter is partly correlated with the level of sports competence, but only in disciplines where the athletes need larger muscle mass. The largest average values of BMI were found for males and females in the anaerobic-alactic group.

  4. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soung Ock; Lee, In Ja; Shin, Gwi Soon

    2008-01-01

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8±6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8±7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1±6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0±9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1±2.7 kg/m 2 . 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged ≥50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged ≥40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  5. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  6. Interactive effect of genetic susceptibility with height, body mass index, and hormone replacement therapy on the risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlid Sophia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer today has many established risk factors, both genetic and environmental, but these risk factors by themselves explain only part of the total cancer incidence. We have investigated potential interactions between certain known genetic and phenotypic risk factors, specifically nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and height, body mass index (BMI and hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Methods We analyzed samples from three different study populations: two prospectively followed Swedish cohorts and one Icelandic case–control study. Totally 2884 invasive breast cancer cases and 4508 controls were analysed in the study. Genotypes were determined using Mass spectrometry-Maldi-TOF and phenotypic variables were derived from measurements and/or questionnaires. Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression with the inclusion of an interaction term in the logistic regression model. Results One SNP (rs851987 in ESR1 tended to interact with height, with an increasingly protective effect of the major allele in taller women (p = 0.007 and rs13281615 (on 8q24 tended to confer risk only in non users of HRT (p-for interaction = 0.03. There were no significant interactions after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions We conclude that much larger sample sets would be necessary to demonstrate interactions between low-risk genetic polymorphisms and the phenotypic variables height, BMI and HRT on the risk for breast cancer. However the present hypothesis-generating study has identified tendencies that would be of interest to evaluate for gene-environment interactions in independent materials.

  7. Household food insecurity is not associated with BMI for age or weight for height among Brazilian children aged 0-60 months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Kac

    Full Text Available We examined the association between Household Food Insecurity (HFI, weight for height z-score (WHZ and Body Mass Index for age z-score (BMI-Z in a representative sample of children 0-60 months of age (n = 3,433 in five Brazilian geographical regions. Data were derived from the 2006-07 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. HFI was measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Associations were estimated using multiple linear regression models (β coefficients and 95% CI taking into account the complex sampling design. Interaction terms between HFI and geographical region and HFI and child sex and child age were assessed. The weighted prevalence of any level of HFI was 48.6%. Severe food insecurity was more prevalent among children from the North region (16.8%, born from mothers with <4 years of schooling (15.9% and those from families with ≥3 children (18.8%. The interaction between HFI and geographical region was non-significant for BMI-Z (P = 0.119 and WHZ (P = 0.198. Unadjusted results indicated that HFI was negatively associated with BMI-Z (moderate to severe HFI: β = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.35 - -0.03, P = 0.047, and WHZ (moderate to severe HFI: β = -0.26, 95% CI: -0.42 - -0.09, P = 0.009. Estimates lost significance after adjustments for key confounders such as mothers' skin color, mothers' years of schooling, place of household, household income quartiles, mothers' smoking habit, mothers' marital status, number of children 0-60 months in the household, and birth order. HFI is unrelated to weight outcomes among Brazilian children 0-60 months.

  8. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body.

  9. Effect of Age, Hair Type and Body Condition Score on Body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the influence of age, hair type and body condition score on body weight and body conformation traits using 62 Yankasa rams. The ages of the rams were categorized into three; 12-18, 19-24 and 25-36 months. The hair types which were determined through touching and feeling were ...

  10. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    of contemporary Danish children. We did find the “classical” height velocity peak during spring, but unlike many earlier studies this was coincident with peaks in BW, BMI and FFMI velocities. Seasonal variation in physical activity may explain seasonal variations in BW and body composition velocities. Taken......Growth and body composition in childhood are influenced by many factors. Some of these are modifiable e.g. dietary intake, while others may be less easy to influence. The hormonal regulation of growth and body composition during childhood is complex and the interrelationship between the numerous...... growth or remodeling. Seasonal variations in growth and changes in body composition, if present, are of interest when trying to understand the regulation of growth. They may also be important to be aware of when assessing growth and body composition during shorter periods of time. The overall aim...

  11. Cross-sectional study of height and weight in the population of Andalusia from age 3 to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosano Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives In Andalusia there were no studies including a representative sample of children and adolescent population assessing growth and weight increase. Our objectives were to develop reference standards for weight, height and BMI for the Andalusian pediatric population, from 3 to 18 years of age for both genders, and to identify the final adult height in Andalusia. Subjects and methods Two samples were collected. The first included individuals from 3 to 18 years of age (3592 girls and 3605 boys. They were stratified according type of study center, size of population of origin, age (32 categories of 0.5 years and gender, using cluster sampling. Subjects from >18 to 23 years of age (947 women and 921 men were sampled in 6 non-university educational centers and several university centers in Granada. Exclusion criteria included sons of non-Spanish mother or father, and individuals with chronic conditions and/or therapies affecting growth. Two trained fellows collected the data through February to December 2004, for the first sample, and through January to May 2005, for the second. Reference curves were adjusted using Cole's LMS method, and the quality of the adjustment was assessed using the tests proposed by Royston. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was applied to the final models obtained. Results Data for 9065 cases (4539 women and 4526 men were obtained; 79.39% (n = 7197 in the up to 18 years of age group. In the first sampling only 0.07% (3 girls and 2 boys refused to participate in the study. In addition, 327 students (4.5% were absent when sampling was done. We present mean and standard deviation fort height, weight and BMI at 0.5 years intervals, from 3 to 23 years of age, for both genders. After adjustment with the different models, percentiles for height, weight (percentiles 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 97 and BMI (percentiles 3, 5, 50, 85, 95, and 97 are presented for both genders. Conclusion This is

  12. Aging and body size in solitary bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solitary bees are important pollinators of crops and non-domestic plants. Osmia lignaria is a native, commercially-reared solitary bee used to maximize pollination in orchard crops. In solitary bees, adult body size is extremely variable depending on the nutritional resources available to the develo...

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent body-mass index, weight, and height from 1953 to 2015: an analysis of four longitudinal, observational, British birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, David; Johnson, William; Li, Leah; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2018-03-20

    Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood body-mass index (BMI) have been documented in high-income countries; however, uncertainty exists with regard to how they have changed over time, how inequalities in the composite parts (ie, weight and height) of BMI have changed, and whether inequalities differ in magnitude across the outcome distribution. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent weight, height, and BMI have changed over time in Britain. We used data from four British longitudinal, observational, birth cohort studies: the 1946 Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (1946 NSHD), 1958 National Child Development Study (1958 NCDS), 1970 British Cohort Study (1970 BCS), and 2001 Millennium Cohort Study (2001 MCS). BMI (kg/m 2 ) was derived in each study from measured weight and height. Childhood socioeconomic position was indicated by the father's occupational social class, measured at the ages of 10-11 years. We examined associations between childhood socioeconomic position and anthropometric outcomes at age 7 years, 11 years, and 15 years to assess socioeconomic inequalities in each cohort using gender-adjusted linear regression models. We also used multilevel models to examine whether these inequalities widened or narrowed from childhood to adolescence, and quantile regression was used to examine whether the magnitude of inequalities differed across the outcome distribution. In England, Scotland, and Wales, 5362 singleton births were enrolled in 1946, 17 202 in 1958, 17 290 in 1970, and 16 404 in 2001. Low socioeconomic position was associated with lower weight at childhood and adolescent in the earlier-born cohorts (1946-70), but with higher weight in the 2001 MCS cohort. Weight disparities became larger from childhood to adolescence in the 2001 MCS but not the earlier-born cohorts (p interaction =0·001). Low socioeconomic position was also associated with shorter height in

  14. A morphometric study of measurements of heart in adults and its relation with age and height of the individual: A post-mortem study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Reconstructive and replacement operations of diseased cardiac valves are commonly practiced these days. It may be noted that the choice of proper reconstructive intervention and prosthetic replacement might require the normal morphometric measurements of heart in relation with general body parameters, like age and height. So, this study was undertaken to measure various measurements of heart and its relation with age and height of the individual. Materials and Methods: Sixty five normal post-mortem hearts of adults were taken from the mortuary of Department of Forensic Medicine. Age of the individual was noted. Length of the deceased was measured with a measuring tape from the level of vertex to the outer border of heel. Length (from apex to base, breadth (at broadest diameter and thickness of the heart were measured with slide callipers. Weight was measured with weighing machine. Results: The mean length, breadth, thickness of heart in males and females are 11.25, 8.78, 3.97 cm and 10.60, 8.31, 3.63 cm. The mean weight of heart in males and females was 323 and 276 gms. There was significant correlation with weight of individual and weight of heart in males. There was significant correlation with age of individual and length of heart in females. Conclusion: This study will be helpful for cardiothoracic surgeons while doing surgery on hearts.

  15. Changes in the Body with Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... action, become more important as people age. Blood Production The amount of active bone marrow, where blood ... or white hair The hair follicles produce less pigment (melanin). Thinning or loss of hair Hairs, which ...

  16. Value of Tree Measurements Made at Age 5 Years for Predicting the Height and Diameter Growth at Age 25 Years in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks; Calvin E. Meier; V. Clark Baldwin; James D. Haywood

    1998-01-01

    Early growth measurements Of pine plantations are often used to predict the productivity of the stand later in the rotation when assessing the effect Of management on productivity. A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) study established at 35 locations (2 to 3 plots/location) was used to test the relationship between height measurements at age 5 years...

  17. Aging and exercise: Perceptions of the active lived-body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougner, Marit; Bergland, Astrid; Lund, Anne; Debesay, Jonas

    2018-03-30

    Exploring older people's evocation of their positive experiences of aging has been proposed as a counterweight to the Western stereotype of aging as a process of decline. The aim of this article is to explore how aging women, who participate regularly in group exercise classes, perceive their own bodies and the bodies of others. This article reports on the findings from interviews with 16 women between the age of 70 and 85. We analyzed the data using qualitative content analysis. Two overarching and interrelated themes concerning body perception emerged from the interviews: "The aging body and appearance" and "The body as subject and object." The binary discourse of old age, as either a decline or a success appears in our findings. The training contributes to a sense of well-being experienced through perceived increased physical abilities, self- image and self-esteem. Physical ability was perceived as being more important than appearance by the participants in this study, considering their preconception of an association between declining health, abilities, and older age. Involvement in physical activity appears to play a significant role in the perception of the women's own aging. Although physical attractiveness is a desirable outcome, the most important positive impact of the group exercise was related to increased social belonging and well-being, physical abilities, and capabilities. Thus implications for practice suggests that an intensive group training contributes to the opinion that an aging body is not necessarily a barrier to positive and successful aging.

  18. Infant BMI peak, breastfeeding, and body composition at age 3 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Ritz, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the increasing focus on obesity, growth patterns in infancy and early childhood have gained much attention. Although the adiposity rebound has been in focus because of a shown association with adult obesity, not much has been published about the infant peak in body mass index (BMI......). OBJECTIVE: This study links age and BMI at infant peak to duration of breastfeeding and body composition at 3 y of age. DESIGN: Frequent weight and height measurements for 311 Danish children in the SKOT (Complementary and Young Child Feeding - Impact on Short and Long Term Development and Health; in Danish......) cohort were used to estimate BMI growth curves for the age span from 14 d to 19 mo by using a nonlinear mixed-effects model. BMI growth velocity before peak and age and BMI at peak were derived from the subject-specific models. Information about pregnancy and breastfeeding was assessed from background...

  19. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Gull, Sibgha; Mushtaq, Komal; Abdullah, Hussain Muhammad; Khurshid, Usman; Shahid, Ubeera; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Akram, Javed

    2012-03-19

    Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO) and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC) references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Mean differences between weight-for-age (0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.30) and BMI-for-age (0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.30) z scores relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant. Over-nutrition estimates were higher (P reference as compared to the USCDC reference (17% vs. 15% overweight and 7.5% vs. 4% obesity) while underweight and thinness/wasting were lower (P reference as compared to the USCDC reference (7% vs. 12% underweight and 10% vs. 13% thinness). Significantly lower overweight (8%) and obesity (5%) prevalence and higher thinness grade one prevalence (19%) was seen with use of the IOTF cut-offs as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean difference between height-for-age z scores and difference in stunting prevalence relative to the WHO and USCDC references was not significant. Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed

  20. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age

    OpenAIRE

    Kh.M. Mahrose; A.I. Attia; I.E. Ismail; D.E. Abou-Kassem; M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The res...

  1. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Weight, Height, and BMI from Birth to 19 Years of Age: An International Study of Over 12,000 Twin Pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubois, Lise; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Girard, Manon

    2012-01-01

    To examine the genetic and environmental influences on variances in weight, height, and BMI, from birth through 19 years of age, in boys and girls from three continents.......To examine the genetic and environmental influences on variances in weight, height, and BMI, from birth through 19 years of age, in boys and girls from three continents....

  2. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and...

  3. Perception of Affective Body Movements in HRI Across Age Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Krogsager, Anders; Segato, Nicolaj

    2016-01-01

    robots and the signals they produce. In this paper we focus on affective connotations of body movements and investigate how the perception of body movements of robots is related to age. Inspired by a study from Japan, we introduce culture as a variable in the experiment and discuss the difficulties...... of cross-cultural comparisons. The results show that there are certain age-related differences in the perception of affective body movements, but not as strong as in the original study. A follow up experiment puts the affective body movements into context and shows that recognition rates deteriorate...

  4. Development of Height and Body Mass Index After Pediatric Kidney Transplantation: Experience of the Nephrology Pediatric Service at HCFMRP- USP, 2005-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Hillesheim

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Chronic kidney disease in children often determines poor nutritional status. Although renal transplantation (RTx resolves endocrine and metabolic disorders, growth continues to be suboptimal and excessive weight gain may result in obesity. Objectives: Evaluating the development of height and body mass index in renal transplanted children and adolescents and identifying associated factors with final nutritional status. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 17 patients with regular follow-ups up to 24 months after RTx. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age (H/A and body mass index-for-age (BMI/A. It was considered catch-up growth the increase in z-score H/A ≥ 0.5 standard deviation. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the influence of factors clinical and demographic variables on anthropometric indicators at 24 months after RTx. Results: Mean age was 9.1 ± 4.1 years old. Twenty-four months after RTx the mean z-score H/A increased from -2.66 ± 1.66 to -1.93 ± 1.08 (p ≤ 0.05, 47.0% of the patients showed catch-up growth and the same proportion showed z-score H/A < -2. Mean z-score BMI/A increased from -0.48 ± 1.03 at RTx to 0.80 ± 0.94 at third month after RTx (p < 0.001 and remained unchanged up to 24 months. The frequency of weight excess increased from 5.9% at RTx to 41.2% at 24 months. Age (r = -0.66; p = 0.006 and z-score H/A (r = -0.72; p = 0.002 at RTx were inversely associated with growth. Conclusion: Twenty-four months after transplant it was verified inadequate growth to recovery from stunting and excessive weight gain. RTx promoted greater growth in the youngest patients and most stunted at RTx.

  5. Age-specific association between percent body fat and pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the association between percent body fat and pulmonary function among apparently normal twenty male children tidal volume aged 4 years and twenty male children aged 10 years in Ogbomoso. The mean functional residual capacity of the lung in male children aged 10 years was significantly higher ...

  6. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent body-mass index, weight, and height from 1953 to 2015: an analysis of four longitudinal, observational, British birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bann, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood body-mass index (BMI have been documented in high-income countries; however, uncertainty exists with regard to how they have changed over time, how inequalities in the composite parts (ie, weight and height of BMI have changed, and whether inequalities differ in magnitude across the outcome distribution. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent weight, height, and BMI have changed over time in Britain. Methods: We used data from four British longitudinal, observational, birth cohort studies: the 1946 Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (1946 NSHD, 1958 National Child Development Study (1958 NCDS, 1970 British Cohort Study (1970 BCS, and 2001 Millennium Cohort Study (2001 MCS. BMI (kg/m2 was derived in each study from measured weight and height. Childhood socioeconomic position was indicated by the father's occupational social class, measured at the ages of 10–11 years. We examined associations between childhood socioeconomic position and anthropometric outcomes at age 7 years, 11 years, and 15 years to assess socioeconomic inequalities in each cohort using gender-adjusted linear regression models. We also used multilevel models to examine whether these inequalities widened or narrowed from childhood to adolescence, and quantile regression was used to examine whether the magnitude of inequalities differed across the outcome distribution. Findings: In England, Scotland, and Wales, 5362 singleton births were enrolled in 1946, 17 202 in 1958, 17 290 in 1970, and 16 404 in 2001. Low socioeconomic position was associated with lower weight at childhood and adolescent in the earlier-born cohorts (1946–70, but with higher weight in the 2001 MCS cohort. Weight disparities became larger from childhood to adolescence in the 2001 MCS but not the earlier-born cohorts (pinteraction=0·001. Low socioeconomic

  8. [Body mass, self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents aged 13-15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Oblacińska, Anna; Jodkowska, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationships between objective body mass index and subjective body image, life satisfaction and self-esteem of adolescents. the study was carried in 5 regions in Poland, on the sample of over 8,000 pupils aged 13-15 yrs, from randomly chosen 112 lower secondary schools. School nurses measured the height and weight of pupils, calculated the BMI and qualified overweight pupils (BMI> or =85 percentile) to the obese group (n = 953). Matching gender and age, from the rest of pupils, they found the non-obese group with BMI between 15 and 75 percentile (n = 953). Pupils from both groups participated in a questionnaire study containing the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Cantril ladder and Stunkard Body Figure Perception Questionnaire. Hierarchic regression analyses and structural equation models were calculated. in the obese group the percentage of pupils satisfied with their life was lower (76% vs 82%, pself-esteem higher than in the non-obese (37% vs 23%, plife satisfaction and self-esteem was subjective body image, and not the objective body mass index. Objective body mass (BMI) determined the body image and relationship between BMI and life satisfaction or self-esteem of adolescents was only indirect. change of subjective body image in obese adolescents is a chance for improving their quality of life and in consequence undertaking effective struggle with obesity.

  9. Oscillometric blood pressure by age and height for non overweight children and adolescents in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyumba, Emmanuel Kiyana; Nkulu, Dophra Ngoy; Mukeng, Clarence Kaut; Musung, Jacques Mbaz; Kakoma, Placide Kambola; Kakisingi, Christian Ngama; Luboya, Oscar Numbi; Malonga, Françoise Kaj; Kizonde, Justin Kalungwe; Mukuku, Olivier; Yan, Weili

    2018-01-19

    The diagnosis of hypertension in children is complex because based on normative values by sex, age and height, and these values vary depending on the environment. Available BP references used, because of the absence of local data, do not correspond to our pediatric population. Accordingly, our study aimed to provide the BP threshold for children and adolescents in Lubumbashi (DRC) and to compare them with German (KIGGS study), Polish (OLAF study) and Chinese (CHNS study) references. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 7523 school-children aged 3 to 17 years. The standardized BP measurements were obtained using a validated oscillometric device (Datascope Accutor Plus). After excluding overweight and obese subjects according to the IOTF definition (n = 640), gender-specific SBP and DBP percentiles, which simultaneously accounted for age and height by using an extension of the LMS method, namely GAMLSS, were tabulated. The 50th, 90th and 95th percentiles of SBP and DBP for 3373 boys and 3510 girls were tabulated simultaneously by age and height (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th height percentile). Before 13 years the 50th and 90th percentiles of SBP for boys were higher compared with those of KIGGS and OLAF, and after they became lower: the difference for adolescents aged 17 years was respectively 8 mmHg (KIGGS) and 4 mmHg (OLAF). Concerning girls, the SBP 50th percentile was close to that of OLAF and KIGGS studies with differences that did not exceed 3 mmHg; whereas the 90th percentile of girls at different ages was high. Our oscillometric 50th and 90th percentiles of SBP and DBP were very high compared to referential ausculatory percentiles of the CHNS study respectively for boys from 8 to 14 mmHg and 7 to 13 mmHg; and for girls from 10 to 16 mmHg and 11 to 16 mmHg. The proposed BP thresholds percentiles enable early detection and treatment of children and adolescents with high BP and develop a local program of health promotion in schools and

  10. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2008: weight, height and body mass index in 6-9-year-old children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wijnhoven, T M A

    2012-09-21

    What is already known about this subject Overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among children based on International Obesity Task Force definitions are substantially lower than estimates based on World Health Organization definitions. Presence of a north-south gradient with the highest level of overweight found in southern European countries. Intercountry comparisons of overweight and obesity in primary-school children in Europe based on measured data lack a similar data collection protocol. What this study adds Unique dataset on overweight and obesity based on measured weights and heights in 6-9-year-old children from 12 European countries using a harmonized surveillance methodology. Because of the use of a consistent data collection protocol, it is possible to perform valid multiple comparisons between countries. It demonstrates wide variations in overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among primary-school children between European countries and regions. BACKGROUND: Nutritional surveillance in school-age children, using measured weight and height, is not common in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO Regional Office for Europe has therefore initiated the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. OBJECTIVE: To present the anthropometric results of data collected in 2007\\/2008 and to investigate whether there exist differences across countries and between the sexes. METHODS: Weight and height were measured in 6-9-year-old children in 12 countries. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, stunting, thinness and underweight as well as mean Z-scores of anthropometric indices of height, weight and body mass index were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 168 832 children were included in the analyses and a school participation rate of more than 95% was obtained in 8 out of 12 countries. Stunting, underweight and thinness were rarely prevalent. However, 19.3-49.0% of boys and 18.4-42.5% of girls were overweight (including

  11. Association between Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Height Ratio and Adiposity in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Martin-Calvo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is defined as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA has been suggested as the gold standard to define obesity, but because its use is complex and expensive, anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI or the waist-to-height ratio (WtHr have been used as alternatives. The aim of this study was to review the published literature and investigate the correlation of BMI and WtHr with body fat (BF measured by DEXA in pediatric populations. References were sought in PubMed/Medline and Embase datasets. Five original articles, published between 2013 and 2015, were finally included in this review. Their sample size ranged from 83 to 5355, and the age of participants ranged from 4.9 to 19 years old. The most frequently reported association measurements were the coefficients of determination (R2, followed by correlation coefficients and least-squares regression coefficients. BF measured by DEXA was strongly correlated with both BMI (R2 ranging from 0.32 to 0.91 and WtHr (R2 ranging from 0.49 to 0.73. Thus, either BMI or WtHr may be useful to define obesity when more sophisticated techniques are not available. Our systematic review of the available literature found that neither index demonstrated superiority in assessing obesity in children.

  12. The effect of whole-body vibration on jump height and active range of movement in female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lucille C; Wyon, Matthew A

    2012-03-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to have beneficial effects on strength and power indices in sedentary and moderately trained individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 4 weeks of WBV on jump height, active range of motion (AROM), and leg anthropometry in conservatoire dance students. Seventeen female dancers were randomly assigned to a control or intervention group. The intervention group trained for 30 seconds per position at a 35-Hz frequency, 8-mm displacement in the first 2 weeks, and 40 seconds at 40 Hz for the final 2 weeks, whereas the control group carried out the same exercises but without vibration stimulation. A significant (p < 0.01) difference in the intervention group was noted over time for vertical jump and active ROM. No significant changes over time were noted in the anthropometric data. In conclusion, WBV can be used as a beneficial supplemental training intervention to increase jump and active flexibility in highly trained dancers without corresponding increases in relative anthropometric data.

  13. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...... period in 8-11-year-olds? 4.) Are there seasonal variations in changes in height, body weight (BW), BMI, FMI and FFMI of 8-11-year-olds? In the school year 2011-2012 we carried out a large randomized, controlled cross-over study among third and fourth graders in 9 Danish schools. Children were provided...... school meals based on a NND for three months and for another three months they ate packed lunch brought from home (control). At baseline, between the two dietary periods, and after the last dietary period children went through a number of investigations. In paper I we showed that ad libitum school meals...

  14. Height, socioeconomic and subjective well-being factors among U.S. women, ages 49-79.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wyshak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. METHODS/FINDINGS: Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49-79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p= 0.0333. Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance 'once a week or more often' were taller than those who reported 'none' and 'once to 3 times a month'. Means in inches are respectively for: White women-63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs-yes vs. no-63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given 'a little' strength and comfort from religion' compared to 'none' and 'a great deal', 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health-excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor-63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. CONCLUSIONS: Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated with social activities -frequent attendance clubs

  15. Height of South Asian children in the Netherlands aged 0-20 years: secular trends and comparisons with current Asian Indian, Dutch and WHO references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Jeroen A; van Dommelen, Paula; van Buuren, Stef; Middelkoop, Barend J C

    2015-01-01

    People from Asian populations are generally shorter than other ethnic groups. It is unknown if current universal height references are suitable for affluent South Asian children in the Netherlands. To develop height-for-age charts for contemporary South Asian children aged 0-20 years living in the Netherlands, to evaluate secular trends, and to compare the charts with current Asian Indian, Dutch and WHO references. A population-based study measured 3315 South Asian children aged 0-20 years between 2007-2010. Among this cohort, 6876 measurements were taken. Another 7388 measurements were taken of a historical cohort of 1078 children born between 1974-1976 (aged 0-18 years). An upward trend in height was observed for South Asian children living in the Netherlands between 1992-2010. The height-for-age charts of the South Asian historical cohort were similar to current Asian Indian charts. South Asian children in the Netherlands were shorter than their Dutch contemporaries at every age; and these differences increased further during adolescence. Compared to the WHO height-for-age references, there were considerable discrepancies in height, with curves intersecting twice. The discrepancies between the South Asian and Dutch and WHO height-for-age references indicate differences in growth patterns between the source populations.

  16. The height-, weight-, and BMI-for-age of Polish school-aged children and adolescents relative to international and local growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaga, Zbigniew; Litwin, Mieczysław; Tkaczyk, Marcin; Rózdzyńska, Agnieszka; Barwicka, Katarzyna; Grajda, Aneta; Swiader, Anna; Gurzkowska, Beata; Napieralska, Ewelina; Pan, Huiqi

    2010-03-04

    The growth of children is an indicator of health and society's wellbeing. Growth references are useful in monitoring a child's growth, which is a very important part of child care. Poland's growth references are not updated regularly. Although several growth reference ranges have been developed in Poland over recent years, sampling was restricted to urban populations of major cities. The aim of this study was to assess how well Polish children match with, or diverge from, regional charts and to compare them with international growth references. Four Polish and two international (WHO 2007 and USCDC2000) growth references were used to calculate the height, weight and BMI z-scores in a recent, large, population-representative sample of school-aged children and adolescents in Poland. The distributions of z-scores were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Mean height z-scores calculated with the use of the WHO 2007 and USCDC2000 references were positive and significantly different from zero over the entire age range. The mean height z-score was closest to zero in the Poznan reference for boys (0.05) and Warszawa reference for girls (0.01). Median weight z-scores were positive under all weight references over the entire age range with only the exception of 18-year-old girls' weight z-score calculated relative to USCDC2000. Median BMI z-scores were positive in males in early childhood, decreasing with age. In the case of girls, the median BMI z-score calculated using WHO 2007 and USCDC2000 was close to zero in early childhood, decreased in adolescents and reached minimum values at age 18 years. Median BMI z-scores calculated with the use of the Lodz reference fluctuated between 0.05 and 0.2 over the studied age range. In this contemporary sample of Polish school-aged children, distributions of height, weight and BMI differed from those of children from the international growth references. These differences should be considered when using the

  17. Weight, height and eruption times of permanent teeth of children aged 4-15 years in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutesa, Annet; Nkamba, Eriab Moses; Muwazi, Louis; Buwembo, William; Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha

    2013-03-16

    Tooth eruption is a continuous biological process by which developing teeth emerge through the jaws and the overlying mucosa to enter into the oral cavity. Tooth eruption time and sequence are important factors in dental treatment planning, particularly in orthodontics, but also in forensic dentistry to estimate age of a child. Tooth eruption time is influenced by many factors. In this study we set out to determine the timing of eruption of permanent teeth and assess its association with the height and weight of school children aged 4-15 years in Kampala, Uganda. This was a cross sectional study comprising of 1041 healthy Ugandan children: boys/girls (520/521) who were consecutively selected from two primary schools in Kampala. The children were clinically assessed for tooth emergency through the oral mucosa as well as measuring their weight and height. The mean and standard deviation of tooth eruption time was estimated for boys and girls. Bivariate analysis was used to assess any significant association between tooth eruption time and demographic variables. Pearson and partial correlation analyses were used to assess any significant association between the tooth eruption time and anthropometric measurements of the children. Generally, the mean eruption times for girls were lower compared to boys except for three teeth (#25, #32 and #42) which erupted earlier in boys. The average difference in mean eruption times of all teeth between boys and girls was found to be 0.8 (range, 0-1.5) years. In partial correlation analysis, mean tooth eruption times were positively, but not significantly associated with height while controlling for weight except for the mandibular left central incisor (#31). On the other hand, in partial correlation analysis, mean tooth eruption times were positively associated with weight while controlling for height except for tooth #11, #16, #26 and #41. The weight of the child was significantly correlated with mean eruption times in 50% of the

  18. Weight, height and eruption times of permanent teeth of children aged 4–15 years in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Tooth eruption is a continuous biological process by which developing teeth emerge through the jaws and the overlying mucosa to enter into the oral cavity. Tooth eruption time and sequence are important factors in dental treatment planning, particularly in orthodontics, but also in forensic dentistry to estimate age of a child. Tooth eruption time is influenced by many factors. In this study we set out to determine the timing of eruption of permanent teeth and assess its association with the height and weight of school children aged 4–15 years in Kampala, Uganda. Methods This was a cross sectional study comprising of 1041 healthy Ugandan children: boys/girls (520/521) who were consecutively selected from two primary schools in Kampala. The children were clinically assessed for tooth emergency through the oral mucosa as well as measuring their weight and height. The mean and standard deviation of tooth eruption time was estimated for boys and girls. Bivariate analysis was used to assess any significant association between tooth eruption time and demographic variables. Pearson and partial correlation analyses were used to assess any significant association between the tooth eruption time and anthropometric measurements of the children. Results Generally, the mean eruption times for girls were lower compared to boys except for three teeth (#25, #32 and #42) which erupted earlier in boys. The average difference in mean eruption times of all teeth between boys and girls was found to be 0.8 (range, 0–1.5) years. In partial correlation analysis, mean tooth eruption times were positively, but not significantly associated with height while controlling for weight except for the mandibular left central incisor (#31). On the other hand, in partial correlation analysis, mean tooth eruption times were positively associated with weight while controlling for height except for tooth #11, #16, #26 and #41. The weight of the child was significantly correlated with

  19. Sex Differences in the Impact of Thinness, Overweight, Obesity, and Parental Height on Adolescent Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Reichman, Brian; Shina, Avi; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Yifrach, Dror; Wiser, Itay; Afek, Arnon; Shamis, Ari; Tirosh, Amir; Twig, Gilad

    2017-08-01

    The secular trend of increasing weight may lead to a decline in height gain compared with the genetic height potential. The impact of weight on height in healthy male and female adolescents compared with their genetic height was assessed. Height and weight were measured in Israeli adolescent military recrutees aged 16-19 years between 1967 and 2013. The study population comprised 355,229 recrutees for whom parental height measurements were documented. Subjects were classified into four body mass index percentile groups according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention body mass index percentiles for age and sex:obese). Short stature was defined as height ≤ third percentile and tall stature as height ≥ 90th percentile for age and sex. Overweight-obese females had a 73% increased risk for short stature (odds ratio [OR]: 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51-1.97, p obese males had a 23% increased risk of being short (OR: 1.23, 95% CI = 1.10-1.37, p obese males and females had an increased risk of being short, and underweight females were significantly taller compared with their genetic height. The significantly increased height among underweight healthy females may reflect a potential loss of height gain in overweight-obese females. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on changes in height, bone mineral density, and body composition over 1-2 years in children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgreen, Lynda E; Thomas, William; Orchard, Paul J; Whitley, Chester B; Miller, Bradley S

    2014-02-01

    Patients with Hurler or Hunter syndrome typically have moderate to severe growth deficiencies despite therapy with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and/or enzyme replacement therapy. It is unknown whether treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) can improve growth in these children. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of hGH on growth, bone mineral density (BMD), and body composition in children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome enrolled in a longitudinal observational study. The difference in annual change in outcomes between hGH treated and untreated subjects was estimated by longitudinal regression models that adjusted for age, Tanner stage, and sex where appropriate. We report on 23 participants who completed at least 2 annual study visits (10 [43%] treated with hGH): Hurler syndrome (n=13) average age of 9.8 ± 3.1 years (range 5.3-13.6 years; 54% female) and Hunter syndrome (n=10) average age of 12.0 ± 2.7 years (range 7.0-17.0 years; 0% female). As a group, children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome treated with hGH had no difference in annual change in height (growth velocity) compared to those untreated with hGH. Growth velocity in hGH treated individuals ranged from -0.4 to 8.1cm/year and from 0.3 to 6.6 cm/year in the untreated individuals. Among children with Hunter syndrome, 100% (N=4) of those treated but only 50% of those untreated with hGH had an annual increase in height standard deviation score (SDS). Of the individuals treated with hGH, those with GHD had a trend towards higher annualized growth velocity compared to those without GHD (6.5 ± 1.9 cm/year vs. 3.5 ± 2.1cm/year; p=.050). Children treated with hGH had greater annual gains in BMD and lean body mass. In conclusion, although as a group we found no significant difference in growth between individuals treated versus not treated with hGH, individual response was highly variable and we are unable to predict who will respond to treatment. Thus

  1. Associations between adiposity, hormones, and gains in height, whole-body height-adjusted bone size, and size-adjusted bone mineral content in 8- to 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalskov, S; Ritz, C; Larnkjær, A; Damsgaard, C T; Petersen, R A; Sørensen, L B; Ong, K K; Astrup, A; Michaelsen, K F; Mølgaard, C

    2016-04-01

    We examined fat-independent associations of hormones with height and whole-body bone size and mineral content in 633 school children. IGF-1 and osteocalcin predict growth in height, while fat, osteocalcin, and in girls also, IGF-1 predict growth in bone size. Leptin and ghrelin are inversely associated with bone size in girls. Obesity causes larger bone size and bone mass, but the role of hormones in this up-regulation of bone in obesity is not well elucidated. We examined longitudinal associations between baseline body fat mass (FM), and fat-independent fasting levels of ghrelin, adiponectin, leptin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), osteocalcin, and intact parathyroid hormone, and subsequent changes in height and in whole-body height-adjusted bone area "BAheight" and size-adjusted bone mineral content "BMCsize" in 8- to 11-year-olds. Analyses were carried out separately for boys (n = 325) and girls (n = 308) including data from baseline, 3 and 6 months from OPUS School Meal Study. In both sexes: gain in BAheight was positively associated with baseline FM (≥2.05 cm(2)/kg, both p ≤ 0.003). Furthermore, gain in height was positively associated with baseline IGF-1 (≥0.02 cm/ng/ml, p = 0.001) and osteocalcin (≥0.13 cm/ng/ml, p ≤ 0.009); and gain in BAheight was positively associated with baseline osteocalcin (≥0.35 cm(2)/ng/ml, p ≤ 0.019). In girls only, gain in BAheight was also positively associated with baseline IGF-1 (0.06 cm(2)/ng/ml, p = 0.017) and inversely associated with both baseline ghrelin (-0.01 cm(2)/pg/ml, p = 0.001) and leptin (-1.21 cm(2)/μg/ml, p = 0.005). In boys, gain in BMCsize was positively associated with osteocalcin (0.18 g/ng/ml, p = 0.030). This large longitudinal study suggests that in 8- to 11-year-old children, IGF-1 and osteocalcin predict growth in height, while FM, osteocalcin, and in girls also, IGF-1 predict growth in BAheight. Fat-independent inverse

  2. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S Kahn

    Full Text Available The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD and standing waist circumference (WC describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR or WC/height ratio (WHtR may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2, but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics.Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011-2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups.The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile for men's SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165 and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690. For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175 and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738. Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40-49 (men or 60-69 (women and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education, their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked.These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral groups. Documenting the distribution and sociodemographic

  3. Plasma Creatinine, Age and Body Surface Area in Nigerian Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a bid to establish reference values for plasma creatinine in children and adolescents using age, and body surface area (BSA), 462 apparently healthy Nigerian children/adolescents aged one day to 15 years were studied. They were recruited from well baby clinics, as well as primary and secondary schools. Plasma ...

  4. Bodily disintegration and successful ageing in Body Bereft by Antjie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reads Krog's depiction of the ageing body in a small selection of poems from this collection in relation to the unavoidable reality of bodily decay and what is referred to in gerontological theory as 'successful ageing'. This tension dominates large parts of the gerontological field, and can be seen in Krog's ...

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEIGHT, SITTING HEIGHT AND SUBISCHIAL LEG LENGTH IN DUTCH CHILDREN - PRESENTATION OF NORMAL VALUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERVER, WJM; DEBRUIN, R

    A widely used method of judging body proportions is to consider the ratio of sitting height to height (SH/H) related to age. A drawback of this method is that only one derived variable is used. A pairwise consideration of the original measurements provides more information. In this study data from

  6. Obesity Index That Better Predict Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Hip Ratio, or Waist Height Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist hip ratio (WHR, and waist height ratio (WHtR to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.. Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.. Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5 cm in men and 91 cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar.

  7. The Growth of Body Size and Somatotype of Javanese Children Age 4 to 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETRI WIDIYANI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of body size (body height and body weight and somatotype in 363 girls and 299 boys aged 4 to 20 years of ethnic Javanese lived in Magelang Regency Indonesia were studied cross-sectionally. Over half of them were categorized in the well-off family, therefore underweight or underfat prevalence in our subjects was low (14.3% but overweight and obesity prevalence was also low (14%. They were shorter and lighter than reference children from U.S., Japan and Yogyakarta but they improved when compared with those of the same ethnic of Bantul and with the different ethnic of rural India. There was a clear age-related change of their somatotype. At age 4 years, the physique of children subjects in both sexes is found to be mesomorph-endomorph. Thereafter it is transformed into ectomorphic-endomorph in girls and to mesomorph-ectomorph in boys at the age of 20 years. In girl subjects, the onset of puberty was characterized by an acceleration of endomorphy component at age 8 years. While in our boys it was characterized by an acceleration of ectomorphy since age 9 years. The different growth pattern of somatotype components showed that the use of BMI as an indicator of fatness in children should be reassessed.

  8. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soung Ock; Lee, In Ja; Shin, Gwi Soon [Dept. of Radiologic Techology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8{+-}6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8{+-}7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1{+-}6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0{+-}9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1{+-}2.7 kg/m{sup 2}. 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged {>=}50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged {>=}40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  9. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  10. Peak growth velocity of height, body mass and subcutaneous fat in 10 to 14-year-old boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Carriconde Marques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O pico de velocidade em crescimento, mais especificamente em estatura, é o indicador de maturação somática mais comumente utilizado em estudos longitudinais em adolescentes, Os objetivos deste estudo foram: a descrever o momento e a magnitude dos picos de velocidade em estatura (PVE, em massa corporal (PVMC e no somatório de dobras cutâneas tricipital e subescapular (PVDC em um grupo de meninos e meninas, acompanhados dos 10 aos 14 anos de idade, b comparar estas variáveis entre os sexos, e c relacionar o momento dos picos de velocidade das três variáveis. Os sujeitos do estudo foram 70 escolares (35 meninos e 35 meninas, acompanhados dos 10 aos 14 anos de idade. Os resultados demonstraram que o pico de velocidade, nas três variáveis, ocorreu, em média, dos 12 para os 13 anos nos meninos e dois anos antes nas meninas, e a magnitude média dos picos de velocidade apresentou diferenças entre os sexos apenas no PVDC, sendo favorável às meninas. O período em que ocorreram o PVE, o PVMC, e o PVDC não apresentou correlação signifi cativa. Contudo, as análises individuais demonstraram que na maioria dos indivíduos o PVE e o PVDC aconteceram no mesmo período ou com o PVDC ocorrendo um ano após o PVE. Frente a estes resultados, conclui-se que em termos médios, o PVE, o PVMC ocorrem cerca de dois anos antes nas meninas, havendo diferença entre os sexos na magnitude apenas da gordura subcutânea. Além disto, conclui-se que existe grande variabilidade individual no período em que os picos de velocidade em EST, MC e DC ocorrem durante a adolescência, mas a maioria dos indivíduos apresenta os PVE e PVDC em períodos muito próximos. ABSTRACT Peak growth velocity, especially of height (PHV, is the most used indicator of somatic maturity in longitudinal studies of adolescents. The objectives of this study were: a to describe the time and magnitude of the peak height velocity (PHV, the peak weight velocity (PWV, and the peak

  11. "I Have to Listen to This Old Body": Femininity and the Aging Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutagumirwa, Sylivia Karen; Bailey, Ajay

    2017-10-13

    This study explores how older women with low socioeconomic status living in rural Tanzania give meaning to their (aging) body in relation to the ideals of femininity. Ten qualitative in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions (N = 60) were conducted among women aged 60 and older. The findings reveal that older women perceive their aging body as "a burden." This characterization of the body is linked to the inability of the aging body to live up to the women's gendered lives. The conflict between their physical limitations and the desire to perform gendered tasks (internalized feminine habitus) affect the women's process of self-identification. This led to emotional distress and subsequently threatened their survival and well-being. The results suggest that older women need to be supported through interventions that are tailored to their cultural and socioeconomic context. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  12. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice.

  13. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Children with Hearing Impairment versus Age and Height Matched Normal Hearing Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Barshapriya; Chatterjee, Indranil; Kumar, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Lack of proper auditory feedback in hearing-impaired subjects results in functional voice disorder. It is directly related to discoordination of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles and disturbed contraction and relaxation of antagonistic muscles. A total of twenty children in the age range of 5-10 years were considered for the study. They were divided into two groups: normal hearing children and hearing aid user children. Results showed a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, and fast adduction abduction rate having equal variance for normal and hearing aid user children, respectively, but no significant difference was found in the peak flow value with being statistically significant. A reduced vital capacity in hearing aid user children suggests a limited use of the lung volume for speech production. It may be inferred from the study that the hearing aid user children have poor vocal proficiency which is reflected in their voice. The use of voicing component in hearing impaired subjects is seen due to improper auditory feedback. It was found that there was a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation (MSP), and fast adduction abduction rate and no significant difference in the peak flow.

  14. Body image, aging, and identity in women over 50: The Gender and Body Image (GABI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeier, Sara M; Runfola, Cristin D; Sala, Margarita; Gagne, Danielle A; Brownley, Kimberly A; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study of 1,849 women over age 50 to capture the thoughts, feelings, and attitudes that women at middle age have about their bodies and the experience of aging. Via an open-ended question online survey, four primary themes emerged: (a) the physical and psychological experience of aging; (b) the injustices, inequities, and challenges of aging; (c) the importance of self-care; and (d) a plea for recognition of the need to maintain a contributory role in society. Results highlight the complexities of women's psychological and physical aspects of aging and point toward important topics worthy of further study in this growing population.

  15. Antenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Relationship with Children's Weight and Height from Birth up to the Age of 18 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Hossein; Bakhshian, Fariba; Asgari, Mohammad; Sattari, Mohammadreza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Mashayekhi, Simin Ozar

    2013-01-01

    Maternal nutritional is the most important environmental factor influencing pregnancy outcome. While studies showed association between maternal iron-micronutrient deficiencies with pregnancy outcome, data examining impact of micronutrient supplementation on growth rate beyond birth are sparse. Present study examined the relationship between iron and multivitamins supplementation on growth rate of babies up to age of 18 month. This study was a statistical analysis on data recorded through a routine procedure in health houses from 1994 to 2007. Subjects were selected by a two-stage randomization method and required data extracted from the records. Analyses were performed using STATA 10 software. Data was collected for 3835 pairs of mother-baby. Mothers received 61.7±5.4 and 115.6±53.8 multivitamins and iron tablets, respectively. Analyses showed significant relationship between children's weight and height at birth with iron supplementation and children's height at 6, 12 and 18 month with multivitamins supplementation. Mechanisms of these effects are unclear but it is safe to suggest supplementation during pregnancy is necessary.

  16. "A Body Shape Index" in middle-age and older Indonesian population: scaling exponents and association with incident hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Bun Cheung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: "A Body Shape Index" (ABSI is a recently proposed index that standardizes waist circumference for body mass index (BMI and height. This study aims to: (a examine if the ABSI scaling exponents for standardizing waist circumference for BMI and height are valid in middle-aged and older Indonesian population, and (b compare the association between incident hypertension and ABSI and other anthropometric measures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Indonesian Family Life Survey Wave 3 measured anthropometric variables and blood pressure of 8255 adults aged between 40 to 85 years in 2000. The relationship between two anthropometric quantities, e.g. weight (w and height (h, can be expressed as the power law-equivalent [Formula: see text], where p = 2 is the scaling exponent in the derivation of the BMI and can be estimated by linear regression analysis. This was extended to the regression analysis of the log-transformed waist circumference, weight and height to establish the scaling exponents in the ABSI. The values for men were similar to those developed by the previous American study, which were 2/3 (BMI and 1/2 (height. Those for women were somewhat smaller, at 3/5 (BMI and 1/5 (height. The original (American ABSI leads to mild negative correlation with BMI (-0.14 and height (-0.12 in the female population. Analysis of the development of hypertension between Waves 3 and 4 (average interval 7.5 years in relation to ABSI measured at Wave 3 showed stronger association if the locally derived (Indonesian scaling exponents were used. However, both versions of the ABSI were less associated with incident hypertension than waist circumference and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The values for the scaling exponents for ABSI are roughly similar between the American population and the middle-aged and older Indonesian population, although larger discrepancy was found in women. The ABSI is less associated with incident hypertension than waist circumference and BMI.

  17. [Study on the references regarding height and prevalence of stunting among children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years of Chinese Han ethnicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ci-he; Dong, Bin; Ma, Jun

    2012-06-01

    To develop the reference on height among children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years of Chinese Han ethnicity in different administrative districts of China and to use this height reference for screening stunting. Results from the national screening program were compared with the WHO references. Data from the Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health in 2005 was used to develop the height references through LMS method. Differences among the references on height for children and adolescents in different districts (I-IV) were remarkable. The highest was seen in the Second Districts while the lowest was seen in the First Districts among those at the age of 18, with differences as 3.18 cm for boys and 2.92 cm for girls. The heights from the inland were shorter than that of the WHO references, with the differences ranging from 0.31 cm to 5.07 cm for boys, and from 0.98 cm to 4.22 cm for girls. The prevalence rates of stunting were 2.22%, 2.29%, 5.25%, respectively according to local references, national references and the WHO references. Universal height references from the whole nation could not discriminate the variations caused by geographic conditions and hereditary factors related to socio-economic situations. Height references should be developed locally, to evaluate height levels of the areas.

  18. Relationship between perceived body weight and body mass index based on self- reported height and weight among university students: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stock Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite low rates of obesity, many university students perceive themselves as overweight, especially women. This is of concern, because inappropriate weight perceptions can lead to unhealthy behaviours including eating disorders. Methods We used the database from the Cross National Student Health Survey (CNSHS, consisting of 5,900 records of university students from Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Spain and Turkey to analyse differences in perceived weight status based on the question: "Do you consider yourself much too thin, a little too thin, just right, a little too fat or much too fat?". The association between perceived weight and body mass index (BMI calculated from self-reported weight and height was assessed with generalized non-parametric regression in R library gam. Results Although the majority of students reported a normal BMI (72-84% of males, 65-83% of females, only 32% to 68% of students considered their weight "just right". Around 20% of females with BMI of 20 kg/m2 considered themselves "a little too fat" or "too fat", and the percentages increased to 60% for a BMI of 22.5 kg/m2. Male students rarely felt "a little too fat" or "too fat" below BMI of 22.5 kg/m2, but most felt too thin with a BMI of 20 kg/m2. Conclusions Weight ideals are rather uniform across the European countries, with female students being more likely to perceive themselves as "too fat" at a normal BMI, while male students being more likely to perceive themselves as "too thin". Programs to prevent unhealthy behaviours to achieve ill-advised weight ideals may benefit students.

  19. Bias in Hazard Ratios Arising From Misclassification According to Self-Reported Weight and Height in Observational Studies of Body Mass Index and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Brian K; Graubard, Barry I

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Misclassification of body mass index (BMI) categories arising from self-reported weight and height can bias hazard ratios in studies of BMI and mortality. We examined the effects on hazard ratios of such misclassification using national US survey data for 1976 through 2010 that had both measured and self-reported weight and height along with mortality follow-up for 48,763 adults and a subset of 17,405 healthy never-smokers. BMI was categorized as self-reported data. Both the magnitude and direction of bias varied according to the underlying hazard ratios in measured data, showing that findings on bias from one study should not be extrapolated to a study with different underlying hazard ratios. Because of misclassification effects, self-reported weight and height cannot reliably indicate the lowest-risk BMI category. PMID:29309516

  20. Is waist circumference a better predictor of diabetes than body mass index or waist-to-height ratio in Iranian adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several measures of adiposity have been used for predicting diabetes. The results of studies regarding superiority of waist circumference (WC to body mass index (BMI are inconsistent. This study designed to compare the ability of different anthropometric measures in predicting diabetes and to determine their optimal cut-off values. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,000 representative sample among adults aged 20-80 years in Babol, the Northern Iran. The demographic data were collected in a household survey, and the anthropometric measures of weight, height, waist, and hip circumference were measured with a standard method. Fasting blood sugar (FBS ≥126 mg/dl was considered as diabetes. receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to estimate the predictive ability of different anthropometric indexes and their optimal cut-off values for high FBS. Results: The overall prevalence rate of diabetes was 14.0% (14.4% in men vs. 13.5% in women, P = 0.65. The prevalence rate was significantly higher in older age (>60 years, low educated and obese (P = 0.001. The mean of BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR were significantly higher among diabetic in both sexes (P = 0.001. Among men, WC (area under the ROC curve [AUC] =0.64 and WHtR (AUC = 0.63 have slightly higher accuracy index compared with BMI (AUC = 0.62 or WHR (AUC = 0.60. In contrast, among women, WHtR (AUC = 0.69 and WC (AUC = 0.68 yielded slightly better predictive than BMI (AUC = 0.67. The optimal cut-off values obtained for BMI and WHtR were similar between two sexes (BMI = 24.95 kg/m 2 for men and BMI = 25.2 kg/m 2 for women, WHtR = 0.51 for both sexes whereas the optimal cut-off value for WC was higher in men than women (98.5 cm men vs. 89.5 cm women. Conclusions: Overall WC and WHtR exhibited a slightly better discriminate performance than BMI for diabetes in both sexes, particularly in women.

  1. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  2. Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed.

  3. Aging human body: changes in bone, muscle and body fat with consequent changes in nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JafariNasabian, Pegah; Inglis, Julia E; Reilly, Wendimere; Kelly, Owen J; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2017-07-01

    Aging affects almost all physiological processes, but changes in body composition and body phenotype are most observable. In this review, we focus on these changes, including loss of bone and muscle and increase in body fat or redistribution of the latter, possibly leading to osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome. We also address low-grade chronic inflammation, prevalent in aging adults and a cause of many disorders including those associated with body composition. Changes in dietary intake and nutritional requirements of older individuals, that all may lead to some disturbances on tissue and organ levels, are discussed as well. Finally, we discuss the hormonal changes in the aging body, considering each of the tissues, bone, muscle and fat as separate endocrine organs, but yet in the continuous interface and communication with each other. Although there are still many unanswered questions in this field, this review will enable the readers to better understand the aging human body and measures needing to be implemented toward reducing impaired health and disability in older individuals. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Influence of body weight, age and management system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRETHA SNYMAN

    Abstract. The effect of doe age, body weight and different management systems, as practiced in various Angora goat studs, on reproductive performance of does was investigated. The data used were collected from 2000 to. 2004 on 12 Angora goat studs kept under different management systems. The data set analysed for ...

  5. The ageing body in Monty Python Live (Mostly)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses representations of the ageing body in the live televised show Monty Python Live (Mostly) (2014). The famous satire group performed in the O2 arena in London, and the show was telecast live in cinemas and aired on television across the world. In the show, the group members, now...

  6. Influence of body weight, age and management system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of doe age, body weight and different management systems, as practiced in various Angora goat studs, on reproductive performance of does was investigated. The data used were collected from 2000 to 2004 on 12 Angora goat studs kept under different management systems. The data set analysed for this study ...

  7. Effect of Genotype and Age on Some Morphometric, Body Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A population of 231 roosters of the Nigerian indigenous chickens of normal feathered frizzle feathered and naked neck genotypes was evaluated for the effect of genotype and age on some morphometric body linear measurements and semen characteristics of three Nigerian chicken genotypes. 20 roosters from each ...

  8. Deuterium oxide dilution and body composition in overweight and obese schoolchildren aged 6-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bila, Wendell Costa; Freitas, André Everton de; Galdino, Alexsandro Sobreira; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Pfrimer, Karina; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2016-01-01

    To correlate different methods of body composition assessment in overweight or obese schoolchildren, using deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution as a reference. Percentage of total body water (%TBW), fat free mass (%FFM), and body fat (%BF) were assessed by D2O and tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in 54 obese and overweight students aged 6-9 years. Skinfold thickness (ST), body mass index (BMI), conicity index (CI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-to-hip (WHR) ratio were also used. Mean values for body composition were 38.4%±8.4% BF, 44.9%±6.1% TBW and 61.6%±8.4% FFM. There was no significant difference in body weight, body fat mass (FM), TBW, and FFM between genders. Regarding D2O, ST underestimated %BF, and overestimated %FFM in both genders (p<0.05). BIA overestimated %TBW in the group as a whole and in males (p<0.05). The only positive and strong correlations occurred in females regarding the WC (σ=0.679), CI (r=0.634), and WHtR (r=0.666). In this sample of obese and overweight children, there were strong correlations between body composition measured by D2O and some indices and anthropometric indicators in females, but there was no positive and strong correlation of fat tissue with the indices/indicators at all ages and in both genders. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, K; Christensen, R A; Konopka, A; Scanes, C G; Hafs, H D

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares.

  10. Estimating radiation effective doses from whole body computed tomography scans based on U.S. soldier patient height and weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Robert D; Thornton, Raymond H; Schmidtlein, C Ross; Quinn, Brian; Ching, Hung; Dauer, Lawrence T

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how a patient's height and weight can be used to predict the effective dose to a reference phantom with similar height and weight from a chest abdomen pelvis computed tomography scan when machine-based parameters are unknown. Since machine-based scanning parameters can be misplaced or lost, a predictive model will enable the medical professional to quantify a patient's cumulative radiation dose. One hundred mathematical phantoms of varying heights and weights were defined within an x-ray Monte Carlo based software code in order to calculate organ absorbed doses and effective doses from a chest abdomen pelvis scan. Regression analysis was used to develop an effective dose predictive model. The regression model was experimentally verified using anthropomorphic phantoms and validated against a real patient population. Estimates of the effective doses as calculated by the predictive model were within 10% of the estimates of the effective doses using experimentally measured absorbed doses within the anthropomorphic phantoms. Comparisons of the patient population effective doses show that the predictive model is within 33% of current methods of estimating effective dose using machine-based parameters. A patient's height and weight can be used to estimate the effective dose from a chest abdomen pelvis computed tomography scan. The presented predictive model can be used interchangeably with current effective dose estimating techniques that rely on computed tomography machine-based techniques

  11. Estimating radiation effective doses from whole body computed tomography scans based on U.S. soldier patient height and weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Brian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to explore how a patient's height and weight can be used to predict the effective dose to a reference phantom with similar height and weight from a chest abdomen pelvis computed tomography scan when machine-based parameters are unknown. Since machine-based scanning parameters can be misplaced or lost, a predictive model will enable the medical professional to quantify a patient's cumulative radiation dose. Methods One hundred mathematical phantoms of varying heights and weights were defined within an x-ray Monte Carlo based software code in order to calculate organ absorbed doses and effective doses from a chest abdomen pelvis scan. Regression analysis was used to develop an effective dose predictive model. The regression model was experimentally verified using anthropomorphic phantoms and validated against a real patient population. Results Estimates of the effective doses as calculated by the predictive model were within 10% of the estimates of the effective doses using experimentally measured absorbed doses within the anthropomorphic phantoms. Comparisons of the patient population effective doses show that the predictive model is within 33% of current methods of estimating effective dose using machine-based parameters. Conclusions A patient's height and weight can be used to estimate the effective dose from a chest abdomen pelvis computed tomography scan. The presented predictive model can be used interchangeably with current effective dose estimating techniques that rely on computed tomography machine-based techniques.

  12. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.

  13. Body composition of physically active women aged over 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Antonio Herrera Mogollón

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of analyzing the body composition of physical active seniors: 116 women enrolled on the Program of Integrated Care for the older Adult in the Municipality of Chacao, Venezuela, were studied. Anthropometric variables were measured. Comparisons between variables revealed no statistical differences, with the exception of suprailiac skinfolds (p <0,05. Results indicated that most of the mean values were lower in the oldest group, with the exception of height, which was greater. The waist/hip ratio remained constant. More than 50% of women exhibited good nutritional status with appropriate body mass index. Cases of energy malnutrition were observed (defi ciencies and excesses, with overweight prevailing at around 20%. Waist circumference and the waist/hip ratio indicated that around 55% of the sample exhibited a high risk of developing chronic non-infectious illnesses. Comparisons with other population samples indicated greater similarity with those in their environment (Venezuelan and Mexican samples and with Italian and Australian women, and distant from the American pattern, with minor values of the variables compared.

  14. Body and self: a phenomenological study on the ageing body and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullington, J

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how older people (60+) experience the ageing body and how these experiences affect aged peoples' sense of identity. Explorative, open ended, interviews were conducted with 13 respondents between the ages of 63 and 82, recruited from a retired peoples' organisation, Church organisations, and from the working population. The qualitative data was analysed with a phenomenological method, the so called EPP method, the empirical phenomenological psychological method. The results showed that generally the experience of the ageing body has to do with a changed life world, reactions to this change in terms of body and self, and finding ways to feel at home in this changed situation. Results are presented as three typologies, reflecting the different ways in which the respondents described this general experience: existential awakening, making it good enough, and new possibilities. The results give support to the research that points out the importance of activity for the self esteem of the elderly. According to this study, however, the meaning of "activity" can vary and can have different sources of motivation. Respondents in only one typology expressed frustration over limitations of the ageing body. Respondents exhibited entirely different ways of relating to the fact that death was approaching, which raises questions about how the elderly experience this impending horizon. Finally, the gender differences in this small study were quite clear: all the male respondents belonged to the typology "New possibilities", raising questions about gender aspects concerning the meaning of freedom, appearance, activity, and self esteem.

  15. Body Composition Assessment from Birth to Two Years of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    During infancy and early childhood, the pace and quality of growth mark the risk of ill health in the short and longer term. Measurements of body weight and its changes are frequently taken as indicators of growth, without adequate attention being paid to linear growth or body composition during this critical window of opportunity, as these measurements are more challenging to make. To better define and characterize healthy growth, there is a need for guidance on the use of standardized methodologies to assess body composition during early life to differentiate between nutrient partitioning to fat free mass and to fat mass in infants and young children. Given the necessity for an international consensus, in 2009 the IAEA initiated a review of body composition assessment techniques as the basis for efforts aimed at the standardization of body composition assessment from birth to 2 years of age. This initiative follows the IAEA's long standing tradition of providing guidance on the use of nuclear techniques in nutrition. This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA's contribution to the transfer of technology and capacity building in this field to assist Member States in their efforts to improve the nutrition and health of infants and young children, who are among the most vulnerable population groups. This publication provides practical information on the assessment of body composition from birth up to 2 years of age and is intended for nutritionists, paediatricians and other health professionals. The body composition assessment techniques included in this publication were considered the methodologies with the highest potential for standardization globally - based on considerations such as access to equipment, cost and the training needs of staff - and include stable isotope dilution for total body water assessment as well as dual energy X ray absorptiometry and air displacement plethysmography. In addition, the

  16. Simplification of childhood hypertension definition using blood pressure to height ratio among US youths aged 8-17years, NHANES 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Zhang, Meixian; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shuangshuang; Steffen, Lyn M

    2015-02-01

    The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure (BP) established high BP diagnostic criteria using age-, sex-, and height-specific BP percentiles. However, these BP criteria are quite difficult for use by professionals in the clinic or children and their parents. We aimed to simplify the hypertension diagnostic criteria using BP to height ratio (BP/height) in US children and adolescents aged 8-17years. Data were obtained from a national representative sample of 14,624 US children and adolescents aged 8-17years enrolled in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2012. SBP to height ratio (SBPHR) was calculated as SBP (mmHg)/height (cm) and DBP to height ratio (DBPHR) was calculated as DBP (mmHg)/height (cm). The BP diagnostic criteria recommended by the fourth report were used as the "gold standard". Receive operator characteristic curve analysis was used to choose the optimal thresholds of SBPHR and DBPHR. The optimal thresholds for identifying pre-hypertension and hypertension among children aged 8-12years and adolescents aged 13-17years were determined. The negative predictive value (NPV) for identifying hypertension was nearly 100% for both children and adolescents, although the positive predictive value (PPV) ranged from 19% to 35%. The NPV for identifying pre-hypertension ranged from 95% to 99% for children and adolescents, and the PPV ranged from 11% to 52%. The optimal thresholds of SBPHR and DBPHR are simple and accurate for screening elevated BP, although PPV is relatively low because of the low prevalence of childhood hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Henry S.; El ghormli, Laure; Jago, Russell; Foster, Gary D.; McMurray, Robert G.; Buse, John B.; Stadler, Diane D.; Treviño, Roberto P.; Baranowski, Tom; HEALTHY Study Group

    2014-01-01

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R 2) and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R 2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R 2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20) than for WHtR (0.17–0.28). Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic) or girls (systolic and diastolic). In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart. PMID:25132986

  18. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S. Kahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R2 and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20 than for WHtR (0.17–0.28. Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic or girls (systolic and diastolic. In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart.

  19. Predictors of Indicators of body adiposity by chronological and biological age in children and adolescents residing in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alvear

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aims of this study were to identify the skin folds that predict the indicators of body adiposity (Body Mass Index [BMI] and waist circumference [CC], as well as to analyze if the indicators of body adiposity should be evaluated by chronological and/or biological age. Material and Methods: 131 children and adolescents (76 men and 55 women were studied. The age range ranged between 6.0 and 14.9 years. Weight, standing height, sitting height, waist circumference were evaluated. The BMI and the peak growth rate years were calculated. The nutritional status categories were determined by BMI and CC according to the cut-off points of the CDC-2012. Results: The four folds used (tricipital, bicipital, suprailiac and calf explained the BMI from 38 to 58% in men and women from 38 to 72%. The power of explanation for CC in men was 30 to 56% and in women from 27 to 53%. The chronological age explained the BMI and CC in men from 0.08 to 37% and in women from 15 to 17%. The biological age explained BMI and CC in men from 11 to 44% and in women from 21 to 24%. Conclusions: The suprailiac fold appears as the best predictor of BMI and CC in both sexes. The analysis of both indicators must be carried out by biological age rather than by chronological age.

  20. Birth Weight, Nutritional Status and Body Composition among Malaysian Children Aged 7 to 10 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ang, Yeow Nyin

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Studies have indicated that lower birth weight is associated with lower body mass index, but the use of birth weight in predicting later nutritional status and adiposity remains inconsistent. Hence, this paper aimed to examine the relationship between birth weight and nutritional status with body composition among Malaysian children. This study is part of the Nutritional Survey of Malaysian Children, which is part of the four-country South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS). Subjects comprising 398 boys and 389 girls from the main ethnic groups, namely Malays, Chinese, Indians, Sabah and Sarawak natives, were recruited using a stratified random sampling. Anthropometric measurements comprised body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body fat (BF). Body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) adjusted with height were included, and birth weight was obtained by parental report. Nutritional status such as weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ) were determined using the WHO growth reference for 5–19 years. Physical activity level was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Mean birth weight, height, weight, and BF were 3.1±0.5kg, 128.0±8.1cm, 28.4±8.9kg, and 27.9±9.1% respectively. Boys (20.4±4.2kg) had higher FFM (p<0.05) as compared to girls (19.4±4.9kg). Overall, the prevalence of stunting, underweight and thinness were 6.7%, 9.8% and 6.4%, respectively; while the prevalence of overweight and obesity were higher at 11.9% and 15.6%, respectively. Significant differences between the sexes (p<0.05) were found in HAZ (boys: -0.43±0.99; girls: -0.42±1.17) and BAZ (boys: 0.26±1.76; girls: 0.09±1.48). Children born low birth weight (<2.5kg) had lower nutritional status (WAZ:0.59±1.62; HAZ:-0.83±0.96) as compared to those with normal birth weight (WAZ: -0.05±1.62; HAZ: -0.40±1.09) and high birth weight (>4.0kg) (WAZ: 0.51±1.35; HAZ: -0.07 ± 0.67) at p<0

  1. Memory for target height is scaled to observer height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2012-04-01

    According to the embodied approach to visual perception, individuals scale the environment to their bodies. This approach highlights the central role of the body for immediate, situated action. The present experiments addressed whether body scaling--specifically, eye-height scaling--occurs in memory when action is not immediate. Participants viewed standard targets that were either the same height as, taller than, or shorter than themselves. Participants then viewed a comparison target and judged whether the comparison was taller or shorter than the standard target. Participants were most accurate when the standard target height matched their own heights, taking into account postural changes. Participants were biased to underestimate standard target height, in general, and to push standard target height away from their own heights. These results are consistent with the literature on eye-height scaling in visual perception and suggest that body scaling is not only a useful metric for perception and action, but is also preserved in memory.

  2. Effects of age, sex and body build on ECG QRS voltages in Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, O J

    1990-09-01

    The effects of age, sex and body build on ECG QRS voltages were studied in Nigerian Africans. Eighty-nine subjects consisted of 35 hypertensives, 20 patients with mitral incompetence and/or aortic incompetence and 34 healthy subjects. QRS voltage summations were made where necessary to reflect available ECG voltage criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy. Pearson's correlation coefficients were then determined between the ECG QRS voltage values and age, height, weight and body surface area in each group of subjects with the aid of an IBM 370/135 computer utilising SPSS programs. The study showed that ECG QRS voltages in our Nigerian African subjects significantly decreased with age and that men had higher voltages than women. Weight had variable effects on ECG QRS voltages. It is suggested that correction factors for age, sex and weight be determined by ECG laboratories for their population groups with the use of multiple regression analysis in order to improve on the widely used ECG QRS voltage criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy.

  3. Is body weight dissatisfaction a predictor of depression independent of body mass index, sex and age? Results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Aline; Rohrmann, Sabine; Lohse, Tina; Eichholzer, Monika

    2016-08-24

    Little is known about the association of dissatisfaction with body weight - a component of body image - with depression in individuals of different sex, age, and with different body mass index (BMI). Hence, the aim of our study was to evaluate the association of body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) with depression in different sub-groups. We analyzed data of 15,975 individuals from the cross-sectional 2012 Swiss Health Survey. Participants were asked about their body weight satisfaction. The validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to ascertain depression. Age was stratified into three groups (18-29, 30-59, and ≥60 years). The body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported body height and weight and categorized into underweight (BMI obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). The association between body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) and depression was assessed with logistic regression analyses and odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were computed. BWD was associated with depression in the overall group (OR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.66-2.50) as well as in men (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.34-2.56) and women (OR 2.25, 95 % CI 1.71-2.96) independent of BMI. The stratification by age groups showed significant associations of BWD with depression in young (OR 1.78, 95 % CI 1.16-2.74), middle-aged (OR 2.10, 95 % CI 1.61-2.74) and old individuals (OR 2.34, 95 % CI 1.30-4.23) independent of BMI. Stratification by BMI categories resulted in statistically significant positive associations of BWD and depression in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese individuals. BWD was associated with depression independent of BMI, sex and age.

  4. Growth hormone therapy of Turner syndrome: the impact of age of estrogen replacement on final height. Genentech, Inc., Collaborative Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernausek, S D; Attie, K M; Cara, J F; Rosenfeld, R G; Frane, J

    2000-07-01

    Clinical trials of recombinant human GH therapy in Turner syndrome that began more than a decade ago show that GH accelerates the linear growth rate. Several studies indicate that final height is also improved, although the magnitude of the increase has been debated. The age at which feminization is induced could be an important factor in determining the patient's ultimate growth response. To test this, 60 patients from a large (n = 117), previously unreported, clinical trial of GH treatment were randomly assigned to begin conjugated estrogens at either 12 or 15 yr of age. The 60 patients were all less than 11 yr of age at entry (mean, 9.5 yr) and received 0.375 mg/kg x week of GH for nearly 6 yr on a daily or three times weekly regimen. Height gain was calculated by comparing the study patients' final or near final heights to their pretreatment projected heights as well as to those of a separate set of age-matched, historical control patients. Patients in whom estrogen treatment was delayed until age 15 yr gained an average of 8.4 +/- 4.3 cm over their projected height, whereas those starting estrogen at 12 yr gained only 5.1 +/- 3.6 cm, on the average (P < 0.01). Analysis of the interval data showed that growth was stimulated for approximately 2 yr after estrogen initiation, but then declined in association with bone age advancement. Patients who were older than 11 yr at entry (n = 57) all initiated estrogen 1 yr after beginning GH and showed a mean gain in adult height of 4.7 cm, similar to those given estrogen at age 12 yr. Multivariate analysis revealed that the number of years of GH therapy before estrogen treatment was a strong factor in predicting height gained, indicating that the timing of estrogen introduction is an important determinant of final height in this cohort of GH-treated patients with Turner syndrome matched for baseline age and other characteristics.

  5. Gender and Age - Dependent effect of type 1 diabetes on obesity and altered body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Madej, Anna; Ziółkowska, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Małgorzata; Jeziorny, Krzysztof; Mianowska, Beata; Pietrzak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence of overweight and obesity, body composition and fatty tissue distribution in young adults with type 1 diabetes. 197 patients with type 1 diabetes aged 20-40 years participated in the study. The control group consisted of 138 healthy adults. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Analysis of body mass composition was performed using the bioimpedance. Study groups were stratified into cohorts aged obesity were diagnosed in 35.5% and 13.2% of diabetic patients and in 26.1% and 7.3% of the control group, respectively (p=0.016). In the whole study group, advanced age (OR=1.10; pobesity, but a trend toward excessive body mass was observed in diabetic females (OR=1.18; p=0.181). Diabetic females more often had abdominal obesity than control females (mean difference - 19.2%; p=0.020). Higher total body fat mass was found in the diabetic group (p=0.037). Diabetic females had a higher amount of absolute (pobesity in early adulthood more frequently than the general population and are characterized by higher body fat mass. Gender-related differences in body weight and composition in young type 1 diabetic adults were found.

  6. Temperament and body weight from ages 4 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, A R; Kerr, J A; Terracciano, A

    2017-07-01

    In adulthood, conscientiousness and neuroticism are correlates of body weight and weight gain. The present research examines whether the childhood antecedents of these traits, persistence and negative reactivity, respectively, are associated with weight gain across childhood. We likewise examine sociability as a predictor of childhood weight gain and whether these three traits are associated with weight concerns and weight-management strategies in adolescence. Participants (N=4153) were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an ongoing, population-based study of child and family health and well-being. At the baseline assessment, caregivers reported on their child's temperament. At every assessment from ages 4-5 to 14-15 years, study children were weighed and measured by trained staff; there were up to six biennial assessments of body mass index and waist circumference. At ages 14-15 years, study children (n=2975) also self-reported on their weight concerns and weight-management strategies. Study children rated lower in persistence or higher in negative reactivity in early childhood gained more weight between the ages of 4 and 15 years. Sociability was associated with weight gain among girls but not among boys. Lower persistence and higher negative reactivity at ages 4-5 years were also associated with greater weight concerns, restrained eating and use of unhealthy weight-management strategies at ages 14-15 years. Childhood traits related to conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with objective weight gain across childhood and with concerns and strategies to manage weight in adolescence. These results are consistent with a lifespan perspective that indicates that trait psychological functioning contributes to health-related markers from childhood through old age.

  7. Bone age estimation and prediction of final height in patients with {beta}-thalassaemia major: a comparison between the two most common methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoforidis, Athanasios; Katzos, George; Athanassiou-Metaxa, Miranda [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1st Paediatric Department, Thessaloniki (Greece); Badouraki, Maria [Ippokratio Hospital, Paediatric Radiology Department, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-12-15

    Thalassaemic patients are in need of frequent assessment of bone age because of growth failure and pubertal disorders. To compare the ''rapid'' Greulich and Pyle (G and P) method with the third edition of the Tanner and Whitehouse (TW3) method for determining skeletal maturity and predicting final height in thalassaemic patients. A total of 191 radiographs from 58 patients (28 male, 30 female) were retrospectively evaluated by two investigators, one for each method. In 47 radiographs from 15 patients having attained their adult height, predicted final height was calculated according to each method. The mean bone ages determined by both the G and P and TW3 methods were lower than mean chronological age, although the differences were not statistically significant (10.04 {+-} 3.69 years and 9.98 {+-} 3.39 years vs. 10.78 {+-} 3.96 years, respectively). Both methods had a tendency to over-estimate final height. Overall, the TW3 method seemed to be more accurate than the G and P method (mean absolute error 3.21 {+-} 2.51 years vs. 3.99 {+-} 2.99 years, respectively, P=0.048). The same method should be used when serial assessments are performed, as both methods provide similarly reliable, although not equivalent, results. The TW3 height prediction method seemed to be more accurate in patients with {beta}-thalassaemia major than the G and P method, albeit with a large confidence interval. (orig.)

  8. Height for age z score and cognitive function are associated with Academic performance among school children aged 8-11 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Academic achievement of school age children can be affected by several factors such as nutritional status, demographics, and socioeconomic factors. Though evidence about the magnitude of malnutrition is well established in Ethiopia, there is a paucity of evidence about the association of nutritional status with academic performance among the nation's school age children. Hence, this study aimed to determine how nutritional status and cognitive function are associated with academic performance of school children in Goba town, South East Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 131 school age students from primary schools in Goba town enrolled during the 2013/2014 academic year. The nutritional status of students was assessed by anthropometric measurement, while the cognitive assessment was measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Ravens colored progressive matrices (Raven's CPM) tests. The academic performance of the school children was measured by collecting the preceding semester academic result from the school record. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study found a statistically significant positive association between all cognitive test scores and average academic performance except for number recall (p = 0.12) and hand movements (p = 0.08). The correlation between all cognitive test scores and mathematics score was found positive and statistically significant (p academic subjects among school age children (ß = 0.53; 95 % CI: 0.11-0.95). A single unit change of age resulted 3.23 unit change in average score of all academic subjects among school age children (ß = 3.23; 95 % CI: 1.20-5.27). Nutritional status (height for age Z score) and wealth could be modifiable factors to improve academic performance of school age children. Moreover, interventions to improve nutrition for mothers and children may be

  9. Sagittal standing posture and its association with spinal pain: a school-based epidemiological study of 1196 Flemish adolescents before age at peak height velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphens, Mieke; Cagnie, Barbara; Coorevits, Pascal; Vanderstraeten, Guy; Cardon, Greet; Dʼhooge, Roseline; Danneels, Lieven

    2012-09-01

    Cross-sectional baseline data set on the sagittal standing posture of 1196 adolescents. To describe and quantify common variations in the sagittal standing alignment in boys and girls who are in the same phase of growth and to explore the association between habitual standing posture and measures for spinal pain. Data on postural characteristics and spinal pain measures in adolescence are sparse, especially when somatic and biological maturity status is to be considered. Our understanding of the relationship between standing posture in the sagittal plane and spinal pain is also deficient. A total of 639 boys (age [mean ± SD], 12.6 ± 0.54 yr) and 557 girls (10.6 ± 0.47 yr), with predicted years from peak height velocity (PHV) being 1.2 ± 0.71 and 1.2 ± 0.59 pre-PHV, respectively, were studied. Postural examination included the assessment of global alignment and local spinopelvic characteristics, using post hoc analyses of digital images and direct body measurements (palpation, digital inclinometry, and wheeled accelerometry). Spinal pain experience was assessed by questionnaire. A wide interindividual variation in sagittal posture characteristics was observed. Logistic regression analyses yielded global alignment parameters to be associated with low back pain (lifetime prevalence), neck pain (lifetime prevalence, 1-mo prevalence, and doctor visit), and thoracic spine pain (doctor visit) outcome measures. None of the included local spinopelvic parameters could be identified as an associated factor with measures of spinal pain. The orientation of gross body segments with respect to the gravity line seems superior to local spinopelvic features in terms of clinical importance, at least in the current pre-PHV cohort. Opportunities may exist for postural subgrouping strategies to begin with global alignment parameters in order to gain further insight into the relationship between sagittal alignment and the relative risk of developing spinal pain/seeking medical

  10. Final height and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Maïthé

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life with a decreased pubertal spurt. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner and adult height had now been well documented. Shorter children might benefit from a higher dose at start (50μg/kg/day). The response to GH treatment was similar for both preterm and term short SGA groups and the effect of GH treatment on adult height showed a wide variation in growth response. As a whole, mean adult height is higher than -2 SDS in 60% of patients and 70% reached an adult height in their target height with better results with higher doses and combined GnRH analog therapy in those who were short at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Body growth considerations in age-specific dosimetry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1993-09-30

    This report describes the manner in which the age-specific dosimetric calculations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) addressed changes in organ size that occur with age. The approach involves an interpolation of dosimetric information derived for six reference individuals using the inverse of the total body mass as the interpolation variable. An alternative formulation is investigated that employs a functional representation of the organ mass as a function of age in conjunction with an explicit formulation of the dosimetric factors in terms of organ mass. Using an exponential-logistic growth function as suggested by Walker, this report demonstrates, through application to the dosimetry of radioiodines in the thyroid, that the alternative formulation can be formulated and implemented. Although either approach provides a workable basis for age-specific dosimetry, it is clear that the functional representation of organ growth has some attractive features. However, without question, the major difficulty is the quality and quantity of data available to address the age- and gender-specific parameters in the dosimetric formulations.

  12. Validity of self-reported weight, height, and body mass index among university students in Thailand: Implications for population studies of obesity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lynette Ly; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2009-09-25

    Large-scale epidemiological studies commonly use self-reported weights and heights to determine weight status. Validity of such self-reported data has been assessed primarily in Western populations in developed countries, although its use is widespread in developing countries. We examine the validity of obesity based on self-reported data in an Asian developing country, and derive improved obesity prevalence estimates using the "reduced BMI threshold" method. Self-reported and measured heights and weights were obtained from 741 students attending an open university in Thailand (mean age 34 years). Receiver operator characteristic techniques were applied to derive "reduced BMI thresholds." Height was over-reported by a mean of 1.54 cm (SD 2.23) in men and 1.33 cm (1.84) in women. Weight was under-reported by 0.93 kg (3.47) in men and 0.62 kg (2.14) in women. Sensitivity and specificity for determining obesity (Thai BMI threshold 25 kg/m2) using self-reported data were 74.2% and 97.3%, respectively, for men and 71.9% and 100% for women. For men, reducing the BMI threshold to 24.5 kg/m2 increased the estimated obesity prevalence based on self-reports from 29.1% to 33.8% (true prevalence was 36.9%). For women, using a BMI threshold of 24.4 kg/m2, the improvement was from 12.0% to 15.9% (true prevalence 16.7%). Young educated Thais under-report weight and over-report height in ways similar to their counterparts in developed countries. Simple adjustments to BMI thresholds will overcome these reporting biases for estimation of obesity prevalence. Our study suggests that self-reported weights and heights can provide economical and valid measures of weight status in high school-educated populations in developing countries.

  13. Individual tree height increment model for managed even-aged stands of ponderosa pine throughout the western United States using linear mixed effects models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Uzoh; William W. Oliver

    2006-01-01

    A height increment model is developed and evaluated for individual trees of ponderosa pine throughout the species range in western United States. The data set used in this study came from long-term permanent research plots in even-aged, pure stands both planted and of natural origin. The data base consists of six levels-of-growing stock studies supplemented by initial...

  14. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology : The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J.; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Steves, Claire J.

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal

  15. Waist-height ratio in children of 7 to 11 years with high weight at birth and its relationship with gender, age and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Vargas, Nuris; Fernandez-Britto, Jose Emilio; Martinez Perez, Tania Paula; Martinez Garcia, Rolando; Castañeda Garcia, Cecilia Margarita; Garriga Reyes, Mailin; Cabrera Estrada, Claudia; Plana Labrada, Rossana; García Niebla, Rosa María; Blanco Aranguren, Fabiola

    2018-03-26

    Obesity (OB), considered as one of the Non-Transmissible Chronic Diseases, has as its fundamental characteristics that of being prevalent at a global level, increasing in number, affecting developed and developing countries, affecting both genders, and all ages and social groups. To identify if high birth weight is a predictive factor (risk factor) for abdominal obesity in children 7 to 11 years old, and its relationship to gender, age and diet. A case-control descriptive study was carried out with children born between January 1992 and December 1995, in order to identify early risk factors (atherosclerotic accelerators) such as abdominal obesity in children aged 7 to 11, and who have a history of macrosomia or high birth weight, as well as their relationship with gender, age and diet. It was observed that the waist/height value was normal in 60.8% of the study group and in 64.00% in the control group. The difference between groups, gender, and age was not significant (P=.6859). As regards the diet in the study group (macrosomic), there was no significant association between the type of diet and waist circumference/height values, with an χ 2 =0.223 and P=.6373 (not significant). In the control group (with normal weight at birth), it was found that there is a significant statistical association between the type of diet and waist circumference/height values. This means that it can be stated, with 95% reliability, that the type of diet is associated with waist/height values. High birth weight is not a predictive factor (risk factor) for abdominal obesity (increased waist/height index). Gender and age are independent for abdominal obesity (macrosomic and normal weight at birth). The diet in high birth weight children is not related to the index waist-height index, which is not the case in those born with normal weight under the same conditions. The marked increase in abdominal obesity (Waist/height index) in children between 7 and 11 years old in both groups is

  16. Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio percentiles and central obesity among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. South Asian children have higher body fat distribution in the trunk region but the literature regarding WC and related indices is scarce in this region. The study was aimed to provide age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed percentiles, and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity, among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 primary school children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed percentile curves were constructed for WC, WHR and WHtR by the LMS method. Central obesity was defined as having both age- and gender-specific WC percentile ≥90th and WHtR ≥0.5. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of central obesity and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% CI were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of WC and WHtR. Statistical significance was considered at P Results First ever age- and gender-specific smoothed WC, WHR and WHtR reference curves for Pakistani children aged five to twelve years are presented. WC increased with age among both boys and girls. Fiftieth WC percentile curves for Pakistani children were higher as compared to those for Hong Kong and British children, and were lower as compared to those for Iranian, German and Swiss children. WHR showed a plateau pattern among boys while plateau among girls until nine years of age and decreased afterwards. WHtR was age-independent among both boys and girls, and WHtR cut-off of ≥0.5 for defining central obesity corresponded

  17. Reference man and woman more fully characterized: Variations on the basis of body size, age, sex, and race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Total body neutron activation analysis, prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis, and whole body counting have been used to determine the elemental composition of the human body. The total body elements measured were potassium, nitrogen, calcium, sodium, chlorine, and phosphorus. Total body water was also determined by the dilution principle using tritiated water. Observations were made in an adult US population that totaled 1374 and ranged in age from 20 to 90 yr. The dataset for the white population consisted of 175 males and 1134 females observations; for the black population, it consisted of 30 male and 35 female observations. The variation in the elemental composition of both males and females in any 5-yr age group was large and ranged up to 20% (SD). Age-, race-, sex-, and size-specific differences were evident. When equations were developed that predicted the elemental composition of the adult on the basis of age, weight, and height, the variation in the age groups was reduced approximately in half. Age-specific mean values for the 20- to 29-yr-old white population were also compared with values for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-23 Reference Man. The open-quotes averageclose quotes young adult male was larger than Reference Man; the in vivo data also indicated a larger skeletal mass, more lean tissues and body water, but lower body sodium. When in vivo prediction equations were used to adjust for size differences, good agreement was found between the expected values and those for Reference Man. The ICRP-23 does not contain elemental data for Reference Woman; therefore, the in vivo data in the present study provide the first estimates of body composition for Reference Woman

  18. Development of Height and Body Mass Index After Pediatric Kidney Transplantation: Experience of the Nephrology Pediatric Service at HCFMRP- USP, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesheim, Elaine; Ambrósio, Valéria Laguna Salomão; Facincani, Inalda

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease in children often determines poor nutritional status. Although renal transplantation (RTx) resolves endocrine and metabolic disorders, growth continues to be suboptimal and excessive weight gain may result in obesity. Evaluating the development of height and body mass index in renal transplanted children and adolescents and identifying associated factors with final nutritional status. We reviewed the medical records of 17 patients with regular follow-ups up to 24 months after RTx. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age (H/A) and body mass index-for-age (BMI/A). It was considered catch-up growth the increase in z-score H/A ≥ 0.5 standard deviation. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the influence of factors clinical and demographic variables on anthropometric indicators at 24 months after RTx. Mean age was 9.1 ± 4.1 years old. Twenty-four months after RTx the mean z-score H/A increased from -2.66 ± 1.66 to -1.93 ± 1.08 (p ≤ 0.05), 47.0% of the patients showed catch-up growth and the same proportion showed z-score H/A growth. Twenty-four months after transplant it was verified inadequate growth to recovery from stunting and excessive weight gain. RTx promoted greater growth in the youngest patients and most stunted at RTx. A doença renal crônica em crianças geralmente determina o comprometimento do estado nutricional. Embora o transplante renal (TxR) resolva os distúrbios endócrinos e metabólicos, o crescimento continua a ser inadequado e o ganho de peso excessivo pode resultar em obesidade. Avaliar a evolução da estatura e do índice de massa corporal de crianças e adolescentes transplantados renais e identificar fatores associados com o estado nutricional final. Foram revisados os prontuários de 17 pacientes com seguimento regular até 24 meses após o (TxR). O estado nutricional foi avaliado por estatura para idade (E/I) e índice de massa corporal para idade (IMC/I). Foi considerado catch-up de

  19. Comparison of self-reported and directly measured weight and height among women of reproductive age: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijo, Mariana; Minckas, Nicole; Cormick, Gabriela; Comandé, Daniel; Ciapponi, Agustín; BelizÁn, José M

    2018-04-01

    The use of self-report as a strategy for collecting data on women's weight and height is widespread in both clinical practice and epidemiological studies. This study aimed to compare self-reported and directly measured weight and height among women of reproductive age. In July 2015 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, CINHAL, LILACS and gray literature. We included women of reproductive age (12-49 years old) independently of their weight or height at the time of the study. Women with any condition that implies regular tracking of their weight (for example, eating disorder) were excluded. Two reviewers independently selected, extracted and assessed the risk of bias of the studies. We used REVMAN 5.3 to perform the meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 statistic. Following eligibility assessment, 21 studies of 18 749 women met the inclusion criteria. The results of the meta-analysis showed an underestimation of weight by -0.94 kg (95% CI -1.17 to -0.71 kg; p self-reported vs. directly measured values. This review shows that self-reported weight and height of women of reproductive age differs slightly from direct measures. We consider that the magnitude at which self-reported data over- or underestimates the real value, is negligible regarding clinical and research use. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Age at Onset and Clinical Correlates in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Andri S.; Didie, Elizabeth R.; Grant, Jon E.; Menard, William; Stalker, Emily; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Age at onset is an important clinical feature of all disorders. However, no prior studies have focused on this important construct in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). In addition, across a number of psychiatric disorders, early age at disorder onset is associated with greater illness severity and greater comorbidity with other disorders. However, clinical correlates of age at onset have not been previously studied in BDD. METHODS Age at onset and other variables of interest were assessed in two samples of adults with DSM-IV BDD; sample 1 consisted of 184 adult participants in a study of the course of BDD, and sample 2 consisted of 244 adults seeking consultation or treatment for BDD. Reliable and valid measures were used. Subjects with early-onset BDD (age 17 or younger) were compared to those with late-onset BDD. RESULTS BDD had a mean age at onset of 16.7 (SD=7.3) in sample 1 and 16.7 (SD=7.2) in sample 2. 66.3% of subjects in sample 1 and 67.2% in sample 2 had BDD onset before age 18. A higher proportion of females had early-onset BDD in sample 1 but not in sample 2. On one of three measures in sample 1, those with early-onset BDD currently had more severe BDD symptoms. Individuals with early-onset BDD were more likely to have attempted suicide in both samples and to have attempted suicide due to BDD in sample 2. Early age at BDD onset was associated with a history of physical violence due to BDD and psychiatric hospitalization in sample 2. Those with early-onset BDD were more likely to report a gradual onset of BDD than those with late-onset in both samples. Participants with early-onset BDD had a greater number of lifetime comorbid disorders on both Axis I and Axis II in sample 1 but not in sample 2. More specifically, those with early-onset BDD were more likely to have a lifetime eating disorder (anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa) in both samples, a lifetime substance use disorder (both alcohol and non-alcohol) and borderline personality disorder

  1. Genetic contributions to the association between height and intelligence: Evidence from Dutch twin data from childhood to middle age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silventoinen, K.; Posthuma, D.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2006-01-01

    A positive association between intelligence (IQ) and height has been reported previously. It is generally assumed that this association reflects the effect of childhood environment on IQ, but there is still little research supporting directly this hypothesis. We studied the association between

  2. Navicula height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Nielsen, Rasmus Gottschalk N; Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard

    position and relaxed standing posture. Excessive movement of the navicula is considered a predisposing factor in the development of shin splits. No single direct static measurement of navicula height has yet shown to predict a high degree of mid foot movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate......, it was hypothesized that the single leg standing also would be an indicator of navicula drop, and the minimal height of tuberositas navicula during walking. Another test was suggested by Brody, it was named Navicula Drop Test (NDT) and was defined as the difference of navicula height with subtalar joint in neutral...... the relationship between static measurements, using Navicual Drop Test and One Leg Standing (OLS) and the dynamic measurements of minimal navicula height loaded (NHL) and navicula drop (ΔNH)...

  3. Evaluation of relations between body posture parameters with somatic features and motor abilities of boys aged 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lizis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Body posture is an individual characteristic for everyone, it shows great differentiation – especially in people during their progressive development. As a result, the variability of the development and lack of physical activity impose body posture defects in children and youth. In the literature there is a great lack of measureable data on the relations between correct body posture with somatic features, especially motor features in children at the developing age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between correct body posture parameters, measured with the photogrammetric method, with some of the somatic features and motor abilities of boys at the age of 14. [b]material and methods[/b]. The study included 133 boys aged 14 attending junior secondary schools in the Kraków area of Poland. Only boys with the correct body posture were examined. Posture was examined by the Moire method, through which six parameters were obtained in the sagittal plane, seven in the frontal plane, and one in the transverse plane. The somatic measurements included basic parameters, such as body weight and body height. The measurements of motor features included: marching balance test, speed movement test of the arms and their functional strength. To evaluate the relationships between correct body posture with the characteristics of somatic and motor abilities, the Spearman rank correlation was used. The lowest level of statistical significance was accepted at p ≤ 0,05. [b]results[/b]. No correlations were noted between some of the correct body posture features and the somatic features, and some of the motor abilities of the examined boys at the level of p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.01. [b]conclusions[/b]. The irregular correlation between the correct body posture and somatic and motor features probably results from the rather big development variability of the boys during puberty.

  4. Body Mass Index in the Early Years in Relation to Motor Coordination at the Age of 5–7 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Laukkanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and body mass index (BMI are consistently associated with motor coordination (MC in children. However, we know very little how BMI in early childhood associates with MC later in childhood. This study investigated associations between BMI in early childhood and BMI, PA, and MC in middle childhood. Children aged 5 to 7 years (n = 64, 32 girls were measured for MC using Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK and for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA using triaxial accelerometers. Prevailing body weight and height were measured, and information on weight and height in early years was based on parental report of child health care report cards. Age-adjusted BMIz scores were calculated on the basis of international growth curve references. Associations and the explained variability of MC were investigated by Pearson correlations and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Age and MVPA were found to be significantly associated with MC at middle childhood, in general. BMIz at middle childhood and at ages 4 and 5 years inversely explained 12% (p < 0.05, 6% (p > 0.05, and 7% (p > 0.05 of the variation in MC in girls after adjusting for covariates, respectively. In boys, BMIz scores did not show any trend of association with MC. This study suggests sex-specific mechanisms in the interplay between BMI and motor development in childhood.

  5. The height-, weight- and BMI-for-age of preschool children from Nizhny Novgorod city, Russia, relative to the international growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, Ekaterina; Kuzmichev, Yury

    2016-03-17

    Monitoring a child's growth status helps to diagnose diseases and implement curative and preventive measures. The aim of this study was to assess how well preschool children of Russian city (Nizhny Novgorod) match with, or diverge from, international growth charts (WHO2006,2007; USCDC2000). Cross-sectional study included 3,130 children aged 3-7 years attending municipal preschools of Nizhny Novgorod, the city in the European part of Russia. The study was held from February 2012 to October 2013. The international WHO2006,2007 and USCDC2000 growth references were used to calculate the height, weight and BMI z-scores. The distributions of z-scores were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Z-score equal 0.25 was considered as a benchmark for clinically significant differences. Means height z-scores calculated with the use of WHO2006, 2007 and USCDC2000 references were above the 50th centile (0.13 - 0.47) for both boys and girls. The means height z-scores was less than 0.25 SD above the 50th centile only for WHO2006. Stunting prevalence (the height-for-age z-score less than -2) was slightly higher under WHO2006 (3-4%) than under USCDC 2000 (2-3%). Stunting prevalence among children aged 5-7 years was similar under WHO2007 and USCDC2000 references (1%). For boys and girls aged 3-4 years the thinness prevalence, using WHO2006 was 2%, using USCDC2000 was 6% (p reference (13-15%) than under USCDC2000 (12-14%). In the case of age 5-7 years the overweight prevalence under WHO2007 (13-12 %) was lower than under USCDC2000 (14%). Obesity prevalence under WHO2006,2007 (3-4%) was slightly higher than that under USCDC2000 reference (2-3%). Preschoolers' distribution by groups of normal weight, overweight, obesity didn't significantly differ among the references (chi-square). The growth assessment of children aged 3-7 years attending municipal preschools of the Russian city Nizhny Novgorod under the international references (WHO2006,2007; USCDC 2000

  6. Reporting the methodology of height and weight acquisition in studies of body mass index-based prognosis in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2013-10-01

    Conflicting findings were reported on the body mass index (BMI)-based prognosis of critically patients. Errors in source weight and height data can confound BMI group allocation. The aim of the present work was to examine investigators' reporting on the methods of height and weight acquisition (HWA). PubMed and Embase databases were searched for studies describing BMI group-based risk of death in critically ill patients. Eligible studies were examined for reporting on (1) the use of measured and/or estimated HWA, (2) details of measuring devices, (3) device accuracy, and (4) methods of adjustment for acute and chronic fluid-related weight changes. Thirty studies met the eligibility criteria, including 159,565 patients. No data were provided in 13 studies (52% of reported patients) on whether estimates or measurements were used for HWA. Measured HWA was used exclusively in 6 studies (3% of patients), and an unspecified combination of estimated and/or measured HWA was reported for the remainder. Only 1 study reported the specific devices used. None of the studies provided data on the bias and precision of measuring devices. Adjustment for chronic and/or acute fluid-related weight changes was addressed in 2 studies for each. These findings demonstrate the prevalent risk for BMI group misallocation in the reviewed studies, which may confound BMI-based prognosis, raising concerns about the validity of reported BMI-related prognostic impact. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anthropometric parameters: weight height, body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern; Parametros antropmetricos: peso, talla, indice de masa corporal y volumen mamario, en relacion con el patron mamografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Candela, V.; Busto, C.; Avila, R.; Marrero, M. G.; Liminana, J. M.; Orengo, J. C. [Hospital Universitario Maternoinfantil de Canarias. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml)). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat

  8. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  9. Body image perception and its association with body mass index and nutrient intakes among female college students aged 18-35 years from Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Beitullah; Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Dehghan, Parvin; Alipour, Mahdieh

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that body image perception is an important factor in weight management and can be influenced by several social or cultural factors in Western or non-Western societies; however, body image perception and its nutritional and demographic determinants in Iran have not been extensively studied. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate body image perception and its socio-demographic and nutritional determinants among female university students in Tabriz City of Iran. In the current cross-sectional survey, 184 female students aged 18-35 years from Tabriz, Iran, were enrolled. Anthropometric variables including weight, height, waist and hip circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Body image perception and distortion were assessed by Figure Rating Scale (FRS) developed by Stunkard consisting of nine silhouettes. Nutrition intake was assessed by a 3-day 24-h dietary recall method and analyzed by Nutritionist IV software. Most of the participants in the underweight (41.66%), normal weight (67.71%) and overweight (57.14%) categories of BMI selected the thinnest figure as their desirable or ideal body image perception. The total prevalences of body image dissatisfaction and distortion were 51.63% and 64.13%, respectively. Subjects who had undistorted body image perception consumed more time for physical activity and had more night sleeping hours compared with others (P perception had healthy nutritional status compared with others. Due to high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction, the need for appropriate interventional programs to prevent the associated co-morbidities is emphasized.

  10. Influence of Age, Maturity, and Body Size on the Spatiotemporal Determinants of Maximal Sprint Speed in Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Robert W; Oliver, Jon L; Hughes, Michael G; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Cronin, John B

    2017-04-01

    Meyers, RW, Oliver, JL, Hughes, MG, Lloyd, RS, and Cronin, JB. Influence of age, maturity, and body size on the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprint speed in boys. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1009-1016, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of age, maturity, and body size on the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprint speed in boys. Three-hundred and seventy-five boys (age: 13.0 ± 1.3 years) completed a 30-m sprint test, during which maximal speed, step length, step frequency, contact time, and flight time were recorded using an optical measurement system. Body mass, height, leg length, and a maturity offset represented somatic variables. Step frequency accounted for the highest proportion of variance in speed (∼58%) in the pre-peak height velocity (pre-PHV) group, whereas step length explained the majority of the variance in speed (∼54%) in the post-PHV group. In the pre-PHV group, mass was negatively related to speed, step length, step frequency, and contact time; however, measures of stature had a positive influence on speed and step length yet a negative influence on step frequency. Speed and step length were also negatively influence by mass in the post-PHV group, whereas leg length continued to positively influence step length. The results highlighted that pre-PHV boys may be deemed step frequency reliant, whereas those post-PHV boys may be marginally step length reliant. Furthermore, the negative influence of body mass, both pre-PHV and post-PHV, suggests that training to optimize sprint performance in youth should include methods such as plyometric and strength training, where a high neuromuscular focus and the development force production relative to body weight are key foci.

  11. Chronic psychological stress and racial disparities in body mass index change between Black and White girls aged 10-19

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, AJ; Puterman, E; Epel, ES; Rehkopf, DH; Laraia, BA

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the largest health disparities in the USA is in obesity rates between Black and White females. Purpose: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the stress-obesity link is stronger in Black females than in White females aged 10-19. Methods: Multilevel modeling captured the dynamic of acute (1 month) and chronic (10 years) stress and body mass index (BMI; weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) change in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood...

  12. Height velocity and skeletal maturation in elite female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, N A; Markou, K B; Theodoropoulou, A; Vagenakis, G A; Benardot, D; Leglise, M; Dimopoulos, J C; Vagenakis, A G

    2001-11-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts performing under conditions of high intensity are exposed to particularly high levels of psychological stress and intense physical training, factors that can contribute to the observed delay in skeletal maturation and pubertal development, and alter optimal growth. The study was conducted in the field, during the International, European, and World Rhythmic Sports Gymnastics Championships of the years 1997-2000, and included 104 elite female rhythmic gymnasts, aged 12-23 yr. The study included height and weight measurements, estimation of body fat and skeletal maturation, and registration of parental height. Height, weight, target height, and predicted adult height were expressed as the SD score of the mean height and weight for age, according to Tanner's standards. Gymnasts were taller and thinner than average for age, with height velocity SD score for each age group above the 50th percentile for all age groups (n = 140, mean = 1.9 +/- 2.5). Interestingly, although height velocity in normal girls comes to an end by the age of 15, in our examined rhythmic gymnasts it continues up to the age of 18. There was a delay of skeletal maturation of 1.8 yr (n = 72, r = 0.730, P rhythmic gymnasts compensate for their loss of pubertal growth spurt by a late acceleration of linear growth. Despite the delay in skeletal maturation, genetic predisposition of growth is not only preserved, but even exceeded.

  13. Waist-to-height ratio and its association with TV viewing in a sample of Portuguese children aged 7-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Fernandes, Romulo; Gama, Augusta; Mourao, Isabel; Nogueira, Helena; Marques, Vitor; Padez, Cristina

    2017-09-10

    During the past decades, increased TV viewing and reduced physical activity (PA) levels may have contributed to the increased prevalence of pediatric obesity. This study aimed to analyze the association between TV viewing and central adiposity risk in Portuguese children. The sample comprised 3987 children (1997 girls and 1990 boys) aged 7-9 years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was calculated as the ratio of waist/height with a cut-off of 0.5 used to define risk of abdominal obesity. WHtR does not depend on sex- or age-specific reference criteria. TV viewing and PA were assessed by questionnaire. Logistic regressions were used, with adjustments for age, PA, and parental education. This study revealed a positive significant association between central adiposity risk and sedentary behaviors in Portuguese boys. In addition, the final model showed an important inverse association between PA and the risk of abdominal obesity in both boys and girls (males: β = -0.01 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.00; females: β = -0.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.00). Findings revealed that associations between TV viewing and obesity risk could be highly influenced by socioeconomic factors. Future research should extend a similar design to children in other geographic contexts, and incorporate other behavioral variables in the statistical models, to confirm or not some of the aforementioned findings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Evaluation of accuracy of body mass index in diagnosing of obesity in relation to body fat percentage in female aged 55-84 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gába, Aleš; Přidalová, Miroslava; Zając-Gawlak, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Currently, body mass index (BMI) is frequently used for evaluation of obesity prevalence. This weight to height index does not reflect variability and changes in body composition components, and therefore, the BMI prevalence data may significantly differ from those based on the body fat percentage (%BFM). For the above reason, the primary aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity according to %BFM and relate these data to BMI categories in women aged 55-84 years. 446 females with an average age of 65.8 ± 6.4 years participated in this study. Body composition was measured using InBody 720. Our results have shown high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the study sample. Number of obese subjects increased with increasing age. We found the highest prevalence of obesity in females over 80 years. Evaluation of obesity according to BMI seems to be accurate in women with BMI > 30 kg/m2. We found only 1% of nonobese subjects (evaluated according to %BFM) in this BMI category. In contrast, there was found a large number of subjects with obesity (evaluated according to %BFM) among women in 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 and 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2 BMI categories. The results have shown that obesity may be diagnosed in women with lower BMI (i.e., < 30 kg/m2). For this reason we recommend to evaluate the prevalence of obesity primarily from BFM% in this age group.

  15. Aged-Related Changes in Body Composition and Association between Body Composition with Bone Mass Density by Body Mass Index in Chinese Han Men over 50-year-old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    Full Text Available Aging, body composition, and body mass index (BMI are important factors in bone mineral density (BMD. Although several studies have investigated the various parameters and factors that differentially influence BMD, the results have been inconsistent. Thus, the primary goal of the present study was to further characterize the relationships of aging, body composition parameters, and BMI with BMD in Chinese Han males older than 50 years.The present study was a retrospective analysis of the body composition, BMI, and BMD of 358 Chinese male outpatients between 50 and 89 years of age that were recruited from our hospital between 2009 and 2011. Qualified subjects were stratified according to age and BMI as follows: 50-59 (n = 35, 60-69 (n = 123, 70-79 (n = 93, and 80-89 (n = 107 years of age and low weight (BMI: < 20 kg/m2; n = 21, medium weight (20 ≤ BMI < 24 kg/m2; n = 118, overweight (24 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m2; n = 178, and obese (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2; n = 41. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA was used to assess bone mineral content (BMC, lean mass (LM, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, lumbar spine (L1-L4 BMD, femoral neck BMD, and total hip BMD. Additionally, the FM index (FMI; FM/height2, LM index (LMI; LM/height2, FFM index (FFMI; [BMC+LM]/height2, percentage of BMC (%BMC; BMC/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%, percentage of FM (%FM; FM/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%, and percentage of LM (%LM; LM/(BMC+FM+LM × 100% were calculated. Osteopenia or osteoporosis was identified using the criteria and T-score of the World Health Organization.Although there were no significant differences in BMI among the age groups, there was a significant decline in height and weight according to age (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0002, respectively. The LMI and FFMI also declined with age (both p < 0.0001 whereas the FMI exhibited a significant increase that peaked in the 80-89-years group (p = 0.0145. Although the absolute values of BMC and LM declined with age (p = 0.0031 and p < 0

  16. Sleep duration is associated with body fat and muscle mass and waist-to-height ratio beyond conventional obesity parameters in Korean adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jee Hyun; Seo, Won Hee

    2017-08-01

    While evidence has supported a strong association between sleep duration and obesity globally, results from studies of children and adolescents have been conflicting, and information about a sex-specific association has been limited. This study aimed to investigate the association of sleep duration with various parameters of obesity among South Korean adolescents. This population-based, cross-sectional study analysed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2009 and 2010. Data of 990 adolescents were analysed. Sleep duration was based on a self-reported questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BFP) and skeletal muscle index (SMI, appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight) were assessed as parameters of obesity. Mean sleep duration in boys was associated inversely with BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and positively with SMI. Proportions of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI increased significantly with increased sleep duration only in boys. Also, in boys, decreased sleep duration was associated significantly with the increased risk of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI, even after adjusting for confounding factors. However, in girls, there was no significant association between sleep duration and obesity parameters except WC. Periodic assessment of sleep duration in relation to body fat or muscle mass in male adolescents may be considered, especially in those who are at risk for obesity or related disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Wuthering Heights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronte, Emily

    2005-01-01

    Wuthering Heights tells the story of a romance between two youngsters: Catherine Earnshaw and an orphan boy, Heathcliff. After she rejects him for a boy from a better background he develops a lust for revenge that takes over his life. In attempting to win her back and destroy those he blames for his

  18. [Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X Y; Zhang, M; Luo, X P; Wang, J J; Yin, L; Pang, C; Wang, G A; Shen, Y X; Wu, D T; Zhang, L; Ren, Y C; Wang, B Y; Zhang, H Y; Zhou, J M; Han, C Y; Zhao, Y; Feng, T P; Hu, D S; Zhao, J Z

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the association between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and the incidence risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In total, 20 194 participants ≥18 years old were selected randomly by cluster sampling from two township (town) of the county in Henan province from July to August of 2007 and July to August of 2008 and the investigation included questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profile examination were performed at baseline; 17 236 participants were enrolled in this cohort study. 14 720 (85.4%) were followed up from July to August 2013 and July to October 2014. Finally, 11 643 participants (4 301 males and 7 342 females) were included in this study. Incidence density and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the risk of T2DM associated with baseline BMI, WC, WHtR, and their dynamic changes. After average of 6.01 years following up for 11 643 participants, 613 developed T2DM and the incidence density was 0.89 per 100 person-years. After adjusted for baseline sex, age, smoking, drinking, family history of diabetes, as well as the difference of fasting plasma-glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between baseline and follow-up, Cox Proportional-Hazards regression analysis indicated that T2DM risk of baseline BMI overweight group, BMI obesity group, abnormal WC group and abnormal WHtR group were significantly higher than that of the corresponding baseline normal groups , and the incidence risk of T2DM reached the highest for those whose baseline BMI, WC and WHtR were all abnormal, the corresponding HR (95%CI) were 2.05 (1.62-2.59), 3.01 (2.33-3.90), 2.34 (1.89-2.90), 2.88 (2.21-3.74), 3.32 (2.50-4.40), respectively. Whether baseline BMI/WC was normal or not, T2DM risk increased if baseline WHtR was abnormal, and

  19. The body in the age of its making

    OpenAIRE

    Franzen, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    As SCHNITT/STELLE the body is situated within the articulation of both nature and culture. At first sight the body is flesh, physical material for (bloody) cuts which open him with the intent to disfigure or to (re)construct, change and transform the body. On the other hand the body is the inscribed locus of symbolical mapping and perceptive patterns which enable the social construction of body and gender. There is no origin, no truth or essence in the flesh itself to prescribe the b...

  20. Is body weight dissatisfaction a predictor of depression independent of body mass index, sex and age? Results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Richard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the association of dissatisfaction with body weight - a component of body image - with depression in individuals of different sex, age, and with different body mass index (BMI. Hence, the aim of our study was to evaluate the association of body weight dissatisfaction (BWD with depression in different sub-groups. Methods We analyzed data of 15,975 individuals from the cross-sectional 2012 Swiss Health Survey. Participants were asked about their body weight satisfaction. The validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 was used to ascertain depression. Age was stratified into three groups (18–29, 30–59, and ≥60 years. The body mass index (BMI was calculated from self-reported body height and weight and categorized into underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2, normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2. The association between body weight dissatisfaction (BWD and depression was assessed with logistic regression analyses and odds ratios (OR with 95 % confidence intervals (CI were computed. Results BWD was associated with depression in the overall group (OR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.66–2.50 as well as in men (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.34–2.56 and women (OR 2.25, 95 % CI 1.71–2.96 independent of BMI. The stratification by age groups showed significant associations of BWD with depression in young (OR 1.78, 95 % CI 1.16–2.74, middle-aged (OR 2.10, 95 % CI 1.61–2.74 and old individuals (OR 2.34, 95 % CI 1.30–4.23 independent of BMI. Stratification by BMI categories resulted in statistically significant positive associations of BWD and depression in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese individuals. Conclusion BWD was associated with depression independent of BMI, sex and age.

  1. Nutrient intake and dietary patterns in children 2.5-5 years of age with picky eating behaviours and low weight-for-height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volger, Sheri; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Tong, Ling M; Zhao, Dongmei; Fan, Ting; Zhang, Feng; Ge, John; Ho, Wing Man; Hays, Nicholas P; Yao, Manjiang P

    2017-01-01

    Picky eating behaviours are common in young children and may adversely affect dietary intake. This study examined the adequacy of dietary patterns and nutrient intake in preschool-aged children in China and Hong Kong with picky eating behaviours and weight-for-height in the lowest quartile of the WHO Growth Standards. Dietary intake was assessed using baseline 3-day food records from a multicenter, randomized trial in Chinese children (N=151) ages 2.5-5 years characterized as picky eaters by their parents and with weight-for-height RNI, while median intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, and vitamins C and E ranged from 52%-73% of the RNI. Vitamin D intake was only 37% of the RNI. Total fat and sodium intakes exceeded recommendations by 10% and 56%, respectively, while >16% of daily energy was derived from foods in the sweets/beverages/snack and the fats/oils groups. Almost 75% of the children met the recommended daily servings of meat/meat substitutes and nearly half met the recommendation for daily servings of fruit. Fewer met the recommendations for daily servings of vegetables (14.7%), milk/milk products (6.3%), and grains and cereals (6.3%). Young children with picky eating behaviours and low weight-for-height had suboptimal dietary patterns and were at risk for significant dietary and nutrient insufficiencies.

  2. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2-9 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrose, Kh M; Attia, A I; Ismail, I E; Abou-Kassem, D E; El-Hack, M E Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%).

  3. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation is associated with reduced height at 13 years of age and higher blood pressure in boys only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Eriksen, S E; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2016-01-01

    followed-up 100 children with assessment of growth, blood pressure, diet by FFQ and physical activity by 7-d accelerometry at 13·5 (sd 0·4) years of age. Dried whole-blood fatty acid composition was analysed in a subgroup (n 49). At 13 years of age, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA, diet, physical activity and body...

  4. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Stager, Joel; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55-64 yrs), young-old (65-74 yrs), and old (75-84 yrs) senior athletes (n = 56), physically active (n = 58) or sedentary adults (n = 65) were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height) and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception). Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (Psatisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health by ensuring the maintenance, also at older age, of a satisfactory body image.

  5. Body fat mass, lean body mass and associated biomarkers as determinants of bone mineral density in children 6-8years of age - The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soininen, Sonja; Sidoroff, Virpi; Lindi, Virpi; Mahonen, Anitta; Kröger, Liisa; Kröger, Heikki; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Atalay, Mustafa; Laaksonen, David E; Laitinen, Tomi; Lakka, Timo A

    2018-03-01

    Lean body mass (LM) has been positively associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents, but the relationship between body fat mass (FM) and BMD remains controversial. Several biomarkers secreted by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, or bone may affect bone metabolism and BMD. We investigated the associations of LM, FM, and such biomarkers with BMD in children. We studied a population sample of 472 prepubertal Finnish children (227 girls, 245 boys) aged 6-8years. We assessed BMD, LM, and FM using whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and analysed several biomarkers from fasting blood samples. We studied the associations of LM, FM, and the biomarkers with BMD of the whole body excluding the head using linear regression analysis. LM (standardized regression coefficient β=0.708, p<0.001), FM (β=0.358, p<0.001), and irisin (β=0.079, p=0.048) were positive correlates for BMD adjusted for age, sex, and height in all children. These associations remained statistically significant after further adjustment for LM or FM. The positive associations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, free leptin index, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and the negative association of leptin receptor with BMD were explained by FM. The positive associations of DHEAS and HOMA-IR with BMD were also explained by LM. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was a positive correlate for BMD adjusted for age, sex, and height and after further adjustment for FM but not for LM. LM and FM were positive correlates for BMD also in girls and boys separately. In girls, insulin, HOMA-IR, leptin, and free leptin index were positively and leptin receptor was negatively associated with BMD adjusted for age, height, and LM. After adjustment for age, height, and FM, none of the biomarkers was associated with BMD. In boys, leptin and free leptin index were positively and leptin receptor was negatively

  6. [Correlation between percentage of body fat and simple anthropometric parameters in children aged 6-9 years in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H C; Hao, Y T; Guo, Y F; Wei, Y H; Zhang, J H; Huang, G P; Mao, L M; Zhang, Z Q

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of simple anthropometric parameters in diagnosing obesity in children in Guangzhou. Methods: A cross-sectional study, including 465 children aged 6-9 years, was carried out in Guangzhou. Their body height and weight, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference were measured according to standard procedure. Body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. Body fat percentage (BF%) was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple regression analysis was applied to evaluate the correlations between age-adjusted physical indicators and BF%, after the adjustment for age. Obesity was defined by BF%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the indicators for childhood obesity. Area under-ROC curves (AUCs) were calculated and the best cut-off point that maximizing 'sensitivity + specificity-1' was determined. Results: BMI showed the strongest association with BF% through multiple regression analysis. For 'per-standard deviation increase' of BMI, BF% increased by 5.3% ( t =23.1, P <0.01) in boys and 4.6% ( t =17.5, P <0.01) in girls, respectively. The ROC curve analysis indicated that BMI exhibited the largest AUC in both boys (AUC=0.908) and girls (AUC=0.895). The sensitivity was 80.8% in boys and 81.8% in girls, and the specificity was 88.2% in boys and 87.1% in girls. Both the AUCs for WHtR and WC were less than 0.8 in boys and girls. WHR had the smallest AUCs (<0.8) in both boys and girls. Conclusion: BMI appeared to be a good predicator for BF% in children aged 6-9 years in Guangzhou.

  7. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Condello

    Full Text Available Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55-64 yrs, young-old (65-74 yrs, and old (75-84 yrs senior athletes (n = 56, physically active (n = 58 or sedentary adults (n = 65 were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception. Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (P<0.05 from each other in body mass index (BMI and several components of body image and exercise dependence. Senior athletes showed, compared to their sedentary counterparts, further differences (P<0.05 in eating attitudes and in both PCS and MCS. Mediation analysis showed that the relationship between physical activity habit and MCS, but not PCS, was indirectly explained by a serial mediation chain composed of objective BMI and subjective body image (dissatisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health

  8. Influence of body weight, age and management system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher reproductive rates were recorded under those management systems where additional or supplementary feeding at various stages of the reproductive cycle were supplied. Body weights before mating and at scanning had significant positive relationships with reproduction. For every kilogram increase in body weight ...

  9. Impact of Incident Heart Failure on Body Composition Over Time in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Daniel E; Santanasto, Adam J; Boudreau, Robert; Harris, Tamara; Kanaya, Alka M; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Butler, Javed; Kizer, Jorge R; Newman, Anne B

    2017-09-01

    Prevalence of heart failure (HF) increases significantly with age, coinciding with age-related changes in body composition that are common and consequential. Still, body composition is rarely factored in routine HF care. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort study of nondisabled adults. Using yearly dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, body composition was assessed in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study over 6 years, comparing those who developed incident HF versus those who did not. Among 2815 Health, Aging, and Body Composition participants (48.5% men; 59.6% whites; mean age, 73.6±2.9 years), 111 developed incident HF over the 6-year study period. At entry into the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, men and women who later developed HF had higher total body mass when compared with those versus those who did not develop HF (men, 80.9±10 versus 78.6±12.9 kg, P =0.05; women, 72.7±15.0 versus 68.2±14.2 kg, P =0.01, respectively). However, after developing HF, loss of total lean body mass was disproportionate; men with HF lost 654.6 versus 391.4 g/y in non-HF participants, P =0.02. Loss of appendicular lean mass was also greater with HF (-419.9 versus -318.2 g/y; P =0.02), even after accounting for total weight change. Among women with HF, loss of total and appendicular lean mass were also greater than in non-HF participants but not to the extent seen among men. Incident HF in older adults was associated with disproportionate loss of lean mass, particularly among men. Prognostic implications are significant, with key sex-specific inferences on physical function, frailty, disability, and pharmacodynamics that all merit further investigation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Does BMI generated by self-reported height and weight measure up in older adults from middle-income countries? Results from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildner, Theresa E; Barrett, Tyler M; Liebert, Melissa A; Kowal, Paul; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported (SR) body mass index (BMI) values are often used to determine obesity prevalence. However, individuals frequently overestimate their height and underestimate their weight, resulting in artificially lower obesity prevalence rates. These patterns are especially apparent among older adults and overweight individuals. The present cross-sectional study uses nationally representative datasets from five countries to assess the accuracy of SR BMI values in diverse settings. Samples of older adults (≥50 years old) and comparative samples of younger adults (18-49 years old) were drawn from five middle-income countries (China, India, Mexico, Russian Federation, and South Africa) in the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). Participant-reported and researcher-obtained height and weight measures were used to calculate SR and measured BMI, respectively. Paired t-tests assessed differences between SR and measured BMI values by country. Linear regressions examined the contribution of measured weight and age to differences between SR and measured BMI. Significant differences between SR and measured BMI values were observed (p BMI in all countries (p BMI discrepancy, except in China (p BMI may not accurately reflect measured BMI in middle-income countries, but the direction of this discrepancy varies by country. This has considerable implications for obesity-related disease estimates reliant on SR data.

  11. The Body in New Age from the Perspective of the Subtle Body: The Example of the Source Breathwork Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre Koppel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the perception of the body among Source Breathwork practitioners. Source Process and Breathwork can be classified as a New Age healing practice that aims to heal the person as a whole. There is also a specific emphasis on healing birth trauma, which is understood as healing the fundamental experience of an individual’s life. The body in New Age can be described with the notion of the ‘subtle body’, a non-dualistic approach to the body that blurs the boundaries between ‘matter’ and ‘spirit’. Subtle bodies, the ‘places’ where healing occurs, are considered energetic, invisible and nebulous. The concept of the subtle body as a scholarly tool is applied in the analysis of fieldwork data collected between 2011 and 2013 in Estonia. In a Source community, the body is considered to be energetic and to include chakras. Members of the community claim that the functioning of the body and well-being in life bear upon negative and positive thoughts or decisions that are held in the subconscious and embedded at a cellular level in the body. Moreover, the breathwork practitioners believe that an individual already makes fundamental decisions about life in the womb or during birth. Since the perception of the body and birth are closely interrelated in the Source community, the meaning of birth is viewed from the perspective of the subtle body

  12. The Body in New Age from the Perspective of the Subtle Body: The Example of the Source Breathwork Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre Koppel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the perception of the body among Source Breathwork practitioners. Source Process and Breathwork can be classified as a New Age healing practice that aims to heal the person as a whole. There is also a specific emphasis on healing birth trauma, which is understood as healing the fundamental experience of an individual’s life. The body in New Age can be described with the notion of the ‘subtle body’, a non-dualistic approach to the body that blurs the boundaries between ‘matter’ and ‘spirit’. Subtle bodies, the ‘places’ where healing occurs, are considered energetic, invisible and nebulous. The concept of the subtle body as a scholarly tool is applied in the analysis of fieldwork data collected between 2011 and 2013 in Estonia. In a Source community, the body is considered to be energetic and to include chakras. Members of the community claim that the functioning of the body and well-being in life bear upon negative and positive thoughts or decisions that are held in the subconscious and embedded at a cellular level in the body. Moreover, the breathwork practitioners believe that an individual already makes fundamental decisions about life in the womb or during birth. Since the perception of the body and birth are closely interrelated in the Source community, the meaning of birth is viewed from the perspective of the subtle body.

  13. Validity of self-reported body mass index among middle-aged participants in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Guri; Mode, Nicolle; Henningsen, Maria; Borch, Kristin Benjaminsen

    2015-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight has been criticized as being biased because of an observed tendency for overweight and obese people to overestimate height and underestimate weight, resulting in higher misclassification for these groups. We examined the validity of BMI based on self-reported values in a sample of Norwegian women aged 44–64 years. Methods The study sample of 1,837 participants in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study self-reported height and weight, and then, within 1 year, either self-reported anthropometric again, or were measured by medical staff. Demographic and anthropometric were compared using t-tests and chi-square tests of independence. Misclassification of BMI categories was assessed by weighted Cohen’s kappa and Bland–Altman plot. Results On average, the two measurements were taken 8 months apart, and self-reported weight increased by 0.6 kg (Pself-reported and measured values. There was substantial agreement between self-reported values and those measured by medical staff (weighted kappa 0.73). Under-reporting resulting in misclassification of BMI category was most common among overweight women (36%), but the highest proportion of extreme under-reporting was found in obese women (18% outside the 95% limits of agreement). The cumulative distribution curves for the measured and self-reported values closely followed each other, but measurements by medical staff were shifted slightly toward higher BMI values. Conclusion While there was substantial agreement between self-reported and measured BMI values, there was small but statistically significant under-reporting of weight and thus self-reported BMI. The tendency to under-report was largest among overweight women, while the largest degree of under-reporting was found in the obese group. Self-reported weight and height provide a valid ranking of BMI for middle-aged Norwegian women. PMID:26170718

  14. Impact of micronutrients sprinkle on weight and height of children aged 6-36 months in Tonk district of Rajasthan state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Jyoti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India, multiple micronutrient deficiencies continue to be a major public health problem, especially for children below three years of age. It is a crucial period for the growth and development of children. There is lack of data from Rajasthan state on the effect of micronutrients supplementation on growth of children below three years of age. Aims & Objectives: To assess the impact of ICDS supplementary food with or without micronutrients sprinkles on weight and height of children aged 6-36 months in the Tonk district, Rajasthan state. Materials & Methods: The trial was conducted in the 15 Angan wadi centers, each from Tonk (rural and Malpura blocks of Tonk District in Rajasthan state. Children from both blocks were considered as experimental and control groups. Experimental (N=790 and Control groups (N=540 received ICDS supplementary food for six months with or without micronutrients sprinkles. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standard techniques. Results: At baseline, children with severe underweight, severe stunting and severe wasting in experimental group stood at 19.2%, 19.3%, 7.3%, respectively, which declined to 14.9%, 15.3% and 6.3%, after intervention. Significant difference was observed in the mean weights of post intervention children between experimental and control groups, whereas, there was no significant difference in mean heights. In experimental group, statistical significant difference was also noted in the mean weights and heights of children between pre and post intervention periods. Conclusion: Micronutrients sprinkles can be effective in reducing malnutrition amongst vulnerable population.

  15. Age estimation by 3D CT-scans of the Borremose Woman, a Danish bog body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Møller Rasmussen, Maria; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Non-invasive estimation of age at death has been carried out by using 3D CT scanning of a bog body discovered in 1948 in a peat bog in Borremose (Denmark). The bog body has been dated to the 8th century BC, in the last part of the Bronze Age. The skeletal structures useful for age estimation have...

  16. Season, sex and age variation in the haematology and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body condition and haematological indices provide powerful information when assessing wildlife health. Reference intervals for these indices can facilitate wildlife management, and would benefit initiatives to save the Critically Endangered geometric tortoise (Psammobates geometricus). We collected data from 126 ...

  17. Association between Infancy BMI Peak and Body Composition and Blood Pressure at Age 5–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and blood pressure at age 5–6 years were investigated. Methods Measurements from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study were available for this study. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and body composition measures (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, fat percentage) were gathered during a health check at about 6 years of age (n = 2822). All children had multiple BMI measurements between the 0–4 years of age. For boys and girls separately, child-specific BMI peaks were extracted from mixed effect models. Associations between the estimated BMI peak and the health check measurements were analysed with linear models. In addition, we investigated the potential use of the BMI at 9 months as a surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. Results After correction for the confounding effect of fetal growth, both timing and magnitude of the BMI peak were significantly and positively associated (pBMI peak showed no direct association with blood pressure at the age 5–6 year, but was mediated by the current BMI. The correlation between the magnitude of the BMI peak and BMI at 9 months was approximately 0.93 and similar associations with the measures at 5–6 years were found. Conclusion The magnitude of the BMI peak was associated with body composition measures at 5–6 years of age. Moreover, the BMI at 9 months could be used as surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. PMID:24324605

  18. Sugar-containing beverage intake in toddlers and body composition up to age 6 years: the Generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leermakers, E T M; Felix, J F; Erler, N S; Ćerimagić, A; Wijtzes, A I; Hofman, A; Raat, H; Moll, H A; Rivadeneira, F; Jaddoe, V W V; Franco, O H; Kiefte-de Jong, J C

    2015-03-01

    Intake of sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) has been associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in childhood. The potential effect of SCB intake during infancy is unclear. We examined the association of SCB intake at 13 months with BMI development until 6 years and body composition at age 6 years. This study included 2371 Dutch children from a population-based prospective cohort study. SCB intake at 13 months was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire with validation against 24-h recalls and was standardized for total energy. BMI was calculated from repeated weight and height measurements, and age- and sex-specific s.d. scores were calculated. Adiposity was measured using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In girls, higher SCB intake at 13 months was significantly associated with higher BMI at ages 2, 3, 4 and 6 years (at age 6 years BMI (s.d. score) increase 0.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) +0.00; 0.23), high versus low intake). We observed a tendency towards higher android/gynoid fat ratio in girls with high intake (s.d. increase 0.14 (95% CI -0.02; 0.29), versus low intake) but not with body fat percentage. In boys, there was no association with BMI or body composition, but boys with high SCB intake at 13 months were taller at age 6 years (s.d. increase 0.14 (95% CI +0.00; 0.27), versus low intake). Higher SCB intake at 13 months was associated with higher BMI up to age 6 years in girls but not in boys. Our results imply that the unfavorable effects of SCB intake start early in life and that dietary advice regarding limiting SCB intake should already be given early in life.

  19. Body weight status and onset of cognitive impairment among U.S. middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaoling; An, Ruopeng

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between body weight status and onset of cognitive impairment among U.S. middle-aged and older adults. Study sample came from 1996 to 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, consisting of 6739 community-dwelling adults born between 1931 and 1941 who were free from cognitive impairment in 1996. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height/weight. Cognitive impairment was defined by a composite score of 11 or lower on the immediate and delayed word recall, serial 7's, and backwards counting tests. Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazards model were performed to examine the association between base-year body weight status and future onset of cognitive impairment. Compared with their normal weight counterparts, the unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for cognitive impairment incidence was 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 1.38-3.00), 1.15 (1.02-1.29), 1.28 (1.14-1.43), and 1.59 (1.33-1.92) among underweight (BMIweight status and cognitive impairment were attenuated but remained statistically significant for underweight participants. Underweight is a robust risk factor for onset of cognitive impairment in later life. Weight management programs targeting middle-aged and older adults should focus on achieving and maintaining optimal body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of nutrition in early life with body fat and serum leptin at adult age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Maillot, M; Deheeger, M; Souberbielle, J C; Péneau, S; Hercberg, S

    2013-08-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that experiences during early life could have long-term health consequences. However, the role of early nutrition in programming obesity and leptin resistance is still poorly understood. We aimed at determining whether nutritional intakes in early life are associated with body composition and hormonal status at 20 years. Healthy infants participating in the two-decade-long prospective ELANCE (Etude Longitudinale Alimentation Nutrition Croissance des Enfants) study were examined at 10 months and 2 years. At 20 years, weight, height, subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis, and serum leptin concentration were recorded in 73 subjects still participating in the follow-up. In adjusted linear regression models, an increase by 100 kcal in energy intake at 2 years was associated with higher subscapular skinfold thickness (β=6.4% SF, 95% confidence interval 2.53-10.30, P=0.002) and higher FFM (0.50 kg, 0.06-0.95, P=0.03) at 20 years. An increase by 1% energy from fat at 2 years was associated with lower subscapular skinfold thickness (-2.3% SF, -4.41 to -0.18, P=0.03), lower FM (-0.31 kg, -0.60 to -0.01, P=0.04) and lower serum leptin concentration (-0.21 μg l(-1), -0.39 to -0.03, P=0.02) at 20 years. Low-fat intake in early life was negatively associated with body fat (particularly at the trunk site) and serum leptin concentration at 20 years, suggesting that early low-fat intake could increase the susceptibility to develop overweight and leptin resistance at later ages. These findings substantiate current recommendations against restricting fat intake in early life and open new directions for investigating the origin of obesity.

  1. Biometria ocular, erro refrativo e sua relação com a estatura, idade, sexo e escolaridade em adultos brasileiros Ocular biometry, refractive error and correlation with height, age, gender and years of formal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Campanelli Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os parâmetros biométricos oculares e o erro refrativo em adultos brasileiros e a sua relação com a estatura, idade, sexo e escolaridade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que avaliou 173 indivíduos pela ceratometria, ecobiometria, refração e aferição da estatura. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo coeficiente de Pearson e pela elaboração de um modelo de regressão. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se que: a cada aumento de 10 cm na estatura, esperar-se-ia encontrar um comprimento axial 0,32 mm mais longo, profundidade da câmara anterior 0,07 mm mais profunda, profundidade da cavidade vítrea 0,26 mm mais profunda e ceratometria 0,50 D mais plana; a cada aumento de 10 anos na idade esperar-se-ia encontrar profundidade da câmara anterior 0,15 mm mais rasa, cristalino 0,25 mm mais espesso, profundidade da cavidade vítrea 0,21 mm mais rasa e equivalente esférico 0,23 D mais positivo; a cada 10 anos de escolaridade esperar-se-ia equivalente esférico 0,74 D mais negativo. O sexo não apresentou influência. Equações referentes aos parâmetros biométricos e ao equivalente esférico foram formuladas. CONCLUSÕES: Correlações positivas foram encontradas entre: comprimento axial e estatura; profundidade da câmara anterior e da cavidade vítrea e estatura; espessura do cristalino e idade; ceratometria e estatura; equivalente esférico e idade. Correlações negativas foram encontradas entre: profundidade de câmara anterior e da cavidade vítrea e idade; equivalente esférico e escolaridade.PURPOSE: To assess ocular biometric parameters and refractive error in Brazilian adults and their relationship with height, age, gender and years of formal education. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that assessed 173 subjects by keratometry, echobiometry, refraction and measurement of body height. The statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's coefficient and a regression model was constructed. RESULTS: The correlations found were

  2. Oil Palm Counting and Age Estimation from WorldView-3 Imagery and LiDAR Data Using an Integrated OBIA Height Model and Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mojaddadi Rizeei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study proposes a new method for oil palm age estimation and counting. A support vector machine algorithm (SVM of object-based image analysis (OBIA was implemented for oil palm counting. It was integrated with height model and multiregression methods to accurately estimate the age of trees based on their heights in five different plantation blocks. Multiregression and multi-kernel size models were examined over five different oil palm plantation blocks to achieve the most optimized model for age estimation. The sensitivity analysis was conducted on four SVM kernel types (sigmoid (SIG, linear (LN, radial basis function (RBF, and polynomial (PL with associated parameters (threshold values, gamma γ, and penalty factor (c to obtain the optimal OBIA classification approaches for each plantation block. Very high-resolution imageries of WorldView-3 (WV-3 and light detection and range (LiDAR were used for oil palm detection and age assessment. The results of oil palm detection had an overall accuracy of 98.27%, 99.48%, 99.28%, 99.49%, and 97.49% for blocks A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. Moreover, the accuracy of age estimation analysis showed 90.1% for 3-year-old, 87.9% for 4-year-old, 88.0% for 6-year-old, 87.6% for 8-year-old, 79.1% for 9-year-old, and 76.8% for 22-year-old trees. Overall, the study revealed that remote sensing techniques can be useful to monitor and detect oil palm plantation for sustainable agricultural management.

  3. Impact of the age at menarche on body composition in adulthood: results from two birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Bubach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that early menarche is positively associated with adiposity in adulthood. However, it is important to assess whether this association is due to early menarche or to the association of adiposity in late childhood with age at menarche. We evaluated the association between age at menarche and body composition in adolescence and adulthood, among subjects who have been prospectively followed in two Brazilian birth cohort studies. Methods In 1982 and 1993, the hospitals births in Pelotas were identified, and these subjects have been followed for several times. Information on age at menarche was obtained from the women (1982 cohort and their mothers (1993 cohort. At 30 and 18 years, the following body composition measures were evaluated: body mass index, waist circumference, fat-free mass index and fat mass index measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and thickness of the abdominal visceral fat layer measured by ultrasound. The analyses were adjusted for: birth weight, maternal pregestational weight, gestational age, family income, household score index, maternal schooling, weight-for-height z-score at 4 years (1982, and body mass index at 11 years (1993. Results At 30 and 18 years, 2045 and 2092 women were evaluated, respectively. The prevalence of early menarche (≤11 years of age was 24.7 % in the 1982 and 27.6 % in the 1993 cohort. In the 1982 cohort, early menarche was positively associated with all body composition variables compared to those with late menarche (≥14 years of age even after adjusting for confounders (fat mass index: 2.33 kg/m2, 95 % Confidence interval: 1.64; 3.02. However, in the 1993 cohort, after adjusting for body mass index at 11 years, the regression coefficient for the association with fat mass index decreased from 2.2 kg/m2 (95 % Confidence interval: 1.7; 2.6 to 0.26 (95 % Confidence interval: −0.08; 0.60. Conclusions The association between age at menarche

  4. Chronic psychological stress and racial disparities in body mass index change between Black and White girls aged 10-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa S; Rehkopf, David H; Laraia, Barbara A

    2013-02-01

    One of the largest health disparities in the USA is in obesity rates between Black and White females. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the stress-obesity link is stronger in Black females than in White females aged 10-19. Multilevel modeling captured the dynamic of acute (1 month) and chronic (10 years) stress and body mass index (BMI; weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) change in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, which consists of 2,379 Black and White girls across a span of socioeconomic status. The girls were assessed longitudinally from ages 10 to 19. Higher levels of stress during the 10 years predicted significantly greater increases in BMI over time compared to lower levels of stress. This relationship was significantly stronger for Black compared to White girls. Psychological stress is a modifiable risk factor that may moderate early racial disparities in BMI.

  5. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9-15: the Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Lilian A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32. The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively. The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104 and self-esteem (p=0.09 were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01 and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016 and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01 only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02, but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02. It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the nonpractitioners group.

  6. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and age-related differences of body composition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Bruna; Laccetti, Roberta; Gerardi, Clara; Trio, Rossella; Perrino, Nunzia Ruggiero; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Siani, Alfonso; Farinaro, Eduardo; Colantuoni, Antonio

    2007-03-01

    Significant changes in body composition that have important health related effects may occur in the elderly. In this study, we evaluated the bioelectrical characteristics in a large group of apparently healthy Caucasian men in the age range 50-80 years, as a function of age and body mass index. We studied 315 men with ages ranging from 50 to 80 years. They were divided into three groups according to body mass index (kg/m(2)): 18.5-24.9 normoweight (NW); 25.0-29.9 overweight (OW); > or =30 obese (OB), and they were classified in nine age subgroups: 50-59 (young-old, YO); 60-69 (old, O); 70-80 (oldest, OS). Fat-free mass, fat mass and body cell mass were investigated using conventional bioelectrical impedance analysis. Body composition was also assessed by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis and the RXc graph method. Body cell mass decreased significantly with age particularly in subgroups of the OW and OB groups (pbioelectrical impedance analysis indicating decreased soft tissue mass (fat-free mass and body cell mass), particularly in OW and OB-OS healthy men. We suggest 70 years of age as a cut-off for significant quantitative and qualitative (tissue electrical properties) body composition modifications. This bioelectrical impedance vector analysis pattern associated with ageing and across the different body mass index categories, may be useful for clinical purposes and can be used in geriatric routine to accurately assess the body composition modifications occurring in the elderly.

  7. Body weight status and onset of functional limitations in U.S. middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Shi, Yuyan

    2015-07-01

    The sweeping obesity epidemic could further increase the incidence of functional limitations in the U.S. rapidly aging population. To examine the relationship between body weight status and onset of functional limitations in U.S. middle-aged and older adults. Study sample came from 1992 to 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height/weight. Functional limitations were classified into physical mobility limitation (PM), large muscle function limitation (LMF), activities of daily living limitation (ADL), gross motor function limitation (GMF), and fine motor function limitation (FMF). Mixed-effect logistic regressions were performed to estimate the relationship between prior-wave body weight status and current-wave onset of functional limitations, adjusted for individual characteristics and survey design. Prior-wave body weight status prospectively predicted onset of functional limitation, and the relationship showed a U-shaped pattern. Compared with their normal weight counterparts, the odds ratios (ORs) in underweight (BMI adults were 1.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.62) and 2.31 (2.11-2.52) for PM, 1.20 (0.96-1.50) and 1.63 (1.49-1.79) for LMF, 2.02 (1.66-2.46) and 1.40 (1.28-1.54) for ADL, 1.96 (1.60-2.39) and 1.77 (1.62-1.93) for GMF, and 1.66 (1.37-2.02) and 1.34 (1.22-1.46) for FMF, respectively. For PM, LMF and GMF, the impact of obesity appeared more pronounced in women, whereas that of underweight more pronounced in men. Proper weight management during aging is crucial in preventing functional limitations in middle-aged and older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Age variations in anthropometric and body composition characteristics and undernutrition among female Bathudis: a tribal population of Keonjhar District, Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Kaushik; Chakraborty, Falguni; Bisai, Samiran

    2007-09-01

    A cross-sectional study of 183 female Bathudis, a tribal population of the Keonjhar District, Orissa, India, was undertaken to investigate age variations in anthropometric and body composition characteristics and nutritional status. The subjects were categorized into three age groups: 50 years. Height, weight, circumferences and skinfolds data were collected. Body mass index (BMI) and several body composition variables and indices were derived using standard equations. The results revealed that there existed significant negative age variations for most of the anthropometric and body composition variables and indices. Correlation studies of age with these variables and indices revealed significant negative correlations. Linear regression analyses revealed that for all variables, age had a significant negative impact. Studies on the nutritional status of these women revealed that with increasing age, there was an increase in the frequency of undernutrition. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that among Bathudi women, age was significantly negatively related with anthropometric and body composition variables and indices. Moreover, with increasing age, the level of undernutrition increased.

  9. Body-Mind-Spirit Practice for Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Yoon, Hyunsook; Lee, Jungui; Yoon, Jiyoung; Chang, Eunjin

    2012-01-01

    This community-based, health promotion intervention for seniors provided a comprehensive review of the effect of body-mind-spirit (BMS) interventions on health behaviors. The 12-week curriculum offered sessions on exercise, nutrition, sexuality, leisure, stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, forgiveness, and happiness. Gerontological…

  10. Relationship of testicular development with age, body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to measure the development of several testicular characteristics and to investigate the relationship between testicular parameters with body growth, semen characteristics and serum testosterone levels in growing ram lambs. Seventeen single born Kivircik ram lambs from three to four year old ewes ...

  11. Analysis of longitudinal data of height z-scores in kindergarten children - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernitzki, Anna-Franziska; Pospisil, Christina; Musalek, Martin; Mumm, Rebekka; Scheffler, Christiane

    2017-07-01

    Changes in body height throughout extended historic periods are very complex and dynamic processes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the pattern of longitudinal height z-scores changes in children before and after entering kindergarten. In summer 2016, we measured height and weight of 32 children from 4 groups of two kindergartens aged 3-6 years. All ages were centered according to the age of entry into the kindergarten. For each child we determined mean z-scores for height before and after entering the kindergarten, and assessed the variances for each kindergarten group. Twenty-two children targeted in height z-scores towards average height of their respective kindergarten group, 10 children did not. Due to the small numbers, the convergence in height variance however, remained insignificant (chi-squared independence test, p = 0.127). Additional studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm this pilot study.

  12. Mapping tropical dry forest height, foliage height profiles and disturbance type and age with a time series of cloud-cleared Landsat and ALI image mosaics to characterize avian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.H. Helmer; Thomas S. Ruzycki; Jr. Joseph M. Wunderle; Shannon Vogesser; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Charles Kwit; Thomas J. Brandeis; David N. Ewert

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest vertical structure is possible with lidar data, but lidar is not widely available. Here we map tropical dry forest height (RMSE=0.9 m, R2=0.84, range 0.6–7 m), and we map foliage height profiles, with a time series of Landsat and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) imagery on the island of Eleuthera, The Bahamas, substituting time for vertical canopy...

  13. Relation between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index-for-age among Schoolchildren of Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Mir Fa; Hakami, Bassam M; Hezam, Asma Aa; Hakami, Raed Y; Saadi, Fadwa A; Ageeli, Layla M; Alsagoor, Wafqah H; Faqeeh, Mohammad A; Dhae, Mohammed A

    2017-04-01

    To analyze and report the type of relation present between dental caries and body mass index (BMI)-for-age among schoolchildren in Jazan region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study with multi-staged random sampling technique was designed to recruit the sample of schoolchildren. Caries was examined using the World Health Organization recommended "decayed and filled teeth"/"decayed missing and filled teeth (dft/DMFT)" method. The BMI-for-age was calculated using the value obtained from body weight and height (kg/m 2 ) of each child. The obtained results were plotted on age- and gender-specific percentile curves by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and categorized accordingly. Chi-squared test was conducted to analyze the relation between BMI-for-age and dental caries. Logistic regression was performed to judge the predictor variables. The p-value fast food, and snacks between meals were significant independent predictor variables for BMI (p health promoters about dental caries as a reason for low BMI in a subset of children. High and alarming percentage of untreated dental caries demonstrates the oral health needs among the schoolgoing children in Jazan region. Public health dentists should develop and implement prevention programs so that the oral health issues among schoolchildren are addressed.

  14. Scrotal Circumference After Adjustment For Age And Body Condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    29.3 ± 2.1 and 31.2 ± 1.6 centimetres for 4 year age bracket, respectively, in group 1. Values for group 2 were 17.7 ± 3.1, 22.1 ± 2.5, 24.0 ± 2.1 and 26.1 ± 1.7 centimetres for <2, 2-3, 3-4 and <4 year age bracket, respectively. SC showed significant (P < 0.001) increase with advancement of age but was ...

  15. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajšman, Katarina; Jerina, Klemen; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2017-01-01

    We analysed effects of females' body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults), hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013-2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea), although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova) even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition.

  16. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and body composition of the child at age 6 y: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Marion; Leermakers, Elisabeth Tm; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Steegers, Eric Ap; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-10-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy may affect body composition of the offspring later in life, but evidence is still scarce. We aimed to examine whether maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy are associated with body composition of the child at age 6 y. This study was performed among 2695 Dutch mother-child pairs from a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onward. Maternal diet was assessed in early pregnancy by a 293-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Vegetable, fish, and oil; nuts, soy, and high-fiber cereals; and margarine, snacks, and sugar dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis. We measured weight and height of the child at age 6 y at the research center. Total body fat and regional fat mass percentages of the child were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the crude models, statistically significant associations were found for higher adherence to the vegetable, fish, and oil dietary pattern and the nuts, soy, and high-fiber cereals dietary pattern with lower body mass index, lower fat mass index, and lower risk of being overweight, but none of these associations remained significant after adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. We found no associations between the margarine, snacks, and sugar dietary pattern and any of the outcomes. Our results suggest that the associations between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and body composition of the child at age 6 y are to a large extent explained by sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of mother and child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity on the island of Ireland: results from the North South Survey of Children's Height, Weight and Body Mass Index, 2002.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelton, Helen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is emerging as a major public health problem in developed and developing countries worldwide. The aim of this survey was to establish baseline data on the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI). METHODS: The heights and weights of 19,617 school-going children and adolescents aged between 4 and 16 years in NI and RoI were measured using standardised and calibrated scales and measures. The participants were a representative cross-sectional sample of children randomly selected on the basis of age, gender and geographical location of the school attended. Overweight and obesity were classified according to standard IOTF criteria. RESULTS: Males were taller than females, children in RoI were taller than those in NI and the more affluent were taller than the less well off. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among females than males in both jurisdictions. Overall, almost one in four boys (23% RoI and NI) and over one in four girls (28% RoI, 25% NI) were either overweight or obese. In RoI, the highest prevalence of overweight was among 13 year old girls (32%) and obesity among 7 year old girls (11%). In NI the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity were found among 11 and 8 year old girls respectively (33% and 13%). CONCLUSION: These figures confirm the emergence of the obesity epidemic among children in Ireland, a wealthy country with the European Union. The results serve to underpin the urgency of implementing broad intersectoral measures to reduce calorie intake and increase levels of physical activity, particularly among children.

  18. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; pbody mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, pbody dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group.

  19. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9–15: The Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; pbody mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=−0.17, pbody dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  20. The construction of a new image of bodiness: The subculture of the third-age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacanova Sofija V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains an analysis of the place of bodiness in the system of the third-age subculture. The author investigates the main components of the third-age subculture, her features and causes of her emergence. The problem of constructing of bodiness has been considered in terms of demand for certain types of bodiness in contemporary culture. The author especially stopped the attention on the new phenomenon of nakedness in aesthetics of contemporary oldness.

  1. Body esteem and self-esteem in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchowska-Kotala, Agnieszka

    2017-04-28

    The aims of the study were (a) to identify predictors of body esteem and (b) to expand on previous research by examining the link between global self-esteem and body esteem in a community-based sample of women in midlife. We found that body esteem in midlife women was predicted by body mass index (BMI), optimism, self-esteem, and menopausal symptoms. Although BMI was the main predictor of body esteem in middle-aged women, global self-esteem was more strongly related to feelings about appearance and physical condition than feelings about body size.

  2. A prospective study of calf factors affecting age, body size, and body condition score at first calving of holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, A J; Heinrichs, B S; Harel, O; Rogers, G W; Place, N T

    2005-08-01

    Data were collected prospectively on parameters related to first calving on 18 farms located in Northeastern Pennsylvania. This project was designed to study possible residual effects of calf management practices and events occurring during the first 16 wk of life on age, BW, skeletal growth, and body condition score at first calving. Multiple imputation method for handling missing data was incorporated in these analyses. This method has the advantage over ad hoc single imputations because the appropriate error structure is maintained. Much similarity was found between the multiple imputation method and a traditional mixed model analysis, except that some estimates from the multiple imputation method seemed more logical in their effects on the parameter measured. Factors related to increased age at first calving were increased difficulty of delivery, antibiotic treatment of sick calves, increased amount of milk or milk replacer fed before weaning, reduced quality of forage fed to weaned calves, maximum humidity, mean daily temperature, and maximum ammonia levels in calf housing areas. Body weight at calving tended to increase with parity of the dam, increased amount of grain fed to calves, increased ammonia levels, and increased mean temperature of the calf housing area. Body condition score at calving tended to be positively influenced by delivery score at first calving, dam parity, and milk or milk replacer dry matter intake. Withers height at calving was positively affected by treatment of animals with antibiotics and increased mean temperature in the calf area. This study demonstrated that nutrition, housing, and management factors that affect health and growth of calves have long-term effects on the animal at least through first calving.

  3. Body Mass Index (BMI assessment among Macau students: age group differences and weight management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Walter King Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is associated with being overweight later in life. Therefore, overweight tendencies need to be detected at an appropriate age, and suitable strategies need to be implemented for weight management to achieve optimal long-term health. The objective of this study was to investigate comparisons in BMI status and associated categories in male and female students over ten years in two phases, including 2008-2013 and 2009-2014. Weight and height data were collected to obtain BMI (Body Mass Index over ten years in two phases. The first phase occurred from 2008 to 2013, and the second phase occurred from 2009 to 2014 in a population of 10846 school children (Males: 6970, 64.3%, and females: 3875, 35.7% in Macau. Their ages ranged from 6 years old in 2008 to 11 years old in 2013. The same age range was observed in the second phase, i.e., 2009-2014. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, such as the mean, standard deviation, t-tests to determine gender differences (year-wise and a Chi square test for independence to determine the relationship between BMI (Underweight, Standard, Overweight and Obese and age groups. In the first phase (2008-2013, the findings indicated a higher BMI level among the male students than the female students across all age groups (2008 t = 5.24, 2009 t = 88.25, 2010 t = 11.32, 2011 t = 17.45, 2012 t = 19.70 and 2013 t = 19.92. In the second phase (2009-2014, a higher BMI level was found among the male students than the female students across all age groups (2009 t = 2.68, 2010 t = 2.886, 2011 t = 3.076, 2013 t = 4.228, and 2014 t = 2.405. The results of the two phases combined (2008 to 2014 and 2009 to 2014 revealed that male students in 2008 had a higher BMI level than their counterparts in 2009 in the two age categories (8 years t = 3.025 and 11 years t = 3.377. Female students in the second phase (2009-2014 showed a higher BMI level than their

  4. Body composition changes in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Aging or disease process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Wen; Lin, Chieh-Mo; Li, Hung-Chou; Hsiao, Pei-Lin; Chung, An-Chi; Hsieh, Chu-Jung; Wu, Pi-Chi; Hsu, Shu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mainly affects middle-age and elderly adults. It is unclear if the presence of muscle wasting and fat accumulation in patients with COPD is age or disease-related. This study investigated the effect of age and COPD disease severity on body composition with the aim of identifying a biomarker(s) for COPD. Healthy subjects and patients with COPD of different severity were recruited. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze total and segmental body composition. Subjects included in the analysis were classified into four groups: healthy young (aged 20-45 years) (n = 35), healthy old (aged ≥ 60 years) (n = 37), moderate COPD (n = 40), and severe COPD (n = 14). In healthy old adults, leg and limb lean masses were lower by 10.6% and 8.5%, respectively, compared with healthy young adults (P changes in total and segmental body composition with aging and COPD severity. It found that aging and COPD altered the body composition differently, and the effect was most pronounced in leg lean mass. Remarkably, differences in appendicular lean masses were seen in mild COPD although no changes in body weight or BMI were apparent compared with healthy young adults. In contrast, fat depot changes were only observed in severe COPD. Aging and COPD processes are multifactorial and additional longitudinal studies are required to explore both the quantitative and qualitative changes in body composition with aging and disease process.

  5. Adaptive re-tracking algorithm for retrieval of water level variations and wave heights from satellite altimetry data for middle-sized inland water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Lebedev, Sergey; Soustova, Irina; Rybushkina, Galina; Papko, Vladislav; Baidakov, Georgy; Panyutin, Andrey

    One of the recent applications of satellite altimetry originally designed for measurements of the sea level [1] is associated with remote investigation of the water level of inland waters: lakes, rivers, reservoirs [2-7]. The altimetry data re-tracking algorithms developed for open ocean conditions (e.g. Ocean-1,2) [1] often cannot be used in these cases, since the radar return is significantly contaminated by reflection from the land. The problem of minimization of errors in the water level retrieval for inland waters from altimetry measurements can be resolved by re-tracking satellite altimetry data. Recently, special re-tracking algorithms have been actively developed for re-processing altimetry data in the coastal zone when reflection from land strongly affects echo shapes: threshold re-tracking, The other methods of re-tracking (threshold re-tracking, beta-re-tracking, improved threshold re-tracking) were developed in [9-11]. The latest development in this field is PISTACH product [12], in which retracking bases on the classification of typical forms of telemetric waveforms in the coastal zones and inland water bodies. In this paper a novel method of regional adaptive re-tracking based on constructing a theoretical model describing the formation of telemetric waveforms by reflection from the piecewise constant model surface corresponding to the geography of the region is considered. It was proposed in [13, 14], where the algorithm for assessing water level in inland water bodies and in the coastal zone of the ocean with an error of about 10-15 cm was constructed. The algorithm includes four consecutive steps: - constructing a local piecewise model of a reflecting surface in the neighbourhood of the reservoir; - solving a direct problem by calculating the reflected waveforms within the framework of the model; - imposing restrictions and validity criteria for the algorithm based on waveform modelling; - solving the inverse problem by retrieving a tracking point

  6. Relation of hypertension with body mass index and age in male and female population of Peshawar, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humayun, A.; Shah, A.S.; Sultana, R.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension, a condition developed as a result of high blood pressure is strongly correlated with body mass index (BMI). Obesity was noted to be a single best predictor of hypertension incidence, and was regarded as a major controllable contributor to hypertension. Overweight and obesity is conveniently determined from BMI. Present study was conducted in Khyber Medical College (KMC) Peshawar to investigate the relation of hypertension with BMI and age. The objective of the present investigation is to establish a relationship between hypertension and BMI in male and female population of Peshawar with consideration of age. Methods: This study was conducted at KMC, Peshawar during 2008-2009. A total of 1006 adult male and female volunteers were the subject of present research and were categorised in terms of their ages. BMI was determined from weight and height; the subjects were grouped as normal, overweight and obese. Hypertension was determined from the measure of blood pressure. Results: The results show a consistence relation between BMI and hypertension within age groups in both male and females. The figures exhibited a relation of age with BMI and hypertension in both males and females subjects. Conclusion: The results showed a higher trend of hypertension with increasing BMI. In young females it was noted that with a shift from normal BMI the incidence of hypertension was very high. (author)

  7. Body Posture Asymmetry in Prematurely Born Children at Six Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachwał, Maciej; Piwoński, Paweł; Perenc, Lidia; Przygoda, Łukasz; Zajkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Aims The purpose of the study was to assess body posture asymmetries in the standing and sitting position in prematurely born children at six years of age. Study Design and Subjects We measured trunk symmetry in coronal plane. The study was carried out in a group of 101 children, aged 6-7 years, mean age of 6.63, including 50 preterm children born at gestational age posture in the coronal plane, between preterm children and full-term children. Premature birth does not have adverse effects related to body posture asymmetry in preterm children at the age of six. PMID:29181408

  8. Discrepant body mass index: behaviors associated with height and weight misreporting among US adolescents from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardene, Wasantha; Lohrmann, David; YoussefAgha, Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    The accuracy and reliability of self-reported height and weight among adolescents in the process of calculating BMI is usually subject to bias. The aim of this study was to determine whether over- and under-reporting of self-reported height and weight existed among US high school students by weight category; if so, to examine anthropometric, behavioral, and demographic factors associated with over- and under-reporting. Data were retrieved from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, 2010, a nationally representative sample (7160 students, grades 9-12). Analysis of variance was performed to determine any significant difference between weight categories in misreporting. Discriminant function analysis and sequential logistic regression were executed to detect behavioral and demographic predictors of reporting accuracy, respectively. The mean over-reporting of height and under-reporting of weight were 1.1 cm and 1.020 kg, respectively, which underestimated BMI and BMI percentile by 0.671 and 2.734, respectively. Use of self-reported height and weight for BMI calculation overestimated prevalence of healthy weight by 3.8% and underestimated prevalence of obesity by 4.1%. Underweight students under-reported height and over-reported weight, whereas overweight and obese students over-reported height and under-reported weight. Reporting accuracy of females was significantly higher. Weight loss behaviors, both healthy and unhealthy, were associated with BMI underestimation, whereas fast foods and screen time were associated with overestimation. Whenever possible, measuring height and weight is essential. However, because many studies must rely on self-reported values alone, additional research should examine the relationships between misreport of anthropometric data and lifestyle features in diverse adolescent samples to better interpret self-reported anthropometric data.

  9. Age estimation by 3D CT-scans of the Borremose Woman, a Danish bog body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Møller Rasmussen, Maria; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Non-invasive estimation of age at death has been carried out by using 3D CT scanning of a bog body discovered in 1948 in a peat bog in Borremose (Denmark). The bog body has been dated to the 8th century BC, in the last part of the Bronze Age. The skeletal structures useful for age estimation have...... been visualized from CT-scans using the Mimics software from Materialise. Extensive manual editing was necessary, as is common with bog bodies, since the bones were severely degraded and the ordinary range of Hounsfield Units (HU), used for clinical work, is not suitable. Only the cranium, the left...

  10. Relation between body weight, growth rate, chronological age and puberty in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, E; Pinilla, L; Guisado, R; González, D; López, F

    1984-03-01

    Body weight, growth rate, chronological age and puberty in female and male rats from litters of 8 and 12 offsprings/mother have been studied. Age and body weight at the moment of vaginal opening (VO) and balanopreputial separation (BPS) were analyzed. Results show that animals reared in smaller groups grew faster than others. After weaning there was an increase in growth rate. VO and BPS occurred at the same age in groups with different growth rates and different body weights. In conclusion this work evidences that external signs of sexual maturation are not linked to a "critical weight" or to a "growth rate".

  11. Population Aging as the Social Body in Representation and Real Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Crampton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article uses three levels of body analysis as presented by Nancy Scheper-Hughes and Margaret Lock to compare old age as a construct in population aging discourse with research on lived experience of people aging in the United States and Ghana. I first describe how demographers construct social bodies as becoming “gray” through population statistics and how policy makers then use dependency ratios to rationalize intervention on behalf of older adults in the body-politic.  The construction of old age within this discourse is then compared with ethnographic research that suggests this construct leaves out much of the lived experience familiar to anthropologists of aging.  Rather than debunk the old age construct, however, the purpose of this article is to argue for study of population aging discourse as constituting a social body reflecting cultural constructions of nature and society.  Moreover, this representation is made real through policy and social intervention work, and with very real effect on people’s lives. As such, an anthropology of aging bodies can include the social life of old age as a social construct.

  12. [Age-, gender- and diagnosis-specific differences in the body image of psychosomatic outpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Astrid; Braunheim, Michael; Heuft, Gereon; Schneider, Gudrun

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates body image with respect to the age, gender, and psychiatric diagnosis (ICD-10) of psychosomatic outpatients based on apriori formulated hypotheses. 865 of the 1114 patients examined over the course of 10 months in a psychosomatic clinic agreed to participate in the study and filled in the Frankfurt Body Concept Scales (FKKS, Deusinger 1998). Patients with one or more psychiatric diagnoses showed significantly more impaired body images than did healthy controls examined with the FKKS. Especially patients with eating disorders stood out. Men generally had more positive body images than women. Higher age was related to some subscales, but not to the sumscore of the FKKS. We discuss the complex relationship between gender- and age-related differences, mental disorders and body image, as well as their therapeutic implications.

  13. Challenging the role of social norms regarding body weight as an explanation for weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases: Development and application of a new approach to examining misreporting and misclassification bias in surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Broeck Jan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural pressures to be thin and tall are postulated to cause people to misreport their body weight and height towards more socially normative (i.e., desirable values, but a paucity of direct evidence supports this idea. We developed a novel non-linear approach to examining weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases and used this approach to examine the association between socially non-normative weight and misreporting biases in adults. Methods The Survey of Lifestyles, Attitudes, and Nutrition 2007 (SLÁN 2007, a nationally representative survey of the Republic of Ireland (N = 1942 analyzed was used. Self-reported weight (height was classified as under-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm, over-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm, or accurately reported within 2.0 kg (2.0 cm to account for technical errors of measurement and short-term fluctuations in measured weight (height. A simulation strategy was used to define self-report-based BMI as under-estimated by more than 1.40 kg/m2, over-estimated by more than 1.40 kg/m2, or accurately estimated within 1.40 kg/m2. Patterns of biases in self-reported weight, height, and BMI were explored. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mis-estimated BMI and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR and 99% confidence intervals (99%CI. Results The patterns of bias contributing the most to BMI mis-estimation were consistently, in decreasing order of influence, (1 under-reported weight combined with over-reported height, (2 under-reported weight with accurately reported height, and (3 accurately reported weight with over-reported height. Average bias in self-report-based BMI was -1.34 kg/m2 overall and -0.49, -1.33, and -2.66 kg/m2 in normal, overweight, and obese categories, respectively. Despite the increasing degree of bias with progressively higher BMI categories, persons describing themselves as too heavy were, within any given BMI category, less likely to have under

  14. Prediction of Body Weight of Broilers at Different Ages from Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of live body weight from six body measurements was studied using the Cobb broiler strain. A total of two hundred and sixty-four chicks comprising of one hundred and thirty- four at males and females were used. Mean body weights day-old, 3,6,9 and 12 weeks of age were 36.7g, 276.16g, 856.72, 1,334.1g ...

  15. Body mass index associations between mother and offspring from birth to age 18: the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanton, S; Choh, A C; Lee, M; Laubach, L L; Linderman, J K; Czerwinski, S A; Peterson, M J

    2017-06-01

    Parental obesity is a known determinant of childhood obesity. Previous research has shown a strong maternal influence on body mass index (BMI) during infancy and early childhood. The purpose of this research was to investigate the BMI associations between mother and offspring from birth to age 18 years. Participants were selected from the Fels Longitudinal Study. The current study sample includes 427 (215 mother/son and 212 mother/daughter) mother/child pairs. These pairs are repeatedly measured at multiple age groups in children, resulting in a total of 6,263 (3,215 mother/son, 3,048 mother/daughter) observations for data analysis. Inclusion criteria were children with measured height and weight for BMI collected at ages 0 to 18 years and their mother with BMI data. Maternal influences of BMI on offspring BMI from birth to early adulthood were analyzed by Spearman correlations and linear regression analyses. Mother/son BMI correlations became statistically significant ( p  ≤ 0.05) at age 5-6 years and were significant through puberty and into early adulthood at age 18 years. Mother/daughter correlations became significant at age 1.5 years and also continued through adolescence, puberty and early adulthood at age 18 years. Associations persisted after the study sample was grouped into life stages and adjusted for decade of birth and parity. The mother/daughter relationship was more strongly correlated than the mother/son relationship and also became statistically significant at an earlier age than boys.

  16. Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

  17. Gender and Age Patterns in Emotional Expression, Body Image, and Self-Esteem: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kilmartin, Christopher T.; Forssmann-Falck, Renate; Kliewer, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Used written narratives to examine gender and age patterns in body image, emotional expression, and self-esteem for 209 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results indicate that boys restrict emotional expression in adolescence, whereas girls increase emotional expression in the same period. Girls also are more influenced by body image. (SLD)

  18. Genetic influences on the difference in variability of height, weight and body mass index between Caucasian and East Asian adolescent twins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hur, Y.M.; Kaprio, J.; Iacono, W.G.; Boomsma, D.I.; McGue, M.; Silventoinen, K.; Martin, N.G.; Luciano, M.; Visscher, P.M.; Rose, R.J.; He, M.; Ando, J.; Ooki, S.; Nonaka, K.; Lin, C.C.H.; Lajunen, H.R.; Cornes, B.K.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Cherny, S.S.; Mitchell, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Twin studies are useful for investigating the causes of trait variation between as well as within a population. The goals of the present study were two-fold: First, we aimed to compare the total phenotypic, genetic and environmental variances of height, weight and BMI between Caucasians

  19. Weight, height, and relative-reliability indicators as a management tool for reducing age at first breeding and calving of dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Cue, R I; Santschi, D E; Lefebvre, D M; Lacroix, R

    2015-03-01

    In Québec first calving occurs on average at 27 mo, whereas the target is 23 to 24.5 mo to maximize herd profitability. The aim of this study was to quantify current and future heifer growth using individual heifer random regressions and to generate indicators (such as heifer weight and height at 15 and 24 mo, average daily gain before and after 15 mo, age at which optimal weight for breeding is attained, i.e., 55% of mature weight, and reliability of the 15- and 24-mo weight predictions) that could be used as a practical on-farm tool. Dairy heifer weight estimated by heart girth circumference and height measured at the withers (from 0 to 27 mo) were obtained from the Valacta database (DHI agency, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada) from 1995 to 2012. Indicators were calculated based on the current situation of Holstein (HO), Ayrshire (AY), Jersey (JE), and Brown Swiss (BS) heifer growth in Québec. Heifers with less than 2 records were excluded from the analysis. Mature weights were determined by weight at calving of cows from third or greater lactation for a given breed and were 710 kg for HO, 625 kg for AY, 470 kg for JE, and 670 kg for BS. Estimated weights at 15 and 24 mo were 425 and 627, 334 and 482, 297 and 429, and 379 and 560 kg for HO, AY, JE, and BS, respectively, which are heavy enough for breeding and calving, except for AY. Relative reliabilities of the 15- and 24-mo weight predictions were on average 89 and 60%, respectively, based on measurements up to 15 mo. For HO, AY, JE, and BS, wither heights at 15 and 24 mo were 134 and 143, 125 and 134, 122 and 131, and 130 and 140 cm, respectively. Age at optimal breeding weight was 13.6, 15.5, 12.6, and 14.5 mo for HO, AY, JE, and BS, respectively. These data suggest that it is realistic to expect a first calving at 24 mo for HO, JE, and BS. A growth delay was observed for AY; average daily gain was 655 and 538 g/d before and after 15 mo, respectively. The average daily gain before and after 15 mo was 848

  20. [Effects of growth hormone treatment on anthropometrics, metabolic risk, and body composition variables in small for gestational age patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Bueno Lozano, Olga; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2017-05-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) children without catch-up growth can benefit from treatment with growth hormone (rhGH). However, they should be monitored very closely because they are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome. A group of 28 SGA children with a mean age of 8.79 years and undergoing treatment with rhGH were selected for evaluation. Over the course of 4 years, an annual evaluation was performed on the anthropometric variables (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], growth rate, blood pressure and waist perimeter), metabolic risk variables (glycaemia, glycosylated haemoglobin, cholesterol ratio, insulinaemia, insulin-like growth factor 1[IGF1], IGF binding protein-3 [IGFBP-3], IGF1/IGFBP3 ratio, and HOMA index), and body composition variables. Treatment with rhGH was associated with a significant increase in height (-2.76±.11 SD to -1.53±.17 SD, P=.000), weight (-1.50±.09 SD to -1.21±.13 SD; P=.016), and growth rate (-1.43±.35 SD to .41±.41 SD; P=.009), without a corresponding change in the BMI. Insulinaemia (9.33±1.93mU/ml to 16.55±1.72mU/ml; P=.044) and the HOMA index (3.63±.76 to 6.43±.67; P=.042) increased, approaching insulin resistance levels. No changes were observed in the lipid profile. Body composition changes were observed, with a significant increase in lean mass (73.19±1.26 to 78.74±1.31; P=.037), and a reduction of fat mass (26.81±1.26 to 21.26±1.31; P=.021). Treatment with rhGH is effective for improving anthropometric variables in SGA patients who have not experienced a catch-up growth. It also produces changes in body composition, which may lead to a reduction in risk of metabolic syndrome. However, some insulin resistance was observed. It is important to follow up this patient group in order to find out whether these changes persist into adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. The link between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents: similarities across gender, age, weight status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Patricia A; Mond, Jonathan; Eisenberg, Marla; Ackard, Diann; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined whether the cross-sectional association between body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem varies across gender, age, body weight status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). We also examined the association longitudinally. A school-based survey of eating, weight, and related attitudes was conducted with a diverse sample of adolescents aged 11-18 years (N = 4,746). Height and weight were measured in the schools at Time 1. Participants were resurveyed through mails 5 years later (Time, 2; N = 2,516). The relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem was strong and significant in both boys and girls (all p values p = .16), or between the middle school and high school cohorts in either boys (p = .79) or girls (p = .80). Among girls, the relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem was strong, but did vary across weight status, race/ethnicity, and SES (all p values = .0001-.03). The relationship was nonsignificant in underweight girls (p = .36), and weaker but still significant among black, Asian, and low SES group girls (all p values p values = .18-.79). In longitudinal analyses, the strength of the association did not change significantly as adolescents grew older. Findings indicate that body dissatisfaction and self-esteem are strongly related among nearly all groups of adolescents. This suggests the importance of addressing body image concerns with adolescents of all backgrounds and ages.

  2. Contextualizing older women's body images: Time dimensions, multiple reference groups, and age codings of appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekula, Clary

    2016-01-01

    The article sheds light on older women's body images and problematizes assumptions that women's aging is more painful and shameful than men's aging since men are not expected to live up to youthful beauty norms, the so-called double standard of aging hypothesis. Based on 12 qualitative interviews with women from the age of 75 from the Swedish capital area, I argue that older women have access to a double perspective of beauty, which means that they can relate to both youthful and age-related beauty norms. The results also illustrate that women's body image is created in a context where previous body images are central and that this time perspective can contribute toward a positive body image. Further, the results show how age codings of appearance-related qualities create a narrow framework for older women's body images and point to the benefits of shifting the analytical focus toward a material-semiotic body where corporeality and discourse are seen as interwoven.

  3. Growth velocity and final height in elite female rhythmic and artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Roupas, Nikolaos A; Rottstein, Loredana; Tsekouras, Athanasios; Mylonas, Panagiotis; Vagenakis, George A; Koukkou, Eftychia; Armeni, Anastasia K; Sakellaropoulos, George; Leglise, Michel; Vagenakis, Apostolos G; Markou, Kostas B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of intensive training on adult final height in elite female rhythmic and artistic gymnasts. The study included 215 rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 113 artistic gymnasts (AG). AG were below the 50th percentile, while RG were taller than average. Final adult height was lower than target height in AG, while in RG, it exceeded target height. AG started training earlier than RG (p<0.001) and reported lower intensity of training (p<0.001). RG were taller than AG, with higher target height, greater Δ final height-target height and lower body fat and BMI (p<0.001). Using multiple regression analysis, the main factors influencing final height were weight SDS (p<0.001), target height SDS (p<0.001) and age of menarche (p<0.001) for RG, and weight SDS (p<0.001) and target height SDS (p<0.001) for AG. In both elite female RG and AG, genetic predisposition to final height was not disrupted and remained the main force of growth. Although in elite RG genetic predisposition for growth was fully preserved, in elite female AG final adult height falls shorter than genetically determined target height, though within the standard error of prediction.

  4. Age-congruency and contact effects in body expression recognition from point-light displays (PLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra M.J. Pollux

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of older people’s body expressions is a crucial social skill. We here investigate how age, not just of the observer, but also of the observed individual, affects this skill. Age may influence the ability to recognize other people’s body expressions by changes in one’s own ability to perform certain action over the life-span (i.e., an own-age bias may occur, with best recognition for one’s own age. Whole body point light displays of children, young adults and older adults (>70 years expressing six different emotions were presented to observers of the same three age-groups. Across two variations of the paradigm, no evidence for the predicted own-age bias (a cross-over interaction between one’s own age and the observed person’s age was found. Instead, experience effects were found with children better recognizing older actors’ expressions of ‘active emotions,’ such as anger and happiness with greater exposure in daily life. Together, the findings suggest that age-related changes in one own’s mobility only influences body expression categorization in young children who interact frequently with older adults.

  5. Challenging the role of social norms regarding body weight as an explanation for weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases: development and application of a new approach to examining misreporting and misclassification bias in surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brestoff, Jonathan R; Perry, Ivan J; Van den Broeck, Jan

    2011-05-18

    Cultural pressures to be thin and tall are postulated to cause people to misreport their body weight and height towards more socially normative (i.e., desirable) values, but a paucity of direct evidence supports this idea. We developed a novel non-linear approach to examining weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases and used this approach to examine the association between socially non-normative weight and misreporting biases in adults. The Survey of Lifestyles, Attitudes, and Nutrition 2007 (SLÁN 2007), a nationally representative survey of the Republic of Ireland (N = 1942 analyzed) was used. Self-reported weight (height) was classified as under-reported by ≥ 2.0 kg (2.0 cm), over-reported by ≥ 2.0 kg (2.0 cm), or accurately reported within 2.0 kg (2.0 cm) to account for technical errors of measurement and short-term fluctuations in measured weight (height). A simulation strategy was used to define self-report-based BMI as under-estimated by more than 1.40 kg/m2, over-estimated by more than 1.40 kg/m2, or accurately estimated within 1.40 kg/m2. Patterns of biases in self-reported weight, height, and BMI were explored. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mis-estimated BMI and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 99% confidence intervals (99%CI). The patterns of bias contributing the most to BMI mis-estimation were consistently, in decreasing order of influence, (1) under-reported weight combined with over-reported height, (2) under-reported weight with accurately reported height, and (3) accurately reported weight with over-reported height. Average bias in self-report-based BMI was -1.34 kg/m2 overall and -0.49, -1.33, and -2.66 kg/m2 in normal, overweight, and obese categories, respectively. Despite the increasing degree of bias with progressively higher BMI categories, persons describing themselves as too heavy were, within any given BMI category, less likely to have under-estimated BMI (AOR 0.5, 99%CI: 0.3-0.8, P

  6. Differences in visual perception of age and attractiveness of female facial and body skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B; Matts, P J; Röder, S; Johnson, R; Burquest, M

    2011-04-01

    Perception of age and health is critical in the judgement of attractiveness. The few studies conducted on the significance of apparent skin condition on human physical appearance have studied faces alone or isolated fields of images facial skin. Little is known about whether perception of the face matches that of other body parts or if body skin affects overall age and attractiveness perception when presented in combination with facial skin. We hypothesized that independent presentation of female faces, chests and arms (including hands) - cropped from a full face and upper body image - would result in significant differences in perception of age and attractiveness compared to the corresponding composite. Furthermore, we sought to investigate whether relatively young and attractive looking skin on selected, individual parts of the body affects overall perception. Digital photographs of 52 women aged 45-65 years were collected and processed to yield four derivative sets of images: One set showed the composite of all features, i.e. the face, the chest and the arms, whereas the other three were cropped carefully to show each part of the upper body described above independently. A total of 240 participants judged these faces for perceived age and attractiveness. Our results showed significant differences in perception with the chest and the arms being judged significantly younger than the face or composite image of the same women. Moreover, arms and chest images were perceived as more attractive than face and composite images. Finally, regression analysis indicated that differences between the perceived and chronological values of overall age perception could be predicted by age perception of the face and arms. These results continue to support the significance of facial age perception in assessment of a woman's age, but highlight that body skin also plays a role in overall age impression. © 2010 The Authors. ICS © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Soci

  7. Weight change and the conservation of lean mass in old age: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, A.B.; Lee, J.S.; Visser, M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Nevitt, M.C.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight loss may contribute to the loss of lean mass with age. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the relation between weight loss or weight gain and changes in lean mass and fat mass in older adults. DESIGN: We observed changes in weight and body composition during a 4-y period in

  8. Body Composition Outcomes of a Qigong Intervention Among Community-Dwelling Aging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Ying; Chen, Hsiao-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Aging causes various changes in body composition, which are critical implications for health and physical functioning in aging adults. The aim of this study was to explore the body composition outcomes of a qigong intervention among community-dwelling aging adults. This was a quasi-experimental study in which 90 participants were recruited. Forty-eight participants (experimental group) attended a 30-min qigong program 3 times per week for 12 weeks, whereas 42 participants (control group) continued performing their usual daily activities. The experimental group achieved a greater reduction in the fat mass percentage at the posttest, and exhibited increased fat-free mass, lean body mass percentage, and lean body mass to fat mass ratio compared with the controls. No difference between the two groups in body mass index, fat mass, and lean body mass was observed. These results indicated that the qigong intervention showed beneficial outcomes of body composition among community-dwelling aging adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. A quest for normal values of serum aminotransferase and its association with age and body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, M.A.; Farooq, Y.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reference range for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for young healthy individuals in our population and to find out effects of age and body mass index on alanine aminotransferase. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital Rawalpindi; from Dec 2009 to April 2010. Material and Methods: Five hundred and fifty three young healthy adults were included in the study. Detailed history was taken. Parameters like Age, height and weight were measured. Relevant investigations were carried out for each subject which included blood complete picture, Chest X-Ray, ECG, Urine routine examination, liver function tests, serum urea, serum creatinine, serum uric acid, plasma glucose (F), Anti HCV antibodies, HBsAg, HIV antibodies and VDRL. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: Age of subjects ranged from 19 to 50 years (29 +- 6) years, BMI 15.59 to 29.8, (21.58 +- 2). Serum alanine aminotransferase ranged from 17 to 81 IU/l, (29.9 +- 8) IU/l. Serum alanine aminotransferase for subjects with body mass index more than 25 Kg/m2 was 29.6 +- 7 IU/L. There is no significant difference in value of mean ALT overall and in those with BMI of more than 25 (p=0.149) Conclusion: Mean serum alanine aminotransferase value in young healthy adults included in this study was 29.9 +- 8 IU/L which is lower than normal reference provided at present which is 40 IU/l. Statistical analysis revealed that serum ALT is not significantly influenced by age and BMI. (author)

  10. Effect of whole-body vibration training on body composition, exercise performance and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Kan, Nai-Wen; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential benefits of WBV on aging-associated changes in body composition, exercise performance, and fatigue are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the beneficial effects of WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice. In total, 24 male C57BL/6 mice aged 15 months old were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 per group): sedentary control (SC), relatively low-frequency WBV (5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g) (LV), and relatively high-frequency WBV (13 Hz, 2 mm, 0.68 g) (HV). Mice in the LV and HV groups were placed inside a vibration platform and vibrated at different frequencies and fixed amplitude (2 mm) for 15 min, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Exercise performance, core temperature and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise, as were changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. Relative muscle and brown adipose tissue weight (%) was significantly higher for the HV than SC mice, but relative liver weight (%) was lower. On trend analysis, WBV increased grip strength, aerobic endurance and core temperature in mice. As well, serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels were dose-dependently decreased with vibration frequency after the swimming test. Fasting serum levels of albumin and total protein were increased and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and creatinine decreased dose-dependently with vibration frequency. Moreover, WBV training improved the age-related abnormal morphology of skeletal muscle, liver and kidney tissues. Therefore, it could improve exercise performance and

  11. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy: influence of maternal body mass index and age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Eva M

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy is limited. Uterine contractile performance may be altered in association with maternal obesity and advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to investigate the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy, and to evaluate a potential influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) and age.

  13. The Influence of Age and Body Mass on Male Sexual Function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This pilot cross sectional survey was designed to appraise the growing concern about the relationship between age, body weight, and sexual function. A total of 100 adult males between the ages of 18 to 40 years, and who are indigenes of Ekpoma, in Esan West Local Government of Edo State, Nigeria, participated in this ...

  14. Age and body weight at puberty in Muturu heifers under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age and body weight at puberty were studied in two groups of Muturu heifers aged 4 to 7 months and comprising 13 heifers in each group. Group I heifers received nutritional supplementation of a mixture of dry brewer's spent grain and palm kernel cake in a ratio of 3:1 in addition to normal grazing. Group II heifers were ...

  15. Urinary Incontinence in Older Women: The Role of Body Composition and Muscle Strength: From the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suskind, Anne M.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Nakagawa, Sanae; Subak, Leslee L.; Reinders, I.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steve; Cauley, Jane A.; Harris, Tamara B; Huang, Alison J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate prospective relationships between body composition and muscle strength with predominantly stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) in older women. DESIGN: Prospective community-dwelling observational cohort study (Health, Aging, and Body

  16. The relationship between weight, height and body mass index with hemodynamic parameters is not same in patients with and without chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin; Soypacaci, Zeki; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Although anthropometric measurements are related with clinical outcomes; these relationships are not universal and differ in some disease states such as in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The current study was aimed to analyze the relationship between height, weight and BMI with hemodynamic and arterial stiffness parameters both in normal and CKD patients separately. This cross-sectional study included 381 patients with (N 226) and without CKD (N 155) with hypertension. Routine laboratory and 24-h urine collection were performed. Augmentation index (Aix) which is the ratio of augmentation pressure to pulse pressure was calculated from the blood pressure waveform after adjusted heart rate at 75 [Aix@75 (%)]. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a simple measure of the time taken by the pressure wave to travel over a specific distance. Both [Aix@75 (%)] and PWV which are measures of arterial stiffness were measured by validated oscillometric methods using mobil-O-Graph device. In patients without CKD, height is inversely correlated with [Aix@75 (%)]. Additionally, weight and BMI were positively associated with PWV in multivariate analysis. However, in patients with CKD, weight and BMI were inversely and independently related with PWV. In CKD patients, as weight and BMI increased stiffness parameters such as Aix@75 (%) and PWV decreased. While BMI and weight are positively associated with arterial stiffness in normal patients, this association is negative in patients with CKD. In conclusion, height, weight and BMI relationship with hemodynamic and arterial stiffness parameters differs in patients with and without CKD.

  17. Expanding the agenda for research on the physically active aging body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Cassandra; Grant, Bevan

    2009-07-01

    In this article, the authors consider the different approaches that can be used to examine the relationship between physical activity and aging. They propose that much is to be gained in our awareness of this dynamic relationship by drawing on multiple forms of knowledge that can generate diverse understandings regarding the impact of physical activity on physiological, psychological, and social aspects of aging. Accordingly, 3 different approaches to understanding the older physically (in)active body are presented. These are categorized as (a) the objective truth about the aging, physically active body; (b) the subjective truth about the aging, physically active body; and (c) "tales" about the aging, physically active body. The key underpinnings, strengths, and weaknesses of each approach are outlined. A number of examples from the literature are also offered to demonstrate where and how each approach has been used to contribute to our understanding about older people and physical activity. The more thorough, multidisciplinary, and wide spanning our knowledge of the aging, active body is, the more informed we might become in every dimension of its existence.

  18. Predictors of Infant Body Composition at 5 Months of Age: The Healthy Start Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Katherine A; Kaar, Jill L; Starling, Anne P; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H; Dabelea, Dana

    2017-04-01

    To examine associations of demographic, perinatal, and infant feeding characteristics with offspring body composition at approximately 5 months of age. We collected data on 640 mother/offspring pairs from early pregnancy through approximately 5 months of age. We assessed offspring body composition with air displacement plethysmography at birth and approximately 5 months of age. Linear regression analyses examined associations between predictors and fat-free mass, fat mass, and percent fat mass (adiposity) at approximately 5 months. Secondary models further adjusted for body composition at birth and rapid infant growth. Greater prepregnant body mass index and gestational weight gain were associated with greater fat-free mass at approximately 5 months of age, but not after adjustment for fat-free mass at birth. Greater gestational weight gain was also associated with greater fat mass at approximately 5 months of age, independent of fat mass at birth and rapid infant growth, although this did not translate into increased adiposity. Greater percent time of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with lower fat-free mass (-311 g; P composition by demographic, perinatal, and infant feeding characteristics, although our data also show that increased adiposity at birth persists through approximately 5 months of age. Our findings warrant further research into implications of differences in infant body composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Blunted cortisol response to stress is associated with higher body mass index in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Clifford, Caitlin; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2013-11-01

    No known studies have tested the hypothesis that a blunted pattern of cortisol reactivity to stress, which is often found following exposure to chronic life stressors, is associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) in very young children. Low-income children (n=218, mean age 56.6 (range: 38.1-78.5; SD 7.0) months, 49.1% male, 56.4% white, 16.1% black, 11.5% Hispanic/Latino) participated in a series of behavioral tasks designed to elicit stress. Cortisol was sampled in saliva 5 times during the protocol, and area under the curve (AUC), representing total cortisol output during stress elicitation, was calculated. Children were weighed and height measured and body mass index (BMI) z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between cortisol AUC and BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white vs. not); primary caregiver weight status (overweight, defined as BMI ≥ 25 vs. not); and family income-to-needs ratio. Mean child BMI z-score was 0.88 (SD=1.03). Mean cortisol AUC was 6.11 μg/dL/min (SD=10.44). In the fully adjusted model, for each 1-standard deviation unit decrease in cortisol AUC, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.17 (SE 0.07) standard deviation units (pstress, as is often seen following chronic stress exposure, is associated with increased BMI z-score in very young children. Further work is needed to understand how associations between stress, cortisol, and elevated body mass index may develop very early in the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of body size on adult skeletal age estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate age estimations are essential to archaeological and forensic analyses. However, reliability for adult skeletal age estimations is poor, especially for individuals over the age of 40 years. This is the first study to show that body size influences skeletal age estimation. The İşcan et al., Lovejoy et al., Buckberry and Chamberlain, and Suchey-Brooks age methods were tested on 764 adult skeletons from the Hamann-Todd and William Bass Collections. Statures ranged from 1.30 to 1.93 m and body masses ranged from 24.0 to 99.8 kg. Transition analysis was used to evaluate the differences in the age estimations. For all four methods, the smallest individuals have the lowest ages at transition and the largest individuals have the highest ages at transition. Short and light individuals are consistently underaged, while tall and heavy individuals are consistently overaged. When femoral length and femoral head diameter are compared with the log-age model, results show the same trend as the known stature and body mass measurements. The skeletal remains of underweight individuals have fewer age markers while those of obese individuals have increased surface degeneration and osteophytic lipping. Tissue type and mechanical loading have been shown to affect bone turnover rates, and may explain the differing patterns of skeletal aging. From an archaeological perspective, the underaging of light, short individuals suggests the need to revisit the current research consensus on the young mortality rates of past populations. From a forensic perspective, understanding the influence of body size will impact efforts to identify victims of mass disasters, genocides, and homicides. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Breakfast habits, dairy product consumption, physical activity, and their associations with body mass index in children aged 6-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Tugba; Akcam, Mustafa; Serdaroglu, Filiz; Dereci, Selim

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine breakfast habits, dairy product consumption, and physical activity and their relations with body mass index (BMI) in schoolchildren and adolescents. This cross-sectional, school-based study was performed with children aged 6-18 years. Height and weight were measured, and a BMI z-score was calculated for each child. Breakfast consumption frequency, intake of milk and other dairy products, physical activity habits, and mothers' employment status were assessed via a self-report questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the association between these habits and BMI z-scores. Seven thousand one hundred sixteen children were included, 3445 (48.4%) female, with a mean age of 11.7 ± 2.7 years (5.8-18.9). Of these, 62.6% had breakfast every day. Boys ate breakfast daily significantly more often than girls (64.5 and 60.7%, respectively; p breakfast daily decreased with age (79.1% at 6-11 vs. 52.1% at 12-18 years, p consumption and the mother being employed were positively and significantly associated with BMI z-score (β = 0.517, p breakfast was associated with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren and adolescents, while milk consumption exhibited a protective effect. What is known? • Dietary interventions should be incorporated into a multidisciplinary strategy for obesity prevention. • Most studies of habitual physical activity in children suggest that the overweight and obese children are less active. What is new? • Milk consumption seems to have a protective effect against overweight/obesity, irrespective of yogurt or cheese consumption. • Children engaging in greater physical activity had higher body mass index values than others.

  2. Body weight status, dietary habits, and physical activity levels of middle school-aged children in rural Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Brenda M; Harrell, Kris; Stewart, Jimmy; King, Deborah S

    2004-06-01

    Obesity and cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in the Southeast as compared with other geographic regions of the United States. However, few investigations have addressed health disparities among children in rural Southeastern areas. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the risk of overweight and obesity in middle school-aged children residing in a racially diverse rural community, and to characterize their dietary and physical activity habits. Two hundred and five middle school children from Scott County, Mississippi were enrolled in this investigation. Measurements included height, weight, body mass index, dietary intake using a 24-hour recall, and physical activity level using pedometers. Of the 205 children studied, 54% were "overweight" or "at risk for overweight" according to a body mass index-for-age sex-specific percentile. Intake of saturated fat and sodium exceeded recommended levels, whereas intake of calcium, fruits, and vegetables was inadequate. One third of the sample consumed 12 fluid ounces or more of soda on the day of the recall. Physical activity level was below that previously reported for children in this age range, and knowledge of the importance of diet and physical activity in the prevention of cardiovascular disease was poor, particularly among African-American children. The children in our sample are at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Factors that may be targeted for intervention include a reduction in dietary intake of fat, saturated fat, sodium, and soft drinks, and an increased intake of fruits and vegetables. Physical activity should be encouraged. Many of these factors could be improved through changes within the school environment.

  3. [Age-, gender- and diagnosis-specific changes of body concept during stationary psychosomatic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Astrid; Braunheim, Michael; Heuft, Gereon; Schneider, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates body concept with respect to psychiatric diagnosis, age and gender of inpatients before and after treatment. We examined 153 inpatients with 131 complete datasets. The examination was done at the beginning and at the end of the treatment using the Frankfurt Body Concept Scale (FKKS, Deusinger 1998). The results were calculated by t-test for dependent samples, posthoc Scheffé-tests and univariate variance analysis. The diagnoses indicated a more positive body concept at the end of the treatment (patients with somatoform disorder had effect sizes between -0.2 and -0.4, patients with depressions between -0.4 and -0.7, and patients with eating disorders between -0.3 and -0.7). Gender and age had only little influence on the positive changes. The improvement of body concept through inpatient treatment represents a challenge especially for somatoform disorders. The duration of this improvement after inpatient treatment needs further investigation.

  4. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P children. © 2016 APJPH.

  5. Challenging the role of social norms regarding body weight as an explanation for weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases: Development and application of a new approach to examining misreporting and misclassification bias in surveys

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brestoff, Jonathan R

    2011-05-18

    Abstract Background Cultural pressures to be thin and tall are postulated to cause people to misreport their body weight and height towards more socially normative (i.e., desirable) values, but a paucity of direct evidence supports this idea. We developed a novel non-linear approach to examining weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases and used this approach to examine the association between socially non-normative weight and misreporting biases in adults. Methods The Survey of Lifestyles, Attitudes, and Nutrition 2007 (SLÁN 2007), a nationally representative survey of the Republic of Ireland (N = 1942 analyzed) was used. Self-reported weight (height) was classified as under-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm), over-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm), or accurately reported within 2.0 kg (2.0 cm) to account for technical errors of measurement and short-term fluctuations in measured weight (height). A simulation strategy was used to define self-report-based BMI as under-estimated by more than 1.40 kg\\/m2, over-estimated by more than 1.40 kg\\/m2, or accurately estimated within 1.40 kg\\/m2. Patterns of biases in self-reported weight, height, and BMI were explored. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mis-estimated BMI and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 99% confidence intervals (99%CI). Results The patterns of bias contributing the most to BMI mis-estimation were consistently, in decreasing order of influence, (1) under-reported weight combined with over-reported height, (2) under-reported weight with accurately reported height, and (3) accurately reported weight with over-reported height. Average bias in self-report-based BMI was -1.34 kg\\/m2 overall and -0.49, -1.33, and -2.66 kg\\/m2 in normal, overweight, and obese categories, respectively. Despite the increasing degree of bias with progressively higher BMI categories, persons describing themselves as too heavy were, within any given BMI category, less likely to have under

  6. Anorexic effect of peripheral cholecystokinin (CCK) varies with age and body composition (short communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaskó, Márta; Soós, Sz; Párniczky, A; Koncsecskó-Gáspár, M; Székely, M; Pétervári, E

    2012-06-01

    Obesity of middle-aged mammals is followed at old age by anorexia and cachexia leading to sarcopenia. Complex age- and body composition-related alterations in the regulation of energy homeostasis may be assumed in the background. We aimed to test the possible contribution of age- and body composition-related changes of satiety responses to catabolic brain-gut-axis peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) to these alterations in energy balance during aging. Male Wistar rats (6-8 animals/group) aged 2 months (juvenile), 3 months (young adult), 6 or 12 months (early or late middle-aged), and 24 months (old) were injected intraperitoneally with 5 μg CCK-8 prior to re-feeding after 48-h food-deprivation. CCK suppressed re-feeding in young adult (26.8%), early middle-aged (35.5%), and old (31.4%) animals, but not in juvenile or late middle-aged rats (one-way ANOVA). CCK-resistance of 12 months old rats was prevented by life-long calorie-restriction: CCK suppressed their re-feeding by 46.8%. Conversely, in highfat diet-induced obese 6 months old rats CCK failed to suppress re-feeding. In conclusion, age-related changes in satiety responsiveness to CCK may contribute to the age-related obesity of middle-aged as well as to the anorexia of old animals. CCK-responsiveness is also influenced by body composition: calorie-restriction prevents the resistance to CCK, pre-existing obesity enhances it.

  7. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, FX; Gallagher, D

    2015-01-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  8. Age-, body size-, and sex-specific reference values for right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by three-dimensional echocardiography: a multicenter echocardiographic study in 507 healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffessanti, Francesco; Muraru, Denisa; Esposito, Roberta; Gripari, Paola; Ermacora, Davide; Santoro, Ciro; Tamborini, Gloria; Galderisi, Maurizio; Pepi, Mauro; Badano, Luigi P

    2013-09-01

    Right ventricular (RV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF) vary significantly with demographic and anthropometric factors and are associated with poor prognosis in several cardiovascular diseases. This multicenter study was designed to (1) establish the reference values for RV volumes and EF using transthoracic three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography; (2) investigate the influence of age, sex, and body size on RV anatomy; (3) develop normative equations. RV volumes (end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume), stroke volume, and EF were measured by 3D echocardiography in 540 healthy adult volunteers, prospectively enrolled, evenly distributed across age and sex. The relation of age, sex, and body size parameters was investigated using bivariate and multiple linear regression. Analysis was feasible in 507 (94%) subjects (260 women; age, 45 ± 16 years; range, 18-90). Age, sex, height, and weight significantly influenced RV volumes and EF. Sex effect was significant (Pallometric indexing for age, sex, and body size resulted in no significant residual correlation between RV measures and height or weight. The presented normative ranges and equations could help standardize the 3D echocardiography assessment of RV volumes and function in clinical practice, considering the effects of age, sex, and body size.

  9. Adult height after long-term, continuous growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children born small for gestational age: results of a randomized, double-blind, dose-response GH trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. van Pareren; M. Houdijk; M. Jansen (Maarten); M. Reeser; P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe GH dose-response effect of long-term continuous GH treatment on adult height (AH) was evaluated in 54 short children born small for gestational age (SGA) who were participating in a randomized, double-blind, dose-response trial. Patients were randomly and blindly

  10. Change in Body Weight from Age 20 Years Is a Powerful Determinant of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lars; Elmståhl, Sölve; Ärnlöv, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Higher body weight is a well-known determinant of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. It is however less well studied how the change in weight from age 20 years to middle age or old age affects MetS development. In the community-based EpiHealth (n = 19,000, age range 45 to 75 years, 56% females) and PIVUS (n = 1000, all aged 70 years, 50% females) studies, the participants were asked about their body weight at age 20 years. Data were collected to determine MetS prevalence (NCEP ATP III criteria). In EpiHealth, the probability of having MetS increased fairly linearly with increasing weight from age 20 in the obese [odds ratios (OR) 1.04 per kg change in weight, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.05, P weight (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.14-1.21, P body mass index (BMI) at age 20, alcohol intake, smoking, education, and exercise habits. Also in the PIVUS study, the change in weight over 50 years was related to prevalent MetS (OR 1.08 per kg change in weight, 95% CI 1.06-1.10, P weight gain from age 20 was strongly and independently associated with prevalent MetS both in middle age or old age. Interestingly, this relationship was not restricted only to obese subjects. Our data provide additional support for the importance of maintaining a stable weight throughout life.

  11. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N…

  12. Associations of self-esteem with body mass index and body image among Saudi college-age females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALAhmari, Tasneem; Alomar, Abdulaziz Z; ALBeeybe, Jumanah; Asiri, Nawal; ALAjaji, Reema; ALMasoud, Reem; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2017-12-27

    To examine the association of self-esteem with the body mass index (BMI), perceived body image (BI), and desired BI of college-age Saudi females. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 907 randomly selected females using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Self-esteem and BI were assessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Stunkard Figure Rating Scale, respectively. The prevalence of low self-esteem was only 6.1% among college females; however, this percentage was higher (9.8%) among overweight or obese participants. The total self-esteem scores showed significant negative correlations with actual BMI and perceived BI, but not with desired BI. Meanwhile, multivariate analyses revealed significant differences in total self-esteem scores according to obesity/overweight status and perceived BI group, but not desired BI group. Despite the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi Arabia, few Saudi college females have low self-esteem. In addition, body weight, BMI, perceived BI, and the BMI corresponding to the perceived BI all significantly differed between females with low self-esteem and those with normal self-esteem. Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

  13. Body mass index from age 15 years onwards and muscle mass, strength, and quality in early old age: findings from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Bann, David; Aihie Sayer, Avan; Ward, Kate A; Adams, Judith E; Kuh, Diana

    2014-10-01

    As more people live more of their lives obese, it is unclear what impact this will have on muscle mass, strength, and quality. We aimed to examine the associations of body mass index (BMI) from age 15 years onwards with low muscle mass, strength, and quality in early old age. A total of 1,511 men and women from a British birth cohort study with BMI measured at 15, 20, 26, 36, 43, 53, and 60-64 years and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans at 60-64 years were included. Four binary outcomes identified those in the bottom sex-specific 20% of (a) appendicular lean mass (ALM) index (kilogram per square meter), (b) ALM residuals (derived from sex-specific models in which ALM (kilogram) = β0 + β1 height [meter] + β2 fat mass [kilogram]), (c) grip strength (kilogram), (d) muscle quality (grip strength [kilogram]/arm lean mass [kilogram]). Associations of BMI with each outcome were tested. Higher BMI from age 15 years was associated with lower odds of low ALM but higher odds of low muscle quality (per 1 SD increase in BMI at 36 years, odds ratio of low ALM residuals = 0.50 [95% CI: 0.43, 0.59], and muscle quality = 1.50 [1.29, 1.75]). Greater gains in BMI were associated with lower odds of low ALM index but higher odds of low muscle quality. BMI was not associated with grip strength. Given increases in the global prevalence of obesity, cross-cohort comparisons of sarcopenia need to consider our findings that greater gains in BMI are associated with higher muscle mass but not with grip strength and therefore with lower muscle quality. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  14. Anthropometric and body composition indicators of males and females between ages 20 and 39,9 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Simões Pires Neto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze anthropometric and body composition variables of males and females aged 20-40 years. The sample was made up of 4 groups: G1, n=70; G3, n=70, males and females aged 20-29,9yo respectively; G2, males=20 and G4, females = 19 aged 30-39,9yo. Subjects were evaluated for height (H, cm, weight (W, kg, skinfolds (SKF, mm, percent fat (%fat and Lean Body Mass (LBM, kg. Body density was estimated according to equations by Petroski (1995 and %fat according to Siri (1961. Descriptive statistics, independent t test and single-sample t test were used for data analysis. Signifi cant differences were found for males on SS and TR SKF, density, %fat and FM between age groups, and for females at calf SKF, and %fat. Signifi cant differences were observed between indicators/mean values from other published reports when compared to this study’s results. In conclusion, males were shown to have much larger variability in all analyzed variables that their female counterparts. RESUMO O objetivo deste foi investigar indicadores antropométricos e da composição corporal de homens e mulheres entre 20 e 39,9 anos de idade. A amostra foi dividida em 4 grupos, sendo G1 (n=70 e G3 (n=70, homens e mulheres de 20 a 29,9 anos, respectivamente; e, G2 (homens, n=20 e G4 (mulheres, n=19, entre 30 e 39,9 anos de idade, sendo analisados nas variáveis estatura (EST, cm, massa corporal (MC, kg e dobras cutâneas (DC, mm. Para estimativa da densidade corporal (D, foi utilizada a equação proposta por Petroski (1995. O cálculo da gordura relativa (%G, foi estimado através da equação de Siri (1961. Usou-se a estatística descritiva, teste “t” para grupos independentes e teste “t” para uma amostra. Foram observadas diferenças signifi cativas entre DC subescapular, tricipital, %G e massa de gordura entre G1 e G2; e entre G3 e G4 em DC de panturrilha medial e %G. Observou-se diferenças signifi cativas entre indicadores/valores m

  15. Effects of the combined swimming, corrective and aqua gymnastics programme on body posture of preschool age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldvin Torlaković

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This research paper is aimed at identifying the possible effects that the implementation of the combined kinesiological programs of swimming and hydro-kinesiological therapy may have on thebody posture in preschool children.Methods: The survey was conducted on a sample of 50 boys selected from a number of Sarajevo kindergartens, in the age group of 5.2±0.6 yrs.; mean height=114±7 cm; mean weight= 21.8±4.7 kg. In order to evaluate the postural status, we used a reduced Napoleon Wolanski method. The activities were carried out within the period of 16 weeks, twice a week for 60 minutes.Results: The analysis of the initial and fi nal series of testing with t-test indicates a high level of statistical signifi cance in the variables of shoulder posture assessment, shoulder blade posture assessment, spinalcord posture assessment, leg posture assessment, feet posture assessment, overall body posture assessment according to Wolanski, whereas somewhat lower level of statistical signifi cance was found in thevariables of abdominal posture assessment and chest posture assessment. A relatively low level of statistical significance is observed only in the variable of head posture assessment.Conclusion: It can be concluded that a combined program of corrective gymnastics with games and exercises in water had signifi cant effects on improving the muscle tone in the respondents, which in turn had a direct impact on improving their body posture, both in terms of all of the individually surveyed body parts and in overall terms.

  16. Association of body composition assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis with metabolic risk factor clustering among middle-aged Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linfeng Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Body composition monitor (BCM based on the bioelectric impedance analysis is very convenient to use. However, whether percentage body fat (PBF and visceral fat index (VFI that acquired by BCM are superior to anthropometric measures is unknown. The study explored whether PBF and VFI are better than anthropometric indexes [body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and waist circumference to height ratio(WHtR] in predicating metabolic risk factor clustering in a representive sample across China which included 9574 Chinese men and women that were investigated in 2009–2010. PBF and VFI were compared with the BMI, WC, and WHtR through the area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and logistic regression. The results showed that the AUC for VFI was higher than BMI and PBF but lower than WHtR and WC in both men and Women. The AUC for WHtR, WC, VFI, BMI and PBF was 0.710, 0.706, 0.700, 0.693, 0.656 in men and 0.705, 0.699, 0.698, 0.675, 0.657 in women, respectively. After adjusting for the potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs tended to increase with all the indexes. The curve of ORs for WHtR was steepest and the curve for PBF was flattest in both men and women; the curve for VFI was similar to WC in women, but flatter than WC in men. From the data we concluded that VFI seems better than BMI and PBF, but not superior to WC and WHtR in predicating metabolic risk factor clustering in the middle-aged Chinese.

  17. Age-associated increase of the active zone protein Bruchpilot within the honeybee mushroom body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin B Gehring

    Full Text Available In honeybees, age-associated structural modifications can be observed in the mushroom bodies. Prominent examples are the synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG in the mushroom body calyces, which were shown to alter their size and density with age. It is not known whether the amount of intracellular synaptic proteins in the MG is altered as well. The presynaptic protein Bruchpilot (BRP is localized at active zones and is involved in regulating the probability of neurotransmitter release in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we explored the localization of the honeybee BRP (Apis mellifera BRP, AmBRP in the bee brain and examined age-related changes in the AmBRP abundance in the central bee brain and in microglomeruli of the mushroom body calyces. We report predominant AmBRP localization near the membrane of presynaptic boutons within the mushroom body MG. The relative amount of AmBRP was increased in the central brain of two-week old bees whereas the amount of Synapsin, another presynaptic protein involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release, shows an increase during the first two weeks followed by a decrease. In addition, we demonstrate an age-associated modulation of AmBRP located near the membrane of presynaptic boutons within MG located in mushroom body calyces where sensory input is conveyed to mushroom body intrinsic neurons. We discuss that the observed age-associated AmBRP modulation might be related to maturation processes or to homeostatic mechanisms that might help to maintain synaptic functionality in old animals.

  18. Five-class height-weight mean and SD system applying Estonian reference values of height-weight mean and SD for systematization of seventeen-year-old conscripts' anthropometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintsi, Mart; Kaarma, Helje; Aunapuu, Marina; Arend, Andres

    2007-03-01

    A study of 739 conscripts aged 17 years from the town of Tartu and from the Tartu county was performed. Height, weight, 33 anthropometric measurements and 12 skinfolds were measured. The data were classified into five height-weight mean and SD-classes applying the Estonian reference values for this age and sex (Grünberg et al. 1998). There were 3 classes with conformity between height and weight class: 1--small (small height and small weight), 2--medium (medium height and medium weight), 3--large (large height and large weight), 4--weight class dominating (pyknomorphic) and 5--height class dominating (leptomorphic). It was found, that in classes 1, 2 and 3 the height and weight increase was in accordance with the increase in all heights, breadths and depths, circumferences, skinfolds, body fat, muscle and bone mass. In class 4 circumferences, skinfolds, body fat and muscle mass were bigger. In class 5 all heights and the relative bone mass were bigger. The present investigation confirms the assumption that the five height-weight mean and SD five-class system applying the Estonian reference values for classifying the anthropometric variables is suitable for seventeen-year-old conscripts. As well the border values of 5%, 50% and 95% for every anthropometrical variable in the five-classes were calculated, which may be helpful for practical classifying.

  19. Comparing the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Steven L; Kim, Eonho; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men. Twenty-one men were randomly assigned to vibration-stretching (VS; n = 8), vibration only (VO; n = 6), or stretching only (SO; n = 7) groups that trained 3 times per week for 3 weeks. All 3 groups performed 9 total sets of 30-second stretches. The VS group performed four 30-second upper-body vibration exercises and five 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. The VO group performed nine 30-second upper-body vibration exercises. The SO group performed nine 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. Shoulder flexion (SF), shoulder extension (SE), and shoulder transverse extension (STE) were assessed by a Leighton Flexometer and back scratch tests bilaterally (BSR, BSL) were measured via tape measure. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated groups at baseline and a 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA evaluated the interventions over time. At baseline, there were no group differences in age, height, or weight. There was a significant (p alone or combined with stretching, is a viable alternative to a standard stretching routine when attempting to increase shoulder flexibility. Adding vibration training to a flexibility regimen may improve the likelihood of regularly performing flexibility sessions because of increased variety.

  20. A Comparison of body mass index and daily step numbers of secondary school and high school students according to age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Saygın

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare the body mass index and daily steps number of secondary and high school students in Mugla region according to age and gender. Material and Methods: A total of 1851 volunteer students (682 secondary school students and 1169 high school students participated in this study. Physical activity level was determined by measuring daily step numbers of students with a pedometer. Body mass index (kg/m2 was calculated by utilizing from height and weight measurements in order to find body composition. Acquired data was recorded in SPSS (18.0 program. In order to find a difference in body composition and physical activity level between gender, Independent t-test was applied. One-way Anova was applied in order to find the differences among ages. Tukey HSD Analysis was used to find from which age the difference stemmed from. Frequencies and percentages values were calculated to assess the number of daily steps and body mass index standards, and chi-square analysis was used to find differences according to sex. Results: As a result of the statistical analyse; statistically significant difference was found in the physical activity level of secondary school students, it was also found both high school student’s body composition and physical activity levels of high school students according to gender (p<0.05. While the body mass index values of both male and female students tend to increase with age, the physical activity level of both students tends to decrease with age. Statistically, a significant difference was found when the daily step count standards were compared by sex (X2=23.999 p=0.000. It was found that 65.91% (n=698 of the female students and 49.87% (n=395 of the male students were below the normal values of the daily step counts. Statistically, a significant difference was found when the body mass index standards were compared by sex (X2=15.702, p=0.000. It was seen that 16.90% of female students (n=179

  1. “Such is life that people get old and change”: Gendered Experiences of Ageing Bodies from Older Persons’ View

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenko Zeman; Marija Geiger Zeman

    2016-01-01

    Ageing/aged bodies reflects gender norms and power relations. The paper is based on analysis of four focus groups realized in homes for older and infirm persons with participants older than 65 years. Old age and ageing are not gender neutral phenomenon – perception, experience, interpretation and strategies of managing of ageing/aged body are gendered. For participants tidiness and cleanliness are most important despite gender. Dominant interpretations of focus groups’ participants reflect tr...

  2. Body fatness in relation to physical activity and selected socioeconomic parameters of adolescents aged 15-17 years in Merida, Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Castillo, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis; Dickinson, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of overweight and obesity in adolescents are major concerns in many countries, including Mexico. To study anthropometric and body composition characteristics (BCC) and their relations with socioeconomic status (SES), biological history and physical activity (PA) of school-going adolescent boys and girls in the city of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 321 adolescents (156 boys and 165 girls) aged 15-17 years from public and private schools in Merida, was taken from a study carried out in 2008-2009. Body mass index had significant correlations to BCC (fat mass and fat-free mass). The rate of stunting was higher in girls (18.20%) than in boys (7.69%). Stunted adolescents had higher body fat (%) than normally growing peers. High rates of overweight (boys 26.28%, girls 24.24%) and obesity (boys 10.26%, girls 6.06%) were recorded. SES (parents' age, education and occupation; crowding index in the family; household food expenditure), participants' biological history and PA are related with height and BCC by age and sex. Adolescents with excess weight (overweight + obesity) reported being less physically active. SES and PA were strongly related to growth and body fatness in the studied adolescents.

  3. Association between body fat distribution and androgen deficiency in middle-aged and elderly men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y; Wang, B; Liu, X; Li, Z; Yuan, W; Sun, Y; Miao, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the association between body fat distribution and total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels among middle-aged and elderly men. A total of 922 male residents aged 40-70 years from a community in Shanghai, China, participated in the study. Their waist circumference (WC), waist-height ratio (WHtR), body mass index (BMI), and TT and FT concentrations were measured. Logistic regression models were used to estimate testosterone deficiency risk on the basis of anthropometric indices. BMI, WC and WHtR were all associated with TT deficiency. The participants in the highest quartiles of above-mentioned anthropometric indices had the highest risk of TT deficiency (BMI: odds ratio (OR)=4.40, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.69-7.19; WC: OR=3.47, 95% CI=2.14-5.60; WHtR: OR=2.89, 95% CI=1.76-4.76). WC and WHtR were associated with FT deficiency. The participants in the highest quartiles had the highest risk of FT deficiency (WC: OR=1.87, 95% CI=1.18-2.97; WHtR: OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.04-2.66). The association between BMI and FT deficiency was not statistically significant (OR=1.21 for the highest quartile, 95% CI=0.78-1.87). Our study demonstrated that both general and abdominal obesity were associated with TT deficiency, whereas only abdominal obesity was found to be associated with FT deficiency.

  4. Cranial thickness in relation to age, sex and general body build in a Danish forensic sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N

    2001-01-01

    of the individuals had suffered from diseases affecting bone or bone metabolism as such, a large sub group consisted of individuals with a history of, and autopsy finds consistent with, chronic substance and alcohol abuse. There was no statistically significant difference in cranial thickness measures between...... this group and the rest of the material. Subsequent analyses failed to reveal any correlations between the cranial thickness and sex and age and height and weight of the individual. This is in accordance with most earlier studies, which likewise show no correlation, or only very faint trends, between cranial...... thickness and these parameters. This study, thus, adds to other studies showing that cranial thickness cannot be used in aging or sexing human remains. Likewise, in a forensic pathological setting, cranial thickness cannot be inferred from the individuals stature and build, which may be an issue in cases...

  5. Fear of heights and visual height intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Huppert, Doreen

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this review is, first, to cover the different aspects of visual height intolerance such as historical descriptions, definition of terms, phenomenology of the condition, neurophysiological control of gaze, stance and locomotion, and therapy, and, second, to identify warranted epidemiological and experimental studies. Vivid descriptions of fear of heights can be found in ancient texts from the Greek, Roman, and Chinese classics. The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance is as high as 28% in the general population, and about 50% of those who are susceptible report an impact on quality of life. When exposed to heights, visual exploration by eye and head movements is restricted, and the velocity of locomotion is reduced. Therapy for fear of heights is dominated by the behavioral techniques applied during real or virtual reality exposure. Their efficacy might be facilitated by the administration of D-cycloserine or glucocorticoids. Visual height intolerance has a considerable impact on daily life and interpersonal interactions. It is much more frequent than fear of heights, which is defined as an environmental subtype of a specific phobia. There is certainly a continuum stretching from acrophobia to a less-pronounced visual height intolerance, to which the categorical distinction of a specific phobia does not apply.

  6. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and body composition at age 7–9 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvaux, Immle; Van Cauwenberghe, Jolijn [Department of Public Health, Ghent University, UZ 2 Blok A, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Nelen, Vera [Department of Health, Provincial Institute for Hygiene, Kronenburgstraat 45, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Baeyens, Willy [Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Elsene (Belgium); Van Larebeke, Nicolas [Department of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Sioen, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.sioen@ugent.be [Department of Public Health, Ghent University, UZ 2 Blok A, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); FWO Research Foundation, Egmontstraat 5, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002–2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p′-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7–9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium exposure and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium exposure and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old. - Highlights: • Associations between prenatal contaminant exposure and anthropometrics in children. • Significant association only found in girls. • No significant associations found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure. • Girls: negative association between cadmium and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. • Girls: positive association between p,p′-DDE and indicators of abdominal fat.

  7. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  8. Body Composition and Physiological Responses of Masters Female Swimmers 20 to 70 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Female masters swimmers ranging in age from 20 to 69 were chosen for a study of their body composition and physiological responses at rest and during exercise. Two training groups were formed that differed on the basis of frequency, duration, and intensity of swimming workouts. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  9. Age-related changes in body composition in laboratory rats: Strain and gender comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long Evans (LE), Sprague Dawley (SD), Fischer 344 (F344), and Brown Norway (BN) rats are all commonly used as laboratory research subjects. These strains have been studied under many conditions, but few studies have measured changes in body composition as the animals age. Underst...

  10. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weight at different ages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... Estimation of genetic parameters for body weight at different ages in Mehraban sheep. Vali Aghaali Gamasaee1, Seyed Hasan Hafezian1,* Ahmad Ahmadi2, Hasan Baneh1, Ayyoob. Farhadi1 and Alborz Mohamadi3. 1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Agricultural ...

  11. Pathological eating and body dissatisfaction in middle-aged and older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the recent literature examining eating disorders, eating behavior, and body image in middle-aged and elderly women. Recent findings A small but evolving literature has begun to address the epidemiology, features, and potential treatment of eating disorders and related

  12. Deuterium oxide dilution and body composition in overweight and obese schoolchildren aged 6‐9 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell Costa Bila

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of obese and overweight children, there were strong correlations between body composition measured by D2O and some indices and anthropometric indicators in females, but there was no positive and strong correlation of fat tissue with the indices/indicators at all ages and in both genders.

  13. Thickness of the human cranial diploe in relation to age, sex and general body build

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Astrup, Jacob G; Sejrsen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have addressed the human total cranial vault thickness and generally found no correlation with sex, age or body weight. However, the thickness of the diploe has not been investigated. Our study has determined the diploeic thickness of the human cranial vault using modern...

  14. Requests for body computed tomography: increasing workload, increasing indications and increasing age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toms, A.P.; Cash, C.J.C.; Dixon, A.K.; Linton, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    Increasing numbers of increasingly elderly patients were being examined in our Body CT department. At the same time, some of our clinical colleagues perceived that their patients might be discriminated against on the basis of their age when allocating CT time. We therefore studied the population trends in our department over a 10-year period. The ages of patients attending the Body CT department were collected from the hospital's computer information system from 1995 to 2000 and from handwritten logbooks for the months of September 1988 and 1998. Comparison was made with population trends within the hospital and local demographic data. There has been an average increase of 11% per annum in the number of examinations performed in the Body CT unit. The average age of patients examined increased from 52.7 years in 1988 to 58.9 years in 1998. The largest increase occurred in the over 75-year population (18% rise per annum). Hospital and local demographic population profiles changed little during the same period. We are performing increasing numbers of body CT examinations on increasingly elderly patients. This is probably due to an increased willingness to investigate and treat elderly patients, rather than changes in the local population. There is no evidence of a general discriminatory policy on the basis of age. (orig.)

  15. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A

    2015-05-01

    To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these subpopulations is important as population averages may mask important differences. 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N = 14,092) were used. Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 vs. 200 kcal). The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within subgroups accounting for age, weight, and race/ethnicity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  16. Analysis of Lower Body Kinematic and Kinetic: Differences Between Age and Handicap in Golfers of Various Ages and Skill Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilensky, Alexander

    The purpose of this thesis was to provide a preliminary analysis of lower body golf swing biomechanics. Fourteen golfers of various ages and handicaps performed 10 swings off a tee with their driver. This study focused on a number of dependent variables including lead knee joint flexion angles, internal/external rotations, valgus/varus angles, as well as ground reaction forces normalized to body weight (%BW), X-Factor angle and club head velocity. Dependent variables were analyzed at four specifically defined events (start, initiation of downswing, contact and swing termination). Simple linear regressions were performed using age and handicap as independent variables to see if patterns could be determined at any of the events. No significant trends or results were reported within our sample. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then used to examine the effect of event on specific dependent variables. A number of differences were reported within each of the variables across the four events. This study hoped to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the movement patterns occurring at the lower body with special focus on the lead knee.

  17. Characterizing early child growth patterns of height-for-age in an urban slum cohort of Bangladesh with functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Zhou, Jianhui; Niu, Feiyang; Donowitz, Jeffrey R; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A; Ma, Jennie Z

    2017-03-21

    Early childhood is a critical stage of physical and cognitive growth that forms the foundation of future wellbeing. Stunted growth is presented in one of every 4 children worldwide and contributes to developmental impairment and under-five mortality. Better understanding of early growth patterns should allow for early detection and intervention in malnutrition. We aimed to characterize early child growth patterns and quantify the change of growth curves from the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards. In a cohort of 626 Bangladesh children, longitudinal height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) were modelled over the first 24 months of life using functional principal component analysis (FPCA). Deviation of individual growth from the WHO standards was quantified based on the leading functional principal components (FPCs), and growth faltering was detected as it occurred. The risk factors associated with growth faltering were identified in a linear regression. Ninety-eight percent of temporal variation in growth trajectories over the first 24 months of life was captured by two leading FPCs (FPC1 for overall growth and FPC2 for change in growth trajectory). A derived index, adj-FPC2, quantified the change in growth trajectory (i.e., growth faltering) relative to the WHO standards. In addition to HAZ at birth, significant risk factors associated with growth faltering in boys included duration of breastfeeding, family size and income and in girls maternal weight and water source. The underlying growth patterns of HAZ in the first 2 years of life were delineated with FPCA, and the deviations from the WHO standards were quantified from the two leading FPCs. The adj-FPC2 score provided a meaningful measure of growth faltering in the first 2 years of life, which enabled us to identify the risk factors associated with poor growth that would have otherwise been missed. Understanding faltering patterns and associated risk factors are important in the development of

  18. From Zoomers to Geezerade: Representations of the Aging Body in Ageist and Consumerist Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Dupuis-Blanchard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an analysis of representations of seniors in the media. In particular, we examine images of the bodies of seniors in the advertising campaigns promoting a product called Geezerade sold in Circle K convenience stores in the Atlantic provinces of Canada in the summer of 2011. We contrast these with images of seniors in the Canadian magazine Zoomer, formally CARP magazine, a magazine published by the Canadian Association of Retired People, a seniors advocacy organization. Following Goffman’s arguments in his seminal presidential address to the American Sociological Association, “the Interaction Order”, we take the position in this analysis that the body does not determine social practices but none-the-less the body is the sign vesicle that enables interaction. Concomitant however, while the images of bodies we see in the media do not determine the signs given and given off via bodily presentation, they none-the-less provide us with the categories by which we interpret those signs. We conclude that the images in the Geezerade campaign and Zoomer magazine represent a binary model of images of seniors that reflects ageist and classist assumptions about the bodies of seniors. Such a model limits the categories through which we understand the aging body and fails to account for the diversity of seniors’ bodies in society.

  19. Body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis and prevalence of obesity in a school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Flores, Ricardo; González-Pérez, Brian; Cornejo-Barrera, Judith; Llanas-Rodríguez, José Daniel; Cruz-Hernández, Cosme

    2011-01-01

    the interest in the direct assessment of adiposity is increasing. The aim was to assess fat mass and lean mass by bioelectrical impedance, and to analyze the correlation between percentage Body Fat-body mass index and percentage Body Fat-WC, and determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of school-age children. a cross-sectional study was performed in 360 children; differences between the sexes were assessed by independent t-test. Prevalence of overweight and obesity were calculated according to body mass index and two percentage body fat-based cutoffs. there was no significant gender difference in body mass index (p = 0.91), while the boys were both taller and presented more abdominal obesity but with lower mean percentage body fat (p obesity in boys (12.7 % and 17.7 %) than girls (12 % and 13.9 %). it is an urgent need to implement preventive actions among school children to decrease the prevalence of childhood obesity, which constitutes an important health problem in Mexico.

  20. Age-related changes in body composition of bovine growth hormone transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Amanda J; Chung, Min-Yu; List, Edward O; Walker, Jennifer; Okada, Shigeru; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2009-03-01

    GH has a significant impact on body composition due to distinct anabolic and catabolic effects on lean and fat mass, respectively. Several studies have assessed body composition in mice expressing a GH transgene. Whereas all studies report enhanced growth of transgenic mice as compared with littermate controls, there are inconsistencies in terms of the relative proportion of lean mass to fat mass in these animals. The purpose of this study was to characterize the accumulation of adipose and lean mass with age and according to gender in a bovine (b) GH transgenic mouse line. Weight and body composition measurements were assessed in male and female bGH mice with corresponding littermate controls in the C57BL/6J genetic background. Body composition measurements began at 6 wk and continued through 1 yr of age. At the conclusion of the study, tissue weights were determined and triglyceride content was quantified in liver and kidney. Although body weights for bGH mice were significantly greater than their corresponding littermate controls at all time points, body composition measurements revealed an unexpected transition midway through analyses. That is, younger bGH mice had relatively more fat mass than nontransgenic littermates, whereas bGH mice became significantly leaner than controls by 4 months in males and 6 months in females. These results reveal the importance in timing and gender when conducting studies related to body composition or lean and fat tissue in GH transgenic mice or in other genetically manipulated mouse strains in which body composition may be impacted.

  1. Age of Neoproterozoic bilatarian body and trace fossils, White Sea, Russia: implications for metazoan evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M W; Grazhdankin, D V; Bowring, S A; Evans, D A; Fedonkin, M A; Kirschvink, J L

    2000-05-05

    A uranium-lead zircon age for a volcanic ash interstratified with fossil-bearing, shallow marine siliciclastic rocks in the Zimnie Gory section of the White Sea region indicates that a diverse assemblage of body and trace fossils occurred before 555.3 +/- 0.3 million years ago. This age is a minimum for the oldest well-documented triploblastic bilaterian Kimberella. It also makes co-occurring trace fossils the oldest that are reliably dated. This determination of age implies that there is no simple relation between Ediacaran diversity and the carbon isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic seawater.

  2. Body Posture Asymmetry in Prematurely Born Children at Six Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Walicka-Cupryś

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The purpose of the study was to assess body posture asymmetries in the standing and sitting position in prematurely born children at six years of age. Study Design and Subjects. We measured trunk symmetry in coronal plane. The study was carried out in a group of 101 children, aged 6-7 years, mean age of 6.63, including 50 preterm children born at gestational age <32 weeks (preterm group and 51 full-term children (control group. Outcome Measures. Trunk symmetry in coronal plane was measured using photogrammetric technique with Mora 4G CQ Elektronik. The subjects were examined in standing and sitting position. Statistical analyses were carried out using Shapiro-Wilk W-test, Student’s t-test, Mann–Whitney U test, and Pearson’s chi-squared test. Statistical significance was assumed at p<0.05. Results. No significant differences were found between the groups in the asymmetries identified in the relevant anthropometric points, relative to the position assumed during the examination or to the subjects’ sex. Conclusions. There are no significant differences in body posture in the coronal plane, between preterm children and full-term children. Premature birth does not have adverse effects related to body posture asymmetry in preterm children at the age of six.

  3. Physical activity, exercise, and inflammatory markers in older adults : findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colbert, Lisa H; Visser, Marjolein; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Tracy, Russell P; Newman, Anne B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Pahor, Marco; Taaffe, Dennis R; Brach, Jennifer S; Rubin, Susan; Harris, Tamara B

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between physical activity and inflammatory markers, with consideration for body fatness and antioxidant use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, using baseline data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. SETTING: Metropolitan areas surrounding

  4. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  5. Childcare before age 6 and body mass index at age 7 years in a cohort of Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Neelon, S E; Schmidt Morgen, C; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Oken, E; Gillman, M W; Gallis, J A; Sørensen, T I A

    2017-03-15

    Previous studies show inconsistent associations between childcare and obesity. Our prior work demonstrated that childcare in infancy was associated with higher weight in a cohort of Danish children. Here, we extend this work and examine childcare through 6 years and body mass index (BMI) at age 7 years. We examined 24 714 children in the Danish National Birth Cohort who were also in the Childcare Database. We conducted multivariable linear regressions examining children prior to age 6, overall and by type (daycare, crèche, age-integrated and kindergarten), and BMI z-score at 7 years, stratifying on maternal socio-occupational status. A total of 19 760 (80.0%) children attended childcare before age 6. Childcare prior to age 6 was associated with BMI z-score at 7 years (0.004 units per each additional 6 months of care; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.008; p = 0.01). Childcare in a kindergarten was the only type of care associated with BMI (0.009 units; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.02; p = 0.01). For children of higher socio-occupational status mothers, childcare was associated with a 0.008 unit increase in BMI (95% CI: 0.004, 0.01; p > 0.001). Childcare was weakly associated with later BMI. This relationship was more pronounced in children from higher socio-occupational status mothers and children in kindergarten care. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of high body mass index in rural Appalachian children aged 6-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Reagan, Karen; Bianco, Joseph A; Heh, Victor; Rettos, Jean; Huston, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In rural regions of the United States of America, estimates of pediatric obesity often exceed national averages. This problem may be particularly pronounced in Appalachian regions, where significant health and economic disparities abound. This study presents the findings of a body mass index (BMI) screening program for 6-11 year old children living in a rural Appalachian community. County-wide estimates of high BMI (>or=85th percentile) were obtained to understand the health status and needs of our pediatric community and to compare obesity prevalence rates with national averages. An additional aim was to identify subpopulations of children who may warrant clinical intervention due to demographic and behavioral risks factors of high BMI. A school-based BMI screening was conducted of 6-11 year old children in southeastern Ohio. Investigators collected 3 sets of height and weight measurements from approximately 2000 elementary school students between 2006 and 2007. Caregivers for a subset of this population also completed a health behaviors questionnaire. Thirty-eight percent of children had high BMI, with 17% at risk for overweight and 20.9% overweight. Boys were 23% more likely than girls to be overweight (chi(2)(1) = 95% CI = 1.08, 1.40) and 11% more likely to become overweight with each year of age (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.15). Overweight children were more likely to view television, eat meals at school, and live with a caregiver who smokes. Consistent with expectations, prevalence of high BMI in this sample of rural Appalachian children exceeds national averages. Prevalence of overweight varied by age and sex; boys are particularly vulnerable to developing obesity, especially as they age. Preliminary survey data suggest that eating breakfast at home and at school and increased hours of television viewing may be associated with higher BMI, especially in younger boys.

  7. Body mass index and dental caries in children aged 5 to 8 years attending a dental paediatric referral practice in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong-Lenters, Maddelon; van Dommelen, Paula; Schuller, Annemarie A; Verrips, Erik H W

    2015-12-01

    Obesity and dental caries are widely-recognised problems that affect general health. The prevention of both dental caries and obesity have proven very difficult: children and their parents may need professional support to achieve behaviour change. To find out whether both dental caries and overweight in childhood can be targeted using a common risk factor approach, it is necessary to establish whether the two diseases are indeed linked. The aim of the present study was therefore to use anthropometric data obtained professionally to investigate the association between Body Mass Index and dental caries experience in children aged 5-8 years receiving treatment in a referral centre for paediatric dental care in the Netherlands. Children's dmft and dmfs scores were calculated using dental records and sociodemographic data were also extracted from these records. Dentists were trained to measure standing height and weight in a standardised way. Body Mass Index was calculated by dividing kilograms by height squared (kg/m(2)). Extended International (International Obesity Task Force) body mass index cut-offs were used to define 'no overweight' and 'overweight' (with the latter category including obesity). No statistically significant differences were found between the mean dmft or dmfs scores of the two groups (overweight and non-overweight), even after correction for the effect of the potential confounders sex, socio-economic status and ethnicity. The percentage of caries-active children in the non-overweight group was almost the same as in the overweight group. No statistically significant differences were found. We hypothesised to find a positive association between body mass index and dental caries experience in children aged 5-8 years attending our practice. However, this study did not find a relationship of this kind. A common risk factor approach for the prevention of caries and overweight is therefore not supported by our study.

  8. Body Acceleration as Indicator for Walking Economy in an Ageing Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Giulio; Bonomi, Alberto G; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2015-01-01

    In adults, walking economy declines with increasing age and negatively influences walking speed. This study aims at detecting determinants of walking economy from body acceleration during walking in an ageing population. 35 healthy elderly (18 males, age 51 to 83 y, BMI 25.5±2.4 kg/m2) walked on a treadmill. Energy expenditure was measured with indirect calorimetry while body acceleration was sampled at 60Hz with a tri-axial accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph), positioned on the lower back. Walking economy was measured as lowest energy needed to displace one kilogram of body mass for one meter while walking (WCostmin, J/m/kg). Gait features were extracted from the acceleration signal and included in a model to predict WCostmin. On average WCostmin was 2.43±0.42 J/m/kg and correlated significantly with gait rate (r2 = 0.21, peconomy is induced by the adoption of an increased gait rate and by irregular body acceleration in the horizontal plane.

  9. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Goran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother–infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively. Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight (p = 0.02, 170 g higher lean mass (p = 0.01, 131 g higher fat mass (p = 0.05, and 5 g higher bone mineral content (p = 0.03. In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age.

  10. Body Size Changes Among National Collegiate Athletic Association New England Division III Football Players, 1956−2014: Comparison With Age-Matched Population Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kayla R.; Harmatz, Jerold S.; Zhao, Yanli; Greenblatt, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Collegiate football programs encourage athletes to pursue high body weights. Objective:  To examine position-dependent trends over time in body size characteristics among football players in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III New England Small College Athletic Conference (NESCAC) from 1956 to 2014 and to compare the observed absolute and relative changes with those in age-matched male population controls. Design:  Descriptive laboratory study. Setting:  Medical school affiliated with a NESCAC institution. Patients or Other Participants:  Football team rosters from the 10-member NESCAC schools, available as public documents, were analyzed along with body size data from general population males aged 20 to 29 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Main Outcome Measure(s):  Body weight, height, and calculated body mass index were evaluated using analysis of variance, linear regression, and nonlinear regression to determine the distribution features of size variables and changes associated with time (year), school, and position. Results:  Among NESCAC linemen, absolute and relative changes over time in body weight and body mass index exceeded corresponding changes in the NHANES population controls. New England Small College Athletic Conference offensive linemen body weights increased by 37.5% from 1956 to 2014 (192 to 264 lb [86.4 to 118.8 kg]), compared with a 12% increase (164 to 184 lb [73.8 to 82.8 kg]) since 1961 in the NHANES population controls. Body mass index changed in parallel with body weight and exceeded 35 kg/m2 in more than 30% of contemporary NESCAC offensive linemen. Among skill players in the NESCAC group, time-related changes in body size characteristics generally paralleled those in the NHANES controls. Conclusions:  High body weight and body mass indices were evident in offensive linemen, even among those in Division III football programs with no athletic

  11. The paradox of impossible beauty: body changes and beauty practices in aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Enguerran; Duboz, Priscilla; Chevé, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe and understand the experience of aesthetic body changes in women between 65 and 75 years old. To approach the issue, 29 in-depth interviews were conducted in Marseille in 2011. Following a brief review of contemporary Western aesthetics, we will examine the marks of time women perceive as stigmatizing and analyze beauty practices that aim to conceal or repair them. The last part of this article will be devoted to the experience of the aesthetic body and in particular show how aging can paradoxically have a beneficial effect on some women.

  12. "I'll do anything to maintain my health": How women aged 65-94 perceive, experience, and cope with their aging bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Erica V; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Kowalski, Kent C; Crocker, Peter R E

    2017-06-01

    We explored how physically active women perceived, experienced, and coped with their aging bodies, and examined their perceptions of the utility of self-compassion to manage aging body-related changes. Findings from a thematic analysis of interviews with 21 women aged 65-94 revealed that they were appreciative of how their bodies worked and accepting of their physical limitations, yet concurrently critical of their body's functionality and appearance. Participants engaged in physical activity and healthy eating to maintain their health and body functionality, yet also used diet, hair styling, anti-aging creams, makeup, physical activity, and clothing to manage their appearances. To assess their bodies (in)adequacies, they engaged in upward or downward social comparisons with others their age. Participants perceived self-compassion for the aging body to be idealistic and contextual. Findings highlight the importance of health and body functionality in influencing the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral management of the aging body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inclusion-body myositis, a multifactorial muscle disease associated with aging: current concepts of pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askanas, Valerie; Engel, W King

    2007-11-01

    Sporadic inclusion-body myositis, the most common muscle disease of older persons, has no known cause or persistently beneficial treatment. The unfolding pathogenesis could lead to new treatment strategies and it is now of growing interest among clinicians and basic scientists. About 100 papers related to the subject were published in 2006 and the first part of 2007 (we cite only articles most relevant to this review). This review focuses on the current concepts of the pathogenesis of sporadic inclusion-body myositis. Both degeneration and mononuclear-cell inflammation are components of the pathology, but how each relates to the pathogenesis remains unclear. We suggest that an intramuscle fiber degenerative component is primary, leading to muscle-fiber destruction, while the lymphocytic inflammatory component may only slightly contribute to sporadic inclusion-body myositis muscle-fiber damage. Intracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta precursor protein, amyloid-beta, and amyloid-beta oligomers in an aging muscle-fiber cellular milieu, and other abnormalities, appear to be key pathogenic factors. We summarize intracellular molecular events and their consequences, and correlate findings in sporadic inclusion-body myositis muscle biopsies with inclusion-body myositis experimental models in tissue culture and in transgenic mice. Treatment of sporadic inclusion-body myositis remains a challenge. Antiinflammatory approaches used so far are without major or enduring benefit. Possible new treatment avenues are suggested.

  14. Reference Values and Age Differences in Body Composition of Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Seino

    Full Text Available To determine age- and sex-specific body composition reference values and investigate age differences in these parameters for community-dwelling older Japanese men and women, using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.We conducted a pooled analysis of data collected in four cohort studies between 2008 and 2012: Kusatsu Longitudinal Study, Hatoyama Cohort Study, Itabashi Cohort Study, and Kashiwa Cohort Study. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4478 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65-94 years (2145 men, 2333 women; mean age: 72.9 years in men and 72.6 years in women. Body weight, fat mass (FM, percentage FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and appendicular lean soft tissue mass were measured using the InBody 720 and 430 (Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea. The values were then normalized by height in meters squared to determine body mass index (BMI, FM index (FMI, FFM index (FFMI, and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI.Simple means (standard deviation of BMI, percentage FM, FMI, FFMI, and SMI were 23.4 (2.9 kg/m(2, 24.9 (6.3%, 5.96 (2.09 kg/m(2, 17.4 (1.5 kg/m(2, and 7.29 (0.76 kg/m(2, respectively, in men and 22.7 (3.3 kg/m(2, 31.7 (7.1%, 7.40 (2.61 kg/m(2, 15.3 (1.2 kg/m(2, and 5.86 (0.67 kg/m(2, respectively, in women. We then calculated quartiles and quintiles for these indices after stratifying for sex and 5-year age group. FFMI and SMI decreased significantly with age in both sexes (P < 0.001 for trends, but FFMI remained constant among the women with only a 1% decrease up to age 84 years. Percentage FM increased significantly, with age (P < 0.001 in men and P = 0.045 in women for trends, but FMI was unchanged in both sexes (P = 0.147 in men and P = 0.176 in women for trends.The present data should be useful in the clinical evaluation of body composition of older Japanese and for international comparisons. The small age-related decrease in FFMI may be a noteworthy characteristic of body composition

  15. Reference Values and Age Differences in Body Composition of Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Satoshi; Shinkai, Shoji; Iijima, Katsuya; Obuchi, Shuichi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Hideyo; Kawai, Hisashi; Nishi, Mariko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Yu; Amano, Hidenori; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    To determine age- and sex-specific body composition reference values and investigate age differences in these parameters for community-dwelling older Japanese men and women, using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. We conducted a pooled analysis of data collected in four cohort studies between 2008 and 2012: Kusatsu Longitudinal Study, Hatoyama Cohort Study, Itabashi Cohort Study, and Kashiwa Cohort Study. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4478 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65-94 years (2145 men, 2333 women; mean age: 72.9 years in men and 72.6 years in women). Body weight, fat mass (FM), percentage FM, fat-free mass (FFM), and appendicular lean soft tissue mass were measured using the InBody 720 and 430 (Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea). The values were then normalized by height in meters squared to determine body mass index (BMI), FM index (FMI), FFM index (FFMI), and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Simple means (standard deviation) of BMI, percentage FM, FMI, FFMI, and SMI were 23.4 (2.9) kg/m(2), 24.9 (6.3)%, 5.96 (2.09) kg/m(2), 17.4 (1.5) kg/m(2), and 7.29 (0.76) kg/m(2), respectively, in men and 22.7 (3.3) kg/m(2), 31.7 (7.1)%, 7.40 (2.61) kg/m(2), 15.3 (1.2) kg/m(2), and 5.86 (0.67) kg/m(2), respectively, in women. We then calculated quartiles and quintiles for these indices after stratifying for sex and 5-year age group. FFMI and SMI decreased significantly with age in both sexes (P < 0.001 for trends), but FFMI remained constant among the women with only a 1% decrease up to age 84 years. Percentage FM increased significantly, with age (P < 0.001 in men and P = 0.045 in women for trends), but FMI was unchanged in both sexes (P = 0.147 in men and P = 0.176 in women for trends). The present data should be useful in the clinical evaluation of body composition of older Japanese and for international comparisons. The small age-related decrease in FFMI may be a noteworthy characteristic of body

  16. Age, body mass, and gender as predictors of masters olympic weightlifting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thé, Dwight J; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine previously collected performance scores from the 2000 World Masters Weightlifting Championships to 1). determine the extent to which age and body mass are related to and predictive of indirect estimates of absolute and relative muscular power, and 2). assess possible gender differences in these associations. Dependent variables were absolute load (ABS = heaviest snatch [kg] + heaviest clean and jerk [kg]) and relative load (REL = ABS [kg]/body mass [kg]), representing indirect estimates of absolute and relative muscular power, respectively. Predictor variables were age (yr) and body mass (kg). Linear regression and various diagnostic procedures were used to analyze the data. The linear model provided an adequate fit for the data because no departures from the usual assumptions of normally distributed variables and homoscedastic error variance were observed. All predictor variables were significantly (P weightlifters, but the rate of decline (%.yr-1) in power with advancing age is similar and is in agreement with previous reports for world record holders, other masters athletes, and healthy, untrained individuals, suggesting the importance of the aging process itself over physical activity history.

  17. Variation of Biophysical Parameters of the Skin with Age, Gender, and Body Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Firooz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Understanding the physiological, chemical, and biophysical characteristics of the skin helps us to arrange a proper approach to the management of skin diseases. Objective. The aim of this study was to measure 6 biophysical characteristics of normal skin (sebum content, hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL, erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity in a normal population and assess the effect of sex, age, and body location on them. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers in 5 age groups (5 males and females in each were enrolled in this study. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka electronic GmbH, Germany was used to measure skin sebum content, hydration, TEWL, erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity in 8 different locations of the body. Results. There were significant differences between the hydration, melanin index, and elasticity of different age groups. Regarding the locations, forehead had the highest melanin index, where as palm had the lowest value. The mean values of erythema index and melanin index and TEWL were significantly higher in males and anatomic location was a significant independent factor for all of 6 measured parameters. Conclusion. Several biophysical properties of the skin vary among different gender, age groups, and body locations.

  18. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-07-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relation of height, body mass, energy intake, and physical activity to risk of renal cell carcinoma: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer were used to investigate the association between anthropometry, energy intake, and physical activity and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer consists of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years

  20. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-02-09

    Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. This study used data on 4750 mother-offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition.

  1. Body Acceleration as Indicator for Walking Economy in an Ageing Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Valenti

    Full Text Available In adults, walking economy declines with increasing age and negatively influences walking speed. This study aims at detecting determinants of walking economy from body acceleration during walking in an ageing population.35 healthy elderly (18 males, age 51 to 83 y, BMI 25.5±2.4 kg/m2 walked on a treadmill. Energy expenditure was measured with indirect calorimetry while body acceleration was sampled at 60Hz with a tri-axial accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph, positioned on the lower back. Walking economy was measured as lowest energy needed to displace one kilogram of body mass for one meter while walking (WCostmin, J/m/kg. Gait features were extracted from the acceleration signal and included in a model to predict WCostmin.On average WCostmin was 2.43±0.42 J/m/kg and correlated significantly with gait rate (r2 = 0.21, p<0.01 and regularity along the frontal (anteroposterior and lateral (mediolateral axes (r2 = 0.16, p<0.05 and r2 = 0.12, p<0.05 respectively. Together, the three variables explained 46% of the inter-subject variance (p<0.001 with a standard error of estimate of 0.30 J/m/kg. WCostmin and regularity along the frontal and lateral axes were related to age (WCostmin: r2 = 0.44, p<0.001; regularity: r2 = 0.16, p<0.05 and r2 = 0.12, p<0.05 respectively frontal and lateral.The age associated decline in walking economy is induced by the adoption of an increased gait rate and by irregular body acceleration in the horizontal plane.

  2. BODY COMPOSITION OF YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 17-18 YEARS, PRACTICING AND NOT PRACTICING SWIMMING, WITH THE USE OF THE BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jendrysek Marek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Body composition evaluation of youth aged 17-18 of a different physical activity with the help of bioelectric impedance method. Material and Methods: 18 boys practicing swimming and 19 boys not practicing it took part in the study, making up a control group. Height, weight, BMI, lean body mass, the content of fat and water, Rohr factor were evaluated. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney test has been used to evaluate the differences in the range of the tissue components between the two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences were found on the p<0,05 level in % fat content. Mean body weight in experimental group was 71.5 kg, while in control group it was 69.4 kg. Minimum and maximum weight in group of swimming-practicing persons was: 56.6-92.2 kg. Increased body weight in the group of swimmers can result from greater amount of active tissue in this group compared with persons of low physical activity. Proportionally, it amounted to 64.3 kg and 61.3 kg. In the tested groups, minimal and maximal values of amount of active tissue proportionately amounted to: 54.1-78 and 49.5-72,3 kg. Conclusions: Physical activity modifies body composition. Active lifestyle is one of the methods for prevention of overweight and obesity.

  3. Body composition of young people aged 17-18 years, practicing and not practicing swimming, with the use of the bioelectrical impedance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jendrysek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Body composition evaluation of youth aged 17-18 of a different physical activity with the help of bioelectric impedance method. Material and Methods: 18 boys practicing swimming and 19 boys not practicing it took part in the study, making up a control group. Height, weight, BMI, lean body mass, the content of fat and water, Rohr factor were evaluated. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney test has been used to evaluate the differences in the range of the tissue components between the two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences were found on the p<0,05 level in % fat content. Mean body weight in experimental group was 71.5 kg, while in control group it was 69.4 kg. Minimum and maximum weight in group of swimming-practicing persons was: 56.6-92.2 kg. Increased body weight in the group of swimmers can result from greater amount of active tissue in this group compared with persons of low physical activity. Proportionally, it amounted to 64.3 kg and 61.3 kg. In the tested groups, minimal and maximal values of amount of active tissue proportionately amounted to: 54.1-78 and 49.5-72,3 kg. Conclusions: Physical activity modifies body composition. Active lifestyle is one of the methods for prevention of overweight and obesity.

  4. "No former travellers having attained such a height on the Earth's surface": Instruments, inscriptions, and bodies in the Himalaya, 1800-1830.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Lachlan

    2018-03-01

    East India Company surveyors began gaining access to the high Himalaya in the 1810s, at a time when the mountains were taking on increasing political significance as the northern borderlands of British India. Though never as idiosyncratic as surveyors insisted, these were spaces in which instruments, fieldbook inscriptions, and bodies were all highly prone to failure. The ways surveyors managed these failures (both rhetorically and in practice) demonstrate the social performances required to establish credible knowledge in a world in which the senses were scrambled. The resulting tensions reveal an ongoing disconnect in understanding between those displaced not only from London, but also from Calcutta, something insufficiently emphasized in previous histories of colonial science. By focusing on the early nineteenth century, often overlooked in favor of the later period, this article shows the extent to which the scientific, imaginative, and political constitution of the Himalaya was haphazard and contested.

  5. 6-year changes in body composition in women at mid-life: ovarian and chronological aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, MaryFran; Zheng, Huiyong; Tomey, Kristin; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Jannausch, Mary; Li, Xizhao; Yosef, Matheos; Symons, James

    2009-01-01

    Context Understanding the menopause association with body weight is important because excess weight increases risk for stroke, incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality among the middle-aged. Objective To examine chronological age and ovarian age and consider how these could influence body size and composition in mid-life women. Design and Setting The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a longitudinal, community-based study. This report uses data from the Michigan SWAN site. Participants 543 pre- or early perimenopausal African-American and Caucasian women aged 42–52 years at baseline examination. Main Outcome Measures Waist circumference, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from bioelectrical impedance, was assessed in 7 annual serial measures. Annual follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were assayed by ELISA. The final menstrual period (FMP) was defined retrospectively following 12 months of amenorrhea. Results There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase in fat mass of 3.4 kg and a six-year decrease in skeletal muscle mass of ~0.23 kg. There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase of ~5.7 cm in waist circumference. The logFSH change was positively correlated with log(fat mass) change. Waist circumference increased over the time period, but one year following FMP, the rate of increase slowed. Fat mass continued to increase with no change in rate. Conclusions Both time (chronological aging) and ovarian aging contributed to substantial changes in body composition (fat and skeletal muscle mass) and waist circumference. These changes have important ramifications for establishing a metabolic environment that can be healthy or unhealthy. PMID:17192296

  6. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-10-23

    (1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = -47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -95.7; -0.18; p = 0.049; β = -89.6, 95% CI = -131.5; -47.7; p Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants.

  7. Hair as an indicator of the body burden of metals in relation to age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors influencing metal deposition in hair are still unknown. Animal experiments were performed to obtain data on the mechanism of transfer of elements into hair and to estimate whether hair retention is influenced by age, sex and chelating agent treatment. Experiments were performed on albino rats (Wistar strain) of different age and sex. Whole body hair (skin included) and organ retention of various elements was determined at different periods of time after intraperitoneal administration of the radioactive isotopes 115m Cd, 203 Hg, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 65 Zn, 141 Ce, 137 Cs, 203 Pb and 85 Sr. In some experiments DTPA was used for reducing body retention of 155m Cd and 141 Ce and DMPS for reducing 203 Hg retention. Results show that hair and organ retention of elements in rats varies with age, sex and chelation treatment and such changes are specific for each element and can not be generalized. Age as a factor influencing hair retention of metals is likely to be more important for some elements than for others. In kinetic studies we found that due to differences in element distribution and kinetics, the relationship between hair and organ retention at various time intervals varies both with age and the element concerned. Sex influences not only hair but also metal retention and distribution in other organs. (author). 4 refs

  8. Effects of fitness, fatness, and age on men's responses to whole body cooling in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, G M; Brotherhood, J R; Hendrie, A L; Jeffery, S E

    1991-12-01

    Simple and multiple regression analyses were used to assess the influence of 12 white men's fitness (aerobic capacity 44-58 ml O2.min-1.kg fat-free mass-1), fatness (mean skin-fold thickness 5-20 mm, body fat content 15-36%), and age (26-52 yr) on their thermal, metabolic, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to 2 h of whole body cooling, nude, in air at 10 degrees C. Fitter men had slower heart rates, and fatter men had higher blood pressures. Fitness had no effect (P greater than 0.39) on any measured response to cold. Fatness was associated (P less than 0.01) with reduced heat loss, heat production, and mean skin temperature; unchanged heat debt; and increased tissue insulation. Age had the opposite effects. When the confounding effects of fatness were held constant by multiple regression, older men responded to cold as though they were 1 mm of skinfold thickness leaner for each 3-4 yr of age. We conclude that aging, even between the relatively youthful ages of 26 and 52 yr, is accompanied by a progressive weakening of the vasoconstrictor response to cold.

  9. Relationship of EchocardiographicZScores Adjusted for Body Surface Area to Age, Sex, Race, and Ethnicity: The Pediatric Heart Network Normal Echocardiogram Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Leo; Colan, Steven; Stylianou, Mario; Granger, Suzanne; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Frommelt, Peter; Pearson, Gail; Camarda, Joseph; Cnota, James; Cohen, Meryl; Dragulescu, Andreea; Frommelt, Michele; Garuba, Olukayode; Johnson, Tiffanie; Lai, Wyman; Mahgerefteh, Joseph; Pignatelli, Ricardo; Prakash, Ashwin; Sachdeva, Ritu; Soriano, Brian; Soslow, Jonathan; Spurney, Christopher; Srivastava, Shubhika; Taylor, Carolyn; Thankavel, Poonam; van der Velde, Mary; Minich, LuAnn

    2017-11-01

    Published nomograms of pediatric echocardiographic measurements are limited by insufficient sample size to assess the effects of age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Variable methodologies have resulted in a wide range of Z scores for a single measurement. This multicenter study sought to determine Z scores for common measurements adjusted for body surface area (BSA) and stratified by age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Data collected from healthy nonobese children ≤18 years of age at 19 centers with a normal echocardiogram included age, sex, race, ethnicity, height, weight, echocardiographic images, and measurements performed at the Core Laboratory. Z score models involved indexed parameters (X/BSA α ) that were normally distributed without residual dependence on BSA. The models were tested for the effects of age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Raw measurements from models with and without these effects were compared, and race, and ethnicity for all outcomes, but all effects were clinically insignificant based on comparisons of models with and without the effects, resulting in Z scores independent of age, sex, race, and ethnicity for each measurement. Echocardiographic Z scores based on BSA were derived from a large, diverse, and healthy North American population. Age, sex, race, and ethnicity have small effects on the Z scores that are statistically significant but not clinically important. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor-21 increase with age independently of body composition indices among healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynae J. Hanks

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Our findings in a healthy population display an age-related increase in serum FGF21, highlighting a potential age effect in response to metabolic demand over the lifecourse. FGF21 levels increase with age independently of body composition. At lower levels of FGF21, BMD, but not other body composition parameters, attenuates the association between FGF21 level and age, suggesting the metabolic demand of the skeleton may provide a link between FGF21 and energy metabolism.

  11. Assessing body composition with DXA and bioimpedance: effects of obesity, physical activity, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyi, Eszter; Tylavsky, Frances A; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Suominen, Harri; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2008-03-01

    This study evaluated to what extent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and two types of bioimpedance analysis (BIA) yield similar results for body fat mass (FM) in men and women with different levels of obesity and physical activity (PA). The study population consisted of 37-81-year-old Finnish people (82 men and 86 women). FM% was estimated using DXA (GE Lunar Prodigy) and two BIA devices (InBody (720) and Tanita BC 418 MA). Subjects were divided into normal, overweight, and obese groups on the basis of clinical cutoff points of BMI, and into low PA (LPA) and high PA (HPA) groups. Agreement between the devices was calculated by using the Bland-Altman analysis. Compared to DXA, both BIA devices provided on average 2-6% lower values for FM% in normal BMI men, in women in all BMI categories, and in both genders in both HPA and LPA groups. In obese men, the differences were smaller. The two BIA devices provided similar means for groups. Differences between the two BIA devices with increasing FM% were a result of the InBody (720) not including age in their algorithm for estimating body composition. BIA methods provided systematically lower values for FM than DXA. However, the differences depend on gender and body weight status pointing out the importance of considering these when identifying people with excess FM.

  12. [Body composition and metabolic risk in small for gestational age children treated with growth hormone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2016-09-16

    Small for gestational age (SGA) children are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Our objective is to evaluate changes in body composition produced by growth hormone (GH) treatment. A group of 28 SGA children without catch-up growth and undergoing treatment with GH was selected for evaluation. Over the course of 3 years from the beginning of the treatment with GH, the children's body composition variables (bone mineral density [BMD], fat and lean body mass proportion) were evaluated annually with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A study of correlation between metabolic and body composition variables was also made. Treatment with GH produces a reduction in fat mass proportion in relation to lean body mass, decreasing from 25.94±6.09 to 22.88±5.38% (P=.034). In the abdominal regions we observe an increase in lean mass, from 1,356,91±426,71 to 2,570,96±814,36g (P=.000) and a tendency for visceral fat deposits to decrease. BMD in lumbar vertebrae improved from -1.55±0.68 to -0.90±0.79Z (P=.019). Treatment with GH produces changes in body composition, improving BMD and increasing the proportion of lean body mass with a reduction in fat mass. If these changes persisted into adulthood, they may cause a reduction in the metabolic and cardiovascular risk in this group of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Aging changes of body composition in the trunk using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Yoshikazu

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scans of the trunk were reviewed from 100 healthy adults (50 males and 50 females). According to the level of Erdheim lattice, CT scans were available in the following planes: midpoint of the sternum (E5), xiphoid (E6), upper abdomen (E7), umbilicus (E8), and lower abdomen (E10). The body composition was divided into subcutaneous fatty layer (SF), bone and muscle layer (BM), and body cavity (BC). The total area was the largest at the level of E5 and smallest at the level of E8, irrespective of sex. It decreased with age in men. It became largest in women in their fifties, and rapidly decreased in their sixties. The SF proportion tended to decrease in men over the age of 30; and for women, it was constant between the ages of 30 and 50 and decreased in the sixth decade of life. This was marked at the level of E8, and was more predominant in women than men. The BM proportion began to decrease in man in their sixties and was the lowest in their seventies; however, it was independent of aging in women. The BC proportion increased in both men and women in their forties. At the levels of E5, E6, and E7, the BC proportion was the largest, followed by the BM proportion. This was independent of age and sex. At the level of E8, the BM proportion was the largest, and the SF proportion was smallest for men; in women, the SF proportion was the largest between the ages of 30 and 50, and the BM proportion became larger over the age of 60. At the level of E10, the BM proportion was the largest in every age group, followed by the SF proportion in men in their thirties and in women below the age of 70. The SF proportion at every level was larger in women than men, irrespective of age. The BM proportion was more predominant for men than women, especially at the levels of E5, E8, and E10. The BC proportion was larger in men than women at the level of E5, irrespective of age, and at the levels of E6 and E7 over the age of 40. (N.K.)

  14. Sex and age specific prediction formulas for estimating body composition from bioelectrical impedance : a cross-validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Weststrate, J A; Seidell, J C

    In 827 male and female subjects, with a large variation in body composition and an age range of 7-83 years, body composition was measured by densitometry, anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. The relationship between densitometrically determined fat free mass (FFM) with body impedance (R),

  15. Body fat levels in children in younger school age from rural areas living in Copper Mining Region in south-west Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity as a civilization disease has been called the "epidemic" in the late twentieth century. It is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, which is the last time a major cause of death. In Europe and the United States, the number of overweight people exceeds now 50% of the population. The incidence of overweight and obesity continue to rise and this phenomenon is also observed in our country even in case of an early childhood. In Poland, percentage of very young school children (boys and girls who are overweight or obese amounts to about 15%. Obesity is particularly common among children from industrial environments living in highly developed countries. The aim of his study was to assess the level of fat in boys and girls from rural areas aged 7 to 10 from industrial environment. Material and methods. The study was carried out at six rural schools located in the copper mining region in south-west Poland in 2001. For the needs of the study use was made of existing results covering altogether 488 children of early school age – 261 girls and 227 boys. Measurements were taken of height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Body fat, body water and lean body mass were measured with Futrex. Respectively the BMI and WHR were calculated from measurements taken earlier. Results and conclusions. The BMI level is within the values of acceptable standard in majority of children. The percentage of children above the standard fluctuates within the limits of typical peers from other regions of the country and is about 15%. In boys obesity increases with age, in girls the values increase also, but they are of lower importance. Most of the examined children present an average level of total body fatness. A very small percentage of them exceeds the level considered as obese.

  16. Prenatal and adult exposures to smoking are associated with adverse effects on reproductive hormones, semen quality, final height and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Trine L; Jensen, Tina K; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Exposure to tobacco smoking prenatally is a risk factor for reduced semen quality, but whether the exposure has adverse effects on reproductive hormones, pubertal development or adult BMI remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between...... these factors while controlling for the effects of current smoking in young adulthood. METHODS This cross-sectional study (1996-2006) included 3486 Danish men (median age: 19 years), participating in a semen-quality study. Data were obtained from questionnaires, physical examinations, semen analyses...... (free-T, 2.38 versus 2.33 nmol/l). If not exposed prenatally, men's own smoking was associated with increased total testosterone but unchanged free-T. For smokers who had been exposed prenatally, total testosterone was increased but free-T was reduced (2.30 versus 2.38 nmol/l, P = 0.003) due to higher...

  17. Common variation in LMNA increases susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and associates with elevated fasting glycemia and estimates of body fat and height in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegner, Lise; Andersen, Gitte; Sparsø, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    . The minor T-allele of rs4641 was nominally associated with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.14 [95% CI 1.03-1.26], P = 0.01) in a study of 1,324 type 2 diabetic patients and 4,386 glucose-tolerant subjects and with elevated fasting plasma glucose levels in a population-based study of 5,395 middle......-aged individuals (P = 0.008). The minor T-allele of rs955383 showed nominal association with obesity in a study of 5,693 treatment-naïve subjects (1.25 [1.07-1.64], P = 0.01), and after dichotomization of waist circumference, the minor alleles of rs955383 and rs11578696 were nominally associated with increased...

  18. Revised Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2015 growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5-18-year-old Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaman V Khadilkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth chart committee of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP has revised growth charts for 5-18-year-old Indian children in Jan 2015. The last IAP growth charts (2007 were based on data collected in 1989-92 which is now >2 decades old. India is in an economic and nutrition transition and hence growth pattern of Indian children has changed over last few years. Thus, it was necessary to produce contemporary, updated growth references for Indian children. The new IAP charts were prepared by collating data from nine groups who had published studies in indexed journals on growth from India in the last decade. Growth charts were constructed from a total of 87022 middle and upper socioeconomic class children (m 54086, f 32936 from all five zones of India. Data from middle and upper socioeconomic class children are likely to have higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and hence growth charts produced on such populations are likely to "normalize" obesity. To remove such unhealthy weights form the data, method suggested by World Health Organization was used to produce weight charts. Thus, the new IAP weight charts are much lower than the recently published studies on affluent Indian children. Since Indian′s are at a higher risk of obesity-related cardiometabolic complications at lower body mass index (BMI, BMI charts adjusted for 23, and 27 adult equivalent cut-offs as per International obesity task force guidelines were constructed. IAP now recommends use of these new charts to replace the 2007 IAP charts.

  19. Body weight measurements and correlation relationship in Savanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age at castration, type of birth and sex on body weight, body linear measurements and correlation between body weight and body length, chest length, height-at-withers, facial length and fore and hind leg lengths of semi-intensively managed Savanna Brown goats.

  20. Analysis of the nature of injuries in victims of fall from height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena E. Kusior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To assess the types and extent of injuries sustained by victims of fall from height depending on the height of fall. Material and methods: The study included 338 bodies of victims of fatal falls from different heights (from the 1st to 10th floors who were subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, between 1995 and 2014. For each individual, selected data were collected including gender, age, body height, injury types and presence of alcohol or other intoxicants in blood. The analysis comprised injuries to the brain, thoracic and abdominal organs, fractures of the skull, extremities, ribs and spine, and fractures of the scapula, clavicle and sternum (considered together. The study focused on determining the frequency of occurrence of different injuries in relation to one another and depending on the height of fall. Results : The number and extent of injuries was found to increase along with the height of fall. Three injury types, including injuries to the mesentery and both kidneys and fractures of upper extremity small bones, were shown to occur from the threshold heights of the 3rd, 4th and 6th floors. Eleven injuries demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the height of fall. The study also revealed a number of correlations between the frequencies of occurrence of different injuries. Conclusions : Injuries found from the threshold value may suggest the minimal height of fa