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Sample records for agaricus blazei murrill

  1. 巴氏菇Agaricus blazei murrill栽培新法初步研究%PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON NEW METHOD FOR CULTIUATING AGARICUS BLAZEI MURRILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旭

    2000-01-01

    A technique for cultivating agaricus blazei murrill is reported. The technique used bagasse, in stead of muck as material, and through the secondary fermention of cultivated material to cultivate.%本文报导了以苷蔗渣为原料,不用粪肥,经栽培料二次发酵生产agaricus blazei murrill技术.

  2. The Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill: Review of Literature and Pharmaco-Toxicological Problems

    OpenAIRE

    F.Firenzuoli; Gori, L.; Lombardo, G.

    2007-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) popularly known as ‘Cogumelo do Sol’ in Brazil, or ‘Himematsutake’ in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil, and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses, so it is now considered as one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. It was traditionally used to treat many common diseases like atherosclerosis, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, dermatitis and cancer. In vitro and in vivo ABM has shown immunomodulatory and ...

  3. The Medicinal Values of Culinary-Medicinal Royal Sun Mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murrill)

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Wang; Zhiming Fu; Chunchao Han

    2013-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM), a mushroom native to Brazil, is a basidiomycete brown fungus, which is popularly known as “Cogumelo do Sol” in Brazil or “Himematsutake” in Japan, and there has been a prominent increase in the use of ABM for therapeutic and medicinal purposes. ABM is useful against a variety of diseases like cancer, tumor, chronic hepatitis, diabetes, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, and so on. In this review, we demonstrated various pharmacological effects of ABM, so tha...

  4. Study on Several Characteristics of Agaricus blazei Murril Strain J3 Irradiated by 60Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Bo-qi; JIANG Zhi-he; HUANG Ting-jun; CHEN Jian; ZHENG Wei-wen

    2003-01-01

    A new mutant strain J3 from Agaricus blazei Murril was obtained by 60Co irradiation. The yields of successive generations were increased more than 70% to compare with their original strain. The component analysis on amino acids and fatty acid illuminated that the nutrient value of strain J3 fruiting body was better than the original strain. The apparent nodule structure was found in the hyphea of J3 strain through the observation by scanning electron microscope. RAPD analysis showed the great difference of PCR fingerprints between J3 and its original strain. It is a promising mutant strain for further commercial development in the future.

  5. Effects of extraction methods on the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murrill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shaoyi; Li, Feng; Liu, Yong; Ren, Haitao; Gong, Guili; Wang, Yanyan; Wu, Songhai

    2013-11-01

    Five polysaccharides were obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) through different extraction methods including hot water extraction, single enzyme extraction (pectinase, cellulase or papain) and compound enzymes extraction (cellulase:pectinase:papain). Their characteristics such as the polysaccharide yield, polysaccharide content, protein content, infrared spectra were determined, and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical, DPPH free radical, ABTS free radical and reducing power. The results showed that five extracts exhibited antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with other methods, the compound enzymes extraction method was found to present the highest polysaccharides yield (17.44%). Moreover, compound enzymes extracts exhibited the strongest reducing power and highest scavenging rates on hydroxyl radicals, DPPH radicals and ABTS radicals. On the contrary, hot water extraction method had the lowest polysaccharides yield of 11.95%, whose extracts also exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities. Overall, the available data obtained in vitro models suggested that ABM extracts were natural antioxidants and compound enzymes extraction was an appropriate, mild and effective extracting method for obtaining the polysaccharide extracts from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM).

  6. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of organic extracts of mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill on V79 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guterres Zaira da Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murrill, popularly known as the sun mushroom, is a native mushroom in SP, Brazil, that has been widely used in the treatment of cancer and many other pathologies in different parts of the world. A water-soluble protein-polysaccharide complex (1 -> 6beta-D-glucan has been isolated from its fruiting body that showed immune-modulation activity. From organic extracts, linoleic acid has been isolated and determined to be the main substance with antimutagenic activity. Using both the micronucleus (MN and comet (single cell microgel electrophoresis assays, this study determined the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of A. blazei (AB obtained from commercial sources or the following strains: a strains AB 97/29 (young and sporulated phases; b a mixture taken from AB 96/07, AB 96/09 and AB 97/11 strains; and c commercial mushrooms from Londrina, PR and Piedade, SP, designated as AB PR and AB SP, respectively. The extracts from these mushrooms were isolated in chloroform:methanol (3:1 and used in vitro at three different concentrations. V79 cells (Chinese hamster lung cells were exposed to the extracts under pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment conditions, combined with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS. Under the circumstances of this study, these organic extracts did not show any genotoxic or mutagenic effects, but did protect cells against the induction of micronuclei by MMS.

  7. The Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill: Review of Literature and Pharmaco-Toxicological Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Firenzuoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM popularly known as ‘Cogumelo do Sol’ in Brazil, or ‘Himematsutake’ in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil, and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses, so it is now considered as one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. It was traditionally used to treat many common diseases like atherosclerosis, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, dermatitis and cancer. In vitro and in vivo ABM has shown immunomodulatory and antimutagenic properties, although the biological pathways and chemical substances involved in its pharmacological activities are still not clear. The polysaccharides phytocomplex is thought to be responsible for its immunostimulant and antitumor properties, probably through an opsonizing biochemical pathway. Clinical studies are positive confirmations, but we are still at the beginning, and there are perplexing concerns especially relative to the content of agaritine. Argantine is a well-known carcinogenic and toxic substance in animals, that must be completely and fully evaluated.

  8. Influência de Agaricus blazei Murrill sobre o tumor sólido de Ehrlich e linfonodos poplíteos de camundongos Influence of Agaricus blazei Murrill in solid Ehrlich tumor and popliteal lymph nodes in mice

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    D. Verçosa Junior

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência do tratamento diário com filtrado aquoso de Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM (25mg/ml, via oral, por 17 e 57 dias, em camundongos inoculados com tumor sólido de Ehrlich (TSE por meio da curva de crescimento tumoral, do peso relativo do tumor, da contagem de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos (AgNORs e dos padrões histológicos das massas tumorais e linfonodos poplíteos. Os animais que ingeriram o extrato aquoso do ABM por 57 dias apresentaram menor (P0,05 entre os animais tratados e não tratados.The influence of daily administration of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM aqueous solution (25mg/ml during 17 and 57 days in mice bearing solid Ehrlich tumor was studied. Tumoral growth, tumoral and spleenic relative weights, nucleoly organization regions AgNORs values and tumor and popliteal lymph nodes histopathology were daily evaluated. The animals that received ABM during 57 days showed lower values (P0.05 between treated and non-treated animals. No difference in microscopic evaluation of the tumors in treated and non-treated animals was seen and metastasis in popliteal nodes of the tumor occurred in all the animals.

  9. Chemical, enzymatic and cellular antioxidant activity studies of Agaricus blazei Murrill

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    RICARDO A. HAKIME-SILVA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms possess nutritional and medicinal properties that have long been used for human health preservation and that have been considered by researchers as possible sources of free radical scavengers. In this work, the antioxidant properties of water extracts from Agaricus blazei Murill, produced by maceration and decoction, are demonstrated in vitro. Resistance to oxidation is demonstrated through three mechanisms: i inhibition of enzymatic oxidative process, with 100% inhibition of HRP (horseradish peroxidase and MPO (myeloperoxidase; ii inhibition of cellular oxidative stress, with 80% inhibition of the oxidative burst of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs; and iii direct action over reactive species, with 62% and 87% suppression of HOCl and superoxide anion radical (O2• –, respectively. From the data, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of A. blazei has significant antioxidant activity, indicating its possible application for nutraceutical and medicinal purposes.

  10. Aqueous Extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill Prevents Age-Related Changes in the Myenteric Plexus of the Jejunum in Rats

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    Ana Paula de Santi-Rampazzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of the supplementation with aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM on biometric and blood parameters and quantitative morphology of the myenteric plexus and jejunal wall in aging Wistar rats. The animals were euthanized at 7 (C7, 12 (C12 and CA12, and 23 months of age (C23 and CA23. The CA12 and CA23 groups received a daily dose of ABM extract (26 mg/animal via gavage, beginning at 7 months of age. A reduction in food intake was observed with aging, with increases in the Lee index, retroperitoneal fat, intestinal length, and levels of total cholesterol and total proteins. Aging led to a reduction of the total wall thickness, mucosa tunic, villus height, crypt depth, and number of goblet cells. In the myenteric plexus, aging quantitatively decreased the population of HuC/D+ neuronal and S100+ glial cells, with maintenance of the nNOS+ nitrergic subpopulation and increase in the cell body area of these populations. Supplementation with the ABM extract preserved the myenteric plexus in old animals, in which no differences were detected in the density and cell body profile of neurons and glial cells in the CA12 and CA23 groups, compared with C7 group. The supplementation with the aqueous extract of ABM efficiently maintained myenteric plexus homeostasis, which positively influenced the physiology and prevented the death of the neurons and glial cells.

  11. 姬松茸液体培养基的筛选%The Selection on Culture Medium of Agaricus blazei Murrill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周选围

    2001-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill is one of the edible and m edicinal fungi.In this paper,through the selection and study of the improted Agaricus blazei Murrill in submerged culture medium,the experimental r esults show that the most suitable composition of the Agaricus blazei Murrill submerged culture medium is as follow:3.0% corn powder,0.3% yeast conc e ntration,2.0% sugar,0.05%(NH4)2SO4,0.1%MgSO4,0.1%KH2PO4.In thi s liquid medium,the mycelium grows vigorous,it gets to 539mg/100mL(DW)for 8 d ays.%对引进的姬松茸菌种进行了液体培养基的筛选研究,认为姬松茸液体培养最适合的培养基配方为:玉米粉3.0%,酵母提取物0.3%,蔗糖2.0%,硫酸铵0 .05%,硫酸镁0.1%,磷酸二氢钾0.1%。在这种培养基中,姬松茸生长旺盛,产生的菌丝球数量多,颜色白,大小均一,8d后生物量达53.9%mg/L(DW)。

  12. Immunomodulatory Effects of the Agaricus blazei Murrill-Based Mushroom Extract AndoSan in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Undergoing High Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized, Double Blinded Clinical Study

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    Jon-Magnus Tangen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients with multiple myeloma scheduled to undergo high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support were randomized in a double blinded fashion to receive adjuvant treatment with the mushroom extract AndoSan, containing 82% of Agaricus blazei Murrill (19 patients or placebo (21 patients. Intake of the study product started on the day of stem cell mobilizing chemotherapy and continued until the end of aplasia after high dose chemotherapy, a period of about seven weeks. Thirty-three patients were evaluable for all study endpoints, while all 40 included patients were evaluable for survival endpoints. In the leukapheresis product harvested after stem cell mobilisation, increased percentages of Treg cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were found in patients receiving AndoSan. Also, in this group, a significant increase of serum levels of IL-1ra, IL-5, and IL-7 at the end of treatment was found. Whole genome microarray showed increased expression of immunoglobulin genes, Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR genes, and HLA genes in the Agaricus group. Furthermore, AndoSan displayed a concentration dependent antiproliferative effect on mouse myeloma cells in vitro. There were no statistically significant differences in treatment response, overall survival, and time to new treatment. The study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00970021.

  13. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Agaricus blazei methanolic extract fractions assessed using gene and chromosomal mutation assays

    OpenAIRE

    Marilanda Ferreira Bellini; Leonardo Neves Cabrioti; Ana Paula Terezan; Berenice Quinzani Jordão; Lúcia Regina Ribeiro; Mário Sérgio Mantovani

    2008-01-01

    Functional food investigations have demonstrated the presence of substances that could be beneficial to human health when consumed. However, the toxic effects of some substances contained in foods have been determined. Reported medicinal and nutritive properties have led to the extensive commercialization of the basidiomycete fungi Agaricus blazei Murrill (sensu Heinemann), also known as Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al., Agaricus subrufescens Peck or the Brazilian medical mushroom (BMM). D...

  14. Analgesic Activity of a Glucan Polysaccharide Isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Leônia C. Gonzaga; Menezes, Thiago M. F.; de Souza, José R. R.; Nágila M. P. S. Ricardo; Ana L. P. Freitas; Sandra de A. Soares

    2013-01-01

    A water soluble polysaccharide and its selective precipitated fractions (F1, F2, and F3) were isolated from hot water extract of fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei Murril known as Agaricus brasiliensis to evaluate the analgesic activity of the materials in Swiss mice. The isolated material and its fractions were characterized by two-dimensional COSY and HMQC spectra as β-(1→6)-α-(1→4)-glucan-bound-protein polysaccharide constituted mainly by β-(1→6) glucan. The glucan-protein polysaccharide a...

  15. Protoplast Preparation of Jisongrong Mushroom (Agaricus blazei)%姬松茸原生质体的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶勋艳; 张云

    2005-01-01

    对姬松茸(Agaricus blazei Murrill)原生质体制备的最佳条件进行了研究,结果表明:采用液体发酵培养第 7 d的菌体,用2%溶壁酶在 30 ℃下酶解 5 h,原生质体产率达9.08×10 6个/mL.

  16. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Agaricus blazei methanolic extract fractions assessed using gene and chromosomal mutation assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilanda Ferreira Bellini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional food investigations have demonstrated the presence of substances that could be beneficial to human health when consumed. However, the toxic effects of some substances contained in foods have been determined. Reported medicinal and nutritive properties have led to the extensive commercialization of the basidiomycete fungi Agaricus blazei Murrill (sensu Heinemann, also known as Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al., Agaricus subrufescens Peck or the Brazilian medical mushroom (BMM. Different methanolic extract fractions (ME of this mushroom were submitted to the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN clastogenic assay and the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus (HGPRT assay for gene mutation, both using Chinese hamster ovary cells clone K1 (CHO-K1. The results suggest that all the fractions tested possess cytotoxic and mutagenic potential but no clastogenic effects. Further information is needed on the biochemical components of the A. blazei methanol fractions to identify any substances with cytotoxic and/or mutagenicity potential. These findings indicate that A. blazei methanolic extract should not be used due to their genotoxicity and care should be taken in the use of A. blazei by the general population until further biochemical characterization of this fungi is completed.

  17. Studies on Odontotermes formosanus Food Choice between Agaricus blazei and Its Substrate%黑翅土白蚁对姬松茸及其培养料的取食性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏德伟; 林辉; 罗海凌; 林春梅; 林占熺

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of Odontotermes formosanus to Agaricus blazei Murrill cultivation, studies were carried out on food selectiveness of Odontotermes formosanus by observing 5 different materials ( fruitbody of Agaricus blazei Murrill, bamboo powder, Juncao, Juncao substrate of Agaricus blazei Murrill, bamboo substrate of Agaricus blazei Murrill) foraging behaviors. The results showed that consumption rate of Juncao and bamboo powders were very significantly higher than that of other 3 materials. And the consumption rate of Agaricus blazei Murrill was 0. The mud sheet area and mud sheet coverage rate of Juncao and bamboo powders were very significantly higher than that of the other 3 materials. These all indicated that the volatile substances distributed from mycelium and fruitbody of Agaricus blazei Murrill could inhibit termites' feeding. And the harms of termites in Agaricus blazei Murrill were mainly from cultivation materials.%通过观察黑翅土白蚁工蚁的觅食行为,进行了黑翅土白蚁对5种材料(姬松茸、木屑、菌草草粉、菌草姬松茸培养料、木屑姬松茸培养料)的取食选择性研究.结果表明,木屑和菌草草粉的被食率极显著高于其他3种材料,而姬松茸被食率为0;木屑与菌草草粉的泥被面积和泥被覆盖率极显著高于其他3种材料.这都表明姬松茸菌丝及其子实体散发出来的挥发性物质可以抑制黑翅土白蚁取食,黑翅土白蚁为害姬松茸主要是对其栽培料的破坏.

  18. Common desease and insect in Agaricus blazei and their control%巴西蘑菇常见病虫害及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林衍铨; 黄建成; 胡润芳

    2000-01-01

    @@ 巴西蘑菇(Agaricus blazei Murrill,日本商品名称姬松茸)在栽培过程中,往往会出现各种病、虫害,轻者降低品质,造成减产,重者甚至绝收.现将巴西蘑菇常见的病虫害及其防治措施介绍如下.

  19. Agaricus blazei, supstrat za proizvodnju β-1,3-glukanaze s pomoću Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Andréia A. J.; Giese, Ellen C.; Barbosa, Aneli M.; Gomes, Eleni; da Silva, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Ekstrakt gljive Agaricus blazei (Agaricus brasiliensis) upotrijebljen je kao supstrat za proizvodnju β-1,3-glukanaze submerznim uzgojem plijesni Trichoderma harzianum Rifai. Centralno složeni 22 faktorijalni dizajn razvijen je primjenom ovih varijabla: vrijeme uzgoja (x1/dan) i koncentracija ekstrakta Agaricus blazei (x2/(g/L)), a rezultati su analizirani metodom odzivnih površina (RSM). Rezultati pokazuju da je koncentracija ekstrakta Agaricus blazei najvažnija varijabla za proizvodnju β-1,3...

  20. IL-12 Production Induced by Agaricus blazei Fraction H (ABH) Involves Toll-like Receptor (TLR)

    OpenAIRE

    Kasai, H.; He, L. M.; Kawamura, M.; Yang, P. T.; Deng, X. W.; Munkanta, M.; Yamashita, A; H Terunuma; Hirama, M.; Horiuchi, I.; Natori, T.; Koga, T; Y. Amano; Yamaguchi, N.; Ito, M

    2004-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murill is an edible fungus used in traditional medicine, which has various well-documented medicinal properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hemicellulase-derived mycelia extract (Agaricus blazei fraction H: ABH) on the immune system. First, we examined the cytokine-inducing activity of ABH on human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC). The results indicated that ABH induced expression of IL-12, a cytokine known to be a critical regulator of cellular im...

  1. Cultivation of Agaricus blazei on Pleurotus spp. spent substrate

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    Regina Maria Miranda Gern

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the use of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju for the previous lignocellulolytic decomposition of banana tree leaf straw and the further use of the degraded straw as substrate for the culture of Agaricus blazei. For optimising the production of A. blazei in terms of yield (Y% and biological efficiency (BE%, adjustments to the composition of the substrate were evaluated in a 2(5 experimental design. The following components were tested in relation to % of substrate dry mass: urea (1 and 10%, rice bran (10 or 20% or ammonium sulphate (0 or 10%, inoculum (10 or 20% and the casing material (subsoil or burned rice husks. The best results (79.71 Y% and 6.73 BE% were found when the substrate containing 10% of rice bran, without ammonium sulphate, inoculated with 20% and covered with subsoil was used.O cultivo de fungos comestíveis e medicinais utilizando resíduos da agroindústria vem se apresentando como uma alternativa econômica para o pequeno produtor rural, favorecendo a agricultura familiar do nordeste catarinense. Este trabalho avaliou o fungo Pleurotus para a decomposição lignocelulolítica de palha de folhas de bananeira e a utilização da palha residual como substrato para o cultivo de Agaricus blazei. Ajustes na composição do substrato residual de Pleurotus, tais como o tipo e a concentração da fonte de nitrogênio, a porcentagem de inóculo e a camada de cobertura, foram avaliadas. O substrato residual que mais favoreceu a produção de A. blazei em Eficiência Biológica (6,73%, Rendimento (79,71% e menor tempo para emissão do primeiro primórdio (27 dias foi o substrato residual de P. ostreatus inoculado com 20% de inóculo (ms, 10% de farelo de arroz (ms, sem sulfato de amônio e utilizando terra de subsolo como camada de cobertura.

  2. Production flush of Agaricus blazei on Brazilian casing layers

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    Nelson Barros Colauto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the biological efficiency and production flushes of Agaricus blazei strains on different casing layers during 90 cultivation days. Four casing layers were used: mixture of subsoil and charcoal (VCS, lime schist (LSC, São Paulo peat (SPP and Santa Catarina peat (SCP; and two genetically distant A. blazei strains. The fungus was grown in composted substratum and, after total colonization, a pasteurized casing layer was added over the substratum, and fructification was induced. Mushrooms were picked up daily when the basidiocarp veil was stretched, but before the lamella were exposed. The biological efficiency (BE was determined by the fresh basidiocarp mass divided by the substratum dry mass, expressed in percentage. The production flushes were also determined over time production. The BE and production flushes during 90 days were affected by the strains as well as by the casing layers. The ABL26 and LSC produced the best BE of 60.4%. Although VCS is the most used casing layer in Brazil, it is inferior to other casing layers, for all strains, throughout cultivation time. The strain, not the casing layer, is responsible for eventual variations of the average mushroom mass. In average, circa 50% of the mushroom production occurs around the first month, 30% in the second month, and 20% in third month. The casing layer water management depends on the casing layer type and the strain. Production flush responds better to water reposition, mainly with ABL26, and better porosity to LSC and SCP casing layers.

  3. Genetic characterization of isolates of the basidiomycete Agaricus blazei by RAPD

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    Colauto Nelson Barros

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic divergence of five isolates of Agaricus blazei was determined based on RAPD data. Results indicate that there is little genetic variability among the commercialized strains and that RAPD is a feasible and low cost technique that can be used to characterize this fungus.

  4. Genetic characterization of isolates of the basidiomycete Agaricus blazei by RAPD

    OpenAIRE

    Colauto Nelson Barros; Dias Eustáquio Souza; Gimenes Marcos Aparecido; Eira Augusto Ferreira da

    2002-01-01

    The genetic divergence of five isolates of Agaricus blazei was determined based on RAPD data. Results indicate that there is little genetic variability among the commercialized strains and that RAPD is a feasible and low cost technique that can be used to characterize this fungus.

  5. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human PathogenPseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Ciric, A.; Glamoclija, J.; Nicolic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence,

  6. Effect of different compounds on the induction of laccase production by Agaricus blazei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, J S; Vandenberghe, L P S; Oliveira, A C C; Tavares, M F; Linde, G A; Colauto, N B; Soccol, C R

    2015-01-01

    Laccases are polyphenol oxidases produced by many fungi and have many applications in textile, food and beverage, and pulp and paper industries. Laccase production can be induced using aromatic or phenolic compounds that mostly affect the transcription of laccase-encoding genes. In this study, we analyzed laccase and biomass production by Agaricus blazei in the presence of different concentrations of nitrogen, copper, and inducers such as pyrogallol, veratryl alcohol, xylidine, vanillin, guaiacol, and ethanol. Laccase production by A. blazei U2-4 reached 43.8 U/mL in the presence of 2.8 g/L nitrogen and 150 μM copper. However, addition of copper to the cultivation medium decreased biomass production. Different compounds differentially induced laccase production by A. blazei. Moreover, different concentrations of these inducers exerted different effects on laccase activity. Ethanol (1.0 mM), guaiacol (0.5 mM), and vanillin (0.5 mM) were the best inducers and increased laccase activity by 120% (A. blazei U2-2), 30% (A. blazei U2-3), and 9% (A. blazei U2-4), respectively. In contrast, pyrogallol and xylidine decreased laccase activity but increased biomass production. PMID:26634556

  7. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Soković; Ana Ćirić; Jasmina Glamočlija; Miloš Nikolić; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In thi...

  8. Composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei na dieta de frangos de corte Spent mushroom substrate of Agaricus blazei in broiler chicks diet

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    Alexandre Magno Batista Machado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da substituição de um antibiótico por diferentes níveis do composto exaurido do cogumelo (CEC Agaricus blazei sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram avaliadas sete dietas, seis com adição de CEC (0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0% e uma com antibiótico (avilamicina 10 ppm. Foram utilizados 588 pintos de 1 dia de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições por dieta (três por sexo e 14 aves por unidade experimental. As aves que não receberam qualquer aditivo na dieta apresentaram os piores resultados de desempenho. Níveis de CEC superiores a 0,4% ocasionaram redução gradual no desempenho. O nível de 0,2% de CEC proporcionou o maior ganho de peso e o de 0,21%, a melhor conversão alimentar e o maior consumo de ração. À exceção do rendimento de peito e do rendimento de gordura abdominal, os aditivos não influenciaram os rendimentos de carcaça e dos cortes. O composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei pode ser utilizado como aditivo alternativo ao antibiótico no nível de 0,2% da dieta, pois não prejudicou o desempenho produtivo e o rendimento de carcaça das aves.The effect of the substitution of an antibiotic by different levels of spent mushroom substrate (SMS of Agaricus blazei on the performance of broiler chicks from 1 to 42 days old was evaluated. Seven diets were evaluated, six with SMS addiction (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0% and one with antibiotic (avilamycin 10 ppm. A total of 588 one day old chicks was allotted to a complete randomized design, with six replications per diet (three per sex and 14 birds per experimental unit. The birds fed diet with any additive showed the worst performance results. Levels of SMS above 0.4% caused gradual reduction in the performance. The level of 0.2% of SMS provided the highest value of weight gain and of 0.21% promoted the best feed conversion and the highest value of feed intake

  9. Agarol, an ergosterol derivative from Agaricus blazei, induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takamitsu; Kawai, Junya; Ouchi, Kenji; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Osima, Yoshiteru; Hidemi, Rikiishi

    2016-04-01

    Agaricus blazei (A. blazei) is a mushroom with many biological effects and active ingredients. We purified a tumoricidal substance from A. blazei, an ergosterol derivative, and named it 'Agarol'. Cytotoxic effects of Agarol were determined by the MTT assay using A549, MKN45, HSC-3, and HSC-4 human carcinoma cell lines treated with Agarol. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondria membrane potential (∆ψm) were also determined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to quantify the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Agarol predominantly induced apoptosis in two p53-wild cell lines (A549 and MKN45) compared to the other p53-mutant cell lines (HSC-3 and HSC-4). Further mechanistic studies revealed that induction of apoptosis is associated with increased generation of ROS, reduced ∆ψm, release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria to the cytosol, upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-2. Caspase-3 activities did not increase, and z-VAD-fmk, a caspase inhibitor, did not inhibit the Agarol-induced apoptosis. These findings indicate that Agarol induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human carcinoma cells through a mitochondrial pathway. The in vivo anticancer activity of Agarol was confirmed in a xenograft murine model. This study suggests a molecular mechanism by which Agarol induces apoptosis in human carcinoma cells and indicates the potential use of Agarol as an anticancer agent. PMID:26893131

  10. Influence of structural features on immunostimulating activity of glucans extracted from Agaricus blazei mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarski Maja S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High molecular weight b-D-glucans derived from Basidiomycetes cell walls are able to specifically activate cellular and humoral components of the host immune system. The aim of this paper was to examine immunomodulating activity of native, chemically and enzimatically modified glucans from Agaricus blazei mushroom and to determine which structural features are of primary importance for their stimulation referring to humane immune cells. The immunomodulating activities were tested in vitro, by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and measuring of interferon-gamma (IFN-g production by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Measurements of immunomodulatory capacity of Agaricus blazei native glucans showed their expressive immunostimulating effect on activated PBMCs and synthesis of IFN-g. The results obtained after the stimulation of cells with 1M H2SO4 and 1M NaOH, the treated glucans showed that primary structure is of more importance than the tertiary structure of the triple helix for their immunostimulating activity and synthesis of IFN-g. Glucans of lower molecular weight obtained after acid hydrolysis appeared as effective immunostimulators of PBMC's. The results obtained after the incubation of cells with 1,6 b-glucanase modified glucans suggest that b-(1,6 binding of glucose monomers probably has no importance for the production of imunostimulating effects, in vitro. This confirmed that b-(1,3 bonds are the primary determinants of immunomodulatory activities and stimulation of IFN-g synthesis.

  11. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

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    Marina Soković

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In this study, the effect of the sub-MICs of Agaricus blazei water extract on QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation was evaluated against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Sub-MIC concentrations of the extract which did not kill P. aeruginosa nor inhibited its growth, demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa, such as pyocyanin production, twitching and swimming motility. The biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at sub-MIC values. Water extract of A. blazei is a promising source of antiquorum sensing and antibacterial compounds.

  12. Agaricus blazei Murill as an efficient hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dbass, Abeer M.; Al- Daihan, Sooad K.; Bhat, Ramesa Shafi

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murill is one of the very popular edible medicinal mushrooms. The present study investigated the protective effect of this biologically active mushroom on the tissue peroxidative damage and abnormal antioxidant levels in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Male albino rats of Sprague–Dawley strain weighting (120–150 g) were categorized into five groups. The first group served as the normal control, the second and the third groups were treated with ...

  13. Kinetics of polyphenol oxidase in Agaricus blazei%姬松茸多酚氧化酶的动力学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文聪

    2009-01-01

    测定了姬松茸不同部位的多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,研究了不同pH、温度、底物浓度和抑制剂对PPO活性的影响,并建立酶促褐变反应动力学方程.结果表明:在邻苯二酚为底物的条件下,姬松茸PPO的最适pH为6.4,最适温度为30 ℃,米氏常数(K_m)为6.23×10~(-3) mol·L~(-1),最大反应速度(V_(max))为1.42 mol·L~(-1)·min~(-1);柠檬酸对PPO的抑制效果不明显,NaHSO_3和异V_C-Na对PPO均有较强的抑制作用,且有效抑制的含量分别为0.18%和0.21%.%The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities in different parts of Agaricus blazei Murrill were determined, the effects of pH value, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme inhibitors on PPO were studied, too. The results showed that the optimum pH value and optimum temperature for PPO were pH 6.4 and 30 ℃, respectively, the Michaelis constant (K_m) and V_(max) of PPO with pyrocatechol substrate were 6.23 × 10~(-3) mol · L~(-1) and 1.42 mol · L~(-1) · min~(-1) respectively using catechol as substrates, and the reaction kinetic equation was established. The inhibition of citric acid on PPO was not satisfactory, NaHSO_3 and sodium d-isoascorbate could inhibit effectively, and the effective concentrations were 0.18% and 0.21% , respectively.

  14. Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens Produced by Solid State Cultivation

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    Dalla S. O. Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the effects on kidney function indices after long intake of A. brasiliensis mycelium. Approach: Wheat grains was cultured during 18 days with Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium by solid state culture and used for chown formulation. Groups of female Swiss mice (20 per group were fed during 14 weeks with 100 and 50% of the formulated feed denominated A100 and A50, respectively. Control group received formulated chown with wheat grains without mycelium. The water intake and excreted urine volume; the physic chemistry analysis of the urine and the serum levels of glucose, proteins, urea, creatinin and uric acid was determined (Meditron Junior-Boehringer, reagent strips Combur 10; microscopy and ADVIA 1650 Bayer. Results: A100 and A50 groups ingested 19.1 and 15.8% more water compared to C group, respectively. The urine and serum analysis showed that the verified parameters remained invariables for all groups, including glucose levels, which resulted in a 10% reduction of A100 group, without statistical difference (p>0.05 Vs C. Conclusion/Recommendations: The prolonged intake of supplemented feed with A. brasiliensis mycelium didn’t result in indicative alterations in the kidney function indices. The preventive use of the mushroom did not show any deleterious effects on kidney; however complementary studies are necessary to guarantee complete safety; possible correlation between increase of urinary excretion and hypotensive effect

  15. Production and characterization of exopolysaccharide from submerged fermentation by Agaricus Brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Gern, Juliana Carine

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Agaricus brasilienses (=Agaricus blazei Murril) é um basidiomiceto comestível conhecido mundialmente por suas propriedades medicinais. Estudos mostram que a principal atividade atribuída a este cogumelo, a atividade antitumoral, está relacionada a seus polissacarídeos estruturais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo aumentar o conhecimento sobre a produção e a estrutura do exopolissacarídeo (EPS) de Agaricus brasiliensis LPB 03 por fermentação submersa. Primeiramente, estudou-se o efeito...

  16. Phase I Clinical Study of the Dietary Supplement, Agaricus blazei Murill, in Cancer Patients in Remission

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    Satoshi Ohno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM, safety is not yet well understood. Cancer survivors took 1.8, 3.6, or 5.4 g ABM granulated powder (Kyowa Wellness Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan per day orally for 6 months. Adverse events were defined by subjective/objective symptoms and laboratory data according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (NCI-CTCAE v3.0. Seventy-eight patients were assessed for safety of ABM (30/24/24 subjects at 1/2/3 packs per day, resp.. Adverse events were observed in 9 patients (12%. Most were digestive in nature such as nausea and diarrhea, and one patient developed a liver dysfunction-related food allergy, drug lymphocyte product. However, none of these adverse events occurred in a dose-dependent manner. This study shows that ABM does not cause problems in most patients within laboratory parameters at the dosages tested over 6 months. This trial supports previous evidence that the ABM product is generally safe, excluding possible allergic reaction.

  17. Coloração de núcleos de esporos e hifas do cogumelo Agaricus blazei Nucleus stain of spores and hifas Ofagaricus blazei

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    Cláudia Regina Gontijo Labory

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se estudar o comportamento nuclear durante o ciclo sexual do cogumelo Agaricus blazei , técnicas de coloração e a utilização de fluorocromos foram testadas, visando a uma padronização metodológica para estudos citogenéticos futuros. Das técnicas avaliadas neste trabalho (método de Feulgen, coloração com Giemsa e fluorescência-DAPI, a coloração com Giemsa e o fluorocromo DAPI apresentaram os melhores resultados para evidenciar núcleos. O corante Giemsa permitiu a visualização de compartimentos multinucleados. Com o DAPI, não foi possível a visualização dos septos, sendo necessária a utilização adicional de calcofluor, que tem a propriedade de corar a quitina que delimita os compartimentos das hifas.In order to study the nuclear behavior during the sexual cycle of Agaricus blazei , some coloration and fluorescent stain techniques were tested for a method standardization for fut ure cytogenetical works. Among the studied techniques (Schiff reactive, Giemsa, and fluorescent stain - DAPI, the Giemsa and fluorescent DAPI technique provided the best results. With Giemsa stain, it was possible to visualize multinucleate cell compartments. It was not possible to stain compartmental delimitation with DAPI stain, which was possible only with an additional fluorescent stain - calcofluor, which is specific for chitin.

  18. Avaliação da coloração de basidiocarpos desidratados de Agaricus blazei segundo escala de Munsell Evaluation of the dehydrated fruiting bodies of the mushroom Agaricus blazei according to Munsell colour scale

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    Marisa Aparecida da Fonseca Delú

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a coloração final de basidiocarpos desidratados de Agaricus blazei, após serem submetidos a tratamento com ácidos ascórbico e cítrico. Para tanto, utilizaram-se cogumelos A. blazei, cultivados em substrato apropriado e mantidos em estufa. Os cogumelos foram colhidos com o píleo totalmente fechado e após a limpeza em água corrente, os basidiocarpos foram seccionados ao meio no sentido longitudinal, sendo uma metade submetida ao tratamento experimental e a outra metade representando o tratamento controle. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram da imersão das metades dos basidiocarpos em solução de ácido ascórbico comercial nas concentrações de 0, 10, 20 e 30 mg/L durante 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 ou 20 minutos. Para o ácido cítrico foram testadas as mesmas concentrações anteriores, porém nos tempos de imersão de 0, 10 e 15 minutos. Todos os tratamentos consistiram de 3 repetições cada. Não se observou relação entre os tratamentos utilizados com a coloração final dos basidiocarpos, embora a utilização de substâncias ácidas tenha possibilitado a obtenção de basidiocarpos desidratados mais próximos daquela coloração considerada ideal para comercialização.The main aim of this work was to evaluate the final colour of the fructification bodies of the mushroom Agaricus blazei submitted to ascorbic and citric acid treatment. The mushroom Agaricus blazei was cultivated in an appropriated substrate and storage in incubators. The mushroom was harvested containing closed pileus and after cleaning with running tap water, the fruiting bodies were sliced and half of each were submitted to acid treatment and half was the control (water immersion. The experimental treatment consisted of immersing half of each basiodiocarp in different concentrations of the commercial solution of ascorbic acid (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml during 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. The other parts of fruiting bodies were

  19. Extratos de Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei sobre Bipolaris sorokiniana e Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici, in vitro Extracts of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei on Bipolaris sorokiniana and Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici., in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Grade Fiori-Tutida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de buscar medidas alternativas para o controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana e Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici testou-se o efeito fungitóxico in vitro dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei sobre esses fungos. Os extratos brutos aquosos de ambos os cogumelos não tiveram efeito significativo tanto no crescimento micelial quanto na germinação de esporos de B. sorokiniana. Por outro lado, os extratos dos cogumelos inibiram a germinação de esporos de P. recondita f. sp. tritici, com destaque para o isolado LE 96/17 de L. edodes que apresentou inibição da ordem de 52,4%.With the purpose of finding alternative ways to control Bipolaris sorokiniana and Puccinia recondita f. sp. triciti, the fungitoxic effect in vitro of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei mushrooms was tested on these fungi. The aqueous crude extract of both mushrooms did not have significant effect on mycelial growth and spore germination of B. sorokiniana . On the other hand, the mushroom extracts inhibited the germination of P. recondita f. sp. tritici uredospores, particularly on the L. edodes (96/17, which exhibited the largest inhibition of spore germination (52,38%.

  20. Effects of an Agaricus blazei Aqueous Extract Pretreatment on Paracetamol-Induced Brain and Liver Injury in Rats

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    Andréia A. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of an Agaricus blazei aqueous extract pretreatment on paracetamol injury in rats was examined not only in terms of the classical indicators (e.g., levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma but also in terms of functional and metabolic parameters (e.g., gluconeogenesis. Considering solely the classical indicators for tissue damage, the results can be regarded as an indication that the A. blazei extract is able to provide a reasonable degree of protection against the paracetamol injury in both the hepatic and brain tissues. The A. blazei pretreatment largely prevented the increased levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma (ASP, ALT, LDH, and ALP and practically normalized the TBARS levels in both liver and brain tissues. With respect to the functional and metabolic parameters of the liver, however, the extract provided little or no protection. This includes morphological signs of inflammation and the especially important functional parameter gluconeogenesis, which was impaired by paracetamol. Considering these results and the long list of extracts and substances that are said to have hepatoprotective effects, it would be useful to incorporate evaluations of functional parameters into the experimental protocols of studies aiming to attribute or refute effective hepatoprotective actions to natural products.

  1. The Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill Elicits Medicinal Effects on Tumor, Infection, Allergy, and Inflammation through Its Modulation of Innate Immunity and Amelioration of Th1/Th2 Imbalance and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Geir Hetland; Egil Johnson; Torstein Lyberg; Gunnar Kvalheim

    2011-01-01

    The medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill from the Brazilian rain forest has been used in traditional medicine and as health food for the prevention of a range of diseases, including infection, allergy, and cancer. Other scientists and we have examined whether there is scientific evidence behind such postulations. Agaricus blazei M is rich in the immunomodulating polysaccharides, β -glucans, and has been shown to have antitumor, anti-infection, and antiallergic/-asthmatic properties in mo...

  2. Influence of Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei extracts on the prevention of oxidation and retention of tocopherols in soybean oil in an accelerated storage test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Carolina; Jorge, Neuza

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the methanol extracts of mushrooms Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei on the retention of tocopherols in soybean oil, when subjected to an accelerated storage test. The following treatments were subjected to an accelerated storage test in an oven at 60 °C for 15 days: Control (soybean oil without antioxidants), TBHQ (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of TBHQ), BHT (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of BHT), L. edodes (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of L. edodes extract) and A. blazei (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of A. blazei extract). The samples were analyzed for tocopherols naturally present in soybean oil and mass gain. The results showed, the time required to reach a 0.5% increase in mass was 13 days for TBHQ and 15 days for A. blazei. The content of tocopherols for TBHQ was 457.50 mg/kg and the A. blazei, 477.20 mg/kg. PMID:24876658

  3. Serum hepatic biochemistry and electrophoretic protein profile of healthy and Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice treated with extracts of Agaricus blazei Murill

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    Durval Verçosa Junior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Compounds isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill represent a group of promising natural immunomodulators for use in the treatment of neoplasms. We have evaluated the serum biochemical profile of healthy and Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice treated with different extracts of A. blazei. Total, supernatant, and polysaccharide extracts of A. blazei were obtained from suspensions (at acidic or neutral pH kept in a water bath at 60 °C or in an ultrasonic bath at 37 °C. After oral administering the extracts to mice for 21 days, blood samples were collected for determination of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine kinase (CK, urea, total protein, albumin, globulins, and alpha-, beta- and gamma-globulin fractions. The presence of the tumor led to a significant increase in serum CK and AST activities and in the concentrations of total globulin and the gamma-globulin fraction, and to a decrease in the albumin and alpha2-globulin levels. The polysaccharide extracts of A. blazei reduced the serum AST and ALT activities, probably due to a hepatoprotective effect. In addition, polysaccharide and supernatant extracts inhibited the tumor-induced increase in gamma-globulin levels. Thus, the supernatant and polysaccharide fractions of the extract of A. blazei have potential for use in complementary antineoplastic treatments.

  4. Avaliação in vitro do crescimento micelial de cinco linhagens de Agaricus blazei em duas temperaturas / In vitro evaluation of the mycelial growth of five Agaricus blazei strains in two temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cunha Zied

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento micelial in vitro de cinco linhagens de Agaricus blazei (ABL-05/53, ABL-04/49, ABL-03/44, ABL-99/30 e ABL-02/51, quando submetidas às temperaturas de 20 e 25ºC. Em câmara de fluxo laminar, discos das linhagens foram inoculadas no centro de placas de Petri contendo o meio CA (composto-ágar e incubadas em estufa BOD. Após 48 horas, iniciaram-se as medidas do crescimento micelial, com auxílio de uma régua graduada em milímetros, através de quatro medições equidistantes entre si, até o momento em que, em um dos tratamentos, a colônia fúngica atingisse a proximidade das bordas da placa de Petri. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2. Cada tratamento constou de sete repetições, correspondente a uma placa de Petri, totalizando setenta unidades experimentais. Verificou-se que o crescimento de A. blazei é influenciado pela temperatura de incubação, sendo que a temperatura de 25°C foi mais favorável para o crescimento micelial de todas as linhagens de A. blazei avaliadas, com destaque para as linhagens ABL-04/49 e ABL-03/44 que obtiveram as maiores médias de crescimento micelial nesta condição de temperatura ao final do ciclo de cultivo.AbstractThe objective of the work was to evaluate the in vitro mycelial growth of five A. blazei strains (ABL-05/53, ABL-04/49, ABL-03/44, ABL-99/30 and ABL-02/51 when submitted to the temperatures of 20 and 25 ºC. In a laminar flow chamber, discs of the strains were inoculated in the middle of Petri’s plates containing CA (compost-agar medium and incubated in BOD. After 48 hours, measurements of the mycelial growth began, with the help of a ruler with scale in millimeters, by means of four equidistant measurements, until the moment when the fungal colony reached near the edges of the Petri’s plate in one of the treatments. The experimental design was totally randomized, in 5 x 2 factorial design

  5. Antimutagenic action of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei on Aspergillus nidulans conidia Ação antimutagênica de Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei em conídios de Aspergillus nidulans

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    Edneia A. Souza-Paccola

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimutagenic effect of the mushrooms Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei was studied on conidia of Aspergillus nidulans when exposed to short wave ultraviolet light. Two strains of A. nidulans were used. For the preparation of the extracts, the fresh mushrooms were left in aqueous infusion for 12 hours and heated in a water bath for 15 min at 100ºC, and then the material was filtered. The dehydrated mushrooms were left in aqueous infusion for 12 hours and to filtrated. Both filtrates were used as extracts. A. nidulans conidia were incubated for three hours in water and in mushroom extracts and only after were exposed to UV light (pre-treatment. A. nidulans conidia were suspended in water and in mushroom extracts and immediately submitted to UV light (post-treatment. Conidial suspension in water and in mushroom extracts but without exposure to the mutagenic agent were used as controls. After mutagenic treatment, it was observed an increase in the survival rate of the A. nidulans and a decrease in the percentage of morphologic mutants on conidia treated with mushroom extracts. Our results demonstrated the radioprotective and antimutagenic effect of L. edodes and A. blazei mushrooms on eukaryotic cells when exposed to UV radiation.O efeito antimutagênico dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei foram estudados sobre conídios de Aspergillus nidulans quando expostos à luz ultravioleta de comprimento de onda curto. Duas linhagens de A. nidulans foram usadas. Para o preparo dos extratos, os cogumelos frescos permaneceram em infusão aquosa por 12 horas e em seguida foram aquecidos em banho-maria por 15 min à 100ºC e a seguir o material foi filtrado. Os cogumelos desidratados foram deixados em infusão aquosa por 12 horas e a seguir filtrados. Ambos os filtrados foram usados como extratos. Os conídios de A. nidulans foram incubados por três horas em água e em extrato de cogumelo e somente após foram expostos a luz ultravioleta

  6. 巴西蘑菇Agaricus blazei Murill水溶性多糖部分理化性质的研究%Some Properties of Water - soluble Polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murill Fruit Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林跃鑫; 叶竹秋; 黄谚谚; 谢华玲

    2002-01-01

    本文以物理及化学方法研究了巴西蘑菇Agaricus blazei Murill水溶性多糖AB-Ⅰ、AB-Ⅱ-b和AB-Ⅲ-b的理化性质,结果表明,3种经纯化的多糖都不含糖醛酸而含蛋白质,蛋白质含量分别为AB-Ⅰ:20.1%、AB-Ⅱ-b:16.3%、AB-Ⅲ-b:25.6%.它们的比旋度分别为AB-Ⅰ:+44.33°、AB-Ⅱ-b;+3.70°、AB-Ⅲ-b:+5.04°.AB-Ⅰ、AB-Ⅱ-b的1.0%水溶液均具有良好的增稠性,其粘度具有很好的抗盐浓度、耐热和对广泛pH的稳定性能.

  7. 姬松茸颗粒剂扶正作用的实验研究%Researching on Experimentation in strengthening body resistance of Agaricus blazei Muriu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟明; 张云凌

    2004-01-01

    姬松茸(Agaricus blazei Muriu)又称巴西菇,是一种食、药两用真菌,姬松茸富含多种丰富的营养成分。姬松茸颗粒剂系采用新工艺从姬松茸中提取的主要成分为粗多糖的一种制剂,我们对其抗肿瘤和对免疫功能的影响等方面进行了实验研究,现报道如下。

  8. 工厂化栽培姬松茸的关键技术%Factory Cultivation Key Techniques of Agaricus blazei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾先富; 熊维全; 李昕竺; 刘洪

    2015-01-01

    姬松茸(Agaricus blazei)是一种珍稀食(药)用菌.对姬松茸工厂化栽培技术中菌种选择与制作、培养料配方与发酵、铺料与播种、菌丝体培养、覆土、出菇管理、采收与转潮管理、病虫害绿色防控等关键技术点进行了介绍.

  9. The Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill Elicits Medicinal Effects on Tumor, Infection, Allergy, and Inflammation through Its Modulation of Innate Immunity and Amelioration of Th1/Th2 Imbalance and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Hetland

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill from the Brazilian rain forest has been used in traditional medicine and as health food for the prevention of a range of diseases, including infection, allergy, and cancer. Other scientists and we have examined whether there is scientific evidence behind such postulations. Agaricus blazei M is rich in the immunomodulating polysaccharides, β-glucans, and has been shown to have antitumor, anti-infection, and antiallergic/-asthmatic properties in mouse models, in addition to anti-inflammatory effects in inflammatory bowel disease patients. These effects are mediated through the mushroom's stimulation of innate immune cells, such as monocytes, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and the amelioration of a skewed Th1/Th2 balance and inflammation.

  10. 姬松茸母种培养基筛选研究初报%A Preliminary Study on the Selection of Mother Culture Media of Agaricus blazei Mürrill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文强; 周选围; 邓百万

    2002-01-01

    对姬松茸(Agaricus blazei Mtirrill)进行了母种培养基筛选试验.结果表明,姬松茸母种的最适培养基为:蔗糖25g,玉米淀粉30g,磷酸二氢钾3g,硫酸铵3g,维生素B1 10mg,琼脂20g.

  11. Research on the technology of composting sugarcane leaf in a fermentation tunnel for Agaricus blazei murill. cultivation%姬松茸蔗叶培养料隧道式发酵技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢毅栋; 覃喜强; 黄华

    2015-01-01

    通过对比糖料蔗叶和稻草为主原料,以隧道发酵和常规堆沤两种发酵方式制备栽培姬松茸的培养料研究,形成培养料制备过程中温度变化曲线。结果表明,以蔗叶为主原料栽培姬松茸完全可行,隧道发酵比常规堆沤时间大幅缩短,培养料质量稳定,能大幅提高姬松茸产量。%Through studying the research results for two different methods (fermentation tunnel and regular fermentation) of cultivating composting sugarcane leaf and straw for Agaricus blazei murill. plantation, as well as the temperature change records during the production of the compost, the experiment proves that it is doable to utilize sugarcane based compost to cultivate Agaricus blazei murill. Fermentation in a tunnel is dramatically faster than the regular fermentation method. The quality of the compost is stable and can increase the production of the Agaricus blazei murill.

  12. 姬松茸多糖对铅中毒大鼠铅代谢及体内铜、钙、锌、铁、锰含量的影响%EFFECTS OF AGARICUS BLAZEI MUILL POLYSACCHARIDES ON LEAD METABOLISM AND THE CONTENTS OF COPPER, CALCIUM, ZINC, IRON AND MANGANESE IN LEAD-POISONING RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程红艳; 冯翠萍; 王伟娟; 常明昌; 孟俊龙; 冯两蕊

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解姬松茸多糖(Agaricus blazei Murrill polysaccharides,ABP)对Pb中毒大鼠体内Pb、Cu、Ca、Zn、Fe、Mn含量的影响.方法 选择健康45日龄SD大鼠48只,随机分为6组,每组8只,雌雄各半,分别为正常对照组、Pb中毒组、多糖组、Pb中毒+低剂量多糖干预组、Pb中毒+中剂量多糖干预组和Pb中毒+高剂量多糖干预组.Pb中毒组和Pb中毒+多糖干预组都给予0.2%醋酸铅溶液,自由饮用,其它组给予蒸馏水.多糖、低剂量、中剂量及高剂量组分别按每天每只100、50、100、200mg/kg体重灌服姬松茸多糖液,各组灌服液体积相等,为1ml.正常对照组和Pb中毒组每天每只灌胃2ml的生理盐水.饲养60d后,取大鼠肝脏、肾脏、心脏和血,分别测定Pb、Cu、Ca、Zn、Fe、Mn含量.结果 (1)与正常对照组比较,Pb中毒组各组织和三个多糖干预组中肝脏、肾脏和血中Pb含量升高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01),Pb中毒组心脏中的Ca、血中的Fe含量升高(P<0.05或P<0.01),其余均下降(P<0.05或P<0.01),多糖组中肾脏和心脏中的Ca,血中的Fe略有下降,其余均略有升高,差异无统计学意义.(2)与Pb中毒组比较,低剂量多糖显著降低血铅含量(P<0.01),中剂量多糖显著降低心脏中铅含量(P<0.01),其他组织铅含量差异无统计学意义,随着ABP剂量的升高,三个多糖干预组中心脏中的Ca和血中的Fe的含量逐渐降低,而其他指标均逐渐升高,当ABP剂量达到200mg/kg时,显著下降或升高(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 姬松茸多糖促进Pb的排出,对Pb致大鼠微量元素失衡具有调节作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of Agaricus blazei Murrill polysaccharides (ABP) on Pb metabolism and the contents of Pb, Cu, Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn in lead-poisoning rats. Method Forty eight healthy 45 d SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (female ; male=1:1): control group, ABP group, lead-poisoning group, lead+low-dose ABP group

  13. Primary mechanism of apoptosis induction in a leukemia cell line by fraction FA-2-b-ß prepared from the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gao

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murill is a native Brazilian mushroom which functions primarily as an anticancer substance in transplanted mouse tumors. However, the mechanism underlying this function of A. blazei Murill remains obscure. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of fraction FA-2-b-ß, an RNA-protein complex isolated from A. blazei Murill, on human leukemia HL-60 cells in vitro. Typical apoptotic characteristics were determined by morphological methods using DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. The growth suppressive effect of fraction FA-2-b-ß on HL-60 cells in vitro occurred in a dose- (5-80 µg/mL and time-dependent (24-96 h manner. The proliferation of HL-60 cells (1 x 10(5 cells/mL treated with 40 µg/mL of fraction FA-2-b-ß for 24-96 h and with 5-80 µg/mL for 96 h resulted in inhibitory rates ranging from 8 to 54.5%, and from 4.9 to 86.3%, respectively. Both telomerase activity determined by TRAP-ELISA and mRNA expression of the caspase-3 gene detected by RT-PCR were increased in HL-60 cells during fraction FA-2-b-ß treatment. The rate of apoptosis correlated negatively with the decrease of telomerase activity (r = 0.926, P < 0.05, but correlated positively with caspase-3 mRNA expression (r = 0.926, P < 0.05. These data show that fraction FA-2-b-ß can induce HL-60 cell apoptosis and that the combined effect of down-regulation of telomerase activity and up-regulation of mRNA expression of the caspase-3 gene could be the primary mechanism of induction of apoptosis. These findings provide strong evidence that fraction FA-2-b-ß could be of interest for the clinical treatment of acute leukemia.

  14. Oral Treatment with Extract of Agaricus blazei Murill Enhanced Th1 Response through Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Suppressed OVA-Sensitized Allergy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Bouike

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the mechanism of the antiallergic activity of Agaricus blazei Murill extract (ABME, the present paper used an in vivo allergy model and an in vitro intestinal gut model. During OVA sensitization, the serum IgE levels decreased significantly in ABME group. Interleukin (IL-4 and -5 produced from OVA-restimulated splenocytes was significantly decreased, and anti-CD3ε/CD28 antibody treatment also reduced IL-10, -4, and -5 production and increased IFN-γ production in ABME group. These results suggest that oral administration of ABME improves Th1/Th2 balance. Moreover, a coculture system constructed of Caco-2 cells and splenocytes from OT-II mice or RAW 264.7 cells indicated that the significant increases in IFN-γ production by ABME treatment. Therefore, it was concluded that the antiallergic activity of ABME was due to the activation of macrophages by epithelial cells and the promotion of the differentiation of naïve T cells into Th1 cells in the immune.

  15. Blood parameters of sheep with high infection of Haemonchus contortus and treated with “mushroom of the sun” (Agaricus blazei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Almeida Bastos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood and parasitological parameters of sheep experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and treated with “mushroom of the sun” (Agaricus blazei were assessed. Lambs infected with the nematode were divided into three groups: treated with basidiocarp powder from the fungus, wormed with trichlorfon, and a control group that did not receive anthelmintic. Split-plot design analysis was performed where the treatments were defined as plots and four periods of collection were defined as subplots. Interaction between the treatments and the collection periods for the fecal egg counts per gram of feces (FEC was observed. Treatment with “mushroom of the sun” showed anthelmintic efficacies ranging from 28.6 to 54.2%. Similar performances to weight gain were observed among the groups. A significant interaction between treatments and evaluation periods was observed for erythrocyte counts, hematocrit value, and serum concentrations of albumin and urea. The values of the mean corpuscular volume, erythrocyte distribution width, and leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts, as well as the mean platelet volume, varied among the collection days. The administration of “mushroom of the sun” significantly reduced the FEC, did not influence on the erythrocyte count and hematocrit value, which remained within normal limits. However it increased the serum concentrations of albumin.

  16. Optimization of Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats(ISSR) Reaction System for Agaricus blazei%姬松茸ISSR特异扩增体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林新坚; 江秀红; 蔡海松; 郑永标; 林陈强

    2007-01-01

    为了建立稳定的姬松茸(Agaricus blazei Murill)简单序列重复区间(Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats,ISSR)分子标记技术体系,笔者通过单因子试验分别研究了模板DNA、Mg2+浓度、dNTP、引物浓度和Taq酶用量对姬松茸ISSR-PCR扩增的影响,确定了姬松茸ISSR分析的最佳PCR条件为:25μL反应体系中,模板DNA 20 ng,引物0.75μmol/L,dNTP 200μmol/L,Mg2+2.0 mmol/L,Taq DNA polymerase 1.5 U.并应用该优化体系筛选到6个适合姬松茸ISSR-PCR扩增的引物,为利用ISSR标记技术研究姬松茸的种质资源提供了参考.

  17. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg−1 d−1), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg−1 d−1) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg−1 d−1) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed ...

  18. Use of Agaricus blazei and Lentinula edodes extracts for post-harvest control of gray mold in ‘Itália’ grape Extracto de Agaricus blazei y Lentinula edodes en el control de podredumbre gris en uva ‘Itália’ Extrato de Agaricus blazei e Lentinula edodes no controle pós-colheita de mofo cinzento em uva ‘Itália’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISANGELA CLARETE CAMILI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Na proteção de uva ‘Itália’ pós-colheita contra Botrytis cinerea avaliou-se in vivo o efeito direto e indireto dos extratos aquosos dos cogumelos Agaricus blazei e Lentinula edodes através do tratamento dos cachos antes ou após a inoculação com o patógeno. Para tanto se realizaram dois ensaios: 1 cachos de uva foram inoculados e, após 4 h, aspergidos com diferentes concentrações dos extratos dos basidiocarpos (0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 10,0; 20,0 ou 40,0%; 2 cachos foram, ou não, aspergidos com extrato de A. blazei (5,0% 24, 48, 72 ou 96 h antes da inoculação do fungo. Para inoculação, em cada cacho foram feridas 10 bagas, fazendo-se um furo por baga de ±2 mm de profundidade, procedendo-se em seguida, a aspersão da suspensão de conídios (±105 conídios mL-1. Após os tratamentos, os cachos foram mantidos a 25±1 ºC/80-90% UR e avaliados diariamente quanto à incidência e severidade da podridão. O efeito in vitro dos extratos de A. blazei e L. edodes no controle do patógeno foi avaliado com o intuito de verificar se tais agentes exercem efeito direto sobre o crescimento micelial e a germinação de conídios de B. cinerea. Os resultados mostraram que os extratos de A. blazei e L. edodes não controlaram a podridão causada por B. cinerea em uva ‘Itália’, quando aplicados antes ou após a inoculação do fungo. Nos ensaios in vitro, ambos os extratos dos basidiocarpos estimularam a germinação dos conídios de B. cinerea nas concentrações testadas; quanto ao crescimento micelial, L. edodes retardou, enquanto A. blazei estimulou.

    For protecting ‘Itália’ against Botrytis cinerea in the post harvest it was evaluated in vivo direct and indirect effect of water based extracts of Agaricus blazei and Lentinula edodes

  19. The anti-tumorigenic mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill enhances IL-1β production and activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Teng Huang

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM has been reported to possess immune activity against tumors and infections through stimulation of mononuclear phagocytes. Recently, AbM extract was shown to induce the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, in human monocytes. IL-1β is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by activated macrophages and monocytes and its secretion is strictly controlled by the inflammasome. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of AbM water extracts on the regulation of IL-1β production and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human THP-1 macrophages. The NLRP3 inflammasome consists of an NLRP3 receptor, an adaptor protein called ASC, and the inflammatory protease, caspase-1. Typically, stimulation of immune cells with microbial products results in production of pro-IL-1β, but a second stress-related signal activates the inflammasome and caspase-1, leading to processing and secretion of IL-1β. Our results show that AbM enhances transcription of IL-1β and triggers NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion in human THP-1 macrophages. AbM-mediated IL-1β secretion was markedly reduced in macrophages deficient in NLRP3 and ASC, demonstrating that the NLRP3 inflammasome is essential for AbM-induced IL-1β secretion. In addition, caspase-1 was activated and involved in proteolytic cleavage and secretion of IL-1β in AbM-treated macrophages. AbM-mediated IL-1β secretion also decreased in cells treated with cathepsin B inhibitor, suggesting that AbM can induce the release of cathepsin B. Furthermore, our data show that AbM-induced inflammasome activation requires the release of ATP, binding of extracellular ATP to the purinergic receptor P2X(7, the generation of reactive oxygen species, and efflux of potassium. Taken together, these findings reveal that AbM activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via multiple mechanisms, resulting in the secretion of IL-1β.

  20. The Research on rDNA ITS Sequences of Four Strains of Agaricus blazei%4个姬松茸菌株rDNA ITS序列比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞清; 余江勇; 冀瑞卿; 胡伟; 李喜梅

    2007-01-01

    应用通用引物ITS1和ITS4从4个姬松茸(Agaricus blazei Murill.)菌株子实体中扩增出rDNA ITS序列(登录号分别为EF195648,EF471305,EF471306,EF471307),4菌株ITS序列长度分别为734bp、700bp、724bp和735bp.通过GenBank中BLAST,四个姬松茸菌株与A.brasiliensis(AJ884651)和A.blazei(AF161013)相似率最高,分别为:94%、99%、97%和98%.四个姬松茸菌株同源性较高,达93%以上,其中,ABM-B与ABM-D相似率最高,为97%;ABM-B与ABM-C相似率为96%,ABM-A与ABM-C、ABM-C与ABM-D相似率为94%,ABM-A与ABM-D相似率为93%.

  1. 姬松茸60Co辐射新菌株J3营养成分与农药残留分析%Analysis on Nutrients and Pesticide Residues in Strain J3 Agaricus blazei Murill Irradiated by 60Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁伯琦; 江枝和; 肖淑霞; 雷锦桂; 王义祥; 唐翔虬

    2011-01-01

    通过常规生产床栽,对比研究姬松茸Co辐射新菌株J和原菌株J在营养品质以及重金属含量和农药残留情况.结果表明,姬松茸Co辐射新菌株J子实体中鲜味氨基酸总量(56.5 g·kg)、甜味氨基酸总量(52.4g·kg)、硫氨基酸总量(15.8 g·kg)、支链氨基酸总量(38.1 g·kg)、芳香族氨基酸总量(16.1 g·kg)、儿童氨基酸总量(17.8 g·kg)、必需氨基酸总量(95 g·kg),分别占氨基酸总量(221.7 g·kg)的25.48%、23.64%、7.13%、17.19%、7.26%、8.03%和42.85%,分别比姬松茸J高28.12%、12.93%、0%、14.41%、12.59%、16.34%和11.76%.J的多不饱和脂肪酸(76.15%)和不饱和脂肪酸(77.55%)分别比姬松茸原菌株J高4.39%和3.82%.J子实体含镉(3.86 mg·kg)、汞(0.42 mg·kg)和砷(0.09 mg·kg),也分别比原菌株J低45.86%、32.25%和18.18%;其铅含量符合国家食用菌卫生标准GB 7096-2003;砷含量符合国家绿色食品食用菌NY/T749-2003的标准.子实体中联苯菊酯、溴氰菊酯、百菌清、六六六、多菌灵、阿维菌素、甲基托布津、甲胺磷、毒死蜱、滴滴涕和二氧化硫含量均符合国家绿色食品食用菌NY/T 749-2003的标准.%A garicus blazei Murill as rare edible fungi was adored by more and more customers.But with the increasing attention of food hygiene quality, it was important guidance of the safety production of Agaricus blazei to understand the health status of Agaricus blazei in the actual cultivation.This paper studied the difference in terms of nutritional quality, heavy metal contents and pesticide residues between strain J3 and J1.The results showed that the contents of delicious amino acid(56.5 g· kg-1), sweet amino acid(52.4 g· kg-1), sulfur amino acid( 15.8 g·kg-1), branched chain amino acid(38.1 g· kg-1), aromatic amino acid( 16.1 g·kg-1), children amino acid( 17.8 g·kg-1), necessary amino acid (95.0 g·kg-1)in the fruit bodies ofAgaricus blazei J3, occupied 25.48%, 23.64%, 7.13%, 17.19%, 7.26

  2. 姬松茸粗多糖对K562细胞增殖、凋亡的影响及其作用机制探讨%Explore of the effects of Agaricus blazei polysaccharide on proliferation and apoptosis of cells K562 and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林祥伟; 张苏伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究姬松茸粗多糖在K562细胞的增殖、凋亡,以及对转录因子NF-κB的影响,并探究其中的作用机制。方法培养K562细胞,再分别将(2、5、10mg/mL)姬松茸粗多糖加入其中作用48h,之后应用流式细胞术、免疫荧光法等方法观察姬松茸粗多糖在K562细胞的增殖、凋亡和对NF-κB活性中的影响。结果姬松茸粗多糖对K562细胞增殖有很显著的抑制作用,还可以阻止细胞从G0/G1期到G2/M+S期过渡。经过10mg/mL的姬松茸粗多糖诱导48h后,K562细胞CML细胞的凋亡率65.41%,较对照组显著增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。而且NF-κB较对照组减少。结论姬松茸粗多糖能抑制K562细胞增殖,并且可以诱导其凋亡,其中的作用机制和NF-κB通道的异常激活明显相关,值得进一步的研究。%Objective To study the influence of Agaricus blazei on proliferation and apoptosis of cells K562 and transcription NF- κB, and to explore the mechanism.Methods Cells K562 were cultured, then the 2, 5,10mg/mL of Agaricus blazei polysaccharides were respectively added to react for 48 hours, and then the effects of Agaricus blazei on proliferation and apoptosis of cells K562 and activity of NF- κB were observed with the methods such as flow cytometry, immunofluorescence.Results Agaricus blazei significantly inhibited the proliferation of cells K562, and also could prevent the cell transition from phase G0/G1 to phase G2/M+S. After induction by 10mg/mL of Agaricus blazei for 48 hours, apoptosis rate of cells K562 was 65.41%, which was significantly higher than that in control groups, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). However there were fewer factors of NF-κB than the control groups.Conclusion Agaricus blazei can inhibit the proliferation of cells K562, and can induce apoptosis of them, the mechanism of that is obviously related with abnormal activation of channel of factors NF- κ

  3. Safety assessment of the royal sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (higher Basidiomycetes) intake during rat pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerenutti, Marli; Tribuiani, Natalia; Oliveira, Bruna Ryzik; Rosa-Castro, Raquel Mendonca; Frizo, Italo; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; Grotto, Denise

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the reproductive capacity of pregnant rats exposed to daily orally administered powder-dehydrated reconstituted of Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei sensu Murrill), the fetal organogenesis, and the development of the pups. Pregnant rats were exposed for the entire gestational period to water (control) and A. brasiliensis at 300 or 600 mg/kg/day. Fertility and body weight of dams were monitored. Pups were monitored for body weight, offspring vitality, morphology, and physical and neurobehavioral development. An increase in sternebrae agenesis was observed at the 600 mg/kg/day dose of A. brasiliensis, while incomplete ossification of sternebrae was seen even at a 300 mg/kg/day dose. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate the impact of maternal exposure to A. brasiliensis on the fetal organogenesis and development of offspring in a rat model. The 600 mg/kg/day dose showed some negative effects, and low toxicity was observed at the 300 mg/kg/day dose.

  4. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill stimulates myeloid derived suppressor cell differentiation from M2 to M1 type, which mediates inhibition of tumour immune-evasion via the Toll-like receptor 2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhu, Xiangxiang; Wang, Yuehua; Liu, WenWei; Gong, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing animals and play a critical negative role during tumor immunotherapy. Strategies for inhibition of MDSCs are expected to improve cancer immunotherapy. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill (pAbM) has been found to have anti-cancer activity, but the underlying mechanism of this is poorly understood. Here, pAbM directly activated the purified MDSCs through inducing the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, tumour necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD86, MHC II, and pSTAT1 of it, and only affected natural killer and T cells in the presence of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) monocytic MDSCs. On further analysis, we demonstrated that pAbM could selectively block the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signal of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs and increased their M1-type macrophage characteristics, such as producing IL-12, lowering expression of Arginase 1 and increasing expression of iNOS. Extensive study showed that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs by pAbM treatment had less ability to convert the CD4(+) CD25(-) cells into CD4(+) CD25(+) phenotype. Moreover, result from selective depletion of specific cell populations in xenograft mice model suggested that the anti-tumour effect of pAbM was dependent on Gr-1(+ ) CD11b(+) monocytes, nether CD8(+) T cells nor CD4(+) T cells. In addition to, pAbM did not inhibit tumour growth in TLR2(-/-) mice. All together, these results suggested that pAbM, a natural product commonly used for cancer treatment, was a specific TLR2 agonist and had potent anti-tumour effects through the opposite of the suppressive function of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs. PMID:26194418

  5. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill stimulates myeloid derived suppressor cell differentiation from M2 to M1 type, which mediates inhibition of tumour immune-evasion via the Toll-like receptor 2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhu, Xiangxiang; Wang, Yuehua; Liu, WenWei; Gong, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing animals and play a critical negative role during tumor immunotherapy. Strategies for inhibition of MDSCs are expected to improve cancer immunotherapy. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill (pAbM) has been found to have anti-cancer activity, but the underlying mechanism of this is poorly understood. Here, pAbM directly activated the purified MDSCs through inducing the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, tumour necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD86, MHC II, and pSTAT1 of it, and only affected natural killer and T cells in the presence of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) monocytic MDSCs. On further analysis, we demonstrated that pAbM could selectively block the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signal of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs and increased their M1-type macrophage characteristics, such as producing IL-12, lowering expression of Arginase 1 and increasing expression of iNOS. Extensive study showed that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs by pAbM treatment had less ability to convert the CD4(+) CD25(-) cells into CD4(+) CD25(+) phenotype. Moreover, result from selective depletion of specific cell populations in xenograft mice model suggested that the anti-tumour effect of pAbM was dependent on Gr-1(+ ) CD11b(+) monocytes, nether CD8(+) T cells nor CD4(+) T cells. In addition to, pAbM did not inhibit tumour growth in TLR2(-/-) mice. All together, these results suggested that pAbM, a natural product commonly used for cancer treatment, was a specific TLR2 agonist and had potent anti-tumour effects through the opposite of the suppressive function of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs.

  6. Effect of the Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSanTM, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Crohn’s Disease in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Geir; Lyberg, Torstein; Lygren, Idar; Johnson, Egil

    2016-01-01

    Background Ingestion of AndoSanTM, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously shown an anti-inflammatory effect through reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). In this randomized single-blinded placebo-controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSanTM also resulted in clinical effects. Methods and Findings 50 patients with symptomatic CD were randomized for oral daily consumption of AndoSanTM or placebo for a 21-day experimental period, in this per-protocol study. Patients reported validated scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL) at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSanTM group (n = 25) symptoms improved from baseline (day 0) to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI) of 5.52 (4.64–6.40), 4.48 (3.69–5.27) and 4.08 (3.22–4.94) (p<0,001). We found significant improvements in symptom score for both genders in the AndoSanTM group, and no significant changes in the placebo (n = 25) group. There were however no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.106), although a marginal effect in symptom score for men (p = 0.054). There were comparable improvements in physical, mental and total fatigue for both groups. HRQoL versus baseline were at day 21 improved for bodily pain and vitality in the AndoSanTM group and for vitality and social functioning in the placebo group. No crucial changes in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin were detected. Conclusions The results from this single-blinded randomized clinical trial shows significant improvement on symptoms, for both genders, in the AndoSanTM group, but no significant differences between the study groups. The results on fatigue, HRQoL, fecal calprotectin and blood samples were quite similar compared with placebo. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSanTM. CD patients with

  7. Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases

    OpenAIRE

    Francielly Mourão; Suzana Harue Umeo; Orlando Seiko Takemura; Giani Andrea Linde; Nelson Barros Colauto

    2011-01-01

    Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity ...

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis Basidiocarps on Different Maturation Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Francielly; Harue Umeo, Suzana; Seiko Takemura, Orlando; Andrea Linde, Giani; Barros Colauto, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity...

  9. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Liu; Yasushi Fukuwatari; Ko Okumura; Kazuyoshi Takeda; Ken-ichi Ishibashi; Mai Furukawa; Naohito Ohno; Kazu Mori; Ming Gao; Masuro Motoi

    2008-01-01

    We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei). Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Take...

  10. Cultivation Characteristics and Domestication Prospect of Main Cultivated Agaricus%蘑菇属主栽种栽培特性比较及驯化展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志江; 李荣春

    2009-01-01

    比较了蘑菇属(Agaricus)主栽种双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)、大肥菇(Agaricus bitorquis)、姬松茸(Agaricus blazei)和野蘑菇(Agaricus arvensis)的生物学特性和栽培特性,旨在从共性和差异性总结出蘑菇属的特性,为研究驯化开发蘑菇属其他种提供依据.并对蘑菇属发展前景进行了展望.

  11. 姬松茸60Co辐射诱变菌株J5与原菌株J1蛋白质营养价值比较%Comparative research on protein nutritional value of the 60Co-radiated mutant strain J5 ofAgaricus blazei and its primary strain J1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋虎; 江枝和; 翁伯琦; 肖淑霞; 雷锦桂; 唐翔虬

    2011-01-01

    The protein nutrition of60 Co-radiated mutant strain J, of Agaricus blazei and its original strain J1 in different growing flushes were studied by non-biological evaluation. The results showed that essential amino acid index, biological value, nutritional index, score of ratio coefficient of amino acid, chemical score and amino acid score of fruit bodies of mutant strain J5 were 1.02%, 2.26%, 2.93%, 11.72%, 9.35% and 5.13% higher than that of strain J, respectively. Four, five, five and six protein indexes respectively in the first, second, third and fourth growing flushes of mutant strains J5 were higher than that of its original strain J1. These results indicated that the protein nutrition of mutant strain J5 was higher than that of strain J1.%采用非生物学评价法对姬松茸60Co辐射诱变菌株J5和其原菌株J1不同潮次菇蛋白质的营养价值进行评价.结果表明:J5子实体的必需氨基酸指数、生物价、营养指数、氨基酸比值系数分、化学评分和氨基酸评分分别比J1高1.02%、2.26%、2.93%、11.72%、9.35%和5.13%;以上6项蛋白质评价指标中,J5第1、第2、第3、第4潮菇分别有4、5、5、6项指标高于J1,表明J5子实体的蛋白质营养价值高于J1.

  12. 姬松茸多糖对树突状细胞Dectin-1、Syk及CARD9基因表达和T淋巴细胞增殖的影响%Effect of Polysaccharide Isolated from Agaricus Blazei Murill on mRNA Expression Levels of Dectin-1, Syk and CARD9 from Dendritic Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海影; 高志影; 荣华; 金铭; 王俊平; 牛英才; 刘吉成

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨低相对分子质量姬松茸多糖(low molecular weight polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill,LMPAB)对树突状细胞C型植物血凝素1(Dectin-1),脾酪氨酸激酶(Sky)和胱天蛋白募集域蛋白9(CARD9)基因表达和T淋巴细胞增殖的影响.方法:体外培养ICR小鼠骨髓来源的树突状细胞;通过流式细胞术检测树突状细胞表面CD11c和CD86分子的表达;采用WST方法检测LMPAB增强树突状细胞对T淋巴细胞的增殖作用;应用实时定量PCR方法检测Dectin-1,Sky和CARD9 mRNA的表达水平.结果:树突状细胞表面CD11c表达98.6%,CD86表达96.97%;与正常组(4.84±0.21)比较,LMPAB +OVA组(6.59±0.19)可增强树突状细胞对T淋巴细胞的增殖作用(P<0.05);与正常组Dectin-1 (6.13±0.27),Sky(0.36 ±0.11)和CARD9(1.85±0.20)比较,LMPAB+OVA组Dectin-1(8.25±0.19),Sky(1.63±0.16)和CARD9(4.40±0.19)明显升高,统计学具有显著意义(P<0.05).结论:所培养的髓系细胞为树突状细胞;LMPAB可通过调控树突状细胞Dectin-1,Sky和CARD9 mRNA的表达增强树突状细胞的免疫效能.

  13. Selection of an Emulational Culture Formula for Agaricus blazei Murrill and Analysis of Amino Acid Constituents of Its Fruit Body%仿生态栽培姬松茸的配方筛选及其氨基酸分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海东; 林永生; 翁伯琦; 陈敏健; 江枝和

    2010-01-01

    以稻草、五节芒和圆叶决明及羊粪为栽培姬松茸的培养料进行不同配方处理的仿生态栽培.结果表明,15个配方中以A3(即20%稻草+30%五节芒+50%羊粪)的子实体产量最高,其次为配方B(即50%6五节芒+50%羊粪)和配方B1(40%五节芒+10%圆叶决明+50%羊粪).进一步比较用这3个配方栽培姬松茸时子实体中的氨基酸组成、含量及蛋白质的营养价值.发现配方B1栽培姬松茸时,这些成分的含量均优于其他2个配方,这一结果对姬松茸的栽培模式有重要意义.

  14. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei. Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food.

  15. Potential of European wild strains of Agaricus subrufescens for productivity and quality on wheat straw based compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Largeteau, Michèle L; Farnet, Anne-Marie; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Ferrer, Nathalie; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2013-07-01

    The Brazilian almond mushroom is currently cultivated for its medicinal properties but cultivars are suspected all to have a common origin. The objective of this work was to assess the potential of wild isolates of Agaricus subrufescens Peck (Agaricus blazei, Agaricus brasiliensis) as a source of new traits to improve the mushroom yield and quality for developing new cultures under European growing conditions. The wild European strains analysed showed a good ability to be commercially cultivated on wheat straw and horse manure based compost: shorter time to fruiting, higher yield, similar antioxidant activities when compared to cultivars. They have a valuable potential of genetic and phenotypic diversity and proved to be interfertile with the original culture of the Brazilian almond mushroom. Intercontinental hybrids could be obtained and combine properties from both Brazilian and European germplasm for increasing the choice of strains cultivated by the mushroom growers.

  16. 水煮和微波处理对巴西蘑菇营养品质及抗氧化能力的影响%Effect of boiling and microwaving treatments on nutritional characteristics and antioxidant activities of mushroom(Agaricus blazei Murril)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锐; 孙丽平; 翟庆娇; 常佳驹; 庄永亮

    2012-01-01

    The effects of boiling and microwaving on nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities of fresh and frozen A.blazei Murril(AbM) were evaluated and compared.The results showed that the contents of crude protein,ash,total soluble protein,total soluble sugar,vitamin C,and total phenolics decreased by both cooking treatments,but no significant changes were observed in lipids.Boiling and microwaving significantly changed the compositions of amino acids and decreased the contents of glucose,galactose and mannose,and the effect of boiling was higher than that of microwaving.Furthermore,boiling and microwaving significantly decreased the DPPH· scavenging activity and reducing power of AbM.Analysis of the relations between the antioxidant activities and total phenolic concentrations testified that the cooking treatments not only decreased the total phenolic contents,but also changed the types and relative amounts of phenolic compounds of AbM.%研究了水煮和微波加热处理对新鲜巴西蘑菇营养成分及其抗氧化能力的影响。结果表明,水煮和微波加热处理不同程度上降低了总蛋白质、灰分、可溶性蛋白质、可溶性多糖、总酚和VC的含量,而对脂肪的含量没有显著性变化。另外,加热处理明显改变了巴西蘑菇氨基酸和单糖的组成,微波处理的损失率显著低于水煮处理。加热处理对巴西蘑菇的还原力和清除DPPH·能力的影响显示,水煮和微波处理不仅降低了巴西蘑菇总酚含量,而且改变了其总酚的组成,水煮处理对其抗氧化能力的破坏能力明显高于微波处理。研究可为消费者日常生活合理烹调巴西蘑菇提供科学依据。

  17. Agaricus subrufescens : new to Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wisitrassameewong, Komsit; Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Thongklang, Naritsada; Zhao, Rui-Lin; Callac, Philippe; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Bahkali, Ali H.; Kevin D. Hyde

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus subrufescens is an edible and medicinal mushroom of Agaricaceae, Agaricales originally described from North America. It has increasingly been used as a health food and alternative medicine and is also used in cosmetics. Agaricus subrufescens has been shown to exhibit many pharmaceutical traits such as anti-cancer, anti-microbial and immunomodulatory properties and is rich in bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Recently, four specimens of Agaricus subrufescens were co...

  18. ХИМИЧЕСКИЙ СОСТАВ ГРИБА AGARICUS BLAZEI MURILL И СРАВНЕНИЕ ОСОБЕННОСТЕЙ ВЛИЯНИЯ ОТДЕЛЬНЫХ ЕГО ВЕЩЕСТВ НА ИММУННУЮ СИСТЕМУ МЛЕКОПИТАЮЩИХ В УСЛОВИЯХ ОПУХОЛЕВОГО РОСТА С СООТВЕТСТВУЮЩЕЙ АКТИВНОСТЬЮ ГРИБА CORDYCEPS SINENSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Макаренко, А.; Довгий, Р.

    2013-01-01

    Обзор литературы посвящен химическому составу гриба Agaricus blazei Murill и сравнению его с грибом Cordyceps sinensis по иммуномодулирующей и противоопухолевой активности. Главными иммуномодулирующими веществами обеих грибов являются полисахариды. За противоопухолевую активность названых грибов отвечают такие вещества как эргостерол, агаритин и кордицепин, первый при этом является общим для обоих грибов, а остальные – специфичными для Agaricus blazei и Cordyceps sinensis соответственно. Точн...

  19. The study on the Inhibition of agaricus eazei murill polysaccharide on cancer cell by MTT outsidebody%姬松茸多糖抑制肿瘤细胞增殖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓洁; 杨立红; 蔡德华; 姚少慧

    2004-01-01

    姬松茸(Agaricus blazei)又名巴西蘑菇,是一种药食兼用的珍稀食用菌,具有显著的防癌、抗癌活性[1]。本实验用水提法提取姬松茸菌丝体(深层发酵制备)及子实体多糖,测定姬松茸多糖体外对小鼠s-180癌细胞及人结肠癌细胞抑制杀伤作用。

  20. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India

    OpenAIRE

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI; ALKA KARWA

    2010-01-01

    Karwa A, Rai MK. 2010. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 141-145. Melghat forest region from Central India was surveyed for occurrence of medicinal and culinary mushrooms during the years 2005-2008. Out of total 153 species, ten species of Agaricus were recorded from different localities. Of these, seven species namely Agaricus bitorquis, A. subrufescens, A. augustus, A. placomyces, A. essettei, A. basioanolosus and Agaricus sp. nov (a new species)...

  1. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Karwa A, Rai MK. 2010. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 141-145. Melghat forest region from Central India was surveyed for occurrence of medicinal and culinary mushrooms during the years 2005-2008. Out of total 153 species, ten species of Agaricus were recorded from different localities. Of these, seven species namely Agaricus bitorquis, A. subrufescens, A. augustus, A. placomyces, A. essettei, A. basioanolosus and Agaricus sp. nov (a new species are being reported for the first time from the region. The commercial button mushroom Agaricus bisporus lacks good breeding characters due to its bisporic nature. These wild cousins of the button mushroom can definitely prove to be a good source of genetic manipulations to the existing strains and also to develop new strains with improved characters.

  2. Polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis show similarities in their structures and their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytic THP-1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichers Harry J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. Crude mushroom extracts have been tested without detailed chemical analyses of its polysaccharide content. For the present study we decided to chemically determine the carbohydrate composition of semi-purified extracts from 2 closely related and well known basidiomycete species, i.e. Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis and to study their effects on the innate immune system, in particular on the in vitro induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, using THP-1 cells. Methods Mushroom polysaccharide extracts were prepared by hot water extraction and precipitation with ethanol. Their composition was analyzed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. PMA activated THP-1 cells were treated with the extracts under different conditions and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was evaluated by qPCR. Results Semi-purified polysaccharide extracts of A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis (= blazei were found to contain (1→6,(1→4-linked α-glucan, (1→6-linked β-glucan, and mannogalactan. Their proportions were determined by integration of 1H-NMR signs, and were considerably different for the two species. A. brasiliensis showed a higher content of β-glucan, while A. bisporus presented mannogalactan as its main polysaccharide. The extracts induced a comparable increase of transcription of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1β and TNF-α as well as of COX-2 in PMA differentiated THP-1 cells. Pro-inflammatory effects of bacterial LPS in this assay could be reduced significantly by the simultaneous addition of A. brasiliensis extract. Conclusions The polysaccharide preparations from the closely related species A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis show major differences in composition: A. bisporus shows high mannogalactan content whereas A. brasiliensis has mostly

  3. Formation of interspecies fusants of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis mushroom by protoplast fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rana Inder; Aarti, Kanojiya; Singh, Sandhu Sardul

    2007-01-01

    Interspecies fusants are formed between Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis by protoplast fusion technique. Protoplasts were isolated and regenerated by using Novozyme 234 lytic enzyme. Twenty slow growing isolates were separated from the protoplast regenerated colonies, which were assumed as homokaryons (putative homokaryons). These twenty isolates were subjected to growth rate, colony morphology and spawn run studies for screening of true homokaryons. Antifungal markers were developed ...

  4. Notulae ad Floram agaricinam neerlandicam — XXXVII. Notes on Agaricus section Arvenses

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, Marijke M.

    2001-01-01

    Nomenclatural and taxonomical notes are given on species of Agaricus section Arvenses, together with a key to the accepted species occurring in the Netherlands and adjacent regions. Two new combinations, Agaricus osecanus var. squarrosipes (Bon & Collin) Nauta and Agaricus urinascens var. excellens (F. Møller) Nauta are made. A new variety of Agaricus sylvicola, var. squarrosus Nauta, is described.

  5. Epidemiologia do cancro do castanheiro. Dinâmica da distribuição espacial de Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Eugénia; Coelho, Valentim; Azevedo, João

    2005-01-01

    O cancro do castanheiro, associado ao fungo Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr., Ascomiceta da ordem Diaporthales, é uma doença com elevada agressividade em Castanea sativa. O fungo tem ainda capacidade de causar infecção em diferentes espécies de Quercus e outras espécies florestais de folha larga, embora com menor agressividade. Em Trás-os-Montes.a doença, referenciada em C. sativa desde 1989, caracteriza-se pela existência de elevado número de focos de maior ou menor extensão e com gr...

  6. Agaricus guachari, sp. Nov. (Agaricales), from Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Calonge, F. D.; Esteve-Raventós, F.

    1998-01-01

    [EN] Agaricus guachari is proposed and described as a new species. It was found growing on dung of a nocturnal bird called "guácharo" (Steatornis caripensis Humboldt), in a cave, showing white basidiomata, which reddenned quickly when cut or robbed. Tbe habitat, presence of a well-developed universal veil and negative Schaeffer's reaction distinguished this species from the rest of taxa included in this genus. Data, including iconography, micro-and ultramicroscopic features, are also added.

  7. The identity of Agaricus cyathiformis Schaeff

    OpenAIRE

    Kotlaba, F.; Pouzar, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of the correct interpretation of the original concept of Lentinus cyathiformis (Schaeff.) Bres. = Agaricus cyathiformis Schaeff. is analysed. The authors demonstrate, on the basis of the original protologue, that this species is identical with Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel. The modern interpretation of Lentinus cyathiformis, originating from Bresadola and followed by a number of contemporary authors, is erroneous: this fungus should be called Lentinus degener Kalchbr. in Fr.

  8. Antioxidative and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Partially purified polysaccharides were obtained from four medicinal mushroom species, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Phellinus linteus and Ganoderma lucidum by hot water extraction, followed by ethanol precipitation. The four samples contained varying amounts of both a- and ß-glucans as

  9. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Di Piero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas

  10. A new species of Agaricus section Minores from China

    OpenAIRE

    Mao-Qiang, He; Rui-Lin, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus gemloides sp. nov. is characterised by its reddish brown fibrillose squamose on the pileus, relatively slender basidiome and broader basidiospores. In this article, it is introduced based on its distinguished morphological features and molecular phylogenetic position.

  11. Antitumor Activity of Exopolysaccharide of Agaricus blazei on S-180 Grafted in Mice%姬松茸胞外多糖抗肿瘤活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范雷法; 潘慧娟; Soccol CR; Pamdey A

    2004-01-01

    通过深层发酵培养姬松茸菌丝体,滤取菌丝体后获得菌丝体培养液,经沉淀离心收集其胞外粗多糖,再用蒸馏水溶解,取可溶性部分.对接种S-180的小白鼠24h后腹腔注射给药,连续10d,剂量为10 mg/kg·d.5周后剥取瘤块,与对照组比较瘤重.结果发现,姬松茸深层发酵生产的胞外多糖对小鼠接种的腹水瘤S-180有较强的抗性,肿瘤抑制率达到44.53%,完全抑制率达到50%.

  12. Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Francielly; Linde, Giani Andrea; Messa, Valdeci; da Cunha Júnior, Paulo Luiz; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; da Eira, Augusto Ferreira; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2009-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocar...

  13. Pseudomonas putida Stimulates Primordia on Agaricus bitorquis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colauto, Nelson B; Fermor, Terry R; Eira, Augusto F; Linde, Giani A

    2016-04-01

    Casing layer is one step of Agaricus bisporus cultivation where there is a competitive environment with a high number of microorganisms and diversity interacting with mycelia. It is suggested that a minimal community of these microorganisms would be necessary to stimulate fructification. However, A. bisporus is not able to produce primordia in sterile casing layers or Petri dishes. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize bacterial microbiota of casing layers from A. bisporus cultivation, isolate, identify and characterize the bacteria responsible for the stimulation of primordium and their action mechanism using Agaricus bitorquis as a primordium stimulation model. Bacterial and Pseudomonas spp. communities of different casing layers of A. bisporus cultivation were collected and quantified. It was concluded that Pseudomonas spp. corresponds to 75-85% of bacterial population of the casing layers in A. bisporus cultivation and among those 12% are Pseudomonas putida. Four biochemical assays were used to identify P. putida. In vitro primordium stimulation of living P. putida and non-living bacterial suspensions, after chemical or physical treatments, was tested using A. bitorquis as a primordium stimulation model. Primordium stimulation assay was registered by photographs, and micrographs of vertical cut of primordium were registered by scanning electron microscope. Interaction of living P. putida with A. bitorquis mycelia is capable of stimulating primordial instead of non-living bacterial suspensions. Stimulation of A. bitorquis primordia does not imply or is related to mycelial growth inhibition, but a hierarchical relation of primordium succession and development is suggested. PMID:26742772

  14. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms in the Mushrooms Agaricus brunnescens and Agaricus bitorquis

    OpenAIRE

    Castle, Alan J; Horgen, Paul A.; Anderson, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Two Agaricus species, A. brunnescens (a commercial mushroom) and A. bitorquis (a wild, edible species), were examined for restriction fragment length polymorphisms. EcoRI-digested nuclear DNA from isolates of both species were cloned in plasmid vector pUC18. Ten random recombinant clones were used in Southern DNA-DNA hybridizations to probe EcoRI-digested DNA from 11 A. brunnescens isolates (7 commercial, 2 wild type, and 2 homokaryotic) and 7 A. bitorquis isolates. Most cloned fragments were...

  15. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Foulongne-Oriol; Manuela Rocha de Brito; Delphine Cabannes; Aurélien Clément; Cathy Spataro; Magalie Moinard; Eustáquio Souza Dias; Philippe Callac; Jean-Michel Savoie

    2016-01-01

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed t...

  16. 姬松茸、灰树花及低聚木糖的保健作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张骁

    2004-01-01

    姬松茸(Agaricus blazei Murrill)原产于美国、巴西等地,故名巴西蘑菇,又名小松菇,是一种食药兼用的真菌。人工栽培于日本,我国于1992年人人日本引进,在闽、桂、鄂等地广泛试栽。因其营养丰富、鲜美可口,被视为餐中上品。进一步研究发现具有提高人体免疫功能和抗癌活性,是一种值得深入研究和开

  17. 从蘑菇菌丝体提取新的蛋白多糖用作抗癌剂和免疫增强剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕙芳

    2000-01-01

    蘑菇属植物Agaricus blazei Murrill 0041的菌丝体以热水提取后得到一新的浅棕色粉末状蛋白多糖,其主要糖类为葡萄糖和甘露糖,分子量85000~105000。熔点:245C变棕色,275℃~279℃变深棕色,275℃~279℃分解。[α]b21+318°(在0.33%水中)。易溶于0.05mol/L氢氧化钠溶液,微溶于水,不溶于甲醇、乙醇、苯和己烷。

  18. Fortification of immune and homeostatic surveillance in cancer-like and cancer conditions the natural way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Vassiliadis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis, a non-lethal cancer-like inflammatory condition, and cancer share common features, with the major being the inability of the organism to confront the cause of disease initiation due to an incompetent immune and homeostatic surveillance, respectively. In addition, and to a degree, both diseases can be detected by identical diagnostic tools and treatment can be successfully achieved by a number of common substances found in nature that can fortify the organism’s defense mechanisms to combat disease. Thus, this commentary focuses on and discusses the remedial action pine bark extracts (Pycnogenol®, almond skins, Agaricus Blazei murrill, oleuropein and oleocanthal may have on a destabilized organism that fails to combat illness by its own. Such a similarity in diagnosis and treatment may become as an alternative approach to create models of investigation for both diseases.

  19. Notulae ad Floram agaricinam neerlandicam — XXXVII. Notes on Agaricus section Arvenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Marijke M.

    2001-01-01

    Nomenclatural and taxonomical notes are given on species of Agaricus section Arvenses, together with a key to the accepted species occurring in the Netherlands and adjacent regions. Two new combinations, Agaricus osecanus var. squarrosipes (Bon & Collin) Nauta and Agaricus urinascens var. excellens

  20. Biodegradation of lignin by Agaricus Bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vane, C.H.; Abbott, G.D.; Head, I.M. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The lignolytic activity of Agaricus bisporus will be addressed in this paper. Sound and fungally degraded lignins were characterized by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FnR) and elemental analysis. Fungally degraded lignins displayed increased wt%N, wt%H and wt%O content and decreased wt%C content The FTIR spectrum of decayed lignin showed an increase in the relative intensity of absorption bands assigned to carbonyl and carboxyl functional groups located on the aliphatic side chain and a decrease in absorption bands assigned to aromatic skeletal vibration modes. Semiquantitative Py-GC-MS revealed an 82% decrease in lignin derived pyrolysis products upon biodegradation. No significant increase in pyrolysis products with an oxygenated aliphatic side chain were detected in the fungally degraded lignin however shortening of the aliphatic side chain via cleavage at the {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} positions was observed.

  1. Agaritine content of 53 Agaricus species collected from nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzova, V.; Hajslova, J.; Peroutka, R.;

    2009-01-01

    carcinogen. There was a huge variation in agaritine content between species, but less variation between samples of a species. Whereas the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus commonly contain 200-500 mg agaritine kg-1 fresh weight, no less than 24 of the 53 species contained agaritine levels above 1000 mg...... kg-1 fresh weight. The highest level was found in A. elvensis containing up to 10, 000 mg kg-1 fresh weight. Twenty species contained intermediate levels (100-1000 mg kg-1), and nine species were below 100 mg kg-1. Some of the species producing low levels of agaritine might be candidates for future...... strain development of Agaricus mushrooms for cultivation. No correlation could be observed between agaritine content and size of the mushroom, week of the year when collected, year of collection, or site of collection. Besides occurring in the genus Agaricus, some species of the genera Leucoagaricus...

  2. Two new species in Agaricus tropical clade I

    OpenAIRE

    Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Guinberteau, Jacques; Chen, Jie; Vellinga, Else C.; Zhao, Rui-Lin; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Yan, Jiye; Kevin D. Hyde; Callac, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    As part of our efforts of study the saprobic mushrooms in Asia we have collected numerous taxa of the genus Agaricus in northern Thailand. It is likely that more than 40 new species occur in this region and many are potentially edible or medicinal. A recent phylogenetic study revealed that most species of this region belong to exclusively tropical clades of which the largest one, TR I, was suspected to represent section Brunneopicti. In this paper we introduce two new species as Agaricus chia...

  3. RAPD discrimination of Agaricus bisporus mushroom cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A J; Challen, M P; Warner, P J; Elliott, T J

    2001-06-01

    Cultivars of the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus are difficult to differentiate, which has made strain protection problematic for this crop species. We have used RAPDs to discriminate between 26 strains of A. bisporus, 24 of which were commercial cultivars, and to characterise the genetic relatedness of these strains. Using 20 primers, 211 RAPD markers were identified and used in hierarchical cluster, patristic distance and parsimony analyses. All strains could be differentiated using the aggregated primer data. Although no one primer could differentiate all 26 strains, several individual primers yielded unique fingerprints for a variety of strains. The greatest differences (up to 28% variation) were observed in comparisons with or between two wild collections of A. bisporus. Quondam cultivars, commercial brown and off-white varieties proved more variable than the widely grown 'hybrid' types. Of the 15 hybrid varieties analysed, only one differed substantially (20% or more variable). The patristic and parsimony analyses both demonstrated the gross similarity of the hybrids, many of which appear to be essentially derived varieties from two original hybrid cultivars. RAPD analyses can assist mushroom strain identification and could play a role in the protection of novel cultivars. PMID:11525623

  4. The effect of royal sun agaricus, agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Extract on methyl Methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savic, T.; Patenkovic, A.; Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Andjelkovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis) hot water extract on methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced mutagenicity/genotoxity in Drosophila melanogaster was studied using a quick and broadly applicable in vivo assay, i.e., the wing somatic mutation and recombination

  5. Breeding and strain protection in the button mushroom agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Lavrijssen, B.; Gao, W.; Weijn, A.; Mes, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is one of the most widely cultivated edible mushroom species in the world. Being the main species cultivated in the Western hemisphere, its popularity also increases in Eastern Countries such as China and Korea. The world production level for 2009 is estimated a

  6. Differences in taste in button mushroom strains (Agaricus bisporus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Stijger, I.; Kersten, M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of a screening of genetically diverse strains of mushroom Agaricus bisporus for differences in taste. Eight different strains were grown on regular commercial compost and casing soil. Two of these strains were also grown on a casing with calcium chloride added to in

  7. Fatty Acid Composition of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.

    OpenAIRE

    Aktümsek, Abdurrahman; ÖZTÜRK, Celâleddin; KAŞIK, Giyasettin

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of fruit body, stem, lamellae and total of Agaricus bisporus were seperately analysed by GLC. In the all fatty acid compositions of A. bisporus, linoleic acid were predominant. Percentages of linoleic acid were varied between 53.45 - 68.78%. It was showed that the other major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and stearic acid in the fatty acid compositions.

  8. Radiation protection effect by the combination of propolis and agaricus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yeunhwa; Yamada, Katsunori; Ukawa, Yuuichi [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    The aims of the radioprotection are a human and the safety keeping of the environment. The leukocyte that much research is to do in the animals, and relations between the lymphocyte and the radiation are being made distinct until now. It paid attention to it in this determination stage, and lymphocyte toward the radiation was observed by using the ICR mice used for the lymphocyte simulation abundantly in this research. And, it was examined about the fetal effect toward the radiation. So, an excuse as a radioprotective agent of the effect on the fetus toward the radiation was examined experimentally by using the propolis and agaricus by this research. Therefore, it is a purpose to obtain information as a medicament of the radioprotection. ICR mice were used for the experiment. The pregnant mice were placed in plastic cages for radiation exposure, and were treated with a single whole-body X -radiation at 1 Gy and 2Gy with a dose rate of 35 cGy/min on 8 days after the conception. 100 mg/kg of propolis and agaricus. The total number of irradiated dams observed in this study was 40, a total of 38 non-irradiated control and sham control dams was also prepared, and 659 non-irradiated live fetuses served as controls. Statistical significant difference was recognized between the lymphocyte of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy group and the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + propolis and agaricus extracts of water solution administrated group toward the lymphocyte and embryonic death of control group and sham control group (p<0.01). But, when it was compared with the lymphocyte and embryonic death rate of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy group and the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + Propolis and agaricus group, the lymphocyte rate of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + Propolis and agaricus group was decrease. And, if propolis and agaricus was administered, the embryo beyond the haploid number that did implantation was found out in the exposure beyond 1.0Gy or 2.0Gy.

  9. The typification of Agaricus fastibilis Pers.: Fr. The type species of the genus Hebeloma (Fr.) Kumm

    OpenAIRE

    Kuyper, Thomas W.; Vesterholt, Jan

    1990-01-01

    The typification of Agaricus faslibilis Pers.: Fr. is discussed. The neotype, which has been designated by Singer, is rejected. As lectotype the illustration of Agaricus laterinus by Batschis designated. Problems associated with a special typification status for sanctioned names are discussed.

  10. DNA amplification polymorphisms of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    OpenAIRE

    Khush, R S; Becker, E; Wach, M.

    1992-01-01

    Single 10-bp primers were used to generate random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers from commercial and wild strains of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus via the polymerase chain reaction. Of 20 primers tested, 19 amplified A. bisporus DNA, each producing 5 to 15 scorable markers ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 kbp. RAPD markers identified seven distinct genotypes among eight heterokaryotic strains; two of the commercial strains were shown to be related to each other through single-spo...

  11. Differences in taste in button mushroom strains (Agaricus bisporus)

    OpenAIRE

    Baars, J.J.P.; Stijger, I.; M. Kersten; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of a screening of genetically diverse strains of mushroom Agaricus bisporus for differences in taste. Eight different strains were grown on regular commercial compost and casing soil. Two of these strains were also grown on a casing with calcium chloride added to increase osmotic value. The intension was to increase the dry matter content of the mushrooms that might affect the “bite” sensation of mushrooms.

  12. Intracellular bacterial infection in Agaricus bisponts (Lange) Sing..

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz Kalbarczyk

    2014-01-01

    Rod-shaped Gram-bacteria were observed in preparations made from the sporocarp or mummy - diseased Agaricus bisporus in the electron microscope. In cells of diseased rhizomorphs from several to a few dozen bacteria were found. Cells filled with a large number of bacteria were dead and the cellular wall was degraded. Probable the entrace of bacterie penetration into the mushroom ccll was observed. The bacterium. after its isolation, was identified as Pseudomonas sp.

  13. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identifie...

  14. Localization of the Mating Type Gene in Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jianping; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Horgen, Paul A.; Anderson, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus is secondarily homothallic. Most basidia produce two basidiospores, each of which receives two of the four postmeiotic nuclei. Usually, the two packaged nuclei carry compatible mating types. Previous studies suggested that there may be only a single mating type locus in A. bisporus. In this study, we determined whether the mating type segregated as a single Mendelian determinant in a cross marked with 64 segregating molecular markers. To score mating ...

  15. Carbohydrate utilization and metabolism is highly differentiated in Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Jurak, E.; Kohler, A; Baker, A.; Battaglia, E; Bruijn, de, M.E.; Burton, K.S.; Challen, M.P.; Cuotinho, P.M.; Eastwood, D.C.; Gruben, B.S.; Makela, M.R.; Martin, F.; Nadal, M; Brink, van den, A Arno

    2013-01-01

    Background - Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown on compost, in which the available carbon sources consist mainly of plant-derived polysaccharides that are built out of various different constituent monosaccharides. The major constituent monosaccharides of these polysaccharides are glucose, xylose, and arabinose, while smaller amounts of galactose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and mannose are also present. Results - In this study, genes encoding putative enzymes from carbon metabolism were i...

  16. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  17. Physiologic response of Agaricus subrufescens using different casing materials and practices applied in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Zied, Diego Cunha; Rinker, Danny Lee

    2013-01-01

    Casing materials and practices used in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus were evaluated in the cultivation of Agaricus subrufescens, using the best techniques for optimization of production, including the possibility of re-casing of the compost for the production of a second crop of mushroom. Casing based on peat moss, loam soil or coir was compared to casing material mixed with or without spawn-run compost. Based on the results, we conclude that the casing layer used in the cultivation of A. subrufescens should not necessarily be the same as that used in the cultivation of A. bisporus. For the tested strain cultivated with loam soil as casing layer, the ruffling technique is highly superior to CACing and should be pursued in further research. The re-casing of compost in new cycles showed good results suggesting that the currently used compost could be improved. PMID:23931122

  18. Nutritional value of Agaricus sylvaticus: mushroom grown in Brazil El valor nutritivo de Agaricus Sylvaticus: setas cultivadas en Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    J. Vinhal Costa Orsine; M.ª R. Carvalho Garbi Novaes; E. Ramírez Asquieri

    2012-01-01

    The bromatological characterization of the Agaricus sylvaticus species (A. sylvaticus), known as the Sun Mushroom and cultivated in Brazil, is necessary to determine substances with pharmacological and nutritional potential, in view its safe use in food and in human medicine. The purpose of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the A. sylvaticus mushroom grown in Brazil. Mushrooms were obtained in dehydrated form from a producer in Minas Gerais State. Through this stu...

  19. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cabannes, Delphine; Clément, Aurélien; Spataro, Cathy; Moinard, Magalie; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Callac, Philippe; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG), and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens. PMID:26921302

  20. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Foulongne-Oriol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG, and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus. The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens.

  1. Investigation of Mitochondrial Transmission in Selected Matings between Homokaryons from Commercial and Wild-Collected Isolates of Agaricus bisporus (= Agaricus brunnescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Tianru; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; van Griensven, L. J. L. D.; Horgen, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    Ten heterokaryons of Agaricus bisporus (= Agaricus brunnescens) were shown to carry four different mitochondrial (mt) genotypes by analysis of mt restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Fifteen homokaryons derived from these strains were used to investigate mt inheritance in A. bisporus. One hundred eighty-nine pairings were performed in 25 different combinations. Pairings in 15 different combinations produced heterokaryons on the basis of nuclear RFLP analyses and/or fruiting tria...

  2. 双孢蘑菇和蘑菇的ITS-RFLP分析%Studies on Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus campestris Using ITS-RFLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 刘勇; 赵小青; 王一; 王泽生

    2012-01-01

    对采自四川和西藏的双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)和蘑菇(A.campestris)9个野生菌株,以及双孢蘑菇5个栽培菌株为材抖,进行了ITS-RFLP分析.结果表明,ITS-PCR条带约为750 bp,5种限制性内切酶(MspⅠ、HinfⅠ、HaeⅡ、AulⅠ、TaqⅠ)的ITS-RFLP分析结果为,只有4种限制性内切酶(HinfⅠ、HaeⅡ、AulⅠ、TaqⅠ)产生多态性条带,但完全能将双孢蘑菇和蘑菇区分的限制性内切酶为TaqⅠ;对5种限制性内切酶的ITS-RFLP分析数据进行聚类结果为,在相似系数为0.615水平以下分为2个类群,并将双孢蘑菇和蘑菇区分开;在相似系数为0.915水平上,供试的11个野生和栽培双孢蘑菇菌株分为3个亚类群.%14 Agaricus strains, including 9 wild strains of Agaricus bisporus or Agaricus campestris and 4 cultivation strains of Agaricus bisporus , were studied by using ITS-RFLP. The results showed that a band with 750 bp from the strains was respectively amplified by the primer combination of ITS4 and ITS5 , and polymorphic bands were obtained after digestive treatments with restriction enzymes of Hinf Ⅰ , Hae Ⅱ , Aul Ⅰ , Taq Ⅰ , but no polymorphic bands produced with Msp Ⅰ, and Agaricus bisporus strains could be distinguished from Agaricus campestris strains only using Taq Ⅰ . The cluster results indicated that strains of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus campestris could be distinguished and divided into two groups at similarity coefficient of O.615, and the strains of Agaricus bisporus were divided into three subgroups at similarity coefficient of 0.915.

  3. Regulation of Laccase and Cellulase Genes Transcription in Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Ohga, Shoji; Wood, David A.

    1998-01-01

    A time course for laccase and cellulase genes transcription of Agaricus bisporus compost culture are examined. The results of assays for laccase gene leel show that the expression of this gene increased in the compost until pinning stage of development. In the fruiting cultures the amount of leel declined rapidly over a 4-5 d period immediately. Cellulase gene celS expression contrasted sharply appeared with leel expression by remaining at a low level until after the pins were seen. The cel3...

  4. Biological Control of Olive Green Mold in Agaricus bisporus Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautorus, T E; Townsley, P M

    1983-02-01

    Successful methods to control the damaging weed mold Chaetomium olivaceum (olive green mold) in mushroom beds are not presently known. An attempt was made to control C. olivaceum by biological means. A thermophilic Bacillus sp. which showed dramatic activity against C. olivaceum on Trypticase soy agar (BBL Microbiology Systems)-0.4% yeast extract agar plates was isolated from commercial mushroom compost (phase I). When inoculated into conventional and hydroponic mushroom beds, the bacillus not only provided a significant degree of protection from C. olivaceum, but also increased yields of Agaricus bisporus.

  5. Anti-inflammatory potential of Agaricus in carrageenan-induced model of local inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrazzag A. Elmajdoub

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: These data may indicate that Agaricus extract has the potential of anti-inflammatory activity that could be applied in acute inflammatory disorders. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 497-502

  6. Determination of Chemical Antioxidants and Phenolic Compounds in the Brazilian Mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus

    OpenAIRE

    Orsine, JV Costa; Novaes, MRCG; Asquieri, E Ramirez; R Cañete

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus sylvaticus mushroom has been widely studied because of its high nutritional value and medicinal properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Agaricus sylvaticus and quantify their total polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity was performed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and total polyphenol content was assessed by colorimetric method. Observation also noted the great ...

  7. Agaricus section Brunneopicti: a phylogenetic reconstruction with descriptions of four new taxa

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie; Zhao, Rui-Lin; Parra, Luis A.; Guelly, Atsu K; De Kesel, André; Kevin D. Hyde; Rapior, Sylvie; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Callac, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus is a genus of saprobic basidiomycetes including species of nutritional and medicinal interest. Historically the temperate species have been grouped into eight classical sections. Recent phylogenetic analyses however, revealed that two-thirds of the tropical taxa do not cluster in these sections, but form exclusively tropical clades. Seven (TR I to TR VII) strongly supported tropical clades have been revealed and it was hypothesized that clade TR I might represent Agaricus section Bru...

  8. Notulae ad Floram agaricinam neerlandicam — XXXIII. Notes on Agaricus section Spissicaules

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, Marijke M.

    1999-01-01

    The subsection Spissicaules of Agaricus section Sanguinolenti is raised to section level. It is mainly characterised by the simple annulus, the presence of yellowing rhizomorphs, yellow discolouration of the context or surface at the base of the stipe and a positive Schaeffer-reaction, and the slightly reddening context in the higher part of the stipe. Section Spissicaules comprises three species in the Netherlands, viz. Agaricus lanipes, A. litoralis, and A. bresadolanus. Both. A. maskae and...

  9. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of silver in wild Agaricus campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falandysz, J.; Danisiewicz, D. [Univ. of Gdansk (Poland)

    1995-07-01

    Silver is an element naturally occurring in small concentrations in different environmental sites. However, many anthropogenic sources of silver led to contamination of this element in soil surfaces, pastures, and coastal marine areas in different parts of the world. Estimates are that 40% of the 1.15x10{sup 4}t of silver produced annually worldwide, will escape into the environment. Due to municipal waste discharge and/or industrial effluents with high silver concentrations, 100 x above the background level have been reported in invertebrate species from polluted marine areas. The meta-stabile radioisotope, {sup 110m}Ag, is a main component of the liquid effluents from nuclear facilities under normal operating conditions. The presence of {sup 111}Ag and {sup 110m}Ag also has been widely found throughout Europe in the 1986 Chernobyl fallout. Silver ions are environmentally harmful. High toxic effects have been observed at low concentrations, especially in aquatic species. Species of lower fungi as well as the mushroom Agaricus bisporus are know to bioaccumulate high concentrations of silver when grown on an artificially enriched substrate. This study looks at the relationship between the silver content of soil and bioconcentration potential of wild Agaricus campestris from sites under different use and with different concentrations of heavy metals. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Study on Anniversary Cultivation Mode of Coffee and Straw Rotting Fungus%咖啡与草腐型食用菌复合高效周年栽培模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传利; 杜华波; 杨发军; 桂雪梅; 谢纯

    2014-01-01

    在小粒咖啡种植园进行的咖啡园+大球盖菇和咖啡园+姬松茸两种复合栽培试验的结果表明:利用咖啡副产品混合其它原料生料栽培的大球盖菇和发酵料栽培的姬松茸生物学效率分别达36.5%和35.8%;鲜菇产量分别为5.84 kg/m2和5.78 kg/m2,姬松茸经济效益高于大球盖菇;两种复合栽培模式能实现咖啡园与草腐型食用菌复合周年栽培,栽培1个周期后,平均效益比咖啡纯作增加5~10倍,达到7742元/667 m2,最高可达14242元/667 m2;养菇的营养基料为咖啡园持续提供良好的田面覆盖和优质的有机肥料,增进土壤肥力,具有较好的经济、生态和社会效益。%Intercropped experiment of two edible fungus in Coffea arabica plantations was conducted. The results indicat-ed that the biological efficiency of fungus Stropharia rugoso-annulata reached to 36.5% under treatment of coffee by prod-ucts mixed with other raw material, and 36.5%for Agaricus blazei Murrill with fermented material . Fresh yields were 5.84 kg/m2 and 5.78 kg/m2, respectively.The economic benefit of Agaricus blazei Murrill is much better than that of Strophar-ia rugoso-annulata;This model is help in implementing the anniversary cultivation of straw rotting fungus in coffee planta-tions. Compared with solo coffee planting, the averaged efficiency increased 5 to 10 times, up to 7 742 yuan per hec-are in one cultivation cycle. The highest can reach to 14 242 yuan per hecare. While mushroom nutrition makings can pro-vide good surface coverage and quality organic fertilizer, improving soil fertility and has better economic, ecological and so-cial benefits.

  11. Extension of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) shelf life by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh mushroom sporophores (Agaricus bisporus) were placed in trays and covered with PVC film. Forty-eight of the number of packs were irradiated by a γ-source with a dose of 3 kGy, and the remaining 24 treated as control packs. Both treated and control samples were subsequently stored at 10 ± 2°C and relative humidity of 94 ± 6%. After storage, mushrooms were subjected to quality assessments and taste panel-testing, both raw and when cooked. Irradiated sporophores had an extended shelf-life compared with control samples, with less browning and a delay in cap opening. Desiccation was slowed and stipe elongation reduced so that irradiated mushrooms were still acceptable for consumption 16 days after treatment. Deleterious effects of irradiation at this relatively low level were not observed

  12. Effects of catalysts on liquefaction of Agaricus versicolor (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Supercritical liquefaction process is used for producing energy from biomass. The common reaction conditions for supercritical liquefaction process are the 240-380 °C temperature range and 5-20 Mpa pressure values range. Agaricus versicolor (L.) was liquefied by acetone in an autoclave (75 mL) under high pressure with (aluminium oxide and calcium hydroxide) and without catalyst at 290 °C for producing bio-oil. The products of liquefaction (bio-oil) were analysed and characterized using various methods including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. GC-MS identified 27 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 290 °C.

  13. Nutritional value of Agaricus sylvaticus: mushroom grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhal Costa Orsine, J; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, M R; Ramírez Asquieri, E

    2012-01-01

    The bromatological characterization of the Agaricus sylvaticus species (A. sylvaticus), known as the Sun Mushroom and cultivated in Brazil, is necessary to determine substances with pharmacological and nutritional potential, in view its safe use in food and in human medicine. The purpose of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the A. sylvaticus mushroom grown in Brazil. Mushrooms were obtained in dehydrated form from a producer in Minas Gerais State. Through this study it was able to observe the fungus' rich chemical composition, highlighting the variety and quantity of minerals as well as its high protein content. There are many components of this mushroom that have medicinal properties, which are recognized as excellent antioxidants. Results also proved that the composition of A. sylvaticus presented differences when compared to the chemical composition of other Agaricaceae fungi. PMID:22732967

  14. 氢化物-原子荧光法测定姬松茸子实体中硒含量%Determination of Total Selenium in the Fruit Body of Agaricus blazei by Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Speca'ometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖辉; 吴向阳; 仰榴青; 张敏; 闫舒; 邹烨; 李芳

    2010-01-01

    建立姬松茸子实体中硒含量的氢化物-原子荧光光谱测定方法.用硒标准溶液考察载流盐酸体积分数、硼氢化钠质量分数、酸介质浓度对荧光强度的影响.姬松茸子实体经湿法与微波高压消解后,用氢化物原子荧光法测定硒含量.该法线性范围为1.0~10.0ng/mL,检出限为0.002ng/mL,精密度为1.32%~4.11%(n=10),回收率为92.89%~106.49%(n=5).该法准确、简便、快速,可用于姬松茸子实体中硒含量的测定.

  15. Evaluation of Antibacterial properties of the suspension of Ginger, Black Pepper, Vinegar, Honey and its application in Shelf life extension of Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Suspensions of vinegar, honey, black pepper and ginger were examined for antibacterial activity against Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and E.coli by agar well diffusion technique. The prepared suspensions were applied on Agaricus bisporus to evaluate suspensions effect for increasing the shelf life of it. Vinegar suspension showed better antibacterial effect and good result on Agaricus bisporus to increase its shelf life as compared to honey suspension. Enzymatic spoilage of Agaricus bisporus were studied by applying vinegar suspension on both blanched and unblanched Agaricus bisporus at 4oC and 27oC. Treated blanched Agaricus bisporus which were stored at 4oC showed least microbial load as compared to other blanched and unblanched Agaricus bisporus kept at 4oC and 27oC. Based on survey analysis minimal change was observed in sensory quality, color and texture on Agaricus bisporus due to applied suspension.

  16. Nutritional value of Agaricus sylvaticus: mushroom grown in Brazil El valor nutritivo de Agaricus Sylvaticus: setas cultivadas en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vinhal Costa Orsine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological characterization of the Agaricus sylvaticus species (A. sylvaticus, known as the Sun Mushroom and cultivated in Brazil, is necessary to determine substances with pharmacological and nutritional potential, in view its safe use in food and in human medicine. The purpose of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the A. sylvaticus mushroom grown in Brazil. Mushrooms were obtained in dehydrated form from a producer in Minas Gerais State. Through this study it was able to observe the fungus' rich chemical composition, highlighting the variety and quantity of minerals as well as its high protein content. There are many components of this mushroom that have medicinal properties, which are recognized as excellent antioxidants. Results also proved that the composition of A. sylvaticus presented differences when compared to the chemical composition of other Agaricaceae fungi.En la caracterización bromatológica del género Agaricus sylvaticus (A. sylvaticus, conocido como la seta del sol y cultivado en Brasil, es necesario determinar las sustancias con potencial farmacológico y nutritivo con el objetivo de un uso seguro en la alimentación y la medicina humana. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición química de la seta A. sylvaticus cultivada en Brasil. Se obtuvieron las setas en su forma deshidratada de un cultivador del estado de Minas Gerais. A través de este estudio pudimos observar la rica composición química del hongo, destacando la variedad y cantidad de minerales así como su alto contenido en proteínas. Esta seta contiene muchos componentes con propiedades medicinales, que se sabe que son excelentes antioxidantes. Los resultados también muestran que la composición de A. sylvaticus mostraba diferencias al compararla con la composición química de otros hongos de la familia Agaricaceae.

  17. Determination of Chemical Antioxidants and Phenolic Compounds in the Brazilian Mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Orsine, J V; Novaes, Mr Cg; Ramirez Asquieri, E; Cañete, R

    2014-03-01

    Agaricus sylvaticus mushroom has been widely studied because of its high nutritional value and medicinal properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Agaricus sylvaticusand quantify their total polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity was performed by the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and total polyphenol content was assessed by colorimetric method. Observation also noted the great antioxidant potential of aqueous, alcoholic and ethereal extracts (14.6%, 75.6% and 14.6%, respectively) of the Agaricus sylvaticus mushroom, highlighting the alcoholic extract, which demonstrates the extraordinary benefits of this mushroom in the diet, since antioxidants prevent premature ageing and various types of cancer. PMID:25303248

  18. Crescimento micelial de Agaricus bisporus em meios de cultivo e substratos alternativos

    OpenAIRE

    Minotto, Elisandra; Bernardi, Eduardo; Wille, Caroline Neugebauer; Nascimento, José Soares do

    2014-01-01

    O cultivo de Agaricus bisporus, tem sido realizado a partir de uma mistura de substratos celulósicos compostados e pasteurizados. A formulação dos substratos destinados à produção deste macrofungo é um fator determinante na otimização da colonização do substrato e na produtividade de Agaricus spp. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento de A. bisporus em meios de cultivo e substratos constituídos de casca de amendoim, casca de mamona, casca de soja, folhas de milho e sub...

  19. Characterisation and cultivation of wild Agaricus species from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez Carrera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Germplasm preservation and genetic improvement of authentic wild species is fundamental for developing the mushroom industry of any country. In Mexico, strains of wild Agaricus species were isolated from diverse regions. Ten species were tentatively identified on the basis of fruit-body morphology: A. abruptibulbus Peck, A. albolutescens Zeller, A. augustus Fries, A. bisporus var. bisporus (LangeImbach, A. bitorquis (Quél.Sacc., A. campestris Link : Fries, A. hortensis (CookePilàt, A. osecanus Pilát, A. robustissimus Panizzi, and A. subrufescens Peck; there was also a group of five strains classified as A. sp. These species were characterised considering several criteria (mycelial growth on different culture media and pH, fruiting tests on compost, macroscopic morphology and basidial spore number of fruit bodies, using strains of A. bitorquis as a standard reference. Colony morphology on culture media was variable, showing differences in density (high, low, aerial mycelia (abundant, scarce, and growth rates (fast, slow. The initial pH and the culture medium influenced colony growth rates, which ranged from 0.02-1.06 cm/day. In fruiting trials, wild Agaricus species also showed wide variations in the average time for compost (7-52 days and casing soil (10-48 days colonization, fruiting (2-17 days, after the casing soil is colonized, and fruit-body development (3-19 days, from primordia to mature sporophores, as well as in the number of flushes (1-5, mushroom yields (49.5-1,499.1 g, and biological efficiency (1.8-55.5%. The period from spawning to harvesting the first flush, considering the average time for fruit-body development, ranged from 39-96 days. All species studied showed spore-bearing fruit bodies with normal morphology, having variable colour (white, off-white, cream, brown, scaliness, and size of caps and stipes. The average basidial spore number indicated that most species were of tetrasporic character showing a high proportion of

  20. DNA amplification polymorphisms of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khush, R S; Becker, E; Wach, M

    1992-09-01

    Single 10-bp primers were used to generate random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers from commercial and wild strains of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus via the polymerase chain reaction. Of 20 primers tested, 19 amplified A. bisporus DNA, each producing 5 to 15 scorable markers ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 kbp. RAPD markers identified seven distinct genotypes among eight heterokaryotic strains; two of the commercial strains were shown to be related to each other through single-spore descent. Homokaryons recovered from protoplast regenerants of heterokaryotic strains carried a subset of the RAPD markers found in the heterokaryon, and both of the haploid nuclei from two heterokaryons were distinguishable. RAPD markers also served to verify the creation of a hybrid heterokaryon and to analyze meiotic progeny from this new strain: most of the basidiospores displayed RAPD fingerprints identical to that of the parental heterokaryon, although a few selected slow growers were homoallelic at a number of loci that were heteroallelic in the parent, suggesting that they represented rare homokaryotic basidiospores; crossover events between a RAPD marker locus and its respective centromere appeared to be infrequent. These results demonstrate that RAPD markers provide an efficient alternative for strain fingerprinting and a versatile tool for genetic studies and manipulations of A. bisporus. PMID:1444410

  1. Nutritional values of different strains of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional values and chemical composition of different strains of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus were studied. The study covered four strains cultivated in Poland: OCNOS-1, Somycel-11 , Somycel-92, and Somycel-653. The samples were analyzed for dry matter, vitamin C, nitrates, nitrites, total nitrogen and crude protein (N × 4.38, amino acid composition, soluble carbohydrates composition, and minerals content. Besides, whiteness values were determined by Hunter's method. All determinations were made on two of fruit-bodies of two sizes: 25-40 mm in pileus diameter (small and 40-50 mm in pileus diameter (large. A significantly higher dry matter content was found in strain 1 in comparison with strain 92. The lowest value of total nitrogen was detected for strain 92 and the highest for strain 653. From among the four analyzed strains, strain 92 contained the highest amount of essential amino acids. Trehalose content was significantly lower in strain 11 in comparison with other strains both in small and large fruit-body.

  2. 蘑菇属中国新记录种-细丛卷毛柄蘑菇%Agaricus flocculosipes-a Species of Agaricus Newly Recorded in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于清华; 周均亮; 赵瑞琳

    2014-01-01

    A species of Agaricus isolated from the Nangun River National Nature Reserve,Yunnan Province, China,was identified as Agaricus flocculosipes based on morphological characteristics and ITS sequence analysis.The macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the species,which produces a large fruit body, are described in detail.%通过详细的形态学和基于 ITS序列的分子系统学研究方法,鉴定了来自云南南滚河国家级自然保护区的一份标本为 Agaricusflocculosipes。该种是蘑菇属一个具有食用价值的野生种,在我国首次发现,对该种进行详细描述,给予中文名称为细丛卷毛柄蘑菇。

  3. Genetic Variation and Combining Ability Analysis of Bruising Sensitivity in Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, W.; Baars, J.J.P.; Dolstra, O.; Visser, R.G.F.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced button mushroom cultivars that are less sensitive to mechanical bruising are required by the mushroom industry, where automated harvesting still cannot be used for the fresh mushroom market. The genetic variation in bruising sensitivity (BS) of Agaricus bisporus was studied through an incom

  4. Tyrosinase activity and isoform composition in separate tissues during development of Agaricus bisporus fruit bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.; Wichers, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    During growth of Agaricus bisporus fruit bodies the amount of active tyrosinase increased. The amount of active tyrosinase can be related to the degree of browning, as opposed to the fully activated tyrosinase level. Isoelectric focusing revealed that active and latent tyrosinase isoforms having dif

  5. A Fruiting Body Tissue Method for Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xi; Stone, Michelle; Schlagnhaufer, Carl; Romaine, C. Peter

    2000-01-01

    We describe a modified Agrobacterium-mediated method for the efficient transformation of Agaricus bisporus. Salient features of this procedure include cocultivation of Agrobacterium and fruiting body gill tissue and use of a vector with a homologous promoter. This method offers new prospects for the genetic manipulation of this commercially important mushroom species.

  6. Peculiarities of agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach strains obtained under the. gamma. -ray effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanek, M.; Dudka, Yi.O.; Byis' ko, N.A.; Vasser, S.P.; Srv, A.; Kolesnichenko, L.P.; Yablons' kij, Yi. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Novy Hradek. Mikrobiologicky Ustav; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Botaniki)

    A technique of irradiation of Agaricus bisporus (J.Lge) Imbach strains by gamma-rays is described, characteristics of strains, received during irradiation are given (productivity, protein content). The efficiency of gamma-ray usage in A bisporus selection is considered.

  7. Transformation of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) using T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T.S.P.; Lavrijssen, B.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2001-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is known to transfer parts of its tumour-inducing plasmid, the T-DNA, to plants, yeasts and filamentous fungi. We have used this system to transform germinating basidiospores and vegetative mycelium of a commercial strain of the cultivated basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus. A

  8. Evaluation of Antibacterial properties of the suspension of Ginger, Black Pepper, Vinegar, Honey and its application in Shelf life extension of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Jain; Himanshu Karaiya; Kumari Amrita; Swapnil Tiwari; Vishakha Dubey; C. Ramalingam

    2013-01-01

    Suspensions of vinegar, honey, black pepper and ginger were examined for antibacterial activity against Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and E.coli by agar well diffusion technique. The prepared suspensions were applied on Agaricus bisporus to evaluate suspensions effect for increasing the shelf life of it. Vinegar suspension showed better antibacterial effect and good result on Agaricus bisporus to increase its shelf life as compared to honey suspension. Enzymatic spoilage of Agaricus bisporu...

  9. Immunomodulatory properties of medicinal mushrooms: differential effects of water and ethanol extracts on NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Jing; Chang, Chih-Jung; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Martel, Jan; Ojcius, David M; Ko, Yun-Fei; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D

    2016-10-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been used for centuries in Asian countries owing to their beneficial effects on health and longevity. Previous studies have reported that a single medicinal mushroom may produce both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on immune cells, depending on conditions, but the factors responsible for this apparent dichotomy remain obscure. We show here that water and ethanol extracts of cultured mycelium from various species (Agaricus blazei Murrill, Antrodia cinnamomea, Ganoderma lucidum and Hirsutella sinensis) produce opposite effects on NK cells. Water extracts enhance NK cell cytotoxic activity against cancer cells, whereas ethanol extracts inhibit cytotoxicity. Water extracts stimulate the expression and production of cytolytic proteins (perforin and granulysin) and NKG2D/NCR cell surface receptors, and activate intracellular signaling kinases (ERK, JNK and p38). In contrast, ethanol extracts inhibit expression of cytolytic and cell surface receptors. Our results suggest that the mode of extraction of medicinal mushrooms may determine the nature of the immunomodulatory effects produced on immune cells, presumably owing to the differential solubility of stimulatory and inhibitory mediators. These findings have important implications for the preparation of medicinal mushrooms to prevent and treat human diseases. PMID:27469258

  10. Effects of agaricus lilaceps fairy rings on soil aggregation and microbial community structure in relation to growth stimulation of western wheatgrass (pascopyrum smithii) in Eastern Montana rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimulation of plant productivity caused by Agaricus fairy rings has been reported, but nothing is known about soil aggregation and the microbial community structure of the stimulated zone, particularly the communities that can bind to soil particles. We studied three concentric zones of Agaricus li...

  11. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Edita Jurak; Aleksandrina Patyshakuliyeva; de Vries, Ronald P; Harry Gruppen; Mirjam A Kabel

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from mushroom-grown compost at different stages of mycelium growth and fruiting body formation, were analyzed for their ability to degrade a range of polysaccharides. Mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosida...

  12. Therapeutic Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis on Phenylhydrazine-Induced Neonatal Jaundice in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Zhang; Bo Yuan; HuiPing Wang; Ya Gao

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract (ABE) on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats. Administration of ABE dose-dependently reduced the elevated bilirubin level induced by phenylhydrazine. It can be somewhat supported from the results of in vitro bilirubin degradation experiment. ABE treatment also reduced the total antioxidant status (TAOS), cascade O2 −/SOD, level of NF-κB protein, and adrenomedullin (AM). Overall, the results...

  13. Gastric tumorigenesis by a single dose of 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzenediazonium ion of Agaricus bisporus.

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, B.; Nagel, D.; Ross, A.

    1982-01-01

    4-(Hydroxymethyl-benzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate was administered as a single intragastric instillation at 400 micrograms/g to Swiss albino mice. The treatment gave rise to glandular stomach tumours in incidences of 30% in females and 32% in males. Histopathologically, the tumours were classified as polypoid adenomas and adenocarcinomas. This diazonium ion is an ingredient of the cultivated mushroom of commerce, Agaricus bisporus. The implications are self-evident. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig...

  14. The pathogenic fungi in mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange.) Imbach.

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Tekiela

    2012-01-01

    The research was conducted in a mushroom growing facility located near Rzeszów, consisting of three production cycles. The number and composition of microorganisms which accompany the mushroom cultivation depended on the healthiness of: the compost, casing and spawn of Agaricus bisporus. The presence of pathogenic fungi in the cultivation halls at the beginning of the production cycle is a serious threat to the cultivation of common mushroom because their rapid development shortens the span o...

  15. Growth-promoting effect of thermophilic fungi on the mycelium of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegant, W.M.; Wery, J.; E. T. Buitenhuis; de Bont, J A

    1992-01-01

    The growth-promoting effect of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in mushroom compost on the mycelium of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus was investigated. Results obtained by others were confirmed by showing that S. thermophilum leads to an increased hyphal extension rate of the mushroom mycelium. However, it was demonstrated that hyphal extension rates were not clearly related to mushroom biomass increase rates. A number of experiments pointed strongly towards CO2 as the ...

  16. Serum immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G reactivity to Agaricus bisporus proteins in mushroom cultivation workers

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Khakzad; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Safarali Mahdian; Sabah Mayahi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Although molds are regarded as the main fungal allergen sources, evidence indicates that spores of Basidiomycota including Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) can be also found at high concentrations in the environment and may cause as many respiratory allergies as molds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against A. bisporus via immunoblotting technique in individuals working at mushroom culti...

  17. Compositional Changes in Compost during Composting and Growth of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Iiyama, Kenji; Stone, Bruce A.; Macauley, Barry J.

    1994-01-01

    Samples from conventional compost taken at various stages of composting and mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) growth were analyzed for changes in 80% ethanol and water extracts, monosaccharides in acid hydrolysates of polysaccharides, lignin concentration, and lignin structural features. Variable amounts of extraneous inorganic solids in the form of fine sandy particles were removed by sedimentation of the samples in a carbon tetrachloride-dibromomethane mixture. During composting, about two-third...

  18. Lignin-Degrading Enzymes of the Commercial Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnen, Alice M.; Anton, Lori H.; Orth, Ann B.

    1994-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus, grown under standard composting conditions, was evaluated for its ability to produce lignin-degrading peroxidases, which have been shown to have an integral role in lignin degradation by wood-rotting fungi. The activity of manganese peroxidase was monitored throughout the production cycle of the fungus, from the time of colonization of the compost through the development of fruit bodies. Characterization of the enzyme was done with a crude compost extract. Manganese peroxid...

  19. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Monokaryotic Progeny Strains of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Choi, Min Ah; Yun, Yeo Hong; Oh, Youn-Lee; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    To promote the selection of promising monokaryotic strains of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during breeding, 61 progeny strains derived from basidiospores of two different lines of dikaryotic parental strains, ASI1038 and ASI1346, were analyzed by nucleotide sequencing of the intergenic spacer I (IGS I) region in their rDNA and by extracellular enzyme assays. Nineteen different sizes of IGS I, which ranged from 1,301 to 1,348 bp, were present among twenty ASI1346-derived progeny strains...

  20. Crystal Structure of Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Tyrosinase: Identity of the Tetramer Subunits and Interaction with Tropolone

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaya, Wangsa T.; Rozeboom, Henriette J.; Weijn, Amrah; Mes, Jurriaan J.; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Wichers, Harry J.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosinase catalyzes the conversion of phenolic compounds into their quinone derivatives, which are precursors for the formation of melanin, a ubiquitous pigment in living organisms. Because of its importance for browning reactions in the food industry, the tyrosinase from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus has been investigated in depth. In previous studies the tyrosinase enzyme complex was shown to be a H(2)L(2) tetramer, but no clues were obtained of the identities of the subunits, their mode ...

  1. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; João Paulo Furlan de Jesus; Fabrício Rocha Vieira; Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes Viana; Marta Helena Fillet Spoto; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni

    2014-01-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (composts x strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellu...

  2. Ultrastructural Studies on the Cultivation Processes and Growth and Development of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus Bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, D. A.; Craig, G.D.; Atkey, P. T.; Newsam, R. J.; Gull, K.

    1985-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) , transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy have been used to study various processes in the cultivation of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus . Mushrooms are cultured on composted wheat straw. The microbial degradation processes during composting have been visualised by TEM and SEM and correlated with microbiological studies . Various modes of attack by the microorganisms on the plant cell walls can be seen. Most rapid degradation occurred on...

  3. Drying behavior of the marketed mushrooms Lactarius deliciosus and Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ana Cândida; Baptista, Paula; Ramalhosa, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    Wild edible mycorrhizal mushrooms have great commercial importance, as well as beneficial properties, linked to their nutritional value, delicacy and flavor. Lactarius deliciosus is appreciated worldwide, being frequently used in the preparation of several culinary dishes. On the other hand, Agaricus bisporus is a commercial mushroom also quite used. However, mushrooms are extremely perishable and shelf life of fresh mushrooms is very short. Therefore, they are frequently processed, being deh...

  4. A Selective Medium for Quantitative Reisolation of Trichoderma harzianum from Agaricus bisporus Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Josie; Clarkson, John M.; Mills, Peter R.; Cooper, Richard M

    2003-01-01

    We adapted a selective medium, previously developed for reisolation of Trichoderma spp. from soil, for quantitative determination of growth of T. harzianum from commercial Agaricus bisporus composts. This medium enables comparisons of aggressive (sensu inhibition of A. bisporus yield) with nonaggressive T. harzianum groups. The resulting medium contains the antimicrobials chloramphenicol, streptomycin, quintozene, and propamocarb and was highly selective, allowing the recovery of T. harzianum...

  5. Quality Characteristics of Microwave-Vacuum Dried Button Mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus)

    OpenAIRE

    S.K.Giri & Suresh Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) slices as well as whole mushrooms were dried by microwave-vacuum drying technique to a moisture content of around 6 %(d.b.). The dehydrated mushrooms were compared with hot-air dried products on the basis of different quality attributes such as colour, texture, rehydration ratio and sensory score. Statistical analysis of data revealed significant difference among the drying methods for all the attributes at p ≤ 0.05. Microwave-vacuum dried mushrooms had sig...

  6. Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) Synthase Enhances Thermotolerance of Mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhonglei Lu; Xiangxiang Kong; Zhaoming Lu; Meixiang Xiao; Meiyuan Chen; Liang Zhu; Yuemao Shen; Xiangyang Hu; Siyang Song

    2014-01-01

    Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially express...

  7. Nutritional supplementation with the mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus reduces oxidative stress in children with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Figueira, Marcela S; Luana A Sá; Vasconcelos, Amanda S; Moreira, Danilo R; Paula SOC Laurindo; Danielle RG Ribeiro; Santos, Rogério S.; Paulo Guzzo; Maria F Dolabela; Sandro Percario

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The involvement of free radicals and oxidative stress in HIV infection has been extensively studied, and the benefits of antioxidant supplementation in animal studies have been demonstrated. However, few studies have demonstrated a benefit in clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus, a mushroom rich in antioxidants, on the oxidative profile of children born with HIV undergoing antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: The sample ...

  8. Growth of Agaricus campestris NRRL 2334 in the Form of Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Antonio M.; Bailey, Valerie I.

    1985-01-01

    The production of pellets of the fungus Agaricus campestris NRRL 2334 was studied in submerged fermentation with peat extract as the main substrate source. Pellets up to 6 mm in diameter were obtained when the peat extract was diluted to reduce the concentration of growth inhibitors. Yeast extract and yeast extract plus glucose were the most effective nutrient supplements in the diluted peat extract media and stimulated the formation of large pellets which contained 44.4% crude protein, 2.8% ...

  9. Simple and efficient expression of Agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase in Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Sygmund, Christoph; Gutmann, Alexander; Krondorfer, Iris; Kujawa, Magdalena; Glieder, Anton; Pscheidt, Beate; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens; Kittl, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) is a fungal flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is highly interesting for applications in organic synthesis or electrochemistry. The low expression levels of the filamentous fungus Agaricus meleagris as well as the demand for engineered PDH make heterologous expression necessary. Recently, Aspergillus species were described to efficiently secrete recombinant PDH. Here, we evaluate recombinant protein production with expression hosts more suitable for geneti...

  10. GC-MS studies of the chemical composition of two inedible mushrooms of the genus Agaricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjosheva Melania

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushrooms in the genus Agaricus have worldwide distribution and include the economically important species A. bisporus. Some Agaricus species are inedible, including A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, which are similar in appearance to certain edible species, yet are known to possess unpleasant odours and induce gastrointestinal problems if consumed. We have studied the chemical composition of these mushrooms using GC-MS. Results Our GC-MS studies on the volatile fractions and butanol extracts resulted in the identification of 44 and 34 compounds for A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, respectively, including fatty acids and their esters, amino acids, and sugar alcohols. The most abundant constituent in the volatiles and butanol were phenol and urea respectively. We also identified the presence of ergosterol and two Δ7-sterols. In addition, 5α,8α-Epidioxi-24(ξ-methylcholesta-6,22-diene-3β-ol was isolated for the first time from both mushrooms. Our study is therefore the first report on the chemical composition of these two species. Conclusion The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the chemical composition of mushrooms belonging to the Agaricus genus, and provide some explanation for the reported mild toxicity of A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, a phenonomenon that can be explained by a high phenol content, similar to that found in other Xanthodermatei species.

  11. Investigation of Mitochondrial Transmission in Selected Matings between Homokaryons from Commercial and Wild-Collected Isolates of Agaricus bisporus (= Agaricus brunnescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, T; Sonnenberg, A S; Van Griensven, L J; Horgen, P A

    1992-11-01

    Ten heterokaryons of Agaricus bisporus (= Agaricus brunnescens) were shown to carry four different mitochondrial (mt) genotypes by analysis of mt restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Fifteen homokaryons derived from these strains were used to investigate mt inheritance in A. bisporus. One hundred eighty-nine pairings were performed in 25 different combinations. Pairings in 15 different combinations produced heterokaryons on the basis of nuclear RFLP analyses and/or fruiting trials. The mt genotype of each new intraspecies hybrid was examined by using mt RFLPs as genetic markers. Our results suggest the following. (i) Recombination between the mt genomes was not a common event. (ii) From most individual pairings, all heterokaryons carried the same mt genotype. (iii) Heterokaryons carrying either of the two possible mt genotypes were observed in certain crosses after modification of the pairing procedure. A biparental transmission pattern was demonstrated for some crosses, but there appears to be a preference for one of the mt genotypes to predominate in any specific pairing. PMID:16348802

  12. Removal of phenol from industrial effluents using enzymatic extract from Agaricus bisporus; Remocao de fenol de efluentes industriais utilizando extrato enzimatico de Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, E.; Coelho, M.A.Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica]. E-mail: alice@eq.ufrj.br; Langone, M.A.P. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: langonem@uerj.br

    2003-07-01

    Phenols are toxic pollutants found in several industrial wastes, mainly in oil industry. These substances impose several risks to human health. Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) is a polyphenol oxidase found in several life forms, like in the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. In this fungal tissue, the enzyme is readily available leading to high activity extracts needing no extensive purification. The tyrosinase extract is able to modify phenols in non-soluble reaction products, proving its potential as a biocatalyst for applications involving biomodification of phenols or bioremediation of phenol-polluted water. The purpose of this work was to employ the crude extract from the Agaricus bisporus mushroom in the removal of phenol from a synthetic oil industry wastewater. The crude extract was used in enzymatic reactions employing aqueous phenol solutions without pH control. The initial phenol concentration in all substrate solutions was 100 mg/L and different enzymatic concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400 U/mL were tested. Both reactions, with 200 U/mL and 400 U/mL enzymatic activity, lead to 90% of phenol removal. The treated and not treated samples toxicity were measured using Artemia salina (crustacean) and Brachydanio rerio (fish) bioassays. The final effluent shown to be less toxicity than the polluted water. (author)

  13. Standardized Cultivation Technology of Agaricus bisporus%双孢菇标准化栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杏元; 周桃英; 陈全胜; 杨辉德; 郑宝清

    2014-01-01

    双孢茹营养丰富,栽培范围广泛,栽培条件要求不高,容易形成产业形势。为了提高双孢菇的产量,笔者规范了双孢菇标准化栽培技术,使其产量提高20%左右,可作为农民增收的一个有效途径。%Agaricus bisporus is a complete nutrition food, widely cultivated, and the demand on cultivation is general y lower, which advances Agaricus bisporus industry to certain extent. In order to improve yield of Agaricus bisporus, the research ruled the standardized cultivation technology and increased the yield by 20%, which can be an effective way for improving farmers’ incomes.

  14. 双孢蘑菇反季节栽培技术%Off-season cultivation techniques of Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈碧辉

    2011-01-01

    The off-season cultivation of Agaricus bisporus by using different strains at various altitutes could realize year-round fresh mushroom supply and be convenient for widely popularizing to farmers.This paper emphatically introduced the key points of off-season cultivation techniques of Agaricus bisporus.%利用不同海拔、菌株进行双孢蘑菇反季节栽培,可实现鲜菇周年供应,方便农户推广应用。该文着重介绍双孢蘑菇反季节栽培技术的关键环节。

  15. Growth performance of commercial temperate mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Hypsizygus sp. under local environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, the Malaysian mushroom industry focuses on only seven species of mushroom for commercial purpose. To expand and further develop the mushroom industry, new mushroom species should be introduced into our local market. Temperate mushrooms are possible to be cultivated commercially in Malaysia but the optimisation of growth performance for high quality spawn and high mushroom yield need to be studied. In the present study the growth performance of mycelia of Agaricus bisporus and Hypsizygus sp. on culture media and substrates were investigated. Four types of culture media, viz. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Nutrient Agar (NA), Malt Yeast Extract (MYE) and Complete Yeast Media (CYM) were used to determine the suitable culturing media for mycelial growth. The mycelia were inoculated on oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and sawdust substrate and incubated at room temperature and in a low temperature in incubation room (10 - 12 degree Celsius). From the observation, Agaricus bisporus grew better on Malt Yeast Extract (MYE) medium with a growth rate of 0.306 cm/ day. Complete Yeast Media (CYM) was found more suitable for Hypsizygus sp. with a growth rate of 1.049 cm/ day. The linear growth rate of mycelium as measured on the surface of mushroom bag of Agaricus bisporus on EFB incubated at room temperature was 0.4364 cm/ day and cool temperature was 0.055 cm/ day. For Hypsizygus sp. the linear growth rate of the mycelium was 2.11 cm/ day. The linear growth of Hypsizygus sp. on sawdust substrate incubated in cool temperature was 1.4 cm/ day. (author)

  16. Gamma irradiation effect on shelf-life, texture, polyphenol oxidase and microflora of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enhancement in the shelf-life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) up to a period of 10 days could be achieved by the application of a gamma ray dose of 2kGy and storage at 10°C. A study of the quality parameters of the mushroom including cap opening, stipe elongation, weight loss, surface microbial load, and polyphenol oxidase activity indicated that the irradiated commodity retained the quality attributes required for its acceptability. The irradiated mushroom showed less brown discoloration compared to non-irradiated controls. The polyphenol oxidase, responsible for causing browning in stored mushroom, was found to have reduced activity in irradiated mushroom

  17. Irradiation of mushrooms (Agaricus campestris L) to extend their shelf-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushrooms (Agaricus campestris L) were irradiated with 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 kGy, being then stored either at 10 deg C ± 1 deg C or at room temperature (20 deg C ± 2 deg C), with the purpose of determining the most convenient condition to extend their shelf-life. It is concluded that 3.0 kGy and 10 deg C are the most suitable for that, leading to the inhibition of cap opening and stem elongation, less darkening and no evidence of fungal development until 17th day. Subsequentely almost a duplication of their shelf-life was obtained. (Author)

  18. Primordia initiation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) strains on axenic casing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, R.; Fermor, T.R.; Lincoln, S.; Dobrovin-Pennington, A.; Evered, C.; Mead, A.; Li, R. [Hort Research International, Wellesbourne (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    The mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) has a requirement for a 'casing layer' that has specific physical, chemical and microbiological properties which stimulate and promote the initiation of primordia. Some of these primordia then may develop further into sporophores, involving differentiation of tissue. Wild and commercial strains of A. bisporus were cultured in axenic and nonaxenic microcosms, using a rye grain substrate covered by a range of organic and inorganic casing materials. In axenic culture, A. bisporus (commercial strain A15) was capable of producing primordia and mature sporophores on charcoal (wood and activated), anthracite coal, lignite and zeolite, but not on bark, coir, peat, rockwool, silica or vermiculite.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF ANILINE AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS REMOVAL BY COOXIDATION USING AGARICUS BISPORUS TYROSINASE

    OpenAIRE

    Sevastyanov, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of joint oxidation of aniline and phenolic compounds in aqueoussolutions using the isolated tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus mushrooms was conducted. It is shown, that quantitative bioconversion of aniline is achieved by addition of phenol and other rapidly oxidized phenolic compounds (p-chlorophenol, o-, m-cresols)to it’s solution (0,25 mmol/dm3). Products of aniline and phenols oxidation – quinoneimines and quinones, were removed with a help of aluminium-potassium alums....

  20. The pathogenic fungi in mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange. Imbach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Tekiela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a mushroom growing facility located near Rzeszów, consisting of three production cycles. The number and composition of microorganisms which accompany the mushroom cultivation depended on the healthiness of: the compost, casing and spawn of Agaricus bisporus. The presence of pathogenic fungi in the cultivation halls at the beginning of the production cycle is a serious threat to the cultivation of common mushroom because their rapid development shortens the span of fruiting body harvests.

  1. Agaricus geesterani, spec. nov. A very remarkable agaric discovered in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bas, C.; Heinemann, P.

    1986-01-01

    For several years now a very striking agaric is known to occur in the Netherlands that baffles every mycologist who has the luck to see it. As one of us (P.H.) never had this luck, the present study is based on thorough examinations of the material by the other author, while for the rather precarious taxonomic decisions both authors are to be held responsible. At first sight the present species resembles a large Agaricus bitorquis, but on closer examination the differences are obvious and man...

  2. Agaricus chionodermus Pilát, a species new to Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nikolova Lacheva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Agaricus chionoderma Pilát in Bulgaria. Basidiomata of the species were found on June 2004, September 2010, and September 2011 in the Thracian Lowland floristic region. The article brings closer taxonomic profile, ecological requirements and distribution pattern of the species. Differences from similar species are discussed. It also describes macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the discovered specimens and presents the specification of habitat the fungus concerned. The species are described and illustrated by photographs of macroscopic and microscopic features on the basis of Bulgarian specimens.

  3. From respiratory sensitization to food allergy: Anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    OpenAIRE

    Marta F. Gabriel; Purificación González-Delgado; Idoia Postigo; Javier Fernández; Victor Soriano; Begoña Cueva; Jorge Martínez

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 38-year-old mold-allergic patient who developed episodes of generalized urticaria and systemic anaphylactic shock immediately after ingesting button mushrooms. A manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH) from Agaricus bisporus mushroom were identified as patient-specific IgE-binding proteins. Cross-reactivity between A. bisporus MnSOD and mold aeroallergens was confirmed. We conclude that prior sensitization to mo...

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of tyrosinase from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaya, Wangsa T.; Rozeboom, Henriette J.; Schurink, Marloes; Boeriu, Carmen G.; Wichers, Harry; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosinase catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine quinone, which is the main precursor for the biosynthesis of melanin. The enzyme from Agaricus bisporus, the common button mushroom, was purified and crystallized in two different space groups. Crystals belonging to space group P2(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 104.2, b = 105.0, c = 119.1 angstrom, beta = 110.6 degrees, four molecules per asymmetric unit) diffracted to 3.0 angstrom resolution. Crystals belonging to space ...

  5. Storage and Preservation of Temperate Mushroom Cultures, Agaricus Bisporus and Pleurotus Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Loveleen; Dhanda, S.; Sodhi, H. S.; Kapoor, S.; Khanna, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Two temperate mushroom cultures namely Agaricus bisporus (U-3) and Pleurotus florida (PAU-5) were evaluated for their physiological (linear growth and biomass production), biochemical (β-1,4 endoglucanase production) and fruiting behaviour after preservation in 10% (v/v) glycerol and storage at room temperature (25–35°C), −20°C and −196°C for 6 months with the objective of establishing the recovery/changes in these fungi after storage. Studies indicated that the viability and recovery of A. b...

  6. In vitro Toxicity of Fungicides of Different Mode of Action to Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolates of Agaricus bisporus strains F56 and U3 were tested for sensitivity to several selected fungicides in vitro. The analysis showed that flusilasole + carbendazim and cyproconazole + carbendazim were the most toxic fungicides to A. bisporus strain F56 with respective EC50 values of 0.04 and 0.23 mg/l. The least toxic fungicides were carbendazim (EC50 = 16.58 mg/l and trifloxystrobin (EC50 = 20.69 mg/l to A. bisporus F56 and benomyl (EC50 = 14.99 mg/l to A. bisporus U3.

  7. In vitro Toxicity of Fungicides of Different Mode of Action to Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Potočnik; Emil Rekanović; Svetlana Milijašević; Biljana Todorović; Miloš Stepanović

    2009-01-01

    Isolates of Agaricus bisporus strains F56 and U3 were tested for sensitivity to several selected fungicides in vitro. The analysis showed that flusilasole + carbendazim and cyproconazole + carbendazim were the most toxic fungicides to A. bisporus strain F56 with respective EC50 values of 0.04 and 0.23 mg/l. The least toxic fungicides were carbendazim (EC50 = 16.58 mg/l) and trifloxystrobin (EC50 = 20.69 mg/l) to A. bisporus F56 and benomyl (EC50 = 14.99 mg/l) to A. bisporus U3.

  8. Characterization of a novel virus associated with the MVX disease of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Maffettone, Eliana

    2007-01-01

    ‘Mushroom Virus X’ (MVX) disease of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus first arose in UK during the 1990’s. This disease resulted in devastating crop losses in the UK and gradually became more widespread (e.g. Netherlands and Eire). Up to twenty-six, non-encapsidated, double stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements have been found to be associated with diseased mushrooms, and these are believed to be the result of a complex of viruses. Although considerable data has accumulated on ...

  9. Growth inhibition of Agaricus bisporus and associated thermophilic species by fungicides used in wheat cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Chalaux, N.; Savoie, J. M.; Olivier, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    La paille de blé est le constituant principal des composts qui servent de substrat de culture pour le champignon de Paris (Agaricus bisporus). L’utilisation de fongicides lors de la culture du blé peut avoir des conséquences sur la production de champignon de Paris si les résidus présents dans les pailles sont actifs. La toxicité de huit fongicides utilisés contre les maladies fongiques du blé a été testée in vitro pour trois souches d’A bisporus et pour trois isolats de champignons thermophi...

  10. From respiratory sensitization to food allergy: Anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

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    Marta F. Gabriel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 38-year-old mold-allergic patient who developed episodes of generalized urticaria and systemic anaphylactic shock immediately after ingesting button mushrooms. A manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH from Agaricus bisporus mushroom were identified as patient-specific IgE-binding proteins. Cross-reactivity between A. bisporus MnSOD and mold aeroallergens was confirmed. We conclude that prior sensitization to mold aeroallergens might explain severe food reactions to cross-reacting homologs mushroom proteins.

  11. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morin, E.; Kohler, A.; Baker, A.R.; Foulongne-Oriol, M.; Lombard, V.; Nagy, L.G.; Ohm, R.A.; Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Brun, A.; Aerts, A.L.; Bailey, A.M.; Billette, C.; Coutinho, P.M.; Deakin, G.; Doddapaneni, H.; Floudas, D.; Grimwood, J.; Hildén, K.; Kües, U.; LaButti, K.M.; Lapidus, A.; Lindquist, E.A.; Lucas, S.M.; Murat, C.; Riley, R.W.; Salamov, A.A.; Schmutz, J.; Subramanian, V.; Wösten, H.A.B.; Xu, J.; Eastwood, D.C.; Foster, G.D.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Cullen, D.; Vries, de R.P.; Lundell, T.; Hibbett, D.S.; Henrissat, B.; Burton, K.S.; Kerrigan, R.W.; Challen, M.P.; Grigorievf, I.V.; Martin, M.

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the “button mushroom” forms a multibi

  12. First report of Syzygites megalocarpus (Mucorales) web mold on the commercial portabella button mushroom Agaricus bisporus in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach mushrooms are cultivated commercially under environmentally controlled conditions in several states within the US. They are the most important crop in Pennsylvania and an important high value crop in many other states. In August 2011 we first observed a mucoraceous m...

  13. Effect of an Extract from Saprozoic Nematode-Infested Compost on the Mycelial Growth of Agaricus brunnescens

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, T. D.; Bloom, J R; Lukezic, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    Extracts from compost infested with Caenorhabditis elegans suppressed mycelial growth of Agaricus brunnescens. An extract from uninfested compost also inhibited mycelial growth but to a lesser degree. The critical role of compost bacteria and/or other compost micro-organisms is implicated by these results.

  14. Expression of the urease gene of Agaricus bisporus: a tool for studying fruit body formation and post-harvest development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemaker, M.J.M.; Eastwood, D.C.; Drift, van der C.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Burton, K.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Camp, op den H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit body initials of Agaricus bisporus contain high levels of urea, which decrease in the following developmental stages until stage 4 (harvest) when urea levels increase again. At storage, the high urea content may affect the quality of the mushroom, i.e. by the formation of ammonia from urea thr

  15. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for final healthy product - natural preservatives in yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S.; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Soković, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both s...

  16. Characterization, feasibility and optimization of Agaricus subrufescens growth based on chemical elements on casing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha Zied, D.; Pardo-Giménez, A.; de Almeida Minhoni, M.T.; Villas Boas, R.L.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-González, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze yields, biological efficiency, earliness (expressed as days to first harvest), and precociousness and establish models for the mushroom growing according to these parameters. The experiment followed a double factorial design with four sources of calcium (calcitic limestone, calcitic limestone + gypsum, dolomitic limestone and dolomitic limestone + gypsum) and 2 application times (25 days before casing and at the moment of casing), with 4 replicates for each treatment. Different calcium sources influenced differently Agaricus subrufescens production, especially as regards earliness, which showed significantly higher values when dolomitic limestone with gypsum was applied. Yield and biological efficiency were negatively correlated with H + AL, organic matter and Mg amount. Furthermore, earliness was positively correlated with H + Al, organic matter, and the amount of Mg and Fe. Finally, negative correlations were observed between precociousness and the amount of Ca, SB (sum of base), CEC (cation exchange capacity) and V% (percentage of base saturation). The models presented in this work are extremely important for predicting the agronomic performance of Agaricus subrufescens on the basis of chemical analysis provided by the casing soil. PMID:23961195

  17. Alterações gastrointestinais em pacientes com câncer colorretal em ensaio clínico com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus Gastrointestinal alterations in patients with colorectal cancer on clinical trial supplemented with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus

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    Renata Costa Fortes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Fungos medicinais podem normalizar a função intestinal, aumentar o apetite e reduzir os efeitos adversos do tratamento convencional do câncer. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações gastrointestinais de pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória após suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus. METODOLOGIA: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, placebo-controlado, realizado no Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal. Amostra constituída de 56 pacientes (24 homens e 32 mulheres, estádios I, II e III, seguindo determinados critérios de inclusão e exclusão, separados em grupos placebo e Agaricus sylvaticus (30mg/kg/dia e acompanhados por um período de seis meses. Para avaliar as alterações gastrointestinais foram utilizados um formulário-padrão e uma anamnese dirigida-padrão. O método de análise dos resultados foi qualitativo e descritivo, utilizando os programas Microsoft Excel 2003 e Epi Info 2004 para Windows, versão 3.3.2. RESULTADOS: Após seis meses de tratamento, observou-se, no grupo Agaricus sylvaticus, aumento do apetite e redução da constipação, diarréia, diarréia alternada com constipação, flatulência, retenção de flatos, pirose, plenitude pós-prandial, náuseas, distensão e dor abdominais, fatos não observados no grupo placebo. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus é capaz de melhorar as alterações gastrointestinais de pacientes no pós-operatório de câncer colorretal, promovendo melhoria na qualidade de vida desses pacientes.INTRODUCTION: Medicinal fungus may normalize intestinal function, increase appetite and reduce adverse effects caused by conventional cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gastrointestinal alterations of patients with colorectal cancer in post-operative phase after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus. METHODOLOGY: Randomized, double-blind, placebo

  18. Polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis show similarities in their structures and their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytic THP-1 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wichers Harry J; Iacomini Marcello; Chanput Wasaporn; van Arkel Jeroen; Ruthes Andrea C; Smiderle Fhernanda R; van Griensven Leo JLD

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. Crude mushroom extracts have been tested without detailed chemical analyses of its polysaccharide content. For the present study we decided to chemically determine the carbohydrate composition of semi-purified extracts from 2 closely related and well known basidiomycete species, i.e. Agaricus ...

  19. Life quality of postsurgical patients with colorectal cancer after supplemented diet with agaricus sylvaticus fungus Calidad de vida en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal con suplementación dietética con hongos agaricus sylvaticus

    OpenAIRE

    R. Costa Fortes; V. Lacorte Recôva; A. Lima Melo; M.ª R. Carvalho Garbi Novaes

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Therapeutical alternatives, directed to improve life quality and reduce adverse effects of cancer treatment, have been the purpose of studies that try to prove the immunomodulator efficacy of medicinal fungi as coadjuvant for conventional therapies. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact on the life quality of post-surgical patients with colorectal cancer after supplemented diet with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus cultivated in Brazil. Methods: Randomized,...

  20. The influence of flushes on some constituents of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus cultivated on different composts

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    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two different composts: horse manure and broiler chicken manure and the influence of flushes during the growing cycle on some chemical components contained in the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus was studied. The strain Somycel 11 was analyzed. The following determinations were made: dry matter, total nitrogen and crude protein, nitrates, nitrites and amino acids composition. It has been noted that the crude protein from. combined flushes III to VI of mushrooms cultivated on horse manure was about 24% higher than in those grown on broiler chicken manure. Some changes in amino acids composition, especially lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, serine, methionine, glutamic acid and alanine were observed, depending on the size of the fruit-body, flushes and type of compost.

  1. Biocontrol Activity of Bacillus subtilis Isolated from Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Compost Against Pathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Sheng, Jiping; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Yanyan; Lee, David Yue Wei; Yang, Yang; Xu, Mingshuang; Shen, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain B154, isolated from Agaricus bisporus mushroom compost infected by red bread mold, exhibited antagonistic activities against Neurospora sitophila. Antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was also observed. The maximum antifungal activity was reached during the stationary phase. This antifungal activity was stable over a wide pH and temperature range and was not affected by proteases. Assay of antifungal activity in vitro indicated that a purified antifungal substance could strongly inhibit mycelia growth and spore germination of N. sitophila. In addition, treatment with strain B154 in A. bisporus mushroom compost infected with N. sitophila significantly increased the yield of bisporus mushrooms. Ultraviolet scan spectroscopy, tricine sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-associated laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed a molecular weight consistent with 1498.7633 Da. The antifungal compound might belong to a new type of lipopeptide fengycin. PMID:26050784

  2. Conservation of genetic linkage with map expansion in distantly related crosses of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callac, P; Desmerger, C; Kerrigan, R W; Imbernon, M

    1997-01-15

    A previous map of the genome of a hybrid strain which had European parents belonging to the secondarily homothallic fungus Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus appeared to be unusually compact, with a particularly recombophobic segment in the central part of chromosome I. A new map of this segment was constructed based on allelic segregations among 103 homokaryotic offspring of an A. bisporus hybrid between a European parent of the var. bisporus and a Californian parent of the heterothallic var. burnettii. Markers completely linked on the previous map were distributed along 28 cM in the new map. These results suggest that the greater recombination rate could be correlated with the outbreeding behaviour of the var. burnettii. PMID:9011044

  3. Packed bed column studies on lead(II) removal from industrial wastewater by modified Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yunchuan; Lei, Daiyin; Ni, Jiangxia; Ren, Zhuolin; Chen, Can; Xu, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus showed best performance in removing Pb(II) with a biosorption capacity of 86.4 mg g(-1) after modification with NaOH. In this work, the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater has been conducted in column mode. The metal removal was dependent on the flow rate, initial metal concentration, and bed height. The experimental data obtained from the biosorption process was successfully correlated with the Bohart-Adams, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. Five biosorption-desorption cycles yielded 95.34%, 92.27%, 90.13%, 86.75%, and 81.52% regeneration, respectively. Pb(II) could be effectively removed from industrial wastewater; some metal ions and organics were also removed concomitantly, and the obtained effluent had characteristics of better quality. The results confirmed that modified A. bisporus could be applied for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater in a continuous column process. PMID:24321609

  4. Effect of cultivation practices on the β-glucan content of Agaricus subrufescens basidiocarps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Pardo Giménez, Arturo; Pardo González, Jose Emilio; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Carvalho, Maiara Andrade; Minhoni, Marli Teixeira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to assess the effect of the following treatments on the medicinal potential (β-glucan content) and agronomical performance (yield) of Agaricus subrufescens: five different fungal strains, three cultivation substrates (compost), four casing layers, and four cultivation environments. Two experiments were performed, and the results indicate that the greatest contribution to the variation in β-glucan content was the strain (35.8%), followed by the casing layer (34.5%), the cultivation environment (15.7%), and the type of compost (9.9%). On the other hand the variation in yield was affected most by the cultivation environment (82.1%), followed by the strain (81.3%), casing layer (49.1%), and compost type (15.2%). These findings underscore the importance of developing a production protocol that employs specific cultivation practices for improving mushroom yield as well as β-glucan content. PMID:24308309

  5. Vitamin B12 is the active corrinoid produced in cultivated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang-Chul; Cho, Kai Yip; Pang, Gerald

    2009-07-22

    Analysis of vitamin B(12) in freshly harvested white button mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ) from five farms was performed by affinity chromatography and HPLC-ESI-MS techniques. The vitamin B(12) concentrations obtained varied from farm to farm, with higher concentrations of vitamin B(12) detected in outer peel than in cap, stalk, or flesh, suggesting that the vitamin B(12) is probably bacteria-derived. High concentrations of vitamin B(12) were also detected in the flush mushrooms including cups and flats. HPLC and mass spectrometry showed vitamin B(12) retention time and mass spectra identical to those of the standard vitamin B(12) and those of food products including beef, beef liver, salmon, egg, and milk but not of the pseudovitamin B(12), an inactive corrinoid in humans. The results suggest that the consumer may benefit from the consumption of mushroom to increase intake of this vitamin in the diet. PMID:19552428

  6. The influence of compost on carbohydrates and minerals content in the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of different composts: horse manure and broiler chicken manure and the influence of flushes during the growing cycle on the carbohydrates and mineral composition of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus was carried out. In this study the strain Somycel 11 was used. It was found that mannitol, glucose and fructose contents in mushrooms growing on broiler chicken manure were significantly higher than on horse manure. Noticeable differences of macro- and microelement contents were observed, depending on the size of the fruit-body, flushes and type of compost. Phosphorus content in mushroom tissue of the first three flushes growing on horse manure was 2.7 times higher than in those from broiler chicken manure. Boron level in mushrooms in all flushes growing on broiler chicken manure was four times higher as compared with that on horse manure.

  7. Fungicide sensitivity of selected Verticillium fungicola isolates from Agaricus bisporus farms

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    Potočnik Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of Verticillium fungicola, isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from mushroom farms in Serbia during 2002-2003, were studied. By observing their colony morphology under different growth conditions and their pathogenic characteristics, the isolates were identified as V. fungicola var. fungicola. The peat/lime casing was the primary source of infection. Testing of sensitivity to selected fungicides showed that all isolates were highly resistant to benomyl (EC50 values were higher than 200.00 mg/l, moderately sensitive to iprodione (EC50 values were between 11.93 and 22.80 mg/l, and highly sensitive to prochloraz-Mn (EC50 values were less than 3.00 mg/l.

  8. Quality Characteristics of Microwave-Vacuum Dried Button Mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus

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    S.K.Giri & Suresh Prasad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus slices as well as whole mushrooms were dried by microwave-vacuum drying technique to a moisture content of around 6 %(d.b.. The dehydrated mushrooms were compared with hot-air dried products on the basis of different quality attributes such as colour, texture, rehydration ratio and sensory score. Statistical analysis of data revealed significant difference among the drying methods for all the attributes at p ≤ 0.05. Microwave-vacuum dried mushrooms had significantly higher rehydration potential, lower density, better colour and softer texture than those obtained by air drying. The microwave-vacuum dried mushrooms were rated much better than air dried products by a sensory panel in terms of appearance, color and overall acceptability.

  9. Effect of storage conditions on the quality of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing.

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    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of quality factors were studied during storage of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus at 2°C in controlled atmospheres. A concentration of 15% CO2 and 1.5-2% O2 and an atmosphere with a continuous flow of nitrogen retarded cap expansion and stipe elongation, while 10% CO2 retarded only cap expansion. Controlled atmospheres suppressed the growth of some microorganisms. The toughness of mushrooms stored in a normal atmosphere at 2°C markedly decreased during storage, while 10% CO2 and nitrogen atmosphere did not influence toughness as compared to initial mushrooms. The acceptability value of mushrooms in controlled atmospheres was lower during 13 days of storage as compared to normal atmosphere. Normal atmosphere appeared to keep whiteness of mushrooms longer than did other treatments.

  10. The transcriptional regulator c2h2 accelerates mushroom formation in Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkmans, Jordi F; Vos, Aurin M; Scholtmeijer, Karin; Hendrix, Ed; Baars, Johan J P; Gehrmann, Thies; Reinders, Marcel J T; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B

    2016-08-01

    The Cys2His2 zinc finger protein gene c2h2 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation. Its inactivation results in a strain that is arrested at the stage of aggregate formation. In this study, the c2h2 orthologue of Agaricus bisporus was over-expressed in this white button mushroom forming basidiomycete using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Morphology, cap expansion rate, and total number and biomass of mushrooms were not affected by over-expression of c2h2. However, yield per day of the c2h2 over-expression strains peaked 1 day earlier. These data and expression analysis indicate that C2H2 impacts timing of mushroom formation at an early stage of development, making its encoding gene a target for breeding of commercial mushroom strains. PMID:27207144

  11. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

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    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp. were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1. The experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (composts x strains with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost. The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey's test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06.

  12. Polysaccharide-rich fraction of Agaricus brasiliensis enhances the candidacidal activity of murine macrophages

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    Priscila Raquel Martins

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A polysaccharide-rich fraction (ATF of medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis was evaluated on the candidacidal activity, H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO production, and expression of mannose receptors by murine peritoneal macrophages. Mice received three intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of ATF and after 48 h their peritoneal resident macrophages were assayed against Candida albicans yeast forms. The treatment increased fungicidal activity and it was associated with higher levels of H2O2, whereas NO production was not affected. We also found that the treatment enhances mannose receptor expression by peritoneal macrophages, which are involved in the attachment and phagocytosis of non-opsonized microorganisms. Treatment of animals with ATF was able to enhance the clearance of C. albicans during the first 6 h after the experimental i.p. infection. Our results suggest that this extract can increase host resistance against some infectious agents through the stimulation of microbicidal activity of macrophages.

  13. A novel immune-tolerable and permeable lectin-like protein from mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaya, Wangsa T; Yunita; Efthyani, Alida; Lai, Xuelei; Retnoningrum, Debbie S; Rachmawati, Heni; Dijkstra, Bauke W; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2016-05-13

    A lectin like protein designated as LSMT is recently discovered in Agaricus bisporus. The protein adopts very similar structure to Ricin-B like lectin from Clitocybe nebularis (CNL) and HA-33 from Clostridium botulinum (HA-33), which both recognize sugar molecules that decorate the surface of the epithelial cells of the intestine. A preliminary study in silico pointed out potential capability of LSMT to perform such biological activity. Following that hypothesis, we demonstrated that LSMT is indeed capable of penetrating out from a dialysis tube of the mice intestine origin. Furthermore, the protein appeared not to evoke the immune response upon introduction into mice, unlike its structural homologs. This is the first report on the biological implication of LSMT that might lead to its application. PMID:27060548

  14. Vitamin B12 is the active corrinoid produced in cultivated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang-Chul; Cho, Kai Yip; Pang, Gerald

    2009-07-22

    Analysis of vitamin B(12) in freshly harvested white button mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ) from five farms was performed by affinity chromatography and HPLC-ESI-MS techniques. The vitamin B(12) concentrations obtained varied from farm to farm, with higher concentrations of vitamin B(12) detected in outer peel than in cap, stalk, or flesh, suggesting that the vitamin B(12) is probably bacteria-derived. High concentrations of vitamin B(12) were also detected in the flush mushrooms including cups and flats. HPLC and mass spectrometry showed vitamin B(12) retention time and mass spectra identical to those of the standard vitamin B(12) and those of food products including beef, beef liver, salmon, egg, and milk but not of the pseudovitamin B(12), an inactive corrinoid in humans. The results suggest that the consumer may benefit from the consumption of mushroom to increase intake of this vitamin in the diet.

  15. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. PMID:24295683

  16. Antimutagenic effect of aqueous extract from Agaricus brasiliensis on culture of human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Paula H; Nascimento, José S; Rocha, Beatriz H G; Piana, Clause F B; Santos, Raquel A; Takahashi, Catarina S

    2013-02-01

    The mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis (sun mushroom), native from the southeast of Brazil, is well known by its medicinal properties that include effects on diabetes, cholesterol levels, and osteoporosis. The antimutagenic effects of A. brasiliensis has been investigated recently and revealed some controversial results depending on the temperature by which the A. brasiliensis tea is obtained. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the A. brasiliensis extract prepared in two different temperatures, 4°C and 25°C, on the doxorubicin-induced DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in human lymphocytes. The results demonstrated that A. brasiliensis was able to reduce the DXR-induced DNA damage in both temperatures; however, the CA test was more sensitive to demonstrate a better reduction when the cells were treated with an extract obtained at 25°C. A. brasiliensis extract obtained in different temperatures exhibited antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects in human lymphocytes.

  17. Atividade e moléculas antioxidantes de cogumelos silvestres comestíveis do género Agaricus

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Anabela; Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Os cogumelos contêm vários compostos antioxidantes nomeadamente, compostos fenólicos (e.g. ácidos fenólicos), tocoferóis e carotenóides. Entre as substâncias biologicamente ativas presentes nos cogumelos, os compostos fenólicos têm atraído muita atenção devido às suas excelentes propriedades como antioxidantes e ao seu potencial anti-inflamatório ou antitumoral [1,2]. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o potencial antioxidante de seis espécies silvestres comestíveis do género Agaricus: Agaricus bis...

  18. Isolation of developmentally regulated genes from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, P W; Schaap, P J; Van Griensven, L J; Visser, J

    1997-06-01

    From a cDNA library, constructed from mushroom primordia, nine cDNAs were isolated which were either induced or specifically expressed during fruit body development and maturation of the basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus. These cDNAs varied in size from 372 to 1019 bp and hybridized to transcripts of 400-1600 nt. Four of the cDNAs were only expressed in the generative phase of the life cycle while the other five cDNAs were strongly induced but had low steady-state mRNA levels in vegetatively grown mycelium of the hybrid strain Horst U1. An apparent full-length cDNA could be identified by sequence analysis and specified a putative protein homologous to the delta-subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. For one of the partial cDNAs, significant homology was found with a family of cell division control proteins, while another partial cDNA appeared to encode a cytochrome P450. All cDNAs, except the presumed cytochrome-P450-specifying cDNA (cypA), hybridized with single copy genes scattered over the Agaricus genome. For the cypA gene, the presence of several additional copies was shown by heterologous hybridizations. Based on changes in expression levels of the fruit-body-induced genes during development coinciding with alterations in morphological appearance of mushrooms, four stages of development were distinguished during growth and maturation of A. bisporus fruit bodies. PMID:9202475

  19. Vitamin D2 Formation from Post-Harvest UV-B Treatment of Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and Retention during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this research were to study the effects of high intensity (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mW/cm2), dose (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 J/cm2), and post-harvest time (1 and 4 days) on the vitamin D2 formation in Portabella mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) as a result of UV-B exposure, as well as the vitamin D...

  20. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Edita Jurak; Arjen M Punt; Wim Arts; Mirjam A Kabel; Harry Gruppen

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed a...

  1. 圆孢蘑菇驯化栽培试验%Domestication Cultivation Test of Agaricus gennadii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊燕

    2002-01-01

    在深入研究新疆圆孢蘑菇[Agaricus gennadii(Chot.et Boud.)P D.Orton]生态学特征的基础上,分离出优良菌株.以牛粪、马粪和棉籽壳等为原料进行了栽培试验,并获得成功.

  2. Effect of Metabolites Produced by Trichoderma harzianum Biotypes and Agaricus bisporus on Their Respective Growth Radii in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mumpuni, A.; Sharma, H. S. S.; Brown, Averil E.

    1998-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum biotypes Th1, Th2, and Th3 produced volatile metabolites in vitro which had similar fungistatic effects on the growth of Agaricus bisporus. Metabolites present in agar colonized by these strains also inhibited mycelial growth of A. bisporus, although the reduction in growth was less in the presence of metabolites produced by biotype Th2 than that in the presence of metabolites produced by Th1 or Th3. A. bisporus produced metabolites in liquid culture that inhibited the g...

  3. Characterization by 16S rRNA Sequence Analysis of Pseudomonads Causing Blotch Disease of Cultivated Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey, S. A. C.; Harrow, S. A.; Marshall, J. W.; Klena, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial blotch of Agaricus bisporus has typically been identified as being caused by either Pseudomonas tolaasii (brown blotch) or Pseudomonas gingeri (ginger blotch). To address the relatedness of pseudomonads able to induce blotch, a pilot study was initiated in which pseudomonads were selectively isolated from mushroom farms throughout New Zealand. Thirty-three pseudomonad isolates were identified as being capable of causing different degrees of discoloration (separable into nine categor...

  4. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities and in Vivo Anti-Hypoxic Activity of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Ji Li; Hai-Yan Chen; Lin-Lin Fan; Zhi-Hua Jiao; Qi-He Chen; Ying-Chun Jiao

    2015-01-01

    With the rising awareness of a healthy lifestyle, natural functional foods have gained much interest as promising alternatives to synthetic functional drugs. Recently, wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam has been found and artificially cultivated for its thick fresh body and excellent taste, with its antioxidant and anti-hypoxic abilities unknown. In this work, the antioxidant potential of its methanolic, 55% ethanolic, aqueous extracts and crude polysaccharide was evaluated in diffe...

  5. Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of Interactions between Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing Hyphae and Bacteria in Casing Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Masaphy, Segula; Levanon, D.; Tchelet, R.; Henis, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between the hyphae of Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing and bacteria from the mushroom bed casing layer were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Hyphae growing in the casing layer differed morphologically from compost-grown hyphae. Whereas the compost contained thin single hyphae surrounded by calcium oxalate crystals, the casing layer contained mainly wide hyphae or mycelial strands without crystals. The bacterial population in the hyphal environment consisted of several ...

  6. Enzymatic synthesis of antibody-human serum albumin conjugate for targeted drug delivery using tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Rollett, Alexandra; Thallinger, Barbara; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Machacek, Christian; Walenta, Evelyn; Paulo, Artur Cavaco; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G.; Stockinger, Hannes; Guebitz, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highly specific targeted drug delivery devices can be obtained with antibody-human serum albumin (mAb-HSA) conjugates. However, their conventional production involves several reaction steps including chemical modification and activation of both proteins followed by cross-linking often involving toxic chemicals. Here, we describe the enzymatic synthesis of mAb-HSA conjugates for targeted drug delivery devices using tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus under mild reaction conditions (pH 6.8, 25 [d...

  7. Effects of sesame and bitter almond seed oils on mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.

    OpenAIRE

    kalyoncu, Ismail Hakki; KaSik, Giyaseddin; Özcan, Musa; Özturk, Celaleddin

    1999-01-01

    Secondary mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus from Nigde University Mushroom Research Centre (Aksaray-Nigde) was monitored in malt extract agar medium containing sesame or bitter almond seed oils. With 1 % sesame oil, highest growth was established and less growth period was determined as 27.4 days. All of the samples with sesame oil showed better growth according to the control, being the stimulative effect of sesame oil higher than that of bitter almond oil.
    <...

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of latent isoform PPO4 mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase

    OpenAIRE

    Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Molitor, Christian; Al-Oweini, Rami; Kortz*, Ulrich; Rompel, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosinase exhibits catalytic activity for the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones. Owing to polymerization of these quinones, brown-coloured high-molecular-weight compounds called melanins are generated. The latent precursor form of polyphenol oxidase 4, one of the six tyrosinase isoforms from Agaricus bisporus, was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The obtained crystals belonged to space group C121 (two molecules per asym...

  9. Ecology of Thermophilic Fungi in Mushroom Compost, with Emphasis on Scytalidium thermophilum and Growth Stimulation of Agaricus bisporus Mycelium

    OpenAIRE

    Straatsma, Gerben; Samson, Robert A.; Olijnsma, Tineke W.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Gerrits, Jan P. G.; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-two species of thermophilic fungi were isolated from mushroom compost. Scytalidium thermophilum was present in the compost ingredients, fresh straw, horse droppings, and drainage from compost and dominated the fungal biota of compost after preparation. Of 34 species of thermophilic fungi tested, 9 promoted mycelial growth of Agaricus bisporus on sterilized compost: Chaetomium thermophilum, an unidentified Chaetomium sp., Malbranchea sulfurea, Myriococcum thermophilum, S. thermophilum, ...

  10. Efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms cultivation. Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Imbach

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Koc; Stanisław Szarek

    2011-01-01

    The economical efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Imbach SYLVAN 737) has been experimented in controlled weather conditions. It was found that the application of a 50 and 150 g•m-2 hydrogel dose is not economically proved due to the lack of harvest significant increase. In the cultivation of this particular variety of mushrooms, the optimal hydrogel dose should not be 100 g•m-2 of subsoil.

  11. Evidence for Outcrossing via the Buller Phenomenon in a Substrate Simultaneously Inoculated with Spores and Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Callac, Philippe; Spataro, Cathy; Caille, Aurélie; Imbernon, Micheline

    2006-01-01

    In Agaricus bisporus, traditional cultivars and most of the wild populations belong to A. bisporus var. bisporus, which has a predominantly pseudohomothallic life cycle in which most meiospores are heterokaryons (n + n). A lower proportion of homokaryotic (n) meiospores, which typify the heterothallic life cycle, also are produced. In wild populations, pseudohomothallism was thought previously to play a major role, but recent analyses have found that significant outcrossing also may occur. We...

  12. Adaptation des températures élevées du champignon de Paris Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Rodriguez, Ana Marίa del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    This work focused mainly on studying genetic variability andmechanisms associated with an adaptation of Agaricus bisporus for cultivation undersubtropical conditions of Mexico. The research was divided into three parts: 1-Identification of the diversity for fructification at a high temperature (FHT+) in a pool ofwild strains gathered in numerous locations of North America and Europe andrepresentative of the three varieties known in the species: bisporus, burnettii y eurotetrasporus; 2- charac...

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus on the hematology and immunology systems of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Valadares, Fabiana; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Roberto Cañete VILLAFRANCA; Marília da Cunha MENEZES; Mariana Campos REIS; Gonçalves, Daniella Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Patients with cancer tend to develop hematological and immunological alterations during the disease process. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the immune and hematopoietic systems, promoting improvements in the prognosis and physiological response. In this trial it is aimed to evaluate changes in hematological and immunological parameters in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus. Method: A randomized, double-blind, pl...

  14. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeffer on Glycemia and Cholesterol after Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Betti Mascaro; Cristiane Miranda França; Esquerdo, Kamilla F.; Lara, Marx A. N.; Wadt, Nilsa S. Y.; Erna E. Bach

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the Agaricus sylvaticus (sun mushroom) on biochemical tests of the plasma and on the morphology of the pancreas in an experimental model of type I diabetes mellitus (DM1) induced by streptozotocin. One gram of dry A. sylvaticus was homogenized and mixed with the chow. Male Wistar rats were allocated as follows: normoglycemic control that received commercial chow; normoglycemic control group that received chow with A. sylvaticus; diabetic group that received ...

  15. Efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms cultivation. Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Koc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The economical efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach SYLVAN 737 has been experimented in controlled weather conditions. It was found that the application of a 50 and 150 g•m-2 hydrogel dose is not economically proved due to the lack of harvest significant increase. In the cultivation of this particular variety of mushrooms, the optimal hydrogel dose should not be 100 g•m-2 of subsoil.

  16. A New Record of Agaricus in China%中国伞菌属一新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱翠玲; 马洪兵; 孟宪鹏; 王振; 姜淑霞

    2015-01-01

    本文报道了伞菌属中国一新记录种Agaricus flocculosipes,标本采自山东省徂徕山国家森林公园。将采集标本进行详细的形态描述及ITS序列分析,并与伞菌属相近种进行比较。根据其菌柄表面直立的丛毛状鳞片这一特点及其拉丁学名含义命中文名为鳞柄伞。%A species of the genus Agaricus flocculosipes has been recorded for the first time in China and the specimens were collected from Mount Culai National Forest Park in Shandong Province. We described the morphology of Agaricus flocculosipes and ITS sequence analysis comprehensively, compared with those of similar taxa. We named it Linbingsan because of its distinguishing erect floccose squamules on the surface of the stipe and the Chinese translation of its latin name.

  17. Bioremediation of wastewater containing reactive dyes by agaricus bisporus a21: effect of supplements and redox mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study involves the development of bioremediation process for simulated solutions of reactive dyes by Agaricus bisporus A21. Initially screening trial with four Reactive dyes, viz. NOVACRON Reactive black, NOVACRON Reactive blue, NOVACRON Reactive red and NOVACRON Reactive G. Yellow was carried out using Agaricus bisporus A21. Among four dyes tested the fungus showed better decoloration efficiency (67.7 %) with NOVACRON Reactive black as compared to other dyes during a 10th day period. The effect of various operational parameters like pH, incubation temperature, carbon and nitrogen additives, surfactant as well as dye concentration was optimized for enhanced decolorization of the dye under study. The effect of various redox mediators like ABTS, veratryl alcohol, MnSO/sub 4/, guaiacol, glyoxlate on enzyme activity and removal of color was also investigated. After optimization of process conditions the rate of removal was enhanced up to 84 % just within 5 h. Enzymes involved in the degradation of the dye have been investigated and it was found that MnP (820 IU/mL) was the major enzyme responsible for the dye degradation. It was shown that there was a direct correlation between the observed enzyme activity and the investigated process effectiveness. The results indicated that Agaricus bisporus A21 could be used to treat dyes containing wastewater from various industries. (author)

  18. 圆孢蘑菇有效成分的定性分析%Qualitative Analysis of Active Ingredients of Agaricus gennadii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白世俊; 包锦渊

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to confirm the active ingredients of Agaricus gennadii. [Method] The water extraction method, alcohol extraction method and petroleum ether extraction method were used to extracted the chemical ingredients of Agaricus gennadii, and analyzed them. [Result]The results show that Agaricus gennadii contains protein,carbohydrates,organic acids,coumarin and lactones,etc. ,may also contains saponins and steroidal triterpenes,but does not contain alkaloids,cardiac glycosides,volatile oils,phenols and tannins,etc. [Conclusion] The study makes people to fully know Agaricus gennadii.%[目的]确定圆孢蘑菇(Agaricus gennadii)的有效成分.[方法]采用水提法、醇提法和石油醚提取法对圆孢蘑菇的有效成分进行定性提取和分析.[结果]圆孢蘑菇中含有蛋白质、糖类、有机酸、香豆素与内酯等物质,可能含有皂苷和甾体三萜类,不含生物碱、强心苷、挥发油、酚类和鞣质等.[结论]该研究可使人们更加清楚地了解圆孢蘑菇.

  19. Effect of sun mushroom extract in pork sausage and evaluation of the oxidative and microbiological stability of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Santi Stefanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of lipid oxidation is one of the meat industry’s target and, consequently, the search for natural antioxidants has been increased in last years. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroethanolic extract from sun mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murrill on the oxidative and microbiological stability of pork meat sausage during storage at 4ºC. The extract was added to sausages in 0 %, 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2.0 % (v/w concentrations. There was done the proximate composition, pH, instrumental color (L*, a*, b*, C* e h*, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and microbiological analyzes. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, in randomized completely design. The results from proximate composition and microbiological analyzes at day 0 were according to the Brazilian legislation. At 1st day of storage, control treatment showed higher (p<0,05 a* value (red than the other treatments, while b* value (yellow has increased (p<0,05 during the storage period in all treatments. At 21st day of storage, TBARS values of sausages with 2.0 % extract addition was lower (0,705±0,01 mg MDA/kg sample (p<0,05 than the control (1,097±0,11mg MDA/kg sample. The extract has not shown effect on the microbiological stability of the sausages. Nevertheless, the hydroethanolic extract from sun mushroom was effective on the oxidative stability of pork meat sausage when added in a 2.0 % concentration, improving its shelf-life up to 21 days of storage at 4 °C, and it is possible the use as a natural antioxidant source.

  20. Remoção de cor de efluentes têxteis com cogumelos Agaricus bispora = Decolorization of textile effluent with mushroom Agaricus bispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Zarur Coelho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O emprego direto de cogumelos Agaricus bispora foi avaliado para a remoção de cor de uma mistura sintética de corantes reativos. Avaliou-se o efeito da granulometria das partículas (cubos de 0,5 ou 1,0 cm e cogumelos moídos, da massa de cogumelos (10, 20, 40, 60 ou 80 g em 250 mL de solução e de diferentes formas de tratamento do cogumelo sobre a remoção de cor de uma solução sintética dos corantes Reactive Yellow 37, Reactive Black 5 e Reactive Red na concentração de 13,3 mg L-1 cada corante. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos para maiores áreas superficiais de contato do cogumelo (cogumelo moído com o efluente colorido e sob aeração contínua. A adição de acetona durante o processo de moagem, seguido de congelamento, contribuiu para o aumento da remoção de cor, obtendo-se os melhoresresultados: 73% após 6h, com 20 g de biocatalisador 250 mL-1 de efluente. A utilização de diferentes lotes e marcas de cogumelo levou à obtenção de diferentes atividades enzimáticas, mas percentuais similares de remoção de cor, indicando que a remoção de cor não possuirelação direta com a atividade enzimática.The direct application of Agaricus bispora mushroom was evaluated for decolorization of a synthetic mixture of reactive dyes. The effects of particle size (0.5 or 1.0 cm cubes and triturated mushroom, mushroom mass (10, 20, 40, 60 or 80 g in 250 mL of solution and different mushroom tissue treatments were analyzed regarding color removal efficiency of dyes Reactive Yellow 37, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red in a synthetic solution of 13.3 mg L-1 concentrationof each dye. The best results were found with larger superficial contact area between mushroom particle (triturated mushroom and colored effluent under continuous aeration. Acetone addition during mushroom trituration process followed by a freezing step contributed to decolorization improvement, leading to best results: 73% after 6h, with 20 g of biocatalyst 250 m

  1. Capacity for colonization and degradation of horse manure and wheat-straw-based compost by different strains of Agaricus subrufescens during the first two weeks of cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnet, Anne-Marie; Qasemian, Leila; Peter-Valence, Frédérique; Ruaudel, Florence; Savoie, Jean Michel; Ferré, Elisée

    2013-03-01

    The potential of Agaricus subrufescens strains to colonize and transform horse manure and wheat-straw-based mushroom compost under the physico-chemical conditions typically used for Agaricus bisporus was assessed. Lignocellulolytic activities, H2O2 production and substrate transformation (assessed via CP/MAS NMR of (13)C) for certain A. subrufescens strains were similar or even greater than those obtained for an A. bisporus strain used as control. Moreover, the functional diversity of the microbial communities of the substrate was not altered by the growth of A. subrufescens after 2weeks. These findings obtained with mesocosms simulating the incubation phase of the mushroom production process hold promise for the improvement of cultivation of this tropical Agaricus species on European standard mushroom compost.

  2. Processing of Agaricus bisporus as instant food%双孢菇即食食品的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安建; 田广瑞; 魏书信; 王赵改

    2012-01-01

    以新鲜双孢菇为材料,通过对糖、盐、味精的比例,以及各种香料之间配比的研究,得到了双孢菇方便食品的加工工艺,为双孢菇方便食品的加工生产提供参考。%The current research optimized the ratio of sugar, salt, monosodium glutamate, and spices iring Agaricus bisporus convenient food processing to get the suitable hardened condition. We hope is study could be valuable to Agaricus bisporus processing in future.

  3. Life quality of postsurgical patients with colorectal cancer after supplemented diet with agaricus sylvaticus fungus Calidad de vida en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal con suplementación dietética con hongos agaricus sylvaticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Costa Fortes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Therapeutical alternatives, directed to improve life quality and reduce adverse effects of cancer treatment, have been the purpose of studies that try to prove the immunomodulator efficacy of medicinal fungi as coadjuvant for conventional therapies. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact on the life quality of post-surgical patients with colorectal cancer after supplemented diet with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus cultivated in Brazil. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial carried out at the Federal District Base Hospital-Brazil, for six months. Samples of 56 enrolled patients (24 men and 32 women, stadium phases I, II and III, separated as placebo and Agaricus sylvaticus (30 mg/kg/day supplemented groups. Form-standard and direct anamnesis-standard were used to evaluate indicators for life quality. The method of analysis was qualitative and descriptive, processed with Microsoft Excel 2003 and Epi Info 2004 programs. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Research Committee-Health Department-Federal District. Results: After six months of treatment, the supplemented group had increased adhesion to physical activity; improved disposition and good mood; reduced complaints of pains and alterations of sleep such as insomnia and restless sleep; presenting more appetite, reduced constipation, diarrhea, alternate diarrhea/constipation, flatulence, flatus retention, pyrosis, postprandial fullness, nausea, abdominal distention and abdominal pain, facts not observed in the placebo group. Conclusions: The results suggest that a dietary supplement with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus is capable of improving the life quality of patients with colorectal cancer in post-surgical phase.Introducción: Alternativas terapéuticas para mejorar la calidad de vida y reducir los efectos adversos de los medicamentos, han sido la propuesta de estudios que intentan probar los efectos de hongos medicinales en

  4. Alterações gastrointestinais em pacientes com câncer colorretal em ensaio clínico com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus Gastrointestinal alterations in patients with colorectal cancer on clinical trial supplemented with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Costa Fortes; Viviane Lacorte Recôva; Andresa Lima Melo; Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Fungos medicinais podem normalizar a função intestinal, aumentar o apetite e reduzir os efeitos adversos do tratamento convencional do câncer. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações gastrointestinais de pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória após suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus. METODOLOGIA: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, placebo-controlado, realizado no Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal. Amostra constituída de 56 pacientes (24 homens e ...

  5. Shelf-life extension of fresh Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus by application of Tomato paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishverya srivastava,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A mushroom is a fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The edible mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus are the fleshy edible bodies devoid of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma. Mushroom browning occurs mainly as a result of tyrosinase activity, an enzyme belonging to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO family and known to be a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Tomato is an attractive candidate for food processing applications as fresh cut. However along with its desirable delicate taste, tomato shows a marked susceptibility to browning. This condition is mainly attributed to polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO. This PPO activity was observed especially in flesh tissues which was probably due to the presence of monophenolic substrates inducing a lag period, enzyme inhibitors and / or diphenolic substrates causing suicide inactivation, and proenzyme or latent isoforms of PPO. A paste of fresh tomatoes (wild and hybrid when applied to the freshly grown mushrooms were less subject to brown blotch as compared to the untreated mushroom. Other vegetable paste or paste made of the unwanted weeds that show tyrosinase activity can also be effected for the same purpose.

  6. Fungicide sensitivity of Trichoderma spp. from Agaricus bisporus farms in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanović, Dejana; Potočnik, Ivana; Vukojević, Jelena; Stajić, Mirjana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Todorović, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould disease, induce great losses in Agaricus bisporus farms. Fungicides are widely used to control mushroom diseases although green mould control is encumbered with difficulties. The aims of this study were, therefore, to research in vitro toxicity of several commercial fungicides to Trichoderma isolates originating from Serbian and Bosnia-Herzegovina farms, and to evaluate the effects of pH and light on their growth. The majority of isolates demonstrated optimal growth at pH 5.0, and the rest at pH 6.0. A few isolates also grew well at pH 7. The weakest mycelial growth was noted at pH 8.0-9.0. Generally, light had an inhibitory effect on the growth of tested isolates. The isolates showed the highest susceptibility to chlorothalonil and carbendazim (ED50 less than 1 mg L(-1)), and were less sensitive to iprodione (ED50 ranged 0.84-6.72 mg L(-1)), weakly resistant to thiophanate-methyl (ED50 = 3.75-24.13 mg L(-1)), and resistant to trifloxystrobin (ED50 = 10.25-178.23 mg L(-1)). Considering the toxicity of fungicides to A. bisporus, carbendazim showed the best selective toxicity (0.02), iprodione and chlorothalonil moderate (0.16), and thiophanate-methyl the lowest (1.24), while trifloxystrobin toxicity to A. bisporus was not tested because of its inefficiency against Trichoderma isolates.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation dose rate on microbiological and physical quality of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation (2 kGy) and dose rate of irradiation (4.5 and 32.0 kGy/h) on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated during storage at 15 deg C and 90% R.H. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by reduction of gamma irradiation dose rate (4.5 kGy) was observed by measurements of the cap opening, the stipe increase, the cap diameter, the weight loss and the color of the caps. The color was measured in order to evaluate the lightness with the L value measurement and the color changes were measured in terms of lightness, hue and chroma. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases were also evaluated. The irradiation of mushrooms at both dose rates of irradiation was found to be effective in lowering microorganism counts initially and throughout storage and increased the shelf-life by four days. This study also showed that mushrooms exposed to a lower dose rate (4.5 kGy/h) of irradiation preserve the whiteness and reduce the stripe increase of mushrooms during storage

  8. Effect of microwave blanching on the quality of frozen Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaś, Emilia; Jaworska, Grażyna

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of microwave blanching on the levels of selected quality parameters in frozen Agaricus bisporus. Before freezing, mushrooms underwent one of the following treatments: blanching in water; blanching in a solution of sodium metabisulphite and citric acid; microwaving for 5 min; and combined blanching (first in water, then in a microwave oven). Products were freeze stored for 8 months at -25 ℃. Frozen storage resulted in decreased levels of vitamin B1, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of 10-49%, as well as an increase in polyphenol oxidase activity compared with products immediately after freezing. The values for most colour parameters and whiteness intensity decreased, while cream, yellow, brown and grey saturation increased. There was a considerable deterioration in sensory quality, particularly colour. Microwave-blanched products had significantly higher dry matter, ash, vitamin B1 and B2 content than the remaining products as well as half the polyphenol oxidase activity. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were highest in the product blanched in the sodium metabisulphite solution, followed by the microwave-blanched product. Compared with the product blanched using sodium metabisulphite, microwave-blanched mushrooms showed slightly greater darkening but were superior in flavour and aroma.

  9. In vivo immunomodulatory effect of the lectin from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditamo, Yanina; Rupil, Lucia L; Sendra, Victor G; Nores, Gustavo A; Roth, German A; Irazoqui, Fernando J

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are glycan-binding proteins that are resistant to digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and enter intact to blood circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus lectin (ABL) on innate and adaptive immune responses as well as its effect in two different experimental pathologies that involve the immune system. ABL inhibited in vitro nitric oxide (NO) production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in response to the pro-inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). However, it did not modify the activity of arginase, showing that while ABL downregulates M1 activation, it does not affect M2 activation. ABL also inhibited mononuclear cell proliferation in response to mitogen Con A, or in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. During the in vivo studies, oral administration of ABL to BALB/c mice induced a marked inhibition of NO production by peritoneal macrophages after LPS stimuli. The influence of ABL on tumor growth was studied in BALB/c mice receiving daily oral doses of ABL and implanted with CT26 tumor cells. ABL treatment induced significantly higher rate of tumor growth when compared with control mice. On the other hand, oral ABL administration in Wistar rats induced a marked diminution of the incidence of the disease and the severity of the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We can conclude that ABL has an in vivo immunomodulatory effect reducing the innate and adaptive responses. This food lectin shows potential therapeutic application on control of inflammatory autoimmune pathologies. PMID:26399519

  10. Agaricus bisporus compost improves the potential of Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid for copper accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdziak, Z; Mleczek, M; Gąsecka, M; Drzewiecka, K; Kaczmarek, Z; Siwulski, M; Goliński, P

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the ability of spent mushroom compost (SMC) from the production of Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) to stimulate the growth and efficiency of copper (Cu) accumulation by Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid. Roots, shoots and leaves were analysed in terms of total Cu content and selected biometric parameters. Due to the absence of information regarding the physiological response of the studied plant, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), phenolic compounds and salicylic acid (SA) contents were investigated. The obtained results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness (usefulness) of SMC in promoting the growth and stimulation of Cu accumulation by the studied Salix taxon. The highest Cu content in roots and shoots was found at the 10% SMC addition (507±22 and 380±11 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while there was a reduction of the content in leaves and young shoots (109±8 and 124±7 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively). In terms of physiological response, lowered secretion of LMWOAs, biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and SA, as well as accumulation of soluble sugars in Salix leaves was observed with SMC addition. Simultaneously, an elevation of the total phenolic content in leaves of plants cultivated with SMC was observed, considered as antioxidant biomolecules. PMID:26709965

  11. Removal of toxic metals from aqueous solutions by fungal biomass of Agaricus macrosporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melgar, M.J. E-mail: mjmelgar@lugo.usc.es; Alonso, J.; Garcia, M.A

    2007-10-15

    Fungi such as Agaricus macrosporus show potential for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions contaminated by zinc, copper, mercury, cadmium or lead. This study investigated biosorption of these metals by living or non-living biomass of A. macrosporus from an acid solution, an acid solution supplemented with potassium and phosphorus, and an alkaline solution. Uptake showed a pH-dependent profile. Maximum percentage uptake of all metals was found to occur at alkaline pH (Cu 96%, Pb 89%). With living biomass, metal biosorption was greater and faster in K/P-supplemented acid medium than in non-supplemented acid medium, with equilibrium reached within 15 min for all metals, and the highest percentage uptake being of cadmium (96%). In general, the greatest differences in biosorption capacity were seen for living biomass, between supplemented and non-supplemented acid medium; the smallest differences were between living and dead biomass in alkaline medium. These results support the potential utility of A. macrosporus for heavy metal removal.

  12. Method Development for the Determination of Free and Esterified Sterols in Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2016-05-01

    Ergosterol is the major sterol in button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and can occur as free alcohol or esterified with fatty acids (ergosteryl esters). In this study, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC/MS-SIM) was used to determine ergosterol and ergosteryl esters as well as other sterols and steryl esters in button mushrooms. Different quality control measures were established and sample preparation procedures were compared to prevent the formation of artifacts and the degradation of ergosteryl esters. The final method was then used for the determination of ergosterol (443 ± 44 mg/100 g dry matter (d.m.)) and esterified ergosterol (12 ± 6 mg/100 g d.m.) in button mushroom samples (n = 4). While the free sterol fraction was vastly dominated by ergosterol (∼90% of five sterols in total), the steryl ester fraction was more diversified (nine sterols in total, ergosterol ∼55%) and consisted primarily of linoleic acid esters. PMID:27064103

  13. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from mushroom-grown compost at different stages of mycelium growth and fruiting body formation, were analyzed for their ability to degrade a range of polysaccharides. Mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosidase and β-glucanase activities were determined in the compost extracts obtained during mushroom growth. Interestingly, arabinofuranosidase activity able to remove arabinosyl residues from doubly substituted xylose residues and α-glucuronidase activity were not detected in the compost enzyme extracts. This correlates with the observed accumulation of arabinosyl and glucuronic acid substituents on the xylan backbone in the compost towards the end of the cultivation. Hence, it was concluded that compost grown A. bisporus lacks the ability to degrade and consume highly substituted xylan fragments. PMID:26237450

  14. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-09-23

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour of sunlight exposure, the vitamin D2 content of the mushrooms increased in a linear manner, with concentrations increasing from 0.1 μg/g up to 3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry weight (DW). At the subsequent two measurements one and 3 h later, respectively, a plateau was reached. Two hours of additional exposure triggered a significant decline in vitamin D2 content. After just 15 min of sun exposure and an UV-B dose of 0.13 J/cm(2), the vitamin D2 content increased significantly to 2.2 ± 0.5 μg/g DW (P < 0.0001), which is equivalent to 17.6 μg (704 IU) vitamin D2 per 100 g of fresh mushrooms and comparable to levels found in fatty fish like the Atlantic salmon. PMID:26314311

  15. Uncovering the abilities of Agaricus bisporus to degrade plant biomass throughout its life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Post, Harm; Zhou, Miaomiao; Jurak, Edita; Heck, Albert J R; Hildén, Kristiina S; Kabel, Mirjam A; Mäkelä, Miia R; Altelaar, Maarten A F; de Vries, Ronald P

    2015-08-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and contributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass. Relatively little is known about how A. bisporus grows in the controlled environment in commercial production facilities and utilizes its substrate. Using transcriptomics and proteomics, we showed that changes in plant biomass degradation by A. bisporus occur throughout its life cycle. Ligninolytic genes were only highly expressed during the spawning stage day 16. In contrast, (hemi-)cellulolytic genes were highly expressed at the first flush, whereas low expression was observed at the second flush. The essential role for many highly expressed plant biomass degrading genes was supported by exo-proteome analysis. Our data also support a model of sequential lignocellulose degradation by wood-decaying fungi proposed in previous studies, concluding that lignin is degraded at the initial stage of growth in compost and is not modified after the spawning stage. The observed differences in gene expression involved in (hemi-)cellulose degradation between the first and second flushes could partially explain the reduction in the number of mushrooms during the second flush. PMID:26118398

  16. Quantitative Roughness Analysis of Post-harvest Agaricus bisporus by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGHong-Shun; FENGGuo-Ping; ANHong-Jie; LIYun-Fei

    2004-01-01

    The moisture loss degree is important in determining the quality of post-harvest mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing). Quantitative roughness analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was proposed to denote the degree of shrinkage, with arithmetic average roughness (Ra) and root mean square roughness (Rq) as parameters, The initial value of Ra was (30.035±1.839)nm, while those of 2℃, 25℃ and dynamic temperature on the 2nd day were (40.139±3.359) nm, (54.393±13.534) nm and (41.197±6.555) nm, respectively. There is a similar tendency for the results of Ra and Rq Both values of roughness increased in duration of storage and with increasing temperatures. The three-dimensional profile of the pileus epicutis could signify the process of water evaporation intuitionally. The tendency was in accordance with the roughness results, especially for the earlier stage of the storage (0-2 d). The outcome of roughness analysis could signify the differences of storage conditions. It was shown that the roughness measured by atomic force microscopy effectively reflected the moisture loss degree of the mushroom pileus epicutis during post-harvest storage.

  17. A detailed analysis of the recombination landscape of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Gao, Wei; Lavrijssen, Brian; Hendrickx, Patrick; Sedaghat-Tellgerd, Narges; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Kong, Won-Sik; Schijlen, Elio G W M; Baars, Johan J P; Visser, Richard G F

    2016-08-01

    The button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the world's most cultivated mushroom species, but in spite of its economic importance generation of new cultivars by outbreeding is exceptional. Previous genetic analyses of the white bisporus variety, including all cultivars and most wild isolates revealed that crossing over frequencies are low, which might explain the lack of introducing novel traits into existing cultivars. By generating two high quality whole genome sequence assemblies (one de novo and the other by improving the existing reference genome) of the first commercial white hybrid Horst U1, a detailed study of the crossover (CO) landscape was initiated. Using a set of 626 SNPs in a haploid offspring of 139 single spore isolates and whole genome sequencing on a limited number of homo- and heterokaryotic single spore isolates, we precisely mapped all COs showing that they are almost exclusively restricted to regions of about 100kb at the chromosome ends. Most basidia of A. bisporus var. bisporus produce two spores and pair preferentially via non-sister nuclei. Combined with the COs restricted to the chromosome ends, these spores retain most of the heterozygosity of the parent thus explaining how present-day white cultivars are genetically so close to the first hybrid marketed in 1980. To our knowledge this is the first example of an organism which displays such specific CO landscape. PMID:27288752

  18. Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using partially purified laccase from residual compost of agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayolo-Deloisa, K. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Center for Biotechnology-FEMSA, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Machin-Ramirez, C. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rito-Palomares, M. [Center for Biotechnology-FEMSA, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Trejo-Hernandez, M.R. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Laccase partially purified from residual compost of Agaricus bisporus by an aqueous two-phase system (Lac ATPS) was used in degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: fluorene (Flu), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and benzo[a]anthracene (BaA). The capacity of the enzyme to oxidize polyaromatic compounds was compared to that of the crude laccase extract (CE). After treatment of 72 h, Lac ATPS and CE were not capable of oxidizing Flu and Phe, while Ant, BaP, and BaA were oxidized, resulting in percentages of oxidation of 11.2 {+-} 1, 26 {+-} 2, and 11.7 {+-} 4 % with CE, respectively. When Lac ATPS was used, the following percentages of oxidation were obtained: 11.4 {+-} 3 % for Ant, 34 {+-} 0.1 % for BaP, and 13.6 {+-} 2 % for BaA. The results reported here demonstrate the potential application of Lac ATPS for the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Effect of plasma activated water on the postharvest quality of button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingyin; Tian, Ying; Ma, Ruonan; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jue

    2016-04-15

    Non-thermal plasma is a new approach to improving microbiological safety while maintaining the sensory attributes of the treated foods. Recent research has reported that plasma activated water (PAW) can also efficiently inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms. This study invested the effects of plasma-activated water soaking on the postharvest preservation of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) over seven days of storage at 20°C. Plasma activated water reduced the microbial counts by 1.5 log and 0.5 log for bacteria and fungi during storage, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding physicochemical and biological properties were assessed between plasma activated water soaking groups and control groups. The results for firmness, respiration rate and relative electrical conductivity suggested that plasma activated water soaking can delay mushroom softening. Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in the color, pH, or antioxidant properties of A. bisporus treated with plasma activated water. Thus, plasma activated water soaking is a promising method for postharvest fresh-keeping of A. bisporus. PMID:26616972

  20. Synthesis of double-stranded RNA in a virus-enriched fraction from Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriskantha, A.; Wach, P.; Schlagnhaufer, B.; Romaine, C.P.

    1986-03-01

    Partially purified virus preparations from sporophores of Agaricus bisporus affected with LaFrance disease had up to a 15-fold-higher RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity than did comparable preparations from health sporophores. Enzyme activity was dependent upon the presence of Mg/sup 2 +/ and the four nucleoside triphosphates and was insensitive to actinomycin D, ..cap alpha..-amanitin, and rifampin. The /sup 3/H-labeled enzyme reaction products were double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as indicated by CF-11 cellulose column chromatography and by their ionic-strength-dependent sensitivity to hydrolysis by RNase A. The principal dsRNA products had estimated molecular weights of 4.3 /times/ 10/sup 6/ and 1.4 /times/ 10/sup 6/. Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ equilibrium centrifugation of the virus preparation resolved a single peak of RNA polymerase activity that banded with a 35-nm spherical virus particle containing dsRNAs with molecular weights of 4.3 /times/ 10/sup 6/ and 1.4 /times/ 10/sup 6/. The data suggest that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase associated with the 35-nm spherical virus is a replicase which catalyzes the synthesis of the genomic dsRNAs.

  1. Combined effect of kinetin and radiation treatment on the cap opening of Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, E. (Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1982-01-01

    Cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) with a cap diameter of 3-5 cm were incubated at 20 deg C during the experimental period (30-72 h). The degree of cap opening was determined and the data were evaluated. It was found that kinetin solutions in the 0 to 32 mg kg/sup -1/ range stimulated the opening of the mushroom cap. The shorter the time elapsed between picking and treating the mushrooms, the greater was the effect. A kinetin solution with a concentration of 100 mg kg/sup -1/ inhibited the opening of the cap. Cap opening in irradiated mushrooms cannot be induced even with kinetin concentrations that stimulate cap opening. Treatment with 0, 2.5 and 10 kGy doses of radiation the stimulating effect on cap opening decreased as a function of the rising dose. The radiation effects in kinetin solutions and various natural cytokinins (zeatin, 2iP and 2iPA) were studied and it was found that cytokinin solutions lost 50-60% of their activity after a radiation dose of only 1 kGy.

  2. Uptake and fate of Cd and Zn in edible fungi of the Agaricus bisporus species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetter, M.

    1979-01-01

    Cd and Zn were added to growth substrate of fungi in order to investigate the Cd uptake and the effects of Zn on Cd uptake in the edible fungus Agaricus bisporus. Fungus yields were found to decrease with Cd uptake. This effect was completely overcome and sometimes even overcompensated by adding zinc. Cd concentrations in the fungi increased with the soil Cd concentration: When Cd (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg Fg) was added to the soil cover as well as to the substrate, Cd concentrations in the fungi were found to be about 70% higher than in fungi where the same amount of Cd had been added only to the substrate. The following interactions between Cd and Zn uptake were observed: Low soil Cd concentrations enhance Zn uptake. In contrast, Zn enhances Cd uptake in fungi with low Cd concentrations. At high soil Cd concentrations, Zn inhibits Cd uptake. Cd concentrations in the fungi increased with the age of the cultures and with the size of the fungi. The highest concentrations were found in the lamellae. The enrichment factors are lower in the cultivated variety (0.6 to 1.4 in dependence of the soil Cd concentration) than in wild-growing fungi.

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation dose rate on microbiological and physical quality of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, M.; Lacroix, M.; Charbonneau, R.; Laberge, I.; Gagnon, M. (Canadian Irradiation Centre, Laval, PQ (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (2 kGy) and dose rate of irradiation (4.5 and 32.0 kGy/h) on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated during storage at 15 deg C and 90% R.H. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by reduction of gamma irradiation dose rate (4.5 kGy) was observed by measurements of the cap opening, the stipe increase, the cap diameter, the weight loss and the color of the caps. The color was measured in order to evaluate the lightness with the L value measurement and the color changes were measured in terms of lightness, hue and chroma. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases were also evaluated. The irradiation of mushrooms at both dose rates of irradiation was found to be effective in lowering microorganism counts initially and throughout storage and increased the shelf-life by four days. This study also showed that mushrooms exposed to a lower dose rate (4.5 kGy/h) of irradiation preserve the whiteness and reduce the stripe increase of mushrooms during storage.

  4. Edible mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus can prevent the onset of atheroma plaques in hipercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percario, S; Odorizzi, V F; Souza, D R S; Pinhel, M A S; Gennari, J L; Gennari, M S; Godoy, M F

    2008-01-01

    Since the involvement of free radicals in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis was proposed, antioxidant supplementation arose as a potential strategy for the management of this disease. Thus, we decided to investigate the potential benefit of a natural antioxidant--rich edible mushroom (Agaricus sylvaticus) on the prevention of atherosclerosis. New Zealand rabbits underwent atherosclerosis induction by feeding a cholesterol--enriched chow (Group A), while Group B simultaneously received edible mushroom A. sylvaticus water solution. Control group received standard rabbit chow only (Group C). At the end of 10 week treatment period serum samples were drawn for lipid profile, uric acid, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total antioxidant status (TAS). The area of aorta arteries taken by atheroma plaques was evaluated. Groups A and B presented higher cholesterol levels (p< 0.01) and reduced TAS (p<0.01), when compared to the Group C. However, TBARS and uric acid levels for Group B animals' were reduced, in comparison to Group A (p<0.05), and equals to group C. Moreover, animals from group A developed extensive atherosclerotic areas (47.0+/-14.0%), and that was prevented by the supplementation of A. sylvaticus (6.6+/-2.9%, p<0.01). Data suggested that A. sylvaticus can prevent the development of atherosclerosis in spite of hipercholesterolemia. PMID:19116085

  5. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour...... of sunlight exposure, the vitamin D2 content of the mushrooms increased in a linear manner, with concentrations increasing from 0.1 μg/g up to 3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry weight (DW). At the subsequent two measurements one and 3 h later, respectively, a plateau was reached. Two hours of additional exposure triggered...... a significant decline in vitamin D2 content. After just 15 min of sun exposure and an UV-B dose of 0.13 J/cm(2), the vitamin D2 content increased significantly to 2.2 ± 0.5 μg/g DW (P mushrooms and comparable to levels found...

  6. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function. PMID:26475179

  7. Antioxidant Effects of Medicinal Mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes): Evidence from Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkiv, Borys; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    With diabetes mellitus and increased glucose concentrations, the mitochondria electron transport chain is disrupted, superoxide anions are overproduced, and oxidative stress develops in cells. Thus, preventing oxidative stress can produce a decrease in the antioxidant system activity and an increase in apoptosis in immune cells. The application of medicinal mushrooms is a new possible approach to diabetes mellitus treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the influence of administration of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat leukocytes. Wistar outbred white rats were used in the study. Streptozotocin was intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks. This revealed that in diabetes mellitus, the level of antioxidant enzyme activity is significantly decreased compared with control values, whereas the levels of lipid peroxidation is increased; this manifested in an increase in the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The medicinal mushrooms' administration is accompanied by an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity to control values and is even higher in the case of A. brasiliensis administration when compared with the diabetic group. As for the indicators of lipid peroxidation under mushroom administration of A. brasiliensis and G. lucidum, we observed a significant decrease of TBARS levels compared with the diabetic group. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduction of TBARS level indicate pronounced antioxidant properties of studied mushrooms. PMID:26756186

  8. Microbial diversity in a bagasse-based compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Azevedo, Raquel Santos; Braga, Claudia; da Silva, Romildo; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Edible mushrooms are renowned for their nutritional and medicinal properties and are thus of considerable commercial importance. Mushroom production depends on the chemical composition of the basic substrates and additional supplements employed in the compost as well as on the method of composting. In order to minimise the cost of mushroom production, considerable interest has been shown in the use of agro-industrial residues in the preparation of alternative compost mixtures. However, the interaction of the natural microbiota present in agricultural residues during the composting process greatly influences the subsequent colonisation by the mushroom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify the microbiota present in a sugar cane bagasse and coast-cross straw compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasilienses. Composting lasted for 14 days, during which time the substrates and additives were mixed every 2 days, and this was followed by a two-step steam pasteurisation (55 - 65°C; 15 h each step). Bacteria, (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae) were the predominant micro-organisms present throughout the composting process with an average population density of 3 x 108 CFU/g. Actinomycetes, and especially members of the genus Streptomyces, were well represented with a population density of 2 - 3 x 108 CFU/g. The filamentous fungi, however, exhibited much lower population densities and were less diverse than the other micro-organisms, although Aspergillus fumigatus was present during the whole composting process and after pasteurisation. PMID:24031404

  9. Multi-trait QTL analysis for agronomic and quality characters of Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Baars, Johan J P; Maliepaard, Chris; Visser, Richard G F; Zhang, Jinxia; Sonnenberg, Anton S M

    2016-12-01

    The demand for button mushrooms of high quality is increasing. Superior button mushroom varieties require the combination of multiple traits to maximize productivity and quality. Very often these traits are correlated and should, therefore, be evaluated together rather than as single traits. In order to unravel the genetic architecture of multiple traits of Agaricus bisporus and the genetic correlations among traits, we have investigated a total of six agronomic and quality traits through multi-trait QTL analyses in a mixed-model. Traits were evaluated in three heterokaryon sets. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed among traits. For instance, earliness (ER) correlated to firmness (FM), cap color, and compost colonization, and FM correlated to scales (SC). QTLs of different traits located on the same chromosomes genetically explains the phenotypic correlations. QTL detected on chromosome 10 mainly affects three traits, i.e., ER, FM and SC. It explained 31.4 % phenotypic variation of SC on mushroom cap (heterokaryon Set 1), 14.9 % that of the FM (heterokaryon Set 3), and 14.2 % that of ER (heterokaryon Set 3). High value alleles from the wild parental line showed beneficial effects for several traits, suggesting that the wild germplasm is a valuable donor in terms of those traits. Due to the limitations of recombination pattern, we only made a start at understanding the genetic base for several agronomic and quality traits in button mushrooms. PMID:27620731

  10. Simple and efficient expression of Agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygmund, Christoph; Gutmann, Alexander; Krondorfer, Iris; Kujawa, Magdalena; Glieder, Anton; Pscheidt, Beate; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens; Kittl, Roman

    2012-05-01

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) is a fungal flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is highly interesting for applications in organic synthesis or electrochemistry. The low expression levels of the filamentous fungus Agaricus meleagris as well as the demand for engineered PDH make heterologous expression necessary. Recently, Aspergillus species were described to efficiently secrete recombinant PDH. Here, we evaluate recombinant protein production with expression hosts more suitable for genetic engineering. Expression in Escherichia coli resulted in no soluble or active PDH. Heterologous expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris was investigated using two different signal sequences as well as a codon-optimized sequence. A 96-well plate activity screening for transformants of all constructs was established and the best expressing clone was used for large-scale production in 50-L scale, which gave a volumetric yield of 223 mg L(-1) PDH or 1,330 U L(-1) d(-1) in space-time yield. Purification yielded 13.4 g of pure enzyme representing 95.8% of the initial activity. The hyperglycosylated recombinant enzyme had a 20% lower specific activity than the native enzyme; however, the kinetic properties were essentially identical. This study demonstrates the successful expression of PDH in the eukaryotic host organism P. pastoris paving the way for protein engineering. Additionally, the feasibility of large-scale production of the enzyme with this expression system together with a simplified purification scheme for easy high-yield purification is shown. PMID:22080342

  11. Abr1, a Transposon-Like Element in the Genome of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.

    1999-01-01

    A 300-bp repetitive element was found in the genome of the white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, and designated Abr1. It is present in ∼15 copies per haploid genome in the commercial strain Horst U1. Analysis of seven copies showed 89 to 97% sequence identity. The repeat has features typical of class II transposons (i.e., terminal inverted repeats, subterminal repeats, and a target site duplication of 7 bp). The latter shows a consensus sequence. When used as probe on Southern blots, Abr1...

  12. APPLICATIONS OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY FOR CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PROTEIN CONFORMATION OF AGARICUS BISPORUS (LANGE) IMBACH. (AGARICOMYCETIDAE) SPORES

    OpenAIRE

    Lamrood PY, Ralegankar SD* and Harpale VM

    2014-01-01

    A Raman spectra was obtained for a spore suspension of an edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus using iRaman 2013 with a variable laser power (max. upto 300mW), near infrared 785 nm diode laser and resolution time 3 cm-1. The spore sample was exposed for 140s with excitation laser power 30mW to obtain optimum peaks. The spectra revealed Raman frequencies range from 242 to 2690 cm-1. Raman spectroscopy shows a strong S-S stretching vibrational band in the region of 500-550 cm-1 suggesting that the...

  13. 响应面法优化姬松茸液体发酵培养基中红糖和酵母膏浓度%Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of the Concentration of Brown Sugar and Yeast Extract for Mycelial Biomass and Exopolysaccharide Yield of Agaricus blazei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范雷法; 潘慧娟; Soccol CR; Pandey A

    2005-01-01

    运用响应面分析法优化姬松茸液体发酵培养基中红糖和酵母膏浓度.结果表明,红糖浓度为20.24g/L、酵母膏浓度为2.055g/L时,菌丝体生物量最高,达2.279g/L;红糖浓度为20.8g/L、酵母膏浓度为2.23g/L时,胞外多糖产量最高,达0.749g/L.

  14. Functional analysis of dsRNAs (L1, L3, L5, and M2) associated with isometric 34-nm virions of Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDerLende, TR; Duitman, EH; Gunnewijk, MGW; Yu, L; Wessels, JGH

    1996-01-01

    cDNA clones of dsRNAs associated with La France disease of Agaricus bisporus were isolated, Clones corresponding to L1 and L5 dsRNAs were sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of L1 dsRNA (1078 amino acids, M(r) 121K) showed significant homology with RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of other dsRNA

  15. The edible and medicinal button mushroom [Agaricus bisporus (J.Lge) imbach] and its relatives: Present status, use and future in commerce and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2001-01-01

    The Netherlands is the largest exporter of button mushrooms [Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge.) Imbach] in the world and the third largest producer after China and the United States of America. The production volume has increased dramatically over the last 30 years, from an annual production of 30,000 tonn

  16. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratios for Agaricus brasiliensis on the axenic method = Relação carbono/nitrogênio do substrato pelo método de cultivo axênico para Agaricus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienine Luiz Zaghi Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation techniques for Agaricus brasiliensis (composting method and substratum formulations are the same ones used for Agaricus bisporus. Most of the carbon-tonitrogen (C:N ratios reported for A. brasiliensis are similar to those used for A. bisporus on the composting method and there are few studies about the variation of C:N ratios for A. brasilienses on the axenic method. The objective of this study was to verify the mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on different C:N ratios using regional by-products as substrate formulation on the axenic method. Studied C:N ratios of substrate (mixture of soybean and cassava fibers ranged from 11:1 to 248:1, with nitrogen content ranging from 4.25 to 0.20%, respectively. It was concluded that substrate with only soybean fiber generates higher mycelial growth than any formulation with cassava fiber; the highest mycelial growth on substrate is with C:N ratio of 11:1 (N = 4.25%; the intermediate growth is with C:N ratio range from 15:1 to 50:1 (N from 3.31 to 0.98%; and the lowest growth is with C:N ratio of 100:1 or higher (N ≤ 0.50%. As técnicas de cultivo do Agaricus brasiliensis (método de compostagem e formulação de substrato são as mesmas utilizadas para o Agaricus bisporus. A maioria das relações carbono/nitrogênio (C/N relatadas para A. brasiliensis são similares às usadas para A. bisporus no método de compostagem. Há poucos estudos sobre a variação da relação C/N para A. brasilienses para o método axênico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes relações C/N no crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis utilizando subprodutos regionais como substrato pelo método axênico. As relações C/N no substrato (misturas de fibra de soja e de mandioca estudadas variaram de 11 a 248 com consequentes concentrações de nitrogênio de 4,25 a 0,20%, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que os substratos somente com fibra de soja propiciam maior crescimento micelial que

  17. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities and in Vivo Anti-Hypoxic Activity of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Ji; Chen, Hai-Yan; Fan, Lin-Lin; Jiao, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Qi-He; Jiao, Ying-Chun

    2015-01-01

    With the rising awareness of a healthy lifestyle, natural functional foods have gained much interest as promising alternatives to synthetic functional drugs. Recently, wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam has been found and artificially cultivated for its thick fresh body and excellent taste, with its antioxidant and anti-hypoxic abilities unknown. In this work, the antioxidant potential of its methanolic, 55% ethanolic, aqueous extracts and crude polysaccharide was evaluated in different systems. The results showed that polysaccharide was the most effective in scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals, metal chelating activity and reducing power, with EC50 values of 0.02, 2.79, 1.29, and 1.82 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, we further studied the anti-hypoxic activity of crude polysaccharide. The results turned out that polysaccharide (300 mg/kg) prolonged the survival time, decreased the blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid content as well as increased the liver glycogen significantly, compared with the blank control and the commercialized product Hongjingtian (p Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam had strong potential to be exploited as an effective natural functional food to relieve oxidative and hypoxia stresses. PMID:26404217

  18. Effects of sesame and bitter almond seed oils on mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kalyoncu, Ismail Hakki

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus from Nigde University Mushroom Research Centre (Aksaray-Nigde was monitored in malt extract agar medium containing sesame or bitter almond seed oils. With 1 % sesame oil, highest growth was established and less growth period was determined as 27.4 days. All of the samples with sesame oil showed better growth according to the control, being the stimulative effect of sesame oil higher than that of bitter almond oil.

    El crecimiento secundario de micelios de Agaricus bisporus del Centro de Investigación de Hongos de la Universidad de Nigde (Aksaray-Nigde se siguió en agar con extracto de malta conteniendo aceites de semillas de almendra amarga o sésamo. El mayor crecimiento se obtuvo con aceite de sésamo al 1%, y el periodo más corto para dicho crecimiento se estableció en 27.4 días. Todas las muestras con aceite de sésamo mostraron mejor crecimiento que el control, siendo el efecto estimulante del aceite de sésamo mayor que el del aceite de almendra amarga.

  19. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities and in Vivo Anti-Hypoxic Activity of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ji Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rising awareness of a healthy lifestyle, natural functional foods have gained much interest as promising alternatives to synthetic functional drugs. Recently, wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam has been found and artificially cultivated for its thick fresh body and excellent taste, with its antioxidant and anti-hypoxic abilities unknown. In this work, the antioxidant potential of its methanolic, 55% ethanolic, aqueous extracts and crude polysaccharide was evaluated in different systems. The results showed that polysaccharide was the most effective in scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, metal chelating activity and reducing power, with EC50 values of 0.02, 2.79, 1.29, and 1.82 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, we further studied the anti-hypoxic activity of crude polysaccharide. The results turned out that polysaccharide (300 mg/kg prolonged the survival time, decreased the blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid content as well as increased the liver glycogen significantly, compared with the blank control and the commercialized product Hongjingtian (p < 0.05. With such excellent activities, we purified the polysaccharide and analyzed its molecular weight (120 kDa as well as monosaccharide components (glucose, fructose and mannose. This study indicated that wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam had strong potential to be exploited as an effective natural functional food to relieve oxidative and hypoxia stresses

  20. Failure of the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) to induce tumors in the A/J mouse lung tumor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.;

    1997-01-01

    We studied whether the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) or 4-(carboxy)phenylhydrazine (CP) induce lung adenomas in the A/J mouse lung tumor model. For 26 weeks female mice were fed a semisynthetic diet where 11 or 22% of the diet was replaced by freeze-dried mushrooms. The intake of the mu......We studied whether the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) or 4-(carboxy)phenylhydrazine (CP) induce lung adenomas in the A/J mouse lung tumor model. For 26 weeks female mice were fed a semisynthetic diet where 11 or 22% of the diet was replaced by freeze-dried mushrooms. The intake...... of the mushroom diets was equivalent to an intake of agaritine, the major phenylhydrazine derivative occurring in the mushroom, of 92 or 166 mg/kg body weight per day. The intake of CP was 106 mg/kg body weight per day. Neither the;freeze-dried mushroom nor CP induced statistically significant increased numbers...

  1. Cloning of a chitinase gene from Ewingella americana, a pathogen of the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Inglis

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated a gene encoding a chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 from Ewingella americana, a recently described pathogen of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. This gene, designated chiA (EMBL/Genbank/DDBJ accession number X90562, was cloned by expression screening of a plasmid-based E. americana HindIII genomic library in Escherichia coli using remazol brilliant violet-stained carboxymethylated chitin incorporated into selective medium. The chiA gene has a 918-bp ORF, terminated by a TAA codon, with a calculated polypeptide size of 33.2 kDa, likely corresponding to a previously purified and characterised 33-kDa endochitinase from E. americana. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 33% identity with chitinase II from Aeromonas sp. No. 10S-24 and 7.8% identity with a chitinase from Saccharopolyspora erythraeus. Homology to other chitinase sequences was otherwise low. The peptide sequence deduced from chiA lacks a typical N-terminal signal sequence and also lacks the chitin binding and type III fibronectin homology units common to many bacterial chitinases. The possibility that this chitinase is not primarily adapted for the environmental mineralisation of pre-formed chitin, but rather for the breakdown of nascent chitin, is discussed in the context of mushroom disease.O gene que codifica uma quitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 foi isolado de Ewingella americana, recentemente descrita como patógeno do cogumelo Agaricus bisporus. Este gene, denominado chiA (EMBL/Genebank/DDBJ número de acesso X9061, foi clonado e selecionado a partir de livraria genômica construída por digestão do DNA de E. americana com HindIII e ligação em plasmídio de expressão em E. coli, utilizando meio seletivo contendo quitina carboximetilada, corada com "remazol brilliant violet'' para seleção de clones. O gene chiA apresenta uma ORF de 918 bp, código terminador TAA, tendo o tamanho do polipeptídeo sido calculado como 33,2 kDa, o qual corresponde ao tamanho de 33 kDa da endoquitinase

  2. A note on challenge trials to determine the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Dara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the EU, food is considered safe with regard to Listeria monocytogenes if the number of micro-organisms does not exceed 100 colony forming units (cfu/g throughout its shelf-life. Therefore, it is important to determine if a food supports growth of L. monocytogenes. Guidelines for conducting challenge tests for growth assessment of L. monocytogenes on foods were published by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL in 2014. The aim of this study was to use these guidelines to determine if refrigerated, fresh, whole, closed-cap, prepackaged mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus support the growth of L. monocytogenes. Three batches of mushrooms were artificially inoculated at approximately 100 cfu/g with a three-strain mix of L. monocytogenes and incubated for 2 days at 8°C followed by 4 days at 12°C. L. monocytogenes numbers were determined (in triplicate for each batch on days 0, 2 and 6. Water activity, pH and total bacterial counts were also determined. There was no increase in the number of L. monocytogenes above the threshold of 0.5 log cfu/g in any of the replicates. In 8 of 9 replicates, the numbers decreased indicating that A. bisporus do not support the growth of L. monocytogenes. As the EU regulations allow < 100 cfu/g if the food cannot support growth of L. monocytogenes, the significance of this study is that mushrooms with < 100 cfu/g may be within the regulations and therefore, quantitative rather than qualitative determination may be required.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a cellulose-growth-specific gene from Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguz, S; Yagüe, E; Wood, D A; Thurston, C F

    1992-10-01

    The edible basidiomycete, Agaricus bisporus, produces extracellular endoglucanase. Endoglucanase production is induced by cellulose and repressed by fructose in A. bisporus grown on minimal medium, and is regulated in activity during fruiting body development. An anti-endoglucanase antibody was used to isolate cellulase-related genes. Three main polypeptides of 38, 58, and 60 kDa were immunoprecipitated by the antibody from products of in vitro cell-free translation of mRNAs isolated from cellulose-grown mycelium. No cross-reaction was detected with the translated products from fructose-grown mycelium. This antibody was used to immunoscreen a lambda ZAPII-cDNA expression library made from mRNA isolated from cellulose-grown mycelium. Two cDNA cross-reacting clones, pSRc110 and pSRc200, were isolated. Clones pSRc110 and pSRc200 cross-hybridized and had the same restriction map. Clone pSRc200 hybrid selected an mRNA that on cell-free translation produced a 38-kDa polypeptide. The cDNA fragment from pSRc200 hybridized to a 1.3-kb mRNA from cellulose-grown mycelium. No hybridization was observed when using fructose-grown mycelium mRNA. Thus, the gene (cel1) expressing the 1.3-kb mRNA, is differentially regulated by the carbon source of the culture medium. The cell gene was isolated in a 8.9-kb EcoRI genomic fragment after hybridization to pSRc200. Sequences similar to those in the egl1 and cbh2 genes from Trichoderma reesi were found upstream from the ATG start codon in cel1. Nine short intervening sequences disrupt the cel1 coding sequence, and a strong bias against codons ending with G and A was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1398098

  4. Genetic variation and combining ability analysis of bruising sensitivity in Agaricus bisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available Advanced button mushroom cultivars that are less sensitive to mechanical bruising are required by the mushroom industry, where automated harvesting still cannot be used for the fresh mushroom market. The genetic variation in bruising sensitivity (BS of Agaricus bisporus was studied through an incomplete set of diallel crosses to get insight in the heritability of BS and the combining ability of the parental lines used and, in this way, to estimate their breeding value. To this end nineteen homokaryotic lines recovered from wild strains and cultivars were inter-crossed in a diallel scheme. Fifty-one successful hybrids were grown under controlled conditions, and the BS of these hybrids was assessed. BS was shown to be a trait with a very high heritability. The results also showed that brown hybrids were generally less sensitive to bruising than white hybrids. The diallel scheme allowed to estimate the general combining ability (GCA for each homokaryotic parental line and to estimate the specific combining ability (SCA of each hybrid. The line with the lowest GCA is seen as the most attractive donor for improving resistance to bruising. The line gave rise to hybrids sensitive to bruising having the highest GCA value. The highest negative SCA possibly indicates heterosis effects for resistance to bruising. This study provides a foundation for estimating breeding value of parental lines to further study the genetic factors underlying bruising sensitivity and other quality-related traits, and to select potential parental lines for further heterosis breeding. The approach of studying combining ability in a diallel scheme was used for the first time in button mushroom breeding.

  5. Purification and Characterization of β-Glucosidase from Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ašić, Adna; Bešić, Larisa; Muhović, Imer; Dogan, Serkan; Turan, Yusuf

    2015-12-01

    β-Glucosidase (β-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) is a catalytic enzyme present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes that selectively catalyzes either the linkage between two glycone residues or between glycone and aryl or alkyl aglycone residue. Growing edible mushrooms in the soil with increased cellulose content can lead to the production of glucose, which is a process dependent on β-glucosidase. In this study, β-glucosidase was isolated from Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) using ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, giving 10.12-fold purification. Biochemical properties of the enzyme were investigated and complete characterization was performed. The enzyme is a dimer with two subunits of approximately 46 and 62 kDa. Optimum pH for the enzyme is 4.0, while the optimum temperature is 55 °C. The enzyme was found to be exceptionally thermostable. The most suitable commercial substrate for this enzyme is p-NPGlu with Km and Vmax values of 1.751 mM and 833 U/mg, respectively. Enzyme was inhibited in a competitive manner by both glucose and δ-gluconolactone with IC50 values of 19.185 and 0.39 mM, respectively and Ki values of 9.402 mM and 7.2 µM, respectively. Heavy metal ions that were found to inhibit β-glucosidase activity are I(-), Zn(2+), Fe(3+), Ag(+), and Cu(2+). This is the first study giving complete biochemical characterization of A. bisporus β-glucosidase. PMID:26614504

  6. Pathogenic variation in isolates of Pseudomonas causing the brown blotch of cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abou-Zeid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven bacterial isolates were isolated from superficial brown discolorations on the caps of cultivated Agaricus bisporus. After White Line Assay (WLA and the assist of Biolog computer-identification system, isolates were divided into groups: (I comprised ninteen bacterial isolates that positively responded to a Pseudomonas "reactans" reference strain (NCPPB1311 in WLA and were identified as Pseudomonas tolaasii, (II comprised two isolates which were WLA+ towards the reference strain (JCM21583 of P. tolaasii and were proposed to be P. "reactans". The third group comprised six isolates, two of which weakly responded to the strain of P. tolaasii and were identified as P. gingeri whereas the other four were WLA- and identified as P. fluorescens (three isolates and P. marginalis (one isolate. Isolates of P. tolaasii showed high aggressiveness compared with those of P. "reactans" in pathogenicity tests. Cubes of 1 cm³ of A. bisporus turned brown and decreased in size when were inoculated with 10 µl of P. tolaasii suspension containing 10(8 CFU ml-1, whereas a similar concentration of P. "reactans" caused only light browning. Fifty µl of the same concentration of P. tolaasii isolates gave typical brown blotch symptoms on fresh mushroom sporophores whereas the two P. "reactans" isolates caused superficial light discoloration only after inoculation with 100 µl of the same concentration. Mixture from both bacterial suspensions increased the brown areas formed on the pileus. This is the first pathogenicity report of P. tolasii and P. "reactans" isolated from cultivated A. bisporus in Egypt.

  7. Reaction of pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris with its carbohydrate substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Michael M H; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Bren, Urban; Chu, Dinh Binh; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Oostenbrink, Chris; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2015-11-01

    Monomeric Agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase (AmPDH) belongs to the glucose-methanol-choline family of oxidoreductases. An FAD cofactor is covalently tethered to His103 of the enzyme. AmPDH can double oxidize various mono- and oligosaccharides at different positions (C1 to C4). To study the structure/function relationship of selected active-site residues of AmPDH pertaining to substrate (carbohydrate) turnover in more detail, several active-site variants were generated, heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, and characterized by biochemical, biophysical and computational means. The crystal structure of AmPDH shows two active-site histidines, both of which could take on the role as the catalytic base in the reductive half-reaction. Steady-state kinetics revealed that His512 is the only catalytic base because H512A showed a reduction in (kcat /KM )glucose by a factor of 10(5) , whereas this catalytic efficiency was reduced by two or three orders of magnitude for His556 variants (H556A, H556N). This was further corroborated by transient-state kinetics, where a comparable decrease in the reductive rate constant was observed for H556A, whereas the rate constant for the oxidative half-reaction (using benzoquinone as substrate) was increased for H556A compared to recombinant wild-type AmPDH. Steady-state kinetics furthermore indicated that Gln392, Tyr510, Val511 and His556 are important for the catalytic efficiency of PDH. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and free energy calculations were used to predict d-glucose oxidation sites, which were validated by GC-MS measurements. These simulations also suggest that van der Waals interactions are the main driving force for substrate recognition and binding. PMID:26284701

  8. Optimization of chemical sulfation, structural characterization and anticoagulant activity of Agaricus bisporus fucogalactan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Yony; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-08-01

    A fucogalactan (E) was isolated from aqueous extract of Agaricus bisporus. The monosaccharide composition, methylation, and NMR analyses showed it is constituted by a (1→6)-linked α-d-Galp main-chain, partially methylated at O-3, and partially substituted at O-2 by non-reducing end-units of α-l-Fucp or α-d-Galp. HPSEC analysis showed it had Mw of 1.28×10(4)gmol(-1). The polysaccharide was sulfated modifying reaction time, molar ratio of sulfation agent to hydroxyl group on the polysaccharide (ηClSO3H/OH ratio), and ratio of total reaction volume to weight of sample (VT/w ratio; μLmg(-1)). The degree of substitution (DS) was evaluated for all sulfated derivatives. The sulfated fucogalactan with the highest DS value (2.83) had the best anticoagulant activity on Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Protrombin Time (PT) assays. This sulfated fucogalactan, named E100, was obtained with the optimal conditions of ηClSO3H/OH ratio of 18, VT/w ratio of 100, in 6h of reaction. The results showed that E100 produces a linear increment of APTT for concentrations of 15-45μgmL(-1), whereas PT was almost constant between 20 and 400μgmL(-1), suggesting an anticoagulant activity via inhibition of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. NMR and methylation analyses showed that α-d-Galp units of the main chain were greatly sulfated on 2-O-, 3-O-, and 4-O-positions. PMID:27112883

  9. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglei Lu

    Full Text Available Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins.

  10. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, M.; D' Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h (I{sup -}) and 32 kGy/h (I{sup +}). Both I{sup +} and I{sup -} showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control (C). Before day 9, no significant difference (p>0.05) in L{sup *} value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L{sup *} value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I{sup -}. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I{sup -} contained more phenols than I{sup +} and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered (p{<=}0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I{sup +}. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I{sup +}, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly (p{<=}0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I{sup -} than in I{sup +}. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I{sup +} was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I{sup +} than in I{sup -}.

  11. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h ( I-) and 32 kGy/h ( I+). Both I+ and I- showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control ( C). Before day 9, no significant difference ( p>0.05) in L* value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L* value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I-. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I- contained more phenols than I+ and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered ( p⩽0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I+. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I+, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly ( p⩽0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I- than in I+. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I+ was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I+ than in I-.

  12. Pangola grass colonized with Scytalidium thermophilum for production of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose E; Mejia, Laura; Royse, Daniel J

    2008-02-01

    This work had the dual objective of selecting a substrate for rapid mycelial growth of Scytalidium thermophilum and then comparing the growth and production of a brown variety of Agaricus bisporus on substrate non-colonized and colonized with S. thermophilum. Mycelial growth of S. thermophilum at 45 degrees C was significantly greater on potato dextrose yeast extract agar (0.58 mm/h) as compared to malt extract glucose agar (0.24 mm/h) and yeast extract glucose agar (0.44 mm/h). On cereal grain, S. thermophilum grew significantly faster on rice (0.31 mm/h) compared to sorghum (0.22 mm/h) and millet (0.18 mm/h). It also grew faster on Pangola grass (0.49 mm/h) compared to corncobs (0.30 mm/h) and sawdust (0.18 mm/h). Colonization of Pangola grass with S. thermophilum was influenced by the addition of calcium salts in the form of gypsum, hydrated lime and ground limestone. For production of A. bisporus, biological efficiency (BE) on pasteurized Pangola grass pre-colonized by S. thermophilum for 4 days at 45 degrees C was more than twice (26.4%) that on grass non-colonized by S. thermophilum (11.0%). The addition of 2% hydrated lime to Pangola grass prior to colonization by S. thermophilum resulted in an additional doubling of BE of mushroom production (48.1%). These results show the possibility of developing a non-composted substrate method for producing A. bisporus without autoclaving the substrate. PMID:17331714

  13. Effect of the gas absorbing agent on preservation of agaricus bisporus%气体吸收剂对双孢菇贮藏效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜传来; 韩玲玲

    2011-01-01

    为保持双孢菇贮藏品质、延长货架期,研究气调包装对双孢菇保鲜效果的影响.采用不同浓度配比的气体吸收剂和不同厚度聚乙烯薄膜对双孢菇进行包装,置于4℃下贮藏,定期测定双孢菇的表面颜色,呼吸强度、失重率、硬度、PPO、POD活性的变化.结果表明:采用组成为1.44 g脱氧剂、0.5 g乙烯脱除荆,1.2 g二氧化碳脱除剂的气体吸收剂及厚度为0.05 mm的聚乙烯薄膜,对双孢菇贮藏中的褐变具有明显的抑制作用,能够有效降低双孢蘑菇呼吸强度,延长双孢菇的贮藏保鲜期.%In order to keep the quality and increase shelf life of Agaricus bisporus, the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on quality of Agaricus bisporus was studied. Agaricus bisporus were packaged in different initial gas absorbing concentration and different thickness of polyethylene film,then stored at 4 ℃ respectively, and surface color, respiration intensity, weight loss, hardness, PPO and POD's activity were determined regularly. The different content of gas absorbent and different thickness of polyethylene film were used to pack the fresh Agaricus bisporus, and then put up fresh-keeping tests with low-temperature. The results showed that, 1.44 g deoxidizer, 0.5 g ethylene scavengers, 1.2 g carbon dioxide scavengers, and 0. 05 mm polyethylene film had a clear inhibition on the browning of Agaricus bisporus, and could effectively reduce the respiration rate and prolong the storage life of Agaricus bisporus.

  14. Study on Volatile Flavor Components from Agaricus bisporus of Tibet%西藏产双孢菇(Agaricus bisporus)挥发性呈香成分初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫素君; 谢惜媚; 林素贞; 徐爱国; 蒋思萍; 陈彬; 刘在民; 刘岚

    2015-01-01

    文章采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取来自西藏的3个双孢菇样品(Agaricus bisporus)的挥发油,以1个广州样品作为对照。通过加入薄荷醇作为参照标准物质的方法,应用气相色谱-质谱法结合 NIST 谱库检索研究了样品中的挥发性化学成分和相对含量,从4个双孢菇样品中分析鉴定了40个化合物。藏产编号为2796,709,694中的含量分别为43.10%,37.15%,31.34%,其中含量较高的挥发性成分依次为苯甲醇、糠醛、苯甲醛和柏木醇;广州样品0107号的含量为27.24%,其中除含量较高的苯甲醇、糠醛、糠醇外,尚有2-(1,1-二甲基乙基)-3-甲基-环氧乙烷,2-丙烯醇和马索亚内酯。研究结果表明菌种来源、产地气候、栽培方式会影响双孢菇的风味,为双孢菇的综合开发利用提供了理论依据。%The volatile oil was extracted from 3 samples Agaricus bisporus of Tibet using a steam distil-lation method,compared with 1 sample of Guangzhou.Forty volatile compounds were identified with GC-MS analysis and the NIST spectral library search.Through an area normalization method by adding men-thol as reference material,the relative contents of No.2796,No.709,No.694 from Tibet were deter-mined to be 43.10%,37.15%,31.34% respectively with the high content volatile compounds benzyl alcohol,furancarboxaldehyde,benzaldehyde,Cedrol.While No.0107 from Guangzhou was 27.24%with compounds benzyl alcohol,furancarboxaldehyde,benzaldehyde,2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-meth-yl-Oxirane,5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-Pyran-2-one and 2-Propen-1-ol.The results showed that fungus source,origin of climate,cultivation methods affected the flavor of Agaricus bisporus and provided theo-retical basis for the multiple development and utilization of Agaricus bisporus.

  15. Crescimento micelial in vitro de cinco linhagens de Agaricus bisporus submetidas a diferentes condições de temperatura = In vitro mycelium growth of five Agaricus bisporus strains submitted to different temperature conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; João Lucas Chavari; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhon; Diego Cunha Zied

    2010-01-01

    Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial in vitro das linhagens ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01 de Agaricus bisporus em meios de cultura sólidos à base de composto. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio de medições de quatro diâmetros das colônias, a cada 48h, durante 12 dias de incubação, no escuro, a 20 e 25ºC. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com uso do teste de Tukey para a comparação das médias. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que:...

  16. Comparison and Analysis of Amino Acid in Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brunnescens Peck%双孢蘑菇和棕色蘑菇氨基酸的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红澎; 班立桐; 黄亮; 王玉; 童应凯; 孙建成

    2013-01-01

    分析比较双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)和棕色蘑菇(Agaricus brunnescens Peck)的氨基酸组成.结果表明:双孢蘑菇子实体中氨基酸含量高于棕色蘑菇,两种蘑菇子实体中氨基酸总含量分别为31.19%和22.08%.它们所含氨基酸含量的高低有所差别.双孢蘑菇子实体中含量较高的前七种氨基酸是谷氨酸(8.40%),缬氨酸(3.14%)、脯氨酸(2.48%)、精氨酸(2.34%)、天门冬氨酸(2.33%),丙氨酸(2.17%)和赖氨酸(1.65%).棕色蘑菇子实体中含量较高的前七种氨基酸是谷氨酸(8.40%),缬氨酸(3.55%),天门冬氨酸(1.83%),丙氨酸(1.68%),亮氨酸(1.40%),脯氨酸(1.26%)和赖氨酸(1.16%).两种蘑菇中谷氨酸和缬氨酸含量最高.

  17. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Spray Drying Powders from Stropharia rugoso-annulata and Agaricus brunnescens Blanching Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impacts of carrier agents on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant retention rate of spray drying powders from blanching liquids of Stropharia rugoso-annulata (BLS and Agaricus brunnescens (BLA. Physicochemical, nutritional and antioxidant properties of the powder were examined in order to better determine potential applications of powders. Carrier agents could improve the qualities of the spray drying BLS powders and BLA powders and &beta-Cyclodextrin (&beta-CD was more suitable as carrier agent than Maltodextrin (MD. The powder had higher flour yield and antioxidant retention rate while &beta-CD addition rate was 44.44 g/100 g (w/w.Proximate composition and total phenolics were performed. The powder was ranging from 5 and 30 μm in particle size with spherical particle morphology. BLA powders had higher antioxidant activity (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition ability than BLS powder.

  18. Comparison of the effect of two types of whole mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Sakura; Araki, Takahiro; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko; Kamada, Takeo; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Han, Kyu-Ho; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-10-01

    The effects of two types of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus; white, WM; brown, BM) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats were investigated in terms of the physical characteristics of animals and by bacterial and HPLC analyses of cecal contents. Short-chain fatty acid levels were found to be significantly higher in the WM group than in the BM and the control (CN) groups; coliform bacteria levels in the BM group were significantly lower than those in the CN group, with the WM group inducing an apparent but insignificant decrease in coliforms. Anaerobe levels in the WM group were significantly higher than those in the CN group and, compared with the CN group, the BM and WM groups exhibited significantly increased feces weight and cecum weight, respectively. These results indicate that the mushroom powders, and in particular the WM powder, have beneficial effects on the intestinal environment in rats. PMID:27309965

  19. Improving selenium extraction by sequential enzymatic processes for Se-speciation of selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dernovics, M.; Stefanka, Z.; Fodor, P. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science, Szent Istvan University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2002-02-01

    Sample preparation methods based on the use of proteolytic and cell wall digesting enzymes for the speciation analysis of selenized mushroom were investigated. The sample (Agaricus bisporus; 160 {mu}g total Se per g sample) was grown on compost supplemented with selenized yeast. Experiments were carried out to elucidate the possible role of the cell wall digesting enzymes - Lysing enzyme and Driselase - in the improvement of extraction efficiency with and without inhibiting proteolysis during cell wall digestion. A 3-step procedure applying Lysing enzyme and pronase gave the highest extraction efficiency (89%); however, the best species recovery was achieved by a one-step proteolytic procedure. All the procedures of selenium speciation were controlled by independent ICP-AES analysis measuring the total amount of selenium. (orig.)

  20. 双孢菇引进品种筛选试验%Varieties Screening from Introduced Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈全胜; 周桃英; 杨辉德

    2014-01-01

    为筛选适宜湖北省种植的双孢菇(Agaricus bisporus)品种,以湖北省主栽品种As2796为对照,进行了江苏17号、蘑加1号、英秀1号、浙农2号引进品种的筛选试验.通过比较不同品种双孢菇生物学特性指标,综合考虑不同品种双孢菇的性状,浙农2号为较优的引进品种.

  1. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained. PMID:26436656

  2. In Silico Study to Develop a Lectin-Like Protein from Mushroom Agaricus bisporus for Pharmaceutical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaya, Wangsa Tirta; Yunita; Damayanti, Sophi; Wijaya, Caroline; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Retnoningrum, Debbie Sofie; Rachmawati, Heni

    2016-01-01

    A lectin-like protein of unknown function designated as LSMT was recently discovered in the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The protein shares high structural similarity to HA-33 from Clostridium botulinum (HA33) and Ricin-B-like lectin from the mushroom Clitocybe nebularis (CNL), which have been developed as drug carrier and anti-cancer, respectively. These homologous proteins display the ability to penetrate the intestinal epithelial cell monolayer, and are beneficial for oral administration. As the characteristics of LSMT are unknown, a structural study in silico was performed to assess its potential pharmaceutical application. The study suggested potential binding to target ligands such as HA-33 and CNL although the nature, specificity, capacity, mode, and strength may differ. Further molecular docking experiments suggest that interactions between the LSMT and tested ligands may take place. This finding indicates the possible use of the LSMT protein, initiating new research on its use for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27110510

  3. Dynamics of cap opening in Agaricus bisporus and changes in spore numbers vs. cap opening and radiation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, E.; Voeroes, Zs.; Farkas, J. (Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1981-01-01

    The spore count in Agaricus bisporus treated with radiation doses of 1.5 and 2.5 kGy was studied as a function of cap opening and radiation treatment (at 14-16 deg C and RH 80-90%). It was established that spore formation starts in the mushroom while the cap is still closed and the opening of the pileus starts when the spore number begins to increase. In treated mushrooms not only the cap remains closed but in lack of the development of gills the development of spores is also inhibited. Maturation retardation becomes apparent in the inhibition of the increase in number and of the darkening of the spores.

  4. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Jurak

    Full Text Available In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S to guaiacyl (G units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

  5. The fungistatic activity of organic selenium and its application to the production of cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savic Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of organic selenium against pathogenic molds and its use as a potential selenium source in the production of enriched mushrooms were examined. The effect of commercial selenized yeast on mycelia growth was examined using a method with mycelia disks and a well diffusion method. For mushroom enrichment, different concentrations of selenium were added to a growth substrate. The results presented in this paper suggest that the most suitable concentration of selenized yeast that inhibits the growth of the mycopathogenic molds is 70-100 mg/kg of selenium. With the addition of this concentration to the substrate, mushroom fruit bodies will uptake a high level of selenium, about 100 μg/g for Pleurotus spp., and 200 μg/g for Agaricus bisporus in dry weight of the mushroom. Thereby a double effect in the cultivation of mushrooms is achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 and br. III46001

  6. Enhancement of Shelf Life of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) by Fumigant Application of Lippia alba Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Pratima; Pandey, Abhay K; Mishra, Priyanka; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2015-01-01

    Eleven essential oils isolated from higher plant species were assessed against the four isolates of Verticillium fungicola found on fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Eucalyptus citriodora and Lippia alba oils were more efficacious and completely inhibited the mycelial growth of fungal isolates. L. alba oil was fungistatic and fungicidal at 10- and 20-µL concentrations against all of the isolates, respectively, and was more potent than E. citriodora oil as well as some prevalent synthetic fungicides such as benomyl, ethylene dibromide, and phosphine. Eighty microliters of L. alba oil protected 500 g of fruiting bodies of A. bisporus for up to 7 d from infection of the fungus under in vivo conditions. The findings strengthen the possibility of L. alba oil as a plant-based protectant to enhance the shelf life of A. bisporus fruiting bodies. PMID:25746409

  7. Resource Distribution of Agaricus in the World of Stamps%邮票中的蘑菇属种类及其分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾辉

    2011-01-01

    Through collecting and counting mushroom stamps worldwide,126 pieces stamps of Agaricus,covering 24 species,were found to have been issued in 76 countries or regions until 2010.The resource distribution and cultivation of Agaricus in the world were preliminarily discussed.%截至2010年,通过对全世界范围蘑菇邮票的收集和统计得知,世界上76个国家和地区共发行了蘑菇属24个种计126枚邮票,从中大致了解世界范围上蘑菇属真菌的资源分布和栽培状况。

  8. Spore behaviors reveal a category of mating-competent infertile heterokaryons in the offspring of the medicinal fungus Agaricus subrufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Moinard, Magalie; Souza Dias, Eustáquio; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Callac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Strain breeding is much less advanced in the edible and medicinal species Agaricus subrufescens than in Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom. Both species have a unifactorial system of sexual incompatibility, a mating type locus tightly linked to a centromere, and basidia producing both homokaryotic (n) and heterokaryotic (n + n) spores. In A. bisporus, breeding is mainly based on direct selection among the heterokaryotic offspring and on hybridization between homokaryotic offspring. The parental heterozygosity is highly maintained in the heterokaryotic offspring due to suppression of recombination and preferential pairing in the spores of nuclei, each one per second meiotic divisions; such "non-sister nuclei" heterokaryons are fertile. In A. subrufescens, recent studies revealed that recombination is not suppressed and that nuclei from the same second meiotic division can also be paired in a spore that give rise to a "sister nuclei" heterokaryon in which the nuclei bear the same mating type allele. The objective of the present work was to investigate the potential function of the different categories of spores in A. subrufescens and their possible use in a genetic breeding program. Using eight co-dominant molecular markers, we found that half of the offspring of the A. subrufescens strain WC837 were heterokaryotic, one quarter of them being sister nuclei heterokaryons. These heterokaryons were infertile and behaved like homokaryons, being even able to cross between each other. In contrast, non-sister nuclei heterokaryons could fruit but inconsistently due to inbreeding depression. Potential roles of these two categories of heterokaryons in nature and consequences for strain breeding are discussed. PMID:26497018

  9. CONSTRUCTION AND SCREENING OF PARTIAL CDNA LIBRARIES OF AGARICUS BISPORUS%双孢蘑菇部分cDNA文库的构建及筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽生; 陈美元; 廖剑华; 卢政辉; 郭仲杰; 李洪荣; M.P.Wach

    2004-01-01

    构建了双孢蘑菇Agaricus bisporus菌株AA和A41的部分cDNA文库,其滴度分别为1.0×105 pfu/ml和6.0×104pfu/ml.用地高辛标记的丛生差异片段探针对文库进行筛选,分别获得5个和3个阳性克隆.

  10. Study on the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase inhibitory properties of Agaricus bisporus and extraction of bioactive fractions using pressurised solvent technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Clavijo, Cristina; Palanisamy, Marimuthu; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Navarro-Rubio, María; Pérez, Margarita; Marin, Francisco R.; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    [Background]: Agaricus bisporus mushrooms were able to lower cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolaemic rats and it was suggested that dietary fibre might inhibit cholesterol absorption. However, A. bisporus extracts were also able to inhibit the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR, the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway) and this might also contribute to the observed lowering of cholesterol levels in serum. [Results]: The methanol-water extracts obtained from A....

  11. KOLIČINA I KAKVOĆA ŠAMPINJONA (AGARICUS BISPORUS) S OBZIROM NA UPOTREBU DVA RAZLIČITA TIPA MICELIJA

    OpenAIRE

    Romanjek Fajdetić, Nataša; Japundžić Palenikić, Božica; Martić, M.; Maglić, O.; Popović, B.

    2015-01-01

    Gljive Agaricus bisporus popularno nazvane šampinjoni najzastupljenije su gljive u pogledu proizvodnje na svjetskoj razini. Izgled gljiva dijelom ovisi o tehnologiji, ali prvenstveno i o karakteristikama micelija koji se upotrebljava za inokulaciju prilikom proizvodnje supstrata za proizvodnju šampinjona. U radu su analizirani rezultati dobiveni berbom gljiva tijekom tri vegetacijska ciklusa. Supstrati su bili inokulirani s dva različita tipa micelija U1 i 608. Tijekom istraživanja pratila su...

  12. Morphological and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Fungus Cladobotryum dendroides, the Causal Agent of Cobweb Disease of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Potočnik; Emil Rekanović; Svetlana Milijašević; Biljana Todorović; Miloš Stepanović

    2008-01-01

    Twenty isolates were isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from Serbian mushroom farms during 2003-2007. The isolates formed white, cottony, aerial colonies on agar media. With age, conidia and colonies turned yellow and redish. Pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed by inoculation of harvested basidiomes of A. bisporus and by casing inoculation. Symptoms similar to natural infection were recorded. Based on pathogenicity tests and morphological character...

  13. 双孢蘑菇多糖分散片的制备%Preparation and Formulation Optimization of Agaricus bisporus Polysaccharide Immediate Release Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍; 解军波; 张彦青; 张明春

    2014-01-01

    The immediate release tablets of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharide were prepared through the wet granulation and compression methods. With the index of disintegrating time and dispersible uniformity , the formulation was optimized with orthogonal experimental design through adjusting the fillers and the contents of disintegrating agents and lubricants. The optimum formulation was obtained as 100 mg Agaricus bisporus polysaccharide, 60 mg croscarmellose sodium, 232 mg microcrystalline cellulose and 8 mg talcum powder (per tablet). According to the formulation, 3 batches of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharide immediate release tablets were prepared successfully with the qualified disintegrating time and dispersible uniformity. The optimized formulation is reasonable for preparation of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharide immediate release tablets.%采用湿法制粒压片法制备双孢蘑菇多糖分散片。以崩解时限,分散均匀性为考察指标,通过调节填充剂种类、崩解剂及润滑剂的用量,应用正交试验优化双孢蘑菇多糖分散片的处方。确定了双孢蘑菇多糖分散片的最佳处方为每片含双孢蘑菇多糖100 mg,交联羧甲基纤维素钠60 mg,微晶纤维素232 mg,滑石粉8 mg。按优化处方制备3批分散片,其崩解时限和分散均匀性均符合要求,且重现性良好。该处方工艺简单易行,成本较低,可以用于双孢蘑菇多糖分散片的制备。

  14. How mushrooms feed on compost: conversion of carbohydrates and linin in industrial wheat straw based compost enabling the growth of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Jurak, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this thesis, the fate of carbohydrates and lignin was studied in industrial wheat straw based compost during composting and growth of Agaricus bisporus. The aim was to understand the availability and degradability of carbohydrates in order to help improve their utilization in the compost. The wheat straw based compost was characterized as being composed mainly of cellulose and lowly substituted xylan. During the first phase of composting, ester-bound substituents were removed from...

  15. N-acetyl cysteine and mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus supplementation decreased parasitaemia and pulmonary oxidative stress in a mice model of malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Quadros Gomes, Bruno A.; da Silva, Lucio F. D.; Quadros Gomes, Antonio R.; Moreira, Danilo R; Dolabela, Maria Fani; Santos, Rogério S.; Green, Michael D; Carvalho, Eliete P.; Percário, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria infection can cause high oxidative stress, which could lead to the development of severe forms of malaria, such as pulmonary malaria. In recent years, the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of the disease has been discussed, as well as the potential benefit of antioxidants supplementation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus supplementation on the pulmonary oxidative changes in an e...

  16. Effect of Agaricus sylvaticus supplementation on nutritional status and adverse events of chemotherapy of breast cancer: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Valadares; Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes; Roberto Cañete

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC) represents the highest incidence of malignancy in women throughout the world. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the body, reduce side-effects associated with chemotherapy and improve the quality of life in patients with cancer. Aim: To evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Agaricus sylvaticus on clinical and nutritional parameters in BC patients undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clini...

  17. 双孢蘑菇酶促褐变特性及褐变的控制%Enzymatic Browning Characteristics and Control of Button Mushroom(Agaricus bisporus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相友; 王健; 朱继英; 赵亚

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively inhibit enzymatic browning in Agaricus bisporus,effects of pH values,temperature,substrate concentration and inhibitors on polyphenol oxidase(PPO) activity from Agaricus bisporus were studied.The results showed that the optimum pH value and temperature for PPO activity from Agaricus bisporus were 6.8 and 15-20℃ using pyrocatechol as substrate.The Michaelis constant of PPO was Km = 0.1072 mol/L.Computational imaging analysis showed that mixture of 0.30 mmol/L sodium sulfite,0.06% ascorbic acid and 0.05% acetic acid had effective inhibition on enzymatic browning in Agaricus bisporus.%为有效控制双孢蘑菇褐变,研究pH值、温度、底物浓度以及抑制剂对双孢蘑菇的多酚氧化酶(polyphenoloxidase,PPO)活性的影响。结果表明:以邻苯二酚为底物,双孢蘑菇PPO最适反应pH6.8,最适反应温度20℃,最适反应底物浓度为0.06mol/L,米氏常数Km为0.1072mol/L。采用计算机图像处理技术对双孢蘑菇褐变程度进行定量检测,得出对双孢蘑菇贮藏保鲜效果较好的褐变抑制剂及其最佳配比为0.30mmol/L半胱氨酸、0.06%抗坏血酸、0.05%乙酸。

  18. Screening of Optimum Medium for Stock Spawn of Agaricus bisporus%双孢蘑菇母种培养基筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁进恒; 李俊辉; 贾延钊; 朱新红; 张卉

    2013-01-01

    The stock spawn of Agaricus bisporus was screened.State,speed and homogeneity of Agaricus bisorus were studied on 7 stock media. The results showed that mycelium grew significantly fast on potato corn flour medium with the fastest average growth of 4.17 mm/d ,the mycelium growth speeds were unanimous,the full pipe times were neat,which was recommended as the stock medium for mass production of Agaricus bisporus.%对双孢蘑菇菌种进行了母种培养基的筛选,从菌丝的长势、长速和均一性3个方面系统地研究了菌丝在7种不同培养基上的生长情况。结果表明:双孢蘑菇菌丝在马铃薯玉米粉培养基(培养基F)上表现出明显的生长优势,日生长速度最快(达4.17 mm/d),菌丝生长速度较为一致,满管时间也较为整齐,可作为双孢蘑菇生产时的母种培养基。

  19. Research Advance in Modeling Cultivation Technology of Agaricus bisporus%双孢蘑菇模式化栽培技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家友; 李可凡; 王尚堃

    2011-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing is a worldwide edible mushroom, and it has high value of cultivation and popularization. This article summarized the research advance in the modeling cultivation technology of Agaricus bisporus from the following five aspects: selection of variety, soil -covering research, formula of cultivation materials, enviromnentai control in the facilities, cultivation pattern, pointed out the key of the modeling cultivation techniques and the necessity of innovating the cultivation pattern, and proposed the future research direction and developmental trend of the modeling cultivation technology of Agaricus bisporus.%双孢蘑菇是一种世界性的食用菌,具有较高的栽培推广价值.从品种选择、覆土研究、培养料配方、设施内环境调控、栽培模式5个方面综述了双孢蘑菇模式化栽培技术研究进展,指出了模式化栽培技术的关键与创新栽培模式的必要性,并提出了今后双孢蘑菇模式化栽培技术进一步的研究方向和发展趋势.

  20. 杀菌剂对巴西蘑菇菌丝生长的影响%The effects of fungicides on the hypha growth of Agaricus blazel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍华

    2001-01-01

    研究了多菌灵、可杀得、扑海因、百菌清、仙生5种杀菌剂对巴西蘑菇菌丝生长的影响.结果表明,不同种类杀菌剂及同一种类杀菌剂不同使用浓度对巴西蘑菇菌丝生长的影响程度存在显著差异.其中可杀得在0.359 g/L时对巴西蘑菇菌丝的抑制作用最小,抑制率仅为2.93%,与对照没有显著差异,可望在巴西蘑菇栽培中使用.%The effects of five fungicides on the hypha growth of Agaricus blazel were studied. The results showed that the different kinds and treatment concentrations of fungicides on the hypha growth of Agaricus blazel had significant difference. It was proved that the Kocide at concentration of 0.359 g/L had the least effect with an inhibitory rate of 2.93% and had no significant difference with contrast. Therefore, it could be used in Agaricus blazel cultivation.

  1. Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Barros Colauto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis.Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However

  2. Crescimento micelial in vitro de cinco linhagens de Agaricus bisporus submetidas a diferentes condições de temperatura = In vitro mycelium growth of five Agaricus bisporus strains submitted to different temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial in vitro das linhagens ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01 de Agaricus bisporus em meios de cultura sólidos à base de composto. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio de medições de quatro diâmetros das colônias, a cada 48h, durante 12 dias de incubação, no escuro, a 20 e 25ºC. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com uso do teste de Tukey para a comparação das médias. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que: o crescimento micelial de A. bisporus é influenciado pela temperatura de incubação; a temperatura de 25°C foi mais favorável para o crescimento micelial de todas as linhagens de A. bisporus; na temperatura de 20°C, o melhor crescimento foi obtido com as linhagens ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01; na temperatura de 25°C, a linhagem ABI-01/01 apresentou crescimento significativamente maior que todas as demais.The in vitro mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus strains ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 and ABI-01/01 was evaluated in solidculture media made up of compost. Evaluations were performed by means of measurements of four diameters of the colonies, every 48 hours, during 12 days of incubation in darkness under 20 and 25ºC. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, using the Tukey test to compare averages. Based on the obtained results, it was verified that: mycelium growth of A. bisporus is influenced by the temperature of incubation; the temperature of 25°C was more favorable to the mycelium growth of all A. bisporus strains; under the temperature of 20°C, the best growth was obtained with strainsABI-06/05 and ABI-01/01 and, under the temperature of 25°C, strain ABI-01/01 showed significantly higher growth than all other strains.

  3. Efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms cultivation. Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Imbach Efektywność zastosowania wzrastających dawek hydrożelu w uprawie pieczarki dwuzarodnikowej Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Imbach

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Koc; Stanisław Szarek

    2011-01-01

    The economical efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Imbach SYLVAN 737) has been experimented in controlled weather conditions. It was found that the application of a 50 and 150 g•m-2 hydrogel dose is not economically proved due to the lack of harvest significant increase. In the cultivation of this particular variety of mushrooms, the optimal hydrogel dose should not be 100 g•m-2 of subsoil.

  4. The effects of Agaricus sylvaticus fungi dietary supplementation on the metabolism and blood pressure of patients with colorectal cancer during post surgical phase Efectos de la suplementación dietética con hongos Agaricus sylvaticus en el metabolismo y la presión arterial en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal en la fase postoperatoria

    OpenAIRE

    R. Costa Fortes; M.ª R. Carvalho Garbi Novaes

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic, biochemical and enzymatic alterations are common in patients with cancer. Medicinal fungi has been used as adjuvants in cancer therapy due to its immunomodulatory and nutritional effects. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic and blood pressure effects on patients with colorectal cancer after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus. Methods: The methodology used was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial c...

  5. Evaluation of agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Agaricus bisporus using a range of promoters linked to hygromycin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, C; Leach, K M; Elliott, T J; Challen, M P; Foster, G D; Bailey, A

    2006-02-01

    There is interest in establishing genetic modification technologies for the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus, both for improved crop characteristics and for molecular pharming. For these methods to be successful, it is necessary to establish a set of transformation systems that include robust and reliable vectors for gene manipulation. In this article, we report the evaluation of a series of promoters for driving expression of the Escherichia coli hph gene encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase. This was achieved using the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA and the A. bisporus gpdII and trp2 promoters. The Coprinus cinereus beta-tubulin promoter gave contrasting results depending on the size of promoter used, with a 393-bp region being effective, whereas the longer 453-bp fragment failed to yield any hygromycin-resistant transformants. The C. cinereus trp1 and the A. bisporus lcc1 promoters both failed to yield transformants. We also show that transformation efficiency may be improved by careful selection of both appropriate Agrobacterium strains, with AGL-1 yielding more than LBA1126 and by the choice of the binary vectors used to mobilize the DNA, with pCAMBIA vectors appearing to be more efficient than either pBIN19- or pGREEN-based systems. PMID:16444014

  6. Effects of Some Beneficial Bacteria in Casing Soil on Growth and Yield of Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çetin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the interaction between some bacteria naturally existing in casing soil and Agaricus bisporus (Sylvan Hauser A15 hypha in laboratory (in vitro and cultivation (in vivo conditions, and to confirm its effects on mushroom yield. Totally 32 bacteria (3 Gram (+ and 29 Fluorescent Pseudomonads was isolated from casing soil and healthy sporophores. As a result of in vitro experiment carried out to determine the effects of bacteria on mycelium growth of A. bisporus, 24 bacterial isolates were found more effective at the rate of 2 to 115% than control treatment. To determine the effects of bacterium, chosen at the end of in vitro experiments, on mushroom yield in cultivation conditions, three experiments were established in March, May and July in 2008. At the end of experiments, bacterial isolates provided 8 – 40 % increase in total yield. Population density and change in population number related to time was observed during growing period, after the inoculation of bacterial isolates into casing soil. According to the results, Pseudomonas fluorescens (T 4/2 and Ş 8, P.putida (Ş 2/1 and Ş 10 and Bacillus mycoides (T 7/2 bacterial isolates were colonized successfully both in casing soil and sporophores.

  7. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction, Purification, and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Zhou, Xinghai

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides (ABP) were extracted by complex enzyme-assisted extraction methodology. The following were optimal conditions for the extraction of crude ABP: complex enzyme amount, 2.2%; temperature, 62°C; time, 3 h; and pH, 4. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude ABP was 6.87%. The crude ABP was purified by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and one fraction-namely, ABP-1-was produced. The ABP-1 contained 93.67% carbohydrate, 1.46% protein, and 0.62% uronic acid. The constituent monosaccharides were predominantly glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose. The antioxidant activities of ABP-1 were investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, its ferric-reducing activity power, and the reducing power assay. At a concentration of 1.2 mg/mL, ABP-1 seemed to possess good free radical scavenging activity, with a scavenging value of about 56%. The results indicate that ABP-1 has good antioxidant activity. PMID:26756190

  8. Transcription analysis of pyranose dehydrogenase from the basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus and characterization of the recombinantly expressed enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonaus, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Sygmund, Christoph; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens

    2016-03-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a litter degrading basidiomycete commonly found in humic-rich environments. It is used as model organism and cultivated in large scale for food industry. Due to its ecological niche it produces a variety of enzymes for detoxification and degradation of humified plant litter. One of these, pyranose dehydrogenase, is thought to play a role in detoxification and lignocellulose degradation. It is a member of the glucose-methanol-choline family of flavin-dependent enzymes and oxidizes a wide range of sugars with concomitant reduction of electron acceptors like quinones. In this work, transcription of pdh in A. bisporus was investigated with real-time PCR revealing influence of the carbon source on pdh expression levels. The gene was isolated and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. Characterization of the recombinant enzyme showed a higher affinity towards disaccharides compared to other tested pyranose dehydrogenases from related Agariceae. Homology modeling and sequence alignments indicated that two loops of high sequence variability at substrate access site could play an important role in modulating these substrate specificities. PMID:26616098

  9. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost. PMID:27337959

  10. Hepatoprotective effects of polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater against CCl₄-induced hepatic injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiafu; Ou, Yixin; Yew, Tai Wai David; Liu, Jingna; Leng, Bo; Lin, Zhichao; Su, Yi; Zhuang, Yuanhong; Lin, Jiaofen; Li, Xiumin; Xue, Yu; Pan, Yutian

    2016-01-01

    During the industrial production of canned mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), a large quantity of wastewater is produced. In this study, the wastewater generated during the canning of mushroom was analyzed. From this wastewater, four polysaccharide components (Abnp1001, Abnp1002, Abap1001, and Abap1002) with hepatic-protective activity were isolated by ultrafiltration, DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-200 size-exclusion chromatography. Results of ultraviolet spectra analysis and molecular weight determination showed that Abnp1001, Abnp1002, Abap1001 and Abap1002 were uniform with average molecular weights of 336, 12.8, 330 and 15.8kDa, respectively. The monosaccharide composition analysis using gas chromatography (GC) showed that the four fractions were heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of glucose. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analysis showed that the isolated fractions were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. Additionally, the potential hepatoprotective activities of these polysaccharides against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in mice were studied. Notably, Abnp1002 and Abap1002 could lower the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in serum in a dose dependent manner and reduce the hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, as well as inflammatory infiltration. These results indicate that these two polysaccharides had protective effects on acute hepatic injury induced by CCl4 in mice and suggest that the polysaccharides extracted from A. bisporus industrial wastewater might have potential in therapeutics of acute hepatic injury. PMID:26454111

  11. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeffer on Glycemia and Cholesterol after Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Betti Mascaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of the Agaricus sylvaticus (sun mushroom on biochemical tests of the plasma and on the morphology of the pancreas in an experimental model of type I diabetes mellitus (DM1 induced by streptozotocin. One gram of dry A. sylvaticus was homogenized and mixed with the chow. Male Wistar rats were allocated as follows: normoglycemic control that received commercial chow; normoglycemic control group that received chow with A. sylvaticus; diabetic group that received commercial chow; and diabetic group that received chow with A. sylvaticus. Weight, food, and water consumption were measured every two days. Blood glucose levels were measured twice a week. After 30 days, the animals were euthanized and blood was collected for the analysis of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT, alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea. The pancreas was processed for microscopic analysis. A. sylvaticus modulated the levels of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea to levels similar to those found in the controls and led to compensatory hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans. A. sylvaticus is potentially beneficial in the control of type 1 diabetes, and it may also prevent pancreas damage.

  12. Bioremediation of multi-polluted soil by spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrate: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and Pb availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, Carlos; Yunta, Felipe; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates the effect of three spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS) application methods on bioremediation of soil multi-polluted with Pb and PAH from close to a shooting range with respect natural attenuation (SM). The remediation treatments involve (i) use of sterilized SAS to biostimulate the inherent soil microbiota (SSAS) and two bioaugmentation possibilities (ii) its use without previous treatment to inoculate A. bisporus and inherent microbiota (SAS) or (iii) SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp). The efficiency of each bioremediation microcosm was evaluated by: fungal activity, heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacterial population, PAH removal, Pb mobility and soil eco-toxicity. Biostimulation of the native soil microbiology (SSAS) achieved similar levels of PAH biodegradation as SM and poor soil detoxification. Bioaugmented microcosms produced higher PAH removal and eco-toxicity reduction via different routes. SAS increased the PAH-degrading bacterial population, but lowered fungal activity. Abisp was a good inoculum carrier for A. bisporus exhibiting high levels of ligninolytic activity, the total and PAH-degrading bacteria population increased with incubation time. The three SAS applications produced slight Pb mobilization (<0.3%). SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp) proved the best application method to remove PAH, mainly BaP, and detoxify the multi-polluted soil. PMID:26188871

  13. Agaricus bisporus and its in vitro culture as a source of indole compounds released into artificial digestive juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Kała, Katarzyna; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Krakowska, Agata; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2016-05-15

    The popularity of Agaricus bisporus results not only from the quality of the flavors, but also from the content of many substances of therapeutic properties. This paper presents a study on RP-HPLC determination of the content of indole compounds released from the lyophilized biomass from in vitro cultures of A. bisporus into artificial digestive juices at 37°C. A. bisporus in vitro cultures were grown on media enriched with zinc salts. The release of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan and l-tryptophan was found in the greatest number of samples. The content of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan in the investigated samples ranged from 86.62 to 531 mg/100g d.w. The amount of l-tryptophan was determined within the range of 1.63-4.68 mg/100g d.w. and for melatonin 0.43-0.64 mg/100g d.w. It was demonstrated for the first time that in vitro cultures of A. bisporus release indole compounds in conditions simulating the human digestive tract. PMID:26776002

  14. Effect of ultrasound combined with malic acid on the activity and conformation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) polyphenoloxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Zou, Liqiang; Liu, Junping; Zhong, Junzhen; Chen, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) plays an important role in the browning of vegetables, fruits and edible fungi. The effects of ultrasound, malic acid, and their combination on the activity and conformation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) PPO were studied. The activity of PPO decreased gradually with the increasing of malic acid concentrations (5-60mM). Neither medium concentrations (10, 20, 30mM) malic acid nor individual ultrasound (25kHz, 55.48W/cm(2)) treatment could remarkably inactivate PPO. However, the inactivation during their combination was more significant than the sum of ultrasound inactivation and malic acid inactivation. The inactivation kinetics of PPO followed a first-order kinetics under the combination of ultrasound and malic acid. The conformation of combination treated PPO was changed, which was reflected in the decrease of α-helix, increase of β-sheet contents and disruption of the tertiary structure. Results of molecular microstructure showed that ultrasound broke large molecular groups of PPO into small ones. Moreover, combined treatment disrupted the microstructure of PPO and molecules were connected together. PMID:27241293

  15. Nutritional value and amino acids composition of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus at different stages of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the nutritional value and amino acid composition of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus was carried out with the Somycel 653 strain cultivated on a synthetic compost containing rye straw, broiler chicken manure and gypsum. In 4 developmental stages of the whole fruit-bodies and the caps and stipes the following were determined: dry matter, vitamin C, nitrates, total nitrogen, crude protein (N × 4.38 and amino acid composition. It was observed that in all stages of development the levels of total N and crude protein are significantly higher in the caps than in the stipes. From the amino acid composition it appears that the caps of stage 4 contain the highest amounts of essential and total amino acids as compared with caps, stipes and whole sporophores found in any developmental stage. This is correlated with the opening of the mushrooms in stage 4. It was observed that the nitrates level tends, to be higher in the cap than in the stipe.

  16. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE COGUMELOS (Agaricus bisporus DESIDRATADOS SOB DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE SECAGEM E ARMAZENAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza JORGE

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: Cogumelos desidratados (Agaricus bisporus foram submetidos à avaliação sensorial visando a avaliar os efeitos de três pré-tratamentos (branqueamento a vapor, sulfitação e um controle, duas temperaturas de secagem (60ºC e 80ºC, duas temperaturas de armazenagem (5ºC e 25º C por um tempo de armazenagem de até 60 dias. Os atributos sensoriais da cor, sabor e textura foram avaliados por uma equipe treinada constituída por sete provadores, a zero, 30 e 60 dias de armazenagem. Também foi conduzido um teste de aceitação por uma equipe não treinada, constituída de 25 provadores. Concluiu-se que a temperatura de 60ºC foi a mais adequada para a secagem de cogumelos e a sulfitação, o pré-tratamento que melhor preservou as propriedades sensoriais do produto desidratado. O produto apresentou uma boa qualidade para o consumo, quando submetido a uma avaliação sensorial, com 60 dias de armazenagem, independentemente das temperaturas de armazenagem estudadas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cogumelos desidratados; análise sensorial; armazenagem.

  17. Evaluation of agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Agaricus bisporus using a range of promoters linked to hygromycin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, C; Leach, K M; Elliott, T J; Challen, M P; Foster, G D; Bailey, A

    2006-02-01

    There is interest in establishing genetic modification technologies for the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus, both for improved crop characteristics and for molecular pharming. For these methods to be successful, it is necessary to establish a set of transformation systems that include robust and reliable vectors for gene manipulation. In this article, we report the evaluation of a series of promoters for driving expression of the Escherichia coli hph gene encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase. This was achieved using the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA and the A. bisporus gpdII and trp2 promoters. The Coprinus cinereus beta-tubulin promoter gave contrasting results depending on the size of promoter used, with a 393-bp region being effective, whereas the longer 453-bp fragment failed to yield any hygromycin-resistant transformants. The C. cinereus trp1 and the A. bisporus lcc1 promoters both failed to yield transformants. We also show that transformation efficiency may be improved by careful selection of both appropriate Agrobacterium strains, with AGL-1 yielding more than LBA1126 and by the choice of the binary vectors used to mobilize the DNA, with pCAMBIA vectors appearing to be more efficient than either pBIN19- or pGREEN-based systems.

  18. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeffer on Glycemia and Cholesterol after Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Marcelo Betti; França, Cristiane Miranda; Esquerdo, Kamilla F; Lara, Marx A N; Wadt, Nilsa S Y; Bach, Erna E

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the Agaricus sylvaticus (sun mushroom) on biochemical tests of the plasma and on the morphology of the pancreas in an experimental model of type I diabetes mellitus (DM1) induced by streptozotocin. One gram of dry A. sylvaticus was homogenized and mixed with the chow. Male Wistar rats were allocated as follows: normoglycemic control that received commercial chow; normoglycemic control group that received chow with A. sylvaticus; diabetic group that received commercial chow; and diabetic group that received chow with A. sylvaticus. Weight, food, and water consumption were measured every two days. Blood glucose levels were measured twice a week. After 30 days, the animals were euthanized and blood was collected for the analysis of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea. The pancreas was processed for microscopic analysis. A. sylvaticus modulated the levels of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea to levels similar to those found in the controls and led to compensatory hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans. A. sylvaticus is potentially beneficial in the control of type 1 diabetes, and it may also prevent pancreas damage. PMID:24971142

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of latent isoform PPO4 mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Molitor, Christian [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria); Al-Oweini, Rami; Kortz, Ulrich [Jacobs University, PO Box 750 561, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Rompel, Annette, E-mail: annette.rompel@univie.ac.at [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2014-01-23

    Polyphenol oxidase 4 (PPO4) from the natural source A. bisporus was crystallized in its latent precursor form (pro-tyrosinase; Ser2–Thr565) using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}]·22H{sub 2}O as a crystallization additive. Tyrosinase exhibits catalytic activity for the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones. Owing to polymerization of these quinones, brown-coloured high-molecular-weight compounds called melanins are generated. The latent precursor form of polyphenol oxidase 4, one of the six tyrosinase isoforms from Agaricus bisporus, was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The obtained crystals belonged to space group C121 (two molecules per asymmetric unit) and diffracted to 2.78 Å resolution. The protein only formed crystals under low-salt conditions using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}]·22H{sub 2}O as a co-crystallization agent.

  20. Bioremediation of multi-polluted soil by spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrate: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and Pb availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, Carlos; Yunta, Felipe; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates the effect of three spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS) application methods on bioremediation of soil multi-polluted with Pb and PAH from close to a shooting range with respect natural attenuation (SM). The remediation treatments involve (i) use of sterilized SAS to biostimulate the inherent soil microbiota (SSAS) and two bioaugmentation possibilities (ii) its use without previous treatment to inoculate A. bisporus and inherent microbiota (SAS) or (iii) SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp). The efficiency of each bioremediation microcosm was evaluated by: fungal activity, heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacterial population, PAH removal, Pb mobility and soil eco-toxicity. Biostimulation of the native soil microbiology (SSAS) achieved similar levels of PAH biodegradation as SM and poor soil detoxification. Bioaugmented microcosms produced higher PAH removal and eco-toxicity reduction via different routes. SAS increased the PAH-degrading bacterial population, but lowered fungal activity. Abisp was a good inoculum carrier for A. bisporus exhibiting high levels of ligninolytic activity, the total and PAH-degrading bacteria population increased with incubation time. The three SAS applications produced slight Pb mobilization (soil.

  1. Anxiolytic Effects of Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes) on Ischemia-Induced Anxiety in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunjing; Gao, Xiulan; Sun, Yan; Sun, Xiaojie; Wu, Yanmin; Liu, Ying; Yu, Haitao; Cui, Guangcheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the anxiolytic effects Agaricus brasiliensis extract (AbSE) on ischemia-induced anxiety using the plus-maze test and the social interaction test. The animals were treated orally with AbSE (4, 8, and 10 mg/kg/d, respectively) for 30 d, followed by middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced cerebral ischemia. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin in the cerebral cortex of rats, as well as oxidative stress and plasma corticosterone levels were analyzed, respectively. The rota-rod test was carried out to exclude any false positive results in experimental procedures related to anxiety disorders, and the catalepsy test was carried out to investigate whether AbSE induces catalepsy. Our results demonstrate that oral administration of AbSE presented anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze test and the social interaction test. Furthermore, AbSE did not induce extrapyramidal symptoms in the catalepsy test. The mechanism underlying the anxiolytic effect of AbSE might be increased brain monoamine levels and plasma corticosterone levels and decreased oxidative stress in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats.

  2. Identification of Resistance to Wet Bubble Disease and Genetic Diversity in Wild and Cultivated Strains of Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of wet bubble disease (WBD caused by Mycogone perniciosa are increasing across the world and seriously affecting the yield of Agaricus bisporus. However, highly WBD-resistant strains are rare. Here, we tested 28 A. bisporus strains for WBD resistance by inoculating M. perniciosa spore suspension on casing soil, and assessed genetic diversity of these strains using 17 new simple sequence repeat (SSR markers developed in this study. We found that 10 wild strains originating from the Tibetan Plateau in China were highly WBD-resistant strains, and 13 cultivated strains from six countries were highly susceptible strains. A total of 88 alleles were detected in these 28 strains, and the observed number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8. Cluster and genetic structure analysis results revealed the wild resources from China have a relatively high level of genetic diversity and occur at low level of gene flow and introgression with cultivated strains. Moreover, the wild strains from China potentially have the consensus ancestral genotypes different from the cultivated strains and evolved independently. Therefore, the highly WBD-resistant wild strains from China and newly developed SSR markers could be used as novel sources for WBD-resistant breeding and quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping of WBD-resistant gene of A. bisporus.

  3. Scytalidium thermophilum-colonized grain, corncobs and chopped wheat straw substrates for the production of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose E; Royse, Daniel J

    2009-02-01

    We examined the possibility of cultivating Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on various grains and agricultural by-products, with the objective of improving yield capacity of substrate pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum (St). Radial growth rate (RGR) of St at 45 degrees C ranged from no growth on sterile wheat grain to 14.9 mm/d on whole oats. The linear extension rate (LER) of Ab, grown on St-colonized substrate (4 days at 45 degrees C), ranged from a low of 2.7 mm/d on 100% corncobs to 4.7 mm/d on a 50/50 mixture of ground corncobs/millet grain. Several other substrates containing wheat straw+ground corncobs+boiled millet and pre-colonized by St (4 days at 42+/-3 degrees C), were evaluated for production of Ab. The biological efficiency (BE) of production increased linearly with the addition of millet to the formula. However, substrates with millet levels 84% often were contaminated before mushroom harvest. Maximum BE (99%) and yield (21.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained on St-colonized wheat straw+2% hydrated lime supplemented with 9% commercial supplement added both at spawning and at casing. PMID:18954978

  4. Characterization of pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris and its application in the C-2 specific conversion of D-galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygmund, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Volc, Jindrich; Halada, Petr; Kubátová, Elena; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens K

    2008-02-01

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) of the mushroom Agaricus meleagris was purified from mycelial culture media to substantial homogeneity using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The native enzyme is a monomeric polypeptide with a molecular mass of 66,547Da as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry containing approximately 7% carbohydrate and covalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide. The enzyme exhibited a broad sugar substrate tolerance, oxidizing different aldopyranoses to the corresponding C-2 or C-2,3 (di)dehydro sugars. Preferred electron donors with the highest k(cat)/K(m) values were major sugar constituents of cellulose and hemicellulose, namely d-glucose, D-galactose, l-arabinose, D-xylose and cellobiose. This indicates a possible physiological role of the enzyme in lignocellulose breakdown. PDH showed no detectable activity with oxygen, and its reactivity towards electron acceptors was limited to various substituted benzoquinones and complexed metal ions, with the ferricenium ion and the benzoquinone imine 2,6-dichloroindophenole displaying the highest k(cat)/K(m). The enzyme catalyzed in up to 95% yields the regiospecific conversion of D-galactose to 2-dehydro-D-galactose, an intermediate in a possible biotechnologically interesting process for redox isomerization of D-galactose to the prebiotic sugar D-tagatose. PMID:18083263

  5. 双孢菇对6种植物杀虫剂的敏感性%Sensitivity of Agaricus bisporus to Six Plant Insecticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东霞

    2014-01-01

    采用平板加药法研究了双孢菇对6种植物杀虫剂的敏感性。结果表明,相同浓度下,不同种类的杀虫剂对菌丝生长的影响存在显著差异;不同浓度下,同一种类的杀虫剂对菌丝生长的影响也存在显著差异。当6种杀虫剂的浓度为0.1%时,双孢菇菌丝的生长都被明显地抑制,部分菌丝体产生污染、出现畸变;当杀虫剂的浓度降低至0.01%~0.07%时,印楝素和高效氯氰菊酯对菌丝生长的抑制影响较小,但杀灭虫害的效果却很明显。%The effect of six plant insecticides on mycelia growth of agaricus bisporus was studied with plate -adding drug method .The result showed that the mycelia growth of agaricus bisporus was significantly affected by the variety and concentration of insecticides .When the concentration of the insecticides was 0.1%, they would strong-ly inhibit the mycelia growth of agaricus bisporus, and some mycelia even would be polluted and deformed; when the concentration of the insecticides reduced between 0.01% and 0.7%, azadirachtin and perchloric acid would slightly inhibit the mycelia growth , nevertheless the result of killing pests was satisfactory .

  6. Study on the Extraction Technology of Polyphenols from Agaricus Bisporus%双孢菇多酚的提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 贾亮; 阚娟; 金昌海

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of ethanol concentration, solid-liquid ratio, extraction temperature and extraction time on the extraction rate of polyphenols from Agaricus bisporus were investigated by using single factor and orthogonal design experiments. Results showed that the optimal extraction conditions for polyphenols from Agaricus bisporus were ethanol concentration of 80%, solid-liquid ratio of 1:40, extraction time of 3 h and extraction temperature of 60° C. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the maximum extraction rate of polyphenols was 13.49 mg/g. Our study provides theoretical basis for the comprehensive utilization of polyphenols from Agaricus bisporus.%本文以双孢菇为原料,采用单因素结合正交试验设计方法,研究乙醇浓度、料液比、提取时间和提取温度对多酚提取率的影响。结果表明:双孢菇中多酚的最佳提取工艺条件为乙醇浓度80%,料液比1:40,提取时间3 h,提取温度60°C,相应的最大多酚提取率为13.49 mg/g。本研究为双孢菇中多酚类物质的综合利用提供了理论基础。

  7. 双孢蘑菇耐温差异蛋白质组学研究%Differential Proteomics Studies on Thermotolerance of Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆兆明; 徐祯; 王珂; 陈澄; 陈岑渌璐; 宋思扬

    2009-01-01

    利用蛋白质组学和荧光定量PCR方法,研究双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus Lange (Imbach))02菌株在常温与高温胁迫下的蛋白质表达差异,发现了6个差异蛋白质点,经NCBI数据库比对分析,表明6个差异蛋白质分别为HSP70家族的HSS1热激蛋白、异柠檬酸裂解酶、细胞色素P450单氧化酶及3个未知蛋白质.这些蛋白质在双孢蘑菇受热胁迫下具有保护自身稳定的功能.%Agaricus bisporus is a kind of cultivated edible mushroom which has high economic value and important ecology significance.Environment temperature is the main restrained factor in its development,and this greatly limits its cultivation season. In this study,2D-eletrophoresis and real-time PCR are employed to discover the proteomic difference in Agaricus bisporus 02 strain after high temperature induction,and 6 differential expressed protein spots were finally obtained.Compared with the NCBI data base ,spot 1 is the heat shock protein ,spot 2 is isocitrate lyase and spot 3 is cytochrome P450 monooxygenase.The other three spots are novel.Presumably,those proteins confer the thermotolerance on strain 02 under high temperature.

  8. THE RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF STUDYING ON MOLECULAR MARDERSOF BUTTON MUSHROOM ( AGARICUS BISPORUS)%双孢蘑菇分子标记研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣春

    2002-01-01

    双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)是世界上最重要的人工栽培的食用菌,近20年来双孢蘑菇分子标记研究发展迅速,取得了许多阶段性成果.本文简要地对双孢蘑菇同工酶标记,电泳核型,RFLP,RAPD,AFLP等分子标记研究的发展状况进行了综述.

  9. Hot Water Extracts of the Royal Sun Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes), Inhibit Platelet Activation via the P2Y1 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Katsuyuki; Satoh, Kaneo; Ohta, Masato; Ozaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Hot water extracts of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis were investigated for their inhibition of platelet aggregation. The extracts significantly inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), but not by collagen or thrombin receptor-activating peptide. The extracts also had a significant inhibitory effect on shape change and intracellular calcium mobilization induced by ADP via inhibition of ADP binding to the P2Y1 receptor. In addition, oral administration of the extracts resulted in prolonged tail bleeding time in mice. The marked antiplatelet activity of the mushroom extracts involving the P2Y1 receptor suggests their potential therapeutic use against vascular disorders. PMID:26559862

  10. Study on the Crossbreeding Using Wild Strains of Agaricus bisporus Ⅰ%双孢蘑菇野生种质杂交育种研究Ⅰ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖剑华

    2013-01-01

    To set up the technology platform for the crossbreeding of Agaricus bisporus wild strains, and screen out new hybrid cultivars with strong adaptability, high production and good quality, using the crossbreeding technology of Agaricus bisporus homokaryons, the hybridizations between domestic and foreign wild strains, wild strains and cultivation strains were carried out. The results showed that, the proportion of sterile homokaryons in Agaricus burnettii monospore isolates was the highest, up to 92.6%. It was the lowest in traditional cultivation strain, only 8.7%. The colony shape of homokaryons made much difference, and the homokaryons derived from hybrid strain diversified more than those from traditional strains. The homokaryons separated from Sichuan wild strains could be intercrossed with those from foreign wild strains or domestic cultivation strains, further indicating the wild strains from Sichuan to be Agaricus bisporus new germplasm in Tibet altiplano area of China.%为了建立双孢蘑菇野生种质杂交育种技术平台,选育出具有适应性强的高产优质双孢蘑菇杂交品种,应用双孢蘑菇同核不育株间的杂交育种技术,进行国内外野生菌株间及野生菌株与栽培菌株间的配对杂交.结果表明:双孢蘑菇四孢变种菌株的同核不育株分离比率最大,达92.6%;传统栽培菌株分离的同核不育株分离比率较小,仅8.7%.单孢分离的同核不育株菌落形态存在着较大的差异,其中杂交菌株分离的同核不育株菌落形态类型变化较多,传统栽培菌株的变化较少.四川野生菌株分离的同核不育株与国外野生菌株及国内栽培菌株分离的同核不育株间均可杂交,进一步证实四川分离的野生菌株是我国青藏高原地区的双孢蘑菇野生种质.

  11. 黑龙江省双孢菇发展前景分析%Development Prospects Analysis of Agaricus bisporus in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪淑君; 张海峰; 孙雷; 王玉杰; 汪博; 许珊珊; 平安

    2011-01-01

    为促进畜禽粪便和作物秸秆资源化利用,促进双孢菇产业健康发展,促进循环农业发展提供借鉴和参考,在分析黑龙江省发展双孢菇具有食用菌生产的良好基础、原料丰富、产品质量好、反季节优势强、出口优势强等优势的基础上,指出生产中存在群众认识不够、生产技术不够成熟、盲目引种、生产规模小、组织化程度低、加工企业和生产者对接不力等问题,对此,提出应加强政府导向和支持力度,加强双孢菇本土生产技术的创新,加强技术培训,加强龙头企业牵动和农民合作组织建设等建议。%In order to promote the resource utilization of the poultry and domestic animal feces and crops straw, the healthy development of Agaricus bisporus industry, provide the references for promoting the development of circular agriculture, based on the advantages of developing Agaricus bisporus industry in Heilongjiang prov ince, which were good foundation of edible fungus production, abundant raw materials, good quality,ohviousanti-season production advantage and strong export advantage, it pointed out that in production there were still problems such as masses' sufficient understand, immature production technology, blind introduction, small production scale,low systematization degree, unsuccessfully link of processing enterprise and producers and so on. Therefore, some suggestions that strengthening the government guidance and support, strengthening innovation of Agaricus bisporus production technology, strengthening technical training, strengthening the influence of leading enterprise and construction of farmer cooperative organizations to promote Agaricus bisporus production in Heilognjiang province were put forward.

  12. 双孢菇水提物抗疲劳作用研究%Study on the anti-fatigue effect of water extract from agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春丽; 张琳; 祖元刚; 黄岩

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨双孢菇水提物对小鼠的抗疲劳效果.方法:将新鲜双孢菇烘干、粉碎、过筛得双孢菇干粉,按一定比例水浴提取,过滤后滤液为受试样品.受试样品分别以高、中、低三个剂量给小鼠灌胃,对照组灌胃蒸馏水,连续灌胃15d后,小鼠负重5%体重的铅皮,在温度为(30±1)℃的水箱中游泳造成疲劳.拨眼球取血,并取内脏.进行血乳酸、血清尿素氮和肝糖原含量的测定.结果:双孢菇水提物能延长小鼠负重游泳时间,降低小鼠运动后血清尿素氪和血乳酸水平,提高肝糖原的储备量.结论:双孢菇水提物具有明显的抗疲劳功效.%Objective: To explore the anti-fatigue effect of aqueous extract of agaricus bisporus in the body of mice.Methods:The powder was obtained through drying, smashing and mesh screening fresh agaricus bisporus, then water-bath extracting according to a certain percentage,after which the filtrate was taken as the sample subjects.Tested samples were divided into high, medium and low dosage group for intragastric administration of the mice respectively.The control group was fed distilled water.15d later, the mice were loaded 5% of body weight of the lead sheet swimming at a temperature of(30 ± 1 ) ℃.Took their eyeball, blood and the organs out to carry out the determination of blood lactate, serum urea nitrogen and liver glycogen contents.Results: The aqueous extract of agaricus bisporus could prolong the time of mice's loaded swimming and lower the levels of serum urea nitrogen in mice and blood lactate after exercise as well as improving the liver glycogen reserves.Conclusion:The aqueous extract of agaricus bisporus had obvious effect on anti-fatigue.

  13. Study on New Casing Soil Materials for Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.%双孢蘑菇新型覆土材料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁滨; 张金文; 张志鸿; 柯丽娜; 林德锋

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to explore the new casing soil materials for Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing. , to save peaty soil resources. [Method] Peaty soil was mixed with red loam according to different proportions and used the mixture to cultivate Agaricus bisporus ( Lange) Sing. , then investigated its mycelium growth status, yield and economic benefit. [ Result ] In the treatments adding to peaty soil, the time of mycelium climbing on the soil was early, harvesting time brought forward, and mycelium amount and yield both increased. Thereinto, that the ratio of peaty soil to red loam was 1: 2 appeared the best, compared to control, its yield increased 19.6% and its relatively net income increased 18.0% . [Conclusion] It is feasible of applying peaty soil as casing soil materials to cultivate Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing, in south Fujian and has good effects.%[目的]探索新型双孢蘑菇[Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing.]覆土材料,以节约泥炭土资源.[方法]将泥炭土与红壤土按不同比例混合后作为覆土材料栽培双孢蘑菇,调查覆土后蘑菇菌丝生长情况、产量及经济效益.[结果]添加泥炭土的处理菌丝上土时间早、覆土层菌丝量增加、出菇时间提前、产量增加.其中泥炭土与红壤土使用比例为1∶2作为覆土材料表现最好,产量比对照高出19.6%,相对纯收入提高了18.0%.[结论]闽南地区应用泥炭土作为覆土材料栽培双孢蘑菇是可行的,并有良好效果的.

  14. 双孢菇菌渣养殖蛴螬技术研究%Research of Holotrichia diomphalia Larvae Cultivation Technology with Agaricus bisporus Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁强; 吕蔚; 徐康铭; 王鸿磊; 秦娜; 崔从光; 邹积华

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore key technology to cultivate Holotrichia diomphalia larvae with Agaricus bisporus residues and to provide tecbnologicalsupports for processing of Agaricus bisporus residues.[Method] In the research,fodder thickness,population density and residues under different treatments were set to research effects on Holotrichia diomphalia larvae.[Result] The optimal thickness of fodder was 25 cm and the optimal feeding density was 44-56 larvae per hectare.The dry residues were more suitable,compared with decomposed residues and com bran powders,for cultivation of Holotrichia diomphalia larvae.[Conclusion] Cultivation of Holotrichia diomphalia larvae with Agaricus bisporus residues is a new method to make use of Agaricus bisporus residues and of significance for extension of agricultural circulation chain,increase of economic benafits and ecological benefits.%[目的]摸清双孢菇菌渣养殖蛴螬的关键技术,为更好地处理双孢菇菌渣提供技术支持.[方法]设置了不同饲料厚度、虫口密度和菌渣的不同处理及混配比例,研究其对蛴螬生长的影响.[结果]双孢菇菌渣饲养蛴螬的最佳饲料厚度为25 cm,最佳的饲养密度为44~256只/m2;双孢菇菌渣晾干后比腐熟菌渣和玉米秸秆糠粉都更适宜养殖蛴螬.[结论]利用双孢菇菌渣饲养蛴螬效果显著,为双孢菇菌渣的利用提供了新途径,对进一步延长农业循环链条,增加经济效益和生态效益具有重要意义.

  15. Análisis del perfil proteínico y efecto de la temperatura sobre la digestabilidad de proteinas de Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    García del Río, Ana

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo fin de máster experimental, el hongo sometido ha estudio Agaricus bisporus, conocido comúnmente como champiñón. En el presente trabajo experimental se realizaron ensayos de digestibilidad in vitro con un fluido gástrico simulado de los extractos acuosos de la seta a tiempos variables y posteriormente se empleó electroforesis SDS-PAGE imitando las condiciones gástricas, para identificar los productos de la digestión. Con el fin de vigilar el grado de digestión con pepsin...

  16. First Preliminary Report on Isolation and Characterization of Novel Acinetobacter spp. in Casing Soil Used for Cultivation of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Despite evaluation of large number of agroindustrial wastes for their use as casing material for Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach cultivation, scant attention has been given to the importance of biological properties of casing materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to characterize the bacterial flora in casing layer, namely, Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and Spent Mushroom Substrate/spent compost (SMS/SC) (FYM+SC, 3 : 1) and FYM and Vermi Compost (VC) (FYM+VC, 3 : 1), employing partial...

  17. Characterization of Serine Proteinase Expression in Agaricus bisporus and Coprinopsis cinerea by Using Green Fluorescent Protein and the A. bisporus SPR1 Promoter▿

    OpenAIRE

    Heneghan, Mary N.; Porta, Claudine; Zhang, Cunjin; Burton, Kerry S.; Challen, Michael P.; Bailey, Andy M; Foster, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    The Agaricus bisporus serine proteinase 1 (SPR1) appears to be significant in both mycelial nutrition and senescence of the fruiting body. We report on the construction of an SPR promoter::green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion cassette, pGreen_hph1_SPR_GFP, for the investigation of temporal and developmental expression of SPR1 in homobasidiomycetes and to determine how expression is linked to physiological and environmental stimuli. Monitoring of A. bisporus pGreen_hph1_SPR_GFP transformants...

  18. Biologie, caractérisation chimique et activités antioxydantes du champignon comestible et médicinal Agaricus subrufescens

    OpenAIRE

    Llarena Hernandez, Regulo Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Récemment, Agaricus subrufescens est devenu un champignon d’intérêt de par ses propriétés médicinales. Sa production commerciale s’est développée dans des pays tropicaux à partir de matériaux locaux. Cependant, les données disponibles dans la littérature ne concernent que des cultivars qui sont génétiquement similaires. Notre étude sur un ensemble de cultivars et de souches sauvages a conduit à une meilleure connaissance de la biologie de l’espèce. Contrairement aux cultivars, les souches sau...

  19. Morphological and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Fungus Cladobotryum dendroides, the Causal Agent of Cobweb Disease of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty isolates were isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from Serbian mushroom farms during 2003-2007. The isolates formed white, cottony, aerial colonies on agar media. With age, conidia and colonies turned yellow and redish.Pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed by inoculation of harvested basidiomes of A. bisporus and by casing inoculation. Symptoms similar to natural infection were recorded. Based on pathogenicity tests and morphological characteristics, the isolates were identified as Cladobotryum dendroides (Bulliard : Fries W. Gams & Hoozemans.

  20. Evaluación del Residuo del Cultivo de Agaricus bisporus como Alimento de Vacas Lecheras en Lactancia Media / Evaluation of the Agaricus bisporus Spent Compost as Feed of Dairy Cows in Mid Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Gómez Urrego

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó el potencial del residuo del cultivo de la seta Agaricus bisporus como materia prima para la alimentación de vacas lecheras en segundo tercio de lactancia. Para esto, se sustituyó 10% del concentrado comercial por el residuo (sin turba y se evaluó su efecto en la producción, el balance nutricional de las vacas y el costo final del concentrado. El diseño experimental fue un cross-over o de intercambio con medidas repetidas en eltiempo. Cada periodo experimental tuvo una duración de 14 días. Se utilizaron dos grupos de animales, uno con 4 vacas Holstein y otro con 4 vacas cruzadas Holstein x BON. En promedio, las vacas tenían 117 ± 18,6 días en leche, 2,6 ± 0,9 partos, 529,5 ± 52,9 kg peso vivo y una producción de leche/día de 15,42 ± 2,6 L. El tratamiento experimental redujo los nutrientes digeribles totales de la dieta total en 2%. No hubo diferencias estadísticas en el balance nutricional de las vacas a causa del tratamiento experimental. Tampoco hubo diferencia estadística en cuanto a la producción de leche (14,4 L y calidad composicional (% de grasa:3,86; % de proteína: 3,5; relación grasa: proteína: 1,11. El análisis de costos mostró que al incluirse en el concentrado un 10% del residuo de A. bisporus (Champiñosa se obtenía una reducción en los costos de alimentación de $403 pesos colombianos/vaca/día. / Abstract. This study evaluated the potential of the growth bed of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus as a feed for mid lactation dairy cows. We replaced 10% of commercial concentrate with the residue (peat removed and assessed its effect on milk production, nutritional balance of the cows and final cost of the concentrate. The experimental design was a cross-over or change-over with repeated measurements. Each experimental period lasted 14 days. Two groups of animals, one with four Holstein cows and one with four crossbred Holstein x BON cows were used. On average, cows had 117

  1. Comparison of Control Effect of Fungicides against Agaricus bisporus Wet Bull Caused by Mycogone perniciosa Magn%杀菌剂对蘑菇疣孢霉病的防治效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温志强

    2009-01-01

    11 kinds of fungicides were selected to test their control effect against Agaricus bisporus wet bull caused by Mycogone perniciosa and the effect on the growth of Agaricus bisporus in the mushroom house were tested. The results indicated that 11 kinds of fungicides had obvious difference towards control effect against Agaricus bisporus wet bull caused by Mycogone perniciosa and effect on the growth of Agaricus bisporus. Among them, 45% EW with 500 times liquid of Thiabendazol was the best with the control effect of 93.7% by covering soil and 89.1% by dealing cover soil with spraying during fruiting period. Meanwhile, it had not adversary effect on mycelial growth and fruit body development ofAgaricus bisporus. Comprehensive performance of the other fungicides were non-ideal.%通过在菇房中11种杀菌剂对蘑菇疣孢霉病防治效果和对双孢蘑菇生长影响试验,结果表明,11种杀菌剂对蘑菇疣孢霉病防治效果和对双孢蘑菇生长影响有明显差异,其中特克多45%悬浮剂500倍液无论是覆土处理或转潮时喷雾覆土处理,均对疣孢霉病有较好的防治效果,防治效率分别达93.7%和89.1%,且对双孢蘑菇菌丝生长和子实体发育无不良影响.其它杀菌剂综合表现均不理想.

  2. 棕色蘑菇主要特性及营养成分分析%Characteristics and Composition of Agaricus brunnescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋金倐; 华秀红; 林金盛; 刘超

    2007-01-01

    研究和分析了棕色蘑菇(Agaricus brunnescens)ACCC50031的出菇温度、抗病性、子实体农药残留及营养成分.结果表明,供试棕色蘑菇正常出菇温度为 2~26 ℃,对照双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)2796为12~26 ℃;接种疣孢霉病菌21 d后,双孢蘑菇2796的发病率达36%,而棕色蘑菇无病菇出现.10种农药施用后的检测结果表明,棕色蘑菇的子实体中无农药残留或农药残留量低于国家规定指标.营养成分分析表明,新鲜棕色蘑菇的粗蛋白、总氨基酸和必需氨基酸含量分别为6.14%、 3.28%和1.26%,均高于双孢蘑菇2796.

  3. Qualitative Analysis on Effective Constituents of Wild Agaricus gennadii%野生圆孢蘑菇有效成分的定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙福林; 杨艳丽; 张雪莲; 袁云

    2012-01-01

    对圆孢蘑菇的有效成分进行定性分析。主要采用水提法、醇提法、石油醚提取法对其有效成分进行提取。经初步分析鉴定,圆孢蘑菇中含有蛋白质、糖类、有机酸、香豆素与内酯等物质,可能含有皂苷、甾体三萜类,不合生物碱、强心苷、挥发油、酚类、鞣质等。%Qualitative analysis on effective components were conducted of Agaricus gennadii, mainly adopts water extraction, alcohol extraction, petroleum ether extraction method on the effective components ex- traction, the preliminary analysis and identification showed Agaricus gennadii is rich in protein, carbohydrates, organic acids, coumarin and lactone and other substances, may contain saponins, steroidal three terpenoids, alkaloids, does not contain cardiac glycosides, volatile oil, phenol, tannin.

  4. Plant extracts for the preservation of Agaricus bisporus%植物提取液用于双孢菇保鲜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安建; 魏书信; 田广瑞

    2011-01-01

    After extraction,bleaching and clarifying,fennel,couch grass root,licorice,citronella,star anise were used for the preservation of Agaricus bisporus.The results showed that inhibition of star anise extract on water loss of Agaricus bisporus was the best,a%以小茴、茅根、甘草、茅草、八角为试材,经提取、脱色、澄清处理后进行双孢菇保鲜实验,结果显示,八角提取液抑制双孢菇失水效果最好,小茴和茅草对双孢菇褐变抑制的效果最好。进一步做了组合正交实验,结果表明实验组均优于清水对照组,最优组合为4%八角+10%小茴+8%茅根。

  5. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R.; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hilden, Kristiina; Kues, Ursula; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wosten, Han A. B.; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Foster, Gary D.; Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P.; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S.; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S.; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Challen, Michael P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Martin, Francis

    2012-04-27

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the button mushroom forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.

  6. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagy, Laszlo G; Ohm, Robin A; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L; Bailey, Andrew M; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hildén, Kristiina; Kües, Ursula; Labutti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lucas, Susan M; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W; Salamov, Asaf A; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wösten, Han A B; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C; Foster, Gary D; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S; Kerrigan, Richard W; Challen, Michael P; Grigoriev, Igor V; Martin, Francis

    2012-10-23

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics. PMID:23045686

  7. Genetic Analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences Suggest Introgression and Duplication in the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Moinard, Magalie; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Shouxian; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Zhao, Ruilin; Hyde, Kevin D; Callac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster is widely used in fungal taxonomy and phylogeographic studies. The medicinal and edible mushroom Agaricus subrufescens has a worldwide distribution with a high level of polymorphism in the ITS region. A previous analysis suggested notable ITS sequence heterogeneity within the wild French isolate CA487. The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and potential mechanism of ITS sequence heterogeneity within this strain. Using PCR, cloning, and sequencing, we identified three types of ITS sequences, A, B, and C with a balanced distribution, which differed from each other at 13 polymorphic positions. The phylogenetic comparisons with samples from different continents revealed that the type C sequence was similar to those found in Oceanian and Asian specimens of A. subrufescens while types A and B sequences were close to those found in the Americas or in Europe. We further investigated the inheritance of these three ITS sequence types by analyzing their distribution among single-spore isolates from CA487. In this analysis, three co-dominant markers were used firstly to distinguish the homokaryotic offspring from the heterokaryotic offspring. The homokaryotic offspring were then analyzed for their ITS types. Our genetic analyses revealed that types A and B were two alleles segregating at one locus ITSI, while type C was not allelic with types A and B but was located at another unlinked locus ITSII. Furthermore, type C was present in only one of the two constitutive haploid nuclei (n) of the heterokaryotic (n+n) parent CA487. These data suggest that there was a relatively recent introduction of the type C sequence and a duplication of the ITS locus in this strain. Whether other genes were also transferred and duplicated and their impacts on genome structure and stability remain to be investigated. PMID:27228131

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus on the hematology and immunology systems of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana VALADARES

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients with cancer tend to develop hematological and immunological alterations during the disease process. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the immune and hematopoietic systems, promoting improvements in the prognosis and physiological response. In this trial it is aimed to evaluate changes in hematological and immunological parameters in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out. 46 patients (stadiums II and III, were randomly assigned to receive either: nutritional supplement with A. sylvaticus (2.1 g/day or placebo. Patients received three cycles (n=26 and six cycles (n=20 of chemotherapy. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed. The results were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2003 and R-version 2.11.1, significant results at p≤ 0.05. Results: The A. sylvaticus group showed an increase of hematocrits (p=0.04, red blood count (p=0.03, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p=0.001, leukocytes (p=0.03, monocytes (p=0.001, and total lymphocyte count (p=0.009 after three months. Those changes were not observed in the placebo group. After six months, patients receiving A. sylvaticus showed increased levels of red blood count (p=0.02, hemoglobin (p=0.02, hematocrits (p=0.02, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p=0.02, leukocytes (p=0.02; lymphocytes (p=0.02, neutrophils (p=0.02 and TLC (p=0.02. The placebo group showed a reduction in leukocytes (p=0.004, basophiles (p=0.005 and TLC (p=0.01. Conclusion: The results suggest the usefulness of dietary supplementation with A. sylvaticus in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

  9. Protective effects of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus against hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice as a model of postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Kanaya

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM, Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX mice (a model of postmenopausal women. OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6, were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women.

  10. Optimization of the Liquid Culture Medium Composition to Obtain the Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus Rich in Essential Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowska, Agata; Reczyński, Witold; Muszyńska, Bożena

    2016-09-01

    Agaricus bisporus species (J.E. Lange) Imbach one of the most popular Basidiomycota species was chosen for the research because of its dietary and medicinal value. The presented herein studies included determination of essential mineral accumulation level in the mycelium of A. bisporus, cultivated on liquid cultures in the medium supplemented with addition of the chosen metals' salts. Quantitative analyses of Zn, Cu, Mg, and Fe in liquid cultures made it possible to determine the relationship between accumulation of the selected mineral in A. bisporus mycelium and the culture conditions. Monitoring of the liquid cultures and determination of the elements' concentrations in mycelium of A. bisporus were performed using the flame technique of AAS method. Concentration of Zn in the mycelium, maintained in the medium with the addition of its salt, was in a very wide range from 95.9 to 4462.0 mg/g DW. In the analyzed A. bisporus mycelium, cultured in the medium enriched with copper salt, this metal concentration changed from 89.79 to 7491.50 mg/g DW; considering Mg in liquid cultured mycelium (medium with Mg addition), its concentration has changed from 0.32 to 10.55 mg/g DW. The medium enriched with iron salts has led to bioaccumulation of Fe in mycelia of A. bisporus. Determined Fe concentration was in the range from 0.62 to 161.28 mg/g DW. The proposed method of liquid A. bisporus culturing on medium enriched with the selected macro- and microelements in proper concentrations ratio have led to obtaining maximal growth of biomass, characterized by high efficiency of the mineral accumulation. As a result, a dietary component of increased nutritive value was obtained. PMID:26857993

  11. Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetidae), Derived Polysaccharides Exert Immunomodulatory Activities In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Leilei; Zhang, Yanqing; Xie, Junbo; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Huan; Wei, Weilu; Li, Yingrui

    2016-01-01

    The royal sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis is a widely consumed mushroom around the world. In this study, the immunoregulatory potential of A. brasiliensis polysaccharides was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, the polysaccharides remarkably increased the spleen and thymus indexes in mice, and this effect was influenced significantly by age (the adult and the juvenile). The spleen index increased by 27.28% in adult mice treated with the polysaccharides, whereas the increase in juvenile mice was just 12.59% at the dose of 150 mg·kg-1·d-1. Moreover, the effect of the polysaccharides on the thymus and spleen indexes in adult mice was obvious both in males and females. The carbon clearance ability (phagocytic index) was improved with increasing doses, (32.81% at 120 mg·kg-1·d-1, and 38.34% at 150 mg·kg-1·d-1) in mice treated with the polysaccharides. In vitro, the polysaccharides increased the RAW264.7 cell proliferation with 34.78% at 25 µg/mL and 26.78% at 50 µg/mL. Furthermore, the polysaccharides also promoted mRNA expressions of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation 88 (MYD88), and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) in the cells, indicating that the polysaccharides induce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by stimulating TLR4/MyD88 and TLR4/TRIF pathways. In conclusion, these results suggest that A. brasiliensis polysaccharides induce a very promising immunostimulation effect in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, it should be explored as a novel natural functional food additive. PMID:27279534

  12. The Agaricus bisporus cox1 gene: the longest mitochondrial gene and the largest reservoir of mitochondrial group i introns.

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    Cyril Férandon

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, introns are located in nuclear and organelle genes from several kingdoms. Large introns (up to 5 kbp are frequent in mitochondrial genomes of plant and fungi but scarce in Metazoa, even if these organisms are grouped with fungi among the Opisthokonts. Mitochondrial introns are classified in two groups (I and II according to their RNA secondary structure involved in the intron self-splicing mechanism. Most of these mitochondrial group I introns carry a "Homing Endonuclease Gene" (heg encoding a DNA endonuclease acting in transfer and site-specific integration ("homing" and allowing intron spreading and gain after lateral transfer even between species from different kingdoms. Opposed to this gain mechanism, is another which implies that introns, which would have been abundant in the ancestral genes, would mainly evolve by loss. The importance of both mechanisms (loss and gain is matter of debate. Here we report the sequence of the cox1 gene of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world. This gene is both the longest mitochondrial gene (29,902 nt and the largest group I intron reservoir reported to date with 18 group I and 1 group II. An exhaustive analysis of the group I introns available in cox1 genes shows that they are mobile genetic elements whose numerous events of loss and gain by lateral transfer combine to explain their wide and patchy distribution extending over several kingdoms. An overview of intron distribution, together with the high frequency of eroded heg, suggests that they are evolving towards loss. In this landscape of eroded and lost intron sequences, the A. bisporus cox1 gene exhibits a peculiar dynamics of intron keeping and catching, leading to the largest collection of mitochondrial group I introns reported to date in a Eukaryote.

  13. The effects of Agaricus sylvaticus fungi dietary supplementation on the metabolism and blood pressure of patients with colorectal cancer during post surgical phase Efectos de la suplementación dietética con hongos Agaricus sylvaticus en el metabolismo y la presión arterial en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal en la fase postoperatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Costa Fortes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic, biochemical and enzymatic alterations are common in patients with cancer. Medicinal fungi has been used as adjuvants in cancer therapy due to its immunomodulatory and nutritional effects. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic and blood pressure effects on patients with colorectal cancer after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus. Methods: The methodology used was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at the Base Hospital of the Federal District-Brazil. Samples of 56 patients with colorectal cancer, divided into two groups: Agaricus sylvaticus (30 mg/kg/day and placebo. Three serum evaluations were conducted throughout the treatment: glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase; total, direct and indirect bilirubin; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase; immunoglobulins A (IgA, G (IgG and M (IgM; total proteins and protein fractions; blood pressure levels were measured as well. The results were analyzed by Microsoft Excel 2003 and SPSS 14.0 programs, Student's t test, F statistical test, with p Introducción: Las alteraciones en los parámetros bioquímicos enzimáticos son comunes en pacientes con cáncer. El hongo medicinales se ha utilizado como coadyuvante para el tratamiento contra el cáncer debido a sus sustancias imunomoduladoras. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el metabolismo y la presión arterial de los pacientes con cáncer colorrectal después suplementación dietética con hongo Agaricus sylvaticus. Métodos: La metodología utilizada fue un ensayo clínico clínico, aleatorizado, ciego, placebo-controlado desarrollado en el Hospital de Base del Distrito Federal-Brasil. Una muestra de 56 pacientes con cáncer colorrectal separados en dos grupos: Agaricus sylvaticus (30 mg/kg/ día y placebo. Tres evaluaciones de glucosa sérica, coles-terol total

  14. Study on Optimization of Microwave Agaricus bisporus Puffing%双孢菇微波膨化工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素稳; 郭朔; 刘畅; 常学东; 李军; 高海生

    2011-01-01

    A Box-Behnken response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the technical conditions of explosion puffing drying for Agaricus bisporus based on the single factor experiment. The effects of moisture content ( X1 ), thicknesses of sliced ( X2 ), microwave power ( X3 ) of the three factors on expansion ratios ( Y1 ) and sense quality ( Y2 ) of product were analyzed. Based on the experimental data, the quadratic regression models of two indexes were deduced, then, variables were analyzed with response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized technical conditions of explosion puffing for Agaricus bisporus were obtained. The results indicated that the optimal technical conditions were obtained as follows: microwave power of 540W, the thickness of Agaricus bisporus chips was 8mm and the moisture content of 38%. The expansion ratio and sense quality reached maximum of 195% and 9.5, respectively.%为了确定适宜的双孢菇膨化干燥工艺,在单因素的基础上,采用Box-Behnken中心组合响应面设计,对双孢菇膨化工艺进行了优化,分析了初始含水量(X1),切片厚度(X2),微波功率(X3)3因素作为输入变量,对膨化度(Y1)、感官得分(Y2)指标的影响.根据试验数据推论出描述这2个指标的二次回归模型,并进行了响应面分析,得出了双孢菇优化膨化工艺.结果表明:在微波功率为540 W、双孢菇片厚度为8 mm、双孢菇初始含水率为38%的条件下,膨化率达到195%,感官指标为9.5.

  15. 双孢蘑菇液体菌种培养基的优化%Optimization of Media for Agaricus Bisporus in Liquid Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马忠友; 周盘龙; 祝嫦巍; 王磊磊; 邓盾

    2012-01-01

    According to the orthogonal experimental design method, the interaction was found between the maize meal and the glucose for Agaricus bisporus in liquid culture. The experiment has an optimum result when their ratio is three to two. The optimum prescription of the culture media could be ascertained as follows: soybean flour 2%, maize meal 2%, glucose 2%, KH:PO4 0.05% , MgS04 0.20% , and wheat bran 0.05%. The mushroom spawns of Agaricus bisporus grown in wheat kernels medium was displayed better characters inoculated with the liquid culture seed than the wheat kernels culture seed on superiority of quick growth, consistent growth speed of hypha and the full bottle time. It was concluded that this liquid culture may be used as suitable original seed for the mushroom spawns seed of Agaricus bisporus%采用正交试验优化双孢蘑菇的液体培养基配方,发现黄豆粉、葡萄糖、硫酸镁、以及玉米粉和葡萄糖的交互作用对双孢蘑菇的液体培养有显著影响,磷酸二氢钾、麦辣汁对实验结果无显著影响。双孢蘑菇最佳液体培养基配方为:黄豆粉2%,玉米粉2%,葡萄糖2%,磷酸二氢钾0.05%,硫酸镁0.20%,麦麸0.20%。把双孢蘑菇液体菌种接入小麦栽培种中,茵丝表现出生长快的优势,生长速度较为一致,满瓶时间短,证明利用液体菌种制备栽培种比固体菌种具有更大的优势。

  16. 超声波辅助提取双孢菇多糖的研究%Study on the polysaccharides extraction of Agaricus bisporus using ultrasonic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振鹏; 袁亚宏; 岳田利; 杨昊博

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 Study was made on the optimum technology of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides extraction by using ultrasonic to lay the foundation for solving by-products reuse in the canning process.【Method】 Using Agaricus bisporus canning by-products as raw materials,single factor experiment and orthogonal test were adopted to analyze the effect of each factor in solid-liquid ratio,ultrasonic power,extraction time and temperature on the extraction percentage of the polysaccharides using ultrasonic,and the process parameters were optimized.【Result】 The results indicated that the optimum condition of extraction is as follows:liquid-solid ratio 40 mL/g,ultrasonic power 560 W,time 120 min and temperature 60 ℃.【Conclusion】 Under this optimum condition,the extraction percentage of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides reached 3.65%,which increased by 96.24% compared with the common technical yields.%【目的】对超声波辅助提取双孢菇多糖的工艺进行研究,为双孢菇罐头加工过程中废弃物的综合利用提供支持。【方法】以盐渍双孢菇罐头废弃物为原料,通过单因素及正交试验探讨了液料比、超声波功率、超声波处理时间及处理温度对双孢菇多糖提取率的影响,并对超声波辅助提取双孢菇多糖的工艺参数进行了优化。【结果】优化得到超声波辅助提取双孢菇多糖的最佳工艺参数为:超声波功率560W,超声波处理时间120min,超声波处理温度60℃,液料比40mL/g。【结论】在优化的最佳工艺条件下,双孢菇多糖的提取率为3.65%,较无超声波促进作用下普通工艺的多糖提取率提高了96.24%。

  17. Long-distance translocation of protein during morphogenesis of the fruiting body in the filamentous fungus, Agaricus bisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Woolston

    Full Text Available Commercial cultivation of the mushroom fungus, Agaricus bisporus, utilizes a substrate consisting of a lower layer of compost and upper layer of peat. Typically, the two layers are seeded with individual mycelial inoculants representing a single genotype of A. bisporus. Studies aimed at examining the potential of this fungal species as a heterologous protein expression system have revealed unexpected contributions of the mycelial inoculants in the morphogenesis of the fruiting body. These contributions were elucidated using a dual-inoculant method whereby the two layers were differientially inoculated with transgenic β-glucuronidase (GUS and wild-type (WT lines. Surprisingly, use of a transgenic GUS line in the lower substrate and a WT line in the upper substrate yielded fruiting bodies expressing GUS activity while lacking the GUS transgene. Results of PCR and RT-PCR analyses for the GUS transgene and RNA transcript, respectively, suggested translocation of the GUS protein from the transgenic mycelium colonizing the lower layer into the fruiting body that developed exclusively from WT mycelium colonizing the upper layer. Effective translocation of the GUS protein depended on the use of a transgenic line in the lower layer in which the GUS gene was controlled by a vegetative mycelium-active promoter (laccase 2 and β-actin, rather than a fruiting body-active promoter (hydrophobin A. GUS-expressing fruiting bodies lacking the GUS gene had a bonafide WT genotype, confirmed by the absence of stably inherited GUS and hygromycin phosphotransferase selectable marker activities in their derived basidiospores and mycelial tissue cultures. Differientially inoculating the two substrate layers with individual lines carrying the GUS gene controlled by different tissue-preferred promoters resulted in up to a ∼3.5-fold increase in GUS activity over that obtained with a single inoculant. Our findings support the existence of a previously undescribed

  18. Accumulation of recalcitrant xylan in mushroom-compost is due to a lack of xylan substituent removing enzyme activities of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Kapsokalyvas, Dimitris; Xing, Lia; van Zandvoort, Marc A M J; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-11-01

    The ability of Agaricus bisporus to degrade xylan in wheat straw based compost during mushroom formation is unclear. In this paper, xylan was extracted from the compost with water, 1M and 4M alkali. Over the phases analyzed, the remaining xylan was increasingly substituted with (4-O-methyl-)glucuronic acid and arabinosyl residues, both one and two arabinosyl residues per xylosyl residue remained. In the 1M and 4M KOH soluble solids of spent compost, 33 and 49 out of 100 xylosyl residues, respectively, were substituted. The accumulation of glucuronic acid substituents matched with the analysis that the two A. bisporus genes encoding for α-glucuronidase activity (both GH115) were not expressed in the A. bisporus mycelium in the compost during fruiting. Also, in a maximum likelihood tree it was shown that it is not likely that A. bisporus possesses genes encoding for the activity to remove arabinose from xylosyl residues having two arabinosyl residues. PMID:26256360

  19. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction to obtain mycosterols from Agaricus bisporus L. by response surface methodology and comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Sandrina A; Diz, Patrícia; Prieto, M A; Barros, Lillian; Rodrigues, Alírio; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-15

    Ergosterol, a molecule with high commercial value, is the most abundant mycosterol in Agaricus bisporus L. To replace common conventional extraction techniques (e.g. Soxhlet), the present study reports the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for ergosterol. After preliminary tests, the results showed that solvents, time and ultrasound power altered the extraction efficiency. Using response surface methodology, models were developed to investigate the favourable experimental conditions that maximize the extraction efficiency. All statistical criteria demonstrated the validity of the proposed models. Overall, ultrasound-assisted extraction with ethanol at 375 W during 15 min proved to be as efficient as the Soxhlet extraction, yielding 671.5 ± 0.5mg ergosterol/100 g dw. However, with n-hexane extracts with higher purity (mg ergosterol/g extract) were obtained. Finally, it was proposed for the removal of the saponification step, which simplifies the extraction process and makes it more feasible for its industrial transference. PMID:26675841

  20. Morphological and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Causal Agents of Dry and Wet Bubble Deseases of White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseased fruit bodies of Agaricus bisporus, bearing symptoms similar to those caused by Verticillium fungicola and Mycogone perniciosa, were observed during the screening of eight mushroom farms in Serbia in 2002 and 2003. Nine isolates, forming either appressed white or pale brown colonies on PDA medium, were recovered. The isolates were identified on the basis of their morphological, physiological and pathogenic characteristics, and by comparing them to V. fungicola var. fungicola and M. perniciosa isolates originating from United Kingdom, and V. fungicola var. aleophilum from the USA. Pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed by casing inoculation, on which occasion symptoms of both dry and wet bubble disease were recorded. Five isolates were identified as Verticillium fungicola(Preuss Hassebrauk var. fungicola (W. Gams & Van Zaayen, and four as Mycogone perniciosa(Magnus Delacroix.

  1. Studies on the enzymatic characteristics of polyphenoloxidase in agaricus bisporus%蘑菇中多酚氧化酶的酶学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东海; 张建平; 侯菊花

    2004-01-01

    采用二次丙酮法与75%硫酸铵沉淀法从蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)中提取多酚氧化酶;用分光光度法对蘑菇中多酚氧化酶酶学特性进行了较为系统的研究.结果表明:二次丙酮法优于75%硫酸铵沉淀法;以邻苯二酚为底物,多酚氧化酶的最适pH为7.0,最适温度为30℃;亚硫酸钠、半胱氨酸、抗坏血酸为强抑制剂.

  2. Developing Peanut Milk with Agaricus brunnecens Liquid Fermentation%褐口蘑液体发酵花生乳的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐玉琴

    2014-01-01

    以花生为主要原料,褐口蘑(Agaricus brunnecens)通过利用花生汁液和牛奶进行发酵,然后对其进行调配而制成褐口蘑液体发酵花生乳.经过对影响感官指标的各因素进行正交试验,最终确定最佳发酵条件为花生汁与鲜奶的比例为1∶2,接种量为3%,发酵时间为6d,发酵温度为26℃,在此条件下制作的褐口蘑液体发酵花生乳口感最佳,且符合国家标准.

  3. First Preliminary Report on Isolation and Characterization of Novel Acinetobacter spp. in Casing Soil Used for Cultivation of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite evaluation of large number of agroindustrial wastes for their use as casing material for Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach cultivation, scant attention has been given to the importance of biological properties of casing materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to characterize the bacterial flora in casing layer, namely, Farm Yard Manure (FYM and Spent Mushroom Substrate/spent compost (SMS/SC (FYM+SC, 3 : 1 and FYM and Vermi Compost (VC (FYM+VC, 3 : 1, employing partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Available data showed a significant variety of organisms that included Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas of the γ-proteobacteria, that were the most frequently encountered genera. This is the first preliminary report on the microbial diversity of casing soils and demonstrates the presence of Acinetobacter spp. that has not been previously described in casing material.

  4. 双孢蘑菇菌株As2796的提纯复壮%Isolation of Rejuvenated Strains of Agaricus bisporus As2796

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊晓琳; 叶绿笋; 边银丙

    2010-01-01

    采用原生质体分离、菌丝尖端分离和组织分离3种方法对双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)As2796的退化菌株进行分离,应用灰色关联度分析法综合评价不同分离株的农艺性状,筛选综合性状优于As2796退化菌株的提纯复壮菌株.结果表明,3种分离方法均能获得提纯复壮的菌株,其中原生质体分离株P28的提纯复壮效果最好.

  5. The effect of process parameters and microstructural changes on a new convenience food – quick-frozen paste-coated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Su-Wen; Chang, Xue-Dong; Liu, Xiu-Feng; Jiang, Wen-Hong; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The technology of quick-freezing paste-coated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was studied and optimized. The best microwave pretreatment condition for 1 cm slices, regarding color protection, was 5.4 W/g, for 55, 55–60 and 60 s for mushrooms with 3, 4 and 5 cm diameter caps respectively. For a batch of paste (668.2–1034.6 g), the process parameters considered were oil content (46.6–63.4 g), water content (381–562.6 g) and flour content (166–334 g) with a constant additional content of 30 g star...

  6. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction to obtain mycosterols from Agaricus bisporus L. by response surface methodology and comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Sandrina A; Diz, Patrícia; Prieto, M A; Barros, Lillian; Rodrigues, Alírio; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-15

    Ergosterol, a molecule with high commercial value, is the most abundant mycosterol in Agaricus bisporus L. To replace common conventional extraction techniques (e.g. Soxhlet), the present study reports the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for ergosterol. After preliminary tests, the results showed that solvents, time and ultrasound power altered the extraction efficiency. Using response surface methodology, models were developed to investigate the favourable experimental conditions that maximize the extraction efficiency. All statistical criteria demonstrated the validity of the proposed models. Overall, ultrasound-assisted extraction with ethanol at 375 W during 15 min proved to be as efficient as the Soxhlet extraction, yielding 671.5 ± 0.5mg ergosterol/100 g dw. However, with n-hexane extracts with higher purity (mg ergosterol/g extract) were obtained. Finally, it was proposed for the removal of the saponification step, which simplifies the extraction process and makes it more feasible for its industrial transference.

  7. Impact on Vitamin D2, Vitamin D4 and Agaritine in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms after Artificial and Natural Solar UV Light Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Paul; Valverde, Juan; Jakobsen, Jette

    2016-09-01

    Commercial mushroom production can expose mushrooms post-harvest to UV light for purposes of vitamin D2 enrichment by converting the naturally occurring provitamin D2 (ergosterol). The objectives of the present study were to artificially simulate solar UV-B doses occurring naturally in Central Europe and to investigate vitamin D2 and vitamin D4 production in sliced Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms) and to analyse and compare the agaritine content of naturally and artificially UV-irradiated mushrooms. Agaritine was measured for safety aspects even though there is no rationale for a link between UV light exposure and agaritine content. The artificial UV-B dose of 0.53 J/cm(2) raised the vitamin D2 content to significantly (P mushrooms reflects the activity of these two major vitamin D analogues (D2, D4). Vitamin D4 should be analysed and agaritine disregarded in future studies of UV-exposed mushrooms. PMID:27323764

  8. Alterações lipídicas em pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória: ensaio clínico randomizado e duplo-cego com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus Lipidic alterations in patients with colorectal cancer in post-surgery phase: a randomized and double-blind clinical trial with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Costa Fortes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Alterações no metabolismo lipídico são comuns em pacientes com câncer. Fungos medicinais podem exibir atividade hipolipidêmica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus no perfil lipídico de pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, placebo-controlado, realizado no Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal por seis meses. Amostra constituída por 56 pacientes, estádios I, II e III, separados em dois grupos: placebo e suplementado com Agaricus sylvaticus (30mg/kg/dia. Resultados analisados pelos programas Microsoft Excel 2003 e SPSS 14.0 com p = 0.05. RESULTADOS: O grupo Agaricus sylvaticus apresentou níveis séricos iniciais de colesterol total de 207.36±52.67mg/dL, lipoproteína de baixa densidade de 120.79±44.02mg/dL e triglicérides de 181.64±187.52mg/dL. Após seis meses de suplementação, observou-se redução para 191.11±39.72mg/dL (p = 0.01, 103.08±39.20mg/dL (p = 0.0001 e 168.04±146.91mg/dL (p = 0.18, respectivamente. No grupo placebo, observou-se aumento não-significativo de colesterol total (p = 0.08 e aumento significativo de lipoproteína de baixa densidade (p = 0.01 e triglicérides (p = 0.0001. Não foram observadas, em ambos os grupos, alterações significantes nos níveis de lipoproteína de alta densidade e lipoproteína de muito baixa densidade. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a suplementação dietética com Agaricus sylvaticus pode melhorar significativamente o perfil lipídico de pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória.INTRODUCTION: Alterations in the lipidic metabolism are common in patients with cancer. Medicinal fungus may show hypolipidemic activity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus in lipidic profile of patients with colorectal cancer in post-surgery phase. MEHTODS: Randomized, double

  9. 大蒜/肉桂精油复配 PE 膜对双孢菇的保鲜研究%Study on Agaricus Bisporus Fresh-keeping Effect by Garlic/Cinnamon Essential Oil Compound PE Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪军; 潘艳娟; 王建清

    2015-01-01

    将大蒜精油与肉桂精油以1:2的比例复配,分别吸取5、10、15、20μL复配精油添加到双孢菇PE膜包装袋中,根据双孢菇保鲜评价指标评价组合包装对双孢菇的保鲜效果. 试验结果表明:与单独PE膜包装相比,10μL大蒜/肉桂精油复配PE膜可有效保持双孢菇的感官、Vc含量和总酚含量,降低褐变度,对还原糖含量和失重率影响不大;可将双孢菇的保鲜期延长2d.%Mixed garlic essential oil and cinnamon essential oil in ratio of 1:2 , learn 5μL,10μL,15μL, 20μL compound essential oil respectively added to the PE film packaging bag of agaricus bisporus ,according to the double spore mushroom fresh-keeping evaluating indicator evaluate the combined packaging fresh-keeping effect of Agaricus bisporus.The test results show that:compared with single PE film packaging ,10μL garlic /cinnamon essential oil compound PE film can effectively maintain the agaricus bisporus senses ,Vc content and total phenolic content ,reduce the browning degree ,have little effect to the reducing sugar content and weight loss rate.Can extende the preservation period of agaricus bisporus for 2 days.

  10. Role of Edible Fungi Bio-Processor in Increasing the Output of the Cultivated Agaricus Campestris%食用菌生物激活处理器在四孢蘑菇栽培中的增产效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑全; 刘宇鹏; 马云侠; 毛贵阳; 郜白银

    2002-01-01

    将四孢蘑菇(Agaricus campestris)用食用菌生物激活处理器制得的"双磁水"浇、喷后产量增加了40%以上,菇体硬实、菌盖厚、菌柄短粗且推迟开伞时间,鲜菇氨基酸和维生素C含量明显增多.

  11. Morphological studies on senescence of vegetative mycelium of Agaricus bisporus%双孢蘑菇营养菌丝老化现象的形态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 许修宏; 袁立

    2011-01-01

    通过观察双孢蘑菇茵丝体的显微结构和检测茵丝体活力,找到双孢蘑菇营养菌丝老化的基本特征,描述了双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)的营养茵丝在不同时期的形态学变化.结果发现,在接种50~60d后茵丝开始老化,找到老化的标志性特征为细胞发生肿胀,产生液泡状物质;细胞壁变得粗糙不规则.结果表明,茵丝的萌发时间随着菌龄增大而增大,菌丝长速会随着茵龄增大而减缓;随着菌龄的增加菌丝的RNA含量降低.为今后鉴别生产中菌种的老化问题提供科学依据.%By observing the microstructure of the vegetative mycelium of Agaricus bisporus and detecting the activity of mycelium, it would find that essential characteristics of the aged vegetative mycelium of Agaricus bisporus. The investigation showed that the morphological changes occurred in ageing vegetative mycelium of Agaricus bisporus in different periods. The results showed that the period of senescence occured from 50 to 60 days after inoculation. The sign of senescence was swelling and vacuole-like in the mycelium and the cell walls became coarse and irregular. The results showed that the mycelial growth rate decreased as the time of mycelial germination increased, and the content of RNA decreased while spawn age grew more older. For the identifying senescence problems of the production of mushroom spawn in the furture.

  12. Qualidade de vida de pacientes com câncer colorretal em uso de suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus após seis meses de segmento: ensaio clínico aleatorizado e placebo-controlado Quality of life of patients with colorectal cancer on dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus: after six months of segment: randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Costa Fortes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer gastrointestinal compromete a qualidade de vida devido às alterações fisiológicas, metabólicas e psicológicas. Fungos medicinais podem melhorar a qualidade de vida de pacientes com câncer. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus na qualidade de vida de pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória. METODOLOGIA: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, placebo-controlado, realizado no Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal. Amostra constituída por 56 pacientes (24 homens e 32 mulheres, estádios I, II e III, separados em grupos placebo e Agaricus sylvaticus (30mg/kg/dia, e acompanhados por um período de seis meses. Para avaliar os indicadores da qualidade de vida foram utilizados um formulário-padrão e uma anamnese dirigida-padrão. Os resultados foram analisados de forma qualitativa e descritiva, utilizando os programas Microsoft Excel 2003 e Epi Info 2004. RESULTADOS: Após seis meses de tratamento, observou-se, no grupo Agaricus sylvaticus, aumento da adesão à prática de atividade física, melhora da disposição e do humor, redução das queixas de dores e das alterações do sono como insônia e noites mal dormidas comparado com o grupo placebo. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a suplementação dietética com Agaricus sylvaticus pode melhorar a qualidade de vida de pacientes no pós-operatório de câncer colorretal.INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal cancer jeopardizes the quality of life through physiological, metabolic and psychological alterations. Medicinal fungus may boost the quality of life of patients with cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus in relation to the quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer during post-surgery phase. METHODOLOGY: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial carried out at the Federal District Hospital - Brazil, for

  13. Study on extraction of polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus by shaking bath-assisted enzymatic mothod%水浴振荡辅助酶法提取双孢蘑菇多糖的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹伟; 张宝善; 李冰; 马超

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the yield of agaricus bisporus polysaccharide, the initial adoption of single-factor experiments and orthogonal test study of shaking bath-assisted enzymatic extraction of polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus process conditions were studied. The results showed that the optimum reaction conditions were determined as follows:material/liquid ratio of 1 :40,oscillation frequency was 40r/min, enzyme dosage of 1.2%, pH of 6.5, hydrolysis temperature was 65℃, digestion time was 12.0min. Experiment results showed the Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides extraction rate can reach 2.31 %.%为了提高双孢蘑菇多糖的提取率,本实验初步通过单因素实验和正交实验研究水浴振荡辅助酶法提取双孢蘑菇多糖的工艺条件,研究结果表明:其最佳工艺条件为:料液比为1:40、振荡频率为40r/min、酶用量为1.2%、pH为6.5、酶解温度为65℃、酶解时间为120min.实验结果表明,双孢蘑菇多糖的提取率可达2.31%.

  14. 姬松茸水提取物对F344大鼠的亚慢性毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuroiwa; Y; 蒋雷(摘); 姚庆强(校)

    2006-01-01

    姬松茸Agaricus blazei Murrill是一种食用蘑菇,广泛应用于功能食品,水提取物可作为食品添加剂使用。为评价其安全性,作者研究了该蘑菇水提取物对大鼠的亚慢性毒性。

  15. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  16. 保鲜剂对双孢菇褐变的影响%Browning of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) affected by preservatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓宁; 胡花丽; 孙娅; 李志强; 李鹏霞

    2012-01-01

    To screen an ideal preservative, root-cut button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) was soaked into water (control) , 0. 2 mmol/L ascorbic acid ( Vc ) , 0. 25 mmol/L citric acid, and 0. 5 % CaCl2 aqueous solution for 1 min respectively , and the browning degree, total phenol content and activities of polyphenol oxidase ( PPO) , peroxydase (POD) , catalase (CAT) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were detected. The browning of mushroom soaked into water was serious and rapid; total polyphenols content decreased, the activities of PPO increased first and then decreased, and the activities of POD, CAT and LOX rose rapidly. The three preservatives worked on the mushroom at various degrees. 0. 2 mmol/L ascorbic acid remarkably slowed down the drop of phenol contents, reduced PPO and POD activities, and increased CAT activity. It was an ideal preservative and browning inhibitor for Agaricus bisporus.%为筛选双孢菇(Agaricus bisporus)理想的保鲜剂,在双孢菇去根30 min内分别置于0.2 mmol/L维生素C、0.25 mmol/L柠檬酸和0.5%CaCl2处理溶液中浸泡1 min,阴凉处沥干,聚乙烯薄膜包装,于温度0~2℃、相对湿度90%~95%条件下贮藏,0~14 d取样测定双孢菇褐变度、总酚含量以及多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和脂氧合酶(LOX)活性.结果表明:清水对照处理的双孢菇褐化迅速,褐变严重,总酚含量下降,PPO活性先上升后下降,POD、CAT和LOX活性呈上升趋势.与对照相比,0.2 mmol/L维生素C、0.25mmol/L柠檬酸和0.5% CaCl2浸泡处理对测定指标产生了不同程度的影响,其中0.2 mmol/L维生素C能够显著减缓双孢菇贮藏期间总酚含量的下降、降低PPO和POD的活性、提高CAT活性,保鲜处理效果最好,是双孢菇理想的保鲜剂及褐变抑制剂.

  17. Alterações lipídicas em pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória: ensaio clínico randomizado e duplo-cego com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus Lipidic alterations in patients with colorectal cancer in post-surgery phase: a randomized and double-blind clinical trial with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Costa Fortes; Andresa Lima Melo; Viviane Lacorte Recôva; Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Alterações no metabolismo lipídico são comuns em pacientes com câncer. Fungos medicinais podem exibir atividade hipolipidêmica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus no perfil lipídico de pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, placebo-controlado, realizado no Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal por seis meses. Amostra constituída por 56 pacientes, estádios I, II e II...

  18. Influence of Different Harvest Time on the Quality of Agaricus bisporus%采收期对不同品种双孢蘑菇品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赵改; 杨慧; 李靖; 王继红; 王安建

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore quality change of different Agaricus bisporus in different harvest time,several quality indices (including Vc,soluble protein,reducing sugar,phenol as well as PPO activity) in different harvest time of four kinds of Agaricus bisporus were determined. The results showed that the nutrient accumulation among four kinds of Agaricus bisporus was significantly different in different growing periods. Especially in first harvest date,with pileus diameter of 2 —3 cm,the maximum Vc content was about 8 times the minimum one, the content of reducing sugar changed between 1. 51% and 2. 14% and the content of total phenols was 333 — 680 μg/g,respectively. Overall, Vc,soluble protein,reducing sugar and phenol increased and reached the maximum at the II (3-4 cm) or III (4 -5 cm) harvest time in all the Agaricus bisporus cultivars. PPO activity of different kinds of Agaricus bisporus showed a continuous increasing trend during the harvest time. Therefore, considering nutrition, biology production and storage characteristic, people should choose Agaricus bisporus which did not open an umbrella and was at 4 cm in diameter to store through analysis of five indices.%为了探明采收期对不同主栽双孢蘑菇品种采收品质的影响,以4个双孢蘑菇品种为供试材料,研究了4个采收期的双孢蘑菇子实体中维生素C(Vc)、可溶性蛋白、还原糖、总酚等内在品质指标及多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性的变化.结果表明,以上5种指标在同一采收期的不同品种间均存在一定的差异.尤其是在采收期Ⅰ(菌盖直径2~3 cm)时这种差异表现得较为明显.在采收期Ⅰ时,不同品种间Vc含量的变幅最大,即13.2~105.5 μg/g,最大值是最小值的8倍;可溶性蛋白含量为15.9~21.4 mg/g,还原糖为1.51%~2.14%,总酚含量为333~680 μg/g,PPO活性为34.25~88.25 U/(g·m in).从整体趋势分析,随着采收期的延迟,不同双孢蘑菇品种中除PPO活性呈持续增加趋势

  19. Investigation of Catalytic Properties of Manganese Peroxidase (MnP) Produced from Agaricus bisporus A21 and its Potential Application in the Biotransformation of Xenobiotic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study Manganese peroxidase, from novel fungus Agaricus bisporus A21 was purified, thermally characterized and its catalytic properties were investigated. The four step purification procedure i.e., ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography yielded 6.9 % activity with a purification factor of 8.48. The optimum temperature and pH of Manganese peroxidase for the oxidation of Manganese peroxidase were 40 degree C and pH 6.0 respectively and remain active within the pH range of 3-10 after 24 h.The catalysis of MnSO/sub 4/ by Manganese peroxidase was expressed by the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that the maximum velocity (V/sub max/) was 231 U/mL and the Michaelis constant was 3.33mM revealing a binding site with higher substrate affinity. Enthalpy of activation decreased where Free energy of activation for thermal denaturation increased at higher temperatures. The partially purified manganese peroxidase shows excellent decolorization potential for Orange G (from 19.32 to 96 %) by the addition of natural mediator of wheat bran. UV-Vis spectrum and HPLC chromatogram clearly revealed that orange G transformed into different products. Thermostability and efficient decolorization suggest that this enzyme could be receiving substantial attention for its potential application in the biotransformation of organo-pollutants. (author)

  20. Combined vacuum impregnation and electron-beam irradiation treatment to extend the storage life of sliced white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurttas, Zeynep Sevimli; Moreira, Rosana G; Castell-Perez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the application of an antibrowning solution using vacuum impregnation (VI) and then electron-beam irradiation as a means to extend the shelf life of sliced white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). A preliminary study helped to determine the best antibrowning solution and VI process parameters. Mushroom slices were impregnated with 2 g/100 g ascorbic acid + 1 g/100 g calcium lactate; 2 g/100 g citric acid + 1 g/100 g calcium lactate; 1 g/100 g chitosan + 1 g/100 g calcium lactate; and 1 g/100 g calcium lactate at different vacuum pressures and times and atmospheric restoration times. Selection of the antibrowning solution and VI parameters was based on texture and color of the mushroom slices. Next, the slices were irradiated at 1 kGy using a 1.35-MeV e-beam accelerator. Physicochemical, sensory, and microbial quality of mushrooms was monitored for 15 d at 4 °C. The best impregnation process in this study was 2 g/100 g ascorbic acid and 1 g/100 g calcium lactate at 50 mm Hg for 5 min and an atmospheric restoration time of 5 min. The control (untreated) samples suffered structural losses throughout storage. Only the vacuum impregnated-irradiated samples had acceptable color by the end of storage. Sensory panelists consistently preferred the samples produced with VI and irradiation because exposure to ionizing radiation inhibited growth of spoilage microorganisms. PMID:24266620

  1. Effects of UV-C treatment and cold storage on ergosterol and vitamin D2 contents in different parts of white and brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenqiang; Zhang, Jie; Yan, Ruixiang; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting; Lei, Jing; Wang, Zhidong

    2016-11-01

    Effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0kJ/m(2)) and cold storage on ergosterol and vitamin D2 content in different parts of white and brown button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated. UV-C treatment did not significantly affect ergosterol content in the caps and stems of the two mushrooms, but ergosterol content increased significantly during 14days cold storage. Vitamin D2 content in the caps and stems of two mushrooms significantly increased as UV-C dose increased, and 2.0kJ/m(2) UV-C showed the best result. During cold storage, vitamin D2 content in the caps of the two mushrooms decreased from day 1 to day 7, and then kept stable until day 14, but vitamin D2 content in the stems of brown mushrooms kept increasing for the whole 14days period. UV-C could increase vitamin D2 contents in both caps and stems of white and brown mushrooms without significantly affecting ergosterol content. PMID:27211630

  2. Evaluation of casing materials made from spent mushroom substrate and coconut fibre pith for use in production of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Pardo-Gonzalez, J. E.

    2008-07-01

    The agronomic performance of different proportions of mixtures of coconut fibre (CF) pith and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was studied for their use as casing material in mushroom cultivation. After chemical and biological characterisation of the casing substrates qualitative and quantitative production parameters were evaluated in a cycle of Agaricus production. An increase in the proportion of SMS reduced the number of carpophores and overall yield; while the first flush was delayed, mushroom size tended to increase and the mushrooms had a higher dry matter content and a better texture, although their colour was worse. Combinations of CF pith and SMS of 4:1 and 3:2 (v/v) gave biological efficiencies of 92.9 and 82.6 kg 100 kg-1 compost, respectively. These values compare well with that obtained from the commercial casings used as a control. The high electrical conductivity of the mixture containing the highest proportion of SMS would limit its use. However, the results indicate the viability of reusing SMS as an ingredient of casing material for mushroom cultivation. This alternative could be considered to partially replace the organic substrates normally used for mushroom cultivation, with the double advantage of decreasing cost and reducing the environmental impact of waste disposal. Additional key words: alternative casing, compost reuse, mushroom cultivation. (Author) 31 refs.

  3. The effect of fungal decay (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw lignin using pyrolysis-GC-MS in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vane, C.H.; Abbott, G.D.; Head, I.M. [Department of Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry (Postgraduate Institute), NRG, Drummond Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2001-06-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), was used in the molecular characterisation of lignin in wheat straw during its fungal degradation by Agaricus bisporus. The decayed wheat straw had a lower proportion of syringyl to guaiacyl derived moieties than its native counterpart. The ratio of methyl 3,4-dimethoxybenzoate to 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde increased from 1.0 in native wheat straw to 6.4 following fungal degradation. Similarly the ratio of methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate to 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde increased from 1.6 in native wheat straw to 3.1 upon decay. The increase in both guaiacyl and syringyl acid to aldehyde ratios indicated that A. bisporus induces oxidative cleavage of lignin at the C{alpha}-C{beta} bonds. Both the threo- and erythro- isomers of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-trimethoxypropane decreased in intensity relative to other thermochemolysis products in degraded wheat straw. The increase in the ratio of methyl 3,4,-dimethoxybenzoate to the sum of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-trimethoxypropane (threo- and erythro- isomers) from 1.0 in native wheat straw to 10.9 in A. bisporus decayed wheat straw confirmed that the fungus had cleaved alkyl side chains. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the presence of TMAH provides a sensitive method for tracking the oxidative degradation of lignin during the fungal decay of wheat straw.

  4. The influence of the strain, flush and size of carpophores on the yield and dry matter content of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach carpophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kałużewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to obtain information about the yield quantity and quality of 16 cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus. The ‘Somycel 516’ strain gave the highest yield, whereas the yield from the ‘Sylvan 130’ strain was the lowest. The ‘Hauser A1.5’ was characterised by the highest content of dry matter in all the three yield flushes. An equally high content of dry matter was in the first and second flush of the ‘Italspawn F 50’ strain and in the second flash of the strain ‘Italspawn F 62’. ‘Sylvan S100’, ‘Italspawn F 56’, ‘Irlandzka 501’, ‘Amycel 104’ and ‘Le Lion X13’ were the strains with the lowest content of dry matter in all of the three yield flushes. The size of the carpophores had significant influence on the dry matter content. In the all three flushes, the carpophores with diameter 4.6–5.5 cm were characterized by the lowest dry matter content.

  5. Comparison of yield and dry matter content of carpophores of common mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach strains belonging to types U1, intermediate and U3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Sobieralski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the performed investigations was the comparison of yield and dry matter content of carpophores from selected strains of Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach belonging to three types. Differences within the yielding of different strains of several types, as well as following flushes of yielding were found. In type U1 the highest yield was obtained by ‘Le Lion X1’ (175 g·kg-1 f.m. of substrate, in intermediate type - ‘Italspawn 56’ and ‘Sylvan 130’ (both 161 g·kg-1 f.m. of substrate and in type U3 - ‘Italspawn F62’ and ‘Polmycel 23’ (194 and 192 g·kg-1 f.m. of substrate. It was found that the dry matter content depended both on the strain and the flush. The highest dry matter content was determined within the third flush. The highest content of dry matter in carpophores was determined in the following strains of mushrooms: type U1 - ‘Italspawn F50’ (8.5%, intermediate type - ‘Hauser A1.5’ (9.2% and type U3 - ‘Italspawn F62’ (8.3%.

  6. Study on the process of vacuum cooled Agaricus bisporus%白蘑菇真空预冷工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶菲; 郜海燕; 张慜; 葛林梅

    2009-01-01

    The technology for vacuum cooled Agaricus bisporus was studied. The influence of temperature, water addition and pressure was discussed. Mathematical model for predicting the color and soluble solid was set up by central composite design and response surface analysis(RSA), and the extraction technology was optimized. The results show that optimum conditions of extraction are: the temperature of 5 ℃, water addition of 5% and the pressure of 250 Pa.%考察预冷温度、水分添加量、预冷压力等因素对白蘑菇的色差和可溶性固形物的影响,通过中心组设计和响应面分析考察因素间的交互作用,优化白蘑菇的预冷工艺.研究结果表明,白蘑菇最优的预冷工艺条件为:预冷温度为5℃、水分添加量5%和最终预冷压力250 Pa.

  7. The plant chemical compound color fixative for Agaricus bisporus%双孢菇植物化学复合护色剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏书信; 王安建; 田广瑞; 李静

    2012-01-01

    Fresh Agaricus bisporus as material, L-cysteine, sodium hexametaphosphate, reed rhizome and peanut shells as color fixative material, obtained formulations by orthogonal color protection experiments is L-cysteine 0.2%, sodium hexametaphosphate 0.3%, reed rhizome extract 0.2%, peanut shell extract 0.1%. Then Its color protection process parameters were optimized, and comparative study on the color- protecting effects, the composite color fixative and 0.1% sodium sulfite color-protecting effect is roughly equal.%以新鲜双孢菇为试材,以L-半胱氨酸、六偏磷酸钠、芦根和花生壳为护色剂原料,通过正交试验得出护色剂的配方为L-半胱氨酸0.2%,六偏磷酸钠0.3%,芦根提取液0.2%,花生壳提取液0.1%。进而对其护色工艺参数进行了优化,并对其护色效果进行了比较评价,表明复合护色剂与0.1%亚硫酸钠的护色效果基本相当。

  8. Effect of Agaricus sylvaticus supplementation on nutritional status and adverse events of chemotherapy of breast cancer: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Valadares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer (BC represents the highest incidence of malignancy in women throughout the world. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the body, reduce side-effects associated with chemotherapy and improve the quality of life in patients with cancer. Aim: To evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Agaricus sylvaticus on clinical and nutritional parameters in BC patients undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out at the Oncology Clinic, Hospital of the Federal District-Brazil from September 2007 to July 2009. Forty six patients with BC, Stage II and III, were randomly assigned to receive either nutritional supplement with A. sylvaticus (2.1 g/day or placebo. Patients were evaluated during treatment period. Results: Patient supplemented with A. sylvaticus improved in clinical parameters and gastrointestinal functions. Poor appetite decreased by 20% with no changes in bowel functions (92.8%, nausea and vomiting (80%. Conclusion: Dietary supplementation with A. sylvaticus improved nutritional status and reduced abnormal bowel functions, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia in patients with BC receiving chemotherapy.

  9. Evaluation of 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K “Agaricus Bisporus” Activity in Cultivated Edible Mushroom formed in Tehran Province- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Changizi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Natural and man made radioactive sources exist in our environment they can enter into our food chains. One of these is the soil-mushroom-human chain. High level doses of natural radiation can cause hazards to humans. Materials and Methods Samples of Agaricus bisporus cultivated edible mushroom in Tehran province- Iran were collected from 7 farms. Specific activity of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137Cs, 40K and 235U of the samples were measured by two HPGe detectors. Results Specific activity of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137Cs and 40K in the edible mushroom samples were equal to 0.06 ± 0.03 - 0.7 ± 0.2 Bq kg-1 dry, 1.4 ± 0.7 Bq kg-1 dry, 0.1 ± 0.03- 0.3 ± 0.1 Bq kg-1dry and 920 ± 400 - 1370 ± 900 Bq kg-1dry , respectively. Conclusion As the measured concentrations of the radionuclides of interest are close or lower than MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity. Consumption of the mushrooms would impose no health consequences to the consumers.

  10. STUDY ON THE PRODUCTION OF AGARICUS BISPORUS SEASONING BY ENZYME METHOD%酶法研制蘑菇调味汁工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云霞; 秦俊哲; 陈均志; 杨迎春

    2011-01-01

    以双孢蘑菇为主要原料,采用酶水解法研制出蘑菇特色调味汁.通过实验得到的最佳酶解条件为:温度50 ℃、pH 6、时间5 h、酶浓度15%.在此条件下所制得的蘑菇调味汁色泽棕红,口感鲜美,无苦涩等异味,无毒副产物形成,氨基态氮可达0.62%,是一种高级营养调味品.%This paper studied on the seasoning production by enzyme method, with the Agaricus bisporus as the mian raw materials and by the enzymatic of the mushrooms, to produced a compound mushroom juice beverage. The result suggest that the best technological conditions as follows: pH 6.0, temperature 50 ℃, reaction time 5 h and neutral protease 15%%. Under this conditions, the received seasoning is brown-red, and oscular sense is delicious and have no pecular smell and poisonous. The production amino acid nitrogen is 0.62 %.

  11. Molecular cloning of three pyranose dehydrogenase-encoding genes from Agaricus meleagris and analysis of their expression by real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittl, Roman; Sygmund, Christoph; Halada, Petr; Volc, Jindrich; Divne, Christina; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens K

    2008-02-01

    Sugar oxidoreductases such as cellobiose dehydrogenase or pyranose oxidase are widespread enzymes among fungi, whose biological function is largely speculative. We investigated a similar gene family in the mushroom Agaricus meleagris and its expression under various conditions. Three genes (named pdh1, pdh2 and pdh3) putatively encoding pyranose dehydrogenases were isolated. All three genes displayed a conserved structure and organization, and the respective cDNAs contained ORFs translating into polypeptides of 602 or 600 amino acids. The N-terminal sections of all three genes encode putative signal peptides consistent with the enzymes extracellular secretion. We cultivated the fungus on different carbon sources and analyzed the mRNA levels of all three genes over a period of several weeks using real-time RT-PCR. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from A. meleagris was also isolated and served as reference gene. pdh2 and pdh3 are essentially transcribed constitutively, whereas pdh1 expression is upregulated upon exhaustion of the carbon source; pdh1 appears to be additionally regulated under conditions of oxygen limitation. These data are consistent with an assumed role in lignocellulose degradation. PMID:18097667

  12. Vomparative study on cultivation characteristics of different Agaricus bisporus strains at low temperature%冷凉气候下不同双孢菇菌株栽培品比试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马庆芳; 张介驰; 张丕奇; 刘佳宁; 王玉文

    2014-01-01

    为筛选适于黑龙江省冷凉气候条件生产的优良双孢菇生产菌株,本研究从双孢菇产区引进5个主栽品种,以稻草、牛粪为原料经二次发酵,棚室内进行栽培对比试验,对各双孢菇菌株菌丝长势、出菇周期、子实体经济性状和产量进行比较分析。结果表明:双孢菇2796在冷凉气候下栽培萌发吃料快,出菇早,菇形洁白圆整,产量高,生物转化率达60.9%,可在我省推广应用。%To optimize the production strain of Agaricus bisporus which are suitable to grow at low temperature in Heilongjiang, five major cultivars form production areas of Agaricus bisporus were used for cultivation experiment in the greenhouse. Some properties,such as mycelial growth,fruiting period,the economic character and the yield of sporocarp,were analyzed during cultivation process using secondary fermented rice straw and cow dung as raw material. Results showed that Agaricus bisporus 2796 was the optimal cultivar. It could convert 60. 9 % of raw material to sporocarp. Moreover,the mycelia grew fast,the sporocarp formed early,the shape of sporocarp was white,round and tidy,and the yield was the highest.

  13. 利用秀珍菇菇渣栽培双孢蘑菇的试验%Research on Agaricus bisporus Cultivation by Utilizing the Spent Culture Medium of Pleurotus geesteranus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万水霞; 朱宏赋; 李帆; 蒋光月; 郭熙盛

    2009-01-01

    将秀珍菇菇渣处理后以不同比例用于栽培双孢蘑菇,结果表明:经过简单处理的菇渣栽培双孢蘑菇,与常规配方相比,具有菌丝生长快,产量高、成本低等优点,并且随着菌渣比例的增加菌丝生长速度有增加的趋势.其中在培养基培养料中加入30%秀珍菇菇渣栽培双孢蘑菇,生物学效率达到63%,比常规栽培料高出10%,说明菇渣用于双孢蘑菇生产是可行并有良好效果的.%Different proportions of spent culture media of Pleurotus geesteranus were processed to cultivate the Agaricus bisporus. The results indicated that compared with the routine cultivation media, the processed spent culture media to cultivate Agaricus bisporus had the advantages of rapid growth of mycelium, high yield and low cost. With the increasing proportion of spent culture media, mycelial growth rate presented an increasing trend. The biological efficiency reached 63% when 30% spent cuhure media of Pleurotus geesteranus was used, which was 10% higher than the routine cultivation media. This research indicated that the method using spent culture media to cultivate Agaricus bisporus was highly feasible and effective.

  14. 全球野生双孢蘑菇种质资源的研究现状%The Recent Development of Studying on Global Wild Germ Plasma Resources of Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣春; 杨志雷

    2002-01-01

    双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)是世界最重要的人工栽培的食用菌,近10 a来对其野生种质资源的研究在广泛地进行,试从野生双孢蘑菇的自然居群的分布,遗传变异、交配类型和生活史等方面对全球野生双孢蘑菇种质资源的研究现状进行综述.

  15. Selenium-Enriched Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Protects against Increase in Gut Permeability ex vivo and Up-Regulates Glutathione Peroxidase 1 and 2 in Hyperthermally-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tebo Maseko; Frank Rowland Dunshea; Kate Howell; Hyun-Jung Cho; Leni Rose Rivera; John Barton Furness; Ken Ng

    2014-01-01

    Dietary effects of organic Se supplementation in the form of Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom on ileal mucosal permeability and antioxidant selenoenzymes status in heat induced oxidative stress in rats were evaluated. Acute heat stress (40 °C, 21% relative humidity, 90 min exposure) increased ileum baseline short circuit current (Isc; 2.40-fold) and epithelial conductance (Ge; 2.74-fold). Dietary supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus (1 µg Se/g feed) reduced (p < 0.05) ileum...

  16. 采后钙处理对双孢菇贮藏生理的影响%Effects of post-harvest calcium treatment on storage physiology of button mush room (Agaricus bisporus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娅; 李志强; 王毓宁; 张维敏; 李鹏霞

    2013-01-01

    以清水处理为对照(CK),研究了低温(温度0~2℃、相对湿度90%~95%)条件下,不同浓度(0.5%、1.0%、2.0%)的氯化钙处理对采后双孢菇(Agaricus bisporus)贮藏生理的影响.结果表明,0.5%浓度的氯化钙处理能够有效的抑制超氧阴离子自由基(O2-)产生速率和脂氧合酶(LOX)的产生、提高过氧化物酶(POD)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性,减少植物组织中多酚氧化酶(PPO)的产生;1.0%氯化钙处理能够提高POD的活性和降低PPO的活性,但对其他生理指标效果不明显;2.0%氯化钙处理效果不好,不能延缓双孢菇的衰老.综合考虑,0.5%氯化钙溶液处理能够有效的延缓双孢菇的采后衰老,在生产中具有广泛的应用价值.%Under different concentration (water control ,0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%) of calcium chloride, effects of calcium on storage physiologies of Agaricus bisporus during low temperature circumstances(0~2℃ reserve temperature, 90%~95% relative humidity) were studied. The results indicated that 0.5% of calcium chloride treatment could effectively inhibit the production rate of superoxide anion and lipoxygenase,improve the activities of peroxydase, superoxide dismutase and catalase,and reduce the production of polyphenol. While 1.0% CaCl2 treatment could improve peroxydase activity and lower the activity of polyphenol,but had no positive effects on other physiologies. 2.0% CaCl2 treatment had little effects on Agaricus bisporus and couldn't delay senility of it. To sum up,the treatment of 0.5% CaCl2 could be used in delaying senility of Agaricus bisporus,and possess of popularization and application value widely.

  17. 双孢蘑菇菇脚氨基酸含量的测定及营养评价%Determination of the Contents of Amino Acids and Nutritional Evaluation of Agaricus bisporus Stembase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林忠宁; 陈敏健; 刘明香; 周代顺

    2011-01-01

    测定了双孢蘑菇菇脚中蛋白质和氨基酸的含量,应用模糊识别法和氨基酸比值系数法,以鸡蛋蛋白为标准蛋白,以WHO/FAO的必需氨基酸参考模式为评价标准,对双孢蘑菇菇脚的蛋白质营养价值进行了全面评价,并与双孢蘑菇子实体的蛋白质进行比较.结果表明:双孢蘑菇菇脚蛋白质中总氨基酸含量为73.16%,氨基酸种类齐全,必需氨基酸含量占氨基酸总含量的42.70%,相对于鸡蛋蛋白的贴近度为0.8741,第一限制性氨基酸为蛋氨酸+胱氨酸,氨基酸比值系数分为83.74,虽然菇脚蛋白质含量比子实体低,但与子实体一样具有较高的蛋白质营养价值.%The contents of protein and anuno acids of Agaricus bisporus stembase were determined through using fuzzy identification mode and ratio coefficient mode of amino acid,and egg protein was sused as standard protein. The nutritive value of protein of Agaricus bisporus stembase was evaluated by the evaluation standard of essential amino acid reference mode of WHO/FAO and comparison to the protein of fruitbodies of Agaricus bisporus. The result showed that the total amino acid content of Agarcus bisporus stembase was 73. 16% with complete amino acid species. The essential amino acid was 42. 70% of total amino acid content. The closeness degree was 0. 8741 relative to egg protein. The first linuting amino acid was methionine +cystine,and the ratio coefficient score of amino acid was 83. 74. Although the protein content of Agaricus bisporus stembase was lower than the fruitbodies,but it had relatively high protein nutritional value as fruitbodies.

  18. Responses of Agaricus bisporus on chitosan antistaling agent and optimization of its refreshing technology%双孢菇对壳聚糖保鲜剂的响应及其保鲜技术优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠喜; 华国栋; 朱朋波; 魏良志; 王傲雪

    2012-01-01

    以3种不同分子质量的壳聚糖为主要原料,以新采收的双孢菇为试验材料,研究了无毒无残留无公害绿色双孢菇保鲜方法.通过测定不同处理的双孢菇的失水率、硬度、腐烂度、开伞率和褐变度的变化,对其保鲜技术进行了优化.探讨了壳聚糖保鲜剂在双孢菇贮藏过程中所起的生理生化作用.结果表明,在贮藏过程中,经壳聚糖处理的双孢菇,其失水率、硬度、腐烂度、开伞率和褐变度均显著低于对照;子实体可溶性蛋白、总糖、还原糖的均含量明显高于对照;还原糖、MDA的含量、相对电导率均低于时照;SOD和CAT的活性明显高于对照;壳聚糖能维持细胞膜的完整性,避免了PPO与酚类物质的接触,从而抑制了双孢菇的褐变发生.%With three kinds of molecular weight chitosan as the main raw materials, with the new harvest Agaricus bisporus as the test materials, we researched the non-toxic, no residue, pollution-free and green refreshing methods. Through the determination of the changes of water loss rate, hardness, decay degrees, deployment rate and browning degree of Agaricus bisporus in various processes, we optimized its refreshing technology and discussed the physiological and biochemical role of chitosan antistaling agent in the storage process of Agaricus bisporus. The results showed that: in the storage process, the water loss rate, hardness, decay degrees, deployment rate and browning degree of Agaricus bisporus were obviously higher than those of control; the soluble protein and total sugar of the fruit body were obviously higher than those of contrast; the content of reducing sugar and MDA, and relative conductivity were lower than those of contrast; the activity of SOD and CAT were obviously higher than those of contrast; chitosan could maintain the integrity of the cell membrane to avoid the contact of PPO and phenolic compounds, thus it could restrain the appearance of browning.

  19. Kemijska ocjena kakvoće pilećeg mesa podrijetlom od tovnih pilića hranjenih uz dodatak pripravka plemenite pečurke Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Mršić, doc. dr. sc. Gordan; Petek, dr. sc. Maja Jelena; Srečec, prof., dr. sc. Siniša; Njari, prof. dr. sc. Bela; Cvrtila Fleck, prof. dr. sc. Željka; Kozačinski, prof. dr. sc. Lidija; Živković, dr. med., Mario; Špiranec, dr. med. vet., Katarina; Mihelić, prof. dr. sc. Damir; Špoljarić, dr. sc. Daniel; Popović, prof. dr. sc. Maja

    2013-01-01

    Opasnosti korištenja antibiotskih poticatelja rasta u hrani za životinje po ljudsko zdravlje i/ili zlouporaba antibiotskih poticatelja rasta, dovele su do zabrane njihove uporabe u Europskoj Uniji (Regulation EC No. 1831/2003). U skladu s člankom 17. Uredbe (EZ-a) br 1831/2003 o dodacima koji se koriste u prehrani životinja, Komisija je utvrdila Registar dodataka hrani za životinje, prema kojem preporučuju prirodni dodatak hrani za životinje, Agaricus bisporus i njegov ekstrakt CoE 543. St...

  20. Cultivation and Management Techniques of Agaricus bisporus in U-loess Cave Dwelling of Loess Plateau Region%黄土高原地区U型土窑洞双孢蘑菇栽培管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉萍; 孟丽君; 王芳; 鹿有贵; 贾静

    2014-01-01

    Using U-loess cave dwelling cultivating Agaricus bisporus is a unique edible fungus production mode in loess plateau region. technical essential of this mode in production management were introduced so as to provide the reference for the cultivators.%利用U型土窑洞栽培双孢蘑菇是黄土高原地区独特的食用菌生产模式。文章介绍了该模式在生产管理方面的技术要点,以期对栽培者提供参考。

  1. Test on the Medieaments Against the Disease of Agaricus Bisporus Infected by Candida and Sauhanolngles%双孢蘑菇酵母菌病害药剂试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康晓慧

    2003-01-01

    假丝酵母菌(Candida sp.)、酵母菌(Saccharomyces sp.)是稻田栽培双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)中的一类新病原菌.描述了病原菌的形态特征、致病症状,作了实验室药敏试验.试验表明:克霉灵、灭菌威、甲醛等药剂可有效杀灭病原菌.

  2. Qualidade de vida de pacientes com câncer colorretal em uso de suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus após seis meses de segmento: ensaio clínico aleatorizado e placebo-controlado Quality of life of patients with colorectal cancer on dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus: after six months of segment: randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Costa Fortes; Viviane La corte Recôva; Andresa Lima Melo; Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer gastrointestinal compromete a qualidade de vida devido às alterações fisiológicas, metabólicas e psicológicas. Fungos medicinais podem melhorar a qualidade de vida de pacientes com câncer. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus na qualidade de vida de pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória. METODOLOGIA: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, placebo-controlado, realizado no Hospital de Base do Distrito Feder...

  3. Avaliação in vivo da qualidade protéica do champignon do Brasil (Agaricusbrasiliensis Wasser et al. In vivo protein quality evaluation of champignon do Brasil (Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Simeone Henriques

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O trabalho aqui descrito trata da avaliação de uma dieta experimental contendo Champingnon do Brasil (Agaricus brasiliensis como fonte de proteína em um modelo experimental de ratos. MÉTODOS: Para este propósito, foram selecionados 24 ratos Wistar machos, recém desmamados (21 dias divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais cada, que foram alimentados com uma dieta padrão de caseína, ou com uma dieta experimental de proteína de Agaricus brasiliensis ambas contendo 10% de proteína e isoenergéticas ou ainda, com uma dieta com muito baixo teor de proteína. O ensaio biológico foi realizado em 28 dias, ao longo dos quais se determinou a concentração de nitrogênio na urina e nas fezes, além dos cálculos do Quociente de Eficiência Alimentar (ganho de peso dividido pelo consumo de dieta, do Quociente de Eficiência Protéica (ganho de peso dividido pelo consumo de proteína, da Razão Protéica Líquida (ganho de peso corrigido dividido pelo consumo de proteína e da Digestibilidade Verdadeira. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram que quando o Champignon do Brasil foi utilizado como fonte exclusiva de proteína na dieta, os índices de qualidade protéica apresentaram-se baixos (Quociente de Eficiência Alimentar=0,08, Quociente de Eficiência Protéica=0,92 e Razão Protéica Líquida=3,00, quando comparados com a dieta padrão caseína (Quociente de Eficiência Alimentar=0,30, Quociente de Eficiência Protéica=3,05 e Razão Protéica Líquida=4,21. Os índices obtidos para o grupo Agaricus mostraram-se comparáveis àqueles apresentados por alguns tipos de proteína vegetal e podem ser explicados por sua limitação em aminoácidos essenciais, notadamente a lisina e a leucina, respectivamente primeiro e segundo aminoácido limitante. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados apontam para a utilização da proteína do Agaricus brasiliensis como uma boa fonte para complementação protéica, quando combinada com outras culturas vegetais comuns na

  4. RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) REVEALED THE HETEROKARYON OF AGARICUS ARVENSIS PRODUCED BY MATING REACTIONS%随机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)在野蘑菇杂交育种中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣春; 张丽梅

    2001-01-01

    野蘑菇(Agaricus arvensis Schaeff ex.Fr.)是蘑菇属(Agaricus)又一种近年来广泛栽培的食用菌.由于它的菌丝细胞具有多核,无锁状联合,以及人们对它的繁殖模式和生活史认识的不足,给杂交育种工作造成了较多困难.运用随机扩增多态DNA遗传标记技术,结合拮抗试验和核相分析,对自育的单孢菌株之间的杂交试验进行分析研究.结果表明:两个相互亲合的同核体菌株被配对培养时,交配反应出现,并形成异核体的后代.可能野蘑菇具有双重的交配繁殖系统--同宗配合和异宗配合.在食用菌杂交育种研究中,机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)是一种非常有效和方便的检验杂合子的方法.

  5. Optimization of the Extraction Process of Water-Insoluble Dietary Fiber from Agaricus bisporus%褐蘑菇水不溶性膳食纤维提取工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹; 赵杰; 刘政; 孙延芳

    2012-01-01

    The chemical extraction method for water-insoluble dietary fiber extraction from Agaricus bisporus was optimized. The results showed that the optimized processing conditions were, solid to liquid ratio 1:10 (m/V,g:mL), pretreatment time 0.5 h, extraction time 2.0 h. The yield of water-insoluble dietary fiber under these conditions was 22.9%.%研究了化学提取法提取褐蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)水不溶性膳食纤维的最优条件.结果表明,化学提取法提取褐蘑菇水不溶性膳食纤维的最佳工艺组合为料液比1∶10(m/V,g∶mL)、预处理时间0.5 h、提取时间2.0h.此条件下水不溶性膳食纤维提取率为22.9%.

  6. 真空预冷减缓双孢菇细胞壁物质的降解%Vacuum cooling retards degradation of cell wall matter in Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶菲; 郜海燕; 葛林梅; 穆宏磊; 陈杭君

    2013-01-01

    Vacuum cooling is a rapid cooling technique extensively used for cooling some agricultural and food products. The vacuum cooling technology is now gradually applied to the precooling treatment of agricultural products due to the advantages of quick cooling, easy operation, no constraint of packing containers, and energy savings. Consumption of Agaricus bisporus has increased substantially because of its delicacy, flavor and nutritional value. Agaricus bisporus is an excellent source of several essential amino acids, vitamins (B2, niacin, and folates), and minerals (potassium, phosphorus, zinc, and copper). Agaricus bisporus has a short shelf life of 3-4 days compared to most vegetables at ambient temperatures because it has no cuticle to protect it from physical or microbial attack or water loss. Loss of quality is caused by morphological changes due to maturation, discoloration, changes in texture and flavor, and losses of nutrients. Textural changes of fruits are accompanied by loss of neutral sugars, solubilization and depolymerization of the polysaccharides of the cell wall, and rearrangements of their associations, as the result of the combined action of several cell wall-modifying enzymes, acting in both pectic and hemicellulosic fractions. Recent studies on the structure of the plant cell wall have disclosed a large number and type of biochemical linkages between the components. Such linkages are potential targets for enzymatic action and draw attention to the putative involvement of several members of enzymes able to act and modify its structure in a developmental and coordinated way. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vacuum cooling treatment on cell wall compositional changes and ultrastructure in fresh mushrooms during 15 d of post-harvest storage at 4℃. In this study, we investigated the change of cellulose content, cellulose activity, propectin content, WSP content, and the PG activity of Agaricus bisporus before and after

  7. 双孢蘑菇褐腐病病原菌的分离及分子鉴定%Isolation and Molecular Identification of a Pathogen Causing Brown Rot in Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李河; 周国英; 刘君昂

    2009-01-01

    Strain CSUFT0821, a pathogen causing brown rot of Agaricus bisporus, has been identified by determining the sequence of a ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and comparing with corresponding sequences deposited in GenBank. Homology was highest (99%) with an ITS sequence from Mycogone perniciosa (EU380317). A phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of ITS sequences revealed very close proximity between EU380317 and the ITS sequence from strain CSUFT0821, and confirmed that the latter was M. perniciosa.%对引起双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)褐腐病的病原菌进行分离和分子鉴定.分离培养褐腐病病原菌,采用CTAB法抽提其基因组总DNA,利用真菌通用引物ITS1和ITS4扩增菌株rDNA ITS区序列,扩增产物纯化后克隆转化至大肠杆菌,挑选克隆成功的菌株进行测序.测序结果在GenBank中进行同源性搜索,并下载部分具有代表性种的ITS序列,利用软件MEGA4 构建分子系统发育树,通过序列分析,鉴定出引起双孢蘑菇褐腐病的病原菌为Mycogone perniciosa.

  8. The expression vector construction and transformation of thermotolerance-related gene of Agaricus bisporus%双孢蘑菇耐热相关基因的表达载体构建及转化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美元; 廖剑华; 郭仲杰; 李洪荣; 卢政辉; 蔡丹凤; 王泽生

    2009-01-01

    A binary expression vector of thermotolerance-related gene 028-1 of Agaricus bisporus was constructed and transferred into non-thermotoleranee strain 8213 of A. bisporus by Agrobacterium-mediated Wansformation. After hygromyein resistance selection and PCR identification, dozens of transgenic strains of A. bisporus were obtained. 10 of them were put into compos trunning test under different temperatures, and the results showed that the thermotoleranee of most of the transgenic strains increase obviously.%构建了双孢蘑菇Agaricus bisporus耐热相关基因028-1全长cDNA序列的双元表达载体,通过农杆菌介导转化双孢蘑菇非耐热菌株8213,经潮霉素抗性筛选和PCR鉴定,获得了一批双孢蘑菇转基因菌株.对10株转基因菌株进行了不同温度下的草管走菌试验,结果显示大部分转基因菌株的耐热性能有较为明显的提高.

  9. 玉米秸秆基质压缩块栽培双孢菇%A Kind Mode of Corn-straw Matrix of Compression Piece in Cultivation of Agaricus Bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建森; 武旭; 李青; 任丽萍

    2012-01-01

    Cropstraw is one of the most abundant renewable resources in nature, rich in nutrients, and Agaricus bisporus could make full use of the nutrients. But crop straw is loosen and of small volume rate, the use ratio of mushroom house was low, so we invented a new cultivation mode of Agaricus bisporus of straw matrix compression piece. The preliminary test result showed that the cultivation mode could improve the production of unit area and improve the utilization rate of the mushroom house.%作物秸秆是自然界最为丰富的可再生资源之一,含有丰富的营养物质,双孢菇可以充分利用其营养物质.但由于秸秆质地疏松、容积率小,导致菇棚利用率低.提出了秸秆基质压缩块双孢菇栽培模式,试验结果表明,此栽培模式可有效提高双孢菇单位面积的产量,从而提高菇棚利用率.

  10. Study on Disposing Technology of Substrate of Agaricus bisporus Using Wheat Straw%小麦秸秆栽培双孢蘑菇培养料处理技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭学文; 解文强; 周廷斌; 吴志会

    2013-01-01

    Taking Agaricus Bisporus AS2796 as the test material, compared with outdoor fermentation, the effects of different disposing technology of substrate of Agaricus Bisporus on the growth of hypha, the budding rate and the fresh mushroom production were studied.The results showed that the substrate was ferment 22 d, then sustained stable heat treatment 1 h with 100 ℃ water vapour, compared with outdoor fermentation , the fermentation time was shortened by 13 d, the growth of hypha was increased by 2.6 mm/d, the arising time of button ahead of 4.7 d and the total output was increased by 81.1%.%以双孢蘑菇AS2796为试材,以培养料常规室外一次性发酵为对照,研究了培养料不同处理方法对双孢蘑菇菌丝生长、现蕾速度以及产量的影响。结果表明:培养料先发酵22 d后再用100℃蒸汽处理1 h的培养料处理技术,与对照相比,发酵时间缩短13 d,菌丝长速提高2.6 mm/d,出菇时间提早4.7 d,产量增加81.1%。

  11. Remoção de cor de efluentes têxteis com cogumelos Agaricus bispora - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i3.6339

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lopes Landeira Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O emprego direto de cogumelos Agaricus bispora foi avaliado para a remoção de cor de uma mistura sintética de corantes reativos. Avaliou-se o efeito da granulometria das partículas (cubos de 0,5 ou 1,0 cm e cogumelos moídos, da massa de cogumelos (10, 20, 40, 60 ou 80 g em 250 mL de solução e de diferentes formas de tratamento do cogumelo sobre a remoção de cor de uma solução sintética dos corantes Reactive Yellow 37, Reactive Black 5 e Reactive Red na concentração de 13,3 mg L-1 cada corante. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos para maiores áreas superficiais de contato do cogumelo (cogumelo moído com o efluente colorido e sob aeração contínua. A adição de acetona durante o processo de moagem, seguido de congelamento, contribuiu para o aumento da remoção de cor, obtendo-se os melhores resultados: 73% após 6h, com 20 g de biocatalisador 250 mL-1 de efluente. A utilização de diferentes lotes e marcas de cogumelo levou à obtenção de diferentes atividades enzimáticas, mas percentuais similares de remoção de cor, indicando que a remoção de cor não possui relação direta com a atividade enzimática.

  12. Affecting Factors of Polyphenol Oxidase Activity in Agaricus bisporus%双孢菇中多酚氧化酶活性的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑜; 杨国浩; 詹丽娟; 庞凌云; 范会平

    2011-01-01

    以双孢菇为供试原料提取多酚氧化酶(polyphenol oxidase,PPO),以邻苯二酚为底物,采用分光光度法在420nm研究温度、pH值、底物浓度和加热时间对该酶活性的影响;同时探讨抗坏血酸、柠檬酸、氯化钠、EDTA-Na四种抑制剂对双孢菇酶促褐变的抑制效果。结果表明:该酶的最适温度30℃、最适pH5.5、最适底物浓度0.05mol/L,90℃加热处理80s时,该酶几乎全部失活。4种抑制剂对该酶均表现出一定的抑制效果,其中抗坏血酸的抑制效果最好,抑制效果强弱次序为抗坏血酸〉柠檬酸〉氯化钠〉EDTA-Na。%The catalytic activity of polyphenol oxidase(PPO) from Agaricus bisporus towards the substrate catechol was spectrometrically investigated at 420 nm under the influences of temperature,pH,substrate concentration and heating time.The results showed that the optimal temperature,pH and substrate concentration for the reaction of the enzyme were 30 ℃,5.5 and 0.05 mol/L,respectively.The complete enzyme activity was almost lost after 80 s of thermal treatment at 90 ℃.All four enzyme inhibitors investigated indicated inhibitory effects on the enzyme,especially ascorbic acid as the strongest factor,followed by citric acid,sodium chloride and EDTA-Na.

  13. 不同培养条件对双孢蘑菇菌丝生长的影响%Effects of different culture conditions on mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪茜; 吴圣进; 韦仕岩; 陈振妮

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解不同培养条件对双孢蘑菇菌株菌丝生长的影响,为筛选和选育适宜广西栽培的双孢蘑菇品种和确定适宜的栽培管理措施奠定基础.[方法]研究7个双孢蘑菇菌株的形态特征及不同温度、pH、光照、碳氮源对其菌丝生长的影响.[结果]在相同的培养条件下,菌株9506的菌丝生长速度最快,褐蘑菇最慢;双孢蘑菇菌丝生长的适宜温度为20~30C,最适温度为25℃;菌丝生长的适宜pH为4.0~9.0,最适pH为6.0~8.0;双孢蘑菇菌丝生长对光照条件要求不高;最适合菌丝生长的碳源是葡萄糖、氮源是酵母粉.[结论]7个双孢蘑菇品种间的遗传差异性不明显,在栽培生产中,应综合协调温度、pH、光照、碳氮源等因素的作用效果,以获得高产稳产.%[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to investigate the biological characteristics of different Agaricus bisporus strains in order to breed good quality Agaricus bisporus varieties suitable for cultivation in Guangxi and to develop proper management measures. [Method]The morphological characteristics of seven Agaricus bisporus strains were investigated and effects of temperature, pH, illumination, carbon and nitrogen sources on their mycelial growth were studied. [Result]Under the similar cultivation conditions, the strain 9506 showed the highest mycelial growth rate, while it was the lowest in portobello mushroom. The appropriate temperature for mycelial growth of Agaricus bisporus ranged from 20-30t with the optimal temperature being 25t. The suitable pH for its mycelial growth was 4.0-9.0 with the best pH range between 6.0-8.0. Illumination was found to slightly affect the mycelial growth. The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources were glucose and yeast powder, respectively. [Conclusion]No significant genetic differences were observed amongst seven Agaricus bisporus species. Temperature, pH, illumination, carbon and nitrogen sources should be taken

  14. Effect of Nano-Packing Material on Improvement of Preservation Quality of Agaricus bisporus%纳米包装材料延长双孢蘑菇贮藏品质的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文建; 胡秋辉; 单楠; 杨芹; 方勇; 赵立艳; 安辛欣; 马宁; 刘音宏; 辛志宏

    2012-01-01

    [目的]通过制备一种含纳米Ag、纳米TiO2和凹凸棒土的纳米包装聚乙烯(PE)包装薄膜,研究双孢蘑菇在4℃下贮藏10d期间,纳米包装材料对其感官品质、生理指标和营养指标变化的影响.[方法]跟踪检测贮藏过程中双孢蘑菇的失重率、白度、相对电导率、多酚氧化酶活性、丙二醛、总糖和可溶性蛋白含量等指标的变化,分析纳米包装材料和普通聚乙烯材料对双孢蘑菇感官品质、生理指标和营养指标的影响.[结果]与普通聚乙烯包装材料相比,添加纳米粒子的包装材料能够较好地抑制双孢蘑菇发生失水萎蔫和褐变现象,使其保持贮藏前洁白色的感官品质.贮藏10d后,纳米包装材料处理组双孢蘑菇的失重率、相对电导率、丙二醛含量和多酚氧化酶活性分别为1.46%、22.5%、3.50 μmol·kg-1、161.89 U·g-1·min-1,显著低于对照处理组的1.86%、30.2%、4.66μm01·kg-1和233.84 U.g-1·min-1,(P<0.05),而总糖和可溶性蛋白等营养成分的保留量均显著高于对照组的含量.[结论]纳米包装材料能够有效抑制贮藏期间双孢蘑菇感官品质的劣变,降低营养价值的损失,提高综合贮藏品质,延长贮藏时间.%[Objective] A polyethylene (PE) packing material containing nano-Ag, nano-TiO2, and attapulgite was prepared and applied in the preservation of Agaricus bisporus, and its effects on sensory quality and physiological and nutritional properties of Agaricus bisporus were analyzed and determined during the 10 days storage at 4 ℃. [Method] The effect of nano-packing material on sensory quality, physiological indexes and main nutritional value of Agaricus bisporus was studied by tracking the changes of weight loss, whiteness, relative conductivity, polyphenoloxidase activity, and MDA, total sugar and soluble protein contents. The normal PE material was used as control. [Result] Compared with the control, water loss and browning of

  15. 双孢蘑菇源抗氧化肽的美拉德反应修饰研究%Study on modification of antioxidant peptide from agaricus bisporus by Maillard reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 王松华; 孙玉军; 储俊; 汪海

    2012-01-01

    以还原力为指标对双孢蘑菇源抗氧化肽进行美拉德反应修饰研究。通过单因素实验研究了糖种类、体积比、pH、时间对双孢蘑菇源抗氧化肽美拉德反应修饰的影响,在此基础上采用正交实验优化了双孢蘑菇源抗氧化肽的关拉德反应修饰工艺。实验结果表明双孢蘑菇源抗氧化肽的最佳美拉德反应修饰工艺为:以果糖作为修饰反应物,果糖、双孢蘑菇源抗氧化肽二者的体积比为4:1,pH11.0,时间150min;该条件下制备的关拉德反应产物的还原力大约是修饰前的5倍,提示美拉德反应是提高抗氧化肽抗氧化活性的有效方法。%Antioxidant peptide from agaricus bisporus was modified by Maillard reaction using reducing power as an inspected indicator.The effect of four main factors including kind of carbohydrate,volume fraction, pH value and time on Maillard reaction were studied by using single factor analysis method.On this basis,the optimal technology for Maillard reaction modification of antioxidant peptide from agaricus bisporus was obtained by orthogonal experiment.Experimental results showed that the best technology for Maillard reaction modification of antioxidant peptide from agaricus bisporus were as following.reactant of fructose, volume fraction of 4:1, pill 1.0,150min, the reducing power of modified antioxidant peptide by Maillard reaction on this condition was about 5 times of original antioxidant peptide.This suggests that the Maillard reaction might be served as an effective approach to improve antioxidant activity of antioxidant peptide.

  16. 双孢菇深层发酵培养基的响应面优化%Optimization of submerged fermentation medium of Agaricus bisporus for extracellular polysaccharide production by response surface analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛勇; 毛健; 李华钟; 孟祥勇

    2013-01-01

    The effect of carbon sources,nitrogen source and mineral salt on extracellular polysaccharide production by submerged fermentation medium of Agaricus bisporus had been studied. On the base of single factors experiments,response surface analysis was applied to optimize the submerged fermentation medium of Agaricus bisporus for extracellular polysaccharide production. The quadratic regression analysis was applied to get the optimal level of main factors,and optimal quality concentrations of the variables were obtained as follows:glucose 35.7g/L,KH2PO4 2.1g/L and peptone 3.1g/L. Under these optimal conditions,the predicted and experimental production of extracellular polysaccharide was high up to 1.86g/L and 1.87g/L,respectively.%研究了碳源、氮源、无机盐对双孢菇胞外多糖产量的影响.在单因素实验的基础上,采用响应面实验设计对双孢菇(Agaricus bisporus)深层发酵生产胞外多糖的培养基进行了优化,并建立了葡萄糖、KH2PO4、蛋白胨变化的二次回归方程,探讨了各因子对胞外多糖产量的影响.最终确定适宜的培养基条件为葡萄糖35.7g/L,KH2PO42.1g/L,蛋白胨3.1g/L;在此条件下可得到胞外多糖的最大产量,预测值为1.86g/L,对实验结果进行验证,得到胞外多糖的产量为1.87g/L.

  17. Effect of Harvest Time on Physiological Property and Storage Quality of Agaricus bisporus%采收期对双孢蘑菇生理特性及贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赵改; 杨慧; 王安建; 杨丰菊; 魏书信

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of physiological and biochemical changes of Agaricus bisporus strain W-192 harvested at three different times (according to the fungus lid and growth period, fungus lid 2 - 3 ,3 -4 ,4 - 5 cm were marked as harvest times I , II and IH respectively) in low temperature storage (4 ± 1 ) ℃ were studied systematically , these indexes included water content, percentage cap opening, browning degree , the respiration rate, total poly-phenol, polyphenol oxidase ( PPO) activity and malondialdehyde. Compared with harvest time Ⅰ and Ⅲ , the appearance of respiration peak of harvest time II was later about 3 days, the content of malondialdehyde was always at a low level and it also had higher water content in early storage, white degree maintained good in late storage, while percentage cap opening was lower than the other two groups, harvest time Ⅱ had a better storage quality. From the analysis of fresh-keeping performance, Agaricus bisporus strain W-192 should be harvested at harvest times II , while from biological yield the harvest times Ⅲ is appropriate for upcoming Agaricus bisporus.%以双孢蘑菇品种W-192为试验材料,系统研究了3个采收期(根据菌盖直径和生长期分别记菌盖直径2~3,3~4,4~5 cm为采收期Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ)双孢蘑菇的含水量、开伞率、褐变度、呼吸强度、总多酚、多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性及丙二醛7个指标在低温贮藏(4±1)℃期间的变化特征.结果表明,与采收期Ⅰ和Ⅲ相比,采收期Ⅱ的双孢蘑菇延后3d左右才出现呼吸高峰,丙二醛含量始终较低,含水量在贮藏前期较高,白度值在贮藏后期保持较好,开伞率在贮藏后期低于其他2组,体现出更好的耐贮藏性.对于低温贮藏的双孢蘑菇W-192,应在采收期Ⅱ采收;对即将上市的蘑菇可在采收期Ⅲ采收.

  18. 双孢蘑菇子实体多糖提取条件优化及部分特性研究%Optimization of Extraction Parameters and Preliminary Feature of Polysaccharides from Sporocarp of Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔德亮; 陈乃富; 张莉; 陈科

    2011-01-01

    运用热水浸提、乙醇沉淀、Sevag法脱蛋白、乙醇再沉淀的方法提取双孢蘑菇子实体多糖.在单因素(提取温度、提取时间、水料比及提取次数)实验基础上,运用4因素3水平的正交实验,对多糖的提取参数进行优化,优化得到的提取条件为:温度80℃、时间4 h、水料比50 mL/g、提取3次,该条件下多糖的提取率为3.5105%.苯酚-硫酸法测量粗多糖产品的多糖含量为71.84%.在10 mg/mL、25℃条件下,乌氏黏度计法测量粗多糖产品的相对黏度(相对于去离子水)为1.1096.KBr压片法扫描了粗多糖的红外光谱,多糖的特征吸收峰(3700~3100 cm-1和3000-2800 cm-1)清晰可见.%Polysaccharides from sporocarp of Agaricus bisporus was extracted by using methods of hot water lixiviation, ethanol precipitation, Sevag's deproteination and ethanol precipitation again. Extraction temperature, extraction time, ratio of water to raw material and extraction times were selected in single-factor tests. Based on the single-factor tests, combination of the extraction parameters was optimized by using four-factor-three-level orthogonal test. The optimum conditions were extracting temperature 80 ℃, extracting time 4 h, ratio of water to raw material 50 mL/g and extraction times 3. Practicing this optimal condition, extraction yield of polysaccharides from sporocarp of Agaricus bisporus was 3. 510 5%. In crude polysaccharides of Agaricus bisporus sporocarp, carbohydrates content, determined by applying the phenol-suffuric acid method, was 71.84%. Relative viscosity (to deionized water), detected by using Ubbelohde viscosimeter, was 1. 109 6 at temperature of 25 ℃ and concentration of 10 mg/mL. In FTIR spectrum obtained from KBr pellet method, characteristic absorptions (3 700 ~3 100 cm-1 and 3 000 ~2 800 cm -1 ) of polysaccharides were observed clearly.

  19. Tolerance and Bioaccumulation of Agaricus bisporus to Lead and Cadmium%双孢蘑菇对Pb2+.Cd2+的耐受与富集

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 吴小建; 李明娟; 黎金锋; 刘斌

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究双孢蘑菇对Pb2+、Cd2+的耐受与富集效应.[方法]在双孢蘑菇培养基中添加不同浓度的Pb2+、Cd2+,采用原子吸收法测定其子实体和菌丝体的Pb2+、Cd2+含量.[结果]在试验浓度范围内,双孢蘑菇对Pb2+、Cd2+的富集量随Pb2+、Cd2+浓度的增加而增加,子实体不同部位畜集量由高到低依次为菌褶>菌盖>菌柄,其中Pb2+含量分别为19.42、16.42、15.30 mg/kg,Cd2+含量分别为38.56、35.73、11.80 mg/kg.复合胁迫下,Pb2+的富集量高于单一Pb2+胁迫而Cd2+的富集量低于单一Cd2+胁迫.[结论]双孢蘑菇对Pb2+、Cd2+具有较强的耐受与富集作用.%[Objective] The research aimed to explore the tolerance and accumulation of Agaricus bisporus to lead and cadmium. [Method] A. Bisporus was cultivated in medium with different concn. Of lead and cadmium, and the lead and the cadmium contents in fruiting body and my-celia of A. Bisporus were measured by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. [Result] In the tested concn. Range, the bioaccumulation of lead and cadmium in A. Bisporus were increased with increasing lead and cadmium concn. In the medium, the contents of lead and cadmium were different in different parts of fruiting body and they were in the order of lamellae > pileus > stipe, being 19.42, 16.42 and 15.30 mg/kg for the lead content, and 38.56, 35.73 and 11. 80 mg/kg for the cadmium content resp. The bioaccumulation amount of lead in A. Bisporus was generally higher under the combined stress than under the single lead stress, but the bioaccumulation amount of cadmium was lower than that under the single cadmium stress. [Conclusion]A. Bisporus had a high tolerance and accumulation to the lead and cadmium.

  20. The 1.6 A crystal structure of pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris rationalizes substrate specificity and reveals a flavin intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien Chye Tan

    Full Text Available Pyranose dehydrogenases (PDHs are extracellular flavin-dependent oxidoreductases secreted by litter-decomposing fungi with a role in natural recycling of plant matter. All major monosaccharides in lignocellulose are oxidized by PDH at comparable yields and efficiencies. Oxidation takes place as single-oxidation or sequential double-oxidation reactions of the carbohydrates, resulting in sugar derivatives oxidized primarily at C2, C3 or C2/3 with the concomitant reduction of the flavin. A suitable electron acceptor then reoxidizes the reduced flavin. Whereas oxygen is a poor electron acceptor for PDH, several alternative acceptors, e.g., quinone compounds, naturally present during lignocellulose degradation, can be used. We have determined the 1.6-Å crystal structure of PDH from Agaricus meleagris. Interestingly, the flavin ring in PDH is modified by a covalent mono- or di-atomic species at the C(4a position. Under normal conditions, PDH is not oxidized by oxygen; however, the related enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O activates oxygen by a mechanism that proceeds via a covalent flavin C(4a-hydroperoxide intermediate. Although the flavin C(4a adduct is common in monooxygenases, it is unusual for flavoprotein oxidases, and it has been proposed that formation of the intermediate would be unfavorable in these oxidases. Thus, the flavin adduct in PDH not only shows that the adduct can be favorably accommodated in the active site, but also provides important details regarding the structural, spatial and physicochemical requirements for formation of this flavin intermediate in related oxidases. Extensive in silico modeling of carbohydrates in the PDH active site allowed us to rationalize the previously reported patterns of substrate specificity and regioselectivity. To evaluate the regioselectivity of D-glucose oxidation, reduction experiments were performed using fluorinated glucose. PDH was rapidly reduced by 3-fluorinated glucose, which has the C2

  1. Open-Label Study of the Influence of Food Containing the Royal Sun Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (Higher Basidiomycetes), on the Quality of Life of Healthy Human Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoi, Masuro; Motoi, Akitomo; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Ohno, Naohito

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an open-label study in which food containing Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 was consumed continuously for 12 weeks. A questionnaire for subjective evaluation of the efficacy of this food (hereafter, subjective evaluation questionnaire) revealed significant improvements compared with before its intake; there were improvements in the scores of the amounts of hair loss and gray hair, fatigue and general malaise, eye strain, shoulder stiffness, coldness of extremities, difficulty staying awake during the day, and ease of getting out of bed. These findings suggest that intake of food containing A. brasiliensis KA21 results in the above-mentioned subjectively evaluated improvements, and the possibility that A. brasiliensis KA21 improves the body's immunity. Moreover, no issues regarding the safety of the test food were found. PMID:26756293

  2. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple time-of-flight with MS(E) technology used for qualitative analysis of non-volatile oxidation markers in sliced packed mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    61 different non-volatile compounds were determined in Agaricus Bisporus sliced mushrooms using UHPLC/Q-TOF with MS(E) technology. Both positive and negative electrospray ionization were applied. Chemical profile of three parts of mushroom was created: cap, gills and stipe. The analysed mushrooms were oxidized to identify the non-volatile markers in their parts. MarkerLynx(®) was proposed as a powerful tool to distinguish mushrooms purchased in different countries (Spain and Portugal) by determining their non-volatile markers. Some metabolites were identified. Surprisingly a mix of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) was detected in cap and gills of mushrooms. Whole mushrooms were considered as vegetable resistant to migration from packaging compounds. Additionally migration tests were performed to determine the source of migrating compounds. PMID:26777782

  3. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF STRAIN 96.4( AGARICUS BISPOR US ) AND ITS SSIS%双孢蘑菇96.4菌株和单孢后代间的遗传变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣春

    2001-01-01

    本文研究了野生双孢蘑菇菌株96.4(Agaricus bisporus)和它的10个单孢菌株的生长发育和遗传变异.研究表明,在菌株96.4和它的单孢菌株之间以及在10个单孢菌株之间在菌丝生长速度和随机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)揭示的遗传变异等方面都存在着明显的变异.RAPD指纹揭示了96.4菌株通过有性生殖产生的丰富的生物学变异.

  4. 双孢蘑菇子实体超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的分离纯化及部分性质%Purification and Characterization of Superoxide Dismutase from Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武金霞; 肖炜

    2002-01-01

    采用硫酸铵分级盐析、DEAE-Cellulose-52离子交换柱层析、Sephadex G-150分子筛柱层析分离纯化了双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)子实体超氧化物歧化酶.纯化了31倍,回收率为10.51%,纯酶比活力为5 512.6 u/mg,酶的最适作用温度为25 ℃,最适pH值为8.0,酶在25 ℃以下比较稳定,亚基分子质量为21 kD,全酶分子质量为43 kD, 该酶由2个相同的亚基组成.

  5. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on Reclaimed Land in Heilongjiang Province%利用牛粪与作物秸秆在黑龙江垦区农田防护林下栽培双孢蘑菇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立宾; 郑安波; 杨艳华; 郭盈

    2011-01-01

    采用牛粪与不同的农作物秸秆在黑龙江垦区农田防护林下栽培双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus),结果表明:和牛粪与稻草、小麦秸秆相比,牛粪与豆秸、玉米秸和玉米芯配方具有较高的产量和较好的品质以及经济效益;黑龙江垦区各农场应因地制宜利用农牧业废弃物在闲置的农田防护林下进行双孢蘑菇生产,从而变废为宝,减少环境污染,增加农民收入.

  6. Experiment and Application of Concentrated Fermentation Technology of Agaricus bisporus Compost%双孢蘑菇培养料集中发酵工艺技术研究及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建春; 黄丹枫

    2005-01-01

    借鉴国内外双孢蘑菇[Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.]培养料集中发酵技术工艺,结合上海本地条件,建造了6个工厂化集中发酵隧道,研究了集中发酵的技术工艺和双孢蘑菇栽培.结果表明,集中发酵培养料的碳氮比、含氮量、pH值等指标均优于常规发酵培养料,试验单产增85.2%.2000~2003年培养料集中发酵2246.5t,栽培蘑菇31200m2,生产鲜菇374.4t.

  7. 棉秆新基质栽培双孢菇的技术研究%Technical Research into the Agaricus Bisporus Cultivation in the New Matrix of Cotton Stalks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 孟丽君; 张玉萍

    2011-01-01

    After an analytical study on the experimental results of the cultivation of agaricus bisporus in the new matrix of cotton stalks,the paper summarizes the technical links of pre-treatment,formulations of cultivation materials,species selection and secondar%通过对棉秆新基质栽培双孢菇试验成果的分析研究,总结出棉秆前期预处理方法、培养料配方、品种筛选、二次发酵等技术环节。该项研究成果将为棉秆资源的利用提供了技术支撑。

  8. 葡萄园中零排放猪舍垫料废料栽培双孢蘑菇%Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus in Vineyards Using Spent Pig Litter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮瑞国; 丁李春; 罗仰奋; 阮惠明

    2011-01-01

    在葡萄园中利用垫圈18个月的零排放猪舍垫料(简称废垫料)进行双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)栽培试验.结果表明,在葡萄园中采用组成为92%废垫料,1%尿素,2%过磷酸钙,2%石灰,3%石膏的培养料可获得与常规培养料接近的栽培效果,可作为葡萄园中栽培双孢蘑菇的推荐培养料.

  9. Effect of package types on Agaricus bisporus during shelf-life%包装方式对双孢菇货架期品质和生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王步江

    2012-01-01

    以双孢菇为对象,研究了不同包装方式对双孢菇货架期品质的影响。结果表明,(4±1)℃销售条件下,与其他包装方式相比,用0.035mmPE抽真空方式进行包装效果显著,能较好地保持双孢菇原有的外观品质,降低了双孢菇贮藏期间PPO活性和MDA浓度,抑制了双孢菇的褐变,延长了双孢菇的货架期时间,与常规PE膜包装相比,延长双孢菇货架期至10d,为双孢菇的销售提供理论依据。%The objective of the paper was to provide a theoretical basis for shelf-life of Agaricus bisporus by different packing methods. The effects of different thickness PE film, microporous film, vacuum PE film, PE film packaging on physiology and quality of Agaricus bisporus stored at (4+1) % were investigated. Compared with other packing methods, 0.035 mm PE film package had significantly better result. The package gained a good score of sensory evaluation, obviously reduced the activity of PPO, concentration of MDA and the degree of browing, delayed the aging process during shelf-life. Meanwhile, comparing with conventional PE film packaging, 0.035 mm PE film package could extend storage time 10 d at (4±1) ℃.

  10. Tertiary Fermentation Technology Used in the High Efficiency and High Quality Cultural Techniques of Agaricus bisporus%双孢蘑菇三次发酵高效优质栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡开地; 黄梅卿; 郑羡清; 江枝和

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tertiary fermentation technology under different time and temperature on the mycelial growth, yield and diseases and insect pests of Agaricus bisporus were studied. The results showed that using tertiary fermentation technology, Agaricus bisporus mycelium exhibited a faster germination and growth, growed more strongly and thickly, suffered less diseases and insect pests, infected no mixed bacterium and the fruitbodies was larger and tighter, the yield could be increased by 5.24%~12.57%compared with secondary fermentation. The optimum temperature of tertiary fermentation was 50℃ and the optimum culture time was 48 h.%研究培养料三次发酵不同培养时间、不同培养温度对双孢蘑菇菌丝生长及出菇情况、产量和病虫害的影响,结果表明:与二次发酵相比,采用三次发酵,双孢蘑菇菌种发菌、吃料快,菌丝粗壮浓密,吃满料时间短,病虫害危害轻,无杂菌,并且菇大,结实,产量也比二次发酵高,增产幅度为5.24%~12.57%。三次发酵最佳培养温度为50℃、发酵培养时间为48 h。

  11. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus by Adding Sheathing Leaves of Zizania latifolia%添加茭白鞘叶栽培双孢蘑菇初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡志英; 卢政辉; 丁中文; 曾辉

    2012-01-01

    The sheathing leaves of Zizania lati folia, which contained 4 times higher in organic matters and twice more nitrogen than the rice straw, was seen as an excellent potential substrate material for mushroom cultivation. Our experiment by adding the sheathing leaves of Z. lati folia to the traditional compost formulation in growing Agaricus bisporus indicated that increasing the sheathing leaves in the medium slowed the hyphae running, delayed the pinning to 3 days, and postponed the mushroom harvest up to 4 days. The optimal results appeared to be when 50% sheathing leaves and 50% rice straw were used in combination for the formulation. Using the formulation, (a) the mushroom yield in one growing season reached 20. 45 kg o m-2, approaching the same level as the traditional formula (Control) ; (b) the output/input ratio was 4. 479, which was higher than 3. 439 for Control) and, (c) there was no appreciable differences from Control on the single fruit weight or the characteristics of the fruiting body. Thus, the substitution seemed economically viable. And, at the same time, the practice could alleviate the rice straw shortage in major mushroom producing areas, and materially reduce waste and pollution caused by the disposal of the sheathing leaves.%检测表明茭白鞘叶中含有丰富的有机质与氮源,分别是稻草的2倍和4倍,是栽培双孢蘑菇的理想替代原料.在传统稻草配方中添加茭白鞘叶栽培蘑菇的试验,研究结果表明:走菌速度随配方中茭白鞘叶含量的增加而减慢,茭白鞘叶配方的蘑菇现蕾期和开始采菇时间分别比稻草配方迟3、4 d;稻草与茭白鞘叶各占50%配方为最佳,单季产量达到20.45 kg·m-2,几乎和传统配方持平,而投入产出比可以达到4.479,超过传统配方的3.439,并且菇体单粒重和传统配方没有显著差异,而且鲜菇的品质经分析和传统配方几乎无异,具有良好的经济效益.本研究初步明确了茭白鞘叶栽培蘑菇

  12. Effect of Spray Drying Technique on Processing of Stropharia rugoso-annulata Farl: Murrill Blanching Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchen Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Blanching liquid from processing of Stropharia rugoso-annulata fruits were traditionally discarded as bio-waste although it contains certain amount of soluble nutrients. The discarding may result not only in environment pollution but also in loss of valuable mushroom nutrients. In this study, spray drying technique was applied to process the liquid; and the processing factors were optimized with Response Surface Methodology. The results showed that the factors on Inlet Air Temperature, Atomization Pressure and Total Soluble Solid Content were for 172C, 920 bar and 15%, respectively, with the best spray drying efficiency for 60.26%. The products were estimated for the proper storage conditions based on the free radical scavenging activity for •OH. The results indicated that the storage temperature, lights and packaging are important for the products in maintaining their scavenging activity and the proper conditions to preserve the spray drying powder lasted for 60 days were at 0C, no lights and with packaged. It is suggested that spray drying technique may play effectively for processing of any mushroom blanching liquid and the darkness and dryness are crucial for the drying powder preservation.

  13. Effect of Spray Drying Technique on Processing of Stropharia rugoso-annulata Farl: Murrill Blanching Liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Junchen Chen; Pufu Lai; Hengsheng Shen; Yibin Li; Xuehua Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Blanching liquid from processing of Stropharia rugoso-annulata fruits were traditionally discarded as bio-waste although it contains certain amount of soluble nutrients. The discarding may result not only in environment pollution but also in loss of valuable mushroom nutrients. In this study, spray drying technique was applied to process the liquid; and the processing factors were optimized with Response Surface Methodology. The results showed that the factors on Inlet Air Temperature, Atomiz...

  14. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis technology conditions for Agaricus bisporus fruit boby protein%双孢蘑菇子实体蛋白酶解工艺条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐丹; 贠建民; 邵晓庆; 赵洪源

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the best technology conditions of protease hydrolysis for Agaricus bisporus fruit body,using neutral protease,flavor protease,papain protease,alkaline protease and protamex protease,Agaricus bisporus fruit body enzymatic hydrolysis tests were done.By single-factor test and response surface experiments,the effects of hydrolysis temperature,hydrolysis time,pH,enzyme dosage and material water ratio on the degree of hydrolysis were also researched,and the process parameters were optimized.The results showed that the optimum enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were:the enzymolysis temperature 60℃,hydrolysis time 4h,pH10.5,enzyme dosage 2%,the ratio of material to water 1∶12.In these conditions,the degree of hydrolysis was up to 26.01%.The polysaccharide content and reducing sugar content in the optimal enzymatic hydrolysate respectively increased 3.95-fold and 1.91-fold,and the protein content of that decreased 5.02g/100g.lt suggested that Agaricus bisporus fruiting body protein being enzymatic hydrolyzed could improve its overall functional nutritional value.%为探讨蛋白酶水解双孢蘑菇子实体的最佳工艺条件,本文选用中性蛋白酶、风味蛋白酶、木瓜蛋白酶、碱性蛋白酶和复合蛋白酶对双孢蘑菇子实体进行酶解实验.通过单因素实验、响应面实验研究了酶解温度、酶解时间、pH、加酶量及料水比对双孢蘑菇子实体水解度的影响,优化了其工艺参数.结果表明,酶解温度60℃,酶解时间4h,pH10.5,加酶量2%,料水比1∶12为最优酶解参数组合,验证实验得到双孢蘑菇的水解度达到26.01%.酶解液中可溶性多糖含量及还原糖含量较子实体分别增加了3.95倍和1.91倍,蛋白质含量减少了5.02g/100g.本研究表明酶解双孢蘑菇子实体蛋白可以提高其总体功能性营养价值.

  15. Research on Anti-Browning of Disodium Stannous Citrate in Canned Agaricus bisporus%柠檬酸亚锡二钠对双孢菇罐头的护色作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷; 夏文水; 姜启兴; 许艳顺

    2013-01-01

    The investigation was conducted to determine the efficacy of DSC as a browning inhibition agent of fresh-cut and canned Agaricus bisporus. DSC and other anti-browning agents as well as the new compound color fixative ware used in pretreatment and canned Agaricus bisporus. Residual activity of PPO and the browning degree (BD) were measured as performance figures. DSC played an important part in enzymatic browning inhibition, compared to other anti-browning agents such as phytic acid,citric acid and VC. The sliced Agaricus bisporuss pretreated with mixed liquor containing 0.2% citric acid,0.03% DSC,0.02% phytic acid,0.03% VC were effectively kept from enzymatic browning and then blanched. In addition,the products with DSC resulted in better performance than those with sodium metabisulphite as well as other anti-browning agents. The best compound color fixative of anti -browning agents in the cans was to be 0.03% DSC, phytic acid 0.02%,citric acid 0.1% and 0.3% CaCi2,which leaded to a similar effect of browning inhibition,as compared with 0.02% of sodium metabisulphite. In general, DSC proves to be able to take the place of sodium metabisulphite and act as a new safe and effective anti-browning agent used in canned Agaric us bisporuss.%研究柠檬酸亚锡二钠(DSC)对双孢菇罐头的护色作用.在双孢菇切片预处理和罐头汤汁中添加DSC与其他常用护色剂及其正交复合护色剂,测定产品的PPO残余酶活和褐变度BD等质量指标.在预处理阶段,较之植酸、柠檬酸、VC,DSC对双孢菇酶促褐变有更佳的抑制作用,预煮前以最佳复合护色剂(质量分数)0.2%柠檬酸,0.03% DSC,0.02%植酸,0.03% VC护色液浸泡预处理可有效防止菇片褐变;DSC用于双孢菇罐头汤汁比其他护色剂有更显著的褐变抑制效果,汤汁复合护色剂的最佳参数组合为(质量分数):0.03% DSC,0.02%植酸,0.3% CaCl2和0.1%柠檬酸,各因素对其影响程度为:DSC>植酸>氯化钙.DSC

  16. 基于酶动力学方程的双孢蘑菇气调贮藏呼吸速率模型%Respiration rate model ofAgaricus bisporus based on enzyme kinetics equation under controlled atmosphere storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹冬洁; 王相友; 王娟

    2016-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is highly perishable horticultural product. It does not have a protective skin cover, which consequently leads to high moisture loss and a short shelf life of 1-3 d when held at ambient temperature. And with the improvement of people's living standards, the requirement of the quality of food is also more and more strict. The shelf life of 1-2 d after harvest has not satisfied the market. How to control the quality of theAgaricus bisporus is an urgent problem to be solved. During the storage and transportation of postharvest fruits and vegetables, respiration is the main postharvest physiological and biochemical process of fruits and vegetables. Respiration is the most important cause of physiological tissue changes in fruits and vegetables. The respiration rate of fruits and vegetables is an important indicator of senescence and ethylene production in fruits. A major factor contributing to postharvest losses is the product respiration, which converts the stored sugar or starch to energy in the presence of O2 substrate, thus advancing ripening. Shelf life is directly proportional to the rate of senescence and inversely proportional to the respiration rate. Respiration plays a central role in the overall metabolism of a plant and is therefore often used as a general measure of metabolic rate. Controlling the respiration rate of fruits and vegetables is one of the important means to improve the value of the fruits and vegetables. Changes in respiration rate are influenced by many factors, such as storage time, storage temperature, environmental conditions. Storage temperature plays a major role in the respiration rates of fruits and vegetables, and when storage temperature decreased to lower levels, it causes a reduction in the biochemical reaction rate and consequently increases its shelf life. At present, there are many fresh-keeping methods to inhibit the respiration and keep the quality of fruits and vegetables. And a model of the respiratory

  17. Effect of Filling Nitrogen in Vacuum on Cell Membrane and Colour after Blanching in Agaricus bisporus%真空充氮对双孢菇细胞膜及烫漂后颜色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安建; 刘丽娜; 魏书信; 李静

    2013-01-01

    为了有效防止双孢菇褐变,从菇体细胞膜和色泽两方面考虑,在不同真空度下对双孢菇进行充氮处理,检测其烫漂前的细胞膜透性、丙二醛含量和烫漂后的颜色变化,从而找出真空充氮烫漂有效防止双孢菇褐变的最佳条件.结果表明,随着真空度的提高,双孢菇的细胞膜透性增大,丙二醛含量增加,两者均在真空度0.100 MPa时达到最大;真空充氮处理能显著影响双孢菇烫漂后的颜色变化,最佳处理是真空度0.090 MPa下充氮,此时双孢菇的氧气含量为3.8%,褐变指数最小(28.74),褐变抑制率达17.52%.综合分析,真空充氮处理虽然不利于双孢菇细胞膜完整性的保持,但与沸水烫漂结合,能有效地抑制双孢菇的褐变,是一种有效的物理调控防褐变技术.%In order to effectively inhibit browning,Agaricus bisporus was treated by filling nitrogen in vacuum and blanching in different vacuum. The cell membrane permeability and malonalde-hyde (MDA) level before blanching and colour change after blanching were investigated respectively. The results showed that the cell membrane permeability and MDA level increased with the increase of vacuum,and both reached maximum at vacuum of 0.100 MPa. However,filling nitrogen in vacuum could significantly impact mushroom colour after blanching,and the optimum condition of filling nitrogen in vacuum was at vacuum 0. 090 MPa,oxygen content was 3.8% and the browning index of Agaricus bisporus was 28. 74 with 17. 52% of browning inhibition rate under this optimum condition. Overall,filling nitrogen in vacuum was not conducive to retain cell membrane integrity, but could effectively inhibit browning after blanching. Therefore, filling nitrogen in vacuum and blanching was an effective anti-browning technology.

  18. Cultivation of Volvariella volvacea and Agaricus bisporus Using Spent Pleurotus eryngii Substrate%利用刺芹侧耳菌糠栽培草菇、双孢蘑菇初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫鹏飞; 赖淑萍; 吴小平

    2014-01-01

    利用刺芹侧耳(Pleurotus eryngii)菌糠栽培草菇(Volvariella volvacea)和双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus),并测定农艺性状、产量和营养成分,以研究利用刺芹侧耳菌糠栽培草菇和双孢蘑菇的可行性。结果表明:用刺芹侧耳菌糠栽培草菇产量为6.34 kg/m2,相比常规稻草栽培草菇增产49.17%,其蛋白质含量为27.9%,也高于稻草栽培草菇(24.9%);刺芹侧耳菌糠栽培双孢蘑菇的产量与稻草栽培双孢蘑菇产量相近,而蛋白质含量与氨基酸含量都低于稻草双孢蘑菇。%Volvariella volvacea and Agaricus bisporus were cultivated using spent Pleurotus eryngii substrate (SMS)and rice straw,and selected morphological features and nutritional parameters of the fruit bodies,and mushroom yields,were determined.Highest yields of V.volvacea (6.34 kg/m2 ),and fruit bodies of good quality and nutritional value,were obtained using a substrate consisting of 98.6% spent P.eryngii substrate, 0.7% lime and 0.7% calcium carbonate.No significant differences in fruit body yields and quality were observed when A.bisporus was cultivated using SMS (81.5% spent P.eryngii substrate,17.1% cattle dung, 0.7% calcium carbonate,0.7% calcium)compared with rice straw (62.2% rice straw,34.6% cattle dung, 1.4% calcium superphosphate,1.1% calcium carbonate,0.7% lime).However,fruit bodies grown on the former had a lower nutritional value.

  19. 九种杀菌剂对双孢蘑菇有害疣孢霉及其菌丝的毒力测定%Toxicity of Nine Fungicides to Mycelial Growth of Agaricus bisporus and Three Mycogone perniciosa Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰清秀; 王兴全; 卢政辉

    2012-01-01

    采用生长速率法测定9种杀菌剂对蘑菇疣孢霉属(Mycogone)3个类型菌株和双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)菌丝的室内毒力.结果表明:不同杀菌剂对不同类型疣孢霉菌株和双孢蘑菇菌丝生长均具有不同程度的抑制作用,Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ类菌株的最佳杀菌剂分别为氟硅唑(ECs0=0.0058 μg/mL)、咪鲜胺(ECs0=0.0067 μg/mL)、戊菌唑(EC50=0.0287μg/mL),双孢蘑菇菌丝对咪鲜胺(EC50=2.2526 μg/mL)敏感性最小,综合分析,氟硅唑、咪鲜胺均适用于疣孢霉Ⅰ、Ⅱ类菌的防治,百菌清(EC50=0.0631 μg/mL)可用于Ⅲ类菌防治.

  20. Effects of 1-MCP Treatments on Physiological and Chemical Characteristics of Post-harvest Agaricus bisporus%1-MCP处理对双孢蘑菇采后生理生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄守程; 刘爱荣; 何华齐; 章鹏程

    2010-01-01

    以不同浓度1-MCP处理双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus),测定了过氧化物酶(POD)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、丙二醛(MDA)含量、可溶性糖含量及蛋白质含量等生理指标.结果表明,10μg/L浓度下,POD、SOD、CAT、可溶性糖和蛋白质含量分别较对照组上升1 950.00%、19.47%、389.42%、24.87%和3.46%,而MDA含量却比对照下降51.08%;100 μg/L浓度下,POD、CAT、MDA、可溶性糖和蛋白质含量分别较对照组上升1 150.00%、47.12%、20.29%、27.51%和4.61%,SOD活性反而下降2.07%.

  1. 响应面法优化青海野生双孢菇发酵培养基%Optimizing of Culture Medium of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach for Extracellular polysaccharide Production by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余梅; 焦迎春; 孙旭; 余刚; 邱冬梅; 高淑敏

    2016-01-01

    以野生青海双孢菇(Agaricus bisporus(Lange) Imbach)为试材,以胞外多糖含量为响应值,在单因素试验的基础上,采用4因素4水平响应面分析法,研究了培养基中不同营养因子对其菌丝代谢胞外多糖含量的影响,以确定最佳野生双孢菇发酵培养基.结果表明:最优培养基为甘露醇19.83 g·L-1,蛋白胨6.35g·L-1,维生素B12 1.61g·L-1,硫酸亚铁0.42 g·L-1,胞外多糖含量最高可达2.002 g·L-1,与试验模型预测值基本一致.

  2. 不同贮藏温度对双孢蘑菇生理特性的影响%Effect of different temperature on physiological character istics of Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石启龙; 王相友; 王娟; 赵亚; 朱继英

    2005-01-01

    以双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)为实验材料,分别测定其在(3±1)℃,(10±1)℃,(17±1)℃以及室温(30℃)等四种温度下贮藏过程中的失重率、呼吸强度、多酚氧化酶活力和总糖等生理指标.结果表明,(3±1)℃低温可明显降低失重率,推迟呼吸跃变出现的时间,并能降低呼吸峰值,同时低温处理还能降低PPO活力,延缓双孢蘑菇中可溶性总糖损失的速度.此外,根据RI和贮藏时间的关系曲线,可以确定双孢蘑菇为呼吸跃变型蔬菜.

  3. Esterase, Polyphenoloxidase and Cytochrome Oxidase Isozyme Analysis in Three Agaricus bisporus Strains with Different Substrate-degrading Ability%双孢蘑菇分解基质能力退化的同工酶分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪荣; 陈美元; 廖剑华; 王泽生

    2010-01-01

    采用同工酶聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis,PAGE)技术,对双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus) 菌株0214及其分解基质能力退化菌株0214-3、0214-5在4种不同液体培养基中培养的菌丝体的酯酶(esterase,EST)、 多酚氧化酶(polyphenoloxidase,PPO)、细胞色素氧化酶(cytochrome oxidase, COD)同工酶进行分析,结果表明:在部分培养基中3个菌株的EST和PPO同工酶表型有明显差异,且2个退化菌株的同工酶表型变异一致,说明双孢蘑菇分解基质能力的退化与EST和PPO同工酶活性存在相关性.各菌株在不同培养基中的COD同工酶酶谱表型一致.

  4. 溶氧控制条件对双孢菇发酵产胞外多糖的影响%Effect of Dissolved Oxygen Controlling Conditions on Production of Extracellular Polysaccharides by Agaricus bisporus MJ-0811

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛勇; 毛健; 李华钟; 孟祥勇

    2013-01-01

    以双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus MJ-0811)为实验菌种,采用5L自控式发酵罐培养研究溶氧控制条件(搅拌转速和通气量)对双孢菇发酵过程的影响,考察发酵过程中菌体生物量、胞外多糖产量、相对溶氧、葡萄糖含量的变化.结果表明:搅拌转速和通气量对双孢菇的菌体生长和胞外多糖分泌具有显著的影响,并得出较佳的培养条件为:温度25℃、搅拌转速160r/min、通气量0.9vvm,此条件下,培养5d,菌体生物量最高达20.81g/L,胞外多糖产量最高达3.75g/L.

  5. A New Protocol for Extracting DNA from Agaricus bisporus Fruit Bodies without Thermal Incubation%一种不经热浴从双孢蘑菇子实体中提取DNA的新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬宏超; 万艳娟; 莫美华; 徐学锋

    2012-01-01

    介绍一种不经热浴快速从双孢蘑菇子实体中提取DNA的新方法,并与传统的CTAB和SDS法相比较,结果显示:该方法得到的DNA完整性好,时间短,步骤少,有毒试剂用量少,在提取DNA的质量、得率、时间及完整性等方面都优于传统的CTAB和SDS法,为食药用菌子实体DNA的提取参考.%A new,simple and rapid method for obtaining DNA from Agaricus bisporus fruit bodies is described and compared with the widely used CTAB and SDS methods in terms of yield,DNA quality and integrity,and duration of extraction time.Total DNA quality was estimated by restriction endonuclease digestion and by ITS,ISSR and RAPD analyses using standard protocols.Our data demonstrated that the new method rcnders improved yields of total DNA of high quality and integrity,and is less time-consuming than existing procedures.

  6. 可食性涂膜对双孢蘑菇生理和品质的影响%Effect of Edible Coatings on Physiology and Quality of Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相友; 闫聪聪; 刘战丽

    2012-01-01

    The effects of carrageenan, carboxymethyl cellulose solution and their complex film on the physiology and quality of mushrooms stored at (2 ± 1 ) ℃ were studied. The minimum loss of weight was obtained in fruits coated with CMC coating, the minimum value of respiration rate, PPO activity, membrane permeability and the maximum hardness and L* value were obtained in mushrooms coated with carrageenan coating. Overall, the preservation effect of carrageenan film is the best, and it can extend the shelf-life of Agaricus bisporus to more than 12 d.%研究了卡拉胶、羧甲基纤维素钠及其复配涂膜对(2±1)℃下贮藏的双孢菇生理和品质的影响.实验结果表明:羧甲基纤维素钠涂膜抑制双孢菇失重率的效果最好;卡拉胶涂膜在抑制呼吸速率、PPO活性、细胞膜通透性的上升和果实硬度、白度的下降方面效果最好,可以将双孢菇的货架期延长至12d以上.

  7. Study on browning degree and the activity of polyphenol oxidase of Agaricus bisporus and Tricholoma giganteum during storage%巨大口蘑和双孢蘑菇贮藏期间多酚氧化酶与褐变度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春敏

    2012-01-01

      在12℃贮藏,分别对巨大口蘑和双孢蘑菇褐变相关的多酚氧化酶(PPO)和褐变度性变化进行了测定.结果显示:在贮藏时间里双孢蘑菇PPO活性从1218.67 U.ml-1FW增大到4840U.ml-1FW,而巨大口蘑PPO活性虽有增大趋势但一直维持在138.89 U.ml-1FW以下;巨大口蘑褐变速度比双胞蘑菇慢,贮藏7d后,巨大口蘑和双孢蘑菇褐变度分别为5.38%、29.86%.%  Tricholoma giganteum and Agaricus bisporus were stored in 12 ℃, The changes in browing and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the browning degree were investigated. The results showed that: The activity of PPO of Agaricus bisporus increased from 1218.67 U.ml-1FW to 4840U. ml-1FW, and the activity of PPO of Tricholoma giganteum had been maintained at 138.89 U.ml-1FW although during storage, respectively; 7 daies after storaged, the browning degree of Tricholoma giganteum and Agaricus bisporus were 3.26 %and51.23%, respectively.

  8. Selenium-Enriched Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Protects against Increase in Gut Permeability ex vivo and Up-Regulates Glutathione Peroxidase 1 and 2 in Hyperthermally-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebo Maseko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary effects of organic Se supplementation in the form of Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom on ileal mucosal permeability and antioxidant selenoenzymes status in heat induced oxidative stress in rats were evaluated. Acute heat stress (40 °C, 21% relative humidity, 90 min exposure increased ileum baseline short circuit current (Isc; 2.40-fold and epithelial conductance (Ge; 2.74-fold. Dietary supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus (1 µg Se/g feed reduced (p < 0.05 ileum Isc and Ge during heat stress to 1.74 and 1.91 fold, respectively, indicating protection from heat stress-induced mucosal permeability increase. The expression of ileum glutathione peroxidase (GPx- 1 and 2 mRNAs were up-regulated (p < 0.05 by 1.90 and 1.87-fold, respectively, for non-heat stress rats on the Se-enriched diet relative to the control. The interplay between heat stress and dietary Se is complex. For rats on the control diet, heat stress alone increased ileum expression of GPx-1 (2.33-fold and GPx-2 (2.23-fold relative to thermoneutral conditions. For rats on the Se-enriched diet, heat stress increased (p < 0.05 GPx-1 expression only. Rats on Se-enriched + α-tocopherol diet exhibited increased expression of both genes (p < 0.05. Thus, dietary Se-enriched A. bisporus protected against increase in ileum permeability and up-regulated GPx-1 and GPx-2 expression, selenoenzymes relevant to mitigating oxidative stress.

  9. 三种提取物对双孢菇片烫漂颜色和品质的影响%Effect of Three Plant Extracts on Color and Quality of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Slices during Blanching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 王安建; 刘丽娜; 魏书信; 田广瑞; 杨慧; 王赵改

    2014-01-01

    In order to select the effective browning inhibitors , the impact of water blanching followed by soaking in plant extracts solution on color and quality of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) slices were investigated. These pre-treatments, including soaking in rhizoma atractylodes, lophatherum gracile and papaya extracts solution combined with water blanching , can inhibit the browning of the mushroom slices to some extent , and the best treatment concentration were 0.5, 2.0 g/L and 2.0 g/L, respectively. Blanching can significantly reduce the ascorbic acid and total phenol content of mushroom slices. However , those mushrooms undergoing soaking in three plant extracts solution and blanching , as opposed to soaking in water and blanching , exhibited higher ascorbic acid and total phenol content.%为了筛选有效的褐变抑制剂,研究了白术、淡竹叶、木瓜提取物溶液浸泡前处理结合沸水烫漂对双孢菇颜色和品质的影响。结果表明,经白术、淡竹叶、木瓜3种植物提取物前处理均可以在一定程度上抑制菇片的褐变,其最佳处理浓度分别为0.5、2.0、2.0 g/L。沸水烫漂可以显著降低菇片的抗坏血酸和总酚的含量,但经3种植物提取物浸泡前处理的菇片抗坏血酸和总酚的含量均高于清水浸泡前处理的菇片。

  10. 几种绿色保鲜技术对双孢菇保鲜效果的比较%Comparison on Effects of Saveral Green Fresh-keeping for Agaricus Bisporus

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    杜传来; 易克传; 陈龙彬

    2011-01-01

    研究了薄膜气调、涂膜、L-半胱氨酸、真空减压等几种绿色保鲜技术对双孢菇的保鲜效果,以呼吸强度、失重率、Vc含量、细胞膜透性、褐变度、感官品质为考察指标,进行保鲜效果的比较.结果表明,L-半胱氨酸结合气调保鲜能够有效抑制双孢菇贮藏过程中的褐变、降低失重率、减少维生素c、细胞膜透性和感官品质的变化,而涂膜及真空减压处理后结合气调保鲜能有效抑制双孢菇呼吸强度.%The fresh-keeping effects of several green fresh-keeping technologies for agaricus bisporus including modified atmosphere through the use of film, coating film, L-cysteine, vacuum decompression were researched. According to pretreatments for respiration rate, weight loss, vitamin C content, membrane permeability, browning degree, and sensory quality, compared their fresh-keeping effect. The results showed that Lcysteine combined with modified atmosphere could effectively inhibit browning, rate of weight loss, Vc content, membrane permeability , and sensory quality, and coating film and vacuum decompression combined modified atmosphere were better in the inhibiting respiration rate.

  11. 双孢菇培养料工厂化发酵过程中微生物及物质变化研究%Variation of Microorganisms and Physicochemical Properties of Agaricus bisporus Compost WANG Hong-lei et al ( Yantai Academy of China Agriculture University, Yantai, Shandong 264670)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿磊; 王红艳; 宋俊芬; 丁强; 徐康铭; 邹积华

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to study the variation of the microorganisms and materials in the Agaricus bisporus compost during the fer mentation process. [ Method ] The compost was sampled at several major stages of the whole fermentation process, then the variation of its mi crobial populations, total nitrogen, nitric nitrogen, total sugar, reducing sugar, moisture content and pH values were studied. [ Result] With the fermentation of the compost, the quantity of bacteria, actinomyces and molt first declined before rose, while the total nitrogen content and pH values presented an upward trend, the moisture content, nitrate content and total sugar content showed a declining tendency. The content of reducing sugar fluctuated during the fermentation process and slightly increased after the fermentation. [ Conclusion] The variation charac teristics of the microorganisms and partial physieochemical indices in the Agaricus bisporus compost were obtained, which provided theoretical basis for studying the high-efficient fermentation technology of Agaricus bisporus compost.%[目的]研究双孢菇培养料工厂化发酵过程中的微生物及物质变化规律.[方法]在培养料发酵过程中的几个主要时期采样,研究微生物数量、总氮和硝态氮、总糖和还原糖、含水量、pH值等指标的变化.[结果]随着培养料发酵的进行,细菌、放线菌和霉菌三大类微生物的数量均表现为先下降后上升的趋势,总氮含量和pH值表现为上升趋势,含水量、硝态氮含量和总糖含量则表现为逐渐下降的趋势.发酵期间培养料中的还原糖呈上下波动,发酵结束后含量略有上升.[结论]得到了工厂化培养料发酵过程中微生物和部分理化指标的变化规律,为双孢菇培养料高效发酵技术研究提供理论依据.

  12. 利用小麦秸秆栽培双孢蘑菇高产配方筛选研究%Screening of High Yield Cultivation Formula for Agaricus bisporus by Using Wheat Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭学文; 吴志会; 解文强; 周廷斌

    2011-01-01

    以小麦秸秆为主料栽培双孢蘑菇,可使小麦秸秆变废为宝,拓宽双孢蘑菇生产原材料的来源渠道。以双孢蘑菇菌株AS2796为试材,选用稻草为主的培养料为对照,以小麦秸秆不同添加量设置了3个配方处理,研究了不同麦秸比例对菌丝生长情况、满袋时间以及鲜菇产量的影响。结果表明:处理Ⅱ菌丝生长速度快,满袋时间仅为22.7 d,鲜菇产量高达10.5 kg/m2,为最佳培养料配方,即麦秸47.6%、牛粪35.7%、鸡粪11.9%、饼肥1.2%、尿素0.2%、石膏1.2%、过磷酸钙1.2%和石灰1.0%。%To cultivate Agaricus bisporus,wheat straw was used as the main substrate.The effects of different cultivation formula on the growth of mycelium,the time of full of cultivating bag and the fresh mushroom yield of AS2796 were studied.The results showed that with the treatment Ⅱ,the mycelium grew rapidly,it took 22.7 days to fill the cultivating bag,and the yield of fresh mushroom could reach 10.5 kg/m2.The formula of treatment Ⅱ was the best,which included 47.6% wheat straw,37.7% cow dung,11.9% chicken manure,1.2% cake fertolizer,0.2% urea,1.2% gypsum,1.2% calcium super phosphate,and 1.0% lime.

  13. Determination of Zinc(II) Ions Released into Artificial Digestive Juices from Culinary-Medicinal Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetidae), Biomass of In Vitro Cultures Using an Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Katarzyna; Muszynska, Bozena; Zajac, Magdalena; Krezalek, Remigiusz; Opoka, Wlodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is one of those microelements that are essential for the proper functioning of the human body and must be supplemented in our food at a daily dose of 15 mg. It is well known that mushrooms accumulate elements; thus, in order to determine the extent of accumulation and the level of zinc released from mushrooms, in vitro cultures of Agaricus bisporus were established. The cultures were run on a modified Oddoux medium (a control culture) as well as on the same medium with the addition of zinc hydroaspartate (100 and 200 mg/L) and zinc sulfate (87.23 and 174.47 mg/L). These compounds were chosen to help estimate which form, organic or inorganic, results in a better assimilation of zinc(II) ions by biomass. As the next step, the level of zinc(II) ions released from the lyophilized biomass of in vitro cultures to the digestive juices, under thermal conditions of the human body (37°C), was determined. For this purpose, artificial digestive juices, imitating the composition of human digestive juices, were used. For determination of zinc(II) ions in the digestive tract, an anodic stripping voltammetry method was employed. The amount of zinc released into artificial saliva over 1 minute varied from 0.15 mg/100 g d.w. in the control culture to 2.35 mg/100 g d.w. in the biomass in the medium to which 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate had been added. Values were higher in gastric juice and depended on incubation time (2.66 to 30.63 mg/100 g d.w.). In intestinal juice, the highest value of the released zinc grew to 24.20 mg/100 g d.w. (biomass of A. bisporus in vitro cultures in medium with the addition of 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate). Total average amount of zinc released into artificial digestive juices was the highest (56.26 mg/100 g d.w.) from A. bisporus biomass of in vitro cultures in the medium to which 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate had been added. PMID:27279537

  14. 气相色谱-质谱法检测双孢蘑菇和香菇中的67种农药残留%Determination of 67 Different Pesticide Residues in Agaricus bisporus and Lentinus edodes Fruit Bodies by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白冰; 董茂锋; 邢增涛; 赵晓燕

    2011-01-01

    用气相色谱-质谱法对双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)和香菇(Lentinula edodes)中67种农药进行检测.样品经乙腈均质提取,盐析除水,氨基柱净化后用气相色谱-质谱仪分析,在选择离子监测模式下以特征离子的保留时间定性定量测定67种农药.在添加农药标准品浓度为0.05、0.10和0.25 mg/kg水平上,大多数农药的平均回收率在70%~120%之间,检出限在0.01~0.5μg/kg之间.

  15. Bacterial communities in Agaricus bisporus compost analysed by denatu-ring gradient gel electrophoresis%双孢蘑菇培养料发酵过程中细菌群落结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 李敏; 魏启舜; 张洪海; 周影; 赵荷娟

    2015-01-01

    PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ( DGGE) was emloyed to analyze the V3 regions of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA collected from the compost for Agaricus bisporus cultivation in spring and winter. The dominant DNA were cloned, sequenced and analyzed. Bacillus sp, Flavobacterium sp. , Lysinibacillus sp. , Thermus thermophilus,Pseudomonas fragi, Solibacillus silvestris,Thermobifida fusca, and two kinds of uncultured bacteria were identified in the compost. The bac-teria in spring and winter showed similar changing trend during phase I composting and similar community at the end of com-posting. The bacterial community structure differed at initial composting, phase I composting and phase II composting. The community diversity was environmental temperature-dependant. The bacteria existing in the compost all through the process of composting shared high sequence similarity with that of the bacteria degrading lignocellulose, which was favorable for the com-post to be applied as culture matrix.%为探明双孢蘑菇培养料发酵过程中细菌群落多样性和组成的演变,获得相关优势菌落的信息,本研究利用变性梯度凝胶电泳( Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis,DGGE)对不同季节不同发酵阶段样品的的细菌进行特异性扩增,并选取主要DNA条带进行克隆、测序和生物信息学分析。结果显示,不同发酵时期带谱差异明显。发酵过程中,培养料中主要有芽孢杆菌属、黄杆菌属、杆菌属、假单胞菌属、Solibacillus、嗜热裂孢菌属、高温双歧菌属和未知分类地位的不可培养细菌。不同季节(春季、冬季)的培养料一次发酵过程中细菌多样性变化趋势相似,且发酵结束时细菌菌落结构相似。双孢蘑菇培养料在发酵过程中细菌群落结构至少经历了3个阶段的演替,即建堆初期、一次发酵阶段和二次发酵阶段。双孢蘑菇培养料发酵过程中细菌种群丰富,并随着发酵的不同阶段发生演

  16. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  17. Appropriate water blanching treatment to keep quality and color of Agaricus bisporus slices%适宜热烫条件保持双孢蘑菇片品质和颜色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李顺峰; 王安建; 陈瑾; 田广瑞

    2014-01-01

    Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the most popular and valuable mushrooms in the world, and it is usually processed for long-time storage. Button mushrooms are a good source of vitamins, protein, phenolics, polysaccharose and many mineral elements. However, they are highly perishable commodities due to browning, water loss, senescence, and microbial attack, in which, browning reactions limit their shelf life to a few days. The enzyme polyphenoloxidase (PPO) is the responsible cause of this deteriorative process. In view of their highly perishable nature, button mushrooms must be processed to extend their commercial shelf life for off-season use. The production of heat-sterilized preserves represents most usual long-term preservation. Sterilization accounts for more than 60 percent of industrially processed mushrooms. In the preparation process of sterilized mushrooms, blanching is an important pre-treatment, which objectives may be:(i) to reduce enzymatic browning through thermal inactivation of PPO;(ii) to induce volume contraction (shrinkage) to avoid this occurrence at the sterilization stage;(iii) to make the product more pliable to facilitate filling operations. However, some negative features of blanching are the loss of valuable nutritious components, partial biochemical conversions of components resulting in changes in aroma and - in general - deteriorative effects on sensory properties like texture and color, which are the main features taken into account by consumers. To maintain the quality and color of button mushrooms, the content of ascorbic acid and total phenolic, antioxidant capacity, and color of button mushroom slices blanched between 85℃and 100℃with an increment of 5℃ for different times were investigated. Results showed that blanching significantly reduced the content of ascorbic acid and total phenolic, antioxidant capacity, and color. Ascorbic acid and total phenolic content decreased by 66.67 percent-93.33 percent and 12

  18. Pyranose Dehydrogenase from Agaricus campestris and Agaricus xanthoderma: Characterization and Applications in Carbohydrate Conversions

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens K Peterbauer; Dietmar Haltrich; Petra Staudigl; Iris Krondorfer

    2013-01-01

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) is a flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is limited to a rather small group of litter-degrading basidiomycetes. The enzyme is unable to utilize oxygen as an electron acceptor, using substituted benzoquinones and (organo) metal ions instead. PDH displays a broad substrate specificity and intriguing variations in regioselectivity, depending on substrate, enzyme source and reaction conditions. In contrast to the related enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (POx), PDHs fr...

  19. Pyranose Dehydrogenase from Agaricus campestris and Agaricus xanthoderma: Characterization and Applications in Carbohydrate Conversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens K. Peterbauer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH is a flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is limited to a rather small group of litter-degrading basidiomycetes. The enzyme is unable to utilize oxygen as an electron acceptor, using substituted benzoquinones and (organo metal ions instead. PDH displays a broad substrate specificity and intriguing variations in regioselectivity, depending on substrate, enzyme source and reaction conditions. In contrast to the related enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (POx, PDHs from several sources are capable of oxidizing α- or β-1→4-linked di- and oligosaccharides, including lactose. PDH from A. xanthoderma is able to perform C-1 and C-2 oxidation, producing, in addition to lactobionic acid, 2-dehydrolactose, an intermediate for the production of lactulose, whereas PDH from A. campestris oxidizes lactose nearly exclusively at the C-1 position. In this work, we present the isolation of PDH-encoding genes from A. campestris (Ac and A. xanthoderma (Ax and a comparison of other so far isolated PDH-sequences. Secretory overexpression of both enzymes in Pichia pastoris was successful when using their native signal sequences with yields of 371 U·L−1 for AxPDH and 35 U·L−1 for AcPDH. The pure enzymes were characterized biochemically and tested for applications in carbohydrate conversion reactions of industrial relevance.

  20. 双孢蘑菇菌株的低温结实性状及酯酶同工酶比较研究%Study on fruiting performances of several Agaricus bisporus strains at low temperature and analysis of their esterase isozyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡为明; 方菊莲; 杜新法; 金群力; 吴永志; 范丽军

    2001-01-01

    This trial was conducted to examine fruiting performances of seven Agaricus bisporus strains under low temperature. The results showed that the fruiting and yield performances differed significantly. The yield of A9916 and A9915 was greatly higher than that of other 5 strains, which was 848.8 g / b and 757.8 g / b respectively, close to the average yield of normal cultivation. Based on the number and relative position of esterase isozyme bands ,6 A. bisporus strains may be classified into 3 types, which accord with the source and type of strains. The relation between the esterase patterns and fruiting characteristics under low temperature remains to be revealed with more strains taken into trial.%对7个双孢蘑菇菌株的低温结实性进行了研究,结果表明,菌株间低温结实性差异显著,其中A9916和A9915产量最高,达848.8 g /袋和757.8 g /袋,其单位面积产量已达到或接近常规栽培的水平。根据酯酶同工酶的主副酶带数目和位置,可将6个蘑菇菌株区分为3个类群,酶谱类型与菌株来源及类型相一致,与结实性状关系有待更多菌株的进一步研究。

  1. Effect of papaya and corn silk extracts on color and quality of mushroom(Agaricus bisporus)slices during blanching%木瓜和玉米须提取物对双孢菇片烫漂后颜色和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 王安建; 刘丽娜; 魏书信; 李顺峰

    2013-01-01

    采用烫漂前浸泡和烫漂时添加两种方式,研究了木瓜和玉米须提取物对双孢菇片烫漂后颜色和品质的影响.结果表明,两种植物提取物的不同添加方式均可以在一定程度上抑制菇片的褐变和保持菇片的品质,其中浸泡前处理效果较好.木瓜和玉米须提取物最佳浸泡浓度均为2.0g/L,最大褐变抑制率分别为16.89%±4.57%、10.02%±3.24%;与清水浸泡前处理相比,维生素C含量分别提高67.30%、21.78%,总酚含量分别提高17.34%、38.29%.%The impact of papaya and corn silk extracts on color and quality of mushroom(Agaricus bisporus)slices during blanching were investigated.Compared with the contrast group,two different extracts addition way(soaking and blanching) could inhibit browning and keep quality of the mushroom slices in a degree,but the better way was soaking treatment. The results showed that the optimum soaking concentration of papaya and corn silk extracts were 2.0g/L,and the maximum browning inhibition rate were 16.89%±4.57% and 10.02%±3.24% respectively. Compared to the water treatment,the vitamin C content of mushroom slices increased by 6730% and 21.78% ,and total phenolic content enhanced by 17.34% and 38.29% ,separately.

  2. 二氧化氯浸泡对双孢蘑菇褐变的抑制效应及其机理分析%Suppression of ClO2 Treatment on Browning and the Analysis of Browning Mechanism of Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 田世龙; 颉敏华; 李守强; 张欣; 程建新; 葛霞

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect on postharvest physiology and enzyme activities of Agaricus bisporus of ' W2000', with C1O2 treatment in low-temperature storage. This study produced the following results: with C1O2 treatment and storing at 0℃ , respiration rate drops obviously,and the arrival of respiratory climacteric has been postponed,decreased 29. 2% and delayed 5 d; Enzyme activities of PPO and POD were significantly suppressed in C1O2-treated mushrooms, and restrained the accumulation of phenolic oxidation products,as well as slowing the browning rate of fruiting body. Stored 20 d, total phenolic content was only 0. 81 jamol/mg. Besides, impregnating with C1O2 could slow the decreasing speed of hardness of fruiting body,helps soluble solids content to be well maintained, while retarding the cap opening. C1O2 treatment could effectively extend the storage period, maintain the high quality. Therefore,the commercial value of mushrooms has been greatly improved. In conclusio|i,the handling of dipping mushrooms in 120 mg · L-1 C1O2 solution and stored at 0°C is very useful in keeping A. bisporus of 'W2000' fresh.%以‘W2000’双孢蘑菇为试验材料,设清水(CK)和ClO2浸泡(120mg· L-1)2个处理,研究ClO2浸泡处理在低温贮藏条件下对双孢蘑菇采后品质、生理及相关酶活性的影响.结果显示:ClO2浸泡处理配合0℃低温贮藏可显著降低双孢蘑菇的呼吸强度,推迟呼吸高峰的出现时间,呼吸强度较CK降低29.2%,并使呼吸高峰推迟5d出现;同时能够有效抑制子实体多酚氧化酶(PPO)和过氧化物酶(POD)的活性,控制酚类氧化产物的积累,减缓子实体褐化进程,贮藏20 d时,处理的总酚含量仅为0.81μmol/mg.另外,ClO2处理还可延缓子实体硬度的下降,保持其可溶性固形物的含量,并抑制开伞,有效延长双孢蘑菇的贮藏期.研究表明,ClO2处理+低温贮藏对双孢蘑菇具有较理想的保鲜

  3. Low carbon/nitrogen ratio increases laccase production from basidiomycetes in solid substrate cultivation Reduzida relação carbono/nitrogênio aumenta a produção de lacase por basidiomicetos em cultivo de semissólido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Clarissa D'Agostini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomycetes are laccase producers used for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic byproducts in fermentative processes and could be used on biofuel production or ruminant feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of concentrations of non-protein nitrogen sources on laccase production and mycelial growth of Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei. The fungi were grown on soybean hulls to which urea (U, ammonium sulfate (AS or mixture of AS:U (1:1 were added to achieve carbon/nitrogen (C/N ratios of 5, 15, 20 or 30. The average longitudinal mycelial growth was measured and laccase activity was determined by the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid. Higher C/N ratios increased mycelial growth and decreased laccase production. The highest activities were obtained with a C/N ratio of 5. P. ostreatus, L. edodes and A. blazei produced more laccase when AS, AS:U and U, respectively, were added. In addition, C/N ratios lower than 30 induced laccase syntheses, inhibited mycelial growth and were a better condition for pre-hydrolysis of plant residues.Basidiomicetos são produtores de lacases utilizadas na hidrólise de subprodutos lignocelulósicos em processos fermentativos e pode ser utilizado na produção de biocombustíveis ou na alimentação de ruminantes. Avaliou-se o efeito da adição de fontes e concentrações de nitrogênio não-protéico na produção de lacase e no crescimento micelial de Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei. Os fungos foram cultivados em cascas de soja com adição de uréia (U, sulfato de amônio (AS ou AS:U (1:1 de forma a manter a relação carbono/ nitrogênio (C/N de 5, 15, 20 ou 30. O crescimento micelial longitudinal médio foi medido, e a atividade da lacase foi determinada pela oxidação do ácido 2,2'-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico. O crescimento micelial foi diretamente proporcional à relação C/N, enquanto a

  4. Sugar transport and water relations of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Molloy, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    The A. bisporus fruit body can develop from a 0.5 cm primordium to a 7 cm fruit body within 6 days and it is this rapid growth and expansion which was investigated. The mycelium and fruit body extract water and solutes from the compost and casing soil. Water and solute translocation is thought to occur by osmotically derived pressure driven mass flow whereby the accumulation of the polyol mannitol in the fruit body lowers the water potential and allows for an influx of water which increases t...

  5. Biological Control of Olive Green Mold in Agaricus bisporus Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Tautorus, T. E.; Townsley, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    Successful methods to control the damaging weed mold Chaetomium olivaceum (olive green mold) in mushroom beds are not presently known. An attempt was made to control C. olivaceum by biological means. A thermophilic Bacillus sp. which showed dramatic activity against C. olivaceum on Trypticase soy agar (BBL Microbiology Systems)-0.4% yeast extract agar plates was isolated from commercial mushroom compost (phase I). When inoculated into conventional and hydroponic mushroom beds, the bacillus no...

  6. Биологически активная добавка на основе биополимеров гриба шампиньон двуспоровый (Agaricus bisporus)

    OpenAIRE

    ЧЕРНО Н.К.; Никитина, А. В.

    2014-01-01

    Для получения из грибов биологически активной добавки широкого спектра действия целесообразно выделять биополимерный комплекс, в состав которого входят полисахариды, в частности глюкан и аминополисахарид, а также меланины. Целью работы была характеристика состава и свойств ряда биополимерных комплексов, выделенных из культивированных грибов, как основы прогнозирования их физиологических эффектов. Биополимерные комплексы из шампиньона двуспорового (Agaricus bisporus) получали путем последовате...

  7. Medicinal Mushroom Growth as Affected by Non-Axenic Casing Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. C. ZIED; M. T. A. MINHONI; J. KOPYTOWSKI-FILHO; L. BARBOSA; M. C. N. ANDRADE

    2011-01-01

    Ten different casing soils were collected from two soils at two depths (0.2 and 2.0 m below soil surface) to examine the relationships between the physical properties of non-axenic casing soil and yield, number and weight of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann. The results showed that soil clay content and bulk density were negatively correlated with the mushroom yield,respectively, but soil silt content and water-holding capacity were found to be positively correlated with the yield. The number of mushrooms was negatively correlated with soil water-holding capacity but positively correlated with soil clay, bulk density and porosity.The weight of mushroom was positively correlated with the content of soil fine sand and negatively correlated with the contents of soil coarse sand, total sand and clay. Neither soil depth nor different soil combinations affected the yield and number of mushrooms, but the mushroom weight was affected by the soil combinations and soil depth, so interplay in the fructification process with the physical characteristics of casing is complicated.

  8. ВЛАСТИВОСТІ ТИРОЗИНАЗИ ГРИБІВ AGARICUS BISPORUS І її ЗАСТОСУВАННЯ ДЛЯ ЕЛІМІНУВАННЯ ХЛОРЗАМІЩЕНИХ ФЕНОЛІВ

    OpenAIRE

    Sevastyanov, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    З грибів Agaricus bisporus виділений частково очищений препарат тирозинази з збільшеною в 3 рази питомою фенолоксидазною активністю (13 мкмоль пур-пурогаліну/ мг білкахв, 500 од/мг білкахв, відповідно, за пірогалолом і тирозином), з виходом білка 0,67 мг/г грибів, вмістом міді 0,19 %, рН-оптимумом 6,5, термооптимумом 40 єС). Методами БББ- і нативного електрофорезу в ПААГ досліджені фракційний склад і ферментативна активність білкових фракцій препарату. Виділений фермент каталізував процес ок...

  9. Utilização de extrato de cogumelo como antioxidante natural em óleo vegetal Use of mushroom extract as natural antioxidant in vegetal oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade antioxidante de diferentes extratos de cogumelo Agaricus blazei, bem como a estabilidade oxidativa do óleo de soja adicionado de extrato de cogumelo. O cogumelo seco em estufa a 55ºC e triturado (10 g fui submetido à extração, à temperatura ambiente, com 100 mL de metanol e metanol:água (1:1 com duração de 6 e 12 horas para ambas as extrações. O extrato de maior atividade antioxidante, conforme o método DPPH, foi aplicado em óleo de soja na concentração de 0,1% de compostos fenólicos totais e, então, submetido ao método do Rancimat e ao teste acelerado em estufa a 60ºC por um período de 16 dias. Amostras de óleo foram retiradas da estufa cada 4 dias e analisadas quanto ao índice de peróxidos e dienos conjugados. Como parâmetros de comparação, foram utilizados os antioxidantes sintéticos BHT (100 mg/kg, TBHQ (50 mg/kg e o óleo de soja isento de antioxidantes (controle. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato metanólico:aquoso, com 6 horas de extração, apresentou maior atividade antioxidante. A aplicação desse extrato em óleo de soja proporcionou a seguinte ordem em relação à estabilidade oxidativa: TBHQ > extrato de cogumelo > BHT = óleo de soja (controle. O extrato de cogumelo também foi eficiente em relação à formação de peróxidos e dienos conjugados que, apesar de aumentarem ao longo do tempo, foi menor que o BHT, porém maior que o TBHQ. O extrato de cogumelo apresentou-se efetivo na proteção do óleo, podendo ser considerado um potencial antioxidante natural.The present paper had the objectives of measuring the antioxidant activity of different extracts of the mushroom Agaricus blazei and evaluating the oxidative stability of soybean oil added with the mushroom extract. The mushroom dried in stove at 55ºC and ground (10g was submit to extraction with 100 mL methanol and methanol:water (1:1 for six and 12 hours, respectively, at

  10. A high throughput colorimetric assay of β-1,3-D-glucans by Congo red dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Magda C; Karmali, Amin; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-02-01

    Mushroom strains contain complex nutritional biomolecules with a wide spectrum of therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Among these compounds, β-d-glucans play an important role in immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities. The present work involves a novel colorimetric assay method for β-1,3-d-glucans with a triple helix tertiary structure by using Congo red. The specific interaction that occurs between Congo red and β-1,3-d-glucan was detected by bathochromic shift from 488 to 516 nm (>20 nm) in UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A micro- and high throughput method based on a 96-well microtiter plate was devised which presents several advantages over the published methods since it requires only 1.51 μg of polysaccharides in samples, greater sensitivity, speed, assay of many samples and very cheap. β-D-Glucans of several mushrooms (i.e., Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma carnosum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes, Inonotus obliquus, Auricularia auricular, Polyporus umbellatus, Cordyseps sinensis, Agaricus blazei, Poria cocos) were isolated by using a sequence of several extractions with cold and boiling water, acidic and alkaline conditions and quantified by this microtiter plate method. FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the structural features of β-1,3-D-glucans in these mushroom samples as well as the specific interaction of these polysaccharides with Congo red. The effect of NaOH on triple helix conformation of β-1,3-D-glucans was investigated in several mushroom species. PMID:25555819

  11. РОЛЬ ВЫДЕЛЕНОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ СИМБИОТИЧЕСКОГО МИКРОБОЦЕНОЗА В ПРОЦЕССЕ БИОЛОГИЧЕСКОЙ ИНВЕРСИИ ПИТАТЕЛЬНЫХ СРЕД КУЛЬТИВИРОВАНИЯ ГРИБОВ И ЕЁ ВЛИЯНИЕ НА РОСТ PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS, AGARICUS BISPORUS, И НЕКОТОРЫХ СЕЛЬСКОХОЗЯЙСТВЕННЫХ РАСТЕНИЙ

    OpenAIRE

    Киреев, В.; Макурина, О.; Киреева, С.

    2008-01-01

    Проведён процесс климатического биологического кондиционирования гомогенной и оптимизированной питательной среды для высших грибов базидиомицетов. После третьей волны культивирования Agaricus bisporus из полученной биомассы был выделен активный симбиотический микробоценоз. Проведены исследования влияния этого микробоценоза, а так же его метаболитов на рост съедобных грибов Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus, а также на развитие таких сельскохозяйственных культур, как Capsicum annuum, Trit...

  12. Evidence for PPC1, a determinant of the pilei-pellis color of Agaricus bisporus fruitbodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callac, P; Moquet, F; Imbernon, M; Guedes-Lafargue, M R; Mamoun, M; Olivier, J M

    1998-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated the genetic basis of mushroom cap color. In first generation hybrids between a brown isolate and the white commercial hybrid U 1, the white trait was recessive. Color was determined using color meter technology in second generation hybrids obtained by crossing the homokaryotic progeny of a first generation hybrid with a homokaryon from U 1. Statistical analysis revealed a bimodal distribution describing two classes of white and not-white hybrids. We postulate that a recessive allele at a single locus (PPC1) encodes the white pilei-pellis color. Joint segregation analyses indicated that PPC1 was linked to the ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) locus. Through the analysis of the heterokaryotic progeny of the first generation hybrid, a recombination model is proposed in which PPC1 is located between the centromere and the ADH locus. PMID:9578631

  13. A novel homothallic variety of Agaricus bisporus comprises rare tetrasporic isolates from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callac, Philippe; Jacobé de Haut, Isabelle; Imbernon, Micheline; Guinberteau, Jacques; Desmerger, Christophe; Theochari, Ioanna

    2003-01-01

    Among 400 wild specimens of A. bisporus collected in Europe, only three were tetrasporic. In the case of two of them from France, a previous study showed that one was homokaryotic and hypothetically belonged to a homothallic entity while the other was heterokaryotic and possibly resulted from hybridization between a member of this entity and a classical bisporic strain. A third tetrasporic specimen recently was discovered in Greece. Morphological and genetic comparisons, using alloenzymatic markers, molecular markers and ITS polymorphisms, reveal that this third specimen is homokaryotic and belongs, with the homokaryotic specimen from France, to the same entity. Dissimilarity analysis confirms the hybrid origin of the heterokaryotic specimen. Varietal status is proposed for this homothallic, highly homogeneous entity, and A. bisporus var. eurotetrasporus is described. This novel variety clearly differs from var. bisporus by its tetrasporic basidia and from var. burnettii by its longer spores. It has a complex story because it can interbreed with var. bisporus and shares the same habitat; however, because of its homothallic life cycle and its partial intersterility, it is probably in the process of speciation. PMID:21156608

  14. Characterization, feasibility and optimization of Agaricus subrufescens growth based on chemical elements on casing layer

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha Zied, D.; Pardo-Giménez, A.; de Almeida Minhoni, M.T.; R.L. Villas Boas; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-González, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze yields, biological efficiency, earliness (expressed as days to first harvest), and precociousness and establish models for the mushroom growing according to these parameters. The experiment followed a double factorial design with four sources of calcium (calcitic limestone, calcitic limestone + gypsum, dolomitic limestone and dolomitic limestone + gypsum) and 2 application times (25 days before casing and at the moment of casing), with 4 replicates for eac...

  15. Anti-Browning of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Slices by Glutathione during Hot Air Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Xia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Browning of mushroom tends to occur during hot air drying due to Poly Phenol Oxidase (PPO, while glutathione is known for its ability to inhibit the activity of PPO and browning. In this study, the efficacy of glutathione in inhibiting browning on mushroom slices was estimated. Browning of mushroom slices treated with glutathione was monitored during hot air drying. PPO activity in mushroom was inhibited by 98.2 with 0.08% glutathione. Compared with the control, mushroom slices treated with glutathione showed no browning during hot air drying. These results indicate that application of glutathione is a promising method of Anti-browning of mushroom by glutathione during hot air drying.

  16. Ultrastructural Studies of Raw and Processed Tissue of the Major Cultivated Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinki, E. M.; Stemberger, B.; Walsh, R.; Kilara, A.

    1984-01-01

    Commercial mushroom processors currently lose approximately 30 percent of the mushroom weight due to shrinkage during processing (blanching and canning) , resulting in substantial economic losses . Microscopy was used to assess the extent and type of chemical and structural changes induced by processing mushrooms and causing shrinkage. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the processing operations including vacuum hydration , blanching , and thermal treatment do not damage the integrity...

  17. Determination of nutritive changes of canned mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) during storage period

    OpenAIRE

    Necla Caglarlrmak; Kemal Unal; Semih Otles

    2001-01-01

    Mushrooms (A. bisporus) have a high nutritive value. Consuming fresh mushrooms is not productive because of enzyme activity and other limiting factors. The canning process is one food treatment that provides long product shelf-life. The changes of nutrients were determined by proximate composition: fat, protein, moisture, ash, and total carbohydrates. Minerals: Zn, Cu, K, Na, Ca, Cr, and P. Water soluble vitamins: B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), folic acid, pantothenic acid, ni...

  18. Aggregation and conformational change of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) polyphenoloxidase subjected to thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Liu, Wei; Zou, Liqiang; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Hu, Xiuting; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the activity, conformation and microstructure of mushroom polyphenoloxidase (PPO) subjected to thermal treatment. The inactivation of PPO can be achieved by high temperature-short time or mild temperature-long time treatment. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra suggested that heating process induced the rearrangement of secondary structure and the disruption of tertiary structure. Red shifts of fluorescence spectra showed positive correlations with the inactivation rate of PPO. There were significant differences in the conformation and molecular microstructure among PPO samples with the same relative activity, which were obtained by treating PPO at 45, 55 and 65°C for different times. In summary, PPO molecules were deformed at mild temperature, while higher temperature induced the formation of large aggregates. PPO with the same relative activity might exist in different forms. PMID:27507494

  19. Actividade antioxidante de cogumelos silvestres comestíveis: Leucopaxillus giganteus, Sarcodon imbricatus e Agaricus arvensis

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Queirós, Bruno; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Baptista, Paula

    2007-01-01

    A azeitona de mesa é um alimento tradicionalmente incluído na dieta Mediterrânica. sendo considerada uma fonte importante de antioxidantes naturais nomeadamente composto fenólicos e vitamina E. A presença destes compostos nos alimentos tem sido relacionada com uma menor taxa de incidência de doenças coronárias nos países da Bacia do Mediterrâneo.

  20. Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) polyphenoloxidase inhibited by apigenin: Multi-spectroscopic analyses and computational docking simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Lei; Zou, Liqiang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-15

    It has been revealed that some polyphenols can prevent enzymatic browning caused by polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Apigenin, widely distributed in many fruits and vegetables, is an important bioactive flavonoid compound. In this study, apigenin exhibited a strong inhibitory activity against PPO, and some reagents had synergistic effect with apigenin on inhibiting PPO. Apigenin inhibited PPO activity reversibly in a mixed-type manner. The fact that inactivation rate constant (k) of PPO increased while activation energy (Ea) and thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) decreased indicated that the thermosensitivity and stability of PPO decreased. The conformational changes of PPO were revealed by fluorescence emission spectra and circular dichroism. Atomic force microscopy observation suggested that the dimension of PPO molecules was larger after interacting with apigenin. Moreover, computational docking simulation indicated that apigenin bound to PPO and inserted into the hydrophobic cavity of PPO to interact with some amino acid residues. PMID:26948635