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Sample records for agaricus blazei ss

  1. Cultivation of Agaricus blazei on Pleurotus spp. spent substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Maria Miranda Gern; Nelson Libardi Junior; Gabriela Nunes Patrício; Elisabeth Wisbeck; Mariane Bonatti Chaves; Sandra Aparecida Furlan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was the use of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju for the previous lignocellulolytic decomposition of banana tree leaf straw and the further use of the degraded straw as substrate for the culture of Agaricus blazei. For optimising the production of A. blazei in terms of yield (Y%) and biological efficiency (BE%), adjustments to the composition of the substrate were evaluated in a 2(5) experimental design. The following components were tested in relation to % of ...

  2. Agaricus blazei Murill - immunomodulatory properties and health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Biedron R; Tangen JM; Maresz K; Hetland G

    2012-01-01

    AbstractThe Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM), also known as Agaricus brasiliensis L. due to its origin in Brazilian rain forest, is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which also comprises medicinal mushrooms such as Hericium erinaceus and Grifola frondosa. AbM has been used in traditional medicine locally and also recently as a health food worldwide. Since it has been found to possess immunomodulatory properties, its biological and health-related effects, as well as its isolated ac...

  3. 巴氏菇Agaricus blazei murrill栽培新法初步研究%PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON NEW METHOD FOR CULTIUATING AGARICUS BLAZEI MURRILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旭

    2000-01-01

    A technique for cultivating agaricus blazei murrill is reported. The technique used bagasse, in stead of muck as material, and through the secondary fermention of cultivated material to cultivate.%本文报导了以苷蔗渣为原料,不用粪肥,经栽培料二次发酵生产agaricus blazei murrill技术.

  4. Agaricus blazei, supstrat za proizvodnju β-1,3-glukanaze s pomoću Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Andréia A. J.; Giese, Ellen C.; Barbosa, Aneli M.; Gomes, Eleni; da Silva, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Ekstrakt gljive Agaricus blazei (Agaricus brasiliensis) upotrijebljen je kao supstrat za proizvodnju β-1,3-glukanaze submerznim uzgojem plijesni Trichoderma harzianum Rifai. Centralno složeni 22 faktorijalni dizajn razvijen je primjenom ovih varijabla: vrijeme uzgoja (x1/dan) i koncentracija ekstrakta Agaricus blazei (x2/(g/L)), a rezultati su analizirani metodom odzivnih površina (RSM). Rezultati pokazuju da je koncentracija ekstrakta Agaricus blazei najvažnija varijabla za proizvodnju β-1,3...

  5. Agaricus blazei Murill - immunomodulatory properties and health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biedron R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM, also known as Agaricus brasiliensis L. due to its origin in Brazilian rain forest, is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which also comprises medicinal mushrooms such as Hericium erinaceus and Grifola frondosa. AbM has been used in traditional medicine locally and also recently as a health food worldwide. Since it has been found to possess immunomodulatory properties, its biological and health-related effects, as well as its isolated active ingredients e.g. beta-glucans, have been examined by scientists. Otherinvestigations have been performed with mixed mushroom products, such as AndoSanTM, which contains mostly AbM, but also the two other mushrooms above. AbM-related benefits reviewed here include effects against cancer, infections, inflammation, allergy/ asthma and diabetes. Effects of AndoSanTMand other AbM-based extracts have been compared in a bacterial sepsis model.

  6. IL-12 Production Induced by Agaricus blazei Fraction H (ABH) Involves Toll-like Receptor (TLR)

    OpenAIRE

    Kasai, H.; He, L. M.; Kawamura, M.; Yang, P. T.; Deng, X. W.; Munkanta, M.; Yamashita, A; H Terunuma; Hirama, M.; Horiuchi, I.; Natori, T.; Koga, T; Y. Amano; Yamaguchi, N.; Ito, M

    2004-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murill is an edible fungus used in traditional medicine, which has various well-documented medicinal properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hemicellulase-derived mycelia extract (Agaricus blazei fraction H: ABH) on the immune system. First, we examined the cytokine-inducing activity of ABH on human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC). The results indicated that ABH induced expression of IL-12, a cytokine known to be a critical regulator of cellular im...

  7. Cultivation of Agaricus blazei on Pleurotus spp. spent substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Miranda Gern

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the use of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju for the previous lignocellulolytic decomposition of banana tree leaf straw and the further use of the degraded straw as substrate for the culture of Agaricus blazei. For optimising the production of A. blazei in terms of yield (Y% and biological efficiency (BE%, adjustments to the composition of the substrate were evaluated in a 2(5 experimental design. The following components were tested in relation to % of substrate dry mass: urea (1 and 10%, rice bran (10 or 20% or ammonium sulphate (0 or 10%, inoculum (10 or 20% and the casing material (subsoil or burned rice husks. The best results (79.71 Y% and 6.73 BE% were found when the substrate containing 10% of rice bran, without ammonium sulphate, inoculated with 20% and covered with subsoil was used.O cultivo de fungos comestíveis e medicinais utilizando resíduos da agroindústria vem se apresentando como uma alternativa econômica para o pequeno produtor rural, favorecendo a agricultura familiar do nordeste catarinense. Este trabalho avaliou o fungo Pleurotus para a decomposição lignocelulolítica de palha de folhas de bananeira e a utilização da palha residual como substrato para o cultivo de Agaricus blazei. Ajustes na composição do substrato residual de Pleurotus, tais como o tipo e a concentração da fonte de nitrogênio, a porcentagem de inóculo e a camada de cobertura, foram avaliadas. O substrato residual que mais favoreceu a produção de A. blazei em Eficiência Biológica (6,73%, Rendimento (79,71% e menor tempo para emissão do primeiro primórdio (27 dias foi o substrato residual de P. ostreatus inoculado com 20% de inóculo (ms, 10% de farelo de arroz (ms, sem sulfato de amônio e utilizando terra de subsolo como camada de cobertura.

  8. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Agaricus blazei methanolic extract fractions assessed using gene and chromosomal mutation assays

    OpenAIRE

    Marilanda Ferreira Bellini; Leonardo Neves Cabrioti; Ana Paula Terezan; Berenice Quinzani Jordão; Lúcia Regina Ribeiro; Mário Sérgio Mantovani

    2008-01-01

    Functional food investigations have demonstrated the presence of substances that could be beneficial to human health when consumed. However, the toxic effects of some substances contained in foods have been determined. Reported medicinal and nutritive properties have led to the extensive commercialization of the basidiomycete fungi Agaricus blazei Murrill (sensu Heinemann), also known as Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al., Agaricus subrufescens Peck or the Brazilian medical mushroom (BMM). D...

  9. Production flush of Agaricus blazei on Brazilian casing layers

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    Nelson Barros Colauto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the biological efficiency and production flushes of Agaricus blazei strains on different casing layers during 90 cultivation days. Four casing layers were used: mixture of subsoil and charcoal (VCS, lime schist (LSC, São Paulo peat (SPP and Santa Catarina peat (SCP; and two genetically distant A. blazei strains. The fungus was grown in composted substratum and, after total colonization, a pasteurized casing layer was added over the substratum, and fructification was induced. Mushrooms were picked up daily when the basidiocarp veil was stretched, but before the lamella were exposed. The biological efficiency (BE was determined by the fresh basidiocarp mass divided by the substratum dry mass, expressed in percentage. The production flushes were also determined over time production. The BE and production flushes during 90 days were affected by the strains as well as by the casing layers. The ABL26 and LSC produced the best BE of 60.4%. Although VCS is the most used casing layer in Brazil, it is inferior to other casing layers, for all strains, throughout cultivation time. The strain, not the casing layer, is responsible for eventual variations of the average mushroom mass. In average, circa 50% of the mushroom production occurs around the first month, 30% in the second month, and 20% in third month. The casing layer water management depends on the casing layer type and the strain. Production flush responds better to water reposition, mainly with ABL26, and better porosity to LSC and SCP casing layers.

  10. Genetic characterization of isolates of the basidiomycete Agaricus blazei by RAPD

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    Colauto Nelson Barros

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic divergence of five isolates of Agaricus blazei was determined based on RAPD data. Results indicate that there is little genetic variability among the commercialized strains and that RAPD is a feasible and low cost technique that can be used to characterize this fungus.

  11. Genetic characterization of isolates of the basidiomycete Agaricus blazei by RAPD

    OpenAIRE

    Colauto Nelson Barros; Dias Eustáquio Souza; Gimenes Marcos Aparecido; Eira Augusto Ferreira da

    2002-01-01

    The genetic divergence of five isolates of Agaricus blazei was determined based on RAPD data. Results indicate that there is little genetic variability among the commercialized strains and that RAPD is a feasible and low cost technique that can be used to characterize this fungus.

  12. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human PathogenPseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Ciric, A.; Glamoclija, J.; Nicolic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence,

  13. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Agaricus blazei methanolic extract fractions assessed using gene and chromosomal mutation assays

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    Marilanda Ferreira Bellini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional food investigations have demonstrated the presence of substances that could be beneficial to human health when consumed. However, the toxic effects of some substances contained in foods have been determined. Reported medicinal and nutritive properties have led to the extensive commercialization of the basidiomycete fungi Agaricus blazei Murrill (sensu Heinemann, also known as Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al., Agaricus subrufescens Peck or the Brazilian medical mushroom (BMM. Different methanolic extract fractions (ME of this mushroom were submitted to the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN clastogenic assay and the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus (HGPRT assay for gene mutation, both using Chinese hamster ovary cells clone K1 (CHO-K1. The results suggest that all the fractions tested possess cytotoxic and mutagenic potential but no clastogenic effects. Further information is needed on the biochemical components of the A. blazei methanol fractions to identify any substances with cytotoxic and/or mutagenicity potential. These findings indicate that A. blazei methanolic extract should not be used due to their genotoxicity and care should be taken in the use of A. blazei by the general population until further biochemical characterization of this fungi is completed.

  14. Effect of different compounds on the induction of laccase production by Agaricus blazei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, J S; Vandenberghe, L P S; Oliveira, A C C; Tavares, M F; Linde, G A; Colauto, N B; Soccol, C R

    2015-01-01

    Laccases are polyphenol oxidases produced by many fungi and have many applications in textile, food and beverage, and pulp and paper industries. Laccase production can be induced using aromatic or phenolic compounds that mostly affect the transcription of laccase-encoding genes. In this study, we analyzed laccase and biomass production by Agaricus blazei in the presence of different concentrations of nitrogen, copper, and inducers such as pyrogallol, veratryl alcohol, xylidine, vanillin, guaiacol, and ethanol. Laccase production by A. blazei U2-4 reached 43.8 U/mL in the presence of 2.8 g/L nitrogen and 150 μM copper. However, addition of copper to the cultivation medium decreased biomass production. Different compounds differentially induced laccase production by A. blazei. Moreover, different concentrations of these inducers exerted different effects on laccase activity. Ethanol (1.0 mM), guaiacol (0.5 mM), and vanillin (0.5 mM) were the best inducers and increased laccase activity by 120% (A. blazei U2-2), 30% (A. blazei U2-3), and 9% (A. blazei U2-4), respectively. In contrast, pyrogallol and xylidine decreased laccase activity but increased biomass production. PMID:26634556

  15. Analgesic Activity of a Glucan Polysaccharide Isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Leônia C. Gonzaga; Menezes, Thiago M. F.; de Souza, José R. R.; Nágila M. P. S. Ricardo; Ana L. P. Freitas; Sandra de A. Soares

    2013-01-01

    A water soluble polysaccharide and its selective precipitated fractions (F1, F2, and F3) were isolated from hot water extract of fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei Murril known as Agaricus brasiliensis to evaluate the analgesic activity of the materials in Swiss mice. The isolated material and its fractions were characterized by two-dimensional COSY and HMQC spectra as β-(1→6)-α-(1→4)-glucan-bound-protein polysaccharide constituted mainly by β-(1→6) glucan. The glucan-protein polysaccharide a...

  16. The Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill: Review of Literature and Pharmaco-Toxicological Problems

    OpenAIRE

    F.Firenzuoli; Gori, L.; Lombardo, G.

    2007-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) popularly known as ‘Cogumelo do Sol’ in Brazil, or ‘Himematsutake’ in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil, and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses, so it is now considered as one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. It was traditionally used to treat many common diseases like atherosclerosis, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, dermatitis and cancer. In vitro and in vivo ABM has shown immunomodulatory and ...

  17. The Medicinal Values of Culinary-Medicinal Royal Sun Mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murrill)

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Wang; Zhiming Fu; Chunchao Han

    2013-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM), a mushroom native to Brazil, is a basidiomycete brown fungus, which is popularly known as “Cogumelo do Sol” in Brazil or “Himematsutake” in Japan, and there has been a prominent increase in the use of ABM for therapeutic and medicinal purposes. ABM is useful against a variety of diseases like cancer, tumor, chronic hepatitis, diabetes, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, and so on. In this review, we demonstrated various pharmacological effects of ABM, so tha...

  18. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Soković; Ana Ćirić; Jasmina Glamočlija; Miloš Nikolić; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In thi...

  19. Composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei na dieta de frangos de corte Spent mushroom substrate of Agaricus blazei in broiler chicks diet

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    Alexandre Magno Batista Machado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da substituição de um antibiótico por diferentes níveis do composto exaurido do cogumelo (CEC Agaricus blazei sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram avaliadas sete dietas, seis com adição de CEC (0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0% e uma com antibiótico (avilamicina 10 ppm. Foram utilizados 588 pintos de 1 dia de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições por dieta (três por sexo e 14 aves por unidade experimental. As aves que não receberam qualquer aditivo na dieta apresentaram os piores resultados de desempenho. Níveis de CEC superiores a 0,4% ocasionaram redução gradual no desempenho. O nível de 0,2% de CEC proporcionou o maior ganho de peso e o de 0,21%, a melhor conversão alimentar e o maior consumo de ração. À exceção do rendimento de peito e do rendimento de gordura abdominal, os aditivos não influenciaram os rendimentos de carcaça e dos cortes. O composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei pode ser utilizado como aditivo alternativo ao antibiótico no nível de 0,2% da dieta, pois não prejudicou o desempenho produtivo e o rendimento de carcaça das aves.The effect of the substitution of an antibiotic by different levels of spent mushroom substrate (SMS of Agaricus blazei on the performance of broiler chicks from 1 to 42 days old was evaluated. Seven diets were evaluated, six with SMS addiction (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0% and one with antibiotic (avilamycin 10 ppm. A total of 588 one day old chicks was allotted to a complete randomized design, with six replications per diet (three per sex and 14 birds per experimental unit. The birds fed diet with any additive showed the worst performance results. Levels of SMS above 0.4% caused gradual reduction in the performance. The level of 0.2% of SMS provided the highest value of weight gain and of 0.21% promoted the best feed conversion and the highest value of feed intake

  20. Study on Several Characteristics of Agaricus blazei Murril Strain J3 Irradiated by 60Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Bo-qi; JIANG Zhi-he; HUANG Ting-jun; CHEN Jian; ZHENG Wei-wen

    2003-01-01

    A new mutant strain J3 from Agaricus blazei Murril was obtained by 60Co irradiation. The yields of successive generations were increased more than 70% to compare with their original strain. The component analysis on amino acids and fatty acid illuminated that the nutrient value of strain J3 fruiting body was better than the original strain. The apparent nodule structure was found in the hyphea of J3 strain through the observation by scanning electron microscope. RAPD analysis showed the great difference of PCR fingerprints between J3 and its original strain. It is a promising mutant strain for further commercial development in the future.

  1. Nutrient value protein of mutant J3 of agaricus blazei by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies of nutrient value protein of mutant J3 of Agaricus blazei were carried out. The results showed that mutant J3 had 9 kinds of essential amino acids, the compositions of essential amino acids is 46.0% of total amino acids. The amino acid score is 94.5, the essential amino acid index is 92.4, biological value is 89.0, the ratio coefficient of amino acids is 72.3, the nutrient value is 32.5. The chemical score is 74.18. These results proved that the protein of mutant J3 had high nutrient value

  2. Phase I Clinical Study of the Dietary Supplement, Agaricus blazei Murill, in Cancer Patients in Remission

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Ohno; Yoshiteru Sumiyoshi; Katsuyoshi Hashine; Akitomi Shirato; Satoru Kyo; Masaki Inoue

    2011-01-01

    Although many cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM), safety is not yet well understood. Cancer survivors took 1.8, 3.6, or 5.4 g ABM granulated powder (Kyowa Wellness Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) per day orally for 6 months. Adverse events were defined by subjective/objective symptoms and laboratory data according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (NCI-CTCAE v3.0). Seventy-eight ...

  3. Agarol, an ergosterol derivative from Agaricus blazei, induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takamitsu; Kawai, Junya; Ouchi, Kenji; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Osima, Yoshiteru; Hidemi, Rikiishi

    2016-04-01

    Agaricus blazei (A. blazei) is a mushroom with many biological effects and active ingredients. We purified a tumoricidal substance from A. blazei, an ergosterol derivative, and named it 'Agarol'. Cytotoxic effects of Agarol were determined by the MTT assay using A549, MKN45, HSC-3, and HSC-4 human carcinoma cell lines treated with Agarol. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondria membrane potential (∆ψm) were also determined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to quantify the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Agarol predominantly induced apoptosis in two p53-wild cell lines (A549 and MKN45) compared to the other p53-mutant cell lines (HSC-3 and HSC-4). Further mechanistic studies revealed that induction of apoptosis is associated with increased generation of ROS, reduced ∆ψm, release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria to the cytosol, upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-2. Caspase-3 activities did not increase, and z-VAD-fmk, a caspase inhibitor, did not inhibit the Agarol-induced apoptosis. These findings indicate that Agarol induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human carcinoma cells through a mitochondrial pathway. The in vivo anticancer activity of Agarol was confirmed in a xenograft murine model. This study suggests a molecular mechanism by which Agarol induces apoptosis in human carcinoma cells and indicates the potential use of Agarol as an anticancer agent. PMID:26893131

  4. Influence of structural features on immunostimulating activity of glucans extracted from Agaricus blazei mushroom

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    Kozarski Maja S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High molecular weight b-D-glucans derived from Basidiomycetes cell walls are able to specifically activate cellular and humoral components of the host immune system. The aim of this paper was to examine immunomodulating activity of native, chemically and enzimatically modified glucans from Agaricus blazei mushroom and to determine which structural features are of primary importance for their stimulation referring to humane immune cells. The immunomodulating activities were tested in vitro, by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and measuring of interferon-gamma (IFN-g production by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Measurements of immunomodulatory capacity of Agaricus blazei native glucans showed their expressive immunostimulating effect on activated PBMCs and synthesis of IFN-g. The results obtained after the stimulation of cells with 1M H2SO4 and 1M NaOH, the treated glucans showed that primary structure is of more importance than the tertiary structure of the triple helix for their immunostimulating activity and synthesis of IFN-g. Glucans of lower molecular weight obtained after acid hydrolysis appeared as effective immunostimulators of PBMC's. The results obtained after the incubation of cells with 1,6 b-glucanase modified glucans suggest that b-(1,6 binding of glucose monomers probably has no importance for the production of imunostimulating effects, in vitro. This confirmed that b-(1,3 bonds are the primary determinants of immunomodulatory activities and stimulation of IFN-g synthesis.

  5. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of organic extracts of mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill on V79 cells

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    Guterres Zaira da Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murrill, popularly known as the sun mushroom, is a native mushroom in SP, Brazil, that has been widely used in the treatment of cancer and many other pathologies in different parts of the world. A water-soluble protein-polysaccharide complex (1 -> 6beta-D-glucan has been isolated from its fruiting body that showed immune-modulation activity. From organic extracts, linoleic acid has been isolated and determined to be the main substance with antimutagenic activity. Using both the micronucleus (MN and comet (single cell microgel electrophoresis assays, this study determined the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of A. blazei (AB obtained from commercial sources or the following strains: a strains AB 97/29 (young and sporulated phases; b a mixture taken from AB 96/07, AB 96/09 and AB 97/11 strains; and c commercial mushrooms from Londrina, PR and Piedade, SP, designated as AB PR and AB SP, respectively. The extracts from these mushrooms were isolated in chloroform:methanol (3:1 and used in vitro at three different concentrations. V79 cells (Chinese hamster lung cells were exposed to the extracts under pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment conditions, combined with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS. Under the circumstances of this study, these organic extracts did not show any genotoxic or mutagenic effects, but did protect cells against the induction of micronuclei by MMS.

  6. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

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    Marina Soković

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In this study, the effect of the sub-MICs of Agaricus blazei water extract on QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation was evaluated against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Sub-MIC concentrations of the extract which did not kill P. aeruginosa nor inhibited its growth, demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa, such as pyocyanin production, twitching and swimming motility. The biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at sub-MIC values. Water extract of A. blazei is a promising source of antiquorum sensing and antibacterial compounds.

  7. Agaricus blazei Murill as an efficient hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dbass, Abeer M.; Al- Daihan, Sooad K.; Bhat, Ramesa Shafi

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murill is one of the very popular edible medicinal mushrooms. The present study investigated the protective effect of this biologically active mushroom on the tissue peroxidative damage and abnormal antioxidant levels in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Male albino rats of Sprague–Dawley strain weighting (120–150 g) were categorized into five groups. The first group served as the normal control, the second and the third groups were treated with ...

  8. Protoplast Preparation of Jisongrong Mushroom (Agaricus blazei)%姬松茸原生质体的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶勋艳; 张云

    2005-01-01

    对姬松茸(Agaricus blazei Murrill)原生质体制备的最佳条件进行了研究,结果表明:采用液体发酵培养第 7 d的菌体,用2%溶壁酶在 30 ℃下酶解 5 h,原生质体产率达9.08×10 6个/mL.

  9. Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens Produced by Solid State Cultivation

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    Dalla S. O. Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the effects on kidney function indices after long intake of A. brasiliensis mycelium. Approach: Wheat grains was cultured during 18 days with Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium by solid state culture and used for chown formulation. Groups of female Swiss mice (20 per group were fed during 14 weeks with 100 and 50% of the formulated feed denominated A100 and A50, respectively. Control group received formulated chown with wheat grains without mycelium. The water intake and excreted urine volume; the physic chemistry analysis of the urine and the serum levels of glucose, proteins, urea, creatinin and uric acid was determined (Meditron Junior-Boehringer, reagent strips Combur 10; microscopy and ADVIA 1650 Bayer. Results: A100 and A50 groups ingested 19.1 and 15.8% more water compared to C group, respectively. The urine and serum analysis showed that the verified parameters remained invariables for all groups, including glucose levels, which resulted in a 10% reduction of A100 group, without statistical difference (p>0.05 Vs C. Conclusion/Recommendations: The prolonged intake of supplemented feed with A. brasiliensis mycelium didn’t result in indicative alterations in the kidney function indices. The preventive use of the mushroom did not show any deleterious effects on kidney; however complementary studies are necessary to guarantee complete safety; possible correlation between increase of urinary excretion and hypotensive effect

  10. The Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill: Review of Literature and Pharmaco-Toxicological Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Firenzuoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM popularly known as ‘Cogumelo do Sol’ in Brazil, or ‘Himematsutake’ in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil, and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses, so it is now considered as one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. It was traditionally used to treat many common diseases like atherosclerosis, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, dermatitis and cancer. In vitro and in vivo ABM has shown immunomodulatory and antimutagenic properties, although the biological pathways and chemical substances involved in its pharmacological activities are still not clear. The polysaccharides phytocomplex is thought to be responsible for its immunostimulant and antitumor properties, probably through an opsonizing biochemical pathway. Clinical studies are positive confirmations, but we are still at the beginning, and there are perplexing concerns especially relative to the content of agaritine. Argantine is a well-known carcinogenic and toxic substance in animals, that must be completely and fully evaluated.

  11. Phase I Clinical Study of the Dietary Supplement, Agaricus blazei Murill, in Cancer Patients in Remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ohno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM, safety is not yet well understood. Cancer survivors took 1.8, 3.6, or 5.4 g ABM granulated powder (Kyowa Wellness Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan per day orally for 6 months. Adverse events were defined by subjective/objective symptoms and laboratory data according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (NCI-CTCAE v3.0. Seventy-eight patients were assessed for safety of ABM (30/24/24 subjects at 1/2/3 packs per day, resp.. Adverse events were observed in 9 patients (12%. Most were digestive in nature such as nausea and diarrhea, and one patient developed a liver dysfunction-related food allergy, drug lymphocyte product. However, none of these adverse events occurred in a dose-dependent manner. This study shows that ABM does not cause problems in most patients within laboratory parameters at the dosages tested over 6 months. This trial supports previous evidence that the ABM product is generally safe, excluding possible allergic reaction.

  12. An extract of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill can protect against allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Hetland Geir; Ellertsen Linda K

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM) is an edible Brazilian mushroom that has been used in traditional medicine for a range of diseases. It has been shown to have anti-infection and anti-tumor properties in the mouse, which are due to induction of Th1 responses. On the other hand, IgE-mediated allergy is induced by a Th2 response. Objective Since according to the Th1/Th2 paradigm an increased Th1 response may promote a reduced Th2 response, the aim was to examine whether AbM had a...

  13. Coloração de núcleos de esporos e hifas do cogumelo Agaricus blazei Nucleus stain of spores and hifas Ofagaricus blazei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Gontijo Labory

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se estudar o comportamento nuclear durante o ciclo sexual do cogumelo Agaricus blazei , técnicas de coloração e a utilização de fluorocromos foram testadas, visando a uma padronização metodológica para estudos citogenéticos futuros. Das técnicas avaliadas neste trabalho (método de Feulgen, coloração com Giemsa e fluorescência-DAPI, a coloração com Giemsa e o fluorocromo DAPI apresentaram os melhores resultados para evidenciar núcleos. O corante Giemsa permitiu a visualização de compartimentos multinucleados. Com o DAPI, não foi possível a visualização dos septos, sendo necessária a utilização adicional de calcofluor, que tem a propriedade de corar a quitina que delimita os compartimentos das hifas.In order to study the nuclear behavior during the sexual cycle of Agaricus blazei , some coloration and fluorescent stain techniques were tested for a method standardization for fut ure cytogenetical works. Among the studied techniques (Schiff reactive, Giemsa, and fluorescent stain - DAPI, the Giemsa and fluorescent DAPI technique provided the best results. With Giemsa stain, it was possible to visualize multinucleate cell compartments. It was not possible to stain compartmental delimitation with DAPI stain, which was possible only with an additional fluorescent stain - calcofluor, which is specific for chitin.

  14. Avaliação da coloração de basidiocarpos desidratados de Agaricus blazei segundo escala de Munsell Evaluation of the dehydrated fruiting bodies of the mushroom Agaricus blazei according to Munsell colour scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida da Fonseca Delú

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a coloração final de basidiocarpos desidratados de Agaricus blazei, após serem submetidos a tratamento com ácidos ascórbico e cítrico. Para tanto, utilizaram-se cogumelos A. blazei, cultivados em substrato apropriado e mantidos em estufa. Os cogumelos foram colhidos com o píleo totalmente fechado e após a limpeza em água corrente, os basidiocarpos foram seccionados ao meio no sentido longitudinal, sendo uma metade submetida ao tratamento experimental e a outra metade representando o tratamento controle. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram da imersão das metades dos basidiocarpos em solução de ácido ascórbico comercial nas concentrações de 0, 10, 20 e 30 mg/L durante 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 ou 20 minutos. Para o ácido cítrico foram testadas as mesmas concentrações anteriores, porém nos tempos de imersão de 0, 10 e 15 minutos. Todos os tratamentos consistiram de 3 repetições cada. Não se observou relação entre os tratamentos utilizados com a coloração final dos basidiocarpos, embora a utilização de substâncias ácidas tenha possibilitado a obtenção de basidiocarpos desidratados mais próximos daquela coloração considerada ideal para comercialização.The main aim of this work was to evaluate the final colour of the fructification bodies of the mushroom Agaricus blazei submitted to ascorbic and citric acid treatment. The mushroom Agaricus blazei was cultivated in an appropriated substrate and storage in incubators. The mushroom was harvested containing closed pileus and after cleaning with running tap water, the fruiting bodies were sliced and half of each were submitted to acid treatment and half was the control (water immersion. The experimental treatment consisted of immersing half of each basiodiocarp in different concentrations of the commercial solution of ascorbic acid (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml during 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. The other parts of fruiting bodies were

  15. Influência de Agaricus blazei Murrill sobre o tumor sólido de Ehrlich e linfonodos poplíteos de camundongos Influence of Agaricus blazei Murrill in solid Ehrlich tumor and popliteal lymph nodes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Verçosa Junior

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência do tratamento diário com filtrado aquoso de Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM (25mg/ml, via oral, por 17 e 57 dias, em camundongos inoculados com tumor sólido de Ehrlich (TSE por meio da curva de crescimento tumoral, do peso relativo do tumor, da contagem de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos (AgNORs e dos padrões histológicos das massas tumorais e linfonodos poplíteos. Os animais que ingeriram o extrato aquoso do ABM por 57 dias apresentaram menor (P0,05 entre os animais tratados e não tratados.The influence of daily administration of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM aqueous solution (25mg/ml during 17 and 57 days in mice bearing solid Ehrlich tumor was studied. Tumoral growth, tumoral and spleenic relative weights, nucleoly organization regions AgNORs values and tumor and popliteal lymph nodes histopathology were daily evaluated. The animals that received ABM during 57 days showed lower values (P0.05 between treated and non-treated animals. No difference in microscopic evaluation of the tumors in treated and non-treated animals was seen and metastasis in popliteal nodes of the tumor occurred in all the animals.

  16. Extratos de Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei sobre Bipolaris sorokiniana e Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici, in vitro Extracts of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei on Bipolaris sorokiniana and Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici., in vitro

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    Ana Cristina Grade Fiori-Tutida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de buscar medidas alternativas para o controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana e Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici testou-se o efeito fungitóxico in vitro dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei sobre esses fungos. Os extratos brutos aquosos de ambos os cogumelos não tiveram efeito significativo tanto no crescimento micelial quanto na germinação de esporos de B. sorokiniana. Por outro lado, os extratos dos cogumelos inibiram a germinação de esporos de P. recondita f. sp. tritici, com destaque para o isolado LE 96/17 de L. edodes que apresentou inibição da ordem de 52,4%.With the purpose of finding alternative ways to control Bipolaris sorokiniana and Puccinia recondita f. sp. triciti, the fungitoxic effect in vitro of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei mushrooms was tested on these fungi. The aqueous crude extract of both mushrooms did not have significant effect on mycelial growth and spore germination of B. sorokiniana . On the other hand, the mushroom extracts inhibited the germination of P. recondita f. sp. tritici uredospores, particularly on the L. edodes (96/17, which exhibited the largest inhibition of spore germination (52,38%.

  17. Effects of an Agaricus blazei Aqueous Extract Pretreatment on Paracetamol-Induced Brain and Liver Injury in Rats

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    Andréia A. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of an Agaricus blazei aqueous extract pretreatment on paracetamol injury in rats was examined not only in terms of the classical indicators (e.g., levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma but also in terms of functional and metabolic parameters (e.g., gluconeogenesis. Considering solely the classical indicators for tissue damage, the results can be regarded as an indication that the A. blazei extract is able to provide a reasonable degree of protection against the paracetamol injury in both the hepatic and brain tissues. The A. blazei pretreatment largely prevented the increased levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma (ASP, ALT, LDH, and ALP and practically normalized the TBARS levels in both liver and brain tissues. With respect to the functional and metabolic parameters of the liver, however, the extract provided little or no protection. This includes morphological signs of inflammation and the especially important functional parameter gluconeogenesis, which was impaired by paracetamol. Considering these results and the long list of extracts and substances that are said to have hepatoprotective effects, it would be useful to incorporate evaluations of functional parameters into the experimental protocols of studies aiming to attribute or refute effective hepatoprotective actions to natural products.

  18. An extract of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill can protect against allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetland Geir

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM is an edible Brazilian mushroom that has been used in traditional medicine for a range of diseases. It has been shown to have anti-infection and anti-tumor properties in the mouse, which are due to induction of Th1 responses. On the other hand, IgE-mediated allergy is induced by a Th2 response. Objective Since according to the Th1/Th2 paradigm an increased Th1 response may promote a reduced Th2 response, the aim was to examine whether AbM had anti-allergy effects. Methods A mouse model for allergy was employed, in which the mice were immunized s.c. with the model allergen ovalbumin (OVA. Additionally, the animals were given a mushroom extract, AndoSan™, mainly (82% containing AbM, but also Hericium erinaceum (15% and Grifola frondosa (3%, or PBS p.o. either a day before or 19 days after the immunization. The mice were sacrificed on day 26, and anti-OVA IgE (Th2 response and IgG2a (Th1 response antibodies were examined in serum and Th1, Th2 and Treg cytokines in spleen cells cultures. Results It was found that the AndoSan™ extract both when given either before or after OVA immunization reduced the levels of anti-OVA IgE, but not IgG2a, in the mice. There was a tendency to reduced Th2 relative to Th1 cytokine levels in the AndoSan™ groups. Conclusion This particular AbM extract may both prevent allergy development and be used as a therapeutical substance against established allergy.

  19. The Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill Elicits Medicinal Effects on Tumor, Infection, Allergy, and Inflammation through Its Modulation of Innate Immunity and Amelioration of Th1/Th2 Imbalance and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Geir Hetland; Egil Johnson; Torstein Lyberg; Gunnar Kvalheim

    2011-01-01

    The medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill from the Brazilian rain forest has been used in traditional medicine and as health food for the prevention of a range of diseases, including infection, allergy, and cancer. Other scientists and we have examined whether there is scientific evidence behind such postulations. Agaricus blazei M is rich in the immunomodulating polysaccharides, β -glucans, and has been shown to have antitumor, anti-infection, and antiallergic/-asthmatic properties in mo...

  20. Common desease and insect in Agaricus blazei and their control%巴西蘑菇常见病虫害及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林衍铨; 黄建成; 胡润芳

    2000-01-01

    @@ 巴西蘑菇(Agaricus blazei Murrill,日本商品名称姬松茸)在栽培过程中,往往会出现各种病、虫害,轻者降低品质,造成减产,重者甚至绝收.现将巴西蘑菇常见的病虫害及其防治措施介绍如下.

  1. Avaliação in vitro do crescimento micelial de cinco linhagens de Agaricus blazei em duas temperaturas / In vitro evaluation of the mycelial growth of five Agaricus blazei strains in two temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cunha Zied

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento micelial in vitro de cinco linhagens de Agaricus blazei (ABL-05/53, ABL-04/49, ABL-03/44, ABL-99/30 e ABL-02/51, quando submetidas às temperaturas de 20 e 25ºC. Em câmara de fluxo laminar, discos das linhagens foram inoculadas no centro de placas de Petri contendo o meio CA (composto-ágar e incubadas em estufa BOD. Após 48 horas, iniciaram-se as medidas do crescimento micelial, com auxílio de uma régua graduada em milímetros, através de quatro medições equidistantes entre si, até o momento em que, em um dos tratamentos, a colônia fúngica atingisse a proximidade das bordas da placa de Petri. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2. Cada tratamento constou de sete repetições, correspondente a uma placa de Petri, totalizando setenta unidades experimentais. Verificou-se que o crescimento de A. blazei é influenciado pela temperatura de incubação, sendo que a temperatura de 25°C foi mais favorável para o crescimento micelial de todas as linhagens de A. blazei avaliadas, com destaque para as linhagens ABL-04/49 e ABL-03/44 que obtiveram as maiores médias de crescimento micelial nesta condição de temperatura ao final do ciclo de cultivo.AbstractThe objective of the work was to evaluate the in vitro mycelial growth of five A. blazei strains (ABL-05/53, ABL-04/49, ABL-03/44, ABL-99/30 and ABL-02/51 when submitted to the temperatures of 20 and 25 ºC. In a laminar flow chamber, discs of the strains were inoculated in the middle of Petri’s plates containing CA (compost-agar medium and incubated in BOD. After 48 hours, measurements of the mycelial growth began, with the help of a ruler with scale in millimeters, by means of four equidistant measurements, until the moment when the fungal colony reached near the edges of the Petri’s plate in one of the treatments. The experimental design was totally randomized, in 5 x 2 factorial design

  2. Serum hepatic biochemistry and electrophoretic protein profile of healthy and Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice treated with extracts of Agaricus blazei Murill

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    Durval Verçosa Junior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Compounds isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill represent a group of promising natural immunomodulators for use in the treatment of neoplasms. We have evaluated the serum biochemical profile of healthy and Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice treated with different extracts of A. blazei. Total, supernatant, and polysaccharide extracts of A. blazei were obtained from suspensions (at acidic or neutral pH kept in a water bath at 60 °C or in an ultrasonic bath at 37 °C. After oral administering the extracts to mice for 21 days, blood samples were collected for determination of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine kinase (CK, urea, total protein, albumin, globulins, and alpha-, beta- and gamma-globulin fractions. The presence of the tumor led to a significant increase in serum CK and AST activities and in the concentrations of total globulin and the gamma-globulin fraction, and to a decrease in the albumin and alpha2-globulin levels. The polysaccharide extracts of A. blazei reduced the serum AST and ALT activities, probably due to a hepatoprotective effect. In addition, polysaccharide and supernatant extracts inhibited the tumor-induced increase in gamma-globulin levels. Thus, the supernatant and polysaccharide fractions of the extract of A. blazei have potential for use in complementary antineoplastic treatments.

  3. Influence of Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei extracts on the prevention of oxidation and retention of tocopherols in soybean oil in an accelerated storage test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Carolina; Jorge, Neuza

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the methanol extracts of mushrooms Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei on the retention of tocopherols in soybean oil, when subjected to an accelerated storage test. The following treatments were subjected to an accelerated storage test in an oven at 60 °C for 15 days: Control (soybean oil without antioxidants), TBHQ (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of TBHQ), BHT (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of BHT), L. edodes (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of L. edodes extract) and A. blazei (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of A. blazei extract). The samples were analyzed for tocopherols naturally present in soybean oil and mass gain. The results showed, the time required to reach a 0.5% increase in mass was 13 days for TBHQ and 15 days for A. blazei. The content of tocopherols for TBHQ was 457.50 mg/kg and the A. blazei, 477.20 mg/kg. PMID:24876658

  4. Antimutagenic action of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei on Aspergillus nidulans conidia Ação antimutagênica de Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei em conídios de Aspergillus nidulans

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    Edneia A. Souza-Paccola

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimutagenic effect of the mushrooms Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei was studied on conidia of Aspergillus nidulans when exposed to short wave ultraviolet light. Two strains of A. nidulans were used. For the preparation of the extracts, the fresh mushrooms were left in aqueous infusion for 12 hours and heated in a water bath for 15 min at 100ºC, and then the material was filtered. The dehydrated mushrooms were left in aqueous infusion for 12 hours and to filtrated. Both filtrates were used as extracts. A. nidulans conidia were incubated for three hours in water and in mushroom extracts and only after were exposed to UV light (pre-treatment. A. nidulans conidia were suspended in water and in mushroom extracts and immediately submitted to UV light (post-treatment. Conidial suspension in water and in mushroom extracts but without exposure to the mutagenic agent were used as controls. After mutagenic treatment, it was observed an increase in the survival rate of the A. nidulans and a decrease in the percentage of morphologic mutants on conidia treated with mushroom extracts. Our results demonstrated the radioprotective and antimutagenic effect of L. edodes and A. blazei mushrooms on eukaryotic cells when exposed to UV radiation.O efeito antimutagênico dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei foram estudados sobre conídios de Aspergillus nidulans quando expostos à luz ultravioleta de comprimento de onda curto. Duas linhagens de A. nidulans foram usadas. Para o preparo dos extratos, os cogumelos frescos permaneceram em infusão aquosa por 12 horas e em seguida foram aquecidos em banho-maria por 15 min à 100ºC e a seguir o material foi filtrado. Os cogumelos desidratados foram deixados em infusão aquosa por 12 horas e a seguir filtrados. Ambos os filtrados foram usados como extratos. Os conídios de A. nidulans foram incubados por três horas em água e em extrato de cogumelo e somente após foram expostos a luz ultravioleta

  5. 巴西蘑菇Agaricus blazei Murill水溶性多糖部分理化性质的研究%Some Properties of Water - soluble Polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murill Fruit Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林跃鑫; 叶竹秋; 黄谚谚; 谢华玲

    2002-01-01

    本文以物理及化学方法研究了巴西蘑菇Agaricus blazei Murill水溶性多糖AB-Ⅰ、AB-Ⅱ-b和AB-Ⅲ-b的理化性质,结果表明,3种经纯化的多糖都不含糖醛酸而含蛋白质,蛋白质含量分别为AB-Ⅰ:20.1%、AB-Ⅱ-b:16.3%、AB-Ⅲ-b:25.6%.它们的比旋度分别为AB-Ⅰ:+44.33°、AB-Ⅱ-b;+3.70°、AB-Ⅲ-b:+5.04°.AB-Ⅰ、AB-Ⅱ-b的1.0%水溶液均具有良好的增稠性,其粘度具有很好的抗盐浓度、耐热和对广泛pH的稳定性能.

  6. Aqueous Extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill Prevents Age-Related Changes in the Myenteric Plexus of the Jejunum in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Santi-Rampazzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of the supplementation with aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM on biometric and blood parameters and quantitative morphology of the myenteric plexus and jejunal wall in aging Wistar rats. The animals were euthanized at 7 (C7, 12 (C12 and CA12, and 23 months of age (C23 and CA23. The CA12 and CA23 groups received a daily dose of ABM extract (26 mg/animal via gavage, beginning at 7 months of age. A reduction in food intake was observed with aging, with increases in the Lee index, retroperitoneal fat, intestinal length, and levels of total cholesterol and total proteins. Aging led to a reduction of the total wall thickness, mucosa tunic, villus height, crypt depth, and number of goblet cells. In the myenteric plexus, aging quantitatively decreased the population of HuC/D+ neuronal and S100+ glial cells, with maintenance of the nNOS+ nitrergic subpopulation and increase in the cell body area of these populations. Supplementation with the ABM extract preserved the myenteric plexus in old animals, in which no differences were detected in the density and cell body profile of neurons and glial cells in the CA12 and CA23 groups, compared with C7 group. The supplementation with the aqueous extract of ABM efficiently maintained myenteric plexus homeostasis, which positively influenced the physiology and prevented the death of the neurons and glial cells.

  7. 姬松茸液体培养基的筛选%The Selection on Culture Medium of Agaricus blazei Murrill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周选围

    2001-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill is one of the edible and m edicinal fungi.In this paper,through the selection and study of the improted Agaricus blazei Murrill in submerged culture medium,the experimental r esults show that the most suitable composition of the Agaricus blazei Murrill submerged culture medium is as follow:3.0% corn powder,0.3% yeast conc e ntration,2.0% sugar,0.05%(NH4)2SO4,0.1%MgSO4,0.1%KH2PO4.In thi s liquid medium,the mycelium grows vigorous,it gets to 539mg/100mL(DW)for 8 d ays.%对引进的姬松茸菌种进行了液体培养基的筛选研究,认为姬松茸液体培养最适合的培养基配方为:玉米粉3.0%,酵母提取物0.3%,蔗糖2.0%,硫酸铵0 .05%,硫酸镁0.1%,磷酸二氢钾0.1%。在这种培养基中,姬松茸生长旺盛,产生的菌丝球数量多,颜色白,大小均一,8d后生物量达53.9%mg/L(DW)。

  8. 姬松茸颗粒剂扶正作用的实验研究%Researching on Experimentation in strengthening body resistance of Agaricus blazei Muriu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟明; 张云凌

    2004-01-01

    姬松茸(Agaricus blazei Muriu)又称巴西菇,是一种食、药两用真菌,姬松茸富含多种丰富的营养成分。姬松茸颗粒剂系采用新工艺从姬松茸中提取的主要成分为粗多糖的一种制剂,我们对其抗肿瘤和对免疫功能的影响等方面进行了实验研究,现报道如下。

  9. 工厂化栽培姬松茸的关键技术%Factory Cultivation Key Techniques of Agaricus blazei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾先富; 熊维全; 李昕竺; 刘洪

    2015-01-01

    姬松茸(Agaricus blazei)是一种珍稀食(药)用菌.对姬松茸工厂化栽培技术中菌种选择与制作、培养料配方与发酵、铺料与播种、菌丝体培养、覆土、出菇管理、采收与转潮管理、病虫害绿色防控等关键技术点进行了介绍.

  10. Studies on Odontotermes formosanus Food Choice between Agaricus blazei and Its Substrate%黑翅土白蚁对姬松茸及其培养料的取食性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏德伟; 林辉; 罗海凌; 林春梅; 林占熺

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of Odontotermes formosanus to Agaricus blazei Murrill cultivation, studies were carried out on food selectiveness of Odontotermes formosanus by observing 5 different materials ( fruitbody of Agaricus blazei Murrill, bamboo powder, Juncao, Juncao substrate of Agaricus blazei Murrill, bamboo substrate of Agaricus blazei Murrill) foraging behaviors. The results showed that consumption rate of Juncao and bamboo powders were very significantly higher than that of other 3 materials. And the consumption rate of Agaricus blazei Murrill was 0. The mud sheet area and mud sheet coverage rate of Juncao and bamboo powders were very significantly higher than that of the other 3 materials. These all indicated that the volatile substances distributed from mycelium and fruitbody of Agaricus blazei Murrill could inhibit termites' feeding. And the harms of termites in Agaricus blazei Murrill were mainly from cultivation materials.%通过观察黑翅土白蚁工蚁的觅食行为,进行了黑翅土白蚁对5种材料(姬松茸、木屑、菌草草粉、菌草姬松茸培养料、木屑姬松茸培养料)的取食选择性研究.结果表明,木屑和菌草草粉的被食率极显著高于其他3种材料,而姬松茸被食率为0;木屑与菌草草粉的泥被面积和泥被覆盖率极显著高于其他3种材料.这都表明姬松茸菌丝及其子实体散发出来的挥发性物质可以抑制黑翅土白蚁取食,黑翅土白蚁为害姬松茸主要是对其栽培料的破坏.

  11. The Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill Elicits Medicinal Effects on Tumor, Infection, Allergy, and Inflammation through Its Modulation of Innate Immunity and Amelioration of Th1/Th2 Imbalance and Inflammation

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    Geir Hetland

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill from the Brazilian rain forest has been used in traditional medicine and as health food for the prevention of a range of diseases, including infection, allergy, and cancer. Other scientists and we have examined whether there is scientific evidence behind such postulations. Agaricus blazei M is rich in the immunomodulating polysaccharides, β-glucans, and has been shown to have antitumor, anti-infection, and antiallergic/-asthmatic properties in mouse models, in addition to anti-inflammatory effects in inflammatory bowel disease patients. These effects are mediated through the mushroom's stimulation of innate immune cells, such as monocytes, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and the amelioration of a skewed Th1/Th2 balance and inflammation.

  12. 姬松茸母种培养基筛选研究初报%A Preliminary Study on the Selection of Mother Culture Media of Agaricus blazei Mürrill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文强; 周选围; 邓百万

    2002-01-01

    对姬松茸(Agaricus blazei Mtirrill)进行了母种培养基筛选试验.结果表明,姬松茸母种的最适培养基为:蔗糖25g,玉米淀粉30g,磷酸二氢钾3g,硫酸铵3g,维生素B1 10mg,琼脂20g.

  13. Research on the technology of composting sugarcane leaf in a fermentation tunnel for Agaricus blazei murill. cultivation%姬松茸蔗叶培养料隧道式发酵技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢毅栋; 覃喜强; 黄华

    2015-01-01

    通过对比糖料蔗叶和稻草为主原料,以隧道发酵和常规堆沤两种发酵方式制备栽培姬松茸的培养料研究,形成培养料制备过程中温度变化曲线。结果表明,以蔗叶为主原料栽培姬松茸完全可行,隧道发酵比常规堆沤时间大幅缩短,培养料质量稳定,能大幅提高姬松茸产量。%Through studying the research results for two different methods (fermentation tunnel and regular fermentation) of cultivating composting sugarcane leaf and straw for Agaricus blazei murill. plantation, as well as the temperature change records during the production of the compost, the experiment proves that it is doable to utilize sugarcane based compost to cultivate Agaricus blazei murill. Fermentation in a tunnel is dramatically faster than the regular fermentation method. The quality of the compost is stable and can increase the production of the Agaricus blazei murill.

  14. Primary mechanism of apoptosis induction in a leukemia cell line by fraction FA-2-b-ß prepared from the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill

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    L. Gao

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murill is a native Brazilian mushroom which functions primarily as an anticancer substance in transplanted mouse tumors. However, the mechanism underlying this function of A. blazei Murill remains obscure. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of fraction FA-2-b-ß, an RNA-protein complex isolated from A. blazei Murill, on human leukemia HL-60 cells in vitro. Typical apoptotic characteristics were determined by morphological methods using DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. The growth suppressive effect of fraction FA-2-b-ß on HL-60 cells in vitro occurred in a dose- (5-80 µg/mL and time-dependent (24-96 h manner. The proliferation of HL-60 cells (1 x 10(5 cells/mL treated with 40 µg/mL of fraction FA-2-b-ß for 24-96 h and with 5-80 µg/mL for 96 h resulted in inhibitory rates ranging from 8 to 54.5%, and from 4.9 to 86.3%, respectively. Both telomerase activity determined by TRAP-ELISA and mRNA expression of the caspase-3 gene detected by RT-PCR were increased in HL-60 cells during fraction FA-2-b-ß treatment. The rate of apoptosis correlated negatively with the decrease of telomerase activity (r = 0.926, P < 0.05, but correlated positively with caspase-3 mRNA expression (r = 0.926, P < 0.05. These data show that fraction FA-2-b-ß can induce HL-60 cell apoptosis and that the combined effect of down-regulation of telomerase activity and up-regulation of mRNA expression of the caspase-3 gene could be the primary mechanism of induction of apoptosis. These findings provide strong evidence that fraction FA-2-b-ß could be of interest for the clinical treatment of acute leukemia.

  15. Blood parameters of sheep with high infection of Haemonchus contortus and treated with “mushroom of the sun” (Agaricus blazei

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    Gabriela Almeida Bastos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood and parasitological parameters of sheep experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and treated with “mushroom of the sun” (Agaricus blazei were assessed. Lambs infected with the nematode were divided into three groups: treated with basidiocarp powder from the fungus, wormed with trichlorfon, and a control group that did not receive anthelmintic. Split-plot design analysis was performed where the treatments were defined as plots and four periods of collection were defined as subplots. Interaction between the treatments and the collection periods for the fecal egg counts per gram of feces (FEC was observed. Treatment with “mushroom of the sun” showed anthelmintic efficacies ranging from 28.6 to 54.2%. Similar performances to weight gain were observed among the groups. A significant interaction between treatments and evaluation periods was observed for erythrocyte counts, hematocrit value, and serum concentrations of albumin and urea. The values of the mean corpuscular volume, erythrocyte distribution width, and leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts, as well as the mean platelet volume, varied among the collection days. The administration of “mushroom of the sun” significantly reduced the FEC, did not influence on the erythrocyte count and hematocrit value, which remained within normal limits. However it increased the serum concentrations of albumin.

  16. Oral Treatment with Extract of Agaricus blazei Murill Enhanced Th1 Response through Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Suppressed OVA-Sensitized Allergy in Mice

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    Go Bouike

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the mechanism of the antiallergic activity of Agaricus blazei Murill extract (ABME, the present paper used an in vivo allergy model and an in vitro intestinal gut model. During OVA sensitization, the serum IgE levels decreased significantly in ABME group. Interleukin (IL-4 and -5 produced from OVA-restimulated splenocytes was significantly decreased, and anti-CD3ε/CD28 antibody treatment also reduced IL-10, -4, and -5 production and increased IFN-γ production in ABME group. These results suggest that oral administration of ABME improves Th1/Th2 balance. Moreover, a coculture system constructed of Caco-2 cells and splenocytes from OT-II mice or RAW 264.7 cells indicated that the significant increases in IFN-γ production by ABME treatment. Therefore, it was concluded that the antiallergic activity of ABME was due to the activation of macrophages by epithelial cells and the promotion of the differentiation of naïve T cells into Th1 cells in the immune.

  17. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg−1 d−1), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg−1 d−1) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg−1 d−1) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed ...

  18. Indução de resistência em tomateiro por extratos aquosos de Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei contra Ralstonia solanacearum Induction of resistance in tomato plants by aqueous extracts of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei against Ralstonia solanacearum

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    Ricardo F. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquosos dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei e do indutor de resistência acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM no controle da murcha bacteriana em tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., bem como investigar o modo de ação destes produtos na atividade protetora, através de alterações na atividade de determinadas enzimas. Extratos aquosos dos cogumelos e o ASM foram testados na inibição do crescimento da bactéria in vitro. Em casa-de-vegetação, plantas foram tratadas com diferentes doses dos extratos e com ASM (0,05 g/L, dois dias antes da inoculação. As avaliações foram efetuadas com base na severidade da doença e determinação da atividade de algumas enzimas. Os isolados de A. blazei e L. edodes, bem como o ASM, não exerceram efeito inibitório direto no crescimento da bactéria. Quanto à indução de resistência, o isolado Le-96/17 de L. edodes na concentração de 10 % (v/v e o ASM reduziram significativamente a ocorrência de murcha. As atividades de quitinase, fenilalanina amônia-liase e polifenoloxidase não foram alteradas para a maioria dos tratamentos, porém foi constatado um aumento na atividade de quitinase nas plantas tratadas com ASM. Para a peroxidase, os tratamentos ASM, Abl-26 e Le-96/17 ocasionaram aumentos na atividade da enzima e, com base nos resultados, o cogumelo L. edodes e o ASM apresentam potencial para reduzir a murcha bacteriana provavelmente através da indução de resistência.This work deals with the effect of aqueous extracts from the mushrooms Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei and the inducer of resistance acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM on the control of bacterial wilt in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., as well as investigating changes in enzyme activities. Aqueous extracts of the mushrooms and ASM were tested for inhibition of bacterial growth in vitro. Plants were treated with different concentrations of

  19. Use of Agaricus blazei and Lentinula edodes extracts for post-harvest control of gray mold in ‘Itália’ grape Extracto de Agaricus blazei y Lentinula edodes en el control de podredumbre gris en uva ‘Itália’ Extrato de Agaricus blazei e Lentinula edodes no controle pós-colheita de mofo cinzento em uva ‘Itália’

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    ELISANGELA CLARETE CAMILI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Na proteção de uva ‘Itália’ pós-colheita contra Botrytis cinerea avaliou-se in vivo o efeito direto e indireto dos extratos aquosos dos cogumelos Agaricus blazei e Lentinula edodes através do tratamento dos cachos antes ou após a inoculação com o patógeno. Para tanto se realizaram dois ensaios: 1 cachos de uva foram inoculados e, após 4 h, aspergidos com diferentes concentrações dos extratos dos basidiocarpos (0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 10,0; 20,0 ou 40,0%; 2 cachos foram, ou não, aspergidos com extrato de A. blazei (5,0% 24, 48, 72 ou 96 h antes da inoculação do fungo. Para inoculação, em cada cacho foram feridas 10 bagas, fazendo-se um furo por baga de ±2 mm de profundidade, procedendo-se em seguida, a aspersão da suspensão de conídios (±105 conídios mL-1. Após os tratamentos, os cachos foram mantidos a 25±1 ºC/80-90% UR e avaliados diariamente quanto à incidência e severidade da podridão. O efeito in vitro dos extratos de A. blazei e L. edodes no controle do patógeno foi avaliado com o intuito de verificar se tais agentes exercem efeito direto sobre o crescimento micelial e a germinação de conídios de B. cinerea. Os resultados mostraram que os extratos de A. blazei e L. edodes não controlaram a podridão causada por B. cinerea em uva ‘Itália’, quando aplicados antes ou após a inoculação do fungo. Nos ensaios in vitro, ambos os extratos dos basidiocarpos estimularam a germinação dos conídios de B. cinerea nas concentrações testadas; quanto ao crescimento micelial, L. edodes retardou, enquanto A. blazei estimulou.

    For protecting ‘Itália’ against Botrytis cinerea in the post harvest it was evaluated in vivo direct and indirect effect of water based extracts of Agaricus blazei and Lentinula edodes

  20. Kinetics of polyphenol oxidase in Agaricus blazei%姬松茸多酚氧化酶的动力学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文聪

    2009-01-01

    测定了姬松茸不同部位的多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,研究了不同pH、温度、底物浓度和抑制剂对PPO活性的影响,并建立酶促褐变反应动力学方程.结果表明:在邻苯二酚为底物的条件下,姬松茸PPO的最适pH为6.4,最适温度为30 ℃,米氏常数(K_m)为6.23×10~(-3) mol·L~(-1),最大反应速度(V_(max))为1.42 mol·L~(-1)·min~(-1);柠檬酸对PPO的抑制效果不明显,NaHSO_3和异V_C-Na对PPO均有较强的抑制作用,且有效抑制的含量分别为0.18%和0.21%.%The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities in different parts of Agaricus blazei Murrill were determined, the effects of pH value, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme inhibitors on PPO were studied, too. The results showed that the optimum pH value and optimum temperature for PPO were pH 6.4 and 30 ℃, respectively, the Michaelis constant (K_m) and V_(max) of PPO with pyrocatechol substrate were 6.23 × 10~(-3) mol · L~(-1) and 1.42 mol · L~(-1) · min~(-1) respectively using catechol as substrates, and the reaction kinetic equation was established. The inhibition of citric acid on PPO was not satisfactory, NaHSO_3 and sodium d-isoascorbate could inhibit effectively, and the effective concentrations were 0.18% and 0.21% , respectively.

  1. The anti-tumorigenic mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill enhances IL-1β production and activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages.

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    Tsung-Teng Huang

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM has been reported to possess immune activity against tumors and infections through stimulation of mononuclear phagocytes. Recently, AbM extract was shown to induce the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, in human monocytes. IL-1β is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by activated macrophages and monocytes and its secretion is strictly controlled by the inflammasome. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of AbM water extracts on the regulation of IL-1β production and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human THP-1 macrophages. The NLRP3 inflammasome consists of an NLRP3 receptor, an adaptor protein called ASC, and the inflammatory protease, caspase-1. Typically, stimulation of immune cells with microbial products results in production of pro-IL-1β, but a second stress-related signal activates the inflammasome and caspase-1, leading to processing and secretion of IL-1β. Our results show that AbM enhances transcription of IL-1β and triggers NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion in human THP-1 macrophages. AbM-mediated IL-1β secretion was markedly reduced in macrophages deficient in NLRP3 and ASC, demonstrating that the NLRP3 inflammasome is essential for AbM-induced IL-1β secretion. In addition, caspase-1 was activated and involved in proteolytic cleavage and secretion of IL-1β in AbM-treated macrophages. AbM-mediated IL-1β secretion also decreased in cells treated with cathepsin B inhibitor, suggesting that AbM can induce the release of cathepsin B. Furthermore, our data show that AbM-induced inflammasome activation requires the release of ATP, binding of extracellular ATP to the purinergic receptor P2X(7, the generation of reactive oxygen species, and efflux of potassium. Taken together, these findings reveal that AbM activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via multiple mechanisms, resulting in the secretion of IL-1β.

  2. The Research on rDNA ITS Sequences of Four Strains of Agaricus blazei%4个姬松茸菌株rDNA ITS序列比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞清; 余江勇; 冀瑞卿; 胡伟; 李喜梅

    2007-01-01

    应用通用引物ITS1和ITS4从4个姬松茸(Agaricus blazei Murill.)菌株子实体中扩增出rDNA ITS序列(登录号分别为EF195648,EF471305,EF471306,EF471307),4菌株ITS序列长度分别为734bp、700bp、724bp和735bp.通过GenBank中BLAST,四个姬松茸菌株与A.brasiliensis(AJ884651)和A.blazei(AF161013)相似率最高,分别为:94%、99%、97%和98%.四个姬松茸菌株同源性较高,达93%以上,其中,ABM-B与ABM-D相似率最高,为97%;ABM-B与ABM-C相似率为96%,ABM-A与ABM-C、ABM-C与ABM-D相似率为94%,ABM-A与ABM-D相似率为93%.

  3. 姬松茸60Co辐射新菌株J3营养成分与农药残留分析%Analysis on Nutrients and Pesticide Residues in Strain J3 Agaricus blazei Murill Irradiated by 60Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁伯琦; 江枝和; 肖淑霞; 雷锦桂; 王义祥; 唐翔虬

    2011-01-01

    通过常规生产床栽,对比研究姬松茸Co辐射新菌株J和原菌株J在营养品质以及重金属含量和农药残留情况.结果表明,姬松茸Co辐射新菌株J子实体中鲜味氨基酸总量(56.5 g·kg)、甜味氨基酸总量(52.4g·kg)、硫氨基酸总量(15.8 g·kg)、支链氨基酸总量(38.1 g·kg)、芳香族氨基酸总量(16.1 g·kg)、儿童氨基酸总量(17.8 g·kg)、必需氨基酸总量(95 g·kg),分别占氨基酸总量(221.7 g·kg)的25.48%、23.64%、7.13%、17.19%、7.26%、8.03%和42.85%,分别比姬松茸J高28.12%、12.93%、0%、14.41%、12.59%、16.34%和11.76%.J的多不饱和脂肪酸(76.15%)和不饱和脂肪酸(77.55%)分别比姬松茸原菌株J高4.39%和3.82%.J子实体含镉(3.86 mg·kg)、汞(0.42 mg·kg)和砷(0.09 mg·kg),也分别比原菌株J低45.86%、32.25%和18.18%;其铅含量符合国家食用菌卫生标准GB 7096-2003;砷含量符合国家绿色食品食用菌NY/T749-2003的标准.子实体中联苯菊酯、溴氰菊酯、百菌清、六六六、多菌灵、阿维菌素、甲基托布津、甲胺磷、毒死蜱、滴滴涕和二氧化硫含量均符合国家绿色食品食用菌NY/T 749-2003的标准.%A garicus blazei Murill as rare edible fungi was adored by more and more customers.But with the increasing attention of food hygiene quality, it was important guidance of the safety production of Agaricus blazei to understand the health status of Agaricus blazei in the actual cultivation.This paper studied the difference in terms of nutritional quality, heavy metal contents and pesticide residues between strain J3 and J1.The results showed that the contents of delicious amino acid(56.5 g· kg-1), sweet amino acid(52.4 g· kg-1), sulfur amino acid( 15.8 g·kg-1), branched chain amino acid(38.1 g· kg-1), aromatic amino acid( 16.1 g·kg-1), children amino acid( 17.8 g·kg-1), necessary amino acid (95.0 g·kg-1)in the fruit bodies ofAgaricus blazei J3, occupied 25.48%, 23.64%, 7.13%, 17.19%, 7.26

  4. 姬松茸粗多糖对K562细胞增殖、凋亡的影响及其作用机制探讨%Explore of the effects of Agaricus blazei polysaccharide on proliferation and apoptosis of cells K562 and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林祥伟; 张苏伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究姬松茸粗多糖在K562细胞的增殖、凋亡,以及对转录因子NF-κB的影响,并探究其中的作用机制。方法培养K562细胞,再分别将(2、5、10mg/mL)姬松茸粗多糖加入其中作用48h,之后应用流式细胞术、免疫荧光法等方法观察姬松茸粗多糖在K562细胞的增殖、凋亡和对NF-κB活性中的影响。结果姬松茸粗多糖对K562细胞增殖有很显著的抑制作用,还可以阻止细胞从G0/G1期到G2/M+S期过渡。经过10mg/mL的姬松茸粗多糖诱导48h后,K562细胞CML细胞的凋亡率65.41%,较对照组显著增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。而且NF-κB较对照组减少。结论姬松茸粗多糖能抑制K562细胞增殖,并且可以诱导其凋亡,其中的作用机制和NF-κB通道的异常激活明显相关,值得进一步的研究。%Objective To study the influence of Agaricus blazei on proliferation and apoptosis of cells K562 and transcription NF- κB, and to explore the mechanism.Methods Cells K562 were cultured, then the 2, 5,10mg/mL of Agaricus blazei polysaccharides were respectively added to react for 48 hours, and then the effects of Agaricus blazei on proliferation and apoptosis of cells K562 and activity of NF- κB were observed with the methods such as flow cytometry, immunofluorescence.Results Agaricus blazei significantly inhibited the proliferation of cells K562, and also could prevent the cell transition from phase G0/G1 to phase G2/M+S. After induction by 10mg/mL of Agaricus blazei for 48 hours, apoptosis rate of cells K562 was 65.41%, which was significantly higher than that in control groups, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). However there were fewer factors of NF-κB than the control groups.Conclusion Agaricus blazei can inhibit the proliferation of cells K562, and can induce apoptosis of them, the mechanism of that is obviously related with abnormal activation of channel of factors NF- κ

  5. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill stimulates myeloid derived suppressor cell differentiation from M2 to M1 type, which mediates inhibition of tumour immune-evasion via the Toll-like receptor 2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhu, Xiangxiang; Wang, Yuehua; Liu, WenWei; Gong, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing animals and play a critical negative role during tumor immunotherapy. Strategies for inhibition of MDSCs are expected to improve cancer immunotherapy. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill (pAbM) has been found to have anti-cancer activity, but the underlying mechanism of this is poorly understood. Here, pAbM directly activated the purified MDSCs through inducing the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, tumour necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD86, MHC II, and pSTAT1 of it, and only affected natural killer and T cells in the presence of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) monocytic MDSCs. On further analysis, we demonstrated that pAbM could selectively block the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signal of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs and increased their M1-type macrophage characteristics, such as producing IL-12, lowering expression of Arginase 1 and increasing expression of iNOS. Extensive study showed that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs by pAbM treatment had less ability to convert the CD4(+) CD25(-) cells into CD4(+) CD25(+) phenotype. Moreover, result from selective depletion of specific cell populations in xenograft mice model suggested that the anti-tumour effect of pAbM was dependent on Gr-1(+ ) CD11b(+) monocytes, nether CD8(+) T cells nor CD4(+) T cells. In addition to, pAbM did not inhibit tumour growth in TLR2(-/-) mice. All together, these results suggested that pAbM, a natural product commonly used for cancer treatment, was a specific TLR2 agonist and had potent anti-tumour effects through the opposite of the suppressive function of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs. PMID:26194418

  6. The polar high molecular weight fraction of the Agaricus blazei Murill extract, AndoSan™, reduces the activity of the tumor-associated protease, legumain, in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berven, Lise; Karppinen, Pernille; Hetland, Geir; Samuelsen, Anne Berit C

    2015-04-01

    AndoSan™ is an extract of Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM; 82.4%), Hericium erinaceum (14.7%), and Grifola frondosa (2.9%). The main ingredient of AndoSan, AbM, is rich in different forms of β-glucans. Since these exhibit potent antitumor activity and have immunomodulatory effects, the stimulatory effect of AndoSan on the production of different cytokines, chemokines, and leukocyte growth factors has predominantly been attributed to β-glucans. AndoSan has been claimed to consist of 90% carbohydrate, of which 2.8% is β-glucans, but in this study, we show that the carbohydrate content is only 2% of the dry weight, corresponding to 0.09% β-glucan per mL of AndoSan. Fractionation of AndoSan, followed by carbohydrate analysis and HPLC analysis revealed that most of the glucose was concentrated in the polar high molecular weight fraction of AndoSan (ethanol insoluble water extract [EIWE]-A) and that this extract was able to significantly inhibit the activity of the tumor-associated protease, legumain, in RAW 264.7 cells. Legumain is synthesized as a zymogen and undergoes pH-dependent autoactivation of the proform to reach an enzymatically active form. In this study, we demonstrate that both the polar and nonpolar AndoSan fractions are able to inhibit the autoactivation of prolegumain, and that the polar fractions of AndoSan are the most potent inhibitors of the active form of the enzyme. PMID:25136950

  7. Effect of the Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSanTM, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Crohn’s Disease in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Geir; Lyberg, Torstein; Lygren, Idar; Johnson, Egil

    2016-01-01

    Background Ingestion of AndoSanTM, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously shown an anti-inflammatory effect through reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). In this randomized single-blinded placebo-controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSanTM also resulted in clinical effects. Methods and Findings 50 patients with symptomatic CD were randomized for oral daily consumption of AndoSanTM or placebo for a 21-day experimental period, in this per-protocol study. Patients reported validated scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL) at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSanTM group (n = 25) symptoms improved from baseline (day 0) to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI) of 5.52 (4.64–6.40), 4.48 (3.69–5.27) and 4.08 (3.22–4.94) (p<0,001). We found significant improvements in symptom score for both genders in the AndoSanTM group, and no significant changes in the placebo (n = 25) group. There were however no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.106), although a marginal effect in symptom score for men (p = 0.054). There were comparable improvements in physical, mental and total fatigue for both groups. HRQoL versus baseline were at day 21 improved for bodily pain and vitality in the AndoSanTM group and for vitality and social functioning in the placebo group. No crucial changes in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin were detected. Conclusions The results from this single-blinded randomized clinical trial shows significant improvement on symptoms, for both genders, in the AndoSanTM group, but no significant differences between the study groups. The results on fatigue, HRQoL, fecal calprotectin and blood samples were quite similar compared with placebo. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSanTM. CD patients with

  8. Variações de cor e atividade de água em Agaricus blazei desidratado e armazenado em difere ntes embalagens plásticas = Changes of color and water activity in dehydrated Agaricus blazei mushrooms, stored in different plastic packings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina de Toledo Valentini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o efeito de diferentes embalagens plásticas na atividade de água, na cor e no desenvolvimento microbiano em A. blazei desidratado durante o armazenamento. Amostras de 50 g de cogumelos secos foram embaladas em polipropileno (60 mm, polietileno de baixa densidade (50 mm, laminado duplo de polipropileno biorientado (44 mm e laminado duplo de polipropileno biorientado metalizado (40 mm e armazenadas por 0, 45, 90, 135, 180, 225 e 270 dias a 25°C e 80%UR. Análises microbiológicas de bolores e leveduras foram realizadas antes e após a armazenagem. A embalagem que promoveu maiores aumentos na atividade de água e no escurecimento dos basidiomas foi a de polipropileno, seguida das embalagens de polietileno de baixa densidade e de polipropileno bi-orientado duplo. A embalagem de polipropileno biorientado metalizado duplo proporcionou retenção de cor e não houve aumentos no desenvolvimentode bolores e leveduras nos cogumelos, durante o armazenamento, em nenhuma das embalagens plásticas estudadas.This study evaluated the effect of different plastic packings on dry A. blazei mushrooms, in terms of water activity, color and microbial growth during storage. Samples of 50 g dry mushrooms were wrapped inpolypropylene (60 mm, low-density polyethylene (50 mm, double laminated biaxially oriented polypropylene (44 mm and double laminated metallic biaxially oriented polypropylene (40 mm. Storage periods lasted 0, 45, 90, 135, 180, 225 and 270 days at 25°C and 80%RH. Microbiological analyses of mould and yeasts were carried out before and after storage period. The results showed that the polypropylene packing promoted the greatest increase of water activity and browning in the mushrooms, followed by the low-densitypolyethylene and the double biaxially oriented polypropylene packings. Storage in the double metallic biaxially oriented polypropylene packing retained the color. There was no increase, though, in the development of

  9. Variações de cor e atividade de água em Agaricus blazei desidratado e armazenado em diferentes embalagens plásticas - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v27i1.1505

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Costa Braga

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o efeito de diferentes embalagens plásticas na atividade de água, na cor e no desenvolvimento microbiano em A. blazei desidratado durante o armazenamento. Amostras de 50 g de cogumelos secos foram embaladas em polipropileno (60 µm, polietileno de baixa densidade (50 µm, laminado duplo de polipropileno bi-orientado (44 µm e laminado duplo de polipropileno biorientado metalizado (40 µm e armazenadas por 0, 45, 90, 135, 180, 225 e 270 dias a 25°C e 80%UR. Análises microbiológicas de bolores e leveduras foram realizadas antes e após a armazenagem. A embalagem que promoveu maiores aumentos na atividade de água e no escurecimento dos basidiomas foi a de polipropileno, seguida das embalagens de polietileno de baixa densidade e de polipropileno bi-orientado duplo. A embalagem de polipropileno biorientado metalizado duplo proporcionou retenção de cor e não houve aumentos no desenvolvimento de bolores e leveduras nos cogumelos, durante o armazenamento, em nenhuma das embalagens plásticas estudadas

  10. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Liu; Yasushi Fukuwatari; Ko Okumura; Kazuyoshi Takeda; Ken-ichi Ishibashi; Mai Furukawa; Naohito Ohno; Kazu Mori; Ming Gao; Masuro Motoi

    2008-01-01

    We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei). Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Take...

  11. Cultivation Characteristics and Domestication Prospect of Main Cultivated Agaricus%蘑菇属主栽种栽培特性比较及驯化展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志江; 李荣春

    2009-01-01

    比较了蘑菇属(Agaricus)主栽种双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)、大肥菇(Agaricus bitorquis)、姬松茸(Agaricus blazei)和野蘑菇(Agaricus arvensis)的生物学特性和栽培特性,旨在从共性和差异性总结出蘑菇属的特性,为研究驯化开发蘑菇属其他种提供依据.并对蘑菇属发展前景进行了展望.

  12. 姬松茸多糖对树突状细胞Dectin-1、Syk及CARD9基因表达和T淋巴细胞增殖的影响%Effect of Polysaccharide Isolated from Agaricus Blazei Murill on mRNA Expression Levels of Dectin-1, Syk and CARD9 from Dendritic Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海影; 高志影; 荣华; 金铭; 王俊平; 牛英才; 刘吉成

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨低相对分子质量姬松茸多糖(low molecular weight polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill,LMPAB)对树突状细胞C型植物血凝素1(Dectin-1),脾酪氨酸激酶(Sky)和胱天蛋白募集域蛋白9(CARD9)基因表达和T淋巴细胞增殖的影响.方法:体外培养ICR小鼠骨髓来源的树突状细胞;通过流式细胞术检测树突状细胞表面CD11c和CD86分子的表达;采用WST方法检测LMPAB增强树突状细胞对T淋巴细胞的增殖作用;应用实时定量PCR方法检测Dectin-1,Sky和CARD9 mRNA的表达水平.结果:树突状细胞表面CD11c表达98.6%,CD86表达96.97%;与正常组(4.84±0.21)比较,LMPAB +OVA组(6.59±0.19)可增强树突状细胞对T淋巴细胞的增殖作用(P<0.05);与正常组Dectin-1 (6.13±0.27),Sky(0.36 ±0.11)和CARD9(1.85±0.20)比较,LMPAB+OVA组Dectin-1(8.25±0.19),Sky(1.63±0.16)和CARD9(4.40±0.19)明显升高,统计学具有显著意义(P<0.05).结论:所培养的髓系细胞为树突状细胞;LMPAB可通过调控树突状细胞Dectin-1,Sky和CARD9 mRNA的表达增强树突状细胞的免疫效能.

  13. Production and characterization of exopolysaccharide from submerged fermentation by Agaricus Brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Gern, Juliana Carine

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Agaricus brasilienses (=Agaricus blazei Murril) é um basidiomiceto comestível conhecido mundialmente por suas propriedades medicinais. Estudos mostram que a principal atividade atribuída a este cogumelo, a atividade antitumoral, está relacionada a seus polissacarídeos estruturais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo aumentar o conhecimento sobre a produção e a estrutura do exopolissacarídeo (EPS) de Agaricus brasiliensis LPB 03 por fermentação submersa. Primeiramente, estudou-se o efeito...

  14. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei. Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food.

  15. Atividade clastogênica e genotóxica de altas concentrações do extrato aquoso de Agaricus brasiliensis e diferentes respostas quando associado aos inibidores de reparo de DNA, ARA-C e 3DEOT, in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sergio Mantovani

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser & Didukh – Ab (=Agaricus blazei Murrill ss. Heinemann é um basidiomiceto que vem sendo consumido em diversas partes do mundo no combate e tratamento de muitas doenças. Neste estudo, foram testados, em células de ovário de hamster chinês (CHO-k1, os efeitos clastogênicos e genotóxicos de altas concentrações de Ab e seu potencial protetor, por meio dos ensaios de aberração cromossômica (AC e cometa (SCGE, associados a dois bloqueadores de reparo do DNA (citosina arabinoside trifosfato - Ara-C - inibidor de DNA polimerase a e 3’deoxitimidina 5’trifosfato - 3DeoT - inibidor de DNA polimerase b, na presença ou não de um agente alquilante (metilmetanosulfonato. No teste de clastogenicidade, verificou-se que as concentrações 0,2 e 0,4% não se mostraram indutoras de dano, ao contrário da maior concentração (0,6%. Nos tratamentos de genotoxicidade no SCGE, a concentração de 0,2% do extrato não mostrou atividade genotóxica, ao contrário das concentrações de 0,4 e 0,6%, as quais foram efetivas indutoras de danos no DNA. Os resultados de anticlastogenicidade indicaram que, na maioria dos tratamentos realizados, o extrato aquoso de Ab não apresentou atividade protetora contra danos no DNA, induzidos pela Ara-C e Ara-C + MMS. Pelo SCGE, Ab, nas três concentrações testadas, não mostrou atividade antigenotóxica. Os dados sugerem cuidado no consumo e ingestão de Ab por seres humanos, principalmente em altas concentrações.

  16. Temperature and pH conditions for mycelial growth of Agaricus brasiliensis on axenic cultivation/
    Condições de temperatura e pH para o crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis em cultivo axênico

    OpenAIRE

    Luzia Doretto Paccola-Meirelles; Lis Ribeiro Magalhães de Carvalho; Patrícia Midori Aizono; Nelson Barros Colauto; Giani Andrea Linde

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have been done to determine Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei; A. subrufescens) basic mycelial growth characteristics on axenic cultivation. This study aimed to determine the optimal temperature and initial pH for mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on malt extract agar medium to develop axenic cultivation techniques. Studied initial pH values for mycelial growth were adjusted to 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, with HCl, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, with NaOH, and again 7.0 and 8.0, with CaCO3....

  17. Agaricus subrufescens : new to Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wisitrassameewong, Komsit; Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Thongklang, Naritsada; Zhao, Rui-Lin; Callac, Philippe; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Bahkali, Ali H.; Kevin D. Hyde

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus subrufescens is an edible and medicinal mushroom of Agaricaceae, Agaricales originally described from North America. It has increasingly been used as a health food and alternative medicine and is also used in cosmetics. Agaricus subrufescens has been shown to exhibit many pharmaceutical traits such as anti-cancer, anti-microbial and immunomodulatory properties and is rich in bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Recently, four specimens of Agaricus subrufescens were co...

  18. ХИМИЧЕСКИЙ СОСТАВ ГРИБА AGARICUS BLAZEI MURILL И СРАВНЕНИЕ ОСОБЕННОСТЕЙ ВЛИЯНИЯ ОТДЕЛЬНЫХ ЕГО ВЕЩЕСТВ НА ИММУННУЮ СИСТЕМУ МЛЕКОПИТАЮЩИХ В УСЛОВИЯХ ОПУХОЛЕВОГО РОСТА С СООТВЕТСТВУЮЩЕЙ АКТИВНОСТЬЮ ГРИБА CORDYCEPS SINENSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Макаренко, А.; Довгий, Р.

    2013-01-01

    Обзор литературы посвящен химическому составу гриба Agaricus blazei Murill и сравнению его с грибом Cordyceps sinensis по иммуномодулирующей и противоопухолевой активности. Главными иммуномодулирующими веществами обеих грибов являются полисахариды. За противоопухолевую активность названых грибов отвечают такие вещества как эргостерол, агаритин и кордицепин, первый при этом является общим для обоих грибов, а остальные – специфичными для Agaricus blazei и Cordyceps sinensis соответственно. Точн...

  19. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India

    OpenAIRE

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI; ALKA KARWA

    2010-01-01

    Karwa A, Rai MK. 2010. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 141-145. Melghat forest region from Central India was surveyed for occurrence of medicinal and culinary mushrooms during the years 2005-2008. Out of total 153 species, ten species of Agaricus were recorded from different localities. Of these, seven species namely Agaricus bitorquis, A. subrufescens, A. augustus, A. placomyces, A. essettei, A. basioanolosus and Agaricus sp. nov (a new species)...

  20. The study on the Inhibition of agaricus eazei murill polysaccharide on cancer cell by MTT outsidebody%姬松茸多糖抑制肿瘤细胞增殖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓洁; 杨立红; 蔡德华; 姚少慧

    2004-01-01

    姬松茸(Agaricus blazei)又名巴西蘑菇,是一种药食兼用的珍稀食用菌,具有显著的防癌、抗癌活性[1]。本实验用水提法提取姬松茸菌丝体(深层发酵制备)及子实体多糖,测定姬松茸多糖体外对小鼠s-180癌细胞及人结肠癌细胞抑制杀伤作用。

  1. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Karwa A, Rai MK. 2010. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 141-145. Melghat forest region from Central India was surveyed for occurrence of medicinal and culinary mushrooms during the years 2005-2008. Out of total 153 species, ten species of Agaricus were recorded from different localities. Of these, seven species namely Agaricus bitorquis, A. subrufescens, A. augustus, A. placomyces, A. essettei, A. basioanolosus and Agaricus sp. nov (a new species are being reported for the first time from the region. The commercial button mushroom Agaricus bisporus lacks good breeding characters due to its bisporic nature. These wild cousins of the button mushroom can definitely prove to be a good source of genetic manipulations to the existing strains and also to develop new strains with improved characters.

  2. Waffen-SS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Bundgård

    Bogen analyserer SS-organisationens væbnede gren, Waffen-SS ud fra en række vinkler. De vigtigste er: 1) koblingen mellem Waffen-SS og resten af SS, 2) Waffen-SS som militær faktor i Det Tredje Rige, 3) Waffen-SS soldaternes politiske indoktrinering, 4) relationerne mellem de mange nationaliteter...

  3. Polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis show similarities in their structures and their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytic THP-1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichers Harry J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. Crude mushroom extracts have been tested without detailed chemical analyses of its polysaccharide content. For the present study we decided to chemically determine the carbohydrate composition of semi-purified extracts from 2 closely related and well known basidiomycete species, i.e. Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis and to study their effects on the innate immune system, in particular on the in vitro induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, using THP-1 cells. Methods Mushroom polysaccharide extracts were prepared by hot water extraction and precipitation with ethanol. Their composition was analyzed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. PMA activated THP-1 cells were treated with the extracts under different conditions and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was evaluated by qPCR. Results Semi-purified polysaccharide extracts of A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis (= blazei were found to contain (1→6,(1→4-linked α-glucan, (1→6-linked β-glucan, and mannogalactan. Their proportions were determined by integration of 1H-NMR signs, and were considerably different for the two species. A. brasiliensis showed a higher content of β-glucan, while A. bisporus presented mannogalactan as its main polysaccharide. The extracts induced a comparable increase of transcription of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1β and TNF-α as well as of COX-2 in PMA differentiated THP-1 cells. Pro-inflammatory effects of bacterial LPS in this assay could be reduced significantly by the simultaneous addition of A. brasiliensis extract. Conclusions The polysaccharide preparations from the closely related species A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis show major differences in composition: A. bisporus shows high mannogalactan content whereas A. brasiliensis has mostly

  4. Agaricus bisporus and related Agaricus species on lignocellulose: production of manganese peroxidase and multicopper oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkelä, Miia R; Lankinen, Pauliina; Lundell, Taina

    2013-06-01

    Biotechnological, microbiological, and genetic studies of Agaricus species other than A. bisporus, the white button mushroom, have been limited so far. To expand the knowledge in the genus Agaricus, six novel wild-type isolates of Agaricus spp. were studied on their nutritional demands for enzyme production and mycelial growth. All the selected Agaricus species produced extracellular manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase activities in semi-solid rye bran cultures. Moderate MnP activities were measured for A. bisporus, A. bernardii and A. campestris. The highest laccase activities were obtained for A. bisporus and A. campestris. On soy medium, the highest mycelial tyrosinase activity was determined for A. bernardii. For A. bisporus, addition of copper caused no increase in laccase or tyrosinase activities on soy or malt extract media. Hyphal growth rate of the isolates was studied on lignocellulose amended agar plates. Fastest growth was obtained for A. bisporus on wheat bran and birch leaf litter agar. Except for A. bernardii, hyphal growth rates correlated well with MnP and laccase production levels between Agaricus species. Molecular taxonomy of the novel Agaricus spp. positioned them to distinct phylogenetic clusters with species-level identity. In conclusion, our data point to the importance of both MnP and multicopper enzymes in Agaricus spp. while growing on lignocelluloses. PMID:23454218

  5. Formation of interspecies fusants of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis mushroom by protoplast fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rana Inder; Aarti, Kanojiya; Singh, Sandhu Sardul

    2007-01-01

    Interspecies fusants are formed between Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis by protoplast fusion technique. Protoplasts were isolated and regenerated by using Novozyme 234 lytic enzyme. Twenty slow growing isolates were separated from the protoplast regenerated colonies, which were assumed as homokaryons (putative homokaryons). These twenty isolates were subjected to growth rate, colony morphology and spawn run studies for screening of true homokaryons. Antifungal markers were developed ...

  6. Notulae ad Floram agaricinam neerlandicam — XXXVII. Notes on Agaricus section Arvenses

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, Marijke M.

    2001-01-01

    Nomenclatural and taxonomical notes are given on species of Agaricus section Arvenses, together with a key to the accepted species occurring in the Netherlands and adjacent regions. Two new combinations, Agaricus osecanus var. squarrosipes (Bon & Collin) Nauta and Agaricus urinascens var. excellens (F. Møller) Nauta are made. A new variety of Agaricus sylvicola, var. squarrosus Nauta, is described.

  7. Agaricus guachari, sp. Nov. (Agaricales), from Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Calonge, F. D.; Esteve-Raventós, F.

    1998-01-01

    [EN] Agaricus guachari is proposed and described as a new species. It was found growing on dung of a nocturnal bird called "guácharo" (Steatornis caripensis Humboldt), in a cave, showing white basidiomata, which reddenned quickly when cut or robbed. Tbe habitat, presence of a well-developed universal veil and negative Schaeffer's reaction distinguished this species from the rest of taxa included in this genus. Data, including iconography, micro-and ultramicroscopic features, are also added.

  8. The identity of Agaricus cyathiformis Schaeff

    OpenAIRE

    Kotlaba, F.; Pouzar, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of the correct interpretation of the original concept of Lentinus cyathiformis (Schaeff.) Bres. = Agaricus cyathiformis Schaeff. is analysed. The authors demonstrate, on the basis of the original protologue, that this species is identical with Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel. The modern interpretation of Lentinus cyathiformis, originating from Bresadola and followed by a number of contemporary authors, is erroneous: this fungus should be called Lentinus degener Kalchbr. in Fr.

  9. APPLICATIONS OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY FOR CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PROTEIN CONFORMATION OF AGARICUS BISPORUS (LANGE) IMBACH. (AGARICOMYCETIDAE) SPORES

    OpenAIRE

    Lamrood PY, Ralegankar SD* and Harpale VM

    2014-01-01

    A Raman spectra was obtained for a spore suspension of an edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus using iRaman 2013 with a variable laser power (max. upto 300mW), near infrared 785 nm diode laser and resolution time 3 cm-1. The spore sample was exposed for 140s with excitation laser power 30mW to obtain optimum peaks. The spectra revealed Raman frequencies range from 242 to 2690 cm-1. Raman spectroscopy shows a strong S-S stretching vibrational band in the region of 500-550 cm-1 suggesting that the...

  10. Antioxidative and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Partially purified polysaccharides were obtained from four medicinal mushroom species, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Phellinus linteus and Ganoderma lucidum by hot water extraction, followed by ethanol precipitation. The four samples contained varying amounts of both a- and ß-glucans as

  11. SS-CUSUM Chart

    OpenAIRE

    Thaga Keoagile

    2009-01-01

    A cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart referred to as the SS-CUSUM chart is proposed that is capable of simultaneously detecting changes in both mean and standard deviation. The construction of this chart is based on the sum of squares of the maximum standard CUSUM statistics. The average run sengths (ARLs) are computed for comparison with other charts particularly with some recently developed single charts. The SS-CUSUM chart has an advantage over its competitors since it quickly detects bot...

  12. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Di Piero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas

  13. Agaritine content of 53 Agaricus species collected from nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzova, V.; Hajslova, J.; Peroutka, R.;

    2009-01-01

    carcinogen. There was a huge variation in agaritine content between species, but less variation between samples of a species. Whereas the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus commonly contain 200-500 mg agaritine kg-1 fresh weight, no less than 24 of the 53 species contained agaritine levels above 1000 mg...... strain development of Agaricus mushrooms for cultivation. No correlation could be observed between agaritine content and size of the mushroom, week of the year when collected, year of collection, or site of collection. Besides occurring in the genus Agaricus, some species of the genera Leucoagaricus...

  14. A new species of Agaricus section Minores from China

    OpenAIRE

    Mao-Qiang, He; Rui-Lin, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus gemloides sp. nov. is characterised by its reddish brown fibrillose squamose on the pileus, relatively slender basidiome and broader basidiospores. In this article, it is introduced based on its distinguished morphological features and molecular phylogenetic position.

  15. Pseudomonas putida Stimulates Primordia on Agaricus bitorquis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colauto, Nelson B; Fermor, Terry R; Eira, Augusto F; Linde, Giani A

    2016-04-01

    Casing layer is one step of Agaricus bisporus cultivation where there is a competitive environment with a high number of microorganisms and diversity interacting with mycelia. It is suggested that a minimal community of these microorganisms would be necessary to stimulate fructification. However, A. bisporus is not able to produce primordia in sterile casing layers or Petri dishes. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize bacterial microbiota of casing layers from A. bisporus cultivation, isolate, identify and characterize the bacteria responsible for the stimulation of primordium and their action mechanism using Agaricus bitorquis as a primordium stimulation model. Bacterial and Pseudomonas spp. communities of different casing layers of A. bisporus cultivation were collected and quantified. It was concluded that Pseudomonas spp. corresponds to 75-85% of bacterial population of the casing layers in A. bisporus cultivation and among those 12% are Pseudomonas putida. Four biochemical assays were used to identify P. putida. In vitro primordium stimulation of living P. putida and non-living bacterial suspensions, after chemical or physical treatments, was tested using A. bitorquis as a primordium stimulation model. Primordium stimulation assay was registered by photographs, and micrographs of vertical cut of primordium were registered by scanning electron microscope. Interaction of living P. putida with A. bitorquis mycelia is capable of stimulating primordial instead of non-living bacterial suspensions. Stimulation of A. bitorquis primordia does not imply or is related to mycelial growth inhibition, but a hierarchical relation of primordium succession and development is suggested. PMID:26742772

  16. Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Francielly; Linde, Giani Andrea; Messa, Valdeci; da Cunha Júnior, Paulo Luiz; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; da Eira, Augusto Ferreira; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2009-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocar...

  17. Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases

    OpenAIRE

    Francielly Mourão; Suzana Harue Umeo; Orlando Seiko Takemura; Giani Andrea Linde; Nelson Barros Colauto

    2011-01-01

    Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity ...

  18. Antioxidant Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis Basidiocarps on Different Maturation Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Francielly; Harue Umeo, Suzana; Seiko Takemura, Orlando; Andrea Linde, Giani; Barros Colauto, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity...

  19. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms in the Mushrooms Agaricus brunnescens and Agaricus bitorquis

    OpenAIRE

    Castle, Alan J; Horgen, Paul A.; Anderson, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Two Agaricus species, A. brunnescens (a commercial mushroom) and A. bitorquis (a wild, edible species), were examined for restriction fragment length polymorphisms. EcoRI-digested nuclear DNA from isolates of both species were cloned in plasmid vector pUC18. Ten random recombinant clones were used in Southern DNA-DNA hybridizations to probe EcoRI-digested DNA from 11 A. brunnescens isolates (7 commercial, 2 wild type, and 2 homokaryotic) and 7 A. bitorquis isolates. Most cloned fragments were...

  20. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Foulongne-Oriol; Manuela Rocha de Brito; Delphine Cabannes; Aurélien Clément; Cathy Spataro; Magalie Moinard; Eustáquio Souza Dias; Philippe Callac; Jean-Michel Savoie

    2016-01-01

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed t...

  1. Notulae ad Floram agaricinam neerlandicam — XXXVII. Notes on Agaricus section Arvenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Marijke M.

    2001-01-01

    Nomenclatural and taxonomical notes are given on species of Agaricus section Arvenses, together with a key to the accepted species occurring in the Netherlands and adjacent regions. Two new combinations, Agaricus osecanus var. squarrosipes (Bon & Collin) Nauta and Agaricus urinascens var. excellens

  2. Biodegradation of lignin by Agaricus Bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vane, C.H.; Abbott, G.D.; Head, I.M. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The lignolytic activity of Agaricus bisporus will be addressed in this paper. Sound and fungally degraded lignins were characterized by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FnR) and elemental analysis. Fungally degraded lignins displayed increased wt%N, wt%H and wt%O content and decreased wt%C content The FTIR spectrum of decayed lignin showed an increase in the relative intensity of absorption bands assigned to carbonyl and carboxyl functional groups located on the aliphatic side chain and a decrease in absorption bands assigned to aromatic skeletal vibration modes. Semiquantitative Py-GC-MS revealed an 82% decrease in lignin derived pyrolysis products upon biodegradation. No significant increase in pyrolysis products with an oxygenated aliphatic side chain were detected in the fungally degraded lignin however shortening of the aliphatic side chain via cleavage at the {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} positions was observed.

  3. Two new species in Agaricus tropical clade I

    OpenAIRE

    Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Guinberteau, Jacques; Chen, Jie; Vellinga, Else C.; Zhao, Rui-Lin; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Yan, Jiye; Kevin D. Hyde; Callac, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    As part of our efforts of study the saprobic mushrooms in Asia we have collected numerous taxa of the genus Agaricus in northern Thailand. It is likely that more than 40 new species occur in this region and many are potentially edible or medicinal. A recent phylogenetic study revealed that most species of this region belong to exclusively tropical clades of which the largest one, TR I, was suspected to represent section Brunneopicti. In this paper we introduce two new species as Agaricus chia...

  4. RAPD discrimination of Agaricus bisporus mushroom cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A J; Challen, M P; Warner, P J; Elliott, T J

    2001-06-01

    Cultivars of the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus are difficult to differentiate, which has made strain protection problematic for this crop species. We have used RAPDs to discriminate between 26 strains of A. bisporus, 24 of which were commercial cultivars, and to characterise the genetic relatedness of these strains. Using 20 primers, 211 RAPD markers were identified and used in hierarchical cluster, patristic distance and parsimony analyses. All strains could be differentiated using the aggregated primer data. Although no one primer could differentiate all 26 strains, several individual primers yielded unique fingerprints for a variety of strains. The greatest differences (up to 28% variation) were observed in comparisons with or between two wild collections of A. bisporus. Quondam cultivars, commercial brown and off-white varieties proved more variable than the widely grown 'hybrid' types. Of the 15 hybrid varieties analysed, only one differed substantially (20% or more variable). The patristic and parsimony analyses both demonstrated the gross similarity of the hybrids, many of which appear to be essentially derived varieties from two original hybrid cultivars. RAPD analyses can assist mushroom strain identification and could play a role in the protection of novel cultivars. PMID:11525623

  5. The effect of royal sun agaricus, agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Extract on methyl Methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savic, T.; Patenkovic, A.; Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Andjelkovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis) hot water extract on methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced mutagenicity/genotoxity in Drosophila melanogaster was studied using a quick and broadly applicable in vivo assay, i.e., the wing somatic mutation and recombination

  6. Breeding and strain protection in the button mushroom agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Lavrijssen, B.; Gao, W.; Weijn, A.; Mes, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is one of the most widely cultivated edible mushroom species in the world. Being the main species cultivated in the Western hemisphere, its popularity also increases in Eastern Countries such as China and Korea. The world production level for 2009 is estimated a

  7. Differences in taste in button mushroom strains (Agaricus bisporus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Stijger, I.; Kersten, M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of a screening of genetically diverse strains of mushroom Agaricus bisporus for differences in taste. Eight different strains were grown on regular commercial compost and casing soil. Two of these strains were also grown on a casing with calcium chloride added to in

  8. Fatty Acid Composition of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.

    OpenAIRE

    Aktümsek, Abdurrahman; ÖZTÜRK, Celâleddin; KAŞIK, Giyasettin

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of fruit body, stem, lamellae and total of Agaricus bisporus were seperately analysed by GLC. In the all fatty acid compositions of A. bisporus, linoleic acid were predominant. Percentages of linoleic acid were varied between 53.45 - 68.78%. It was showed that the other major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and stearic acid in the fatty acid compositions.

  9. On the dopplars SS433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new family of X-ray sources has recently been proposed including SS433. The general relativistic formula to fit the frequency dependence of Hsub(α) lines in SS433 as a function of the phase is presented here. Particularly relevant for the verification of the model are the observations at the phase of minimum shift. (author)

  10. Radiation protection effect by the combination of propolis and agaricus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yeunhwa; Yamada, Katsunori; Ukawa, Yuuichi [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    The aims of the radioprotection are a human and the safety keeping of the environment. The leukocyte that much research is to do in the animals, and relations between the lymphocyte and the radiation are being made distinct until now. It paid attention to it in this determination stage, and lymphocyte toward the radiation was observed by using the ICR mice used for the lymphocyte simulation abundantly in this research. And, it was examined about the fetal effect toward the radiation. So, an excuse as a radioprotective agent of the effect on the fetus toward the radiation was examined experimentally by using the propolis and agaricus by this research. Therefore, it is a purpose to obtain information as a medicament of the radioprotection. ICR mice were used for the experiment. The pregnant mice were placed in plastic cages for radiation exposure, and were treated with a single whole-body X -radiation at 1 Gy and 2Gy with a dose rate of 35 cGy/min on 8 days after the conception. 100 mg/kg of propolis and agaricus. The total number of irradiated dams observed in this study was 40, a total of 38 non-irradiated control and sham control dams was also prepared, and 659 non-irradiated live fetuses served as controls. Statistical significant difference was recognized between the lymphocyte of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy group and the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + propolis and agaricus extracts of water solution administrated group toward the lymphocyte and embryonic death of control group and sham control group (p<0.01). But, when it was compared with the lymphocyte and embryonic death rate of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy group and the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + Propolis and agaricus group, the lymphocyte rate of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + Propolis and agaricus group was decrease. And, if propolis and agaricus was administered, the embryo beyond the haploid number that did implantation was found out in the exposure beyond 1.0Gy or 2.0Gy.

  11. The typification of Agaricus fastibilis Pers.: Fr. The type species of the genus Hebeloma (Fr.) Kumm

    OpenAIRE

    Kuyper, Thomas W.; Vesterholt, Jan

    1990-01-01

    The typification of Agaricus faslibilis Pers.: Fr. is discussed. The neotype, which has been designated by Singer, is rejected. As lectotype the illustration of Agaricus laterinus by Batschis designated. Problems associated with a special typification status for sanctioned names are discussed.

  12. DNA amplification polymorphisms of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    OpenAIRE

    Khush, R S; Becker, E; Wach, M.

    1992-01-01

    Single 10-bp primers were used to generate random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers from commercial and wild strains of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus via the polymerase chain reaction. Of 20 primers tested, 19 amplified A. bisporus DNA, each producing 5 to 15 scorable markers ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 kbp. RAPD markers identified seven distinct genotypes among eight heterokaryotic strains; two of the commercial strains were shown to be related to each other through single-spo...

  13. Differences in taste in button mushroom strains (Agaricus bisporus)

    OpenAIRE

    Baars, J.J.P.; Stijger, I.; M. Kersten; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of a screening of genetically diverse strains of mushroom Agaricus bisporus for differences in taste. Eight different strains were grown on regular commercial compost and casing soil. Two of these strains were also grown on a casing with calcium chloride added to increase osmotic value. The intension was to increase the dry matter content of the mushrooms that might affect the “bite” sensation of mushrooms.

  14. Intracellular bacterial infection in Agaricus bisponts (Lange) Sing..

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz Kalbarczyk

    2014-01-01

    Rod-shaped Gram-bacteria were observed in preparations made from the sporocarp or mummy - diseased Agaricus bisporus in the electron microscope. In cells of diseased rhizomorphs from several to a few dozen bacteria were found. Cells filled with a large number of bacteria were dead and the cellular wall was degraded. Probable the entrace of bacterie penetration into the mushroom ccll was observed. The bacterium. after its isolation, was identified as Pseudomonas sp.

  15. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identifie...

  16. Localization of the Mating Type Gene in Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jianping; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Horgen, Paul A.; Anderson, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus is secondarily homothallic. Most basidia produce two basidiospores, each of which receives two of the four postmeiotic nuclei. Usually, the two packaged nuclei carry compatible mating types. Previous studies suggested that there may be only a single mating type locus in A. bisporus. In this study, we determined whether the mating type segregated as a single Mendelian determinant in a cross marked with 64 segregating molecular markers. To score mating ...

  17. Carbohydrate utilization and metabolism is highly differentiated in Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Jurak, E.; Kohler, A; Baker, A.; Battaglia, E; Bruijn, de, M.E.; Burton, K.S.; Challen, M.P.; Cuotinho, P.M.; Eastwood, D.C.; Gruben, B.S.; Makela, M.R.; Martin, F.; Nadal, M; Brink, van den, A Arno

    2013-01-01

    Background - Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown on compost, in which the available carbon sources consist mainly of plant-derived polysaccharides that are built out of various different constituent monosaccharides. The major constituent monosaccharides of these polysaccharides are glucose, xylose, and arabinose, while smaller amounts of galactose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and mannose are also present. Results - In this study, genes encoding putative enzymes from carbon metabolism were i...

  18. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  19. Physiologic response of Agaricus subrufescens using different casing materials and practices applied in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Zied, Diego Cunha; Rinker, Danny Lee

    2013-01-01

    Casing materials and practices used in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus were evaluated in the cultivation of Agaricus subrufescens, using the best techniques for optimization of production, including the possibility of re-casing of the compost for the production of a second crop of mushroom. Casing based on peat moss, loam soil or coir was compared to casing material mixed with or without spawn-run compost. Based on the results, we conclude that the casing layer used in the cultivation of A. subrufescens should not necessarily be the same as that used in the cultivation of A. bisporus. For the tested strain cultivated with loam soil as casing layer, the ruffling technique is highly superior to CACing and should be pursued in further research. The re-casing of compost in new cycles showed good results suggesting that the currently used compost could be improved. PMID:23931122

  20. Nutritional value of Agaricus sylvaticus: mushroom grown in Brazil El valor nutritivo de Agaricus Sylvaticus: setas cultivadas en Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    J. Vinhal Costa Orsine; M.ª R. Carvalho Garbi Novaes; E. Ramírez Asquieri

    2012-01-01

    The bromatological characterization of the Agaricus sylvaticus species (A. sylvaticus), known as the Sun Mushroom and cultivated in Brazil, is necessary to determine substances with pharmacological and nutritional potential, in view its safe use in food and in human medicine. The purpose of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the A. sylvaticus mushroom grown in Brazil. Mushrooms were obtained in dehydrated form from a producer in Minas Gerais State. Through this stu...

  1. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cabannes, Delphine; Clément, Aurélien; Spataro, Cathy; Moinard, Magalie; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Callac, Philippe; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG), and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus. The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens. PMID:26921302

  2. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cabannes, Delphine; Clément, Aurélien; Spataro, Cathy; Moinard, Magalie; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Callac, Philippe; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG), and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens. PMID:26921302

  3. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Foulongne-Oriol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG, and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus. The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens.

  4. Investigation of Mitochondrial Transmission in Selected Matings between Homokaryons from Commercial and Wild-Collected Isolates of Agaricus bisporus (= Agaricus brunnescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Tianru; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; van Griensven, L. J. L. D.; Horgen, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    Ten heterokaryons of Agaricus bisporus (= Agaricus brunnescens) were shown to carry four different mitochondrial (mt) genotypes by analysis of mt restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Fifteen homokaryons derived from these strains were used to investigate mt inheritance in A. bisporus. One hundred eighty-nine pairings were performed in 25 different combinations. Pairings in 15 different combinations produced heterokaryons on the basis of nuclear RFLP analyses and/or fruiting tria...

  5. 双孢蘑菇和蘑菇的ITS-RFLP分析%Studies on Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus campestris Using ITS-RFLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 刘勇; 赵小青; 王一; 王泽生

    2012-01-01

    对采自四川和西藏的双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)和蘑菇(A.campestris)9个野生菌株,以及双孢蘑菇5个栽培菌株为材抖,进行了ITS-RFLP分析.结果表明,ITS-PCR条带约为750 bp,5种限制性内切酶(MspⅠ、HinfⅠ、HaeⅡ、AulⅠ、TaqⅠ)的ITS-RFLP分析结果为,只有4种限制性内切酶(HinfⅠ、HaeⅡ、AulⅠ、TaqⅠ)产生多态性条带,但完全能将双孢蘑菇和蘑菇区分的限制性内切酶为TaqⅠ;对5种限制性内切酶的ITS-RFLP分析数据进行聚类结果为,在相似系数为0.615水平以下分为2个类群,并将双孢蘑菇和蘑菇区分开;在相似系数为0.915水平上,供试的11个野生和栽培双孢蘑菇菌株分为3个亚类群.%14 Agaricus strains, including 9 wild strains of Agaricus bisporus or Agaricus campestris and 4 cultivation strains of Agaricus bisporus , were studied by using ITS-RFLP. The results showed that a band with 750 bp from the strains was respectively amplified by the primer combination of ITS4 and ITS5 , and polymorphic bands were obtained after digestive treatments with restriction enzymes of Hinf Ⅰ , Hae Ⅱ , Aul Ⅰ , Taq Ⅰ , but no polymorphic bands produced with Msp Ⅰ, and Agaricus bisporus strains could be distinguished from Agaricus campestris strains only using Taq Ⅰ . The cluster results indicated that strains of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus campestris could be distinguished and divided into two groups at similarity coefficient of O.615, and the strains of Agaricus bisporus were divided into three subgroups at similarity coefficient of 0.915.

  6. Regulation of Laccase and Cellulase Genes Transcription in Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Ohga, Shoji; Wood, David A.

    1998-01-01

    A time course for laccase and cellulase genes transcription of Agaricus bisporus compost culture are examined. The results of assays for laccase gene leel show that the expression of this gene increased in the compost until pinning stage of development. In the fruiting cultures the amount of leel declined rapidly over a 4-5 d period immediately. Cellulase gene celS expression contrasted sharply appeared with leel expression by remaining at a low level until after the pins were seen. The cel3...

  7. Anti-inflammatory potential of Agaricus in carrageenan-induced model of local inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrazzag A. Elmajdoub

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: These data may indicate that Agaricus extract has the potential of anti-inflammatory activity that could be applied in acute inflammatory disorders. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 497-502

  8. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of silver in wild Agaricus campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falandysz, J.; Danisiewicz, D. [Univ. of Gdansk (Poland)

    1995-07-01

    Silver is an element naturally occurring in small concentrations in different environmental sites. However, many anthropogenic sources of silver led to contamination of this element in soil surfaces, pastures, and coastal marine areas in different parts of the world. Estimates are that 40% of the 1.15x10{sup 4}t of silver produced annually worldwide, will escape into the environment. Due to municipal waste discharge and/or industrial effluents with high silver concentrations, 100 x above the background level have been reported in invertebrate species from polluted marine areas. The meta-stabile radioisotope, {sup 110m}Ag, is a main component of the liquid effluents from nuclear facilities under normal operating conditions. The presence of {sup 111}Ag and {sup 110m}Ag also has been widely found throughout Europe in the 1986 Chernobyl fallout. Silver ions are environmentally harmful. High toxic effects have been observed at low concentrations, especially in aquatic species. Species of lower fungi as well as the mushroom Agaricus bisporus are know to bioaccumulate high concentrations of silver when grown on an artificially enriched substrate. This study looks at the relationship between the silver content of soil and bioconcentration potential of wild Agaricus campestris from sites under different use and with different concentrations of heavy metals. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Determination of Chemical Antioxidants and Phenolic Compounds in the Brazilian Mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus

    OpenAIRE

    Orsine, JV Costa; Novaes, MRCG; Asquieri, E Ramirez; R Cañete

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus sylvaticus mushroom has been widely studied because of its high nutritional value and medicinal properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Agaricus sylvaticus and quantify their total polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity was performed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and total polyphenol content was assessed by colorimetric method. Observation also noted the great ...

  10. Agaricus section Brunneopicti: a phylogenetic reconstruction with descriptions of four new taxa

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie; Zhao, Rui-Lin; Parra, Luis A.; Guelly, Atsu K; De Kesel, André; Kevin D. Hyde; Rapior, Sylvie; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Callac, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus is a genus of saprobic basidiomycetes including species of nutritional and medicinal interest. Historically the temperate species have been grouped into eight classical sections. Recent phylogenetic analyses however, revealed that two-thirds of the tropical taxa do not cluster in these sections, but form exclusively tropical clades. Seven (TR I to TR VII) strongly supported tropical clades have been revealed and it was hypothesized that clade TR I might represent Agaricus section Bru...

  11. Notulae ad Floram agaricinam neerlandicam — XXXIII. Notes on Agaricus section Spissicaules

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, Marijke M.

    1999-01-01

    The subsection Spissicaules of Agaricus section Sanguinolenti is raised to section level. It is mainly characterised by the simple annulus, the presence of yellowing rhizomorphs, yellow discolouration of the context or surface at the base of the stipe and a positive Schaeffer-reaction, and the slightly reddening context in the higher part of the stipe. Section Spissicaules comprises three species in the Netherlands, viz. Agaricus lanipes, A. litoralis, and A. bresadolanus. Both. A. maskae and...

  12. Extension of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) shelf life by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh mushroom sporophores (Agaricus bisporus) were placed in trays and covered with PVC film. Forty-eight of the number of packs were irradiated by a γ-source with a dose of 3 kGy, and the remaining 24 treated as control packs. Both treated and control samples were subsequently stored at 10 ± 2°C and relative humidity of 94 ± 6%. After storage, mushrooms were subjected to quality assessments and taste panel-testing, both raw and when cooked. Irradiated sporophores had an extended shelf-life compared with control samples, with less browning and a delay in cap opening. Desiccation was slowed and stipe elongation reduced so that irradiated mushrooms were still acceptable for consumption 16 days after treatment. Deleterious effects of irradiation at this relatively low level were not observed

  13. Effects of catalysts on liquefaction of Agaricus versicolor (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Supercritical liquefaction process is used for producing energy from biomass. The common reaction conditions for supercritical liquefaction process are the 240-380 °C temperature range and 5-20 Mpa pressure values range. Agaricus versicolor (L.) was liquefied by acetone in an autoclave (75 mL) under high pressure with (aluminium oxide and calcium hydroxide) and without catalyst at 290 °C for producing bio-oil. The products of liquefaction (bio-oil) were analysed and characterized using various methods including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. GC-MS identified 27 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 290 °C.

  14. Nutritional value of Agaricus sylvaticus: mushroom grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhal Costa Orsine, J; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, M R; Ramírez Asquieri, E

    2012-01-01

    The bromatological characterization of the Agaricus sylvaticus species (A. sylvaticus), known as the Sun Mushroom and cultivated in Brazil, is necessary to determine substances with pharmacological and nutritional potential, in view its safe use in food and in human medicine. The purpose of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the A. sylvaticus mushroom grown in Brazil. Mushrooms were obtained in dehydrated form from a producer in Minas Gerais State. Through this study it was able to observe the fungus' rich chemical composition, highlighting the variety and quantity of minerals as well as its high protein content. There are many components of this mushroom that have medicinal properties, which are recognized as excellent antioxidants. Results also proved that the composition of A. sylvaticus presented differences when compared to the chemical composition of other Agaricaceae fungi. PMID:22732967

  15. Nutritional value of Agaricus sylvaticus: mushroom grown in Brazil El valor nutritivo de Agaricus Sylvaticus: setas cultivadas en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vinhal Costa Orsine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological characterization of the Agaricus sylvaticus species (A. sylvaticus, known as the Sun Mushroom and cultivated in Brazil, is necessary to determine substances with pharmacological and nutritional potential, in view its safe use in food and in human medicine. The purpose of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the A. sylvaticus mushroom grown in Brazil. Mushrooms were obtained in dehydrated form from a producer in Minas Gerais State. Through this study it was able to observe the fungus' rich chemical composition, highlighting the variety and quantity of minerals as well as its high protein content. There are many components of this mushroom that have medicinal properties, which are recognized as excellent antioxidants. Results also proved that the composition of A. sylvaticus presented differences when compared to the chemical composition of other Agaricaceae fungi.En la caracterización bromatológica del género Agaricus sylvaticus (A. sylvaticus, conocido como la seta del sol y cultivado en Brasil, es necesario determinar las sustancias con potencial farmacológico y nutritivo con el objetivo de un uso seguro en la alimentación y la medicina humana. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición química de la seta A. sylvaticus cultivada en Brasil. Se obtuvieron las setas en su forma deshidratada de un cultivador del estado de Minas Gerais. A través de este estudio pudimos observar la rica composición química del hongo, destacando la variedad y cantidad de minerales así como su alto contenido en proteínas. Esta seta contiene muchos componentes con propiedades medicinales, que se sabe que son excelentes antioxidantes. Los resultados también muestran que la composición de A. sylvaticus mostraba diferencias al compararla con la composición química de otros hongos de la familia Agaricaceae.

  16. Evaluation of Antibacterial properties of the suspension of Ginger, Black Pepper, Vinegar, Honey and its application in Shelf life extension of Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Suspensions of vinegar, honey, black pepper and ginger were examined for antibacterial activity against Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and E.coli by agar well diffusion technique. The prepared suspensions were applied on Agaricus bisporus to evaluate suspensions effect for increasing the shelf life of it. Vinegar suspension showed better antibacterial effect and good result on Agaricus bisporus to increase its shelf life as compared to honey suspension. Enzymatic spoilage of Agaricus bisporus were studied by applying vinegar suspension on both blanched and unblanched Agaricus bisporus at 4oC and 27oC. Treated blanched Agaricus bisporus which were stored at 4oC showed least microbial load as compared to other blanched and unblanched Agaricus bisporus kept at 4oC and 27oC. Based on survey analysis minimal change was observed in sensory quality, color and texture on Agaricus bisporus due to applied suspension.

  17. Spectral Components of SS 433

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, D R; Riddle, R L; Wang, Z; Wiita, P J; Wingert, D W

    2002-01-01

    We present results from new optical and UV spectroscopy of the unusual binary system SS 433, and we discuss the relationship of the particular spectral components we observe to the properties of the binary. (1) The continuum spectrum which we associate with flux from the super-Eddington accretion disk and the dense part of its wind. (2) H-alpha moving components which are formed far from the binary orbital plane in the relativistic jets. (3) H-alpha and He I "stationary" emission lines which we suggest are formed in the disk wind in a volume larger than the dimensions of the binary. (4) A weak "stationary" emission feature we identify as a C II 7231,7236 blend that attains maximum radial velocity at the orbital quadrature of disk recession. (5) Absorption and emission features from outflowing clumps in the disk wind (seen most clearly in an episode of blue-shifted Na I emission). (6) We found no clear evidence of the absorption line spectrum of the optical star, although we point out the presence of He I abso...

  18. 氢化物-原子荧光法测定姬松茸子实体中硒含量%Determination of Total Selenium in the Fruit Body of Agaricus blazei by Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Speca'ometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖辉; 吴向阳; 仰榴青; 张敏; 闫舒; 邹烨; 李芳

    2010-01-01

    建立姬松茸子实体中硒含量的氢化物-原子荧光光谱测定方法.用硒标准溶液考察载流盐酸体积分数、硼氢化钠质量分数、酸介质浓度对荧光强度的影响.姬松茸子实体经湿法与微波高压消解后,用氢化物原子荧光法测定硒含量.该法线性范围为1.0~10.0ng/mL,检出限为0.002ng/mL,精密度为1.32%~4.11%(n=10),回收率为92.89%~106.49%(n=5).该法准确、简便、快速,可用于姬松茸子实体中硒含量的测定.

  19. Determination of Chemical Antioxidants and Phenolic Compounds in the Brazilian Mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Orsine, J V; Novaes, Mr Cg; Ramirez Asquieri, E; Cañete, R

    2014-03-01

    Agaricus sylvaticus mushroom has been widely studied because of its high nutritional value and medicinal properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Agaricus sylvaticusand quantify their total polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity was performed by the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and total polyphenol content was assessed by colorimetric method. Observation also noted the great antioxidant potential of aqueous, alcoholic and ethereal extracts (14.6%, 75.6% and 14.6%, respectively) of the Agaricus sylvaticus mushroom, highlighting the alcoholic extract, which demonstrates the extraordinary benefits of this mushroom in the diet, since antioxidants prevent premature ageing and various types of cancer. PMID:25303248

  20. Characterisation and cultivation of wild Agaricus species from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez Carrera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Germplasm preservation and genetic improvement of authentic wild species is fundamental for developing the mushroom industry of any country. In Mexico, strains of wild Agaricus species were isolated from diverse regions. Ten species were tentatively identified on the basis of fruit-body morphology: A. abruptibulbus Peck, A. albolutescens Zeller, A. augustus Fries, A. bisporus var. bisporus (LangeImbach, A. bitorquis (Quél.Sacc., A. campestris Link : Fries, A. hortensis (CookePilàt, A. osecanus Pilát, A. robustissimus Panizzi, and A. subrufescens Peck; there was also a group of five strains classified as A. sp. These species were characterised considering several criteria (mycelial growth on different culture media and pH, fruiting tests on compost, macroscopic morphology and basidial spore number of fruit bodies, using strains of A. bitorquis as a standard reference. Colony morphology on culture media was variable, showing differences in density (high, low, aerial mycelia (abundant, scarce, and growth rates (fast, slow. The initial pH and the culture medium influenced colony growth rates, which ranged from 0.02-1.06 cm/day. In fruiting trials, wild Agaricus species also showed wide variations in the average time for compost (7-52 days and casing soil (10-48 days colonization, fruiting (2-17 days, after the casing soil is colonized, and fruit-body development (3-19 days, from primordia to mature sporophores, as well as in the number of flushes (1-5, mushroom yields (49.5-1,499.1 g, and biological efficiency (1.8-55.5%. The period from spawning to harvesting the first flush, considering the average time for fruit-body development, ranged from 39-96 days. All species studied showed spore-bearing fruit bodies with normal morphology, having variable colour (white, off-white, cream, brown, scaliness, and size of caps and stipes. The average basidial spore number indicated that most species were of tetrasporic character showing a high proportion of

  1. Crescimento micelial de Agaricus bisporus em meios de cultivo e substratos alternativos

    OpenAIRE

    Minotto, Elisandra; Bernardi, Eduardo; Wille, Caroline Neugebauer; Nascimento, José Soares do

    2014-01-01

    O cultivo de Agaricus bisporus, tem sido realizado a partir de uma mistura de substratos celulósicos compostados e pasteurizados. A formulação dos substratos destinados à produção deste macrofungo é um fator determinante na otimização da colonização do substrato e na produtividade de Agaricus spp. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento de A. bisporus em meios de cultivo e substratos constituídos de casca de amendoim, casca de mamona, casca de soja, folhas de milho e sub...

  2. DNA amplification polymorphisms of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khush, R S; Becker, E; Wach, M

    1992-09-01

    Single 10-bp primers were used to generate random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers from commercial and wild strains of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus via the polymerase chain reaction. Of 20 primers tested, 19 amplified A. bisporus DNA, each producing 5 to 15 scorable markers ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 kbp. RAPD markers identified seven distinct genotypes among eight heterokaryotic strains; two of the commercial strains were shown to be related to each other through single-spore descent. Homokaryons recovered from protoplast regenerants of heterokaryotic strains carried a subset of the RAPD markers found in the heterokaryon, and both of the haploid nuclei from two heterokaryons were distinguishable. RAPD markers also served to verify the creation of a hybrid heterokaryon and to analyze meiotic progeny from this new strain: most of the basidiospores displayed RAPD fingerprints identical to that of the parental heterokaryon, although a few selected slow growers were homoallelic at a number of loci that were heteroallelic in the parent, suggesting that they represented rare homokaryotic basidiospores; crossover events between a RAPD marker locus and its respective centromere appeared to be infrequent. These results demonstrate that RAPD markers provide an efficient alternative for strain fingerprinting and a versatile tool for genetic studies and manipulations of A. bisporus. PMID:1444410

  3. Extraction optimization and bioactivity of exopolysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yong; Mao, Jian; Meng, Xiangyong

    2013-02-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of EPS produced by Agaricus bisporus MJ-0811 in submerged culture. The optimal levels for ethanol concentration (85%, v/v), pH (8) and precipitation time (22 h) were determined, and EPS production was estimated at 2.71 g/L. The actual yield of EPS under these conditions was 2.69 g/L. In addition, the antioxidant activity of EPS was investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the hypoglycemic activity of EPS was investigated by measuring its effects on body weights and blood glucose of diabetic mice. The study suggests that EPS has beneficial antioxidant activities (hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities, superoxide radical-scavenging activities) in vitro, anti-diabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic mice. The EPS from A. bisporus may be a novel resource of natural antioxidants and anti-diabetic agents for use in the functional food or medicine. PMID:23399195

  4. Nutritional values of different strains of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional values and chemical composition of different strains of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus were studied. The study covered four strains cultivated in Poland: OCNOS-1, Somycel-11 , Somycel-92, and Somycel-653. The samples were analyzed for dry matter, vitamin C, nitrates, nitrites, total nitrogen and crude protein (N × 4.38, amino acid composition, soluble carbohydrates composition, and minerals content. Besides, whiteness values were determined by Hunter's method. All determinations were made on two of fruit-bodies of two sizes: 25-40 mm in pileus diameter (small and 40-50 mm in pileus diameter (large. A significantly higher dry matter content was found in strain 1 in comparison with strain 92. The lowest value of total nitrogen was detected for strain 92 and the highest for strain 653. From among the four analyzed strains, strain 92 contained the highest amount of essential amino acids. Trehalose content was significantly lower in strain 11 in comparison with other strains both in small and large fruit-body.

  5. 蘑菇属中国新记录种-细丛卷毛柄蘑菇%Agaricus flocculosipes-a Species of Agaricus Newly Recorded in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于清华; 周均亮; 赵瑞琳

    2014-01-01

    A species of Agaricus isolated from the Nangun River National Nature Reserve,Yunnan Province, China,was identified as Agaricus flocculosipes based on morphological characteristics and ITS sequence analysis.The macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the species,which produces a large fruit body, are described in detail.%通过详细的形态学和基于 ITS序列的分子系统学研究方法,鉴定了来自云南南滚河国家级自然保护区的一份标本为 Agaricusflocculosipes。该种是蘑菇属一个具有食用价值的野生种,在我国首次发现,对该种进行详细描述,给予中文名称为细丛卷毛柄蘑菇。

  6. Genetic Variation and Combining Ability Analysis of Bruising Sensitivity in Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, W.; Baars, J.J.P.; Dolstra, O.; Visser, R.G.F.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced button mushroom cultivars that are less sensitive to mechanical bruising are required by the mushroom industry, where automated harvesting still cannot be used for the fresh mushroom market. The genetic variation in bruising sensitivity (BS) of Agaricus bisporus was studied through an incom

  7. A Fruiting Body Tissue Method for Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xi; Stone, Michelle; Schlagnhaufer, Carl; Romaine, C. Peter

    2000-01-01

    We describe a modified Agrobacterium-mediated method for the efficient transformation of Agaricus bisporus. Salient features of this procedure include cocultivation of Agrobacterium and fruiting body gill tissue and use of a vector with a homologous promoter. This method offers new prospects for the genetic manipulation of this commercially important mushroom species.

  8. Peculiarities of agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach strains obtained under the. gamma. -ray effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanek, M.; Dudka, Yi.O.; Byis' ko, N.A.; Vasser, S.P.; Srv, A.; Kolesnichenko, L.P.; Yablons' kij, Yi. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Novy Hradek. Mikrobiologicky Ustav; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Botaniki)

    A technique of irradiation of Agaricus bisporus (J.Lge) Imbach strains by gamma-rays is described, characteristics of strains, received during irradiation are given (productivity, protein content). The efficiency of gamma-ray usage in A bisporus selection is considered.

  9. Evaluation of Antibacterial properties of the suspension of Ginger, Black Pepper, Vinegar, Honey and its application in Shelf life extension of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Jain; Himanshu Karaiya; Kumari Amrita; Swapnil Tiwari; Vishakha Dubey; C. Ramalingam

    2013-01-01

    Suspensions of vinegar, honey, black pepper and ginger were examined for antibacterial activity against Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and E.coli by agar well diffusion technique. The prepared suspensions were applied on Agaricus bisporus to evaluate suspensions effect for increasing the shelf life of it. Vinegar suspension showed better antibacterial effect and good result on Agaricus bisporus to increase its shelf life as compared to honey suspension. Enzymatic spoilage of Agaricus bisporu...

  10. 47 CFR 97.311 - SS emission types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SS emission types. 97.311 Section 97.311... SERVICE Technical Standards § 97.311 SS emission types. (a) SS emission transmissions by an amateur... station in another country that permits such communications. SS emission transmissions must not be...

  11. Muutosjohtaminen Lindorff Oy.ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Huuskonen, Ville

    2011-01-01

    Muutos on pysyvä tila nykyajan liiketoiminnassa. Kehittynyt teknologia, vaativammat asiakkaat ja kovempi kilpailu ovat tekijöitä, joiden mukaan yritysten tulee pystyä kehittämään toimintaansa. Yritysten toimintaympäristö muuttuu jatkuvasti ja paikallaan pysyvät stabiilit yritykset eivät enää menesty kilpailussa. Muutos tuo mahdollisuuksien lisäksi myös epävarmuutta. Onnistunut muutosprosessi vaatii aina hyvää johtamista. Tässä opinnäytetyössä tarkastellaan muutosjohtamisen haasteita...

  12. Huumori toimintaterapeutin työssä

    OpenAIRE

    Liinamo, Liisa

    2006-01-01

    Koko teksti, Tiivistelmä, Abstract Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli kuvata huumoria toimintaterapeutin työssä. Tutkimuksen aineistona oli neljän toimintaterapeutin haastattelut, joissa pohdittiin, mitä huumori oli, ilmenikö sitä toimintaterapiassa, miten sitä ilmeni ja mitä merkitystä huumorilla oli toimintaterapeutin työssään. Haastatteluaineistoon perehdyttiin käyttäen aineistolähtöistä sisällön analyysiä. Teoriaosuudessa huumoria tarkasteltiin eri tieteenalojen- ja toimintaterapiakirjallis...

  13. Middle Level SS&C Energy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Linda W.; Aldridge, Bill G.

    The project on Scope Sequence and Coordination of Secondary School Science (SS&C) was initiated by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and recommends that all students study science every year and advocates carefully sequenced, well-coordinated instruction in biology, chemistry, earth/space science, and physics. This document…

  14. Asiantuntijapalvelun tuotteistaminen : yhteistyössä vastuullisuutta edistämässä

    OpenAIRE

    Asteljoki, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    Työssä on liitetty yhteen vastuullinen liiketoiminta ja strateginen johtaminen kestävän kehityksen näkökulmasta, tavoitteena asiakasyrityksen pitkän aikavälin menestyminen. Vastuullinen liiketoiminta on organisaatiolle strateginen valinta, jonka sudenkuoppana on käytäntöön vieminen. Tämä sama ongelma on yleinen strategisessa johtamisessa. Tässä työssä kehitetään vastuullisen liiketoimintastrategian laatimiseen ja käytäntöön viemiseen soveltuvia yhteistoiminnallisia, osallistavia menettelyjä. ...

  15. Effect of electron beam irradiation on post harvest quality of Agaricus bisporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on fresh-keeping of Agaricus bisporus was studied after sporecarp samples were irradiated at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 kGy and then stored at 4 degree C for 14d. The contents of water-soluble vitamins, amino acids and sugars were measured. Results showed that the contents of water-soluble sugars, amino acids, and aneurin, lactochrome, nicotinic acid in sporecarp did not significantly change after irradiation. However, asoribic acid was sensitive to irradiation, and the content was significantly reduced 31.1% at the dose of 4.0 kGy. It is concluded that 2 kGy irradiation can effectively prolong the shelf life, and almost no significant effect on the nutrient components of Agaricus bisporus. (authors)

  16. Effects of agaricus lilaceps fairy rings on soil aggregation and microbial community structure in relation to growth stimulation of western wheatgrass (pascopyrum smithii) in Eastern Montana rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimulation of plant productivity caused by Agaricus fairy rings has been reported, but nothing is known about soil aggregation and the microbial community structure of the stimulated zone, particularly the communities that can bind to soil particles. We studied three concentric zones of Agaricus li...

  17. Growth of Agaricus campestris NRRL 2334 in the Form of Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Antonio M.; Bailey, Valerie I.

    1985-01-01

    The production of pellets of the fungus Agaricus campestris NRRL 2334 was studied in submerged fermentation with peat extract as the main substrate source. Pellets up to 6 mm in diameter were obtained when the peat extract was diluted to reduce the concentration of growth inhibitors. Yeast extract and yeast extract plus glucose were the most effective nutrient supplements in the diluted peat extract media and stimulated the formation of large pellets which contained 44.4% crude protein, 2.8% ...

  18. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Edita Jurak; Aleksandrina Patyshakuliyeva; de Vries, Ronald P; Harry Gruppen; Mirjam A Kabel

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from mushroom-grown compost at different stages of mycelium growth and fruiting body formation, were analyzed for their ability to degrade a range of polysaccharides. Mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosida...

  19. Therapeutic Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis on Phenylhydrazine-Induced Neonatal Jaundice in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Zhang; Bo Yuan; HuiPing Wang; Ya Gao

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract (ABE) on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats. Administration of ABE dose-dependently reduced the elevated bilirubin level induced by phenylhydrazine. It can be somewhat supported from the results of in vitro bilirubin degradation experiment. ABE treatment also reduced the total antioxidant status (TAOS), cascade O2 −/SOD, level of NF-κB protein, and adrenomedullin (AM). Overall, the results...

  20. Gastric tumorigenesis by a single dose of 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzenediazonium ion of Agaricus bisporus.

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, B.; Nagel, D.; Ross, A.

    1982-01-01

    4-(Hydroxymethyl-benzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate was administered as a single intragastric instillation at 400 micrograms/g to Swiss albino mice. The treatment gave rise to glandular stomach tumours in incidences of 30% in females and 32% in males. Histopathologically, the tumours were classified as polypoid adenomas and adenocarcinomas. This diazonium ion is an ingredient of the cultivated mushroom of commerce, Agaricus bisporus. The implications are self-evident. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig...

  1. The pathogenic fungi in mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange.) Imbach.

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Tekiela

    2012-01-01

    The research was conducted in a mushroom growing facility located near Rzeszów, consisting of three production cycles. The number and composition of microorganisms which accompany the mushroom cultivation depended on the healthiness of: the compost, casing and spawn of Agaricus bisporus. The presence of pathogenic fungi in the cultivation halls at the beginning of the production cycle is a serious threat to the cultivation of common mushroom because their rapid development shortens the span o...

  2. Growth-promoting effect of thermophilic fungi on the mycelium of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegant, W.M.; Wery, J.; E. T. Buitenhuis; de Bont, J A

    1992-01-01

    The growth-promoting effect of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in mushroom compost on the mycelium of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus was investigated. Results obtained by others were confirmed by showing that S. thermophilum leads to an increased hyphal extension rate of the mushroom mycelium. However, it was demonstrated that hyphal extension rates were not clearly related to mushroom biomass increase rates. A number of experiments pointed strongly towards CO2 as the ...

  3. Serum immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G reactivity to Agaricus bisporus proteins in mushroom cultivation workers

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Khakzad; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Safarali Mahdian; Sabah Mayahi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Although molds are regarded as the main fungal allergen sources, evidence indicates that spores of Basidiomycota including Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) can be also found at high concentrations in the environment and may cause as many respiratory allergies as molds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against A. bisporus via immunoblotting technique in individuals working at mushroom culti...

  4. Compositional Changes in Compost during Composting and Growth of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Iiyama, Kenji; Stone, Bruce A.; Macauley, Barry J.

    1994-01-01

    Samples from conventional compost taken at various stages of composting and mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) growth were analyzed for changes in 80% ethanol and water extracts, monosaccharides in acid hydrolysates of polysaccharides, lignin concentration, and lignin structural features. Variable amounts of extraneous inorganic solids in the form of fine sandy particles were removed by sedimentation of the samples in a carbon tetrachloride-dibromomethane mixture. During composting, about two-third...

  5. Lignin-Degrading Enzymes of the Commercial Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnen, Alice M.; Anton, Lori H.; Orth, Ann B.

    1994-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus, grown under standard composting conditions, was evaluated for its ability to produce lignin-degrading peroxidases, which have been shown to have an integral role in lignin degradation by wood-rotting fungi. The activity of manganese peroxidase was monitored throughout the production cycle of the fungus, from the time of colonization of the compost through the development of fruit bodies. Characterization of the enzyme was done with a crude compost extract. Manganese peroxid...

  6. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Monokaryotic Progeny Strains of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Choi, Min Ah; Yun, Yeo Hong; Oh, Youn-Lee; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    To promote the selection of promising monokaryotic strains of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during breeding, 61 progeny strains derived from basidiospores of two different lines of dikaryotic parental strains, ASI1038 and ASI1346, were analyzed by nucleotide sequencing of the intergenic spacer I (IGS I) region in their rDNA and by extracellular enzyme assays. Nineteen different sizes of IGS I, which ranged from 1,301 to 1,348 bp, were present among twenty ASI1346-derived progeny strains...

  7. Crystal Structure of Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Tyrosinase: Identity of the Tetramer Subunits and Interaction with Tropolone

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaya, Wangsa T.; Rozeboom, Henriette J.; Weijn, Amrah; Mes, Jurriaan J.; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Wichers, Harry J.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosinase catalyzes the conversion of phenolic compounds into their quinone derivatives, which are precursors for the formation of melanin, a ubiquitous pigment in living organisms. Because of its importance for browning reactions in the food industry, the tyrosinase from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus has been investigated in depth. In previous studies the tyrosinase enzyme complex was shown to be a H(2)L(2) tetramer, but no clues were obtained of the identities of the subunits, their mode ...

  8. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; João Paulo Furlan de Jesus; Fabrício Rocha Vieira; Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes Viana; Marta Helena Fillet Spoto; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni

    2014-01-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (composts x strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellu...

  9. Ultrastructural Studies on the Cultivation Processes and Growth and Development of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus Bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, D. A.; Craig, G.D.; Atkey, P. T.; Newsam, R. J.; Gull, K.

    1985-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) , transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy have been used to study various processes in the cultivation of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus . Mushrooms are cultured on composted wheat straw. The microbial degradation processes during composting have been visualised by TEM and SEM and correlated with microbiological studies . Various modes of attack by the microorganisms on the plant cell walls can be seen. Most rapid degradation occurred on...

  10. Drying behavior of the marketed mushrooms Lactarius deliciosus and Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ana Cândida; Baptista, Paula; Ramalhosa, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    Wild edible mycorrhizal mushrooms have great commercial importance, as well as beneficial properties, linked to their nutritional value, delicacy and flavor. Lactarius deliciosus is appreciated worldwide, being frequently used in the preparation of several culinary dishes. On the other hand, Agaricus bisporus is a commercial mushroom also quite used. However, mushrooms are extremely perishable and shelf life of fresh mushrooms is very short. Therefore, they are frequently processed, being deh...

  11. A Selective Medium for Quantitative Reisolation of Trichoderma harzianum from Agaricus bisporus Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Josie; Clarkson, John M.; Mills, Peter R.; Cooper, Richard M

    2003-01-01

    We adapted a selective medium, previously developed for reisolation of Trichoderma spp. from soil, for quantitative determination of growth of T. harzianum from commercial Agaricus bisporus composts. This medium enables comparisons of aggressive (sensu inhibition of A. bisporus yield) with nonaggressive T. harzianum groups. The resulting medium contains the antimicrobials chloramphenicol, streptomycin, quintozene, and propamocarb and was highly selective, allowing the recovery of T. harzianum...

  12. Quality Characteristics of Microwave-Vacuum Dried Button Mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus)

    OpenAIRE

    S.K.Giri & Suresh Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) slices as well as whole mushrooms were dried by microwave-vacuum drying technique to a moisture content of around 6 %(d.b.). The dehydrated mushrooms were compared with hot-air dried products on the basis of different quality attributes such as colour, texture, rehydration ratio and sensory score. Statistical analysis of data revealed significant difference among the drying methods for all the attributes at p ≤ 0.05. Microwave-vacuum dried mushrooms had sig...

  13. Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) Synthase Enhances Thermotolerance of Mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhonglei Lu; Xiangxiang Kong; Zhaoming Lu; Meixiang Xiao; Meiyuan Chen; Liang Zhu; Yuemao Shen; Xiangyang Hu; Siyang Song

    2014-01-01

    Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially express...

  14. Nutritional supplementation with the mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus reduces oxidative stress in children with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Figueira, Marcela S; Luana A Sá; Vasconcelos, Amanda S; Moreira, Danilo R; Paula SOC Laurindo; Danielle RG Ribeiro; Santos, Rogério S.; Paulo Guzzo; Maria F Dolabela; Sandro Percario

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The involvement of free radicals and oxidative stress in HIV infection has been extensively studied, and the benefits of antioxidant supplementation in animal studies have been demonstrated. However, few studies have demonstrated a benefit in clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus, a mushroom rich in antioxidants, on the oxidative profile of children born with HIV undergoing antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: The sample ...

  15. Simple and efficient expression of Agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase in Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Sygmund, Christoph; Gutmann, Alexander; Krondorfer, Iris; Kujawa, Magdalena; Glieder, Anton; Pscheidt, Beate; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens; Kittl, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) is a fungal flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is highly interesting for applications in organic synthesis or electrochemistry. The low expression levels of the filamentous fungus Agaricus meleagris as well as the demand for engineered PDH make heterologous expression necessary. Recently, Aspergillus species were described to efficiently secrete recombinant PDH. Here, we evaluate recombinant protein production with expression hosts more suitable for geneti...

  16. Shelf-life extension of fresh Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) by application of Tomato paste

    OpenAIRE

    Aishverya srivastava,; Akanksha singh,; R.Balaji Raja,; Kantha D.Arunachalam

    2010-01-01

    A mushroom is a fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The edible mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus ) are the fleshy edible bodies devoid of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma. Mushroom browning occurs mainly as a result of tyrosinase activity, an enzyme belonging to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) family and known to be a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Tomato is an attractive candidate for food proces...

  17. GC-MS studies of the chemical composition of two inedible mushrooms of the genus Agaricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjosheva Melania

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushrooms in the genus Agaricus have worldwide distribution and include the economically important species A. bisporus. Some Agaricus species are inedible, including A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, which are similar in appearance to certain edible species, yet are known to possess unpleasant odours and induce gastrointestinal problems if consumed. We have studied the chemical composition of these mushrooms using GC-MS. Results Our GC-MS studies on the volatile fractions and butanol extracts resulted in the identification of 44 and 34 compounds for A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, respectively, including fatty acids and their esters, amino acids, and sugar alcohols. The most abundant constituent in the volatiles and butanol were phenol and urea respectively. We also identified the presence of ergosterol and two Δ7-sterols. In addition, 5α,8α-Epidioxi-24(ξ-methylcholesta-6,22-diene-3β-ol was isolated for the first time from both mushrooms. Our study is therefore the first report on the chemical composition of these two species. Conclusion The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the chemical composition of mushrooms belonging to the Agaricus genus, and provide some explanation for the reported mild toxicity of A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, a phenonomenon that can be explained by a high phenol content, similar to that found in other Xanthodermatei species.

  18. SS433: The microquasar link with ulxs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Charles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available SS433 es el microcuasar prototipo de la Galaxia y posiblemente incluso an alogo a las fuentes ULX si se tiene en cuenta la energ a cin etica de los \\jets". Sin embargo y a pesar de 20 a~nos de estudio, nuestras restricciones sobre la naturaleza del sistema binario son extremadamente grandes debido a la di cultad de localizar rasgos espectrales capaces de revelar la naturaleza y el movimiento del donador de la masa. Los espectros azules de alta resoluci on recientemente obtenidos cuando el disco (en precesi on se encuentra de per l, sugieren que la binaria se halla cerca de la fase de envolvente com un, lo cual hace extremadamente dif cil obtener las restricciones cin eticas. Sin embargo, encontramos evidencia de un donador masivo como era de esperar para la muy alta tasa de transferencia de masa inferida y comparamos las propiedades de SS433 con las de Cyg X3.

  19. Toivo psykiatrisessa hoitotyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Jokela, Ville; Moberg, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää hoitajien näkökulmasta potilaan toivon ilmenemistä ja tukemista psykiatrisessa hoitotyössä. Opinnäytetyön aihe tuli Pirkanmaan sairaanhoitopiiriltä. Opinnäytetyön tehtävinä oli selvittää, miten toivo ilmenee psykiatrisessa hoitotyössä, mikä on hoitajan merkitys potilaan toivon kannalta, millä käytännön hoitotyön keinoilla potilaan toivoa voidaan tukea, mikä merkitys sosiaalisilla suhteilla on potilaan toivolle sekä miten toivottomuus ilmenee psykiatri...

  20. Preparation, characterization, and biological properties of β-glucans

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Rahar; Gaurav Swami; Navneet Nagpal; Manisha A Nagpal; Gagan Shah Singh

    2011-01-01

    β-Glucans are soluble fibers with physiological functions, such as, interference with absorption of sugars and reduction of serum lipid levels. β-glucans are found in different species, such as, Rhynchelytrum repens, Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa, Tremella mesenterica, Tremella aurantia, Zea may, Agaricus blazei, Phellinus baummi, Saccharomyces cerevisae (yeast), and Agaricus blazei murell (mushroom). Analysis of the fractions reveals the presence of arabinose, glucose, xylose, and traces...

  1. SS-IDS: Statistical Signature Based IDS

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Payas; Raïssi, Chedy; Dray, Gérard; Poncelet, Pascal; Brissaud, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Security of web servers has become a sensitive subject today. Prediction of normal and abnormal request is problematic due to large number of false alarms in many anomaly based Intrusion Detection Systems(IDS). SS-IDS derives automatical ly the parameter profiles from the analyzed data thereby generating the Statistical Signatures. Statistical Signatures are based on modeling of normal requests and their distribution value without explicit intervention. Several attributes are used to calculate...

  2. Investigation of Mitochondrial Transmission in Selected Matings between Homokaryons from Commercial and Wild-Collected Isolates of Agaricus bisporus (= Agaricus brunnescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, T; Sonnenberg, A S; Van Griensven, L J; Horgen, P A

    1992-11-01

    Ten heterokaryons of Agaricus bisporus (= Agaricus brunnescens) were shown to carry four different mitochondrial (mt) genotypes by analysis of mt restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Fifteen homokaryons derived from these strains were used to investigate mt inheritance in A. bisporus. One hundred eighty-nine pairings were performed in 25 different combinations. Pairings in 15 different combinations produced heterokaryons on the basis of nuclear RFLP analyses and/or fruiting trials. The mt genotype of each new intraspecies hybrid was examined by using mt RFLPs as genetic markers. Our results suggest the following. (i) Recombination between the mt genomes was not a common event. (ii) From most individual pairings, all heterokaryons carried the same mt genotype. (iii) Heterokaryons carrying either of the two possible mt genotypes were observed in certain crosses after modification of the pairing procedure. A biparental transmission pattern was demonstrated for some crosses, but there appears to be a preference for one of the mt genotypes to predominate in any specific pairing. PMID:16348802

  3. Removal of phenol from industrial effluents using enzymatic extract from Agaricus bisporus; Remocao de fenol de efluentes industriais utilizando extrato enzimatico de Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, E.; Coelho, M.A.Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica]. E-mail: alice@eq.ufrj.br; Langone, M.A.P. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: langonem@uerj.br

    2003-07-01

    Phenols are toxic pollutants found in several industrial wastes, mainly in oil industry. These substances impose several risks to human health. Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) is a polyphenol oxidase found in several life forms, like in the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. In this fungal tissue, the enzyme is readily available leading to high activity extracts needing no extensive purification. The tyrosinase extract is able to modify phenols in non-soluble reaction products, proving its potential as a biocatalyst for applications involving biomodification of phenols or bioremediation of phenol-polluted water. The purpose of this work was to employ the crude extract from the Agaricus bisporus mushroom in the removal of phenol from a synthetic oil industry wastewater. The crude extract was used in enzymatic reactions employing aqueous phenol solutions without pH control. The initial phenol concentration in all substrate solutions was 100 mg/L and different enzymatic concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400 U/mL were tested. Both reactions, with 200 U/mL and 400 U/mL enzymatic activity, lead to 90% of phenol removal. The treated and not treated samples toxicity were measured using Artemia salina (crustacean) and Brachydanio rerio (fish) bioassays. The final effluent shown to be less toxicity than the polluted water. (author)

  4. Standardized Cultivation Technology of Agaricus bisporus%双孢菇标准化栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杏元; 周桃英; 陈全胜; 杨辉德; 郑宝清

    2014-01-01

    双孢茹营养丰富,栽培范围广泛,栽培条件要求不高,容易形成产业形势。为了提高双孢菇的产量,笔者规范了双孢菇标准化栽培技术,使其产量提高20%左右,可作为农民增收的一个有效途径。%Agaricus bisporus is a complete nutrition food, widely cultivated, and the demand on cultivation is general y lower, which advances Agaricus bisporus industry to certain extent. In order to improve yield of Agaricus bisporus, the research ruled the standardized cultivation technology and increased the yield by 20%, which can be an effective way for improving farmers’ incomes.

  5. SS wireless modem for an automatic vending machine; Jido hanbaikiyo SS musen modemu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    Low-cost network communication systems are required when introducing an information collecting system and an electronic money system for automatic vending machines. Development was made recently on a spread spectrum (SS) wireless modem capable of structuring a network incurring no running cost for wiring works and communications. The modem is intended of being used at locations where automatic vending machines are installed at relatively high concentration, such as railway stations, buildings and car parking areas. Its major features are as follows: (1) packet transfer is performed while data are relayed at high speed between arbitrary SS wireless modems; (2) high reliability communication is possible because an optimal relaying route is selected even at line impediments or failure of the SS wireless modems; and (3) the modem can be applied even to large-scale systems. (translated by NEDO)

  6. 双孢蘑菇反季节栽培技术%Off-season cultivation techniques of Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈碧辉

    2011-01-01

    The off-season cultivation of Agaricus bisporus by using different strains at various altitutes could realize year-round fresh mushroom supply and be convenient for widely popularizing to farmers.This paper emphatically introduced the key points of off-season cultivation techniques of Agaricus bisporus.%利用不同海拔、菌株进行双孢蘑菇反季节栽培,可实现鲜菇周年供应,方便农户推广应用。该文着重介绍双孢蘑菇反季节栽培技术的关键环节。

  7. Vaikuttamisen keinot yritysten vastuuviestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Heikura, Jenni

    2016-01-01

    ssä opinnäytetyössä käsiteltiin yritysten vastuuviestintää. Muodoltaan työ oli tutkimustyyppinen opinnäytetyö, jonka tarkoituksena oli tutkia vaikuttavuuden keinoja yritysten vastuuviestinnässä. Lisäksi työssä pohdittiin vastuuviestinnän keskeisiä ongelmia ja luotettavuutta. Opinnäytetyössä tarkasteltiin kahden yrityksen vastuuviestintää. Yrityksiksi valikoitiin UPM-Kymmene Oyj ja Stora Enso Oyj. Tutkimuksen aineistona käytettiin kyseisten yritysten vastuuviestintää niiden omilla intern...

  8. Potilasturvallisuus perioperatiivisessa hoitotyössä -systemaattinen kirjallisuuskatsaus

    OpenAIRE

    Hartikainen, Saara

    2012-01-01

    ssä opinnäytetyössä tavoitteena oli selvittää, mitä on potilasturvallisuus perioperatiivisessa hoitotyössä. Huomioon otettiin sekä potilaan fyysinen että psyykkinen turvallisuus. Potilasturvallisuutta tarkasteltiin pre-, intra-, ja postoperatiivisen hoitotyön vaiheissa. Tässä opinnäytetyössä postoperatiivisen turvallisuuden tarkastelu päättyi heräämöön. Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin systemaattisena kirjallisuuskatsauksena. Lähdeaineiston keruu suoritettiin maaliskuussa 2012 käyttäen Saima...

  9. Aistit matkailun markkinointiviestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Paavola, Anni

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö oli alun perin osa Mmm..(Moniaistisuus Matkailun markkinointiviestinnässä)-hanketta, joka oli Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulun ja Valtion teknillisen tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) rinnakkaishanke. Hankkeessa oli useita eri yhteistyökumppaneita, esimerkiksi Eckerö Line, Lasten Päivän Säätiö ja Metsähallitus. Hankkeen tavoitteena oli tutkia moniaistisuutta matkailuyritysten tuotteissa ja palveluissa. Hankkeen toinen tavoite oli ymmärryksen lisääminen eri aistien hyödyistä, vaikutuksista ja käy...

  10. Palveluinnovaatioita etsimässä

    OpenAIRE

    Toivanen, Sanna

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan palveluinnovaatio- ja palvelumuotoilu-menetelmien roolia uusien liiketoimintaideoiden etsimisessä. Tutkimuksessa halutaan osoittaa, että uusia innovatiivisia ideoita voidaan löytää käyttäjien kokemuksiin tutustumalla ja yhteissuunnittelulla käyttäjien kanssa. Tutkimuksen toinen tavoite on toteuttaa tutkimus siten, että se voidaan toistaa toisella samankaltaisella korkean intensiteetin tuotealueella. Tutkimuksessa on teoriaosuus sekä käytännön osuus. Teoriaosuus k...

  11. Toimintaterapia lastensuojelun perhetyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Myllykoski, Heli; Mertanen, Mira; Ollila, Kirsi

    2012-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyömme perustuu tutkimukselliseen kehittämistyöhön, joka toteutettiin yhteistyössä Merikratos Lastensuojelu Oy:n perhetyön kanssa. Merikratos Lastensuojelu Oy on yksityinen sosiaalialan yritys, joka tarjoaa kunnille ostopalveluna lastensuojelun avohuollon ja sijaishuollon tukitoimia. Perhetyö on lastensuojelun avohuollon tukitoimi perheille, joista on herännyt lastensuojelullinen huoli. Lastensuojelun palveluiden tulisi pystyä vastaamaan entistä paremmin ja tehokkaammin lasten j...

  12. Empatiataitoa etsimässä

    OpenAIRE

    Erkamo, Merja; Ulkuniemi, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Tutkimuksella pyrittiin selvittämään minkälaisia keinoja varhaiskasvattajilla on päivähoidossa käytössä empatiataitojen tukemiseksi. Tutkimuksella kartoitettiin myös varhaiskasvattajien näkemyksiä siitä, olisiko empatiataitojen tukemiselle päivähoidossa kehittämistarvetta. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin tausta- ja tulkintateoriaa. Taustateoria käsittelee lapsen kehitystä ja empatian kehitystä. Tulkintateoriaa käytettiin tutkimusosiossa ja analysoinnin apuna. Tutkimus perustuu laadulliseen tutk...

  13. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SS 433 JETS

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Herman L.; Canizares, Claude R.; Hillwig, Todd; Mioduszewski, Amy; Rupen, Michael; Schulz, Norbert S.; Nowak, Michael; Heinz, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the SS 433 jets using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer with contemporaneous optical and Very Long Baseline Array observations. The X-ray and optical emission line regions are found to be related but not coincident as the optical line emission persists for days while the X-ray emission lines fade in less than 5000 s. The line Doppler shifts from the optical and X-ray lines match well, indicating that they are less than 3 × 10[superscript 14] ...

  14. Deceleration of SS433 radio jets

    CERN Document Server

    Panferov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The mildly relativistic jets of SS\\,433 are believed to inflate the surrounding supernova remnant W\\,50 depositing in its expansion possibly more than 99% of their kinetic energy (\\cite[1998]{Dub98}). Where and how this transformation of energy is curried out, it is not yet known. What can we learn from it that the jets decelerate and the deceleration is non-dissipative, i.e. radiatively dark. In this paper we unclose the observed deviations of the precessing radio jets of SS\\,433, within a few arcseconds from a jets source, from the ballistic track, described by the kinematic model, as a signature of the deceleration which, on other hand, issues from the jets colliding with ambient medium. For that we model kinematics of these colliding jets. The ram pressure on the jets is estimated from the observed profile of brightness of synchrotron radiation along the radio jets. We have found that to fit observed locus the radio jets should be decelerated and twisted, additionally to the precession twist, mostly withi...

  15. Thermal release of tritium from SS316

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to improve current understanding of the mechanisms controlling the long-term release of tritium incorporated thermally into stainless steel SS316 and to develop reliable as well as economically feasible techniques for the conditioning of tritium-containing metallic wastes, a systematic investigation is underway in Toyama under carefully controlled conditions. The release rate of tritium from SS316 at ambient pressure was determined experimentally in a flow system at several constant temperatures within the range 287-573 K for rather extended periods of time. Under these conditions HTO was found to constitute by far the most important tritium-containing species being released, i.e. approx. 99 %. Much data has accumulated in recent years with a variety of specimens, i.e. type of stainless steel and specimen dimension, loaded with tritium under different pressure and temperature conditions. Dynamic behavior of long-term tritium release has been successfully modeled using a onedimensional diffusion equation and assuming that the release rate is governed by the tritium flux at the metal surface boundary. The implications of the results for interim storage and thermal conditioning of stainless steel waste will be discussed. (orig.)

  16. Fast optical variability of SS 433

    CERN Document Server

    Burenin, R A; Khamitov, I M; Bikmaev, I F; Nosov, A S; Pavlinsky, M N; Sunyaev, R A

    2011-01-01

    We study the optical variability of the peculiar Galactic source SS 433 using the observations made with the Russian Turkish 1.5-m telescope (RTT150). A simple technique which allows to obtain high-quality photometric measurements with 0.3-1 s time resolution using ordinary CCD is described in detail. Using the test observations of nonvariable stars, we show that the atmospheric turbulence introduces no significant distortions into the measured light curves. Therefore, the data obtained in this way are well suited for studying the aperiodic variability of various objects. The large amount of SS 433 optical light curve measurements obtained in this way allowed us to obtain the power spectra of its flux variability with a record sensitivity up to frequencies of ~0.5 Hz and to detect its break at frequency =~2.4e-3 Hz. We suggest that this break in the power spectrum results from the smoothing of the optical flux variability due to a finite size of the emitting region. Based on our measurement of the break frequ...

  17. Multiwavelength Observations of the SS 433 Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Herman L; Hillwig, Todd; Mioduszewski, Amy; Rupen, Michael; Schulz, Norbert S; Nowak, Michael; Heinz, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the SS 433 jets using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer with contemporaneous optical and VLBA observations. The X-ray and optical emission line regions are found to be related but not coincident as the optical line emission persists for days while the X-ray emission lines fade in less than 5000 s. The line Doppler shifts from the optical and X-ray lines match well, indicating that they are less than 3e14 cm apart. The jet Doppler shifts show aperiodic variations that could result from shocks in interactions with the local environment. These perturbations are consistent with a change in jet direction but not jet speed. The proper motions of the radio knots match the kinematic model only if the distance to SS 433 is 4.5 +/- 0.2 kpc. Observations during eclipse show that the occulted emission is very hard, seen only above 2 keV and rising to comprise >50% of the flux at 8 keV. The soft X-ray emission lines from the jet are not blocked, constraining the jet lengt...

  18. Growth performance of commercial temperate mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Hypsizygus sp. under local environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, the Malaysian mushroom industry focuses on only seven species of mushroom for commercial purpose. To expand and further develop the mushroom industry, new mushroom species should be introduced into our local market. Temperate mushrooms are possible to be cultivated commercially in Malaysia but the optimisation of growth performance for high quality spawn and high mushroom yield need to be studied. In the present study the growth performance of mycelia of Agaricus bisporus and Hypsizygus sp. on culture media and substrates were investigated. Four types of culture media, viz. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Nutrient Agar (NA), Malt Yeast Extract (MYE) and Complete Yeast Media (CYM) were used to determine the suitable culturing media for mycelial growth. The mycelia were inoculated on oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and sawdust substrate and incubated at room temperature and in a low temperature in incubation room (10 - 12 degree Celsius). From the observation, Agaricus bisporus grew better on Malt Yeast Extract (MYE) medium with a growth rate of 0.306 cm/ day. Complete Yeast Media (CYM) was found more suitable for Hypsizygus sp. with a growth rate of 1.049 cm/ day. The linear growth rate of mycelium as measured on the surface of mushroom bag of Agaricus bisporus on EFB incubated at room temperature was 0.4364 cm/ day and cool temperature was 0.055 cm/ day. For Hypsizygus sp. the linear growth rate of the mycelium was 2.11 cm/ day. The linear growth of Hypsizygus sp. on sawdust substrate incubated in cool temperature was 1.4 cm/ day. (author)

  19. Gamma irradiation effect on shelf-life, texture, polyphenol oxidase and microflora of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enhancement in the shelf-life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) up to a period of 10 days could be achieved by the application of a gamma ray dose of 2kGy and storage at 10°C. A study of the quality parameters of the mushroom including cap opening, stipe elongation, weight loss, surface microbial load, and polyphenol oxidase activity indicated that the irradiated commodity retained the quality attributes required for its acceptability. The irradiated mushroom showed less brown discoloration compared to non-irradiated controls. The polyphenol oxidase, responsible for causing browning in stored mushroom, was found to have reduced activity in irradiated mushroom

  20. Irradiation of mushrooms (Agaricus campestris L) to extend their shelf-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushrooms (Agaricus campestris L) were irradiated with 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 kGy, being then stored either at 10 deg C ± 1 deg C or at room temperature (20 deg C ± 2 deg C), with the purpose of determining the most convenient condition to extend their shelf-life. It is concluded that 3.0 kGy and 10 deg C are the most suitable for that, leading to the inhibition of cap opening and stem elongation, less darkening and no evidence of fungal development until 17th day. Subsequentely almost a duplication of their shelf-life was obtained. (Author)

  1. Primordia initiation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) strains on axenic casing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, R.; Fermor, T.R.; Lincoln, S.; Dobrovin-Pennington, A.; Evered, C.; Mead, A.; Li, R. [Hort Research International, Wellesbourne (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    The mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) has a requirement for a 'casing layer' that has specific physical, chemical and microbiological properties which stimulate and promote the initiation of primordia. Some of these primordia then may develop further into sporophores, involving differentiation of tissue. Wild and commercial strains of A. bisporus were cultured in axenic and nonaxenic microcosms, using a rye grain substrate covered by a range of organic and inorganic casing materials. In axenic culture, A. bisporus (commercial strain A15) was capable of producing primordia and mature sporophores on charcoal (wood and activated), anthracite coal, lignite and zeolite, but not on bark, coir, peat, rockwool, silica or vermiculite.

  2. From respiratory sensitization to food allergy: Anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta F. Gabriel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 38-year-old mold-allergic patient who developed episodes of generalized urticaria and systemic anaphylactic shock immediately after ingesting button mushrooms. A manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH from Agaricus bisporus mushroom were identified as patient-specific IgE-binding proteins. Cross-reactivity between A. bisporus MnSOD and mold aeroallergens was confirmed. We conclude that prior sensitization to mold aeroallergens might explain severe food reactions to cross-reacting homologs mushroom proteins.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF ANILINE AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS REMOVAL BY COOXIDATION USING AGARICUS BISPORUS TYROSINASE

    OpenAIRE

    Sevastyanov, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of joint oxidation of aniline and phenolic compounds in aqueoussolutions using the isolated tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus mushrooms was conducted. It is shown, that quantitative bioconversion of aniline is achieved by addition of phenol and other rapidly oxidized phenolic compounds (p-chlorophenol, o-, m-cresols)to it’s solution (0,25 mmol/dm3). Products of aniline and phenols oxidation – quinoneimines and quinones, were removed with a help of aluminium-potassium alums....

  4. The pathogenic fungi in mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange. Imbach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Tekiela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a mushroom growing facility located near Rzeszów, consisting of three production cycles. The number and composition of microorganisms which accompany the mushroom cultivation depended on the healthiness of: the compost, casing and spawn of Agaricus bisporus. The presence of pathogenic fungi in the cultivation halls at the beginning of the production cycle is a serious threat to the cultivation of common mushroom because their rapid development shortens the span of fruiting body harvests.

  5. Agaricus geesterani, spec. nov. A very remarkable agaric discovered in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bas, C.; Heinemann, P.

    1986-01-01

    For several years now a very striking agaric is known to occur in the Netherlands that baffles every mycologist who has the luck to see it. As one of us (P.H.) never had this luck, the present study is based on thorough examinations of the material by the other author, while for the rather precarious taxonomic decisions both authors are to be held responsible. At first sight the present species resembles a large Agaricus bitorquis, but on closer examination the differences are obvious and man...

  6. Agaricus chionodermus Pilát, a species new to Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nikolova Lacheva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Agaricus chionoderma Pilát in Bulgaria. Basidiomata of the species were found on June 2004, September 2010, and September 2011 in the Thracian Lowland floristic region. The article brings closer taxonomic profile, ecological requirements and distribution pattern of the species. Differences from similar species are discussed. It also describes macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the discovered specimens and presents the specification of habitat the fungus concerned. The species are described and illustrated by photographs of macroscopic and microscopic features on the basis of Bulgarian specimens.

  7. From respiratory sensitization to food allergy: Anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    OpenAIRE

    Marta F. Gabriel; Purificación González-Delgado; Idoia Postigo; Javier Fernández; Victor Soriano; Begoña Cueva; Jorge Martínez

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 38-year-old mold-allergic patient who developed episodes of generalized urticaria and systemic anaphylactic shock immediately after ingesting button mushrooms. A manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH) from Agaricus bisporus mushroom were identified as patient-specific IgE-binding proteins. Cross-reactivity between A. bisporus MnSOD and mold aeroallergens was confirmed. We conclude that prior sensitization to mo...

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of tyrosinase from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaya, Wangsa T.; Rozeboom, Henriette J.; Schurink, Marloes; Boeriu, Carmen G.; Wichers, Harry; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosinase catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine quinone, which is the main precursor for the biosynthesis of melanin. The enzyme from Agaricus bisporus, the common button mushroom, was purified and crystallized in two different space groups. Crystals belonging to space group P2(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 104.2, b = 105.0, c = 119.1 angstrom, beta = 110.6 degrees, four molecules per asymmetric unit) diffracted to 3.0 angstrom resolution. Crystals belonging to space ...

  9. Storage and Preservation of Temperate Mushroom Cultures, Agaricus Bisporus and Pleurotus Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Loveleen; Dhanda, S.; Sodhi, H. S.; Kapoor, S.; Khanna, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Two temperate mushroom cultures namely Agaricus bisporus (U-3) and Pleurotus florida (PAU-5) were evaluated for their physiological (linear growth and biomass production), biochemical (β-1,4 endoglucanase production) and fruiting behaviour after preservation in 10% (v/v) glycerol and storage at room temperature (25–35°C), −20°C and −196°C for 6 months with the objective of establishing the recovery/changes in these fungi after storage. Studies indicated that the viability and recovery of A. b...

  10. In vitro Toxicity of Fungicides of Different Mode of Action to Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolates of Agaricus bisporus strains F56 and U3 were tested for sensitivity to several selected fungicides in vitro. The analysis showed that flusilasole + carbendazim and cyproconazole + carbendazim were the most toxic fungicides to A. bisporus strain F56 with respective EC50 values of 0.04 and 0.23 mg/l. The least toxic fungicides were carbendazim (EC50 = 16.58 mg/l and trifloxystrobin (EC50 = 20.69 mg/l to A. bisporus F56 and benomyl (EC50 = 14.99 mg/l to A. bisporus U3.

  11. In vitro Toxicity of Fungicides of Different Mode of Action to Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Potočnik; Emil Rekanović; Svetlana Milijašević; Biljana Todorović; Miloš Stepanović

    2009-01-01

    Isolates of Agaricus bisporus strains F56 and U3 were tested for sensitivity to several selected fungicides in vitro. The analysis showed that flusilasole + carbendazim and cyproconazole + carbendazim were the most toxic fungicides to A. bisporus strain F56 with respective EC50 values of 0.04 and 0.23 mg/l. The least toxic fungicides were carbendazim (EC50 = 16.58 mg/l) and trifloxystrobin (EC50 = 20.69 mg/l) to A. bisporus F56 and benomyl (EC50 = 14.99 mg/l) to A. bisporus U3.

  12. Characterization of a novel virus associated with the MVX disease of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Maffettone, Eliana

    2007-01-01

    ‘Mushroom Virus X’ (MVX) disease of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus first arose in UK during the 1990’s. This disease resulted in devastating crop losses in the UK and gradually became more widespread (e.g. Netherlands and Eire). Up to twenty-six, non-encapsidated, double stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements have been found to be associated with diseased mushrooms, and these are believed to be the result of a complex of viruses. Although considerable data has accumulated on ...

  13. Growth inhibition of Agaricus bisporus and associated thermophilic species by fungicides used in wheat cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Chalaux, N.; Savoie, J. M.; Olivier, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    La paille de blé est le constituant principal des composts qui servent de substrat de culture pour le champignon de Paris (Agaricus bisporus). L’utilisation de fongicides lors de la culture du blé peut avoir des conséquences sur la production de champignon de Paris si les résidus présents dans les pailles sont actifs. La toxicité de huit fongicides utilisés contre les maladies fongiques du blé a été testée in vitro pour trois souches d’A bisporus et pour trois isolats de champignons thermophi...

  14. First report of Syzygites megalocarpus (Mucorales) web mold on the commercial portabella button mushroom Agaricus bisporus in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach mushrooms are cultivated commercially under environmentally controlled conditions in several states within the US. They are the most important crop in Pennsylvania and an important high value crop in many other states. In August 2011 we first observed a mucoraceous m...

  15. Effect of an Extract from Saprozoic Nematode-Infested Compost on the Mycelial Growth of Agaricus brunnescens

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, T. D.; Bloom, J R; Lukezic, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    Extracts from compost infested with Caenorhabditis elegans suppressed mycelial growth of Agaricus brunnescens. An extract from uninfested compost also inhibited mycelial growth but to a lesser degree. The critical role of compost bacteria and/or other compost micro-organisms is implicated by these results.

  16. Accretion disk structure in SS Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessman, F. V.

    1987-02-01

    High-resolution coude observations of nonaxisymmetric line emission from the dwarf nova SS Cygni are presented. By subtracting the constant line component, the asymmetric line emission responsible for the observed phase shift between the absorption and emission line radial velocity curves can be isolated. The extra emission is a large fraction of the total line emission and extends to large velocities (of about 1500 km/sec). The phase stability of the emission demands a large-scale structure which is fixed in the frame of the binary. A magnetic origin of the excitation cannot be ruled out but is implausible. A simple explanation is that the accretion stream from the companion star is able to spill over the edge of the disk, introducing emission at noncircular velocities and most likely disturbing the upper layers of the accretion disk.

  17. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SS 433 JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Herman L.; Canizares, Claude R.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Nowak, Michael [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hillwig, Todd [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Mioduszewski, Amy; Rupen, Michael [NRAO, P.O. Box 2, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Heinz, Sebastian, E-mail: hermanm@space.mit.edu, E-mail: crc@space.mit.edu, E-mail: nss@space.mit.edu, E-mail: mnowak@space.mit.edu, E-mail: todd.hillwig@valpo.edu, E-mail: amiodusz@nrao.edu, E-mail: mrupen@aoc.nrao.edu, E-mail: heinzs@astro.wisc.edu [Astronomy Department, 5408 Sterling Hall, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present observations of the SS 433 jets using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer with contemporaneous optical and Very Long Baseline Array observations. The X-ray and optical emission line regions are found to be related but not coincident as the optical line emission persists for days while the X-ray emission lines fade in less than 5000 s. The line Doppler shifts from the optical and X-ray lines match well, indicating that they are less than 3 × 10{sup 14} cm apart. The jet Doppler shifts show aperiodic variations that could result from shocks in interactions with the local environment. These perturbations are consistent with a change in jet direction but not jet speed. The proper motions of the radio knots match the kinematic model only if the distance to SS 433 is 4.5 ± 0.2 kpc. Observations during eclipse show that the occulted emission is very hard, seen only above 2 keV and rising to comprise >50% of the flux at 8 keV. The soft X-ray emission lines from the jet are not blocked, constraining the jet length to ∼> 2 × 10{sup 12} cm. The base jet density is in the range 10{sup 10-13} cm{sup –3}, in contrast to our previous estimate based on the Si XIII triplet, which is likely to have been affected by UV de-excitation. There is a clear overabundance of Ni by a factor of about 15 relative to the solar value, which may have resulted from an unusual supernova that formed the compact object.

  18. Multiwavelength Observations of the SS 433 Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Herman L.; Canizares, Claude R.; Hillwig, Todd; Mioduszewski, Amy; Rupen, Michael; Schulz, Norbert S.; Nowak, Michael; Heinz, Sebastian

    2013-09-01

    We present observations of the SS 433 jets using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer with contemporaneous optical and Very Long Baseline Array observations. The X-ray and optical emission line regions are found to be related but not coincident as the optical line emission persists for days while the X-ray emission lines fade in less than 5000 s. The line Doppler shifts from the optical and X-ray lines match well, indicating that they are less than 3 × 1014 cm apart. The jet Doppler shifts show aperiodic variations that could result from shocks in interactions with the local environment. These perturbations are consistent with a change in jet direction but not jet speed. The proper motions of the radio knots match the kinematic model only if the distance to SS 433 is 4.5 ± 0.2 kpc. Observations during eclipse show that the occulted emission is very hard, seen only above 2 keV and rising to comprise >50% of the flux at 8 keV. The soft X-ray emission lines from the jet are not blocked, constraining the jet length to >~ 2 × 1012 cm. The base jet density is in the range 1010-13 cm-3, in contrast to our previous estimate based on the Si XIII triplet, which is likely to have been affected by UV de-excitation. There is a clear overabundance of Ni by a factor of about 15 relative to the solar value, which may have resulted from an unusual supernova that formed the compact object.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations of a single stranded (ss) DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Thakur, Siddarth; Burin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop an understanding of short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to assist the development of new DNA-based biosensors. A ssDNA model containing twelve bases was constructed from the 130-145 codon sequence of the p53 gene. Various thermodynamic macroscopic observables such as temperature, energy distributions, as well as root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the nucleic acid backbone of the ssDNA were studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The AMBER program was used for building the structural model of the ssDNA, and atomistic MD simulations in three different ensembles were carried out using the NAMD program. The microcanonical (NVE), conical (NVT) and isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensembles were employed to compare the equilibrium characteristics of ssDNA in aqueous solutions. Our results indicate that the conformational stability of the ssDNA is dependent on the thermodynamic conditions.

  20. Tukiasumisyksikössä asuvien maahanmuuttajanuorten kokemukset kotoutumisesta

    OpenAIRE

    Haataja, Auri-Elina; Tampio, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    Haataja, Auri & Tampio, Sanna. Tukiasumisyksikössä asuvien maahanmuuttajanuorten kokemukset kotoutumisesta. Diak Pohjoinen, Oulu, kevät 2012, 61 s., 1 liite. Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulu, Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, Diakonisen sosiaalityön suuntautumisvaihtoehto, sosionomi (AMK) + diakoni. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kuvata tukiasumisyksikössä asuvien maahanmuuttajanuorten kokemuksia kotoutumisesta Pudasjärvelle. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tuottaa tietoa tukiasumisyksikössä asu...

  1. Characterization, feasibility and optimization of Agaricus subrufescens growth based on chemical elements on casing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha Zied, D.; Pardo-Giménez, A.; de Almeida Minhoni, M.T.; Villas Boas, R.L.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-González, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze yields, biological efficiency, earliness (expressed as days to first harvest), and precociousness and establish models for the mushroom growing according to these parameters. The experiment followed a double factorial design with four sources of calcium (calcitic limestone, calcitic limestone + gypsum, dolomitic limestone and dolomitic limestone + gypsum) and 2 application times (25 days before casing and at the moment of casing), with 4 replicates for each treatment. Different calcium sources influenced differently Agaricus subrufescens production, especially as regards earliness, which showed significantly higher values when dolomitic limestone with gypsum was applied. Yield and biological efficiency were negatively correlated with H + AL, organic matter and Mg amount. Furthermore, earliness was positively correlated with H + Al, organic matter, and the amount of Mg and Fe. Finally, negative correlations were observed between precociousness and the amount of Ca, SB (sum of base), CEC (cation exchange capacity) and V% (percentage of base saturation). The models presented in this work are extremely important for predicting the agronomic performance of Agaricus subrufescens on the basis of chemical analysis provided by the casing soil. PMID:23961195

  2. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for final healthy product - natural preservatives in yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S.; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Soković, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both s...

  3. Evaluation of Ten Wild Nigerian Mushrooms for Amylase and Cellulase Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Adeoyo, Olusegun Richard

    2011-01-01

    Amylases and cellulases are important enzymes that can be utilized for various biological activities. Ten different wild Nigerian mushrooms (Agaricus blazei, Agaricus sp., Corilopsis occidentalis, Coriolus versicolor, Termitomyces clypeatus, Termitomyces globulus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Podoscypha bolleana, Pogonomyces hydnoides, and Nothopanus hygrophanus) were assayed for production of these secondary metabolites. The results revealed that most of the tested wild fungi demonstrated very go...

  4. The Spectral Components of SS 433

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, D. R.; McSwain, M. V.; Riddle, R. L.; Wang, Z.; Wiita, P. J.; Wingert, D. W.

    2002-02-01

    We present results from new optical and UV spectroscopy of the unusual binary system SS 433, and we discuss the relationship of the particular spectral components that we observe to the properties of the binary. These spectral components include1. The continuum spectrum, which we associate with flux from the super-Eddington accretion disk and the dense part of its wind. A far-UV spectrum from the Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph made during the edge-on orientation of the disk places an upper limit on the temperature of an equivalent blackbody source (Trecession (like the velocity curve of He II λ4686). This is probably formed in outflow from the central region of the disk near the compact star.5. Absorption and emission features from outflowing clumps in the disk wind (seen most clearly in an episode of blueshifted Na I emission).6. We found no clear evidence of the absorption-line spectrum of the optical star, although we point out the presence of He I absorption features (blended with the stationary emission) with the expected radial velocity trend at the orbital and precessional phases when the star might best be seen.7. A rich interstellar absorption spectrum of diffuse interstellar bands.The results suggest that the binary is embedded in an expanding thick disk (detected in recent radio observations) that is fed by the wind from the super-Eddington accretion disk.

  5. The reproducible radio outbursts of SS Cygni

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, T D; Sivakoff, G R; Altamirano, D; O'Brien, T J; Page, K L; Templeton, M R; Koerding, E G; Knigge, C; Rupen, M P; Fender, R P; Heinz, S; Maitra, D; Markoff, S; Migliari, S; Remillard, R A; Russell, D M; Sarazin, C L; Waagen, E O

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of our intensive radio observing campaign of the dwarf nova SS Cyg during its 2010 April outburst. We argue that the observed radio emission was produced by synchrotron emission from a transient radio jet. Comparing the radio light curves from previous and subsequent outbursts of this system (including high-resolution observations from outbursts in 2011 and 2012) shows that the typical long and short outbursts of this system exhibit reproducible radio outbursts that do not vary significantly between outbursts, which is consistent with the similarity of the observed optical, ultraviolet and X-ray light curves. Contemporaneous optical and X-ray observations show that the radio emission appears to have been triggered at the same time as the initial X-ray flare, which occurs as disk material first reaches the boundary layer. This raises the possibility that the boundary region may be involved in jet production in accreting white dwarf systems. Our high spatial resolution monitoring shows th...

  6. Mechanochemical regulations of RPA's binding to ssDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Le, Shimin; Basu, Anindita; Chazin, Walter J.; Yan, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that serves to protect ssDNA from degradation and annealing, and as a template for recruitment of many downstream factors in virtually all DNA transactions in cell. During many of these transactions, DNA is tethered and is likely subject to force. Previous studies of RPA's binding behavior on ssDNA were conducted in the absence of force; therefore the RPA-ssDNA conformations regulated by force remain unclear. Here, using a combination of atomic force microscopy imaging and mechanical manipulation of single ssDNA tethers, we show that force mediates a switch of the RPA bound ssDNA from amorphous aggregation to a much more regular extended conformation. Further, we found an interesting non-monotonic dependence of the binding affinity on monovalent salt concentration in the presence of force. In addition, we discovered that zinc in micromolar concentrations drives ssDNA to a unique, highly stiff and more compact state. These results provide new mechanochemical insights into the influences and the mechanisms of action of RPA on large single ssDNA.

  7. Extending OmpSs to support dynamic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Maroñas Bravo, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    [CASTELLÀ] Tras un breve resumen sobre programación dinámica y OmpSs, este documento muestra como OmpSs ofrece soporte para memoización y los resultados obtenidos. Se detallan las extensiones del modelo, del compilador Mercurium y del runtime Nanos++ realizadas para soportar memoización.

  8. Turboahtimen mitoitus polttomoottorikäytössä

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Jyri

    2014-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee turboahtimen mitoittamiseen liittyvää teoriaa, sekä käytäntöä polttomoottorikäyttöisissä autoissa. Työssä käydään lävitse tarvittavat laskukaavat, joiden avulla saadaan apua oikeanlaisen ahtimen valintaan. Tässä työssä keskitytään enemmän ahtimen valintaan moottorin virityskäytössä, kuin suurimman mahdollisen käytettävyyden sekä polttoainetalouden saavuttamiseen. Opinnäytetyössä lasketaan teoreettisilla kaavoilla erään ahtimen sopivuus tietylle autolle. Lopuks...

  9. Toivo sairaanhoitajan työssä : Sairaanhoitajien kokemuksia toivosta hoitotyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Katri

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kuvata, minkä sisällön sairaanhoitajat antoivat käsitteelle toivo ja miten he toivon kokivat. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tuoda näkyväksi sairaanhoitajien kokemukset toivosta omassa työssä. Saadun tiedon perusteella toivo on lähtökohta sairaanhoitajan työn toteutumiselle ja potilaan toipumiselle sairaudestaan. Opinnäytetyö toteutui kvalitatiivisen tutkimusmenetelmän mukaisesti. Aineisto kerättiin haastattelemalla sairaanhoitajia. Sain tietoa haastat...

  10. Alterações gastrointestinais em pacientes com câncer colorretal em ensaio clínico com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus Gastrointestinal alterations in patients with colorectal cancer on clinical trial supplemented with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Costa Fortes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Fungos medicinais podem normalizar a função intestinal, aumentar o apetite e reduzir os efeitos adversos do tratamento convencional do câncer. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações gastrointestinais de pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória após suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus. METODOLOGIA: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, placebo-controlado, realizado no Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal. Amostra constituída de 56 pacientes (24 homens e 32 mulheres, estádios I, II e III, seguindo determinados critérios de inclusão e exclusão, separados em grupos placebo e Agaricus sylvaticus (30mg/kg/dia e acompanhados por um período de seis meses. Para avaliar as alterações gastrointestinais foram utilizados um formulário-padrão e uma anamnese dirigida-padrão. O método de análise dos resultados foi qualitativo e descritivo, utilizando os programas Microsoft Excel 2003 e Epi Info 2004 para Windows, versão 3.3.2. RESULTADOS: Após seis meses de tratamento, observou-se, no grupo Agaricus sylvaticus, aumento do apetite e redução da constipação, diarréia, diarréia alternada com constipação, flatulência, retenção de flatos, pirose, plenitude pós-prandial, náuseas, distensão e dor abdominais, fatos não observados no grupo placebo. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus é capaz de melhorar as alterações gastrointestinais de pacientes no pós-operatório de câncer colorretal, promovendo melhoria na qualidade de vida desses pacientes.INTRODUCTION: Medicinal fungus may normalize intestinal function, increase appetite and reduce adverse effects caused by conventional cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gastrointestinal alterations of patients with colorectal cancer in post-operative phase after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus. METHODOLOGY: Randomized, double-blind, placebo

  11. Polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis show similarities in their structures and their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytic THP-1 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wichers Harry J; Iacomini Marcello; Chanput Wasaporn; van Arkel Jeroen; Ruthes Andrea C; Smiderle Fhernanda R; van Griensven Leo JLD

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. Crude mushroom extracts have been tested without detailed chemical analyses of its polysaccharide content. For the present study we decided to chemically determine the carbohydrate composition of semi-purified extracts from 2 closely related and well known basidiomycete species, i.e. Agaricus ...

  12. Life quality of postsurgical patients with colorectal cancer after supplemented diet with agaricus sylvaticus fungus Calidad de vida en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal con suplementación dietética con hongos agaricus sylvaticus

    OpenAIRE

    R. Costa Fortes; V. Lacorte Recôva; A. Lima Melo; M.ª R. Carvalho Garbi Novaes

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Therapeutical alternatives, directed to improve life quality and reduce adverse effects of cancer treatment, have been the purpose of studies that try to prove the immunomodulator efficacy of medicinal fungi as coadjuvant for conventional therapies. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact on the life quality of post-surgical patients with colorectal cancer after supplemented diet with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus cultivated in Brazil. Methods: Randomized,...

  13. Conservation of genetic linkage with map expansion in distantly related crosses of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callac, P; Desmerger, C; Kerrigan, R W; Imbernon, M

    1997-01-15

    A previous map of the genome of a hybrid strain which had European parents belonging to the secondarily homothallic fungus Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus appeared to be unusually compact, with a particularly recombophobic segment in the central part of chromosome I. A new map of this segment was constructed based on allelic segregations among 103 homokaryotic offspring of an A. bisporus hybrid between a European parent of the var. bisporus and a Californian parent of the heterothallic var. burnettii. Markers completely linked on the previous map were distributed along 28 cM in the new map. These results suggest that the greater recombination rate could be correlated with the outbreeding behaviour of the var. burnettii. PMID:9011044

  14. Effect of cultivation practices on the β-glucan content of Agaricus subrufescens basidiocarps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Pardo Giménez, Arturo; Pardo González, Jose Emilio; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Carvalho, Maiara Andrade; Minhoni, Marli Teixeira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to assess the effect of the following treatments on the medicinal potential (β-glucan content) and agronomical performance (yield) of Agaricus subrufescens: five different fungal strains, three cultivation substrates (compost), four casing layers, and four cultivation environments. Two experiments were performed, and the results indicate that the greatest contribution to the variation in β-glucan content was the strain (35.8%), followed by the casing layer (34.5%), the cultivation environment (15.7%), and the type of compost (9.9%). On the other hand the variation in yield was affected most by the cultivation environment (82.1%), followed by the strain (81.3%), casing layer (49.1%), and compost type (15.2%). These findings underscore the importance of developing a production protocol that employs specific cultivation practices for improving mushroom yield as well as β-glucan content. PMID:24308309

  15. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. PMID:24295683

  16. Performance and meat quality of broiler chickens that are fed diets supplemented with Agaricus brasiliensis mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2014-12-01

    This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality. PMID:25169695

  17. Fungicide sensitivity of selected Verticillium fungicola isolates from Agaricus bisporus farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potočnik Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of Verticillium fungicola, isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from mushroom farms in Serbia during 2002-2003, were studied. By observing their colony morphology under different growth conditions and their pathogenic characteristics, the isolates were identified as V. fungicola var. fungicola. The peat/lime casing was the primary source of infection. Testing of sensitivity to selected fungicides showed that all isolates were highly resistant to benomyl (EC50 values were higher than 200.00 mg/l, moderately sensitive to iprodione (EC50 values were between 11.93 and 22.80 mg/l, and highly sensitive to prochloraz-Mn (EC50 values were less than 3.00 mg/l.

  18. Quality Characteristics of Microwave-Vacuum Dried Button Mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K.Giri & Suresh Prasad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus slices as well as whole mushrooms were dried by microwave-vacuum drying technique to a moisture content of around 6 %(d.b.. The dehydrated mushrooms were compared with hot-air dried products on the basis of different quality attributes such as colour, texture, rehydration ratio and sensory score. Statistical analysis of data revealed significant difference among the drying methods for all the attributes at p ≤ 0.05. Microwave-vacuum dried mushrooms had significantly higher rehydration potential, lower density, better colour and softer texture than those obtained by air drying. The microwave-vacuum dried mushrooms were rated much better than air dried products by a sensory panel in terms of appearance, color and overall acceptability.

  19. Effect of storage conditions on the quality of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of quality factors were studied during storage of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus at 2°C in controlled atmospheres. A concentration of 15% CO2 and 1.5-2% O2 and an atmosphere with a continuous flow of nitrogen retarded cap expansion and stipe elongation, while 10% CO2 retarded only cap expansion. Controlled atmospheres suppressed the growth of some microorganisms. The toughness of mushrooms stored in a normal atmosphere at 2°C markedly decreased during storage, while 10% CO2 and nitrogen atmosphere did not influence toughness as compared to initial mushrooms. The acceptability value of mushrooms in controlled atmospheres was lower during 13 days of storage as compared to normal atmosphere. Normal atmosphere appeared to keep whiteness of mushrooms longer than did other treatments.

  20. The transcriptional regulator c2h2 accelerates mushroom formation in Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkmans, Jordi F; Vos, Aurin M; Scholtmeijer, Karin; Hendrix, Ed; Baars, Johan J P; Gehrmann, Thies; Reinders, Marcel J T; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B

    2016-08-01

    The Cys2His2 zinc finger protein gene c2h2 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation. Its inactivation results in a strain that is arrested at the stage of aggregate formation. In this study, the c2h2 orthologue of Agaricus bisporus was over-expressed in this white button mushroom forming basidiomycete using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Morphology, cap expansion rate, and total number and biomass of mushrooms were not affected by over-expression of c2h2. However, yield per day of the c2h2 over-expression strains peaked 1 day earlier. These data and expression analysis indicate that C2H2 impacts timing of mushroom formation at an early stage of development, making its encoding gene a target for breeding of commercial mushroom strains. PMID:27207144

  1. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp. were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1. The experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (composts x strains with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost. The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey's test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06.

  2. The influence of flushes on some constituents of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus cultivated on different composts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two different composts: horse manure and broiler chicken manure and the influence of flushes during the growing cycle on some chemical components contained in the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus was studied. The strain Somycel 11 was analyzed. The following determinations were made: dry matter, total nitrogen and crude protein, nitrates, nitrites and amino acids composition. It has been noted that the crude protein from. combined flushes III to VI of mushrooms cultivated on horse manure was about 24% higher than in those grown on broiler chicken manure. Some changes in amino acids composition, especially lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, serine, methionine, glutamic acid and alanine were observed, depending on the size of the fruit-body, flushes and type of compost.

  3. Polysaccharide-rich fraction of Agaricus brasiliensis enhances the candidacidal activity of murine macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Raquel Martins

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A polysaccharide-rich fraction (ATF of medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis was evaluated on the candidacidal activity, H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO production, and expression of mannose receptors by murine peritoneal macrophages. Mice received three intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of ATF and after 48 h their peritoneal resident macrophages were assayed against Candida albicans yeast forms. The treatment increased fungicidal activity and it was associated with higher levels of H2O2, whereas NO production was not affected. We also found that the treatment enhances mannose receptor expression by peritoneal macrophages, which are involved in the attachment and phagocytosis of non-opsonized microorganisms. Treatment of animals with ATF was able to enhance the clearance of C. albicans during the first 6 h after the experimental i.p. infection. Our results suggest that this extract can increase host resistance against some infectious agents through the stimulation of microbicidal activity of macrophages.

  4. A novel immune-tolerable and permeable lectin-like protein from mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaya, Wangsa T; Yunita; Efthyani, Alida; Lai, Xuelei; Retnoningrum, Debbie S; Rachmawati, Heni; Dijkstra, Bauke W; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2016-05-13

    A lectin like protein designated as LSMT is recently discovered in Agaricus bisporus. The protein adopts very similar structure to Ricin-B like lectin from Clitocybe nebularis (CNL) and HA-33 from Clostridium botulinum (HA-33), which both recognize sugar molecules that decorate the surface of the epithelial cells of the intestine. A preliminary study in silico pointed out potential capability of LSMT to perform such biological activity. Following that hypothesis, we demonstrated that LSMT is indeed capable of penetrating out from a dialysis tube of the mice intestine origin. Furthermore, the protein appeared not to evoke the immune response upon introduction into mice, unlike its structural homologs. This is the first report on the biological implication of LSMT that might lead to its application. PMID:27060548

  5. The influence of compost on carbohydrates and minerals content in the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of different composts: horse manure and broiler chicken manure and the influence of flushes during the growing cycle on the carbohydrates and mineral composition of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus was carried out. In this study the strain Somycel 11 was used. It was found that mannitol, glucose and fructose contents in mushrooms growing on broiler chicken manure were significantly higher than on horse manure. Noticeable differences of macro- and microelement contents were observed, depending on the size of the fruit-body, flushes and type of compost. Phosphorus content in mushroom tissue of the first three flushes growing on horse manure was 2.7 times higher than in those from broiler chicken manure. Boron level in mushrooms in all flushes growing on broiler chicken manure was four times higher as compared with that on horse manure.

  6. Isolation of developmentally regulated genes from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, P W; Schaap, P J; Van Griensven, L J; Visser, J

    1997-06-01

    From a cDNA library, constructed from mushroom primordia, nine cDNAs were isolated which were either induced or specifically expressed during fruit body development and maturation of the basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus. These cDNAs varied in size from 372 to 1019 bp and hybridized to transcripts of 400-1600 nt. Four of the cDNAs were only expressed in the generative phase of the life cycle while the other five cDNAs were strongly induced but had low steady-state mRNA levels in vegetatively grown mycelium of the hybrid strain Horst U1. An apparent full-length cDNA could be identified by sequence analysis and specified a putative protein homologous to the delta-subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. For one of the partial cDNAs, significant homology was found with a family of cell division control proteins, while another partial cDNA appeared to encode a cytochrome P450. All cDNAs, except the presumed cytochrome-P450-specifying cDNA (cypA), hybridized with single copy genes scattered over the Agaricus genome. For the cypA gene, the presence of several additional copies was shown by heterologous hybridizations. Based on changes in expression levels of the fruit-body-induced genes during development coinciding with alterations in morphological appearance of mushrooms, four stages of development were distinguished during growth and maturation of A. bisporus fruit bodies. PMID:9202475

  7. Macrophage immunomodulating and antitumor activities of polysaccharides isolated from Agaricus bisporus white button mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Yong Tae; Song, Chi Hyun; Pang, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom (WBM) is widely consumed in most countries for its culinary properties. Recently, its dietary intake has been shown to protect against breast cancer. Mushroom polysaccharides are known for their immunomodulating and antitumor properties; however, little is known regarding the properties of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Using size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude extract of A. bisporus, two polysaccharide fractions (designated as ABP-1 and ABP-2) were obtained. The estimated molecular masses of ABP-1 and ABP-2 were 2,000 kDa and 40-70 kDa, respectively, and their sugar compositions consisted mainly of glucose, mannose, xylose, and fructose. Analysis of the effects of the polysaccharides on murine macrophages demonstrated that both fractions stimulated the production of nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Modulation of macrophage function by A. bisporus polysaccharides was mediated in part through activation of nuclear factor-κB with the production p50/105 heterodimers. Both ABP-1 and ABP-2 had the ability to inhibit the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells but had little effect on the growth of human colon, prostate, gastric cancer, and murine Sarcoma 180 cells as assessed by a tetrazolium dye [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]-based assay. However, when murine Sarcoma 180 cells exposed to ABP-1 or ABP-2 were implanted subcutaneously into mice, a reduction in tumor growth was observed compared with that observed in control mice. Taken together, our data provide a molecular basis to explain in part the reported beneficial therapeutic effects of A. bisporus WBM intake and suggest that macrophages likely contribute to the antitumor effects of Agaricus polysaccharides. PMID:22217303

  8. Atividade e moléculas antioxidantes de cogumelos silvestres comestíveis do género Agaricus

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Anabela; Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Os cogumelos contêm vários compostos antioxidantes nomeadamente, compostos fenólicos (e.g. ácidos fenólicos), tocoferóis e carotenóides. Entre as substâncias biologicamente ativas presentes nos cogumelos, os compostos fenólicos têm atraído muita atenção devido às suas excelentes propriedades como antioxidantes e ao seu potencial anti-inflamatório ou antitumoral [1,2]. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o potencial antioxidante de seis espécies silvestres comestíveis do género Agaricus: Agaricus bis...

  9. Laitteiden testauksessa kulutettu energia Vacon Oyj:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen, Tero

    2013-01-01

    Vacon Oyj on osana energiansäästökampanjaa, jonka tavoitteena on vähentää energiankulutusta 20 % vuoteen 2016 mennessä.Tässä työssä tutkitaan Vacon Oyj:n taajuusmuuttajien ja inverttereiden testaamiseen kuluvien energioiden suhteita. Työssä mitattiin testattavien laitteiden verkosta otettavan energian ja testauspiirissä kierrätettävän energian suhdetta eri testauskonsepteissa. Työhön kuului mittauslaitteistojen käyttöönotto sekä uusien suunnittelu ja rakentaminen. Tulokset kirjattiin ylös työ...

  10. Langaton tiedonsiirto sulautetussa järjestelmässä

    OpenAIRE

    Rosila, Ville

    2014-01-01

    ssä opinnäytetyöraportissa käsitellään langattoman tiedonsiirron toteuttamista erääseen sulautettuun järjestelmään. Työn tärkeimpänä tavoitteena oli saada langaton tiedonsiirto toimimaan järjestelmässä tehokkaasti ja luotettavasti. Toisena tavoitteena oli toteuttaa jokin käytännönläheinen esimerkkisovellus, jossa langattomasta tiedonsiirrosta on hyötyä. Raportissa perehdytään työssä käytettyihin komponentteihin ja niiden oleellisimpiin teknisiin ominaisuuksiin. Komponenttien lisäksi esitell...

  11. Vitamin D2 Formation from Post-Harvest UV-B Treatment of Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and Retention during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this research were to study the effects of high intensity (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mW/cm2), dose (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 J/cm2), and post-harvest time (1 and 4 days) on the vitamin D2 formation in Portabella mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) as a result of UV-B exposure, as well as the vitamin D...

  12. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Edita Jurak; Arjen M Punt; Wim Arts; Mirjam A Kabel; Harry Gruppen

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed a...

  13. 圆孢蘑菇驯化栽培试验%Domestication Cultivation Test of Agaricus gennadii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊燕

    2002-01-01

    在深入研究新疆圆孢蘑菇[Agaricus gennadii(Chot.et Boud.)P D.Orton]生态学特征的基础上,分离出优良菌株.以牛粪、马粪和棉籽壳等为原料进行了栽培试验,并获得成功.

  14. Effect of Metabolites Produced by Trichoderma harzianum Biotypes and Agaricus bisporus on Their Respective Growth Radii in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mumpuni, A.; Sharma, H. S. S.; Brown, Averil E.

    1998-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum biotypes Th1, Th2, and Th3 produced volatile metabolites in vitro which had similar fungistatic effects on the growth of Agaricus bisporus. Metabolites present in agar colonized by these strains also inhibited mycelial growth of A. bisporus, although the reduction in growth was less in the presence of metabolites produced by biotype Th2 than that in the presence of metabolites produced by Th1 or Th3. A. bisporus produced metabolites in liquid culture that inhibited the g...

  15. Characterization by 16S rRNA Sequence Analysis of Pseudomonads Causing Blotch Disease of Cultivated Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey, S. A. C.; Harrow, S. A.; Marshall, J. W.; Klena, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial blotch of Agaricus bisporus has typically been identified as being caused by either Pseudomonas tolaasii (brown blotch) or Pseudomonas gingeri (ginger blotch). To address the relatedness of pseudomonads able to induce blotch, a pilot study was initiated in which pseudomonads were selectively isolated from mushroom farms throughout New Zealand. Thirty-three pseudomonad isolates were identified as being capable of causing different degrees of discoloration (separable into nine categor...

  16. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities and in Vivo Anti-Hypoxic Activity of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Ji Li; Hai-Yan Chen; Lin-Lin Fan; Zhi-Hua Jiao; Qi-He Chen; Ying-Chun Jiao

    2015-01-01

    With the rising awareness of a healthy lifestyle, natural functional foods have gained much interest as promising alternatives to synthetic functional drugs. Recently, wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam has been found and artificially cultivated for its thick fresh body and excellent taste, with its antioxidant and anti-hypoxic abilities unknown. In this work, the antioxidant potential of its methanolic, 55% ethanolic, aqueous extracts and crude polysaccharide was evaluated in diffe...

  17. Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of Interactions between Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing Hyphae and Bacteria in Casing Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Masaphy, Segula; Levanon, D.; Tchelet, R.; Henis, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between the hyphae of Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing and bacteria from the mushroom bed casing layer were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Hyphae growing in the casing layer differed morphologically from compost-grown hyphae. Whereas the compost contained thin single hyphae surrounded by calcium oxalate crystals, the casing layer contained mainly wide hyphae or mycelial strands without crystals. The bacterial population in the hyphal environment consisted of several ...

  18. Enzymatic synthesis of antibody-human serum albumin conjugate for targeted drug delivery using tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Rollett, Alexandra; Thallinger, Barbara; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Machacek, Christian; Walenta, Evelyn; Paulo, Artur Cavaco; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G.; Stockinger, Hannes; Guebitz, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highly specific targeted drug delivery devices can be obtained with antibody-human serum albumin (mAb-HSA) conjugates. However, their conventional production involves several reaction steps including chemical modification and activation of both proteins followed by cross-linking often involving toxic chemicals. Here, we describe the enzymatic synthesis of mAb-HSA conjugates for targeted drug delivery devices using tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus under mild reaction conditions (pH 6.8, 25 [d...

  19. Effects of sesame and bitter almond seed oils on mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.

    OpenAIRE

    kalyoncu, Ismail Hakki; KaSik, Giyaseddin; Özcan, Musa; Özturk, Celaleddin

    1999-01-01

    Secondary mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus from Nigde University Mushroom Research Centre (Aksaray-Nigde) was monitored in malt extract agar medium containing sesame or bitter almond seed oils. With 1 % sesame oil, highest growth was established and less growth period was determined as 27.4 days. All of the samples with sesame oil showed better growth according to the control, being the stimulative effect of sesame oil higher than that of bitter almond oil.
    <...

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of latent isoform PPO4 mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase

    OpenAIRE

    Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Molitor, Christian; Al-Oweini, Rami; Kortz*, Ulrich; Rompel, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosinase exhibits catalytic activity for the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones. Owing to polymerization of these quinones, brown-coloured high-molecular-weight compounds called melanins are generated. The latent precursor form of polyphenol oxidase 4, one of the six tyrosinase isoforms from Agaricus bisporus, was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The obtained crystals belonged to space group C121 (two molecules per asym...

  1. Ecology of Thermophilic Fungi in Mushroom Compost, with Emphasis on Scytalidium thermophilum and Growth Stimulation of Agaricus bisporus Mycelium

    OpenAIRE

    Straatsma, Gerben; Samson, Robert A.; Olijnsma, Tineke W.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Gerrits, Jan P. G.; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-two species of thermophilic fungi were isolated from mushroom compost. Scytalidium thermophilum was present in the compost ingredients, fresh straw, horse droppings, and drainage from compost and dominated the fungal biota of compost after preparation. Of 34 species of thermophilic fungi tested, 9 promoted mycelial growth of Agaricus bisporus on sterilized compost: Chaetomium thermophilum, an unidentified Chaetomium sp., Malbranchea sulfurea, Myriococcum thermophilum, S. thermophilum, ...

  2. Efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms cultivation. Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Imbach

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Koc; Stanisław Szarek

    2011-01-01

    The economical efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Imbach SYLVAN 737) has been experimented in controlled weather conditions. It was found that the application of a 50 and 150 g•m-2 hydrogel dose is not economically proved due to the lack of harvest significant increase. In the cultivation of this particular variety of mushrooms, the optimal hydrogel dose should not be 100 g•m-2 of subsoil.

  3. Evidence for Outcrossing via the Buller Phenomenon in a Substrate Simultaneously Inoculated with Spores and Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Callac, Philippe; Spataro, Cathy; Caille, Aurélie; Imbernon, Micheline

    2006-01-01

    In Agaricus bisporus, traditional cultivars and most of the wild populations belong to A. bisporus var. bisporus, which has a predominantly pseudohomothallic life cycle in which most meiospores are heterokaryons (n + n). A lower proportion of homokaryotic (n) meiospores, which typify the heterothallic life cycle, also are produced. In wild populations, pseudohomothallism was thought previously to play a major role, but recent analyses have found that significant outcrossing also may occur. We...

  4. Adaptation des températures élevées du champignon de Paris Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Rodriguez, Ana Marίa del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    This work focused mainly on studying genetic variability andmechanisms associated with an adaptation of Agaricus bisporus for cultivation undersubtropical conditions of Mexico. The research was divided into three parts: 1-Identification of the diversity for fructification at a high temperature (FHT+) in a pool ofwild strains gathered in numerous locations of North America and Europe andrepresentative of the three varieties known in the species: bisporus, burnettii y eurotetrasporus; 2- charac...

  5. Effect of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus on the hematology and immunology systems of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Valadares, Fabiana; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Roberto Cañete VILLAFRANCA; Marília da Cunha MENEZES; Mariana Campos REIS; Gonçalves, Daniella Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Patients with cancer tend to develop hematological and immunological alterations during the disease process. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the immune and hematopoietic systems, promoting improvements in the prognosis and physiological response. In this trial it is aimed to evaluate changes in hematological and immunological parameters in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus. Method: A randomized, double-blind, pl...

  6. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeffer on Glycemia and Cholesterol after Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Betti Mascaro; Cristiane Miranda França; Esquerdo, Kamilla F.; Lara, Marx A. N.; Wadt, Nilsa S. Y.; Erna E. Bach

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the Agaricus sylvaticus (sun mushroom) on biochemical tests of the plasma and on the morphology of the pancreas in an experimental model of type I diabetes mellitus (DM1) induced by streptozotocin. One gram of dry A. sylvaticus was homogenized and mixed with the chow. Male Wistar rats were allocated as follows: normoglycemic control that received commercial chow; normoglycemic control group that received chow with A. sylvaticus; diabetic group that received ...

  7. Efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms cultivation. Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Koc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The economical efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach SYLVAN 737 has been experimented in controlled weather conditions. It was found that the application of a 50 and 150 g•m-2 hydrogel dose is not economically proved due to the lack of harvest significant increase. In the cultivation of this particular variety of mushrooms, the optimal hydrogel dose should not be 100 g•m-2 of subsoil.

  8. A New Record of Agaricus in China%中国伞菌属一新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱翠玲; 马洪兵; 孟宪鹏; 王振; 姜淑霞

    2015-01-01

    本文报道了伞菌属中国一新记录种Agaricus flocculosipes,标本采自山东省徂徕山国家森林公园。将采集标本进行详细的形态描述及ITS序列分析,并与伞菌属相近种进行比较。根据其菌柄表面直立的丛毛状鳞片这一特点及其拉丁学名含义命中文名为鳞柄伞。%A species of the genus Agaricus flocculosipes has been recorded for the first time in China and the specimens were collected from Mount Culai National Forest Park in Shandong Province. We described the morphology of Agaricus flocculosipes and ITS sequence analysis comprehensively, compared with those of similar taxa. We named it Linbingsan because of its distinguishing erect floccose squamules on the surface of the stipe and the Chinese translation of its latin name.

  9. Bioremediation of wastewater containing reactive dyes by agaricus bisporus a21: effect of supplements and redox mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study involves the development of bioremediation process for simulated solutions of reactive dyes by Agaricus bisporus A21. Initially screening trial with four Reactive dyes, viz. NOVACRON Reactive black, NOVACRON Reactive blue, NOVACRON Reactive red and NOVACRON Reactive G. Yellow was carried out using Agaricus bisporus A21. Among four dyes tested the fungus showed better decoloration efficiency (67.7 %) with NOVACRON Reactive black as compared to other dyes during a 10th day period. The effect of various operational parameters like pH, incubation temperature, carbon and nitrogen additives, surfactant as well as dye concentration was optimized for enhanced decolorization of the dye under study. The effect of various redox mediators like ABTS, veratryl alcohol, MnSO/sub 4/, guaiacol, glyoxlate on enzyme activity and removal of color was also investigated. After optimization of process conditions the rate of removal was enhanced up to 84 % just within 5 h. Enzymes involved in the degradation of the dye have been investigated and it was found that MnP (820 IU/mL) was the major enzyme responsible for the dye degradation. It was shown that there was a direct correlation between the observed enzyme activity and the investigated process effectiveness. The results indicated that Agaricus bisporus A21 could be used to treat dyes containing wastewater from various industries. (author)

  10. Työssä pysyminen Keravan vankilassa

    OpenAIRE

    Yli-Yrjänäinen, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää työntekijöiden itsensä kertomana niitä tekijöitä, jotka ovat olleet merkityksellisiä heidän työssä pysymiseensä Keravan vankilassa. Tutkimuskysymys oli: Millaiset tekijät saavat työntekijän pysymään työssä Keravan vankilassa? Teoreettisessa viitekehyksessä esitellään lyhyesti muiden työssä pysymistä kartoittaneiden tutkimusten keskeisiä tuloksia. Laajemmin avataan yhdysvaltalaisen vankeinhoidon työssä pysymiseen liittyviä tekijöitä. Teoreettises...

  11. Hybrid MPI/StarSs - a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia, Jose; Niethammer, Christoph; Hasert, Manuel; Brinkmann, Steffen; Keller, Rainer; Glass, Colin W.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid parallel programming models combining distributed and shared memory paradigms are well established in high-performance computing. The classical prototype of hybrid programming in HPC is MPI/OpenMP, but many other combinations are being investigated. Recently, the data-dependency driven, task parallel model for shared memory parallelisation named StarSs has been suggested for usage in combination with MPI. In this paper we apply hybrid MPI/StarSs to a Lattice-Boltzmann code. In particul...

  12. 圆孢蘑菇有效成分的定性分析%Qualitative Analysis of Active Ingredients of Agaricus gennadii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白世俊; 包锦渊

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to confirm the active ingredients of Agaricus gennadii. [Method] The water extraction method, alcohol extraction method and petroleum ether extraction method were used to extracted the chemical ingredients of Agaricus gennadii, and analyzed them. [Result]The results show that Agaricus gennadii contains protein,carbohydrates,organic acids,coumarin and lactones,etc. ,may also contains saponins and steroidal triterpenes,but does not contain alkaloids,cardiac glycosides,volatile oils,phenols and tannins,etc. [Conclusion] The study makes people to fully know Agaricus gennadii.%[目的]确定圆孢蘑菇(Agaricus gennadii)的有效成分.[方法]采用水提法、醇提法和石油醚提取法对圆孢蘑菇的有效成分进行定性提取和分析.[结果]圆孢蘑菇中含有蛋白质、糖类、有机酸、香豆素与内酯等物质,可能含有皂苷和甾体三萜类,不含生物碱、强心苷、挥发油、酚类和鞣质等.[结论]该研究可使人们更加清楚地了解圆孢蘑菇.

  13. Remoção de cor de efluentes têxteis com cogumelos Agaricus bispora = Decolorization of textile effluent with mushroom Agaricus bispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Zarur Coelho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O emprego direto de cogumelos Agaricus bispora foi avaliado para a remoção de cor de uma mistura sintética de corantes reativos. Avaliou-se o efeito da granulometria das partículas (cubos de 0,5 ou 1,0 cm e cogumelos moídos, da massa de cogumelos (10, 20, 40, 60 ou 80 g em 250 mL de solução e de diferentes formas de tratamento do cogumelo sobre a remoção de cor de uma solução sintética dos corantes Reactive Yellow 37, Reactive Black 5 e Reactive Red na concentração de 13,3 mg L-1 cada corante. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos para maiores áreas superficiais de contato do cogumelo (cogumelo moído com o efluente colorido e sob aeração contínua. A adição de acetona durante o processo de moagem, seguido de congelamento, contribuiu para o aumento da remoção de cor, obtendo-se os melhoresresultados: 73% após 6h, com 20 g de biocatalisador 250 mL-1 de efluente. A utilização de diferentes lotes e marcas de cogumelo levou à obtenção de diferentes atividades enzimáticas, mas percentuais similares de remoção de cor, indicando que a remoção de cor não possuirelação direta com a atividade enzimática.The direct application of Agaricus bispora mushroom was evaluated for decolorization of a synthetic mixture of reactive dyes. The effects of particle size (0.5 or 1.0 cm cubes and triturated mushroom, mushroom mass (10, 20, 40, 60 or 80 g in 250 mL of solution and different mushroom tissue treatments were analyzed regarding color removal efficiency of dyes Reactive Yellow 37, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red in a synthetic solution of 13.3 mg L-1 concentrationof each dye. The best results were found with larger superficial contact area between mushroom particle (triturated mushroom and colored effluent under continuous aeration. Acetone addition during mushroom trituration process followed by a freezing step contributed to decolorization improvement, leading to best results: 73% after 6h, with 20 g of biocatalyst 250 m

  14. Performance of DMFC with SS 316 bipolar/end plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Biswa R.; Reddy, Ramana G.

    This work mainly emphasizes the development of new materials and design for a bipolar/end plate in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). According to the DOE requirements, preliminary studies show that SS 316 (Stainless Steel 316) is a suitable candidate. Several flow field designs were studied and a modified serpentine design was proposed. SS 316 end plates were fabricated with an intricate modified serpentine flow field design on it. The performance of a single stack DMFC with SS 316 end plates were studied with different operational parameters. A long-term test was carried out for 100 h with recycling the methanol and the contaminants in the MEA were characterized. The stack efficiency is found to be 51% and polarization losses are discussed. SS 316 with low permeability resulted in an increased pressure drop across the flow field, which increased the fuel cell performance. The use of SS 316 as bipolar plate material will reduce the machining cost as well as volume of the fuel cell stack.

  15. Processing of Agaricus bisporus as instant food%双孢菇即食食品的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安建; 田广瑞; 魏书信; 王赵改

    2012-01-01

    以新鲜双孢菇为材料,通过对糖、盐、味精的比例,以及各种香料之间配比的研究,得到了双孢菇方便食品的加工工艺,为双孢菇方便食品的加工生产提供参考。%The current research optimized the ratio of sugar, salt, monosodium glutamate, and spices iring Agaricus bisporus convenient food processing to get the suitable hardened condition. We hope is study could be valuable to Agaricus bisporus processing in future.

  16. Optimisation of hot isostatic pressing bonded SS/SS joints conditions for ITER blanket shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the engineering design activity of international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), stainless steels are being considered as candidates materials for several module type structures. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technique is expected for the fabrication of these modules. Stainless steel powders are simultaneously consolidated as mono-material block or/and joined in bi-material module. This paper reviews the manufacturing stages, non-destructive examination and the developments of the HIP bonded joints of 316L SS (powder and solid) for application to the ITER shield blanket. It is well known that the powder surface oxidation negatively influences the impact toughness of raw material and joints consolidated by this way. In order to get acceptable mechanical properties of materials, a study on the effect of reducing the powder oxygen content has been launched. To evaluate susceptibility to the oxygen content of HIPed joint specimens, tensile and toughness tests have been performed. From this study, optimal conditions of HIP were fitted and the influence of oxygen was mastered to obtain good mechanical properties of the consolidated powder material as well as for HIPed junction.

  17. Life quality of postsurgical patients with colorectal cancer after supplemented diet with agaricus sylvaticus fungus Calidad de vida en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal con suplementación dietética con hongos agaricus sylvaticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Costa Fortes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Therapeutical alternatives, directed to improve life quality and reduce adverse effects of cancer treatment, have been the purpose of studies that try to prove the immunomodulator efficacy of medicinal fungi as coadjuvant for conventional therapies. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact on the life quality of post-surgical patients with colorectal cancer after supplemented diet with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus cultivated in Brazil. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial carried out at the Federal District Base Hospital-Brazil, for six months. Samples of 56 enrolled patients (24 men and 32 women, stadium phases I, II and III, separated as placebo and Agaricus sylvaticus (30 mg/kg/day supplemented groups. Form-standard and direct anamnesis-standard were used to evaluate indicators for life quality. The method of analysis was qualitative and descriptive, processed with Microsoft Excel 2003 and Epi Info 2004 programs. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Research Committee-Health Department-Federal District. Results: After six months of treatment, the supplemented group had increased adhesion to physical activity; improved disposition and good mood; reduced complaints of pains and alterations of sleep such as insomnia and restless sleep; presenting more appetite, reduced constipation, diarrhea, alternate diarrhea/constipation, flatulence, flatus retention, pyrosis, postprandial fullness, nausea, abdominal distention and abdominal pain, facts not observed in the placebo group. Conclusions: The results suggest that a dietary supplement with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus is capable of improving the life quality of patients with colorectal cancer in post-surgical phase.Introducción: Alternativas terapéuticas para mejorar la calidad de vida y reducir los efectos adversos de los medicamentos, han sido la propuesta de estudios que intentan probar los efectos de hongos medicinales en

  18. Hybrid MPI/StarSs - a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Gracia, Jose; Hasert, Manuel; Brinkmann, Steffen; Keller, Rainer; Glass, Colin W

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid parallel programming models combining distributed and shared memory paradigms are well established in high-performance computing. The classical prototype of hybrid programming in HPC is MPI/OpenMP, but many other combinations are being investigated. Recently, the data-dependency driven, task parallel model for shared memory parallelisation named StarSs has been suggested for usage in combination with MPI. In this paper we apply hybrid MPI/StarSs to a Lattice-Boltzmann code. In particular, we present the hybrid programming model, the benefits we expect, the challenges in porting, and finally a comparison of the performance of MPI/StarSs hybrid, MPI/OpenMP hybrid and the original MPI-only versions of the same code.

  19. Toimitusjohtajan rooli ja asema perheyhtiössä

    OpenAIRE

    Fontell, Marleena

    2015-01-01

    Toimitusjohtajan rooli ja asema ovat usein epäselviä. Erityisesti pienissä perheyrityksissä toimitusjohtajan rooli voi olla epämääräinen, tai sitä ei ole erikseen määritelty. Opinnäytetyössä tarkastellaan toimitusjohtajan roolia ja asemaa perheyrityksessä X, jossa on tapahtunut sukupolvenvaihdos. Tutkimuksessa haluttiin tuoda esiin sopimusoikeudellinen puoli, ovatko toimitusjohtajan toimet lainsäädännön mukaisia vai onko hän enemmän työntekijän roolissa. Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin, mikä o...

  20. Ammatillisen vuorovaikutuksen tukeminen ohjaustyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Lappalainen, Sari; Kurppa, Jatta

    2016-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö on toiminnallinen opinnäytetyö. Sen aiheena oli ammatillisen vuorovaikutuksen tukeminen ohjaustyössä. Tavoitteena oli herättää ajatuksia ja laajentaa näkökulmaa ammatillisissa vuorovaikutustilanteissa. Opinnäytetyön teoreettiseksi viitekehykseksi valittiin teorioita, jotka olennaisesti vaikuttavat ammatillisen vuorovaikutuksen toteutumiseen ohjaustyössä. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi AMF Vastaanottopalvelut. Toiminnallinen osuus toteutettiin koko työyhteisölle yh...

  1. Improving the online marketing of Homekoirat S&S

    OpenAIRE

    Virkki, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to improve the online marketing of an already existing company, Homekoirat S&S and to research what are the best marketing tools for marketing a ser-vice online. Also a suggestion of the marketing plan will be created. Homekoirat S&S is a small company located in Mikkeli, Finland and it’s founded in the beginning of 2012 by owners Saara Pulkkinen and Sampsa Väntsi. The company provides mold detecting services by using sniffer dogs that are trained using the simi...

  2. Hoitajien kokemuksia omahoitajuudesta psykiatrisessa hoitotyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Heinonen, Noora; Viita-aho, Jori

    2014-01-01

    Oulun seudun ammattikorkeakoulu Hoitotyön koulutusohjelma Tekijät: Noora Heinonen ja Jori Viita-aho Opinnäytetyön nimi: Hoitajien kokemuksia omahoitajuudesta psykiatrisessa hoitotyössä Työn ohjaaja: Liisa Kiviniemi Valmistumisaika: Kevät 2014 Sivumäärä: 37 Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kuvailla hoitajien kokemuksia omahoitajuudesta psykiatrisessa hoitotyössä. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tuottaa kokemusperäistä tietoa omahoitajuuden toteuttamisesta ja sisällö...

  3. ICT:n rooli toimitusketjuyhteistyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerström, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö on osa SULOIN-hanketta, jossa haetaan uusia toimintamalleja elintarviketeollisuuden jakelukanavien kehittämiseen. Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin, mikä on ICT:n rooli toimitusketjuyhteistyössä, ja minkälainen vaikutus sillä on jakelukanavan markkina- ja neuvotteluvoimiin. Tutkimusstrategiana käytettiin kvalitatiivista tutkimusta, ja pääasiallinen tutkimusmenetelmä oli kohdeyrityksissä tehdyt teemahaastattelut. Yrityksiä, joissa haastattelut tehtiin, oli kolme. Näistä kaksi on elin...

  4. YouTube osuuskaupan markkinointiviestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Lindevall, Tytti

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on luoda toimeksiantaja Suur-Seudun Osuuskauppa SSO:lle suunnitelma YouTuben hyödyntämiseksi markkinointiviestinnässään. Työn avulla on tarkoitus löytää keino, miten SSO voisi hyödyntää YouTubea markkinointiviestinnässään ja mitä asioita tulisi huomioida omaa kanavaa perustettaessa. Tarkoituksena on tuottaa raportti mahdollisista käyttötarkoituksista sekä ohjeistus oman kanavan perustamiseen ja hallinnointiin liittyvistä asioista. Työn alkupuolella taustoite...

  5. Sosiaalinen vahvistaminen avoimessa nuorisotilatyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Santanen, Lotta-Julia; Nieminen, Katri

    2013-01-01

    Toiminnallinen opinnäytetyö toteutettiin yhteistyössä Jyväskylän kaupungin nuorisotoimen ja Humanistisen ammattikorkeakoulun kanssa syksyllä 2013. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää millaista on sosiaalinen vahvistaminen avoimessa tilatoiminnassa sekä mikä on työntekijän rooli sosiaalisessa vahvistamisessa uudella tilalla. Tutkimusmenetelmiksi kehiteltiin kaksi sosiaalista vahvistamista tukevaa toiminnallista menetelmää, joita testattiin käytännössä kahdella eri Jyväskylän kaupungin...

  6. Laulaen iloa saamme : musiikki vapaaehtoistyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Herranen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Vuoden 2009 lopulla Eläkeliitto otti yhteyttä ammattikorkeakouluumme ja kysyi halukkaita tekemään opinnäytetyötä Sävel soikoon –hankkeesta. Hankkeen idea on kouluttaa vapaaehtoisina toimijoita pitämään musiikkituokioita vanhainkodeissa, sairaaloissa ja yksityiskodeissa. Opinnäytetyössäni tarkastelin vapaaehtoistyössä käytettävää musiikkia. Tarkoituksena oli selvittää, millä perusteella vapaaehtoiset valitsevat musiikkituokiossa käytettävät kappaleet, mitä kappaleita vapaaehtoiset käyttävät mi...

  7. e-VLBI observations of SS 433 in outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Trushkin, S.; Soleri, P.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M.; Spencer, R.; Rushton, A.; Burgess, P.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Pazderski, E.; Borkowski, K.; Hammargren, R.; Lindqvist, M.; Maccaferri, G.

    2008-11-01

    We have observed the X-ray binary SS 433 on November 6, 2008 between 13:48-18:35 UT at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) using the e-VLBI technique. The radio telescopes participating in the experiment were: Medicina, Onsala 25m, Torun, Jodrell Bank MkII and Cambridge. The X-ray binary SS 433 is in outburst. Trushkin & Nizhelskij (ATel #1819) reported a major flare already active during the RATAN-600 observations in the 1-22 GHz band on 2008 October 28.

  8. Susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking of 254SMO SS

    OpenAIRE

    De Micheli Lorenzo; Agostinho Silvia Maria Leite; Trabanelli Giordano; Zucchi Fabrizio

    2002-01-01

    The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of solubilized and sensitized 254SMO SS was studied in sodium chloride, and sodium fluoride solutions at 80 °C and sulfuric acid solutions in presence of sodium chloride at 25 °C. The influence of salt concentration, pH values and the addition of thiosulfate was examined. The susceptibility to SCC was evaluated by Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT), at 1.5 x 10-6 s-1 strain rate. The behavior of 254SMO was compared to those of AISI 316L SS and ...

  9. Alterações gastrointestinais em pacientes com câncer colorretal em ensaio clínico com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus Gastrointestinal alterations in patients with colorectal cancer on clinical trial supplemented with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Costa Fortes; Viviane Lacorte Recôva; Andresa Lima Melo; Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Fungos medicinais podem normalizar a função intestinal, aumentar o apetite e reduzir os efeitos adversos do tratamento convencional do câncer. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações gastrointestinais de pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória após suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus. METODOLOGIA: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, placebo-controlado, realizado no Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal. Amostra constituída de 56 pacientes (24 homens e ...

  10. Shelf-life extension of fresh Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus by application of Tomato paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishverya srivastava,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A mushroom is a fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The edible mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus are the fleshy edible bodies devoid of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma. Mushroom browning occurs mainly as a result of tyrosinase activity, an enzyme belonging to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO family and known to be a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Tomato is an attractive candidate for food processing applications as fresh cut. However along with its desirable delicate taste, tomato shows a marked susceptibility to browning. This condition is mainly attributed to polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO. This PPO activity was observed especially in flesh tissues which was probably due to the presence of monophenolic substrates inducing a lag period, enzyme inhibitors and / or diphenolic substrates causing suicide inactivation, and proenzyme or latent isoforms of PPO. A paste of fresh tomatoes (wild and hybrid when applied to the freshly grown mushrooms were less subject to brown blotch as compared to the untreated mushroom. Other vegetable paste or paste made of the unwanted weeds that show tyrosinase activity can also be effected for the same purpose.

  11. Antioxidant Effects of Medicinal Mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes): Evidence from Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkiv, Borys; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    With diabetes mellitus and increased glucose concentrations, the mitochondria electron transport chain is disrupted, superoxide anions are overproduced, and oxidative stress develops in cells. Thus, preventing oxidative stress can produce a decrease in the antioxidant system activity and an increase in apoptosis in immune cells. The application of medicinal mushrooms is a new possible approach to diabetes mellitus treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the influence of administration of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat leukocytes. Wistar outbred white rats were used in the study. Streptozotocin was intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks. This revealed that in diabetes mellitus, the level of antioxidant enzyme activity is significantly decreased compared with control values, whereas the levels of lipid peroxidation is increased; this manifested in an increase in the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The medicinal mushrooms' administration is accompanied by an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity to control values and is even higher in the case of A. brasiliensis administration when compared with the diabetic group. As for the indicators of lipid peroxidation under mushroom administration of A. brasiliensis and G. lucidum, we observed a significant decrease of TBARS levels compared with the diabetic group. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduction of TBARS level indicate pronounced antioxidant properties of studied mushrooms. PMID:26756186

  12. Microbial diversity in a bagasse-based compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Azevedo, Raquel Santos; Braga, Claudia; da Silva, Romildo; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Edible mushrooms are renowned for their nutritional and medicinal properties and are thus of considerable commercial importance. Mushroom production depends on the chemical composition of the basic substrates and additional supplements employed in the compost as well as on the method of composting. In order to minimise the cost of mushroom production, considerable interest has been shown in the use of agro-industrial residues in the preparation of alternative compost mixtures. However, the interaction of the natural microbiota present in agricultural residues during the composting process greatly influences the subsequent colonisation by the mushroom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify the microbiota present in a sugar cane bagasse and coast-cross straw compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasilienses. Composting lasted for 14 days, during which time the substrates and additives were mixed every 2 days, and this was followed by a two-step steam pasteurisation (55 - 65°C; 15 h each step). Bacteria, (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae) were the predominant micro-organisms present throughout the composting process with an average population density of 3 x 108 CFU/g. Actinomycetes, and especially members of the genus Streptomyces, were well represented with a population density of 2 - 3 x 108 CFU/g. The filamentous fungi, however, exhibited much lower population densities and were less diverse than the other micro-organisms, although Aspergillus fumigatus was present during the whole composting process and after pasteurisation. PMID:24031404

  13. Performance and antioxidant status of broiler chickens supplemented with dried mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) in their diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannenas, I; Pappas, I S; Mavridis, S; Kontopidis, G; Skoufos, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth performance and antioxidant status of broiler chicken supplemented with the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Ninety 1-d-old female broiler chickens randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments were given either a nutritionally balanced basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 10 or 20 g of dried mushroom/kg of feed for 6 wk on an ad libitum basis. Body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio values were monitored weekly. To evaluate the antioxidant status of broiler chicken, refrigerated liver, breast, and thigh tissues were assayed for levels of glutathione, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, as well as malondialdehyde at 6 wk of age. Results showed that dietary mushroom supplementation at both inclusion levels was accepted well by the broiler chicken and improved feed efficiency compared with the control diet. Dietary mushroom inclusion at 20 g/kg improved both growth performance and feed efficiency compared with control diet at 42 d of age. Dietary mushroom at both inclusion levels reduced malondialdehyde production in liver, breast, and thigh tissues and elevated glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase compared with the control treatment, the effects being dose-dependent. These results suggest that A. bisporus mushroom exerts both a growth-promoting and tissue antioxidant-protective activity when supplemented in broiler chicken diets. PMID:20075283

  14. In vivo immunomodulatory effect of the lectin from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditamo, Yanina; Rupil, Lucia L; Sendra, Victor G; Nores, Gustavo A; Roth, German A; Irazoqui, Fernando J

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are glycan-binding proteins that are resistant to digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and enter intact to blood circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus lectin (ABL) on innate and adaptive immune responses as well as its effect in two different experimental pathologies that involve the immune system. ABL inhibited in vitro nitric oxide (NO) production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in response to the pro-inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). However, it did not modify the activity of arginase, showing that while ABL downregulates M1 activation, it does not affect M2 activation. ABL also inhibited mononuclear cell proliferation in response to mitogen Con A, or in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. During the in vivo studies, oral administration of ABL to BALB/c mice induced a marked inhibition of NO production by peritoneal macrophages after LPS stimuli. The influence of ABL on tumor growth was studied in BALB/c mice receiving daily oral doses of ABL and implanted with CT26 tumor cells. ABL treatment induced significantly higher rate of tumor growth when compared with control mice. On the other hand, oral ABL administration in Wistar rats induced a marked diminution of the incidence of the disease and the severity of the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We can conclude that ABL has an in vivo immunomodulatory effect reducing the innate and adaptive responses. This food lectin shows potential therapeutic application on control of inflammatory autoimmune pathologies. PMID:26399519

  15. Agaricus bisporus compost improves the potential of Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid for copper accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdziak, Z; Mleczek, M; Gąsecka, M; Drzewiecka, K; Kaczmarek, Z; Siwulski, M; Goliński, P

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the ability of spent mushroom compost (SMC) from the production of Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) to stimulate the growth and efficiency of copper (Cu) accumulation by Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid. Roots, shoots and leaves were analysed in terms of total Cu content and selected biometric parameters. Due to the absence of information regarding the physiological response of the studied plant, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), phenolic compounds and salicylic acid (SA) contents were investigated. The obtained results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness (usefulness) of SMC in promoting the growth and stimulation of Cu accumulation by the studied Salix taxon. The highest Cu content in roots and shoots was found at the 10% SMC addition (507±22 and 380±11 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while there was a reduction of the content in leaves and young shoots (109±8 and 124±7 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively). In terms of physiological response, lowered secretion of LMWOAs, biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and SA, as well as accumulation of soluble sugars in Salix leaves was observed with SMC addition. Simultaneously, an elevation of the total phenolic content in leaves of plants cultivated with SMC was observed, considered as antioxidant biomolecules. PMID:26709965

  16. Removal of toxic metals from aqueous solutions by fungal biomass of Agaricus macrosporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melgar, M.J. E-mail: mjmelgar@lugo.usc.es; Alonso, J.; Garcia, M.A

    2007-10-15

    Fungi such as Agaricus macrosporus show potential for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions contaminated by zinc, copper, mercury, cadmium or lead. This study investigated biosorption of these metals by living or non-living biomass of A. macrosporus from an acid solution, an acid solution supplemented with potassium and phosphorus, and an alkaline solution. Uptake showed a pH-dependent profile. Maximum percentage uptake of all metals was found to occur at alkaline pH (Cu 96%, Pb 89%). With living biomass, metal biosorption was greater and faster in K/P-supplemented acid medium than in non-supplemented acid medium, with equilibrium reached within 15 min for all metals, and the highest percentage uptake being of cadmium (96%). In general, the greatest differences in biosorption capacity were seen for living biomass, between supplemented and non-supplemented acid medium; the smallest differences were between living and dead biomass in alkaline medium. These results support the potential utility of A. macrosporus for heavy metal removal.

  17. Method Development for the Determination of Free and Esterified Sterols in Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2016-05-01

    Ergosterol is the major sterol in button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and can occur as free alcohol or esterified with fatty acids (ergosteryl esters). In this study, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC/MS-SIM) was used to determine ergosterol and ergosteryl esters as well as other sterols and steryl esters in button mushrooms. Different quality control measures were established and sample preparation procedures were compared to prevent the formation of artifacts and the degradation of ergosteryl esters. The final method was then used for the determination of ergosterol (443 ± 44 mg/100 g dry matter (d.m.)) and esterified ergosterol (12 ± 6 mg/100 g d.m.) in button mushroom samples (n = 4). While the free sterol fraction was vastly dominated by ergosterol (∼90% of five sterols in total), the steryl ester fraction was more diversified (nine sterols in total, ergosterol ∼55%) and consisted primarily of linoleic acid esters. PMID:27064103

  18. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from mushroom-grown compost at different stages of mycelium growth and fruiting body formation, were analyzed for their ability to degrade a range of polysaccharides. Mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosidase and β-glucanase activities were determined in the compost extracts obtained during mushroom growth. Interestingly, arabinofuranosidase activity able to remove arabinosyl residues from doubly substituted xylose residues and α-glucuronidase activity were not detected in the compost enzyme extracts. This correlates with the observed accumulation of arabinosyl and glucuronic acid substituents on the xylan backbone in the compost towards the end of the cultivation. Hence, it was concluded that compost grown A. bisporus lacks the ability to degrade and consume highly substituted xylan fragments. PMID:26237450

  19. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-09-23

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour of sunlight exposure, the vitamin D2 content of the mushrooms increased in a linear manner, with concentrations increasing from 0.1 μg/g up to 3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry weight (DW). At the subsequent two measurements one and 3 h later, respectively, a plateau was reached. Two hours of additional exposure triggered a significant decline in vitamin D2 content. After just 15 min of sun exposure and an UV-B dose of 0.13 J/cm(2), the vitamin D2 content increased significantly to 2.2 ± 0.5 μg/g DW (P < 0.0001), which is equivalent to 17.6 μg (704 IU) vitamin D2 per 100 g of fresh mushrooms and comparable to levels found in fatty fish like the Atlantic salmon. PMID:26314311

  20. Uncovering the abilities of Agaricus bisporus to degrade plant biomass throughout its life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Post, Harm; Zhou, Miaomiao; Jurak, Edita; Heck, Albert J R; Hildén, Kristiina S; Kabel, Mirjam A; Mäkelä, Miia R; Altelaar, Maarten A F; de Vries, Ronald P

    2015-08-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and contributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass. Relatively little is known about how A. bisporus grows in the controlled environment in commercial production facilities and utilizes its substrate. Using transcriptomics and proteomics, we showed that changes in plant biomass degradation by A. bisporus occur throughout its life cycle. Ligninolytic genes were only highly expressed during the spawning stage day 16. In contrast, (hemi-)cellulolytic genes were highly expressed at the first flush, whereas low expression was observed at the second flush. The essential role for many highly expressed plant biomass degrading genes was supported by exo-proteome analysis. Our data also support a model of sequential lignocellulose degradation by wood-decaying fungi proposed in previous studies, concluding that lignin is degraded at the initial stage of growth in compost and is not modified after the spawning stage. The observed differences in gene expression involved in (hemi-)cellulose degradation between the first and second flushes could partially explain the reduction in the number of mushrooms during the second flush. PMID:26118398

  1. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function. PMID:26475179

  2. Quantitative Roughness Analysis of Post-harvest Agaricus bisporus by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGHong-Shun; FENGGuo-Ping; ANHong-Jie; LIYun-Fei

    2004-01-01

    The moisture loss degree is important in determining the quality of post-harvest mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing). Quantitative roughness analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was proposed to denote the degree of shrinkage, with arithmetic average roughness (Ra) and root mean square roughness (Rq) as parameters, The initial value of Ra was (30.035±1.839)nm, while those of 2℃, 25℃ and dynamic temperature on the 2nd day were (40.139±3.359) nm, (54.393±13.534) nm and (41.197±6.555) nm, respectively. There is a similar tendency for the results of Ra and Rq Both values of roughness increased in duration of storage and with increasing temperatures. The three-dimensional profile of the pileus epicutis could signify the process of water evaporation intuitionally. The tendency was in accordance with the roughness results, especially for the earlier stage of the storage (0-2 d). The outcome of roughness analysis could signify the differences of storage conditions. It was shown that the roughness measured by atomic force microscopy effectively reflected the moisture loss degree of the mushroom pileus epicutis during post-harvest storage.

  3. A detailed analysis of the recombination landscape of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Gao, Wei; Lavrijssen, Brian; Hendrickx, Patrick; Sedaghat-Tellgerd, Narges; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Kong, Won-Sik; Schijlen, Elio G W M; Baars, Johan J P; Visser, Richard G F

    2016-08-01

    The button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the world's most cultivated mushroom species, but in spite of its economic importance generation of new cultivars by outbreeding is exceptional. Previous genetic analyses of the white bisporus variety, including all cultivars and most wild isolates revealed that crossing over frequencies are low, which might explain the lack of introducing novel traits into existing cultivars. By generating two high quality whole genome sequence assemblies (one de novo and the other by improving the existing reference genome) of the first commercial white hybrid Horst U1, a detailed study of the crossover (CO) landscape was initiated. Using a set of 626 SNPs in a haploid offspring of 139 single spore isolates and whole genome sequencing on a limited number of homo- and heterokaryotic single spore isolates, we precisely mapped all COs showing that they are almost exclusively restricted to regions of about 100kb at the chromosome ends. Most basidia of A. bisporus var. bisporus produce two spores and pair preferentially via non-sister nuclei. Combined with the COs restricted to the chromosome ends, these spores retain most of the heterozygosity of the parent thus explaining how present-day white cultivars are genetically so close to the first hybrid marketed in 1980. To our knowledge this is the first example of an organism which displays such specific CO landscape. PMID:27288752

  4. Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using partially purified laccase from residual compost of agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayolo-Deloisa, K. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Center for Biotechnology-FEMSA, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Machin-Ramirez, C. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rito-Palomares, M. [Center for Biotechnology-FEMSA, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Trejo-Hernandez, M.R. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Laccase partially purified from residual compost of Agaricus bisporus by an aqueous two-phase system (Lac ATPS) was used in degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: fluorene (Flu), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and benzo[a]anthracene (BaA). The capacity of the enzyme to oxidize polyaromatic compounds was compared to that of the crude laccase extract (CE). After treatment of 72 h, Lac ATPS and CE were not capable of oxidizing Flu and Phe, while Ant, BaP, and BaA were oxidized, resulting in percentages of oxidation of 11.2 {+-} 1, 26 {+-} 2, and 11.7 {+-} 4 % with CE, respectively. When Lac ATPS was used, the following percentages of oxidation were obtained: 11.4 {+-} 3 % for Ant, 34 {+-} 0.1 % for BaP, and 13.6 {+-} 2 % for BaA. The results reported here demonstrate the potential application of Lac ATPS for the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Effect of plasma activated water on the postharvest quality of button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingyin; Tian, Ying; Ma, Ruonan; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jue

    2016-04-15

    Non-thermal plasma is a new approach to improving microbiological safety while maintaining the sensory attributes of the treated foods. Recent research has reported that plasma activated water (PAW) can also efficiently inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms. This study invested the effects of plasma-activated water soaking on the postharvest preservation of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) over seven days of storage at 20°C. Plasma activated water reduced the microbial counts by 1.5 log and 0.5 log for bacteria and fungi during storage, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding physicochemical and biological properties were assessed between plasma activated water soaking groups and control groups. The results for firmness, respiration rate and relative electrical conductivity suggested that plasma activated water soaking can delay mushroom softening. Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in the color, pH, or antioxidant properties of A. bisporus treated with plasma activated water. Thus, plasma activated water soaking is a promising method for postharvest fresh-keeping of A. bisporus. PMID:26616972

  6. Synthesis of double-stranded RNA in a virus-enriched fraction from Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriskantha, A.; Wach, P.; Schlagnhaufer, B.; Romaine, C.P.

    1986-03-01

    Partially purified virus preparations from sporophores of Agaricus bisporus affected with LaFrance disease had up to a 15-fold-higher RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity than did comparable preparations from health sporophores. Enzyme activity was dependent upon the presence of Mg/sup 2 +/ and the four nucleoside triphosphates and was insensitive to actinomycin D, ..cap alpha..-amanitin, and rifampin. The /sup 3/H-labeled enzyme reaction products were double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as indicated by CF-11 cellulose column chromatography and by their ionic-strength-dependent sensitivity to hydrolysis by RNase A. The principal dsRNA products had estimated molecular weights of 4.3 /times/ 10/sup 6/ and 1.4 /times/ 10/sup 6/. Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ equilibrium centrifugation of the virus preparation resolved a single peak of RNA polymerase activity that banded with a 35-nm spherical virus particle containing dsRNAs with molecular weights of 4.3 /times/ 10/sup 6/ and 1.4 /times/ 10/sup 6/. The data suggest that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase associated with the 35-nm spherical virus is a replicase which catalyzes the synthesis of the genomic dsRNAs.

  7. Combined effect of kinetin and radiation treatment on the cap opening of Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, E. (Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1982-01-01

    Cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) with a cap diameter of 3-5 cm were incubated at 20 deg C during the experimental period (30-72 h). The degree of cap opening was determined and the data were evaluated. It was found that kinetin solutions in the 0 to 32 mg kg/sup -1/ range stimulated the opening of the mushroom cap. The shorter the time elapsed between picking and treating the mushrooms, the greater was the effect. A kinetin solution with a concentration of 100 mg kg/sup -1/ inhibited the opening of the cap. Cap opening in irradiated mushrooms cannot be induced even with kinetin concentrations that stimulate cap opening. Treatment with 0, 2.5 and 10 kGy doses of radiation the stimulating effect on cap opening decreased as a function of the rising dose. The radiation effects in kinetin solutions and various natural cytokinins (zeatin, 2iP and 2iPA) were studied and it was found that cytokinin solutions lost 50-60% of their activity after a radiation dose of only 1 kGy.

  8. Uptake and fate of Cd and Zn in edible fungi of the Agaricus bisporus species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetter, M.

    1979-01-01

    Cd and Zn were added to growth substrate of fungi in order to investigate the Cd uptake and the effects of Zn on Cd uptake in the edible fungus Agaricus bisporus. Fungus yields were found to decrease with Cd uptake. This effect was completely overcome and sometimes even overcompensated by adding zinc. Cd concentrations in the fungi increased with the soil Cd concentration: When Cd (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg Fg) was added to the soil cover as well as to the substrate, Cd concentrations in the fungi were found to be about 70% higher than in fungi where the same amount of Cd had been added only to the substrate. The following interactions between Cd and Zn uptake were observed: Low soil Cd concentrations enhance Zn uptake. In contrast, Zn enhances Cd uptake in fungi with low Cd concentrations. At high soil Cd concentrations, Zn inhibits Cd uptake. Cd concentrations in the fungi increased with the age of the cultures and with the size of the fungi. The highest concentrations were found in the lamellae. The enrichment factors are lower in the cultivated variety (0.6 to 1.4 in dependence of the soil Cd concentration) than in wild-growing fungi.

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation dose rate on microbiological and physical quality of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, M.; Lacroix, M.; Charbonneau, R.; Laberge, I.; Gagnon, M. (Canadian Irradiation Centre, Laval, PQ (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (2 kGy) and dose rate of irradiation (4.5 and 32.0 kGy/h) on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated during storage at 15 deg C and 90% R.H. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by reduction of gamma irradiation dose rate (4.5 kGy) was observed by measurements of the cap opening, the stipe increase, the cap diameter, the weight loss and the color of the caps. The color was measured in order to evaluate the lightness with the L value measurement and the color changes were measured in terms of lightness, hue and chroma. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases were also evaluated. The irradiation of mushrooms at both dose rates of irradiation was found to be effective in lowering microorganism counts initially and throughout storage and increased the shelf-life by four days. This study also showed that mushrooms exposed to a lower dose rate (4.5 kGy/h) of irradiation preserve the whiteness and reduce the stripe increase of mushrooms during storage.

  10. Edible mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus can prevent the onset of atheroma plaques in hipercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percario, S; Odorizzi, V F; Souza, D R S; Pinhel, M A S; Gennari, J L; Gennari, M S; Godoy, M F

    2008-01-01

    Since the involvement of free radicals in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis was proposed, antioxidant supplementation arose as a potential strategy for the management of this disease. Thus, we decided to investigate the potential benefit of a natural antioxidant--rich edible mushroom (Agaricus sylvaticus) on the prevention of atherosclerosis. New Zealand rabbits underwent atherosclerosis induction by feeding a cholesterol--enriched chow (Group A), while Group B simultaneously received edible mushroom A. sylvaticus water solution. Control group received standard rabbit chow only (Group C). At the end of 10 week treatment period serum samples were drawn for lipid profile, uric acid, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total antioxidant status (TAS). The area of aorta arteries taken by atheroma plaques was evaluated. Groups A and B presented higher cholesterol levels (p< 0.01) and reduced TAS (p<0.01), when compared to the Group C. However, TBARS and uric acid levels for Group B animals' were reduced, in comparison to Group A (p<0.05), and equals to group C. Moreover, animals from group A developed extensive atherosclerotic areas (47.0+/-14.0%), and that was prevented by the supplementation of A. sylvaticus (6.6+/-2.9%, p<0.01). Data suggested that A. sylvaticus can prevent the development of atherosclerosis in spite of hipercholesterolemia. PMID:19116085

  11. Simple and efficient expression of Agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygmund, Christoph; Gutmann, Alexander; Krondorfer, Iris; Kujawa, Magdalena; Glieder, Anton; Pscheidt, Beate; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens; Kittl, Roman

    2012-05-01

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) is a fungal flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is highly interesting for applications in organic synthesis or electrochemistry. The low expression levels of the filamentous fungus Agaricus meleagris as well as the demand for engineered PDH make heterologous expression necessary. Recently, Aspergillus species were described to efficiently secrete recombinant PDH. Here, we evaluate recombinant protein production with expression hosts more suitable for genetic engineering. Expression in Escherichia coli resulted in no soluble or active PDH. Heterologous expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris was investigated using two different signal sequences as well as a codon-optimized sequence. A 96-well plate activity screening for transformants of all constructs was established and the best expressing clone was used for large-scale production in 50-L scale, which gave a volumetric yield of 223 mg L(-1) PDH or 1,330 U L(-1) d(-1) in space-time yield. Purification yielded 13.4 g of pure enzyme representing 95.8% of the initial activity. The hyperglycosylated recombinant enzyme had a 20% lower specific activity than the native enzyme; however, the kinetic properties were essentially identical. This study demonstrates the successful expression of PDH in the eukaryotic host organism P. pastoris paving the way for protein engineering. Additionally, the feasibility of large-scale production of the enzyme with this expression system together with a simplified purification scheme for easy high-yield purification is shown. PMID:22080342

  12. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour...... of sunlight exposure, the vitamin D2 content of the mushrooms increased in a linear manner, with concentrations increasing from 0.1 μg/g up to 3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry weight (DW). At the subsequent two measurements one and 3 h later, respectively, a plateau was reached. Two hours of additional exposure triggered...... a significant decline in vitamin D2 content. After just 15 min of sun exposure and an UV-B dose of 0.13 J/cm(2), the vitamin D2 content increased significantly to 2.2 ± 0.5 μg/g DW (P mushrooms and comparable to levels found...

  13. Effect of microwave blanching on the quality of frozen Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaś, Emilia; Jaworska, Grażyna

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of microwave blanching on the levels of selected quality parameters in frozen Agaricus bisporus. Before freezing, mushrooms underwent one of the following treatments: blanching in water; blanching in a solution of sodium metabisulphite and citric acid; microwaving for 5 min; and combined blanching (first in water, then in a microwave oven). Products were freeze stored for 8 months at -25 ℃. Frozen storage resulted in decreased levels of vitamin B1, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of 10-49%, as well as an increase in polyphenol oxidase activity compared with products immediately after freezing. The values for most colour parameters and whiteness intensity decreased, while cream, yellow, brown and grey saturation increased. There was a considerable deterioration in sensory quality, particularly colour. Microwave-blanched products had significantly higher dry matter, ash, vitamin B1 and B2 content than the remaining products as well as half the polyphenol oxidase activity. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were highest in the product blanched in the sodium metabisulphite solution, followed by the microwave-blanched product. Compared with the product blanched using sodium metabisulphite, microwave-blanched mushrooms showed slightly greater darkening but were superior in flavour and aroma. PMID:24831645

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of tyrosinase from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushroom tyrosinase was crystallized in two different space groups. The crystals diffracted to 3.0 Å resolution (P21) or 2.6 Å resolution (P21212). Tyrosinase catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine quinone, which is the main precursor for the biosynthesis of melanin. The enzyme from Agaricus bisporus, the common button mushroom, was purified and crystallized in two different space groups. Crystals belonging to space group P21 (unit-cell parameters a = 104.2, b = 105.0, c = 119.1 Å, β = 110.6°, four molecules per asymmetric unit) diffracted to 3.0 Å resolution. Crystals belonging to space group P21212 (unit-cell parameters a = 104.0, b = 104.5, c = 108.4 Å, two molecules per asymmetric unit) diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution. It was essential to include 5 mM HoCl3 in all crystallization conditions in order to obtain well diffracting crystals

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation dose rate on microbiological and physical quality of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation (2 kGy) and dose rate of irradiation (4.5 and 32.0 kGy/h) on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated during storage at 15 deg C and 90% R.H. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by reduction of gamma irradiation dose rate (4.5 kGy) was observed by measurements of the cap opening, the stipe increase, the cap diameter, the weight loss and the color of the caps. The color was measured in order to evaluate the lightness with the L value measurement and the color changes were measured in terms of lightness, hue and chroma. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases were also evaluated. The irradiation of mushrooms at both dose rates of irradiation was found to be effective in lowering microorganism counts initially and throughout storage and increased the shelf-life by four days. This study also showed that mushrooms exposed to a lower dose rate (4.5 kGy/h) of irradiation preserve the whiteness and reduce the stripe increase of mushrooms during storage

  16. Molecular Mapping of Sterility QTLs qSS-3, qSS-6a and qSS-7 as Single Mendelian Factors via NIL strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; XU Peng; ZHOU Jia-wu; HU Feng-yi; DENG Xian-neng; CHEN Zhi-wei; TAO Da-yun

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid sterility between Oryza glaberrima and O.sativa seriously hampers the introgression of favorable genes from each other.In order to further understand this issue,identification and isolation of hybrid sterility QTLs as single Mendelian factors are an effective strategy.A genetic map was constructed using a BC1F1 population derived from a cross between an O.sativa japonica cultivar and an O.glaberrima accession.Four main-effect QTLs for pollen sterility were detected in the BC1 F1.Five BC8F1 advanced backcross populations were developed via successive backcrosses based on phenotype and molecular selections.The BC8F1 populations showed bimodal distribution for pollen fertility and could be classified into semi-sterile and fertile types,fitting single Mendilian factor inheritance ratios.Three QTLs detected in the BC1F1 corresponding to qSS-3,qSS-6a and qSS-7 were mapped on chromosomes 6,3 and 7,respectively,as single Mendilian factors.

  17. Turvallisuuteen liittyvien lupaehtojen noudattaminen maantiellä tehtävässä työssä

    OpenAIRE

    Ahola, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Maantiellä tehtävä työ on luvanvaraista työtä, jota hallinnoivat tienpitoviran-omaisena paikalliset elinkeino-, liikenne- ja ympäristökeskukset. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten maantiellä tehtävässä työssä noudatetaan tienpitoviranomaisen antamia työ- ja liikenneturvallisuuteen liittyviä lupaehtoja. Työ tehtiin ELY-keskuksen liikenne- ja infrastruktuuri -vastuualueen kunnossa-pitoyksikössä, joka myöntää luvat maanteillä työskentelyyn. Lähtöaineisto opinnäytetyöhön kerätti...

  18. Yhteisöllisyys nuorten ehkäisevässä päihdetyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Helmiö, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    Yhteisöllisyys nuorten ehkäisevässä päihdetyössä opinnäytetyö toteutettiin Humanistisen ammattikorkeakoulun alaisen ehkäisevän päihdetyön osaamiskeskus Preventiimin hankkeen osakokonaisuutena. Hankkeessa pyrittiin selvittämään nuorten kokemuksia yhteisöllisyydestä ja ehkäisevästä päihdetyöstä. Opinnäytetyössä Espoon nuorisovaltuusto kertoi kokemuksiaan nuorten päihteiden käytöstä ja yhteisöllisyydestä. Nuorisovaltuustolaiset toimivat asiantuntijoina nuorten elämästä, ei oman toimintansa kerto...

  19. Dissociation between the effects of somatostatin (SS) and octapeptide SS-analogs on hormone release in a small subgroup of pituitary- and islet cell tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Hofland (Leo); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); H.A. Visser-Wisselaar (Heleen); C. van Uffelen; M. Waaijers (Marlijn); J. Zuyderwijk; P. Uitterlinden (Piet); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); J.M. Kros (Johan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of somatostatin (SS-14 and/or SS-28) and of the three octapeptide SS-analogs that are available for clinical use (octreotide, BIM-23014 and RC-160) on hormone release by primary cultures of 15 clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFA), 7

  20. Abr1, a Transposon-Like Element in the Genome of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.

    1999-01-01

    A 300-bp repetitive element was found in the genome of the white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, and designated Abr1. It is present in ∼15 copies per haploid genome in the commercial strain Horst U1. Analysis of seven copies showed 89 to 97% sequence identity. The repeat has features typical of class II transposons (i.e., terminal inverted repeats, subterminal repeats, and a target site duplication of 7 bp). The latter shows a consensus sequence. When used as probe on Southern blots, Abr1...

  1. Failure of the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) to induce tumors in the A/J mouse lung tumor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.;

    1997-01-01

    We studied whether the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) or 4-(carboxy)phenylhydrazine (CP) induce lung adenomas in the A/J mouse lung tumor model. For 26 weeks female mice were fed a semisynthetic diet where 11 or 22% of the diet was replaced by freeze-dried mushrooms. The intake...... of the mushroom diets was equivalent to an intake of agaritine, the major phenylhydrazine derivative occurring in the mushroom, of 92 or 166 mg/kg body weight per day. The intake of CP was 106 mg/kg body weight per day. Neither the;freeze-dried mushroom nor CP induced statistically significant increased numbers...

  2. Compatibility between Be12Ti and SS316LN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllides have good properties and are one of the candidate materials for the neutron multiplier of the DEMO reactor in which good performance is required at 600-800 deg. C. Therefore, a good compatibility with structural materials is expected for the beryllides. In this study, a compatibility test between Be12Ti and SS316LN was carried out as first step to evaluate the compatibility between beryllides and structural materials. The thickness of the reaction layer between Be12Ti and SS316LN at 800 deg. C after 1000 h was approximately 30 μm, whereas that of beryllium metal was 300 μm. At 600 deg. C after 1000 h, the thickness of the reaction layers as to Be12Ti and Be was less than 10 and 100 μm, respectively. The compatibility between Be12Ti and SS316LN was evaluated and Be12Ti was perfectly better than that between beryllium metal and SS316LN at high temperature (600-800 deg. C). The advantage of beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the Demo reactor was proved

  3. Outburst from SS 433 observed with BOOTES-2/COLORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Garcia, M. D.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Jelinek, M.; et al.

    2014-08-01

    In light of the recent extreme outburst of SS 433 (ATELs #6347, #6355) and follow-up by SWIFT (ATEL #6364) the 0.6m TELMA robotic telescope at the BOOTES-2 (+COLORES) astronomical station in Malaga (Spain), obtained optical 4000-9000 A spectra starting at 2014-08-01 and ending at 2014-08-07.

  4. RPA homologs and ssDNA processing during meiotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jonathan; Abby, Emilie; Livera, Gabriel; Martini, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is a specialized process that involves homologous chromosome pairing and strand exchange to guarantee proper chromosome segregation and genetic diversity. The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiotic recombination differs from those during mitotic recombination in that the homologous chromosome rather than the sister chromatid is the preferred repair template. The processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formed on intermediate recombination structures is central to driving the specific outcomes of DSB repair during meiosis. Replication protein A (RPA) is the main ssDNA-binding protein complex involved in DNA metabolism. However, the existence of RPA orthologs in plants and the recent discovery of meiosis specific with OB domains (MEIOB), a widely conserved meiosis-specific RPA1 paralog, strongly suggest that multiple RPA complexes evolved and specialized to subdivide their roles during DNA metabolism. Here we review ssDNA formation and maturation during mitotic and meiotic recombination underlying the meiotic specific features. We describe and discuss the existence and properties of MEIOB and multiple RPA subunits in plants and highlight how they can provide meiosis-specific fates to ssDNA processing during homologous recombination. Understanding the functions of these RPA homologs and how they interact with the canonical RPA subunits is of major interest in the fields of meiosis and DNA repair. PMID:26520106

  5. Katariina kirikus algab Geeniuste mäss / Kai Ilustrumm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilustrumm, Kai

    2004-01-01

    Briti Nõukogu toetusel Pärnus, Tartus ja Tallinnas toimuvatel inglise filmide päevadel "Geeniuste mäss" näidatakse ka 3 Lindsay Andersoni nn. Travise triloogia filmi "Kui..." (1968), "Oo, õnneseen!" (1973) ja "Ravila Britannia" (1982), kus Mick Travise rollis on Malcolm McDowell (1943). Lisatud kava

  6. Functional analysis of dsRNAs (L1, L3, L5, and M2) associated with isometric 34-nm virions of Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDerLende, TR; Duitman, EH; Gunnewijk, MGW; Yu, L; Wessels, JGH

    1996-01-01

    cDNA clones of dsRNAs associated with La France disease of Agaricus bisporus were isolated, Clones corresponding to L1 and L5 dsRNAs were sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of L1 dsRNA (1078 amino acids, M(r) 121K) showed significant homology with RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of other dsRNA

  7. Experimental atomic scale investigation of irradiation effects in CW 316SS and UFG-CW 316SS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareige, P.; Etienne, A.; Radiguet, B.

    2009-06-01

    Materials of the core internals of pressurized water reactor (austenitic stainless steels) are subject to neutron irradiation. To understand the ageing mechanisms associated with irradiation and propose life predictions of components or develop new materials, irradiation damage needs to be experimentally investigated. Atomic scale investigation of a neutron-irradiated CW316 SS with the laser pulsed atom probe gives a detailed description of the solute segregation in the austenitic grains. In order to understand the mechanism of solute segregation detected in the neutron-irradiated materials, ion irradiations were performed. These latest irradiations were realized on a CW 316SS as well as on a nanostructured CW 316SS. The study of irradiation effects in a nanograin material allows first, to easily analyse grain boundary segregation and second, to test the behaviour under irradiation of a new nanostructured material. The three aspects of this atomic scale investigation (neutron irradiation effect, model ion irradiation, new nanostructured CW 316 SS) are tackled in this paper.

  8. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratios for Agaricus brasiliensis on the axenic method = Relação carbono/nitrogênio do substrato pelo método de cultivo axênico para Agaricus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienine Luiz Zaghi Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation techniques for Agaricus brasiliensis (composting method and substratum formulations are the same ones used for Agaricus bisporus. Most of the carbon-tonitrogen (C:N ratios reported for A. brasiliensis are similar to those used for A. bisporus on the composting method and there are few studies about the variation of C:N ratios for A. brasilienses on the axenic method. The objective of this study was to verify the mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on different C:N ratios using regional by-products as substrate formulation on the axenic method. Studied C:N ratios of substrate (mixture of soybean and cassava fibers ranged from 11:1 to 248:1, with nitrogen content ranging from 4.25 to 0.20%, respectively. It was concluded that substrate with only soybean fiber generates higher mycelial growth than any formulation with cassava fiber; the highest mycelial growth on substrate is with C:N ratio of 11:1 (N = 4.25%; the intermediate growth is with C:N ratio range from 15:1 to 50:1 (N from 3.31 to 0.98%; and the lowest growth is with C:N ratio of 100:1 or higher (N ≤ 0.50%. As técnicas de cultivo do Agaricus brasiliensis (método de compostagem e formulação de substrato são as mesmas utilizadas para o Agaricus bisporus. A maioria das relações carbono/nitrogênio (C/N relatadas para A. brasiliensis são similares às usadas para A. bisporus no método de compostagem. Há poucos estudos sobre a variação da relação C/N para A. brasilienses para o método axênico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes relações C/N no crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis utilizando subprodutos regionais como substrato pelo método axênico. As relações C/N no substrato (misturas de fibra de soja e de mandioca estudadas variaram de 11 a 248 com consequentes concentrações de nitrogênio de 4,25 a 0,20%, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que os substratos somente com fibra de soja propiciam maior crescimento micelial que

  9. Cloning of a chitinase gene from Ewingella americana, a pathogen of the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Inglis

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated a gene encoding a chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 from Ewingella americana, a recently described pathogen of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. This gene, designated chiA (EMBL/Genbank/DDBJ accession number X90562, was cloned by expression screening of a plasmid-based E. americana HindIII genomic library in Escherichia coli using remazol brilliant violet-stained carboxymethylated chitin incorporated into selective medium. The chiA gene has a 918-bp ORF, terminated by a TAA codon, with a calculated polypeptide size of 33.2 kDa, likely corresponding to a previously purified and characterised 33-kDa endochitinase from E. americana. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 33% identity with chitinase II from Aeromonas sp. No. 10S-24 and 7.8% identity with a chitinase from Saccharopolyspora erythraeus. Homology to other chitinase sequences was otherwise low. The peptide sequence deduced from chiA lacks a typical N-terminal signal sequence and also lacks the chitin binding and type III fibronectin homology units common to many bacterial chitinases. The possibility that this chitinase is not primarily adapted for the environmental mineralisation of pre-formed chitin, but rather for the breakdown of nascent chitin, is discussed in the context of mushroom disease.O gene que codifica uma quitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 foi isolado de Ewingella americana, recentemente descrita como patógeno do cogumelo Agaricus bisporus. Este gene, denominado chiA (EMBL/Genebank/DDBJ número de acesso X9061, foi clonado e selecionado a partir de livraria genômica construída por digestão do DNA de E. americana com HindIII e ligação em plasmídio de expressão em E. coli, utilizando meio seletivo contendo quitina carboximetilada, corada com "remazol brilliant violet'' para seleção de clones. O gene chiA apresenta uma ORF de 918 bp, código terminador TAA, tendo o tamanho do polipeptídeo sido calculado como 33,2 kDa, o qual corresponde ao tamanho de 33 kDa da endoquitinase

  10. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities and in Vivo Anti-Hypoxic Activity of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Ji; Chen, Hai-Yan; Fan, Lin-Lin; Jiao, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Qi-He; Jiao, Ying-Chun

    2015-01-01

    With the rising awareness of a healthy lifestyle, natural functional foods have gained much interest as promising alternatives to synthetic functional drugs. Recently, wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam has been found and artificially cultivated for its thick fresh body and excellent taste, with its antioxidant and anti-hypoxic abilities unknown. In this work, the antioxidant potential of its methanolic, 55% ethanolic, aqueous extracts and crude polysaccharide was evaluated in different systems. The results showed that polysaccharide was the most effective in scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals, metal chelating activity and reducing power, with EC50 values of 0.02, 2.79, 1.29, and 1.82 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, we further studied the anti-hypoxic activity of crude polysaccharide. The results turned out that polysaccharide (300 mg/kg) prolonged the survival time, decreased the blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid content as well as increased the liver glycogen significantly, compared with the blank control and the commercialized product Hongjingtian (p Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam had strong potential to be exploited as an effective natural functional food to relieve oxidative and hypoxia stresses. PMID:26404217

  11. Effects of sesame and bitter almond seed oils on mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kalyoncu, Ismail Hakki

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus from Nigde University Mushroom Research Centre (Aksaray-Nigde was monitored in malt extract agar medium containing sesame or bitter almond seed oils. With 1 % sesame oil, highest growth was established and less growth period was determined as 27.4 days. All of the samples with sesame oil showed better growth according to the control, being the stimulative effect of sesame oil higher than that of bitter almond oil.

    El crecimiento secundario de micelios de Agaricus bisporus del Centro de Investigación de Hongos de la Universidad de Nigde (Aksaray-Nigde se siguió en agar con extracto de malta conteniendo aceites de semillas de almendra amarga o sésamo. El mayor crecimiento se obtuvo con aceite de sésamo al 1%, y el periodo más corto para dicho crecimiento se estableció en 27.4 días. Todas las muestras con aceite de sésamo mostraron mejor crecimiento que el control, siendo el efecto estimulante del aceite de sésamo mayor que el del aceite de almendra amarga.

  12. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities and in Vivo Anti-Hypoxic Activity of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ji Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rising awareness of a healthy lifestyle, natural functional foods have gained much interest as promising alternatives to synthetic functional drugs. Recently, wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam has been found and artificially cultivated for its thick fresh body and excellent taste, with its antioxidant and anti-hypoxic abilities unknown. In this work, the antioxidant potential of its methanolic, 55% ethanolic, aqueous extracts and crude polysaccharide was evaluated in different systems. The results showed that polysaccharide was the most effective in scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, metal chelating activity and reducing power, with EC50 values of 0.02, 2.79, 1.29, and 1.82 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, we further studied the anti-hypoxic activity of crude polysaccharide. The results turned out that polysaccharide (300 mg/kg prolonged the survival time, decreased the blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid content as well as increased the liver glycogen significantly, compared with the blank control and the commercialized product Hongjingtian (p < 0.05. With such excellent activities, we purified the polysaccharide and analyzed its molecular weight (120 kDa as well as monosaccharide components (glucose, fructose and mannose. This study indicated that wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam had strong potential to be exploited as an effective natural functional food to relieve oxidative and hypoxia stresses

  13. Isolation and characterization of a cellulose-growth-specific gene from Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguz, S; Yagüe, E; Wood, D A; Thurston, C F

    1992-10-01

    The edible basidiomycete, Agaricus bisporus, produces extracellular endoglucanase. Endoglucanase production is induced by cellulose and repressed by fructose in A. bisporus grown on minimal medium, and is regulated in activity during fruiting body development. An anti-endoglucanase antibody was used to isolate cellulase-related genes. Three main polypeptides of 38, 58, and 60 kDa were immunoprecipitated by the antibody from products of in vitro cell-free translation of mRNAs isolated from cellulose-grown mycelium. No cross-reaction was detected with the translated products from fructose-grown mycelium. This antibody was used to immunoscreen a lambda ZAPII-cDNA expression library made from mRNA isolated from cellulose-grown mycelium. Two cDNA cross-reacting clones, pSRc110 and pSRc200, were isolated. Clones pSRc110 and pSRc200 cross-hybridized and had the same restriction map. Clone pSRc200 hybrid selected an mRNA that on cell-free translation produced a 38-kDa polypeptide. The cDNA fragment from pSRc200 hybridized to a 1.3-kb mRNA from cellulose-grown mycelium. No hybridization was observed when using fructose-grown mycelium mRNA. Thus, the gene (cel1) expressing the 1.3-kb mRNA, is differentially regulated by the carbon source of the culture medium. The cell gene was isolated in a 8.9-kb EcoRI genomic fragment after hybridization to pSRc200. Sequences similar to those in the egl1 and cbh2 genes from Trichoderma reesi were found upstream from the ATG start codon in cel1. Nine short intervening sequences disrupt the cel1 coding sequence, and a strong bias against codons ending with G and A was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1398098

  14. Genetic variation and combining ability analysis of bruising sensitivity in Agaricus bisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available Advanced button mushroom cultivars that are less sensitive to mechanical bruising are required by the mushroom industry, where automated harvesting still cannot be used for the fresh mushroom market. The genetic variation in bruising sensitivity (BS of Agaricus bisporus was studied through an incomplete set of diallel crosses to get insight in the heritability of BS and the combining ability of the parental lines used and, in this way, to estimate their breeding value. To this end nineteen homokaryotic lines recovered from wild strains and cultivars were inter-crossed in a diallel scheme. Fifty-one successful hybrids were grown under controlled conditions, and the BS of these hybrids was assessed. BS was shown to be a trait with a very high heritability. The results also showed that brown hybrids were generally less sensitive to bruising than white hybrids. The diallel scheme allowed to estimate the general combining ability (GCA for each homokaryotic parental line and to estimate the specific combining ability (SCA of each hybrid. The line with the lowest GCA is seen as the most attractive donor for improving resistance to bruising. The line gave rise to hybrids sensitive to bruising having the highest GCA value. The highest negative SCA possibly indicates heterosis effects for resistance to bruising. This study provides a foundation for estimating breeding value of parental lines to further study the genetic factors underlying bruising sensitivity and other quality-related traits, and to select potential parental lines for further heterosis breeding. The approach of studying combining ability in a diallel scheme was used for the first time in button mushroom breeding.

  15. Pangola grass colonized with Scytalidium thermophilum for production of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose E; Mejia, Laura; Royse, Daniel J

    2008-02-01

    This work had the dual objective of selecting a substrate for rapid mycelial growth of Scytalidium thermophilum and then comparing the growth and production of a brown variety of Agaricus bisporus on substrate non-colonized and colonized with S. thermophilum. Mycelial growth of S. thermophilum at 45 degrees C was significantly greater on potato dextrose yeast extract agar (0.58 mm/h) as compared to malt extract glucose agar (0.24 mm/h) and yeast extract glucose agar (0.44 mm/h). On cereal grain, S. thermophilum grew significantly faster on rice (0.31 mm/h) compared to sorghum (0.22 mm/h) and millet (0.18 mm/h). It also grew faster on Pangola grass (0.49 mm/h) compared to corncobs (0.30 mm/h) and sawdust (0.18 mm/h). Colonization of Pangola grass with S. thermophilum was influenced by the addition of calcium salts in the form of gypsum, hydrated lime and ground limestone. For production of A. bisporus, biological efficiency (BE) on pasteurized Pangola grass pre-colonized by S. thermophilum for 4 days at 45 degrees C was more than twice (26.4%) that on grass non-colonized by S. thermophilum (11.0%). The addition of 2% hydrated lime to Pangola grass prior to colonization by S. thermophilum resulted in an additional doubling of BE of mushroom production (48.1%). These results show the possibility of developing a non-composted substrate method for producing A. bisporus without autoclaving the substrate. PMID:17331714

  16. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, M.; D' Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h (I{sup -}) and 32 kGy/h (I{sup +}). Both I{sup +} and I{sup -} showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control (C). Before day 9, no significant difference (p>0.05) in L{sup *} value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L{sup *} value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I{sup -}. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I{sup -} contained more phenols than I{sup +} and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered (p{<=}0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I{sup +}. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I{sup +}, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly (p{<=}0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I{sup -} than in I{sup +}. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I{sup +} was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I{sup +} than in I{sup -}.

  17. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h ( I-) and 32 kGy/h ( I+). Both I+ and I- showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control ( C). Before day 9, no significant difference ( p>0.05) in L* value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L* value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I-. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I- contained more phenols than I+ and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered ( p⩽0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I+. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I+, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly ( p⩽0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I- than in I+. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I+ was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I+ than in I-.

  18. Purification and Characterization of β-Glucosidase from Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ašić, Adna; Bešić, Larisa; Muhović, Imer; Dogan, Serkan; Turan, Yusuf

    2015-12-01

    β-Glucosidase (β-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) is a catalytic enzyme present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes that selectively catalyzes either the linkage between two glycone residues or between glycone and aryl or alkyl aglycone residue. Growing edible mushrooms in the soil with increased cellulose content can lead to the production of glucose, which is a process dependent on β-glucosidase. In this study, β-glucosidase was isolated from Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) using ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, giving 10.12-fold purification. Biochemical properties of the enzyme were investigated and complete characterization was performed. The enzyme is a dimer with two subunits of approximately 46 and 62 kDa. Optimum pH for the enzyme is 4.0, while the optimum temperature is 55 °C. The enzyme was found to be exceptionally thermostable. The most suitable commercial substrate for this enzyme is p-NPGlu with Km and Vmax values of 1.751 mM and 833 U/mg, respectively. Enzyme was inhibited in a competitive manner by both glucose and δ-gluconolactone with IC50 values of 19.185 and 0.39 mM, respectively and Ki values of 9.402 mM and 7.2 µM, respectively. Heavy metal ions that were found to inhibit β-glucosidase activity are I(-), Zn(2+), Fe(3+), Ag(+), and Cu(2+). This is the first study giving complete biochemical characterization of A. bisporus β-glucosidase. PMID:26614504

  19. Pathogenic variation in isolates of Pseudomonas causing the brown blotch of cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abou-Zeid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven bacterial isolates were isolated from superficial brown discolorations on the caps of cultivated Agaricus bisporus. After White Line Assay (WLA and the assist of Biolog computer-identification system, isolates were divided into groups: (I comprised ninteen bacterial isolates that positively responded to a Pseudomonas "reactans" reference strain (NCPPB1311 in WLA and were identified as Pseudomonas tolaasii, (II comprised two isolates which were WLA+ towards the reference strain (JCM21583 of P. tolaasii and were proposed to be P. "reactans". The third group comprised six isolates, two of which weakly responded to the strain of P. tolaasii and were identified as P. gingeri whereas the other four were WLA- and identified as P. fluorescens (three isolates and P. marginalis (one isolate. Isolates of P. tolaasii showed high aggressiveness compared with those of P. "reactans" in pathogenicity tests. Cubes of 1 cm³ of A. bisporus turned brown and decreased in size when were inoculated with 10 µl of P. tolaasii suspension containing 10(8 CFU ml-1, whereas a similar concentration of P. "reactans" caused only light browning. Fifty µl of the same concentration of P. tolaasii isolates gave typical brown blotch symptoms on fresh mushroom sporophores whereas the two P. "reactans" isolates caused superficial light discoloration only after inoculation with 100 µl of the same concentration. Mixture from both bacterial suspensions increased the brown areas formed on the pileus. This is the first pathogenicity report of P. tolasii and P. "reactans" isolated from cultivated A. bisporus in Egypt.

  20. Reaction of pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris with its carbohydrate substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Michael M H; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Bren, Urban; Chu, Dinh Binh; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Oostenbrink, Chris; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2015-11-01

    Monomeric Agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase (AmPDH) belongs to the glucose-methanol-choline family of oxidoreductases. An FAD cofactor is covalently tethered to His103 of the enzyme. AmPDH can double oxidize various mono- and oligosaccharides at different positions (C1 to C4). To study the structure/function relationship of selected active-site residues of AmPDH pertaining to substrate (carbohydrate) turnover in more detail, several active-site variants were generated, heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, and characterized by biochemical, biophysical and computational means. The crystal structure of AmPDH shows two active-site histidines, both of which could take on the role as the catalytic base in the reductive half-reaction. Steady-state kinetics revealed that His512 is the only catalytic base because H512A showed a reduction in (kcat /KM )glucose by a factor of 10(5) , whereas this catalytic efficiency was reduced by two or three orders of magnitude for His556 variants (H556A, H556N). This was further corroborated by transient-state kinetics, where a comparable decrease in the reductive rate constant was observed for H556A, whereas the rate constant for the oxidative half-reaction (using benzoquinone as substrate) was increased for H556A compared to recombinant wild-type AmPDH. Steady-state kinetics furthermore indicated that Gln392, Tyr510, Val511 and His556 are important for the catalytic efficiency of PDH. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and free energy calculations were used to predict d-glucose oxidation sites, which were validated by GC-MS measurements. These simulations also suggest that van der Waals interactions are the main driving force for substrate recognition and binding. PMID:26284701

  1. Optimization of chemical sulfation, structural characterization and anticoagulant activity of Agaricus bisporus fucogalactan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Yony; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-08-01

    A fucogalactan (E) was isolated from aqueous extract of Agaricus bisporus. The monosaccharide composition, methylation, and NMR analyses showed it is constituted by a (1→6)-linked α-d-Galp main-chain, partially methylated at O-3, and partially substituted at O-2 by non-reducing end-units of α-l-Fucp or α-d-Galp. HPSEC analysis showed it had Mw of 1.28×10(4)gmol(-1). The polysaccharide was sulfated modifying reaction time, molar ratio of sulfation agent to hydroxyl group on the polysaccharide (ηClSO3H/OH ratio), and ratio of total reaction volume to weight of sample (VT/w ratio; μLmg(-1)). The degree of substitution (DS) was evaluated for all sulfated derivatives. The sulfated fucogalactan with the highest DS value (2.83) had the best anticoagulant activity on Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Protrombin Time (PT) assays. This sulfated fucogalactan, named E100, was obtained with the optimal conditions of ηClSO3H/OH ratio of 18, VT/w ratio of 100, in 6h of reaction. The results showed that E100 produces a linear increment of APTT for concentrations of 15-45μgmL(-1), whereas PT was almost constant between 20 and 400μgmL(-1), suggesting an anticoagulant activity via inhibition of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. NMR and methylation analyses showed that α-d-Galp units of the main chain were greatly sulfated on 2-O-, 3-O-, and 4-O-positions. PMID:27112883

  2. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglei Lu

    Full Text Available Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins.

  3. A note on challenge trials to determine the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Dara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the EU, food is considered safe with regard to Listeria monocytogenes if the number of micro-organisms does not exceed 100 colony forming units (cfu/g throughout its shelf-life. Therefore, it is important to determine if a food supports growth of L. monocytogenes. Guidelines for conducting challenge tests for growth assessment of L. monocytogenes on foods were published by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL in 2014. The aim of this study was to use these guidelines to determine if refrigerated, fresh, whole, closed-cap, prepackaged mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus support the growth of L. monocytogenes. Three batches of mushrooms were artificially inoculated at approximately 100 cfu/g with a three-strain mix of L. monocytogenes and incubated for 2 days at 8°C followed by 4 days at 12°C. L. monocytogenes numbers were determined (in triplicate for each batch on days 0, 2 and 6. Water activity, pH and total bacterial counts were also determined. There was no increase in the number of L. monocytogenes above the threshold of 0.5 log cfu/g in any of the replicates. In 8 of 9 replicates, the numbers decreased indicating that A. bisporus do not support the growth of L. monocytogenes. As the EU regulations allow < 100 cfu/g if the food cannot support growth of L. monocytogenes, the significance of this study is that mushrooms with < 100 cfu/g may be within the regulations and therefore, quantitative rather than qualitative determination may be required.

  4. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h (I-) and 32 kGy/h (I+). Both I+ and I- showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control (C). Before day 9, no significant difference (p>0.05) in L* value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L* value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I-. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I- contained more phenols than I+ and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered (p≤0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I+. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I+, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly (p≤0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I- than in I+. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I+ was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I+ than in I-

  5. Vuorotyössä jaksaminen kliinisessä laboratoriossa

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtti, Elina; Niemi, Saija

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia Vaasan keskussairaalan kliinisen laboratorion henkilökunnan vuorotyössä jaksamista. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää kliiniselle laboratoriolle sen työntekijöiden jaksamista ja sitä, ovatko työntekijät tyytyväisiä työaikoihinsa ja olisiko niissä parannettavaa. Aihe saatiin Vaasan keskussairaalasta. Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin, kuinka henkilökunta jaksaa vuorotyötä ja millaisia keinoja henkilökunta käyttää, jotta jaksaisi paremmin vuorotyötä. Opinnä...

  6. Optical results of the black hole microquasar SS 433

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopic observations of SS 433 during different precessional and orbital phases.Our 2004,2007 and 2008 data provide us a good chance to study the variability of the Hα line at different orbital phases for nearly the same disk inclination.The data show that the Hα of SS 433 usually had a symmetric profile between orbital phases 0.25-0.75,while an asymmetric structure with a strong red peak was observed for other orbital phases.We suggest that the orbital variability of Hα emission is connected with accretion flow from the donor star to the accretion disk.In addition,we attribute the dramatic increase of Hα emission during our 2007 observational run,which had a time scale of one day,to the emergence of strong jets.

  7. Varhaisen tuen toimintamalli Ahlsell Oy:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Vihtonen, Anne-Mari

    2012-01-01

    Varhaisen tuen toimintamalli Ahlsell Oy:ssä Vuosi 2012 Sivumäärä 51 Opinnäytetyöni tarkoituksena on selvittää mitä on hyvä johtaminen ja miten se vaikuttaa työ-hyvinvointiin. Työhyvinvointi on paljon puhuttu asia eikä suotta, koska siihen pitää kiinnittää erityistä huomiota, jotta henkilöstö jaksaisi työssään aina eläkeikään asti. Opinnäytetyöni tavoitteena on luoda toimintamalli, jota esimiehet ja johtajat voivat käyttää toimintansa tuk...

  8. Esimiehen juridinen rooli työyhteisössä

    OpenAIRE

    Hurme, Taina

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana oli OP-ryhmään kuuluva Osuuspankki. Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tutkia esimiehen juridista roolia työyhteisössä. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää mitä esimiehen oikeuksiin ja velvollisuuksiin kuuluu työlainsäädännön näkökulmasta ja miten hyvin esimiehet käytännössä tietävät mitä heidän juridiseen rooliinsa sisältyy. Lopputuloksen perusteella selviää myös onko organisaatiolla tarvetta heidän lisäkoulutukseensa ja pitääkö sitä kehittää tulevaisuudessa. Op...

  9. Taustatutkimus suunnittelutyössä - Pakki-opiskelijaportaalin konseptisuunnitelma

    OpenAIRE

    Ryynänen, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena oli toteuttaa Karelia-ammattikorkeakoulun Pakkiopiskelijaportaalin käyttäjille käyttäjätutkimus, jonka tulosten perusteella konseptisuunnitelma. Tavoitteisiin kuului myös suunnitella Pakki-portaalille käyttöliittymä, joka on käytettävyydeltään selkeä ja joka vastasi käyttäjien vaatimuksia ja toiveita. Opinnäyteyössäni perehdyn käyttäjälähtöisen suunnittelun periaatteisiin. Työssä pohditaan, mitä on käytettävyys sekä käyttökokemus ja kuinka käyttäjä otetaan huomioon ...

  10. Fluence dependence of deuterium retention in oxidized SS-316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Suzuki, Sachiko; Matsuyama, Masao; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Asakura, Yamato; Okuno, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    The ion fluence dependence of deuterium retention in SS-316 during oxidation at a temperature of 673 K was studied to evaluate the dynamics of deuterium retention in the oxide layer of SS-316. The correlation between the chemical state of stainless steel and deuterium retention was evaluated using XPS and TDS. It was found that the major deuterium desorption temperatures were located at around 660 K and 935 K, which correspond to the desorption of deuterium trapped as hydroxide. The deuterium retention increased with increasing deuterium ion fluence, since the deuterium retention as hydroxide increased significantly. However, retention saturated at an ion fluence of ˜2.5 × 10 21 D + m -2. The XPS result showed that FeOOD was formed on the surface, although pure Fe also remained in the oxide layer. These facts indicate the nature of the oxide layer have a key role in deuterium trapping behavior.

  11. Kumin kierrätys Teknikum Oy:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltonen, Katri

    2012-01-01

    Tämän työn tarkoituksena oli selvittää eri kierrätysmahdollisuuksia Teknikum Oy:ssä syntyvälle kumijätteelle. Alun perin työn tarkoituksena oli selvittää, onko yrityksen jätekumia mahdollista käyttää Valkeakoskella sijaitsevan Peatec Oy:n pyrolyysireaktorin raaka-aineena. Työn edetessä otettiin tarkastelun alle myös muita yrityksessä käynnissä olevia projekteja perustuen kierrätyskumin käyttöön raaka-aineena. Työssä esitellään Kuusakoski Oy:n valmistama kumipuru materiaalina, sekä uuden yhtei...

  12. LoCuSS: Testing hydrostatic equilibrium in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. P.; Mazzotta, P.; Okabe, N.; Ziparo, F.; Mulroy, S. L.; Babul, A.; Finoguenov, A.; McCarthy, I. G.; Lieu, M.; Bahé, Y. M.; Bourdin, H.; Evrard, A. E.; Futamase, T.; Haines, C. P.; Jauzac, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Martino, R.; May, P. E.; Taylor, J. E.; Umetsu, K.

    2016-02-01

    We test the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium in an X-ray luminosity selected sample of 50 galaxy clusters at 0.15 sub-4 per cent, and our hydrostatic measurements of the same achieve excellent agreement between XMM-Newton and Chandra. The mean ratio of X-ray to lensing mass for these 50 clusters is β_X= 0.95± 0.05, and for the 44 clusters also detected by Planck, the mean ratio of Planck mass estimate to LoCuSS lensing mass is β_P= 0.95± 0.04. Based on a careful like-for-like analysis, we find that LoCuSS, the Canadian Cluster Comparison Project, and Weighing the Giants agree on β_P ≃ 0.9-0.95 at 0.15 Planck cosmology results from the cosmic microwave background and galaxy cluster counts.

  13. Susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking of 254SMO SS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Micheli Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC of solubilized and sensitized 254SMO SS was studied in sodium chloride, and sodium fluoride solutions at 80 °C and sulfuric acid solutions in presence of sodium chloride at 25 °C. The influence of salt concentration, pH values and the addition of thiosulfate was examined. The susceptibility to SCC was evaluated by Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT, at 1.5 x 10-6 s-1 strain rate. The behavior of 254SMO was compared to those of AISI 316L SS and Hastelloy C276. 254SMO showed an excellent resistance to SCC in all conditions, except in the more acidic solutions (pH <= 1 where, in the sensitized conditions, intergranular stress corrosion cracking occurred.

  14. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior.

  15. Self-adaptive OmpSs tasks in heterogeneous environments

    OpenAIRE

    Planas J.; Badia R.M.; Ayguade E.; Labarta J.

    2013-01-01

    As new heterogeneous systems and hardware accelerators appear, high performance computers can reach a higher level of computational power. Nevertheless, this does not come for free: the more heterogeneity the system presents, the more complex becomes the programming task in terms of resource management. OmpSs is a task-based programming model and framework focused on the runtime exploitation of parallelism from annotated sequential applications. This paper presents a set of extensions to this...

  16. Ryhmässä toimiminen ja sosiaaliset taidot joukkueurheilussa

    OpenAIRE

    Liekola, Harri; Siikonen, Jyrki

    2015-01-01

    TIIVISTELMÄ KYMENLAAKSON AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma LIEKOLA, HARRI SIIKONEN, JYRKI Ryhmässä toimiminen ja sosiaaliset taidot joukkueurheilussa Opinnäytetyö 46 sivua + 9 liitesivua Työn ohjaaja Tuija Suikkanen-Malin Toimeksiantaja Kouvolan Pallonlyöjät ry. Pohjois-Kymen liikuntayhdistys ry. Toukokuu 2015 Avainsanat: ryhmätoiminta, sosiaaliset taidot, junioriurheilu, joukkueurheilu, pesäpallo, jääkiekko Opinnäytetyön tar...

  17. Hyvä hallinto ammattikorkeakoulun opintotukilautakuntatyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakonsaari, Taina

    2009-01-01

    Hyvä hallinto on jokaiselle kuuluva perustuslailla turvattu oikeus. Perustuslain 21 §:n mukaan jokaisella on oikeus saada asiansa käsitellyksi asianmukaisesti ja ilman aiheetonta viivytystä toimivaltaisessa viranomaisessa. Opintotuki on usealle opiskelijalle pääasiallinen toimeentulon lähde, joten sen maksaminen oikea-aikaisesti ja oikean suuruisena on opiskelijan toimeentulon kannalta ensiarvoisen tärkeää. Opinnäytetyössä käsiteltiin ammattikorkeakouluopiskelijoiden opintotukiasioide...

  18. North Pacific Transition Zone Thickness From SS-Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeau, T. M.; Wysession, M. E.; Aleqabi, G. I.

    2005-12-01

    The thickness variation of the mantle transition zone is one key to understanding mantle dynamics, in particular, as a possible indicator of lateral temperature variations at that depth. As a result of the Clapeyron slopes of the 410 and 660 km phase transitions, the transition zone is expected to thin in regions of high heat and thicken in cooler areas. Thus, these variations can be used to look for large scale mantle convection features, such as down going slabs and mantle plumes. The thickness of the transition zone can be effectively measured by the differential travel times of phases reflecting off the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities. Here we search for transition zone thickness variations using SS-precursors from the North Pacific recorded by the IRIS PASSCAL Florida-to-Edmonton (FLED) Array of broadband seismometers (and neighboring North American stations), which were operational from May 2001 to September 2002. Records are first rotated into transverse components, converted to displacements with the instrument responses removed, and then subdivided into 20 degree by 20 degree bins. The traces from earthquakes with strong SS arrivals were binned by the location of the SS bounce point, and the bins stacked into vespagrams using the MATLAB-based MATSEIS program. From the vespagrams we determine the S660S-S410S differential travel times for each stack, which yield measurements of transition zone thickness. We then compare thickness measurements from different events and with previously published maps of transition zone thickness to determine the robustness of our technique. This work was supported by an IRIS Undergraduate Summer Internship.

  19. Revisiting the HST Fine Guidance Sensor Parallax of SS Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; McArthur, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Recently, our results for the HST FGS parallax of SS Cyg (Harrison et al. 2000) have been called into question due to a recent radio parallax for this object (Miller-Jones et al. 2013). We have re-analyzed the data for our FGS program on SS Cyg and derive a revised parallax of 7.3 +/- 0.2 mas (137 pc). This parallax is 17% larger than that originally published. We discuss the new analysis effort, and the reasons for the change in our result. We believe we have identified why the radio parallax (8.77 mas) disagrees with the FGS results: We find that if we allow for a roll of two degrees in the HST coordinate system, we obtain the discrepant VLBA radio parallax. It is impossible, however, for the error in the roll of HST to be more than a few tenths of a degree, or else the FGS would not lock-on to the program targets. This roll leads to the large, and erroneous VLBA parallax for SS Cyg. We note that the radio parallax for the black hole system V404 Cyg (Miller-Jones et al. 2009) is also much larger than the spectroscopic parallax of its secondary star. In addition, we closely examine the attempt by Nelan & Bond (2013) to reconcile the FGS data set with the radio result. We identify what we believe to be significant issues with their analysis. Finally, we present a quantitative abundance analysis for SS Cyg, RU Peg, and GK Per derived from moderate resolution K-band spectroscopy. We find severe carbon deficiencies (10 to 20% of the solar value) in the secondary stars of all three objects. We describe the Python program "kmoog" which generates synthetic spectra, and autonomously compares them to observational data.

  20. Microstructure characteristic of SS304/BNi-2/SS304 butt joint by high temperature brazing%SS304/BNi-2/SS304高温钎焊对接接头微观结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺国荣; 陈虎; 祝金丹; 巩建鸣

    2011-01-01

    通过试验手段研究了SS304/BNi-2/SS304钎焊对接接头微观结构特征,使用能谱分析结合合金三元相图研究了接头区域典型的微观结构形貌和特征相变化规律,讨论了降熔元素在接头等温凝固连接过程中所起的关键作用。结果表明,在钎焊温度时,B从液相钎料向固相母材的快速扩散控制了接头的等温凝固过程,也因此决定了接头的微观结构相特征;钎焊接头通常会存在4种典型的相特征区域;钎角质量对于整个钎焊接头性能有重要影响。%The microstructure characteristic of SS304/Bni -2/SS304 butt joint was analyzed by high temperature brazing through the experimental research. Some typical microstructural morphologies and phase transition feature of the butt joint were studied by using ternary phase diagrams and EDS analysis. The critical effect of element diffusion on isothermal solidification of brazed joint was also discussed by analyzing the microstructural evolution. The results showed that the quick diffusing of boron from the liquid filler alloy into solid base metal controlled the isothermal solidification process as well as the joint microstructure. Four typical characteristic zones could be observed for the whole brazed joint. The fillet quality played a very important role in the whole joint performance.

  1. Käsihygienia hoitotyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Viitala, Jenni; Hakala, Tiia

    2014-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää Vaasan keskussairaalan teho-osastojen ja kirurgisten vuodeosastojen hoitohenkilökunnan käsihygienian toteutumista hoitotyössä. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on lisätä hoitohenkilökunnan tietoa oikeasta käsihygieniasta ja siten estää infektioiden leviämistä osastoilla. Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin strukturoidulla kyselylomakkeella Vaasan keskussairaalan aikuisten ja lasten teho-osastoilta ja kirurgisilta vuodeosastoilta. Vastausprosentti oli 81. Kyselylomake ...

  2. LoCuSS: Testing hydrostatic equilibrium in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, G P; Okabe, N; Ziparo, F; Mulroy, S L; Babul, A; Finoguenov, A; McCarthy, I G; Lieu, M; Bahe, Y; Bourdin, H; Evrard, A E; Futamase, T; Haines, C P; Jauzac, M; Marrone, D P; Martino, R; May, P E; Taylor, J E; Umetsu, K

    2015-01-01

    We test the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium in an X-ray luminosity selected sample of 50 galaxy clusters at $0.15SS). Our weak-lensing measurements of $M_{500}$ control systematic biases to sub-4 per cent, and our hydrostatic measurements of the same achieve excellent agreement between XMM-Newton and Chandra. The mean ratio of X-ray to lensing mass for these 50 clusters is $\\beta_{\\rm X}=0.95\\pm0.05$, and for the 44 clusters also detected by Planck, the mean ratio of Planck mass estimate to LoCuSS lensing mass is $\\beta_{\\rm P}=0.95\\pm0.04$. Based on a careful like-for-like analysis, we find that LoCuSS, the Canadian Cluster Comparison Project (CCCP), and Weighing the Giants (WtG) agree on $\\beta_{\\rm P}\\simeq0.9-0.95$ at $0.15

  3. Tritium uptake by SS316 and its decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikai, Y.; Penzhorn, R.-D.; Matsuyama, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2004-08-01

    As-received and highly polished SS316 specimens were loaded with HT at 473-573 K. The uptake by polished samples was found to be up to five times that of as-received ones, when loading was performed immediately after polishing. This disparity vanished when polished specimens were subjected to a prolonged exposure to air prior to loading. The tritium loss from tritium-loaded SS316 specimens was examined by chemical etching and by thermal release in a flow system using various carrier gases at several temperatures. While at moderate temperatures the type of carrier has an impact on the tritium release rate, at higher ones this effect disappears. Moisture in the carrier gas has little influence on the loss rate of bulk tritium. Etching depth profiles of specimens previously heat-treated in the presence of air or Ar + H 2 and of untreated specimens are given. Evidence for chronic tritium liberation from SS316 at 298 K is provided.

  4. Investigation on SS316, SS440C, and Titanium Alloy Grade-5 used as Single Point Cutting Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Kothakota Suresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to find alternative materials for the cutting tools used in turning operations. The conventional materials like tungsten carbide(WC, titanium carbide(TiC, cubic boron nitride (CBN and diamond used as cutting tools for turning operations on lathe are expensive. Titanium grade 5 (Ti-6Al-4V, SS440C/AISI440C and SS316 are some of the materials which satisfy the necessary requirements for turning metals and polymer materials. These materials are machined as per the standard tool signature of high-speed steel tool (HSS and are subjected to necessary heat treatment for hardening and then finish ground. The machined tools thus prepared were used to turn mild steel and aluminium workpieces. The cutting forces at play are determined using lathe tool dynamometer and plotted on a MCD (Merchant’s Circle Diagram. The cutting tools are also subjected to tests to determine tool life, wear and work hardening. It is found that the performance and tool life of SS440C is better and cost effective compared to existing tools. Even though Ti-6Al-4V is comparatively costly it could be used for obtaining good surface finish.

  5. Effect of the gas absorbing agent on preservation of agaricus bisporus%气体吸收剂对双孢菇贮藏效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜传来; 韩玲玲

    2011-01-01

    为保持双孢菇贮藏品质、延长货架期,研究气调包装对双孢菇保鲜效果的影响.采用不同浓度配比的气体吸收剂和不同厚度聚乙烯薄膜对双孢菇进行包装,置于4℃下贮藏,定期测定双孢菇的表面颜色,呼吸强度、失重率、硬度、PPO、POD活性的变化.结果表明:采用组成为1.44 g脱氧剂、0.5 g乙烯脱除荆,1.2 g二氧化碳脱除剂的气体吸收剂及厚度为0.05 mm的聚乙烯薄膜,对双孢菇贮藏中的褐变具有明显的抑制作用,能够有效降低双孢蘑菇呼吸强度,延长双孢菇的贮藏保鲜期.%In order to keep the quality and increase shelf life of Agaricus bisporus, the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on quality of Agaricus bisporus was studied. Agaricus bisporus were packaged in different initial gas absorbing concentration and different thickness of polyethylene film,then stored at 4 ℃ respectively, and surface color, respiration intensity, weight loss, hardness, PPO and POD's activity were determined regularly. The different content of gas absorbent and different thickness of polyethylene film were used to pack the fresh Agaricus bisporus, and then put up fresh-keeping tests with low-temperature. The results showed that, 1.44 g deoxidizer, 0.5 g ethylene scavengers, 1.2 g carbon dioxide scavengers, and 0. 05 mm polyethylene film had a clear inhibition on the browning of Agaricus bisporus, and could effectively reduce the respiration rate and prolong the storage life of Agaricus bisporus.

  6. Lapsen harjaantuminen englannin kielen käytössä päiväkotiympäristössä

    OpenAIRE

    Lahtinen, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena on lapsen harjaantuminen englannin kielen käytössä päiväkotiympäristössä. Tavoitteena on tutkia lasten vieraan kielen oppimisen tukemista päiväkotiympäristössä, ja samalla selvittää, miten kotiympäristössä tuetaan englannin kielen käyttöä toisen vanhemman äidinkielen ollessa englanti. Työn tarkoituksena on tuoda esille käytettyjä menetelmiä ja keinoja englannin kielen opettamiseen ja kielen käytön tukemiseen. Kotkan Englanninkielinen leikkikoulu, varhaiskasvatussuunnitel...

  7. Study on Volatile Flavor Components from Agaricus bisporus of Tibet%西藏产双孢菇(Agaricus bisporus)挥发性呈香成分初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫素君; 谢惜媚; 林素贞; 徐爱国; 蒋思萍; 陈彬; 刘在民; 刘岚

    2015-01-01

    文章采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取来自西藏的3个双孢菇样品(Agaricus bisporus)的挥发油,以1个广州样品作为对照。通过加入薄荷醇作为参照标准物质的方法,应用气相色谱-质谱法结合 NIST 谱库检索研究了样品中的挥发性化学成分和相对含量,从4个双孢菇样品中分析鉴定了40个化合物。藏产编号为2796,709,694中的含量分别为43.10%,37.15%,31.34%,其中含量较高的挥发性成分依次为苯甲醇、糠醛、苯甲醛和柏木醇;广州样品0107号的含量为27.24%,其中除含量较高的苯甲醇、糠醛、糠醇外,尚有2-(1,1-二甲基乙基)-3-甲基-环氧乙烷,2-丙烯醇和马索亚内酯。研究结果表明菌种来源、产地气候、栽培方式会影响双孢菇的风味,为双孢菇的综合开发利用提供了理论依据。%The volatile oil was extracted from 3 samples Agaricus bisporus of Tibet using a steam distil-lation method,compared with 1 sample of Guangzhou.Forty volatile compounds were identified with GC-MS analysis and the NIST spectral library search.Through an area normalization method by adding men-thol as reference material,the relative contents of No.2796,No.709,No.694 from Tibet were deter-mined to be 43.10%,37.15%,31.34% respectively with the high content volatile compounds benzyl alcohol,furancarboxaldehyde,benzaldehyde,Cedrol.While No.0107 from Guangzhou was 27.24%with compounds benzyl alcohol,furancarboxaldehyde,benzaldehyde,2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-meth-yl-Oxirane,5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-Pyran-2-one and 2-Propen-1-ol.The results showed that fungus source,origin of climate,cultivation methods affected the flavor of Agaricus bisporus and provided theo-retical basis for the multiple development and utilization of Agaricus bisporus.

  8. Crescimento micelial in vitro de cinco linhagens de Agaricus bisporus submetidas a diferentes condições de temperatura = In vitro mycelium growth of five Agaricus bisporus strains submitted to different temperature conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; João Lucas Chavari; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhon; Diego Cunha Zied

    2010-01-01

    Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial in vitro das linhagens ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01 de Agaricus bisporus em meios de cultura sólidos à base de composto. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio de medições de quatro diâmetros das colônias, a cada 48h, durante 12 dias de incubação, no escuro, a 20 e 25ºC. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com uso do teste de Tukey para a comparação das médias. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que:...

  9. Comparison and Analysis of Amino Acid in Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brunnescens Peck%双孢蘑菇和棕色蘑菇氨基酸的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红澎; 班立桐; 黄亮; 王玉; 童应凯; 孙建成

    2013-01-01

    分析比较双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)和棕色蘑菇(Agaricus brunnescens Peck)的氨基酸组成.结果表明:双孢蘑菇子实体中氨基酸含量高于棕色蘑菇,两种蘑菇子实体中氨基酸总含量分别为31.19%和22.08%.它们所含氨基酸含量的高低有所差别.双孢蘑菇子实体中含量较高的前七种氨基酸是谷氨酸(8.40%),缬氨酸(3.14%)、脯氨酸(2.48%)、精氨酸(2.34%)、天门冬氨酸(2.33%),丙氨酸(2.17%)和赖氨酸(1.65%).棕色蘑菇子实体中含量较高的前七种氨基酸是谷氨酸(8.40%),缬氨酸(3.55%),天门冬氨酸(1.83%),丙氨酸(1.68%),亮氨酸(1.40%),脯氨酸(1.26%)和赖氨酸(1.16%).两种蘑菇中谷氨酸和缬氨酸含量最高.

  10. Wapice IoT-Ticket.com -valvomoalusta kiinteistöautomaatiokäytössä

    OpenAIRE

    Vehmaanperä, Joonas

    2016-01-01

    ssä opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin Wapice Oy:n IoT-Ticket.com -valvomoalustan soveltuvuutta kiinteistöautomaation valvontaan ja Enermix Oy:n tarpeisiin. Työssä käsiteltiin IoT-Ticket.com -alustan ominaisuuksia ja toimintoja vertailemalla niitä nykyisin Enermix Oy:n käytössä olevaan valvomoalustaan. Vertailutasona käytettiin nykyisellä valvomoalustalla toteutettua poistoilman lämmöntalteenotto kohteen valvomoa. Opinnäytetyössä tärkeimpinä vertailtavia seikkoja valvomoalustojen välillä olivat työ...

  11. Enhancement of Shelf Life of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) by Fumigant Application of Lippia alba Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Pratima; Pandey, Abhay K; Mishra, Priyanka; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2015-01-01

    Eleven essential oils isolated from higher plant species were assessed against the four isolates of Verticillium fungicola found on fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Eucalyptus citriodora and Lippia alba oils were more efficacious and completely inhibited the mycelial growth of fungal isolates. L. alba oil was fungistatic and fungicidal at 10- and 20-µL concentrations against all of the isolates, respectively, and was more potent than E. citriodora oil as well as some prevalent synthetic fungicides such as benomyl, ethylene dibromide, and phosphine. Eighty microliters of L. alba oil protected 500 g of fruiting bodies of A. bisporus for up to 7 d from infection of the fungus under in vivo conditions. The findings strengthen the possibility of L. alba oil as a plant-based protectant to enhance the shelf life of A. bisporus fruiting bodies. PMID:25746409

  12. Comparison of the effect of two types of whole mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Sakura; Araki, Takahiro; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko; Kamada, Takeo; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Han, Kyu-Ho; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-10-01

    The effects of two types of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus; white, WM; brown, BM) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats were investigated in terms of the physical characteristics of animals and by bacterial and HPLC analyses of cecal contents. Short-chain fatty acid levels were found to be significantly higher in the WM group than in the BM and the control (CN) groups; coliform bacteria levels in the BM group were significantly lower than those in the CN group, with the WM group inducing an apparent but insignificant decrease in coliforms. Anaerobe levels in the WM group were significantly higher than those in the CN group and, compared with the CN group, the BM and WM groups exhibited significantly increased feces weight and cecum weight, respectively. These results indicate that the mushroom powders, and in particular the WM powder, have beneficial effects on the intestinal environment in rats. PMID:27309965

  13. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Spray Drying Powders from Stropharia rugoso-annulata and Agaricus brunnescens Blanching Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impacts of carrier agents on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant retention rate of spray drying powders from blanching liquids of Stropharia rugoso-annulata (BLS and Agaricus brunnescens (BLA. Physicochemical, nutritional and antioxidant properties of the powder were examined in order to better determine potential applications of powders. Carrier agents could improve the qualities of the spray drying BLS powders and BLA powders and &beta-Cyclodextrin (&beta-CD was more suitable as carrier agent than Maltodextrin (MD. The powder had higher flour yield and antioxidant retention rate while &beta-CD addition rate was 44.44 g/100 g (w/w.Proximate composition and total phenolics were performed. The powder was ranging from 5 and 30 μm in particle size with spherical particle morphology. BLA powders had higher antioxidant activity (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition ability than BLS powder.

  14. Improving selenium extraction by sequential enzymatic processes for Se-speciation of selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dernovics, M.; Stefanka, Z.; Fodor, P. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science, Szent Istvan University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2002-02-01

    Sample preparation methods based on the use of proteolytic and cell wall digesting enzymes for the speciation analysis of selenized mushroom were investigated. The sample (Agaricus bisporus; 160 {mu}g total Se per g sample) was grown on compost supplemented with selenized yeast. Experiments were carried out to elucidate the possible role of the cell wall digesting enzymes - Lysing enzyme and Driselase - in the improvement of extraction efficiency with and without inhibiting proteolysis during cell wall digestion. A 3-step procedure applying Lysing enzyme and pronase gave the highest extraction efficiency (89%); however, the best species recovery was achieved by a one-step proteolytic procedure. All the procedures of selenium speciation were controlled by independent ICP-AES analysis measuring the total amount of selenium. (orig.)

  15. 双孢菇引进品种筛选试验%Varieties Screening from Introduced Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈全胜; 周桃英; 杨辉德

    2014-01-01

    为筛选适宜湖北省种植的双孢菇(Agaricus bisporus)品种,以湖北省主栽品种As2796为对照,进行了江苏17号、蘑加1号、英秀1号、浙农2号引进品种的筛选试验.通过比较不同品种双孢菇生物学特性指标,综合考虑不同品种双孢菇的性状,浙农2号为较优的引进品种.

  16. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained. PMID:26436656

  17. In Silico Study to Develop a Lectin-Like Protein from Mushroom Agaricus bisporus for Pharmaceutical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaya, Wangsa Tirta; Yunita; Damayanti, Sophi; Wijaya, Caroline; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Retnoningrum, Debbie Sofie; Rachmawati, Heni

    2016-01-01

    A lectin-like protein of unknown function designated as LSMT was recently discovered in the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The protein shares high structural similarity to HA-33 from Clostridium botulinum (HA33) and Ricin-B-like lectin from the mushroom Clitocybe nebularis (CNL), which have been developed as drug carrier and anti-cancer, respectively. These homologous proteins display the ability to penetrate the intestinal epithelial cell monolayer, and are beneficial for oral administration. As the characteristics of LSMT are unknown, a structural study in silico was performed to assess its potential pharmaceutical application. The study suggested potential binding to target ligands such as HA-33 and CNL although the nature, specificity, capacity, mode, and strength may differ. Further molecular docking experiments suggest that interactions between the LSMT and tested ligands may take place. This finding indicates the possible use of the LSMT protein, initiating new research on its use for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27110510

  18. Dynamics of cap opening in Agaricus bisporus and changes in spore numbers vs. cap opening and radiation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, E.; Voeroes, Zs.; Farkas, J. (Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1981-01-01

    The spore count in Agaricus bisporus treated with radiation doses of 1.5 and 2.5 kGy was studied as a function of cap opening and radiation treatment (at 14-16 deg C and RH 80-90%). It was established that spore formation starts in the mushroom while the cap is still closed and the opening of the pileus starts when the spore number begins to increase. In treated mushrooms not only the cap remains closed but in lack of the development of gills the development of spores is also inhibited. Maturation retardation becomes apparent in the inhibition of the increase in number and of the darkening of the spores.

  19. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Jurak

    Full Text Available In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S to guaiacyl (G units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

  20. The fungistatic activity of organic selenium and its application to the production of cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savic Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of organic selenium against pathogenic molds and its use as a potential selenium source in the production of enriched mushrooms were examined. The effect of commercial selenized yeast on mycelia growth was examined using a method with mycelia disks and a well diffusion method. For mushroom enrichment, different concentrations of selenium were added to a growth substrate. The results presented in this paper suggest that the most suitable concentration of selenized yeast that inhibits the growth of the mycopathogenic molds is 70-100 mg/kg of selenium. With the addition of this concentration to the substrate, mushroom fruit bodies will uptake a high level of selenium, about 100 μg/g for Pleurotus spp., and 200 μg/g for Agaricus bisporus in dry weight of the mushroom. Thereby a double effect in the cultivation of mushrooms is achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 and br. III46001

  1. Carbohydrate metabolism in Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach: metabolism of [14C] labelled sugars by sporophores and mycelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When growing sporophores and vegetative mycelium of Agaricus bisporus had been supplied with [14C] labelled hexoses for varying periods of time, the major compounds labelled in both forms were mannitol, trehalose, glutamate, alanine and an unidentified substance. Mannitol was strongly labelled after application of [14C] fructose but only weakly when [14C] glucose was applied. The relative rates of oxidation by sporophores of labelled mannitol, trehalose, glucose and fructose were assessed by measuring 14CO2 production. Glucose and trehalose were the most rapidly oxidized substrates. Glucosephosphatase isomerase (E.C. 5.3.1.9) was extracted from sporohores and assayed. The conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate by the enzyme was competitively inhibited in vitro by 6-phosphogluconate. The control of mannitol synthesis and the functions of mannitol and trehalose are discussed. (author)

  2. QR-koodi turvallisuusviestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Käkönen, Valtteri

    2016-01-01

    Tämän päättötyön aiheena oli kartoittaa QR-koodin käyttöä ja käyttömahdollisuuksia turvallisuusviestinnässä. QR-koodi on lyhenne sanoista Quick Response ja tämä tekniikka on lähtöisin tehtaista, joissa liukuhihnalla kulkevien tavaroiden nopea tunnistaminen on tarpeellista. QR-koodin voi lukea kamerallisella mobiililaitteella. Yleensä QR-koodi luodaan internetsivusta, jolloin käyttäjä on helppo ohjata halutun aineiston ääreen URL-osoitteen pituudesta riippumatta. Selvitys aloitettiin etsim...

  3. Verkon laitteiden valvonta teollisuusympäristössä

    OpenAIRE

    Taskila, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Tämä on Ruukki Oy:n Raahen tehtaalle toteutettu opinnäytetyö, jonka tavoite oli luoda ohjelma ja valvoa siihen lisättyjen laitteiden saavutettavuutta verkossa. Aiemmin tiedot toimimattomista laitteista kulkivat useamman välikäden kautta esimerkiksi työntekijältä työnjohtajalle, joka taas ottaa yhteyttä parhaakseen katsomaansa henkilöön. Tässä ketjussa saattaa kestää pitkiäkin aikoja. Tästä johtuva tauko saattaa laskea tuotannon laitteiden toimintatehoa suurestikin. Aluksi mietittiin eri t...

  4. Osaaminen monipalvelutyössä ruoka- ja puhdistuspalvelualalla

    OpenAIRE

    Enqvist, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää ruoka- ja puhdistuspalvelualan monipalvelutyön osaamisvaatimuksia kunta-alalla. Lisäksi selvitettiin, miten työntekijä voi hankkia monipalvelutyössä tarvittavan osaamisen. Tutkimusote oli kvalitatiivinen, tutkimusmenetelmä teemahaastattelu ja sähköpostikysely. Haastatteluihin osallistui yksitoista ruoka- ja puhdistuspalvelualan asiantuntijaa, ja viisi asiantuntijaa vastasi sähköpostitse. Vastaukset jaoteltiin kolmeen osaamispääomaluokkaan: henkilö-,...

  5. Pilvipalvelut yrityskäytössä

    OpenAIRE

    Farsi Madan, Alex Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Insinöörityössä perehdyttiin pilvipalveluihin ja siihen, miksi niiden suosio on noussut viime vuosien aikana. Tavoitteena oli selvittää, mitä toimenpiteitä kohdeyrityksen täytyy tehdä Google Apps for Workin käyttöönotossa. Google Apps for Work on Googlen yrityksille tarjoama palvelupaketti, joka sisältää web-pohjaisia viestintä- ja yhteistyösovelluksia. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli vertailla puolueettomasti kahta yhteistyösovellusten markkinajohtajaa Googlea ja Microsoftia. Lisäksi tavo...

  6. Mielenterveyskuntoutujien ruokailutottumusten ‎kartoitus EMY ry:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Luukkonen, Anni; Isokangas, Anna-Liisa

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyömme tarkoituksena on kartoittaa mielenterveyskuntoutujien näkemyksiä terveellisestä ‎ruoasta, heidän omia ruokailutottumuksiaan ja näkemyksiä talkooruokailusta Espoon ‎mielenterveysyhdistys ry:ssä (EMY ry). EMY ry tekee töitä mielenterveyden edistämiseksi Espoon ‎seudulla. EMY ry on esittänyt Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulun hankefoorumipäivillä tutkimusideansa ‎talkooruokailunsa kehittämisestä. Toteutimme opinnäytetyön osana Työn rajalla- hanketta, joka ‎on osa Laurea-ammattikorkeakoul...

  7. Interaktiiviset valkotaulut opetuskäytössä

    OpenAIRE

    Pääkkönen, Tero

    2010-01-01

    Tämän työn tarkoituksena oli kuvata interaktiivisten valkotaulujen käyttöä ja ominaisuuksia opetuskäytössä. Interaktiiviseksi valkotauluksi kutsutaan järjestelmää, jossa on tyypillisesti yhdistettynä tietokone, dataprojektori ja valkotaulu liikkeentunnistustekniikalla. Tällöin laitteisto asennetaan paikalleen kiinteästi. Interaktiivisen valkotaulun toimintaperiaatteena on heijastaa tietokoneen näyttö valkotaululle, joka toimii suurena kosketusnäyttönä. Valkotaulun käytetyimmät liikkeentunnist...

  8. Materiaalivirtojen tehostaminen Mac Steel Oy:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Toivonen, Mika

    2011-01-01

    Työssä tutkitaan Mac Steel Oy:n materiaalivirta ongelmia, ongelman lähteitä ja keinoja päästä ongelmista eroon. Mac Steelin tuotanto on keskitytty suuriin kappaleisiin, jotka aiheuttavat tietynlaisia ongelmia materiaalien ja valmiiden tuotteiden käsittelyssä. Asiakaskunta on laaja johon kuuluu maamme johtavia alumiiniveneiden ja ajoneuvoteollisuuden yrityksiä, lisäksi tuotteita valmistetaan teräsrakenne teollisuuden tarpeisiin. Lähtökohtana on tutkia Lean ajatusmaailmaa ja sieltä löytää ne...

  9. Grafiikan ohjaus Vizrt-järjestelmässä

    OpenAIRE

    Makkonen, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Ensin työssä esitellään Vizrt-järjestelmän eri osat eli Content Pilot, Viz Artist, Viz Template Wizards ja Viz Engine. Content Pilot on sapluunoiden käyttämiseen tarkoitettu sovellus. Viz Artist taas on grafiikan tekemiseen tarkoitettu sovellus. Template Wizardilla tehdään sapluunoita ja Viz Enginessä toistetaan valmiit scenet eli näytetään grafiikka. Sitten käydään läpi mitä grafiikan ohjaaminen tarkoittaa, kerrotaan mitä scenet ja sapluunat ovat ja kerrotaan mitä ovat sapluunoiden v...

  10. Pukusuunnittelu näytelmässä Transfinlandia

    OpenAIRE

    Syrjäkari, Tellervo

    2014-01-01

    Lopputyöni taiteellinen osuus on pukusuunnittelu Paula Vesalan kirjoittamaan näytelmään Transfinlandia, jonka kantaesitys sai ensi-iltansa Mediakeskus Lumen studionäyttämöllä 10.4.2014. Näytelmän ohjasi Piia Peltola. Lopputyöni kirjallinen osuus nojaa kokonaisuudessaan taiteelliseen työskentelyyni kyseisessä näytelmässä. Näytelmä kertoo tarinan sukupuolenkorjausprosessia läpikäyvästä pojasta, josta tulee nainen. Olen rajannut kirjallisen työni käsittelemään taiteellista pukusuunnittelut...

  11. Psykiatriset potilastapaukset simulaatio-oppimisympäristössä

    OpenAIRE

    Manssila, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kehittää simulaatiokoulutusta opiskelijoiden oppimisympäristönä ja luoda siihen erilaisia psykiatrisia potilastapauksia. Tämä opinnäytetyö perustui Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulun Lohjan toimipisteen sosiaali- ja terveysalan simulaatio-oppimisympäristön kehittämishankkeeseen. Kehittämishankkeessa oli tarkoituksena luoda somaattisia ja psykiatrisia potilastapauksia, joita käytetään koulutuksessa simulaatio-oppimisympäristössä hyödyntäen simulaatio-ohjelmist...

  12. KOTI KIIKARISSA : Kokemusasiantuntijuus maahanmuuttajien asumiskoulutustyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Haltia, Eero

    2012-01-01

    TIIVISTELMÄ Haltia, Eero. Koti Kiikarissa - Kokemusasiantuntijuus maahanmuuttajien asumiskoulutustyössä. Järvenpää, syksy 2012, 70s., 4 liitettä. Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulu, Järvenpään yksikkö, Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, Diakonian suuntautumisvaihtoehto, sosionomi - diakoni (AMK) Kehittämishankkeen tarkoituksena on julkistaa kokemuksia maahanmuuttajan kokemusasiantuntijuuden käytöstä heidän asumiskoulutuksessaan. Toimintaympäristönä on Espoon kaupunki ja Espoon Järjestöjen Yhteis...

  13. Kotouttava ja ohjaava ote pakolaisperhetyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Toom, Nita; Vesterinen, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Tiivistelmä Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia Jyväskylän maahanmuuttajapalveluiden asiakkaana olevien pakolaisperheiden kanssa tehtävää lastensuojelullista perhetyötä. Toimeksiantajanamme toimi Jyväskylän kaupungin maahanmuuttajapalvelut. Tavoitteena oli selvittää millaista perhetyötä pakolaisperheiden kanssa tehdään, mikä tukee perhetyön onnistumista ja mitä erityispiirteitä ja haasteita perhetyön toteutumiseen liittyy. Pyrimme myös selvittämään, miten perhetyössä näkyy perheen kot...

  14. Musiikki ja musiikkiterapia vaihtoehtoisena hoitomuotona hoitotyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Pelho, Veera

    2013-01-01

    Musiikilla on ihmiseen monimuotoisia vaikutuksia sekä fyysisesti että psyykkisesti. Sitä on käytetty universaalisesti jo vuosisatojen ajan apuna ihmiselämän muutoksissa. Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee musiikin ja musiikkiterapian käyttöä somaattisesti sairaiden potilaiden parissa. Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus on selvittää voiko musiikki ja musiikkiterapia olla osa hoitotyötä, voiko siitä olla apua hoitotyössä sekä tarkastella millaisia hoitotuloksia musiikilla ja musiikkiterapialla on saatu. ...

  15. Hiljaisen tiedon mallittaminen Suominen Kuitukankaat Oy:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Järvistö, Tero

    2007-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on hiljaisen tiedon mallittaminen Suominen Kuitukankaat Oy:ssä. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli löytää keino yrityksen avainhenkilöiden hiljaisen tiedon siirtämiseen mahdollisimman eksplisiittiseen muotoon. Tavoitteena oli luoda yritykselle konkreettinen käytäntö, jonka avulla se voi pyrkiä siirtämään hiljaista tietoa dokumentoituun muotoon. Työn teoriaosassa esitetään hiljaisen tiedon määritelmä sekä käsitellään sen muuttamista eksplisiittiseen muotoon. Lisäksi pohd...

  16. Mobiililaitteiden hallinta Windows -palvelinympäristössä

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, Joonas

    2014-01-01

    Mobiililaitteet ovat yleistyneet valtavasti muutaman viime vuoden aikana. Organisaatioiden työntekijöiden ei enää tarvitse istua kiinteän työpisteen ääressä. Tämä asettaa uusia haasteita organisaation järjestelmänylläpidolle ja tietoturvalle. Mobiililaitteet pitäisi saada hallittavaksi, kuten perinteiset tietokoneet. On olemassa erilaisia vaihtoehtoja, joita organisaatio voi toteuttaa. Opinnäytetyössä tutustutaan yhteen ratkaisuun ja selvitetään, miten laitteiden hallinta onnistuu. Selvit...

  17. Spore behaviors reveal a category of mating-competent infertile heterokaryons in the offspring of the medicinal fungus Agaricus subrufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Moinard, Magalie; Souza Dias, Eustáquio; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Callac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Strain breeding is much less advanced in the edible and medicinal species Agaricus subrufescens than in Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom. Both species have a unifactorial system of sexual incompatibility, a mating type locus tightly linked to a centromere, and basidia producing both homokaryotic (n) and heterokaryotic (n + n) spores. In A. bisporus, breeding is mainly based on direct selection among the heterokaryotic offspring and on hybridization between homokaryotic offspring. The parental heterozygosity is highly maintained in the heterokaryotic offspring due to suppression of recombination and preferential pairing in the spores of nuclei, each one per second meiotic divisions; such "non-sister nuclei" heterokaryons are fertile. In A. subrufescens, recent studies revealed that recombination is not suppressed and that nuclei from the same second meiotic division can also be paired in a spore that give rise to a "sister nuclei" heterokaryon in which the nuclei bear the same mating type allele. The objective of the present work was to investigate the potential function of the different categories of spores in A. subrufescens and their possible use in a genetic breeding program. Using eight co-dominant molecular markers, we found that half of the offspring of the A. subrufescens strain WC837 were heterokaryotic, one quarter of them being sister nuclei heterokaryons. These heterokaryons were infertile and behaved like homokaryons, being even able to cross between each other. In contrast, non-sister nuclei heterokaryons could fruit but inconsistently due to inbreeding depression. Potential roles of these two categories of heterokaryons in nature and consequences for strain breeding are discussed. PMID:26497018

  18. Resource Distribution of Agaricus in the World of Stamps%邮票中的蘑菇属种类及其分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾辉

    2011-01-01

    Through collecting and counting mushroom stamps worldwide,126 pieces stamps of Agaricus,covering 24 species,were found to have been issued in 76 countries or regions until 2010.The resource distribution and cultivation of Agaricus in the world were preliminarily discussed.%截至2010年,通过对全世界范围蘑菇邮票的收集和统计得知,世界上76个国家和地区共发行了蘑菇属24个种计126枚邮票,从中大致了解世界范围上蘑菇属真菌的资源分布和栽培状况。

  19. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt. PMID:24881564

  20. CONSTRUCTION AND SCREENING OF PARTIAL CDNA LIBRARIES OF AGARICUS BISPORUS%双孢蘑菇部分cDNA文库的构建及筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽生; 陈美元; 廖剑华; 卢政辉; 郭仲杰; 李洪荣; M.P.Wach

    2004-01-01

    构建了双孢蘑菇Agaricus bisporus菌株AA和A41的部分cDNA文库,其滴度分别为1.0×105 pfu/ml和6.0×104pfu/ml.用地高辛标记的丛生差异片段探针对文库进行筛选,分别获得5个和3个阳性克隆.

  1. Study on the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase inhibitory properties of Agaricus bisporus and extraction of bioactive fractions using pressurised solvent technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Clavijo, Cristina; Palanisamy, Marimuthu; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Navarro-Rubio, María; Pérez, Margarita; Marin, Francisco R.; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    [Background]: Agaricus bisporus mushrooms were able to lower cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolaemic rats and it was suggested that dietary fibre might inhibit cholesterol absorption. However, A. bisporus extracts were also able to inhibit the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR, the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway) and this might also contribute to the observed lowering of cholesterol levels in serum. [Results]: The methanol-water extracts obtained from A....

  2. KOLIČINA I KAKVOĆA ŠAMPINJONA (AGARICUS BISPORUS) S OBZIROM NA UPOTREBU DVA RAZLIČITA TIPA MICELIJA

    OpenAIRE

    Romanjek Fajdetić, Nataša; Japundžić Palenikić, Božica; Martić, M.; Maglić, O.; Popović, B.

    2015-01-01

    Gljive Agaricus bisporus popularno nazvane šampinjoni najzastupljenije su gljive u pogledu proizvodnje na svjetskoj razini. Izgled gljiva dijelom ovisi o tehnologiji, ali prvenstveno i o karakteristikama micelija koji se upotrebljava za inokulaciju prilikom proizvodnje supstrata za proizvodnju šampinjona. U radu su analizirani rezultati dobiveni berbom gljiva tijekom tri vegetacijska ciklusa. Supstrati su bili inokulirani s dva različita tipa micelija U1 i 608. Tijekom istraživanja pratila su...

  3. 双孢蘑菇酶促褐变特性及褐变的控制%Enzymatic Browning Characteristics and Control of Button Mushroom(Agaricus bisporus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相友; 王健; 朱继英; 赵亚

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively inhibit enzymatic browning in Agaricus bisporus,effects of pH values,temperature,substrate concentration and inhibitors on polyphenol oxidase(PPO) activity from Agaricus bisporus were studied.The results showed that the optimum pH value and temperature for PPO activity from Agaricus bisporus were 6.8 and 15-20℃ using pyrocatechol as substrate.The Michaelis constant of PPO was Km = 0.1072 mol/L.Computational imaging analysis showed that mixture of 0.30 mmol/L sodium sulfite,0.06% ascorbic acid and 0.05% acetic acid had effective inhibition on enzymatic browning in Agaricus bisporus.%为有效控制双孢蘑菇褐变,研究pH值、温度、底物浓度以及抑制剂对双孢蘑菇的多酚氧化酶(polyphenoloxidase,PPO)活性的影响。结果表明:以邻苯二酚为底物,双孢蘑菇PPO最适反应pH6.8,最适反应温度20℃,最适反应底物浓度为0.06mol/L,米氏常数Km为0.1072mol/L。采用计算机图像处理技术对双孢蘑菇褐变程度进行定量检测,得出对双孢蘑菇贮藏保鲜效果较好的褐变抑制剂及其最佳配比为0.30mmol/L半胱氨酸、0.06%抗坏血酸、0.05%乙酸。

  4. Morphological and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Fungus Cladobotryum dendroides, the Causal Agent of Cobweb Disease of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Potočnik; Emil Rekanović; Svetlana Milijašević; Biljana Todorović; Miloš Stepanović

    2008-01-01

    Twenty isolates were isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from Serbian mushroom farms during 2003-2007. The isolates formed white, cottony, aerial colonies on agar media. With age, conidia and colonies turned yellow and redish. Pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed by inoculation of harvested basidiomes of A. bisporus and by casing inoculation. Symptoms similar to natural infection were recorded. Based on pathogenicity tests and morphological character...

  5. 双孢蘑菇多糖分散片的制备%Preparation and Formulation Optimization of Agaricus bisporus Polysaccharide Immediate Release Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍; 解军波; 张彦青; 张明春

    2014-01-01

    The immediate release tablets of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharide were prepared through the wet granulation and compression methods. With the index of disintegrating time and dispersible uniformity , the formulation was optimized with orthogonal experimental design through adjusting the fillers and the contents of disintegrating agents and lubricants. The optimum formulation was obtained as 100 mg Agaricus bisporus polysaccharide, 60 mg croscarmellose sodium, 232 mg microcrystalline cellulose and 8 mg talcum powder (per tablet). According to the formulation, 3 batches of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharide immediate release tablets were prepared successfully with the qualified disintegrating time and dispersible uniformity. The optimized formulation is reasonable for preparation of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharide immediate release tablets.%采用湿法制粒压片法制备双孢蘑菇多糖分散片。以崩解时限,分散均匀性为考察指标,通过调节填充剂种类、崩解剂及润滑剂的用量,应用正交试验优化双孢蘑菇多糖分散片的处方。确定了双孢蘑菇多糖分散片的最佳处方为每片含双孢蘑菇多糖100 mg,交联羧甲基纤维素钠60 mg,微晶纤维素232 mg,滑石粉8 mg。按优化处方制备3批分散片,其崩解时限和分散均匀性均符合要求,且重现性良好。该处方工艺简单易行,成本较低,可以用于双孢蘑菇多糖分散片的制备。

  6. How mushrooms feed on compost: conversion of carbohydrates and linin in industrial wheat straw based compost enabling the growth of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Jurak, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this thesis, the fate of carbohydrates and lignin was studied in industrial wheat straw based compost during composting and growth of Agaricus bisporus. The aim was to understand the availability and degradability of carbohydrates in order to help improve their utilization in the compost. The wheat straw based compost was characterized as being composed mainly of cellulose and lowly substituted xylan. During the first phase of composting, ester-bound substituents were removed from...

  7. N-acetyl cysteine and mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus supplementation decreased parasitaemia and pulmonary oxidative stress in a mice model of malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Quadros Gomes, Bruno A.; da Silva, Lucio F. D.; Quadros Gomes, Antonio R.; Moreira, Danilo R; Dolabela, Maria Fani; Santos, Rogério S.; Green, Michael D; Carvalho, Eliete P.; Percário, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria infection can cause high oxidative stress, which could lead to the development of severe forms of malaria, such as pulmonary malaria. In recent years, the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of the disease has been discussed, as well as the potential benefit of antioxidants supplementation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus supplementation on the pulmonary oxidative changes in an e...

  8. Effect of Agaricus sylvaticus supplementation on nutritional status and adverse events of chemotherapy of breast cancer: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Valadares; Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes; Roberto Cañete

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC) represents the highest incidence of malignancy in women throughout the world. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the body, reduce side-effects associated with chemotherapy and improve the quality of life in patients with cancer. Aim: To evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Agaricus sylvaticus on clinical and nutritional parameters in BC patients undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clini...

  9. Stress analysis around DSCu/SS316 HIP bonded interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIP bonded structure of DSCu/SS316 is proposed for ITER plasma facing components. In 20th SOFT, we reported the fracture strength of HIP bonded interface at ambient temperature. But first wall is at high temperature in operation, we estimate in this study the fracture strength of HIP bonded interface at 473K as a first step of high temperature. The results of fracture strength test indicate that the fracture strength of HIP bonded interface at high temperature is lower than that at ambient temperature. The fracture surfaces of specimens ruptured at ambient temperature and at 473K were observed. Crack surfaces were nearly 10 μm apart from the bonded interface into DSCu side. Scanning electron microscope observation is considered to show the existence of the thin new layer in DSCu region in which the dispersed Al2O3 was diminished. Assuming the thin layer to be composed of Cu, fracture behavior of HIP bonded structure is simulated by three layers model DSCu/Cu/SS316 and the fracture strength is estimated by the stress intensity factor K. The analytical results conclude that crack propagates in DSCu/Cu interface more easily, which is good agreement with fracture surface in experiments

  10. Acousto-microfluidics for screening of ssDNA aptamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee-Woong; Lee, Su Jin; Ren, Shuo; Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Soyoun; Laurell, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a new screening method for obtaining a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) binding aptamer based on an acoustofluidic separation (acoustophoreis) technique. Since acoustophoresis provides simultaneous washing and separation in a continuous flow mode, we efficiently obtained a PSA binding aptamer that shows high affinity without any additional washing step, which is necessary in other screening methods. In addition, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to accelerate the identification of the screened ssDNA pool, improving the selecting process of the aptamer candidate based on the frequency ranking of the sequences. After the 8th round of the acoustophoretic systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) and following sequence analysis with NGS, 7 PSA binding ssDNA aptamer-candidates were obtained and characterized with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for affinity and specificity. As a result of the new SELEX method with PSA as the model target protein, the best PSA binding aptamer showed specific binding to PSA with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.7 nM. PMID:27272884

  11. Acousto-microfluidics for screening of ssDNA aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee-Woong; Lee, Su Jin; Ren, Shuo; Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Soyoun; Laurell, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a new screening method for obtaining a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) binding aptamer based on an acoustofluidic separation (acoustophoreis) technique. Since acoustophoresis provides simultaneous washing and separation in a continuous flow mode, we efficiently obtained a PSA binding aptamer that shows high affinity without any additional washing step, which is necessary in other screening methods. In addition, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to accelerate the identification of the screened ssDNA pool, improving the selecting process of the aptamer candidate based on the frequency ranking of the sequences. After the 8(th) round of the acoustophoretic systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) and following sequence analysis with NGS, 7 PSA binding ssDNA aptamer-candidates were obtained and characterized with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for affinity and specificity. As a result of the new SELEX method with PSA as the model target protein, the best PSA binding aptamer showed specific binding to PSA with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.7 nM. PMID:27272884

  12. Johtamisen työkalut vapaaehtoistyössä : Viestintä Tampereen Teatterin Naisyhdistys RY:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Mäntylä, Mirja

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö on tehty Tampereen Teatterin Naisyhdistys RY:lle ja Tampereen Teatteri Oy:lle. Tampereen Teatterin Naisyhdistys RY organisoi vapaaehtoistyötä kulttuurin hyväksi. Yhdistys toimii Tampereen Teatterissa miehittämällä Tampereen Teatterin palvelut Oy:n kahvilatoiminnan työvuoroja teatterinäytösten aikaisessa kahvilamyynnissä. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on tutkia johtamisen työkalua, viestintää, Tampereen Teatterin Naisyhdistys RY:ssä toimivien ryhmäpäälliköiden näkökulmasta. Nykytila...

  13. Screening of Optimum Medium for Stock Spawn of Agaricus bisporus%双孢蘑菇母种培养基筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁进恒; 李俊辉; 贾延钊; 朱新红; 张卉

    2013-01-01

    The stock spawn of Agaricus bisporus was screened.State,speed and homogeneity of Agaricus bisorus were studied on 7 stock media. The results showed that mycelium grew significantly fast on potato corn flour medium with the fastest average growth of 4.17 mm/d ,the mycelium growth speeds were unanimous,the full pipe times were neat,which was recommended as the stock medium for mass production of Agaricus bisporus.%对双孢蘑菇菌种进行了母种培养基的筛选,从菌丝的长势、长速和均一性3个方面系统地研究了菌丝在7种不同培养基上的生长情况。结果表明:双孢蘑菇菌丝在马铃薯玉米粉培养基(培养基F)上表现出明显的生长优势,日生长速度最快(达4.17 mm/d),菌丝生长速度较为一致,满管时间也较为整齐,可作为双孢蘑菇生产时的母种培养基。

  14. Research Advance in Modeling Cultivation Technology of Agaricus bisporus%双孢蘑菇模式化栽培技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家友; 李可凡; 王尚堃

    2011-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing is a worldwide edible mushroom, and it has high value of cultivation and popularization. This article summarized the research advance in the modeling cultivation technology of Agaricus bisporus from the following five aspects: selection of variety, soil -covering research, formula of cultivation materials, enviromnentai control in the facilities, cultivation pattern, pointed out the key of the modeling cultivation techniques and the necessity of innovating the cultivation pattern, and proposed the future research direction and developmental trend of the modeling cultivation technology of Agaricus bisporus.%双孢蘑菇是一种世界性的食用菌,具有较高的栽培推广价值.从品种选择、覆土研究、培养料配方、设施内环境调控、栽培模式5个方面综述了双孢蘑菇模式化栽培技术研究进展,指出了模式化栽培技术的关键与创新栽培模式的必要性,并提出了今后双孢蘑菇模式化栽培技术进一步的研究方向和发展趋势.

  15. 杀菌剂对巴西蘑菇菌丝生长的影响%The effects of fungicides on the hypha growth of Agaricus blazel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍华

    2001-01-01

    研究了多菌灵、可杀得、扑海因、百菌清、仙生5种杀菌剂对巴西蘑菇菌丝生长的影响.结果表明,不同种类杀菌剂及同一种类杀菌剂不同使用浓度对巴西蘑菇菌丝生长的影响程度存在显著差异.其中可杀得在0.359 g/L时对巴西蘑菇菌丝的抑制作用最小,抑制率仅为2.93%,与对照没有显著差异,可望在巴西蘑菇栽培中使用.%The effects of five fungicides on the hypha growth of Agaricus blazel were studied. The results showed that the different kinds and treatment concentrations of fungicides on the hypha growth of Agaricus blazel had significant difference. It was proved that the Kocide at concentration of 0.359 g/L had the least effect with an inhibitory rate of 2.93% and had no significant difference with contrast. Therefore, it could be used in Agaricus blazel cultivation.

  16. Y-sukupolven johtaminen Airpro Oy:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtola, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Y-sukupolvi on jo hämmentämässä työelämää. Näitä 1980−1990 -luvuilla syntyneitä ihmisiä kuvaillaan kärsimättömäksi sukupolveksi, joka ei auktoriteetteja kunnioita. Monissa yrityksissä ollaan hieman hämillään näiden nuorien työntekijöiden kanssa, sillä heitä tuntuvat motivoivan erilaiset asiat kuin aikaisempia sukupolvia. Airpro Oy:n turvatarkastusyksikkö muodostaa yrityksen liikevaihdollisesti suurimman yksikön. Sen 336 työntekijästä suurin osa kuuluu y-sukupolveen. Yrityksessä on huomatt...

  17. Quiescent and outburst photometry of the dwarf nova SS Cygni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honey, W.B.; Bath, G.T.; Charles, P.A. and others

    1989-02-01

    It has been suggested that the wide outbursts of U Gem stars are analogous to the wide or 'super' outbursts of SU UMa stars and hence that the basic mechanism which gives rise to the two types of outburst is the same. If this is true, then the U Gem type stars should also exhibit some of the more exotic properties associated with superoutbursts in SU UMa stars, in particular superhumps. In order to test this hypothesis, extensive photometric observations of a wide and a narrow outburst (and also the period of quiescence separating them) of the dwarf nova SS Cygni were obtained in order to search for modulations at or near the orbital period. No such modulations were found in either the wide or narrow outbursts to a limit of /similar to/ 0.05 mag.

  18. Interaction of deuterium with SS316 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation and desorption of deuterium implanted in SS316 austenitic stainless steel to concentrations ∼1 at.%, the influence of helium and radiation-induced defects on the process of mass transfer of deuterium and the mechanical properties of steel at different levels of damage were studied. The samples were irradiated with 15 keV/D, 30 keV/He and 1.4 MeV/Ar ions. For modeling of the defect structure formed in the materials of nuclear power plants, the irradiation with high-energy argon ions was performed. Studies were carried out by means of ion implantation, nuclear reactions D(3He,p)4He with analyzing beam of 3He (E = 0.3...1.4 MeV), thermal desorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. It was found that the retention of deuterium in steel is increased significantly in the presence of radiation damage created by helium and argon pre-implantation

  19. PCI-SS: MISO dynamic nonlinear protein secondary structure prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboul-Magd Mohammed O

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the function of a protein is largely dictated by its three dimensional configuration, determining a protein's structure is of fundamental importance to biology. Here we report on a novel approach to determining the one dimensional secondary structure of proteins (distinguishing α-helices, β-strands, and non-regular structures from primary sequence data which makes use of Parallel Cascade Identification (PCI, a powerful technique from the field of nonlinear system identification. Results Using PSI-BLAST divergent evolutionary profiles as input data, dynamic nonlinear systems are built through a black-box approach to model the process of protein folding. Genetic algorithms (GAs are applied in order to optimize the architectural parameters of the PCI models. The three-state prediction problem is broken down into a combination of three binary sub-problems and protein structure classifiers are built using 2 layers of PCI classifiers. Careful construction of the optimization, training, and test datasets ensures that no homology exists between any training and testing data. A detailed comparison between PCI and 9 contemporary methods is provided over a set of 125 new protein chains guaranteed to be dissimilar to all training data. Unlike other secondary structure prediction methods, here a web service is developed to provide both human- and machine-readable interfaces to PCI-based protein secondary structure prediction. This server, called PCI-SS, is available at http://bioinf.sce.carleton.ca/PCISS. In addition to a dynamic PHP-generated web interface for humans, a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP interface is added to permit invocation of the PCI-SS service remotely. This machine-readable interface facilitates incorporation of PCI-SS into multi-faceted systems biology analysis pipelines requiring protein secondary structure information, and greatly simplifies high-throughput analyses. XML is used to represent the input

  20. GSM-moduuli sulautetussa järjestelmässä

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    ssä opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin GSM-moduulin ohjaukseen ja käyttöön sulautetussa järjestelmässä. Työssä käytettiin apuna Olimexin AVR-GSM-kehitysalustaa. Kehitysalustan tärkeimmät komponentit ovat ATMega32-mikrokontrolleri sekä Simcomin SIM300D GSM-moduuli. Työssä esitellään AVR-GSM-kehitysalusta ja SIM300D GSM-moduulin ohjaus AT-komennoilla. Työssä tehtiin myös esimerkkisovellus, joka havainnollistaa kehitysalustan ja GSM-moduulin käyttöä ja ohjausta. Opinnäytetyön ohjelmistokehitys t...

  1. "Hyväksyvässä ilmapiirissä kannattaisi kaikkien ainakin vierailla" : ryhmätoiminnan merkitys mielenterveyskuntoutujien elämässä

    OpenAIRE

    Hritcu, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Hritcu, Mihaela. ”Hyväksyvässä ilmapiirissä kannattaisi kaikkien ainakin vierailla”. Ryhmätoiminnan merkitys mielenterveyskuntoutujien elämässä. Helsinki, kevät 2013, 60s., 1 liite. Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulu, Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, sosionomi (AMK). Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, mikä merkitys on Punaisen Ristin ryhmätoiminnalla mielenterveyskuntoutujan elämässä. Tarkoituksenani on myös tutkimuksen pohjalta tuoda esiin ryhmäläisten näkökulmia ja toiveita ryhmätoiminna...

  2. Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Barros Colauto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis.Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However

  3. Crescimento micelial in vitro de cinco linhagens de Agaricus bisporus submetidas a diferentes condições de temperatura = In vitro mycelium growth of five Agaricus bisporus strains submitted to different temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial in vitro das linhagens ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01 de Agaricus bisporus em meios de cultura sólidos à base de composto. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio de medições de quatro diâmetros das colônias, a cada 48h, durante 12 dias de incubação, no escuro, a 20 e 25ºC. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com uso do teste de Tukey para a comparação das médias. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que: o crescimento micelial de A. bisporus é influenciado pela temperatura de incubação; a temperatura de 25°C foi mais favorável para o crescimento micelial de todas as linhagens de A. bisporus; na temperatura de 20°C, o melhor crescimento foi obtido com as linhagens ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01; na temperatura de 25°C, a linhagem ABI-01/01 apresentou crescimento significativamente maior que todas as demais.The in vitro mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus strains ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 and ABI-01/01 was evaluated in solidculture media made up of compost. Evaluations were performed by means of measurements of four diameters of the colonies, every 48 hours, during 12 days of incubation in darkness under 20 and 25ºC. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, using the Tukey test to compare averages. Based on the obtained results, it was verified that: mycelium growth of A. bisporus is influenced by the temperature of incubation; the temperature of 25°C was more favorable to the mycelium growth of all A. bisporus strains; under the temperature of 20°C, the best growth was obtained with strainsABI-06/05 and ABI-01/01 and, under the temperature of 25°C, strain ABI-01/01 showed significantly higher growth than all other strains.

  4. Varaosasovelluksen suunnittelu ja toteutus ASP.NET-ympäristössä

    OpenAIRE

    Rauhala, Henri

    2015-01-01

    ssä opinnäytetyössä kerrotaan varaosasovelluksen suunnittelusta ja toteutuksesta ASP.NET-ympäristössä Saides Engineering Oy:n asiakkaalle. Kyseisellä asiakkaalla oli ennen projektin aloitusta aiempi versio web-pohjaisesta varaosasovelluksesta, jota haluttiin nyt kehittää kauppapaikan suuntaan. Opinnäytetyössä käydään läpi uuden sovelluksen suunnittelua, ominaisuuksia sekä sovelluksen ohjelmointiratkaisuja. Projektin kehitystiimi koostui itsestäni sekä Saides Engineering Oy:n toimitusjoh...

  5. Tiimityötä kehittämässä Ruskatalojen palveluyhdistyksessä

    OpenAIRE

    Haiko, Anne; Huhtaviita, Eija

    2015-01-01

    TIIVISTELMÄ Haiko, Anne & Huhtaviita, Eija. Tiimityötä kehittämässä Ruskatalojen palveluyhdistyksessä. Diak, Pori, syksy 2015, 65 s., 3liitettä. Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulu, Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, Lasten-, nuorten- ja perheiden hyvinvointi, Sosionomi YAMK. Tässä opinnäytetyössä kehittämisen kohteena oli tiimitoiminta Ruskatalojen palveluyhdistys ry:ssä. Kehittämistyömme tavoitteena oli kehittää tiimityötä yhdistyksessä. Kehittämistyön välineenä käytimme tulevaisuus...

  6. Projektioppiminen yritysympäristössä : Case Dream Hostel & Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Viira, Juuso

    2015-01-01

    ssä opinnäytetyössä tuotetaan tietoa projektin toteuttamisesta käytännössä hotelli- ja ravintola-alan ammattikorkeakouluopiskelijoiden ja yrityksen välillä. Projektityöskentely on keskeinen opiskelumuoto Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulun hotelli- ja ravintola-alan koulutusohjelmassa. Projektiyhteistyötä toteutetaan yhteistyössä yritysten ja yhdistysten kanssa. Tämän työn tapausesimerkkinä tarkastellaan TAMKin hotelli- ja ravintola-alan opiskelijoiden marraskuussa 2014 toteuttamaa projektia...

  7. Työssäoppimisenohjauksen manuaali : kehitystyö Hotelli Hiltonissa

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviö, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli kehittää työssäoppimisen ohjaajille opas opiskelijoiden ohjaamiseen. Opas toteutettiin infografin muodossa. Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin työssäoppimisen teoreettisia perusteita, valotettiin millainen on työpaikka oppimisympäristönä ja avattiin työssäoppimisen ohjauksen käsitteitä̈. Lisäksi käsiteltiin hiljaisen tiedon olemusta kokin ammatissa. Kokoavana teoriana esiteltiin Myrkän ja Hätösen ja Friskin ideaalimalli työssäoppimisen ohjaukseen. Kehitys...

  8. Analytical Investigation and Comparison on Performance of Ss316, Ss440c and Titanium Alloy Tool Materials Used As Single Point Cutting Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Amaresh Kumar Dhadange

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analysis for performance studies of SS316, SS44OC and Titanium Alloy used as a cutting tool is presented in this paper. Tool temperature, tools wear and life of the tool is investigated analytically. These theoretical values are compared with the experimental studies conducted by the author. The values obtained from experimental studies are comparable with analytical values and variation is the correlation between theoretical and experimental values is of the order of 15%.

  9. Multimodal pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Ohashi, Kazunori; Komagata, Osamu; Kasai, Shinji; Tomita, Takashi; Sonye, George; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Mwatele, Cassian; Njenga, Sammy M; Mwandawiro, Charles; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. are the most important species for malaria transmission. Pyrethroid resistance of these vector mosquitoes is one of the main obstacles against effective vector control. The objective of the present study was to monitor the pyrethroid susceptibility in the 3 major malaria vectors in a highly malaria endemic area in western Kenya and to elucidate the mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in these species. Gembe East and West, Mbita Division, and 4 main western islands in the Suba district of the Nyanza province in western Kenya were used as the study area. Larval and adult collection and bioassay were conducted, as well as the detection of point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (1014L) by using direct DNA sequencing. A high level of pyrethroid resistance caused by the high frequency of point mutations (L1014S) was detected in An. gambiae s.s. In contrast, P450-related pyrethroid resistance seemed to be widespread in both An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. Not a single L1014S mutation was detected in these 2 species. A lack of cross-resistance between DDT and permethrin was also found in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s., while An. gambiae s.s. was resistant to both insecticides. It is noteworthy that the above species in the same area are found to be resistant to pyrethroids by their unique resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, it is interesting that 2 different resistance mechanisms have developed in the 2 sibling species in the same area individually. The cross resistance between permethrin and DDT in An. gambiae s.s. may be attributed to the high frequency of kdr mutation, which might be selected by the frequent exposure to ITNs. Similarly, the metabolic pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. is thought to develop without strong selection by DDT. PMID:21853038

  10. The effects of Agaricus sylvaticus fungi dietary supplementation on the metabolism and blood pressure of patients with colorectal cancer during post surgical phase Efectos de la suplementación dietética con hongos Agaricus sylvaticus en el metabolismo y la presión arterial en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal en la fase postoperatoria

    OpenAIRE

    R. Costa Fortes; M.ª R. Carvalho Garbi Novaes

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic, biochemical and enzymatic alterations are common in patients with cancer. Medicinal fungi has been used as adjuvants in cancer therapy due to its immunomodulatory and nutritional effects. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic and blood pressure effects on patients with colorectal cancer after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus. Methods: The methodology used was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial c...

  11. Efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms cultivation. Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Imbach Efektywność zastosowania wzrastających dawek hydrożelu w uprawie pieczarki dwuzarodnikowej Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Imbach

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Koc; Stanisław Szarek

    2011-01-01

    The economical efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Imbach SYLVAN 737) has been experimented in controlled weather conditions. It was found that the application of a 50 and 150 g•m-2 hydrogel dose is not economically proved due to the lack of harvest significant increase. In the cultivation of this particular variety of mushrooms, the optimal hydrogel dose should not be 100 g•m-2 of subsoil.

  12. Jets of SS433 on scales of dozens parsecs

    CERN Document Server

    Panferov, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    The radio nebula W50 harbours the relativistic binary system SS433, which is a source of the powerful wind and jets. The origin of W50 is wrapped in the interplay of the wind, supernova remnant and jets. The evolution of the jets on the scales of the nebula is a Rosetta stone for its origin. To disentangle the roles of these components, we study physical conditions of the jets propagation inside W50, and determine deceleration of the jets. The morphology and parameters of the interior of W50 are analyzed using the available observations of the eastern X-ray lobe, which traces the jet. In order to estimate deceleration of this jet, we devised a simplistic model of the viscous interaction, via turbulence, of a jet with the ambient medium, which would fit mass entrainment from the ambient medium into the jets of the radio galaxy 3C31, the well studied case of continuously decelerating jets. X-ray observations suggest that the eastern jet persists through W50 as hollow one, and is recollimated to the opening $\\si...

  13. Evolution of microstructure in laser welding of SS304L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser welding is an important joining process and its application in industries is growing rapidly. One can produce laser welds over a wide range of process parameters and this offers very good opportunity for producing microstructure of different morphology and scales in the weldment. Weld beads have been produced on 5 mm thick plates of SS304L using CW Nd-YAG laser. Laser power was varied in 200 W to 1000 W range and welding speed was varied in 100 mm/mm to 1000 mm/mm. This resulted in weld beads of different morphology. Microstructure of the weld beads was examined on the cross-section as well as in the axial direction using optical microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to study evolution of the microstructure in the weldment. Microstructure was cellular and cellular-dendritic with grains growing from the fusion line towards the centerline. In the central region, cellular growth along the welding direction was observed. The cell size was found to increase with increasing laser power and decreasing welding speed. The findings are presented in this paper. (author)

  14. More on the circumbinary disk of SS 433

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, M G

    2010-01-01

    Certain lines in spectra of the Galactic microquasar SS 433, in particular the brilliant H alpha line, have been interpreted as emission from a circumbinary disk. In this interpretation the orbital speed of the glowing material is in excess of 200 km/s and the mass of the binary system in excess of 40 solar masses. A very simple model of excitation of disk material is in remarkable agreement with the observations, yet it seems that the very existence of a circumbinary disk is regarded as controversial. Published spectra, taken almost nightly over two orbital periods of the binary system, show H alpha and He I lines; these were analysed as superpositions of Gaussian components. A model in which the excitation of any given patch of putative circumbinary material is proportional to the inverse square of its instantaneous distance from the compact object was constructed and compared with observations. The new model provides an excellent description of the observations. The variation of the H alpha and He I spectr...

  15. Interpretation of observations of the circumbinary disk of SS 433

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, M G

    2010-01-01

    Context. The Galactic microquasar SS 433 is possessed of a circumbinary disk most clearly seen in the brilliant Balmer H alpha emission line. The orbital speed of the glowing material is an important determinant of the mass of the binary system. The circumbinary disk may be fed through the L2 point and in turn may feed a very extended radio feature known as the ruff. Aims. To present an analysis of spectroscopic optical data from H alpha and He I spectral lines which reveal the circumbinary disk. To use comparisons of the rather different signals to better understand the disk and improve estimates of the rotational speed of the inner rim. To present a simple model which naturally explains some apparently bizarre spectral variations with orbital phase. Methods. Published spectra, taken almost nightly over two orbital periods of the binary system, are analysed. H alpha and He I lines are analysed as superpositions of Gaussian components and a simple model constructed. Results. The data are understood in terms o...

  16. Tritium release from SS316 under vacuum condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma facing surface of the ITER vacuum vessel, partly made of low carbon austenitic stainless steel type 316L, will incorporate tritium during machine operation. In this paper the kinetics of tritium release from stainless steel type 316 into vacuum and into a noble gas stream are compared and modelled. Type 316 stainless steel specimens loaded with tritium either by exposure to 1.2 kPa HT at 573 K or submersion into liquid HTO at 298 K showed characteristic thin surface layers trapping tritium in concentrations far higher than those determined in the bulk. The evolution of the tritium depth profile in the bulk during heating under vacuum was non-discernible from that of tritium liberated into a stream of argon. Only the relative amount of the two released tritium-species, i.e. HT or HTO, was different. Temperature-dependent depth profiles could be predicted with a one-dimensional diffusion model. Diffusion coefficients derived from fitting of the tritium release into an evacuated vessel or a stream of argon were found to be (1.4 ± 1.0)*10-7 and (1.3 ± 0.9)*10-9 cm2/s at 573 and 423 K, respectively. Polished surfaces on type SS316 stainless steel inhibit considerably the thermal release rate of tritium

  17. Tritium release from SS316 under vacuum condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torikai, Y.; Penzhorn, R.D. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The plasma facing surface of the ITER vacuum vessel, partly made of low carbon austenitic stainless steel type 316L, will incorporate tritium during machine operation. In this paper the kinetics of tritium release from stainless steel type 316 into vacuum and into a noble gas stream are compared and modelled. Type 316 stainless steel specimens loaded with tritium either by exposure to 1.2 kPa HT at 573 K or submersion into liquid HTO at 298 K showed characteristic thin surface layers trapping tritium in concentrations far higher than those determined in the bulk. The evolution of the tritium depth profile in the bulk during heating under vacuum was non-discernible from that of tritium liberated into a stream of argon. Only the relative amount of the two released tritium-species, i.e. HT or HTO, was different. Temperature-dependent depth profiles could be predicted with a one-dimensional diffusion model. Diffusion coefficients derived from fitting of the tritium release into an evacuated vessel or a stream of argon were found to be (1.4 ± 1.0)*10{sup -7} and (1.3 ± 0.9)*10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/s at 573 and 423 K, respectively. Polished surfaces on type SS316 stainless steel inhibit considerably the thermal release rate of tritium.

  18. Corrosion erosion test of SS316 in flowing Pb Bi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K.; Kurata, Y.; Saito, S.; Futakawa, M.; Sasa, T.; Oigawa, H.; Wakai, E.; Miura, K.

    2003-05-01

    Corrosion tests of austenitic stainless tube were done under flowing Pb-Bi conditions for 3000 h at 450 °C. Specimens were 316SS produced as a tubing form with 13.8 mm outer diameter, 2 mm thickness and 40 cm length. During operation, maximum temperature, temperature difference and flow velocity of Pb-Bi at the specimen were kept at 450, 50 °C, and 1 m/s, respectively. After the test, specimen and components of the loop were cut and examined by optical microscope, SEM, EDX, WDX and X-ray diffraction. Pb-Bi adhered on the surface of the specimen even after Pb-Bi was drained out to the storage tank from the circulating loop. Results differed from a stagnant corrosion test in that the specimen surface became rough and the corrosion rate was maximally 0.1 mm/3000 h. Mass transfer from the high temperature to the lower temperature area was observed: crystals of Fe-Cr were found on the tube surface in the low-temperature region. The sizes of crystals varied from 0.1 to 0.2 mm. The depositing crystals were ferrite grains and the chemical composition ratio (mass%) of Fe to Cr was 9:1.

  19. Laser Welding of Ultra-Fine Grained Steel SS400

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yun; TIAN Zhi-ling; CHEN Wu-zhu; WANG Cheng; BAO Gang

    2003-01-01

    The effects of laser welding on microstructure and mechanical properties of ultra-fine grained steel SS400 were studied. The plasma arc welding and MAG welding were conducted to make a comparison between these weldings and laser welding. The coarse grain heat-affected zone (HAZ) of laser welding was simulated using thermomechanical simulation machine, and the impact toughness was tested. The deep penetration laser welding produces weld of large depth and narrow width. The weld metal and HAZ of laser welding was heated and then cooled rapidly. The prior austenite grain size of coarse grain HAZ is 1/10 of that for arc welding. For laser welding, the toughness of weld metal is higher than that of base metal, and the toughness of the coarse grain HAZ of laser welding is on a level with that of base metal. Matching lower laser power with lower welding speed, the hardening tendency of the weld metal and the coarse grain HAZ can be decreased. There is no softened zone. The tensile strength of welded joint formed by laser is higher than that of base metal. The joint has good bending ductility.

  20. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from the American Forces Information Service (AFIS) and one S&S may attend the meetings of the other S... DoD policy, the Unified Commands shall ask the Director of the AFIS for resolution. The S&S commander... Unified Commands shall forward the on-going strategic and corporate plan to the Director of the AFIS...

  1. Some inequalities of Ostrowski and Grüss type for triple integrals on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmad Mir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish some inequalities of Ostrowski and Grüss type for triple integrals on arbitrary time scales involving three functions and their partial derivatives. We also discuss the discrete Ostrowski and Grüss type inequalities for triple sumon time scale.

  2. Some inequalities of Ostrowski and Grüss type for triple integrals on time scales

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir Ahmad Mir; Roman Ullah

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we establish some inequalities of Ostrowski and Grüss type for triple integrals on arbitrary time scales involving three functions and their partial derivatives. We also discuss the discrete Ostrowski and Grüss type inequalities for triple sumon time scale.

  3. Metabolic and transcriptomic changes induced in Arabidopsis by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Dekkers, E.; Pineda, A.; Guillod, L.; Bouwmeester, K.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic resistance induced in plants by nonpathogenic rhizobacteria is typically effective against multiple pathogens. Here, we show that root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 (Pf.SS101) enhanced resistance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) against several bacterial pathogens, in

  4. Small specimen test techniques for characterizing the mechanical property changes of irradiated AISI SS 316

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The details of the small punch and ball-indentation test techniques and their standardization for SS 316 which are under progress will also be presented. A comparison of the three test techniques for evaluating the strength and ductility changes of irradiated SS316 are discussed

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of latent isoform PPO4 mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyphenol oxidase 4 (PPO4) from the natural source A. bisporus was crystallized in its latent precursor form (pro-tyrosinase; Ser2–Thr565) using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na6[TeW6O24]·22H2O as a crystallization additive. Tyrosinase exhibits catalytic activity for the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones. Owing to polymerization of these quinones, brown-coloured high-molecular-weight compounds called melanins are generated. The latent precursor form of polyphenol oxidase 4, one of the six tyrosinase isoforms from Agaricus bisporus, was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The obtained crystals belonged to space group C121 (two molecules per asymmetric unit) and diffracted to 2.78 Å resolution. The protein only formed crystals under low-salt conditions using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na6[TeW6O24]·22H2O as a co-crystallization agent

  6. The cel3 gene of Agaricus bisporus codes for a modular cellulase and is transcriptionally regulated by the carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C M; Yagüe, E; Raguz, S; Wood, D A; Thurston, C F

    1994-08-01

    A 52-kDa protein, CEL3, has been separated from the culture filtrate of Agaricus bisporus during growth on cellulose. A PCR-derived probe was made, with a degenerate oligodeoxynucleotide derived from the amino acid sequence of a CEL3 CNBr cleavage product and was used to select cel3 cDNA clones from an A. bisporus cDNA library. Two allelic cDNAs were isolated. They showed 98.8% identity of their nucleotide sequences. The deduced amino acid sequence and domain architecture of CEL3 showed a high degree of similarity to those of cellobiohydrolase II of Trichoderma reesei. Functional expression of cel3 cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was achieved by placing it under the control of a constitutive promoter and fusing it to the yeast invertase signal sequence. Recombinant CEL3 secreted by yeast showed enzymatic activity towards crystalline cellulose. At long reaction times, CEL3 was also able to degrade carboxymethyl cellulose. Northern (RNA) analysis showed that cel3 gene expression was induced by cellulose and repressed by glucose, fructose, 2-deoxyglucose, and lactose. Glycerol, mannitol, sorbitol, and maltose were neutral carbon sources. Nuclear run-on analysis showed that the rate of synthesis of cel3 mRNA in cellulose-grown cultures was 13 times higher than that in glucose-grown cultures. A low basal rate of cel3 mRNA synthesis was observed in the nuclei isolated from glucose-grown mycelia. PMID:8085821

  7. Scytalidium thermophilum-colonized grain, corncobs and chopped wheat straw substrates for the production of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose E; Royse, Daniel J

    2009-02-01

    We examined the possibility of cultivating Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on various grains and agricultural by-products, with the objective of improving yield capacity of substrate pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum (St). Radial growth rate (RGR) of St at 45 degrees C ranged from no growth on sterile wheat grain to 14.9 mm/d on whole oats. The linear extension rate (LER) of Ab, grown on St-colonized substrate (4 days at 45 degrees C), ranged from a low of 2.7 mm/d on 100% corncobs to 4.7 mm/d on a 50/50 mixture of ground corncobs/millet grain. Several other substrates containing wheat straw+ground corncobs+boiled millet and pre-colonized by St (4 days at 42+/-3 degrees C), were evaluated for production of Ab. The biological efficiency (BE) of production increased linearly with the addition of millet to the formula. However, substrates with millet levels 84% often were contaminated before mushroom harvest. Maximum BE (99%) and yield (21.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained on St-colonized wheat straw+2% hydrated lime supplemented with 9% commercial supplement added both at spawning and at casing. PMID:18954978

  8. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction, Purification, and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Zhou, Xinghai

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides (ABP) were extracted by complex enzyme-assisted extraction methodology. The following were optimal conditions for the extraction of crude ABP: complex enzyme amount, 2.2%; temperature, 62°C; time, 3 h; and pH, 4. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude ABP was 6.87%. The crude ABP was purified by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and one fraction-namely, ABP-1-was produced. The ABP-1 contained 93.67% carbohydrate, 1.46% protein, and 0.62% uronic acid. The constituent monosaccharides were predominantly glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose. The antioxidant activities of ABP-1 were investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, its ferric-reducing activity power, and the reducing power assay. At a concentration of 1.2 mg/mL, ABP-1 seemed to possess good free radical scavenging activity, with a scavenging value of about 56%. The results indicate that ABP-1 has good antioxidant activity. PMID:26756190

  9. Effects of Some Beneficial Bacteria in Casing Soil on Growth and Yield of Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çetin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the interaction between some bacteria naturally existing in casing soil and Agaricus bisporus (Sylvan Hauser A15 hypha in laboratory (in vitro and cultivation (in vivo conditions, and to confirm its effects on mushroom yield. Totally 32 bacteria (3 Gram (+ and 29 Fluorescent Pseudomonads was isolated from casing soil and healthy sporophores. As a result of in vitro experiment carried out to determine the effects of bacteria on mycelium growth of A. bisporus, 24 bacterial isolates were found more effective at the rate of 2 to 115% than control treatment. To determine the effects of bacterium, chosen at the end of in vitro experiments, on mushroom yield in cultivation conditions, three experiments were established in March, May and July in 2008. At the end of experiments, bacterial isolates provided 8 – 40 % increase in total yield. Population density and change in population number related to time was observed during growing period, after the inoculation of bacterial isolates into casing soil. According to the results, Pseudomonas fluorescens (T 4/2 and Ş 8, P.putida (Ş 2/1 and Ş 10 and Bacillus mycoides (T 7/2 bacterial isolates were colonized successfully both in casing soil and sporophores.

  10. Transcription analysis of pyranose dehydrogenase from the basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus and characterization of the recombinantly expressed enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonaus, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Sygmund, Christoph; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens

    2016-03-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a litter degrading basidiomycete commonly found in humic-rich environments. It is used as model organism and cultivated in large scale for food industry. Due to its ecological niche it produces a variety of enzymes for detoxification and degradation of humified plant litter. One of these, pyranose dehydrogenase, is thought to play a role in detoxification and lignocellulose degradation. It is a member of the glucose-methanol-choline family of flavin-dependent enzymes and oxidizes a wide range of sugars with concomitant reduction of electron acceptors like quinones. In this work, transcription of pdh in A. bisporus was investigated with real-time PCR revealing influence of the carbon source on pdh expression levels. The gene was isolated and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. Characterization of the recombinant enzyme showed a higher affinity towards disaccharides compared to other tested pyranose dehydrogenases from related Agariceae. Homology modeling and sequence alignments indicated that two loops of high sequence variability at substrate access site could play an important role in modulating these substrate specificities. PMID:26616098

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of latent isoform PPO4 mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Molitor, Christian [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria); Al-Oweini, Rami; Kortz, Ulrich [Jacobs University, PO Box 750 561, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Rompel, Annette, E-mail: annette.rompel@univie.ac.at [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2014-01-23

    Polyphenol oxidase 4 (PPO4) from the natural source A. bisporus was crystallized in its latent precursor form (pro-tyrosinase; Ser2–Thr565) using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}]·22H{sub 2}O as a crystallization additive. Tyrosinase exhibits catalytic activity for the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones. Owing to polymerization of these quinones, brown-coloured high-molecular-weight compounds called melanins are generated. The latent precursor form of polyphenol oxidase 4, one of the six tyrosinase isoforms from Agaricus bisporus, was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The obtained crystals belonged to space group C121 (two molecules per asymmetric unit) and diffracted to 2.78 Å resolution. The protein only formed crystals under low-salt conditions using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}]·22H{sub 2}O as a co-crystallization agent.

  12. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost. PMID:27337959

  13. Hepatoprotective effects of polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater against CCl₄-induced hepatic injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiafu; Ou, Yixin; Yew, Tai Wai David; Liu, Jingna; Leng, Bo; Lin, Zhichao; Su, Yi; Zhuang, Yuanhong; Lin, Jiaofen; Li, Xiumin; Xue, Yu; Pan, Yutian

    2016-01-01

    During the industrial production of canned mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), a large quantity of wastewater is produced. In this study, the wastewater generated during the canning of mushroom was analyzed. From this wastewater, four polysaccharide components (Abnp1001, Abnp1002, Abap1001, and Abap1002) with hepatic-protective activity were isolated by ultrafiltration, DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-200 size-exclusion chromatography. Results of ultraviolet spectra analysis and molecular weight determination showed that Abnp1001, Abnp1002, Abap1001 and Abap1002 were uniform with average molecular weights of 336, 12.8, 330 and 15.8kDa, respectively. The monosaccharide composition analysis using gas chromatography (GC) showed that the four fractions were heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of glucose. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analysis showed that the isolated fractions were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. Additionally, the potential hepatoprotective activities of these polysaccharides against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in mice were studied. Notably, Abnp1002 and Abap1002 could lower the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in serum in a dose dependent manner and reduce the hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, as well as inflammatory infiltration. These results indicate that these two polysaccharides had protective effects on acute hepatic injury induced by CCl4 in mice and suggest that the polysaccharides extracted from A. bisporus industrial wastewater might have potential in therapeutics of acute hepatic injury. PMID:26454111

  14. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeffer on Glycemia and Cholesterol after Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Betti Mascaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of the Agaricus sylvaticus (sun mushroom on biochemical tests of the plasma and on the morphology of the pancreas in an experimental model of type I diabetes mellitus (DM1 induced by streptozotocin. One gram of dry A. sylvaticus was homogenized and mixed with the chow. Male Wistar rats were allocated as follows: normoglycemic control that received commercial chow; normoglycemic control group that received chow with A. sylvaticus; diabetic group that received commercial chow; and diabetic group that received chow with A. sylvaticus. Weight, food, and water consumption were measured every two days. Blood glucose levels were measured twice a week. After 30 days, the animals were euthanized and blood was collected for the analysis of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT, alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea. The pancreas was processed for microscopic analysis. A. sylvaticus modulated the levels of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea to levels similar to those found in the controls and led to compensatory hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans. A. sylvaticus is potentially beneficial in the control of type 1 diabetes, and it may also prevent pancreas damage.

  15. Bioremediation of multi-polluted soil by spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrate: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and Pb availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, Carlos; Yunta, Felipe; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates the effect of three spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS) application methods on bioremediation of soil multi-polluted with Pb and PAH from close to a shooting range with respect natural attenuation (SM). The remediation treatments involve (i) use of sterilized SAS to biostimulate the inherent soil microbiota (SSAS) and two bioaugmentation possibilities (ii) its use without previous treatment to inoculate A. bisporus and inherent microbiota (SAS) or (iii) SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp). The efficiency of each bioremediation microcosm was evaluated by: fungal activity, heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacterial population, PAH removal, Pb mobility and soil eco-toxicity. Biostimulation of the native soil microbiology (SSAS) achieved similar levels of PAH biodegradation as SM and poor soil detoxification. Bioaugmented microcosms produced higher PAH removal and eco-toxicity reduction via different routes. SAS increased the PAH-degrading bacterial population, but lowered fungal activity. Abisp was a good inoculum carrier for A. bisporus exhibiting high levels of ligninolytic activity, the total and PAH-degrading bacteria population increased with incubation time. The three SAS applications produced slight Pb mobilization (<0.3%). SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp) proved the best application method to remove PAH, mainly BaP, and detoxify the multi-polluted soil. PMID:26188871

  16. Agaricus bisporus and its in vitro culture as a source of indole compounds released into artificial digestive juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Kała, Katarzyna; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Krakowska, Agata; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2016-05-15

    The popularity of Agaricus bisporus results not only from the quality of the flavors, but also from the content of many substances of therapeutic properties. This paper presents a study on RP-HPLC determination of the content of indole compounds released from the lyophilized biomass from in vitro cultures of A. bisporus into artificial digestive juices at 37°C. A. bisporus in vitro cultures were grown on media enriched with zinc salts. The release of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan and l-tryptophan was found in the greatest number of samples. The content of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan in the investigated samples ranged from 86.62 to 531 mg/100g d.w. The amount of l-tryptophan was determined within the range of 1.63-4.68 mg/100g d.w. and for melatonin 0.43-0.64 mg/100g d.w. It was demonstrated for the first time that in vitro cultures of A. bisporus release indole compounds in conditions simulating the human digestive tract. PMID:26776002

  17. Effect of ultrasound combined with malic acid on the activity and conformation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) polyphenoloxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Zou, Liqiang; Liu, Junping; Zhong, Junzhen; Chen, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) plays an important role in the browning of vegetables, fruits and edible fungi. The effects of ultrasound, malic acid, and their combination on the activity and conformation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) PPO were studied. The activity of PPO decreased gradually with the increasing of malic acid concentrations (5-60mM). Neither medium concentrations (10, 20, 30mM) malic acid nor individual ultrasound (25kHz, 55.48W/cm(2)) treatment could remarkably inactivate PPO. However, the inactivation during their combination was more significant than the sum of ultrasound inactivation and malic acid inactivation. The inactivation kinetics of PPO followed a first-order kinetics under the combination of ultrasound and malic acid. The conformation of combination treated PPO was changed, which was reflected in the decrease of α-helix, increase of β-sheet contents and disruption of the tertiary structure. Results of molecular microstructure showed that ultrasound broke large molecular groups of PPO into small ones. Moreover, combined treatment disrupted the microstructure of PPO and molecules were connected together. PMID:27241293

  18. Nutritional value and amino acids composition of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus at different stages of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the nutritional value and amino acid composition of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus was carried out with the Somycel 653 strain cultivated on a synthetic compost containing rye straw, broiler chicken manure and gypsum. In 4 developmental stages of the whole fruit-bodies and the caps and stipes the following were determined: dry matter, vitamin C, nitrates, total nitrogen, crude protein (N × 4.38 and amino acid composition. It was observed that in all stages of development the levels of total N and crude protein are significantly higher in the caps than in the stipes. From the amino acid composition it appears that the caps of stage 4 contain the highest amounts of essential and total amino acids as compared with caps, stipes and whole sporophores found in any developmental stage. This is correlated with the opening of the mushrooms in stage 4. It was observed that the nitrates level tends, to be higher in the cap than in the stipe.

  19. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE COGUMELOS (Agaricus bisporus DESIDRATADOS SOB DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE SECAGEM E ARMAZENAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza JORGE

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: Cogumelos desidratados (Agaricus bisporus foram submetidos à avaliação sensorial visando a avaliar os efeitos de três pré-tratamentos (branqueamento a vapor, sulfitação e um controle, duas temperaturas de secagem (60ºC e 80ºC, duas temperaturas de armazenagem (5ºC e 25º C por um tempo de armazenagem de até 60 dias. Os atributos sensoriais da cor, sabor e textura foram avaliados por uma equipe treinada constituída por sete provadores, a zero, 30 e 60 dias de armazenagem. Também foi conduzido um teste de aceitação por uma equipe não treinada, constituída de 25 provadores. Concluiu-se que a temperatura de 60ºC foi a mais adequada para a secagem de cogumelos e a sulfitação, o pré-tratamento que melhor preservou as propriedades sensoriais do produto desidratado. O produto apresentou uma boa qualidade para o consumo, quando submetido a uma avaliação sensorial, com 60 dias de armazenagem, independentemente das temperaturas de armazenagem estudadas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cogumelos desidratados; análise sensorial; armazenagem.

  20. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeffer on Glycemia and Cholesterol after Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Marcelo Betti; França, Cristiane Miranda; Esquerdo, Kamilla F; Lara, Marx A N; Wadt, Nilsa S Y; Bach, Erna E

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the Agaricus sylvaticus (sun mushroom) on biochemical tests of the plasma and on the morphology of the pancreas in an experimental model of type I diabetes mellitus (DM1) induced by streptozotocin. One gram of dry A. sylvaticus was homogenized and mixed with the chow. Male Wistar rats were allocated as follows: normoglycemic control that received commercial chow; normoglycemic control group that received chow with A. sylvaticus; diabetic group that received commercial chow; and diabetic group that received chow with A. sylvaticus. Weight, food, and water consumption were measured every two days. Blood glucose levels were measured twice a week. After 30 days, the animals were euthanized and blood was collected for the analysis of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea. The pancreas was processed for microscopic analysis. A. sylvaticus modulated the levels of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea to levels similar to those found in the controls and led to compensatory hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans. A. sylvaticus is potentially beneficial in the control of type 1 diabetes, and it may also prevent pancreas damage. PMID:24971142

  1. Characterization of pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris and its application in the C-2 specific conversion of D-galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygmund, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Volc, Jindrich; Halada, Petr; Kubátová, Elena; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens K

    2008-02-01

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) of the mushroom Agaricus meleagris was purified from mycelial culture media to substantial homogeneity using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The native enzyme is a monomeric polypeptide with a molecular mass of 66,547Da as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry containing approximately 7% carbohydrate and covalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide. The enzyme exhibited a broad sugar substrate tolerance, oxidizing different aldopyranoses to the corresponding C-2 or C-2,3 (di)dehydro sugars. Preferred electron donors with the highest k(cat)/K(m) values were major sugar constituents of cellulose and hemicellulose, namely d-glucose, D-galactose, l-arabinose, D-xylose and cellobiose. This indicates a possible physiological role of the enzyme in lignocellulose breakdown. PDH showed no detectable activity with oxygen, and its reactivity towards electron acceptors was limited to various substituted benzoquinones and complexed metal ions, with the ferricenium ion and the benzoquinone imine 2,6-dichloroindophenole displaying the highest k(cat)/K(m). The enzyme catalyzed in up to 95% yields the regiospecific conversion of D-galactose to 2-dehydro-D-galactose, an intermediate in a possible biotechnologically interesting process for redox isomerization of D-galactose to the prebiotic sugar D-tagatose. PMID:18083263

  2. IRC:n käyttö yritysten viestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Klami, Maarit

    2012-01-01

    ssä työssä perehdyttiin IRC:n käyttömahdollisuuksiin yritysten sisäisessä ja ulkoisessa viestinnässä. Työssä verrattiin IRC:tä muihin pikaviestimiin sekä sosiaalisen median tarjoamiin viestintä- ja markkinointimahdollisuuksiin. Eräs tarkastelluista seikoista on yrityksen koon vaikutus siihen, kuinka mittava operaatio IRC:n käyttöönotto yrityksessä on. Työssä on esitetty myös mahdollisuuksia muiden pikaviestimien integroimiseksi IRC:hen. Työ on tehty mielenkiinnosta käyttää IRC:tä viestinnän...

  3. 双孢菇对6种植物杀虫剂的敏感性%Sensitivity of Agaricus bisporus to Six Plant Insecticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东霞

    2014-01-01

    采用平板加药法研究了双孢菇对6种植物杀虫剂的敏感性。结果表明,相同浓度下,不同种类的杀虫剂对菌丝生长的影响存在显著差异;不同浓度下,同一种类的杀虫剂对菌丝生长的影响也存在显著差异。当6种杀虫剂的浓度为0.1%时,双孢菇菌丝的生长都被明显地抑制,部分菌丝体产生污染、出现畸变;当杀虫剂的浓度降低至0.01%~0.07%时,印楝素和高效氯氰菊酯对菌丝生长的抑制影响较小,但杀灭虫害的效果却很明显。%The effect of six plant insecticides on mycelia growth of agaricus bisporus was studied with plate -adding drug method .The result showed that the mycelia growth of agaricus bisporus was significantly affected by the variety and concentration of insecticides .When the concentration of the insecticides was 0.1%, they would strong-ly inhibit the mycelia growth of agaricus bisporus, and some mycelia even would be polluted and deformed; when the concentration of the insecticides reduced between 0.01% and 0.7%, azadirachtin and perchloric acid would slightly inhibit the mycelia growth , nevertheless the result of killing pests was satisfactory .

  4. Study on the Extraction Technology of Polyphenols from Agaricus Bisporus%双孢菇多酚的提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 贾亮; 阚娟; 金昌海

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of ethanol concentration, solid-liquid ratio, extraction temperature and extraction time on the extraction rate of polyphenols from Agaricus bisporus were investigated by using single factor and orthogonal design experiments. Results showed that the optimal extraction conditions for polyphenols from Agaricus bisporus were ethanol concentration of 80%, solid-liquid ratio of 1:40, extraction time of 3 h and extraction temperature of 60° C. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the maximum extraction rate of polyphenols was 13.49 mg/g. Our study provides theoretical basis for the comprehensive utilization of polyphenols from Agaricus bisporus.%本文以双孢菇为原料,采用单因素结合正交试验设计方法,研究乙醇浓度、料液比、提取时间和提取温度对多酚提取率的影响。结果表明:双孢菇中多酚的最佳提取工艺条件为乙醇浓度80%,料液比1:40,提取时间3 h,提取温度60°C,相应的最大多酚提取率为13.49 mg/g。本研究为双孢菇中多酚类物质的综合利用提供了理论基础。

  5. 双孢蘑菇耐温差异蛋白质组学研究%Differential Proteomics Studies on Thermotolerance of Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆兆明; 徐祯; 王珂; 陈澄; 陈岑渌璐; 宋思扬

    2009-01-01

    利用蛋白质组学和荧光定量PCR方法,研究双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus Lange (Imbach))02菌株在常温与高温胁迫下的蛋白质表达差异,发现了6个差异蛋白质点,经NCBI数据库比对分析,表明6个差异蛋白质分别为HSP70家族的HSS1热激蛋白、异柠檬酸裂解酶、细胞色素P450单氧化酶及3个未知蛋白质.这些蛋白质在双孢蘑菇受热胁迫下具有保护自身稳定的功能.%Agaricus bisporus is a kind of cultivated edible mushroom which has high economic value and important ecology significance.Environment temperature is the main restrained factor in its development,and this greatly limits its cultivation season. In this study,2D-eletrophoresis and real-time PCR are employed to discover the proteomic difference in Agaricus bisporus 02 strain after high temperature induction,and 6 differential expressed protein spots were finally obtained.Compared with the NCBI data base ,spot 1 is the heat shock protein ,spot 2 is isocitrate lyase and spot 3 is cytochrome P450 monooxygenase.The other three spots are novel.Presumably,those proteins confer the thermotolerance on strain 02 under high temperature.

  6. Morphological and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Fungus Cladobotryum dendroides, the Causal Agent of Cobweb Disease of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty isolates were isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from Serbian mushroom farms during 2003-2007. The isolates formed white, cottony, aerial colonies on agar media. With age, conidia and colonies turned yellow and redish.Pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed by inoculation of harvested basidiomes of A. bisporus and by casing inoculation. Symptoms similar to natural infection were recorded. Based on pathogenicity tests and morphological characteristics, the isolates were identified as Cladobotryum dendroides (Bulliard : Fries W. Gams & Hoozemans.

  7. THE RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF STUDYING ON MOLECULAR MARDERSOF BUTTON MUSHROOM ( AGARICUS BISPORUS)%双孢蘑菇分子标记研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣春

    2002-01-01

    双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)是世界上最重要的人工栽培的食用菌,近20年来双孢蘑菇分子标记研究发展迅速,取得了许多阶段性成果.本文简要地对双孢蘑菇同工酶标记,电泳核型,RFLP,RAPD,AFLP等分子标记研究的发展状况进行了综述.

  8. Hot Water Extracts of the Royal Sun Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes), Inhibit Platelet Activation via the P2Y1 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Katsuyuki; Satoh, Kaneo; Ohta, Masato; Ozaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Hot water extracts of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis were investigated for their inhibition of platelet aggregation. The extracts significantly inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), but not by collagen or thrombin receptor-activating peptide. The extracts also had a significant inhibitory effect on shape change and intracellular calcium mobilization induced by ADP via inhibition of ADP binding to the P2Y1 receptor. In addition, oral administration of the extracts resulted in prolonged tail bleeding time in mice. The marked antiplatelet activity of the mushroom extracts involving the P2Y1 receptor suggests their potential therapeutic use against vascular disorders. PMID:26559862

  9. Study on the Crossbreeding Using Wild Strains of Agaricus bisporus Ⅰ%双孢蘑菇野生种质杂交育种研究Ⅰ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖剑华

    2013-01-01

    To set up the technology platform for the crossbreeding of Agaricus bisporus wild strains, and screen out new hybrid cultivars with strong adaptability, high production and good quality, using the crossbreeding technology of Agaricus bisporus homokaryons, the hybridizations between domestic and foreign wild strains, wild strains and cultivation strains were carried out. The results showed that, the proportion of sterile homokaryons in Agaricus burnettii monospore isolates was the highest, up to 92.6%. It was the lowest in traditional cultivation strain, only 8.7%. The colony shape of homokaryons made much difference, and the homokaryons derived from hybrid strain diversified more than those from traditional strains. The homokaryons separated from Sichuan wild strains could be intercrossed with those from foreign wild strains or domestic cultivation strains, further indicating the wild strains from Sichuan to be Agaricus bisporus new germplasm in Tibet altiplano area of China.%为了建立双孢蘑菇野生种质杂交育种技术平台,选育出具有适应性强的高产优质双孢蘑菇杂交品种,应用双孢蘑菇同核不育株间的杂交育种技术,进行国内外野生菌株间及野生菌株与栽培菌株间的配对杂交.结果表明:双孢蘑菇四孢变种菌株的同核不育株分离比率最大,达92.6%;传统栽培菌株分离的同核不育株分离比率较小,仅8.7%.单孢分离的同核不育株菌落形态存在着较大的差异,其中杂交菌株分离的同核不育株菌落形态类型变化较多,传统栽培菌株的变化较少.四川野生菌株分离的同核不育株与国外野生菌株及国内栽培菌株分离的同核不育株间均可杂交,进一步证实四川分离的野生菌株是我国青藏高原地区的双孢蘑菇野生种质.

  10. 黑龙江省双孢菇发展前景分析%Development Prospects Analysis of Agaricus bisporus in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪淑君; 张海峰; 孙雷; 王玉杰; 汪博; 许珊珊; 平安

    2011-01-01

    为促进畜禽粪便和作物秸秆资源化利用,促进双孢菇产业健康发展,促进循环农业发展提供借鉴和参考,在分析黑龙江省发展双孢菇具有食用菌生产的良好基础、原料丰富、产品质量好、反季节优势强、出口优势强等优势的基础上,指出生产中存在群众认识不够、生产技术不够成熟、盲目引种、生产规模小、组织化程度低、加工企业和生产者对接不力等问题,对此,提出应加强政府导向和支持力度,加强双孢菇本土生产技术的创新,加强技术培训,加强龙头企业牵动和农民合作组织建设等建议。%In order to promote the resource utilization of the poultry and domestic animal feces and crops straw, the healthy development of Agaricus bisporus industry, provide the references for promoting the development of circular agriculture, based on the advantages of developing Agaricus bisporus industry in Heilongjiang prov ince, which were good foundation of edible fungus production, abundant raw materials, good quality,ohviousanti-season production advantage and strong export advantage, it pointed out that in production there were still problems such as masses' sufficient understand, immature production technology, blind introduction, small production scale,low systematization degree, unsuccessfully link of processing enterprise and producers and so on. Therefore, some suggestions that strengthening the government guidance and support, strengthening innovation of Agaricus bisporus production technology, strengthening technical training, strengthening the influence of leading enterprise and construction of farmer cooperative organizations to promote Agaricus bisporus production in Heilognjiang province were put forward.

  11. 双孢菇水提物抗疲劳作用研究%Study on the anti-fatigue effect of water extract from agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春丽; 张琳; 祖元刚; 黄岩

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨双孢菇水提物对小鼠的抗疲劳效果.方法:将新鲜双孢菇烘干、粉碎、过筛得双孢菇干粉,按一定比例水浴提取,过滤后滤液为受试样品.受试样品分别以高、中、低三个剂量给小鼠灌胃,对照组灌胃蒸馏水,连续灌胃15d后,小鼠负重5%体重的铅皮,在温度为(30±1)℃的水箱中游泳造成疲劳.拨眼球取血,并取内脏.进行血乳酸、血清尿素氮和肝糖原含量的测定.结果:双孢菇水提物能延长小鼠负重游泳时间,降低小鼠运动后血清尿素氪和血乳酸水平,提高肝糖原的储备量.结论:双孢菇水提物具有明显的抗疲劳功效.%Objective: To explore the anti-fatigue effect of aqueous extract of agaricus bisporus in the body of mice.Methods:The powder was obtained through drying, smashing and mesh screening fresh agaricus bisporus, then water-bath extracting according to a certain percentage,after which the filtrate was taken as the sample subjects.Tested samples were divided into high, medium and low dosage group for intragastric administration of the mice respectively.The control group was fed distilled water.15d later, the mice were loaded 5% of body weight of the lead sheet swimming at a temperature of(30 ± 1 ) ℃.Took their eyeball, blood and the organs out to carry out the determination of blood lactate, serum urea nitrogen and liver glycogen contents.Results: The aqueous extract of agaricus bisporus could prolong the time of mice's loaded swimming and lower the levels of serum urea nitrogen in mice and blood lactate after exercise as well as improving the liver glycogen reserves.Conclusion:The aqueous extract of agaricus bisporus had obvious effect on anti-fatigue.

  12. Study on New Casing Soil Materials for Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.%双孢蘑菇新型覆土材料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁滨; 张金文; 张志鸿; 柯丽娜; 林德锋

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to explore the new casing soil materials for Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing. , to save peaty soil resources. [Method] Peaty soil was mixed with red loam according to different proportions and used the mixture to cultivate Agaricus bisporus ( Lange) Sing. , then investigated its mycelium growth status, yield and economic benefit. [ Result ] In the treatments adding to peaty soil, the time of mycelium climbing on the soil was early, harvesting time brought forward, and mycelium amount and yield both increased. Thereinto, that the ratio of peaty soil to red loam was 1: 2 appeared the best, compared to control, its yield increased 19.6% and its relatively net income increased 18.0% . [Conclusion] It is feasible of applying peaty soil as casing soil materials to cultivate Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing, in south Fujian and has good effects.%[目的]探索新型双孢蘑菇[Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing.]覆土材料,以节约泥炭土资源.[方法]将泥炭土与红壤土按不同比例混合后作为覆土材料栽培双孢蘑菇,调查覆土后蘑菇菌丝生长情况、产量及经济效益.[结果]添加泥炭土的处理菌丝上土时间早、覆土层菌丝量增加、出菇时间提前、产量增加.其中泥炭土与红壤土使用比例为1∶2作为覆土材料表现最好,产量比对照高出19.6%,相对纯收入提高了18.0%.[结论]闽南地区应用泥炭土作为覆土材料栽培双孢蘑菇是可行的,并有良好效果的.

  13. 双孢菇菌渣养殖蛴螬技术研究%Research of Holotrichia diomphalia Larvae Cultivation Technology with Agaricus bisporus Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁强; 吕蔚; 徐康铭; 王鸿磊; 秦娜; 崔从光; 邹积华

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore key technology to cultivate Holotrichia diomphalia larvae with Agaricus bisporus residues and to provide tecbnologicalsupports for processing of Agaricus bisporus residues.[Method] In the research,fodder thickness,population density and residues under different treatments were set to research effects on Holotrichia diomphalia larvae.[Result] The optimal thickness of fodder was 25 cm and the optimal feeding density was 44-56 larvae per hectare.The dry residues were more suitable,compared with decomposed residues and com bran powders,for cultivation of Holotrichia diomphalia larvae.[Conclusion] Cultivation of Holotrichia diomphalia larvae with Agaricus bisporus residues is a new method to make use of Agaricus bisporus residues and of significance for extension of agricultural circulation chain,increase of economic benafits and ecological benefits.%[目的]摸清双孢菇菌渣养殖蛴螬的关键技术,为更好地处理双孢菇菌渣提供技术支持.[方法]设置了不同饲料厚度、虫口密度和菌渣的不同处理及混配比例,研究其对蛴螬生长的影响.[结果]双孢菇菌渣饲养蛴螬的最佳饲料厚度为25 cm,最佳的饲养密度为44~256只/m2;双孢菇菌渣晾干后比腐熟菌渣和玉米秸秆糠粉都更适宜养殖蛴螬.[结论]利用双孢菇菌渣饲养蛴螬效果显著,为双孢菇菌渣的利用提供了新途径,对进一步延长农业循环链条,增加经济效益和生态效益具有重要意义.

  14. Análisis del perfil proteínico y efecto de la temperatura sobre la digestabilidad de proteinas de Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    García del Río, Ana

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo fin de máster experimental, el hongo sometido ha estudio Agaricus bisporus, conocido comúnmente como champiñón. En el presente trabajo experimental se realizaron ensayos de digestibilidad in vitro con un fluido gástrico simulado de los extractos acuosos de la seta a tiempos variables y posteriormente se empleó electroforesis SDS-PAGE imitando las condiciones gástricas, para identificar los productos de la digestión. Con el fin de vigilar el grado de digestión con pepsin...

  15. First Preliminary Report on Isolation and Characterization of Novel Acinetobacter spp. in Casing Soil Used for Cultivation of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Despite evaluation of large number of agroindustrial wastes for their use as casing material for Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach cultivation, scant attention has been given to the importance of biological properties of casing materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to characterize the bacterial flora in casing layer, namely, Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and Spent Mushroom Substrate/spent compost (SMS/SC) (FYM+SC, 3 : 1) and FYM and Vermi Compost (VC) (FYM+VC, 3 : 1), employing partial...

  16. Characterization of Serine Proteinase Expression in Agaricus bisporus and Coprinopsis cinerea by Using Green Fluorescent Protein and the A. bisporus SPR1 Promoter▿

    OpenAIRE

    Heneghan, Mary N.; Porta, Claudine; Zhang, Cunjin; Burton, Kerry S.; Challen, Michael P.; Bailey, Andy M; Foster, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    The Agaricus bisporus serine proteinase 1 (SPR1) appears to be significant in both mycelial nutrition and senescence of the fruiting body. We report on the construction of an SPR promoter::green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion cassette, pGreen_hph1_SPR_GFP, for the investigation of temporal and developmental expression of SPR1 in homobasidiomycetes and to determine how expression is linked to physiological and environmental stimuli. Monitoring of A. bisporus pGreen_hph1_SPR_GFP transformants...

  17. AtlasT4SS: A curated database for type IV secretion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Rangel C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The type IV secretion system (T4SS can be classified as a large family of macromolecule transporter systems, divided into three recognized sub-families, according to the well-known functions. The major sub-family is the conjugation system, which allows transfer of genetic material, such as a nucleoprotein, via cell contact among bacteria. Also, the conjugation system can transfer genetic material from bacteria to eukaryotic cells; such is the case with the T-DNA transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. The system of effector protein transport constitutes the second sub-family, and the third one corresponds to the DNA uptake/release system. Genome analyses have revealed numerous T4SS in Bacteria and Archaea. The purpose of this work was to organize, classify, and integrate the T4SS data into a single database, called AtlasT4SS - the first public database devoted exclusively to this prokaryotic secretion system. Description The AtlasT4SS is a manual curated database that describes a large number of proteins related to the type IV secretion system reported so far in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as in Archaea. The database was created using the RDBMS MySQL and the Catalyst Framework based in the Perl programming language and using the Model-View-Controller (MVC design pattern for Web. The current version holds a comprehensive collection of 1,617 T4SS proteins from 58 Bacteria (49 Gram-negative and 9 Gram-Positive, one Archaea and 11 plasmids. By applying the bi-directional best hit (BBH relationship in pairwise genome comparison, it was possible to obtain a core set of 134 clusters of orthologous genes encoding T4SS proteins. Conclusions In our database we present one way of classifying orthologous groups of T4SSs in a hierarchical classification scheme with three levels. The first level comprises four classes that are based on the organization of genetic determinants, shared homologies, and

  18. A novel protein elicitor (SsCut) from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum induces multiple defense responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huajian; Wu, Qun; Cao, Shun; Zhao, Tongyao; Chen, Ling; Zhuang, Peitong; Zhou, Xiuhong; Gao, Zhimou

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we report the cloning of the SsCut gene encoding cutinase from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We isolated a 609-bp cDNA encoding a polypeptide of 202 amino acids with a molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. Heterologous expression of SsCut in Escherichia coli (His-SsCut) caused the formation of lesions in tobacco that closely resembled hypersensitive response lesions. Mutational analysis identified the C-terminal-half peptide and the same amino acids indispensable for both enzyme and elicitor activity. His-SsCut was caused cell death in Arabidopsis, soybean (Glycine max), oilseed rape (Brassica napus), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), indicating that both dicot and monocot species are responsive to the elicitor. Furthermore, the elicitation of tobacco was effective in the induction of the activities of hydrogen peroxide, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxides, and polyphenol oxidase. His-SsCut-treated plants exhibited enhanced resistance as indicated by a significant reduction in the number and size of S. sclerotiorum, Phytophthora sojae, and P. nicotianae lesions on leaves relative to controls. Real-time PCR results indicated that the expression of defense-related genes and genes involved in signal transduction were induced by His-SsCut. Our results demonstrate that SsCut is an elicitor that triggers defense responses in plants and will help to clarify its relationship to downstream signaling pathways that induce defense responses. PMID:25149470

  19. TIMES-SS - A mechanistic evaluation of an external validation study using reaction chemistry principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, David W.; Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrov, Sabcho D.;

    2007-01-01

    The TImes MEtabolism Simulator platform used for predicting skin sensitization (TIMES-SS) is a hybrid expert system that was developed at Bourgas University using funding and data from a consortium comprised of industry and regulators. TIMES-SS encodes structure-toxicity and structure-skin metabo......The TImes MEtabolism Simulator platform used for predicting skin sensitization (TIMES-SS) is a hybrid expert system that was developed at Bourgas University using funding and data from a consortium comprised of industry and regulators. TIMES-SS encodes structure-toxicity and structure...... chemicals in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and then compared with predictions made by TIMES-SS. The results were promising with an overall good concordance (83%) between experimental and predicted values. The LLNA results were evaluated with respect to reaction chemistry principles for...... sensitization. Additional testing on a further four chemicals was carried out to explore some of the specific reaction chemistry findings in more detail. Improvements for TIMES-SS, where appropriate, were put forward together with proposals for further research work. TIMES-SS is a promising tool to aid in the...

  20. Evaluación del Residuo del Cultivo de Agaricus bisporus como Alimento de Vacas Lecheras en Lactancia Media / Evaluation of the Agaricus bisporus Spent Compost as Feed of Dairy Cows in Mid Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Gómez Urrego

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó el potencial del residuo del cultivo de la seta Agaricus bisporus como materia prima para la alimentación de vacas lecheras en segundo tercio de lactancia. Para esto, se sustituyó 10% del concentrado comercial por el residuo (sin turba y se evaluó su efecto en la producción, el balance nutricional de las vacas y el costo final del concentrado. El diseño experimental fue un cross-over o de intercambio con medidas repetidas en eltiempo. Cada periodo experimental tuvo una duración de 14 días. Se utilizaron dos grupos de animales, uno con 4 vacas Holstein y otro con 4 vacas cruzadas Holstein x BON. En promedio, las vacas tenían 117 ± 18,6 días en leche, 2,6 ± 0,9 partos, 529,5 ± 52,9 kg peso vivo y una producción de leche/día de 15,42 ± 2,6 L. El tratamiento experimental redujo los nutrientes digeribles totales de la dieta total en 2%. No hubo diferencias estadísticas en el balance nutricional de las vacas a causa del tratamiento experimental. Tampoco hubo diferencia estadística en cuanto a la producción de leche (14,4 L y calidad composicional (% de grasa:3,86; % de proteína: 3,5; relación grasa: proteína: 1,11. El análisis de costos mostró que al incluirse en el concentrado un 10% del residuo de A. bisporus (Champiñosa se obtenía una reducción en los costos de alimentación de $403 pesos colombianos/vaca/día. / Abstract. This study evaluated the potential of the growth bed of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus as a feed for mid lactation dairy cows. We replaced 10% of commercial concentrate with the residue (peat removed and assessed its effect on milk production, nutritional balance of the cows and final cost of the concentrate. The experimental design was a cross-over or change-over with repeated measurements. Each experimental period lasted 14 days. Two groups of animals, one with four Holstein cows and one with four crossbred Holstein x BON cows were used. On average, cows had 117

  1. Responsiivinen web-kehitys WordPress-julkaisujärjestelmässä

    OpenAIRE

    Jutila, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin responsiivisen web-kehityksen toteuttamista WordPress-julkaisujärjes¬-telmässä. Tavoitteena oli toteuttaa yrityksen käyttöön WordPress-teema, joka sisälsi tarvittavat ominaisuudet mukautuvien verkkosivujen toteuttamiseen. Teeman tarkoituksena oli toimia pohjana, jonka päälle verkkosivun rakentaminen olisi mahdollisimman vaivatonta. Työssä käsiteltiin mobiililaitteiden asettamia haasteita web-kehityksessä, sekä tekniikoita niiden rat-kaisemiseen. Päätelaitteiden ...

  2. Valokuvaus 4-vuotiaiden päiväkotiryhmässä

    OpenAIRE

    Alastalo, Kata

    2014-01-01

    Toiminnallisessa opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin voiko valokuvauksen tuoda yhdeksi työmenetelmäksi Porin kaupungin Kuvataidepäiväkoti Viikarin 4-vuotiaiden Naperot-ryhmään. Toiminnallisiin osuuksiin osallistui yhteensä 17 lasta, jotka kaikki olivat syntyneet vuonna 2009. Opinnäytetyössä pyrittiin lapsilähtöisyyden lisäämiseen ja positiivisen minäkuvan tukemiseen valokuvauksen keinoin. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuudessa käsiteltiin taidekasvatusta ja sen osuutta hyvinvointiin. Opinnäytetyössä perehd...

  3. Direct Evidence that RNA Inhibits APOBEC3G ssDNA Cytidine Deaminase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    McDougall, William M.; Smith, Harold C.

    2011-01-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) is a deoxycytidine deaminase active on ssDNA substrates. In HIV infected cells A3G interacted with reverse transcription complexes where its activity as a deoxycytidine deaminase led to mutation of the viral genome. A3G not only bound ssDNA, but it also had an intrinsic ability to bind RNA. In many cell types that can support HIV replication, A3G ssDNA deaminase activity was suppressed and the enzyme resided in high molecular mass, ribonucleoprotein complexes associated with cy...

  4. Vaatemerkin SS14-malliston kehittäminen, Case: White Trash Gospel

    OpenAIRE

    Itäkylä, Juho

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on toimeksiantajayrityksen SS -14 vaatemalliston kehittäminen. Toimeksiantajana on helsinkiläinen, toimintaansa aloittava vaatemerkki, White Trash Gospel ja hankkeen taustalla on White Trash Gospelin tarve kehittää mallistoaan kilpailijoiden toimia ja asiakkaiden mielipiteitä silmällä pitäen. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on White Trash Gospel –vaatemerkin SS14-malliston kehittäminen potentiaalisille asiakkaille. Työssä kiinnitetään huomiota markkinointia ajatellen...

  5. Kouluruokailusuositusten toteutuminen Lempäälässä : Kouluruoan ravitsemuslaatu

    OpenAIRE

    Rönö, Kaisu

    2010-01-01

    Valtion ravitsemusneuvottelukunnan antama Kouluruokailusuositus (2008) toimi tämän opinnäytetyön innoittajana. Opinnäytetyön empiirinen osa toteutettiin yhteistyössä Lempäälän ruokapalvelun kanssa. Tässä työssä selvitettiin, onko Lempäälän kouluruoka ravitsemussuositusten mukaista. Empiirisessä osassa tehtiin Sydänliiton ruoan ravitsemuslaatua mittaava kysely Lempäälän kolmelle kouluruokaa valmistavalle keittiölle. Kyselyn perusteella selvitettiin, toteutuiko keittiöillä Sydänliiton perus-, r...

  6. Liikkeenharjoittaja vuokralaisena asunto-osakeyhtiössä sijaitsevassa liiketilassa - osapuolten välinen vastuunjako

    OpenAIRE

    Santasalo, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Diplomityössä tutkittiin sitä, millainen on lainsäädännön mukainen vastuunjako osapuolten välillä silloin, kun liiketoiminnanharjoittaja on vuokralaisena asunto-osakeyhtiössä sijaitsevassa liiketilassa. Lisäksi selvitettiin tyypillisimpiä ongelma- ja riitatilanteita eri osapuolten välillä. Teoreettisen tutkimuksen lisäksi tavoitteena oli luoda Suomen Lähikauppa Oy:lle asunto-osakeyhtiön erityispiirteet huomioiva vuokrasopimusmalli sekä asunto-osakeyhtiössä sijaitsevan liiketilan vuokraukseen ...

  7. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of porous niobium oxide coated 316L SS for orthopedic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niobium oxide was prepared using sol-gel process and coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) substrate via dip-coating technique. The surface characterization results after a thermal treatment revealed that the coated surface was porous, uniform and well crystalline on the substrate. The corrosion resistance and bioactivity of the porous niobium oxide coated 316L SS in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution was evaluated. The in vitro test revealed a layer of carbonate-containing apatite formation over the coated porous surface. The results indicated that the porous niobium oxide coated 316L SS exhibited a high corrosion resistance and an enhanced biocompatibility in SBF solution.

  8. Ennustaminen perinteisen budjetoinnin tukena : Case: Osuuskauppa PeeÄssä

    OpenAIRE

    Nevalainen, Senja

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena on ennustamisen käyttäminen perinteistä budjetointia tukevana toimintona. Työn toimeksiantajana on Osuuskauppa PeeÄssä, joka on Pohjois-Savossa toimiva palveluyritys. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää Osuuskauppa PeeÄssässä ennustamista tekevien henkilöiden mielipiteitä ja ajatuksia ennustamisesta kahden kyselyn avulla. Ensimmäisen kyselyn tarkoituksena oli selvittää, millaisia ennakko-odotuksia käyttäjillä on ennustamisesta ennen ennustamisen aloittamista Suprossa...

  9. Lastentarhanopettajien kokemuksia tunteiden siirtymisestä päiväkotityössä

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Engström, Leena. Lastentarhanopettajien kokemuksia tunteiden siirtymisestä päiväkotityössä. Diak Etelä, Helsinki, kevät 2012, 51 s., 4 liitettä. Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulu, Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, Sosiaali- ja kasvatusalan suuntautumisvaihtoehto, sosionomi (AMK) + lastentarhanopettajan virkakelpoisuus. Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin lastentarhanopettajien kokemuksia omien tunteiden siirtymisestä päiväkotityössä. Teoriaosuus käsitteli päiväkodin varhaiskasvatus-ta ja lastentarh...

  10. Ääniä päässä : Äänisuunnitelman tekeminen teoriassa ja käytännössä

    OpenAIRE

    Hulkko, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    Tutkin opinnäytetyössäni äänisuunnittelijan roolia tuotannossa sekä äänisuunnitelman toteutusta teoriassa ja käytännössä. Tavoitteenani oli kirjoittaa havainnollistava teos äänisuunnittelusta ja sen mahdollisuuksista osana elokuvaa. Työ olen toteuttanut tutustumalla äänisuunnittelusta kertovaan kirjallisuuteen ja poiminut kohtauksia esimerkeiksi kuudesta eri elokuvasta. Kootun aineiston pohjalta kirjoitetun opinnäytetyön teoriaosan perusteella olen tehnyt äänisuunnitelman Keijujen koti -l...

  11. Comparison of Control Effect of Fungicides against Agaricus bisporus Wet Bull Caused by Mycogone perniciosa Magn%杀菌剂对蘑菇疣孢霉病的防治效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温志强

    2009-01-01

    11 kinds of fungicides were selected to test their control effect against Agaricus bisporus wet bull caused by Mycogone perniciosa and the effect on the growth of Agaricus bisporus in the mushroom house were tested. The results indicated that 11 kinds of fungicides had obvious difference towards control effect against Agaricus bisporus wet bull caused by Mycogone perniciosa and effect on the growth of Agaricus bisporus. Among them, 45% EW with 500 times liquid of Thiabendazol was the best with the control effect of 93.7% by covering soil and 89.1% by dealing cover soil with spraying during fruiting period. Meanwhile, it had not adversary effect on mycelial growth and fruit body development ofAgaricus bisporus. Comprehensive performance of the other fungicides were non-ideal.%通过在菇房中11种杀菌剂对蘑菇疣孢霉病防治效果和对双孢蘑菇生长影响试验,结果表明,11种杀菌剂对蘑菇疣孢霉病防治效果和对双孢蘑菇生长影响有明显差异,其中特克多45%悬浮剂500倍液无论是覆土处理或转潮时喷雾覆土处理,均对疣孢霉病有较好的防治效果,防治效率分别达93.7%和89.1%,且对双孢蘑菇菌丝生长和子实体发育无不良影响.其它杀菌剂综合表现均不理想.

  12. 棕色蘑菇主要特性及营养成分分析%Characteristics and Composition of Agaricus brunnescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋金倐; 华秀红; 林金盛; 刘超

    2007-01-01

    研究和分析了棕色蘑菇(Agaricus brunnescens)ACCC50031的出菇温度、抗病性、子实体农药残留及营养成分.结果表明,供试棕色蘑菇正常出菇温度为 2~26 ℃,对照双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)2796为12~26 ℃;接种疣孢霉病菌21 d后,双孢蘑菇2796的发病率达36%,而棕色蘑菇无病菇出现.10种农药施用后的检测结果表明,棕色蘑菇的子实体中无农药残留或农药残留量低于国家规定指标.营养成分分析表明,新鲜棕色蘑菇的粗蛋白、总氨基酸和必需氨基酸含量分别为6.14%、 3.28%和1.26%,均高于双孢蘑菇2796.

  13. Qualitative Analysis on Effective Constituents of Wild Agaricus gennadii%野生圆孢蘑菇有效成分的定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙福林; 杨艳丽; 张雪莲; 袁云

    2012-01-01

    对圆孢蘑菇的有效成分进行定性分析。主要采用水提法、醇提法、石油醚提取法对其有效成分进行提取。经初步分析鉴定,圆孢蘑菇中含有蛋白质、糖类、有机酸、香豆素与内酯等物质,可能含有皂苷、甾体三萜类,不合生物碱、强心苷、挥发油、酚类、鞣质等。%Qualitative analysis on effective components were conducted of Agaricus gennadii, mainly adopts water extraction, alcohol extraction, petroleum ether extraction method on the effective components ex- traction, the preliminary analysis and identification showed Agaricus gennadii is rich in protein, carbohydrates, organic acids, coumarin and lactone and other substances, may contain saponins, steroidal three terpenoids, alkaloids, does not contain cardiac glycosides, volatile oil, phenol, tannin.

  14. Plant extracts for the preservation of Agaricus bisporus%植物提取液用于双孢菇保鲜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安建; 魏书信; 田广瑞

    2011-01-01

    After extraction,bleaching and clarifying,fennel,couch grass root,licorice,citronella,star anise were used for the preservation of Agaricus bisporus.The results showed that inhibition of star anise extract on water loss of Agaricus bisporus was the best,a%以小茴、茅根、甘草、茅草、八角为试材,经提取、脱色、澄清处理后进行双孢菇保鲜实验,结果显示,八角提取液抑制双孢菇失水效果最好,小茴和茅草对双孢菇褐变抑制的效果最好。进一步做了组合正交实验,结果表明实验组均优于清水对照组,最优组合为4%八角+10%小茴+8%茅根。

  15. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R.; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hilden, Kristiina; Kues, Ursula; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wosten, Han A. B.; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Foster, Gary D.; Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P.; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S.; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S.; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Challen, Michael P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Martin, Francis

    2012-04-27

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the button mushroom forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.

  16. Optimization of the Liquid Culture Medium Composition to Obtain the Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus Rich in Essential Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowska, Agata; Reczyński, Witold; Muszyńska, Bożena

    2016-09-01

    Agaricus bisporus species (J.E. Lange) Imbach one of the most popular Basidiomycota species was chosen for the research because of its dietary and medicinal value. The presented herein studies included determination of essential mineral accumulation level in the mycelium of A. bisporus, cultivated on liquid cultures in the medium supplemented with addition of the chosen metals' salts. Quantitative analyses of Zn, Cu, Mg, and Fe in liquid cultures made it possible to determine the relationship between accumulation of the selected mineral in A. bisporus mycelium and the culture conditions. Monitoring of the liquid cultures and determination of the elements' concentrations in mycelium of A. bisporus were performed using the flame technique of AAS method. Concentration of Zn in the mycelium, maintained in the medium with the addition of its salt, was in a very wide range from 95.9 to 4462.0 mg/g DW. In the analyzed A. bisporus mycelium, cultured in the medium enriched with copper salt, this metal concentration changed from 89.79 to 7491.50 mg/g DW; considering Mg in liquid cultured mycelium (medium with Mg addition), its concentration has changed from 0.32 to 10.55 mg/g DW. The medium enriched with iron salts has led to bioaccumulation of Fe in mycelia of A. bisporus. Determined Fe concentration was in the range from 0.62 to 161.28 mg/g DW. The proposed method of liquid A. bisporus culturing on medium enriched with the selected macro- and microelements in proper concentrations ratio have led to obtaining maximal growth of biomass, characterized by high efficiency of the mineral accumulation. As a result, a dietary component of increased nutritive value was obtained. PMID:26857993

  17. Genetic Analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences Suggest Introgression and Duplication in the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Moinard, Magalie; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Shouxian; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Zhao, Ruilin; Hyde, Kevin D; Callac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster is widely used in fungal taxonomy and phylogeographic studies. The medicinal and edible mushroom Agaricus subrufescens has a worldwide distribution with a high level of polymorphism in the ITS region. A previous analysis suggested notable ITS sequence heterogeneity within the wild French isolate CA487. The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and potential mechanism of ITS sequence heterogeneity within this strain. Using PCR, cloning, and sequencing, we identified three types of ITS sequences, A, B, and C with a balanced distribution, which differed from each other at 13 polymorphic positions. The phylogenetic comparisons with samples from different continents revealed that the type C sequence was similar to those found in Oceanian and Asian specimens of A. subrufescens while types A and B sequences were close to those found in the Americas or in Europe. We further investigated the inheritance of these three ITS sequence types by analyzing their distribution among single-spore isolates from CA487. In this analysis, three co-dominant markers were used firstly to distinguish the homokaryotic offspring from the heterokaryotic offspring. The homokaryotic offspring were then analyzed for their ITS types. Our genetic analyses revealed that types A and B were two alleles segregating at one locus ITSI, while type C was not allelic with types A and B but was located at another unlinked locus ITSII. Furthermore, type C was present in only one of the two constitutive haploid nuclei (n) of the heterokaryotic (n+n) parent CA487. These data suggest that there was a relatively recent introduction of the type C sequence and a duplication of the ITS locus in this strain. Whether other genes were also transferred and duplicated and their impacts on genome structure and stability remain to be investigated. PMID:27228131

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus on the hematology and immunology systems of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana VALADARES

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients with cancer tend to develop hematological and immunological alterations during the disease process. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the immune and hematopoietic systems, promoting improvements in the prognosis and physiological response. In this trial it is aimed to evaluate changes in hematological and immunological parameters in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out. 46 patients (stadiums II and III, were randomly assigned to receive either: nutritional supplement with A. sylvaticus (2.1 g/day or placebo. Patients received three cycles (n=26 and six cycles (n=20 of chemotherapy. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed. The results were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2003 and R-version 2.11.1, significant results at p≤ 0.05. Results: The A. sylvaticus group showed an increase of hematocrits (p=0.04, red blood count (p=0.03, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p=0.001, leukocytes (p=0.03, monocytes (p=0.001, and total lymphocyte count (p=0.009 after three months. Those changes were not observed in the placebo group. After six months, patients receiving A. sylvaticus showed increased levels of red blood count (p=0.02, hemoglobin (p=0.02, hematocrits (p=0.02, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p=0.02, leukocytes (p=0.02; lymphocytes (p=0.02, neutrophils (p=0.02 and TLC (p=0.02. The placebo group showed a reduction in leukocytes (p=0.004, basophiles (p=0.005 and TLC (p=0.01. Conclusion: The results suggest the usefulness of dietary supplementation with A. sylvaticus in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

  19. The Agaricus bisporus cox1 gene: the longest mitochondrial gene and the largest reservoir of mitochondrial group i introns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Férandon

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, introns are located in nuclear and organelle genes from several kingdoms. Large introns (up to 5 kbp are frequent in mitochondrial genomes of plant and fungi but scarce in Metazoa, even if these organisms are grouped with fungi among the Opisthokonts. Mitochondrial introns are classified in two groups (I and II according to their RNA secondary structure involved in the intron self-splicing mechanism. Most of these mitochondrial group I introns carry a "Homing Endonuclease Gene" (heg encoding a DNA endonuclease acting in transfer and site-specific integration ("homing" and allowing intron spreading and gain after lateral transfer even between species from different kingdoms. Opposed to this gain mechanism, is another which implies that introns, which would have been abundant in the ancestral genes, would mainly evolve by loss. The importance of both mechanisms (loss and gain is matter of debate. Here we report the sequence of the cox1 gene of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world. This gene is both the longest mitochondrial gene (29,902 nt and the largest group I intron reservoir reported to date with 18 group I and 1 group II. An exhaustive analysis of the group I introns available in cox1 genes shows that they are mobile genetic elements whose numerous events of loss and gain by lateral transfer combine to explain their wide and patchy distribution extending over several kingdoms. An overview of intron distribution, together with the high frequency of eroded heg, suggests that they are evolving towards loss. In this landscape of eroded and lost intron sequences, the A. bisporus cox1 gene exhibits a peculiar dynamics of intron keeping and catching, leading to the largest collection of mitochondrial group I introns reported to date in a Eukaryote.

  20. Protective effects of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus against hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice as a model of postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Kanaya

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM, Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX mice (a model of postmenopausal women. OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6, were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women.