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Sample records for agaricales

  1. Asynchronous origins of ectomycorrhizal clades of Agaricales

    OpenAIRE

    Ryberg, Martin; Matheny, P. Brandon

    2011-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis is the most widespread biotrophic nutritional mode in mushroom-forming fungi. ECM fungi include, though are not limited to, about 5000 described species of Agaricales from numerous, independently evolved lineages. Two central hypotheses suggest different explanations for the origin of ECM fungal diversity: (i) dual origins, initially with the Pinaceae in the Jurassic and later with angiosperms during the Late Cretaceous, and (ii) a simultaneous and converge...

  2. Agaricales Fungi from atlantic rain forest fragments in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Luiz Henrique Rosa; Marina Capelari

    2009-01-01

    Two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in Minas Gerais state were studied to access their Agaricales fungal richness. A total of 187 specimens were collected and 109 species, 39 genera, and eight families were identified. Thirty-three species were cited for the first time in Brazil.

  3. Agaricales Fungi from atlantic rain forest fragments in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Luiz Henrique Rosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in Minas Gerais state were studied to access their Agaricales fungal richness. A total of 187 specimens were collected and 109 species, 39 genera, and eight families were identified. Thirty-three species were cited for the first time in Brazil.

  4. Agaricales Fungi from atlantic rain forest fragments in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Capelari, Marina

    2009-10-01

    Two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in Minas Gerais state were studied to access their Agaricales fungal richness. A total of 187 specimens were collected and 109 species, 39 genera, and eight families were identified. Thirty-three species were cited for the first time in Brazil. PMID:24031432

  5. A new variety of Pholiota microspora (Berk. Sacc. (Agaricales from Nepal

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    MAHESH K. ADHIKARI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the fall of late rainy season 2011, a new Pholiota (Fr. P. Kumm. (Agaricales, Strophariaceae was collected in the Quercus forest of Phulchowki (Kathmandu valley along the trial line, on the dead log at an altitude of 2600m. The specimen gathered was quite small. It was brought to laboratory and cultivated in NARC, Pathology laboratory, Lalitpur. The mushroom has been identified as Pholiota microspora (Berk. Sacc. var. himalensis var. nov..

  6. Diversidade de Agaricales (Basidiomycota) na Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brasil Diversity of Agaricales (Basidiomycota) in the Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Helenires Queiroz de Souza; Izonete de Jesus Araújo Aguiar

    2004-01-01

    Foi realizado um estudo dos representantes da Ordem Agaricales Clements (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycotina), ocorrentes na Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, situada na Estrada AM-010, Manaus-Itacoatiara, Km 64, Latitude 02° 43' S e Longitude 59° 47' W, Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas. A área abrange 709 ha de floresta de terra firme primária. As coletas foram realizadas no período de dezembro de 2000 a junho de 2001 e seguiu-se a metodologia usual para identificação de Agaricales. Foram estudadas um to...

  7. Agaricales em áreas de Floresta Ombrófila Densa e plantações de Pinus no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil Agaricales in Atlantic rain forest and Pinus plantations in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Karstedt; Sidney Luiz Stürmer

    2008-01-01

    Os sistemas florestais de Santa Catarina são poucos estudados em relação à diversidade de Agaricales. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar e comparar a diversidade de Agaricales em dois sistemas florestais, no município de Joinville, SC. Parcelas de 20×20 m foram estabelecidas: três em Floresta Ombrófila Densa e três em plantações de Pinus. Basidiomas de fungos agaricóides foram coletados em janeiro, março, maio, julho, setembro e novembro/2004. Foram identificadas 40 espécies, 31 na...

  8. Advances in the phylogenesis of Agaricales and its higher ranks and strategies for establishing phylogenetic hypotheses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-lin ZHAO; Dennis E. DESJARDIN; Kasem SOYTONG; Kevin D. HYDE

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of previous research results on the molecular phylogenetic analyses in Agaricales and its higher ranks (Agaricomycetes/Agaricomycotina/Basidiomycota) along with the most recent treatments of taxonomic systems in these taxa. Establishing phylogenetic hypotheses using DNA sequences, from which an understanding of the natural evolutionary relationships amongst clades may be derived, requires a robust dataset. It has been recognized that single-gene phylogenies may not truly represent organismal phylogenies, but the concordant phylogenetic genealogies from multiple-gene datasets can resolve this problem. The genes commonly used in mushroom phylogenetic research are summarized.

  9. Diversity of coprophilous species of Panaeolus (Psathyrellaceae, Agaricales from Punjab, India

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    AMANDEEP KAUR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaur A, Atri NS, Kaur M. 2014.Diversity of coprophilous species of Panaeolus (Psathyrellaceae, Agaricales from Punjab, India. Biodiversitas 15: 115-130. An account of 16 Panaeolus species collected from a variety of coprophilous habitats of Punjab state in India is described and discussed. Out of these, P. alcidis, P. castaneifolius, P. papilionaceus var. parvisporus, P. tropicalis and P. venezolanus are new records for India while P. acuminatus, P. antillarum, P. ater, P. solidipes, and P. sphinctrinus are new reports for north India. Panaeolus subbalteatus and P. cyanescens are new records for Punjab state. A key to the taxa exploredis also provided.

  10. Agaricales em áreas de Floresta Ombrófila Densa e plantações de Pinus no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil Agaricales in Atlantic rain forest and Pinus plantations in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Fernanda Karstedt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas florestais de Santa Catarina são poucos estudados em relação à diversidade de Agaricales. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar e comparar a diversidade de Agaricales em dois sistemas florestais, no município de Joinville, SC. Parcelas de 20×20 m foram estabelecidas: três em Floresta Ombrófila Densa e três em plantações de Pinus. Basidiomas de fungos agaricóides foram coletados em janeiro, março, maio, julho, setembro e novembro/2004. Foram identificadas 40 espécies, 31 na Floresta e 10 nas plantações. A família mais representada foi Tricholomataceae, com 48% das espécies registradas na Floresta. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Camarophyllus buccinulus (41% na Floresta e Lactarius cf. fragilis (53% nas plantações. As mesmas espécies foram também as mais freqüentes, com 44% e 78% de freqüência de ocorrência, respectivamente. Considerando a riqueza de espécies e o índice de diversidade de Shannon, o estudo sugere que há maior diversidade de Agaricales na Floresta do que nas plantações de Pinus.Forest systems in Santa Catarina state are virtually unknown regarding Agaricales diversity. Our goal was to determine and compare the Agaricales diversity of two forest systems in Joinville municipality, SC. Plots of 20×20 m were established: three in the Atlantic rain forest and three in Pinus plantations. Basidiomata of Agaricales were collected in January, March, May, July, September and November/2004. Forty species were identified, 31 in the forest and 10 in the plantations. Tricholomataceae was the most important family, with 48% of the species found in the forest. The species with the highest relative abundance were Camarophyllus buccinulus (41% and Lactarius cf. fragilis (53% in the forest and in the plantations, respectively. These were also the most frequent species recovered in the forest and in the plantations, with frequency values of 44% and 78%, respectively. Considering species

  11. The effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricales mushrooms and other medicinal fungi on breast cancer: evidence-based medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes; Fabiana Valadares; Mariana Campos Reis; Daniella Rodrigues Gonçalves; Marilia da Cunha Menezes

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women. The most frequent therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this disease are chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, and surgery. Conventional pharmacological treatments cause many harmful side effects in patients. To improve the quality of life of breast cancer patients, researchers have sought alternative adjuvant treatment strategies. To assess the effects of fungi and other basidiomycetes Agaricales on the co-adjuvant treatment o...

  12. Diversidade de Agaricales (Basidiomycota na Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brasil Diversity of Agaricales (Basidiomycota in the Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Helenires Queiroz de Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo dos representantes da Ordem Agaricales Clements (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycotina, ocorrentes na Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, situada na Estrada AM-010, Manaus-Itacoatiara, Km 64, Latitude 02° 43' S e Longitude 59° 47' W, Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas. A área abrange 709 ha de floresta de terra firme primária. As coletas foram realizadas no período de dezembro de 2000 a junho de 2001 e seguiu-se a metodologia usual para identificação de Agaricales. Foram estudadas um total de 39 espécies, distribuídas em 13 gêneros e seis famílias: Polyporaceae: Pleurotus sp.; Hygrophoraceae: Hygrocybe cf. megistospora, Hygrocybe aff. miniceps, Hygrocybe occidentalis var. scarletina, e mais oito espécies de Hygrocybe indeterminadas; Tricholomataceae: Clitocybe sp., Hydropus sp.1 e Hydropus sp.2, Macrocystidia sp., Marasmiellus sp., Marasmius bellus, Marasmius haedinus var. haedinus,Marasmius cf. leoninus, Marasmius cf. mazatecus, Marasmius cf. ruber,Marasmius cf. setulosifolius, Marasmius tageticolor, Marasmius cf. variabiliceps var. variabiliceps, Marasmius sp.1, Marasmius sp.2, Marasmius sp.3 e Marasmius sp.4, Tricholoma sp.; Agaricaceae: Agaricus sp.1 e Agaricus sp.2, Lepiota sp., Cystoderma sp.; Entolomataceae: Entoloma cf. azureoviride, Entoloma cf. cystidiophorum, Entoloma strigosissima, Entoloma sp.; Russulaceae: Lactarius panuoides. Destas, Entoloma azureoviride, Hygrocybe miniceps, Lactarius panuoides, Marasmius cf. mazatecus, Marasmius cf. setulosifolius e Marasmius variabiliceps var. variabiliceps, provavelmente, estão sendo aqui citadas pela primeira vez, para o Brasil. Com exceção de Marasmius tageticolor, as demais espécies são citadas pela primeira vez, para a Reserva Egler. São fornecidas tabelas com a ocorrência das espécies de acordo com o gradiente topográfico (baixio, vertente, platô e seus respectivos habitats.A study of the order Agaricales Clements (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycotina, occurring in

  13. Contribución al conocimiento de agaricales y russulales de los Pirineos aragoneses (Valles de Ordesa y Pineta-Huesca).

    OpenAIRE

    CASTRO CERCEDA, M.L., FREIRE, L.

    1991-01-01

    En este trabajo enumeramos unas 40 especies de macromicetos,   pertenecientes a los órdenes Agaricales y Russulales, que fueron   encontrados por los autores, durante el otoño de 1989, en la II   Campaña de Microflora Ibérica. Las especies han sido recolectadas preferentemente en bosques   mixtos de hayas (Fagus sylvativa) y abetos (Abies alba) con   extraordinario sotobosque de boj (Buxus sempervirens), pero   también fueron visitados abedulares (Betula sp.) y prados. ...

  14. Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W; Riley, Robert; Nagy, Laszlo G; Koehler, Gage; Ransdell, Anthony S; Younus, Hina; Chow, Julianna; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Lipzen, Anna; Tritt, Andrew; Sun, Hui; Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Ohm, Robin A; Kües, Ursula; Blanchette, Robert A; Grigoriev, Igor V; Minto, Robert E; Hibbett, David S

    2015-03-01

    Wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina have been traditionally separated in two categories termed white and brown rot. Recently the accuracy of such a dichotomy has been questioned. Here, we present the genome sequences of the white-rot fungus Cylindrobasidium torrendii and the brown-rot fungus Fistulina hepatica both members of Agaricales, combining comparative genomics and wood decay experiments. C. torrendii is closely related to the white-rot root pathogen Armillaria mellea, while F. hepatica is related to Schizophyllum commune, which has been reported to cause white rot. Our results suggest that C. torrendii and S. commune are intermediate between white-rot and brown-rot fungi, but at the same time they show characteristics of decay that resembles soft rot. Both species cause weak wood decay and degrade all wood components but leave the middle lamella intact. Their gene content related to lignin degradation is reduced, similar to brown-rot fungi, but both have maintained a rich array of genes related to carbohydrate degradation, similar to white-rot fungi. These characteristics appear to have evolved from white-rot ancestors with stronger ligninolytic ability. F. hepatica shows characteristics of brown rot both in terms of wood decay genes found in its genome and the decay that it causes. However, genes related to cellulose degradation are still present, which is a plesiomorphic characteristic shared with its white-rot ancestors. Four wood degradation-related genes, homologs of which are frequently lost in brown-rot fungi, show signs of pseudogenization in the genome of F. hepatica. These results suggest that transition toward a brown-rot lifestyle could be an ongoing process in F. hepatica. Our results reinforce the idea that wood decay mechanisms are more diverse than initially thought and that the dichotomous separation of wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina into white rot and brown rot should be revisited. PMID:25683379

  15. Agaricus guachari, sp. Nov. (Agaricales), from Venezuela.

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    Calonge, F. D.; Esteve-Raventós, F.

    1998-01-01

    [EN] Agaricus guachari is proposed and described as a new species. It was found growing on dung of a nocturnal bird called "guácharo" (Steatornis caripensis Humboldt), in a cave, showing white basidiomata, which reddenned quickly when cut or robbed. Tbe habitat, presence of a well-developed universal veil and negative Schaeffer's reaction distinguished this species from the rest of taxa included in this genus. Data, including iconography, micro-and ultramicroscopic features, are also added.

  16. Cortinarius bovarius (Agaricales, a new species from western North America

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    Kare Liimatainen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cortinarius bovarius sp. nov., a conifer associated taxon growing on calcareous ground, is described from western North America. Phylogenetic relationships and species limits were investigated using rDNA ITS and nuclear rpb2 sequences, morphological and ecological data. The species belongs to section Bovini and its closest relative is European C. bovinus.

  17. Cortinarius sect. Brunnei (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) in North Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Tuula; Kytövuori, Ilkka; Liimatainen, Kare

    2009-02-01

    The section Brunnei was extensively studied based on material from North Europe. To stabilise the nomenclature we studied the relevant types of taxa included in this section. Phylogenetic relationships and species limits were investigated using rDNA ITS sequences and the results were compared with the morphological data. We recognised 11 species: Cortinarius brunneus, C. clarobrunneus comb. nov., C. coleoptera, C. ectypus, C. gentilis, C. glandicolor (neotypified), C. pseudorubricosus, and four species described as new C. caesiobrunneus, C. albogaudis, C. carabus, and C. cicindela. They are described here and their taxonomy, ecology, distribution, and relationships are discussed. In addition, a key to species of the section Brunnei is provided. A total of 77 new sequences of 11 species are published including nine type sequences. Also the taxonomic assignments of sequences in the public databases belonging to the section Brunnei are revised. PMID:19027854

  18. Marasmiellus phaeomarasmioides spec. nov. (Tricholomataceae, Agaricales) from Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, G.; Heykoop, M.; Esteve-Raventós, F.; Horak, E.

    1997-01-01

    Marasmiellus phaeomarasmioides, a new species growing on bark of Juniperus thurifera trees in Spain, is described and illustrated. Besides, it is compared with other related species of subsect. Sphaerosporini Singer, viz. M. guzmanii Singer and M. parlatorei Singer.

  19. Molecular phylogenetics and delimitation of species in Cortinarius section Calochroi (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg; Jeppesen, Thomas Stjernegaard; Laessøe, Thomas;

    2007-01-01

    Cortinarius is the most species rich genus of mushroom forming fungi with an estimated 2000 spp. worldwide. However, species delimitation within the genus is often controversial. This is particularly true in the section Calochroi (incl. section Fulvi), where the number of accepted taxa in Europe...... types were identical to other taxa, and most of these can be readily treated as synonyms. This emphasizes the importance of critical analysis of collections before describing new taxa. The phylogenetic separation of species was, in general, unambiguous and there is considerable potential for using ITS...

  20. Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales) of the Greater Antilles: Hygrocybe subgenus Pseudohygrocybe sections Coccineae and Neohygrocybe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Sharon A; Lodge, D Jean

    2004-11-01

    A key to 17 species in the genus Hygrocybe, subgenus Pseudohygrocybe, sections Coccineae and Neohygrocybe sensu Boertmann is provided for the Greater Antilles. Five new species and five taxa that are new reports for the region are described. The new species in section Coccineae are H. pseudoadonis, H. viridiphylla, and H. zonata. The new species in section Neohygrocybe are H. albomarginata and H. ovinoides. The new reports are H. caespitosa, H. coccinea, H. cf. miniata, H. papillata, and H. subovina. Three new combinations are proposed: Hygrocybe mycenoides, H. papillata and H. subovina. PMID:15587063

  1. Hygrocybe monteverdae, a new species of subgenus Cuphophyllus (Agaricales) from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bañares, Á.; Arnolds, E.

    2002-01-01

    Hygrocybe monteverdae, collected in monte-verde forest in the Canary Islands, is proposed as a new species belonging to subgenus Cuphophyllus. Its most remarkable character is the blackening lamellae after drying, being the sole species with this feature in the subgenus.

  2. New and noteworthy species of Pluteus (Pluteaceae, Agaricales) from Kerala State, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradeek, C.K.; Vrinda, K.B.

    2006-01-01

    During our study on the agaric family Pluteaceae of Kerala State, India, several interesting collections belonging to the genus Pluteus were made. Subsequently, a preliminary account of the genus Pluteus sect. Pluteus was published (Pradeep et al., 2002). Further study on the genus revealed two more

  3. Plunging hands into the mushroom jar: a phylogenetic framework for Lyophyllaceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, J-M; Moreau, P-A; Corriol, G; Bidaud, A; Chalange, R; Dudova, Z; Richard, F

    2015-04-01

    During the last two decades, the unprecedented development of molecular phylogenetic tools has propelled an opportunity to revisit the fungal kingdom under an evolutionary perspective. Mycology has been profoundly changed but a sustained effort to elucidate large sections of the astonishing fungal diversity is still needed. Here we fill this gap in the case of Lyophyllaceae, a species-rich and ecologically diversified family of mushrooms. Assembly and genealogical concordance multigene phylogenetic analysis of a large dataset that includes original, vouchered material from expert field mycologists reveal the phylogenetic topology of the family, from higher (generic) to lower (species) levels. A comparative analysis of the most widely used phylogenetic markers in Fungi indicates that the nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS) and portions of the genes for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) is the most performing combination to resolve the broadest range of taxa within Lyophyllaceae. Eleven distinct evolutionary lineages are identified, that display partial overlap with traditional genera as well as with the phylogenetic framework previously proposed for the family. Eighty phylogenetic species are delineated, which shed light on a large number of morphological concepts, including rare and poorly documented ones. Probing these novel phylogenetic species to the barcoding method of species limit delineation, indicates that the latter method fully resolves Lyophyllaceae species, except in one clade. This case study provides the first comprehensive phylogenetic overview of Lyophyllaceae, a necessary step towards a taxonomical, ecological and nomenclatural revision of this family of mushrooms. It also proposes a set of methodological guidelines that may be of relevance for future taxonomic works in other groups of Fungi.

  4. Contemporary documentation of the rare eastern North American species Inocybe insignis (Inocybaceae, Agaricales)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo,Michael; Matheny, P. Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Inocybe insignis, an eastern North American species with greenish blue staining basidiomes, is documented for the first time since its original description circa 75 years ago in the Great Smoky Mountains. Here, we provide a detailed macroscopic and microscopic description and photographs of this rarely collected species, based on material collected in an Illinois oak-hickory forest. Analysis of molecular phylogenetic data strongly supports an evolutionary alliance with Asian and Australasian ...

  5. A gilled mushroom, Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. (Basidiomycota: Agaricales), in Baltic amber.

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    Poinar, George

    2016-09-01

    A densely scaled small mushroom in Baltic amber is described as Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. and is characterized by a convex pileus 1.0 mm in diameter, distant to subdistant lamellae with smooth margins and a centrally inserted cylindrical, solid stipe. Its taxonomic placement is uncertain. This is the first mushroom described from Baltic amber. PMID:27567715

  6. Larvicidal efficiency of the mushroom Amanitamuscaria (Agaricales, Amanitaceae against the mosquito Culexquinquefasciatus (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Marcial Corrêa Cárcamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: We report the larvicidal activity of two formulations from Amanita muscariaagainst Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as the viability of the aqueous extract after storage. METHODS The larvicidal activity of aqueous extract and powder from A. muscaria, and the viability of the aqueous extract after storage, were evaluated. RESULTS The aqueous extract caused larval deaths, which varied from 16.4% to 88.4%. The efficiency of the powder varied from 29.2% to 82.8%. Storage did not interfere with the larvicidal efficiency of the aqueous extract of A. muscaria. CONCLUSIONS These results show the potential of A. muscariato control C. quinquefasciatus.

  7. Insects associated with edible mushroom Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (Agaricales: Agaricaceae) cultivation in Brazil
    Insetos associados ao cultivo do cogumelo comestível Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (Agaricales: Agaricaceae) no Brasil

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    Luzia Paccola Meirelles; Gisele M. Andrade Nobrega; Ulisses B. Albino; Noemia Kazue Ishikawa; Marliton R. Barreto

    2002-01-01

    Lentinula edodes has adapted itself well to the Brazilian climate and its cultivation techniques are accessible to small and large producers. As with any other crop, the shiitake faces insect and pest attack problems, both during the mycelia colonization period in the substrate and during the basidiocarp formation. There is no report up to now of the pests that may attack in the crop in Brazil. Consequently, this study was carried out as a preliminary survey of the insects associated with shi...

  8. Species of Hypholoma (Fr. P. Kumm. (Strophariaceae, Agaricales in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil Espécies de Hypholoma (Fr. P. Kumm. (Strophariaceae, Agaricales no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Vagner Gularte Cortez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Detailed descriptions, illustrations, discussions and a key for identification of the known species of the genus Hypholoma (Fr. P. Kumm. in Rio Grande do Sul state are presented, as well as a revision of the Hypholoma specimens deposited in the Fungi Rickiani collection. Based on the authors' collections and the herbarium revision, the following species were recognized: H. aurantiacum (Cooke Faus, H. ericaeum (Pers.: Fr. Kühner, and H. subviride (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Dennis.Neste trabalho são apresentadas descrições, ilustrações, discussões e chave de identificação para as espécies do gênero Hypholoma (Fr. P. Kumm. conhecidas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, além de uma revisão do material de Hypholoma depositado na coleção Fungi Rickiani. A partir das coletas realizadas pelos autores, bem como estudo do material depositado nos principais herbários do estado e do país, verificou-se a ocorrência das seguintes espécies: H. aurantiacum (Cooke Faus, H. ericaeum (Pers.: Fr. Kühner e H. subviride (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Dennis.

  9. Insects associated with edible mushroom Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler (Agaricales: Agaricaceae cultivation in Brazil Insetos associados ao cultivo do cogumelo comestível Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler (Agaricales: Agaricaceae no Brasil

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    Luzia Paccola Meirelles

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Lentinula edodes has adapted itself well to the Brazilian climate and its cultivation techniques are accessible to small and large producers. As with any other crop, the shiitake faces insect and pest attack problems, both during the mycelia colonization period in the substrate and during the basidiocarp formation. There is no report up to now of the pests that may attack in the crop in Brazil. Consequently, this study was carried out as a preliminary survey of the insects associated with shiitake cultivation both in the growing substrate and in the fruiting bodies. The samples were taken from properties situated in Londrina (PR, Rolândia (PR Nova Friburgo (RJ Sorocaba (SP and Viçosa (MG. As a result, insects from the orders Coleoptera (Bostrichidae, Staphilinidae and Dermestidae, Diptera (Calliphoridae, Himenoptera (Formicidae and Lepidoptera (Stenomatidae, were found. O cultivo de Lentinula edodes apresenta-se em crescente expansão no Brasil. Um dos problemas enfrentados pelos produtores é o ataque de insetos, tanto no substrato de crescimento do micélio, como durante o processo de formação do basidiocarpo. Este trabalho teve por objetivo fazer um levantamento preliminar dos insetos associados ao cultivo do shiitake. Deste modo, foram realizadas coletas de insetos invasores de culturas, por meio do uso de puçá e sugadores, em Londrina (PR, Rolândia (PR, Nova Friburgo (RJ, Sorocaba (SP e Viçosa (MG. Como resultado, foram encontrados insetos das ordens Coleóptera (Bostrichidae, Staphilinidae e Dermestidae, Diptera (Calliphoridae, Himenoptera (Formicidae e Lepidoptera (Stenomatidae.  

  10. Efeito de extratos naturais de folhas vegetais em Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (Möller Singer, (Agaricales: Agaricaceae / Effect of natural extracts of vegetable leaves in Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (Möller Singer, (Agaricales: Agaricaceae

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    Marcelo Dias Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos dos extratos naturais, à base de folhas de diferentes espécies vegetais, em Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, fungo simbionte de formigas cortadeiras. O experimento foi realizado no Laboratório de Proteção Florestal, da Faculdade de Engenharia Florestal, da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, sob temperatura média 26 ± 2ºC, e umidade relativa de 70 ± 10%. Os tratamentos avaliados foram os extratos aquosos a 10% (peso/volume de dez diferentes espécies vegetais. Foram realizados onze tratamentos, sendo que para cada um foi utilizado um recipiente de 1,5 l de volume, colocado na parte central contendo fungo e formigas, no qual era interligado com mais dois recipientes, de igual volume, interligados entre si por um tubo plástico, propiciando condições necessárias para que as formigas desenvolvessem suas atividades normais. O fungo e as formigas cortadeiras, após coletados, foram transferidos para os recipientes em laboratório. Assim que os formigueiros artificiais apresentavam atividades normais, os extratos foram adicionados diretamente sobre o fungo, com exceção da testemunha. Os tratamentos que tiveram efeito deletério sobre o fungo, em ordem decrescente foram os à base de Tabebuia vellosoi (ipê-amarelo-liso, Azadirachta indica (Nim, Magonia pubescens (Timbó, Annona reticulata (Pinha e Amburana acreana (cerejeira.AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of natural extracts of leaves of different plant species, in Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Forest Protection, Federal University from Mato Grosso, on average temperature 26 ± 2º C and relative humidity of 70 ± 10%. The treatments evaluated were the aqueous extracts of 10% (weight/volume of ten different plant species. It was carried out 11 treatments, and for each one a container of 1.5 l volume was used, placed in the central part containing fungus and ants, and it was linked with two more containers with the same volume, interconnected by a plastic tube, providing necessary conditions for the ants to develop their common activities. The fungus and the leaf-cutting ants, after collected, were transferred to the containers in the laboratory. Once the artificial ant nests showed common activities, the extracts were added directly on the fungus, with except of the stands. The treatment that had effect deleterious on the fungus, in descending order were the base of Tabebuia vellosoi (ipe-yellow-flat, Azadirachta indica (Neem, Magonia pubescens (Timbo, Annona reticulata (Pinha and Amburana acreana (cherry.

  11. The largest type study of Agaricales species to date: bringing identification and nomenclature of Phlegmacium (Cortinarius) into the DNA era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liimatainen, K.; Niskanen, T.; Dima, B.; Kytövuori, I.; Ammirati, J.F.; Frøslev, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    Cortinarius is a species-rich and morphologically challenging genus with a cosmopolitan distribution. Many names have not been used consistently and in some instances the same species has been described two or more times under separate names. This study focuses on subg. Phlegmacium as traditionally

  12. The largest type study of Agaricales species to date: bringing identification and nomenclature of Phlegmacium (Cortinarius) into the DNA era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, K; Niskanen, T; Dima, B; Kytövuori, I; Ammirati, J F; Frøslev, T G

    2014-12-01

    Cortinarius is a species-rich and morphologically challenging genus with a cosmopolitan distribution. Many names have not been used consistently and in some instances the same species has been described two or more times under separate names. This study focuses on subg. Phlegmacium as traditionally defined and includes species from boreal and temperate areas of the northern hemisphere. Our goals for this project were to: i) study type material to determine which species already have been described; ii) stabilize the use of Friesian and other older names by choosing a neo- or epitype; iii) describe new species that were discovered during the process of studying specimens; and iv) establish an accurate ITS barcoding database for Phlegmacium species. A total of 236 types representing 154 species were studied. Of these 114 species are described only once whereas 40 species had one ore more synonyms. Of the names studied only 61 were currently represented in GenBank. Neotypes are proposed for 21 species, and epitypes are designated for three species. In addition, 20 new species are described and six new combinations made. As a consequence ITS barcodes for 175 Cortinarius species are released. PMID:25737596

  13. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio Solano Carolina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la 'escoba de bruja' en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presen- ta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cer- canas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Trans- cribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evi- dente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de

    0.6143 y un Indice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a

    alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.

  14. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Osorio-Solano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la ‘escoba de bruja’ en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presenta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cercanas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evidente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de 0.6143 y un índice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.

  15. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. Genetic variability of Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime & Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae in varieties of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Osorio-Solano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la ‘escoba de bruja’ en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presenta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cercanas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evidente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de 0.6143 y un índice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.Moniliophthora perniciosa, the founder agent of the ‘witch’s broom’ on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is one of the most important diseases in cocoa plantations, causing economic losses close to 70% worldwide and 40% nationwide. It shows a high genetic variability and discrepancies in its taxonomy. Characterization of the genetic diversity of biotypes is important for projects aimed towards the handling of this pathogen and the development of resistant cocoa materials. Twelve isolations of the fungus were analyzed in this study from different cocoa material. Each sample was evaluated with molecular markers directed towards a nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA region known as ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, an intergenic region (IGS-1, and five simple sequence repeats (SSR. The IGS-1 allowed the determination of biotype C, however, an evident genetic variability was found within this biotype that has not been yet reported. The genetic diversity analysis of M. perniciosa by microsatellite markers gave a total value of 0.4260, a total heterozygosity of 0.6143, and a polymorphism information content (PIC of 0.3407; these values are considered to be within a medium to high range for the studied isolations, and are an estimation of the genetic variability present in M. perniciosa.

  16. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas, C.; Donk, M.A.

    1965-01-01

    The genus Hygrophorus is perhaps one of the most attractive among the genera of the Agaricales. It is surprising, therefore, that no full treatment of this genus in Europe has ever been published. Doubtless, European mycologists will be strongly stimulated by this American monograph in which 244 tax

  17. Hongos basidiomycetes: una contribución al conocimiento de 14 generos en norte de santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Jackeline Sanchez-Sandoval

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article 14 genera of Basidiomycetes are reported tor Norte de Santander Department. These genera belong to 10 families and 5 orders: Agaricales, Boletales, Schizophyllales, Polyporales and Lycoperdales. The last order belongs to Gasteromycetes. The study was done in Chinócota county, during the years 2003-2004.

  18. The lichen genus Multiclavula R.H.Petersen in China%中国棒瑚菌属地衣的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾泽峰; 任强; 赵遵田

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 INTRODUCTION The genus Multiclavula R.H.Petersen is a member of the family Clavariaceae belonging to Agaricales in Basidiomycota.The Multiclavula was erected by Petersen(1967),who segregated it from Lentaria based on unbranched basidiomata of small size usually lichenized with algae.

  19. A genetic screen for bioluminescence genes in the fungus Armillaria mellea, through the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated random insertional mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioluminescence is reported from 71 saprobic species of fungi from four, distant lineages in the order Agaricales. Analyses of the fungal luminescent chemistry shows that all four lineages share a functionally conserved substrate and luciferase, indicating that the bioluminescent pathway is likely c...

  20. Towards a better understanding of the systematics and diversity of Cortinarius, with an emphasis on species growing in boreal and temperate zones of Europe and North America

    OpenAIRE

    Liimatainen, Kare

    2013-01-01

    Towards a better understanding of the systematics and diversity of Cortinarius, with an emphasis on species growing in boreal and temperate zones of Europe and North America Cortinarius is the largest genus of Agaricales with a global distribution and thousands of species. Cortinarius species are important ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with different trees. At the moment, any estimation of the true diversity of Cortinarius is impossible to determine. Species level taxonomy is the foun...

  1. A checklist of gilled mushrooms (Basidiomycota: Agaricomycetes) with diversity analysis in Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Gogoi; Vipin Parkash

    2015-01-01

    Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary is comprised of five distinct compartments.  A total of 138 species of gilled mushrooms belonging to 48 genera, 23 families, five orders of the class Agaricomycetes, division Basidiomycota, have been collected and analyzed. The order Agaricales was was found with the highest number of species (113), followed by Russulales (14), Polyporales (5), Cantharellales (4) and Boletales (2). The species Coprinellus disseminatus and Megacollybia rodmani have shown t...

  2. Ribosomal biosynthesis of α-amanitin in Galerina marginata

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Hong; Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    Amatoxins, including α-amanitin, are bicyclic octapeptides found in mushrooms (Agaricomycetes, Agaricales) of certain species in the genera Amanita, Galerina, Lepiota, and Conocybe. Amatoxins and the chemically similar phallotoxins are synthesized on ribosomes in Amanita bisporigera, Amanita phalloides, and Amanita ocreata. In order to determine if amatoxins are synthesized by a similar mechanism in another, distantly related mushroom, we obtained genome survey sequence data from a monokaryot...

  3. Agaricus subrufescens : new to Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wisitrassameewong, Komsit; Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Thongklang, Naritsada; Zhao, Rui-Lin; Callac, Philippe; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Bahkali, Ali H.; Kevin D. Hyde

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus subrufescens is an edible and medicinal mushroom of Agaricaceae, Agaricales originally described from North America. It has increasingly been used as a health food and alternative medicine and is also used in cosmetics. Agaricus subrufescens has been shown to exhibit many pharmaceutical traits such as anti-cancer, anti-microbial and immunomodulatory properties and is rich in bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Recently, four specimens of Agaricus subrufescens were co...

  4. Diversity of fungi associated with Rhododendron argyrophyllum and R. floribundum hair roots in Sichuan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zheng; Bo Gao; Lifu Sun; Yanhong Bing; Kequan Pei

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the fungal associates of Rhododendron argyrophyllum and R. floribundum in Sichuan Province. A total of 41 fungal taxa were identified from hair roots based on ITS sequence analyses belonging to the following orders: Helotiales, Eurotiales, Pezizales, and Pleosporales in Ascomycetes, Sebacinales and Agaricales, Erythrobasidiales, and Filobasidiales in Basidiomycetes. Fungal diversity was rich, including ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and other root-associated ...

  5. Circadian Control Sheds Light on Fungal Bioluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Anderson G.; Cassius V. Stevani; Waldenmaier, Hans E.; Viviani, Vadim; Emerson, Jillian M.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Jay C Dunlap

    2015-01-01

    Bioluminescence, the creation and emission of light by organisms, affords insight into the lives of organisms doing it. Luminous living things are widespread and access diverse mechanisms to generate and control luminescence [1-5]. Among the least studied bioluminescent organisms are phylogenetically rare fungi – only 71 species, all within the ~9000 fungi of the temperate and tropical Agaricales Order - are reported from among ~100,000 described fungal species [6,7]. All require oxygen [8] a...

  6. Wood and humus decay strategies by white-rot basidiomycetes correlate with two different dye decolorization and enzyme secretion patterns on agar plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrasa, José M; Blanco, María N; Esteve-Raventós, Fernando; Altés, Alberto; Checa, Julia; Martínez, Angel T; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    During several forays for ligninolytic fungi in different Spanish native forests, 35 white-rot basidiomycetes growing on dead wood (16 species from 12 genera) and leaf litter (19 species from 10 genera) were selected for their ability to decolorize two recalcitrant aromatic dyes (Reactive Blue 38 and Reactive Black 5) added to malt extract agar medium. In this study, two dye decolorization patterns were observed and correlated with two ecophysiological groups (wood and humus white-rot basidiomycetes) and three taxonomical groups (orders Polyporales, Hymenochaetales and Agaricales). Depending on the above groups, different decolorization zones were observed on the dye-containing plates, being restricted to the colony area or extending to the surrounding medium, which suggested two different decay strategies. These two strategies were related to the ability to secrete peroxidases and laccases inside (white-rot wood Polyporales, Hymenochaetales and Agaricales) and outside (white-rot humus Agaricales) of the fungal colony, as revealed by enzymatic tests performed directly on the agar plates. Similar oxidoreductases production patterns were observed when fungi were grown in the absence of dyes, although the set of enzyme released was different. All these results suggest that the decolorization patterns observed could be related with the existence of two decay strategies developed by white-rot basidiomycetes adapted to wood and leaf litter decay in the field.

  7. Rare mycetes of Romania, VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denes PAZMANY

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available In the seventh communication the authors make a new contribution to the knowledge of rare or new macromycetes growing in Romania. There are presented 31 species and 3 varieties collected from Central Transylvania, mostly of them new for the mycoflora of the whole country. The chorological code used for the localization of there species (MTB is that presented by D. Pazmany (25. In the enumeration of the species, mostly Agaricales, they are grouped in 2 classes, 2 sub classes and 6 orders, according to the H. KREISEL's system (22, VI: 188-191. Within these groups the species are enlisted alphabetically. Ecological, chorological and taxonomical problems are discussed.

  8. Rare mycetes of Romania, VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denes PAZMANY

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper it's a new contribution to the knowledge of the Macromycetes growing in Romania. There are presented 52 species collected from Central Transylvania, mostly of them new for mycoflora of the whole country. The chorological code used for the localization (MTB is that presented by D. PAZMANY (1986. In the enumeration of the species the paper follows KREISEL's system from "Handbuch fur Pilzfreunde VI" (1975: the species are grouped in 2 classes and 6 orders, mostly of them belongs to the order Agaricales. Ecological, chorological and taxonomical problems are discussed.

  9. Nueva contribución al conocimiento de los macromicetos de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, D.F., México New contribution to the knowledge of the macromycetes of the Ecological Reserve of the Pedregal of San Ángel, D.F., Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófilo Herrera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se citan 8 especies de macromicetos recolectados en el área poniente de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, D.F., México, de las cuales 5 son lignícolas y 3 humícolas, Se desarrollan a la sombra y entre hojarasca de plantas superiores. Entre los agaricales la familia Agaricaceae es la mejor representada. Se citan por primera vez en la micobiota del Pedregal de San Ángel: Gymnopus confluens, Agrocybe pediades, Agaricus arvensis y A. silvaticus, Setchelliogaster rheophyllus y Coprinus truncorumse citan por primera vez para México.Eight species of macromycetes were collected from the Ecological Reserve of the Pedregal de San Angel D.F. Mexico. Five of them are lignicolous, and 3 are humicolous developing under the shade of trees and among the litter of vascular plants. In the Agaricales the family Agaricaceae is the best represented. Gymnopus confluens, Agrocybe pediades, Agaricus arvensis and A. silvaticus, are first records in the mycobiota of the Pedregal de San Ángel. Setchelliogaster rheophyllus and Coprinus truncorum first records for Mexico are presented in this paper.

  10. SEARCH PRODUCERS OF POLYPHENOLS AND SOME PIGMENTS AMONG BASIDIOMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotov О. V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available General content of polyphenols, carotenoids and melanin in basidiomycetes carpophorus was determined. 50 species were studied, 27 of which belong to the Polyporales form and 23 are to the Agaricales form. In order to determine the total content of phenolic substances spectrophotometric methods were used. Polyphenols were studied in alcoholic extracts through the modified Folin-Chokalteu procedure; melanin — by alkaline hydrolysis and calculated using a calibration curve (by pyrocatechol, carotenoids were studied in acetone extracts and calculated by the Vetshteyn formula. Statistical and cluster analysis of the data enabled to identify species of basidiomycetes that are perspective for biotechnology. The most promising in terms of total polyphenols, carotenoids and melanins of poliporal basidiomycetes are species Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum and Laetiporus sulphureus, and among agarikal fungi — Fistulina hepatica, Flammulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Agrocybe cylindracea and Tricholoma flavovirens. These species of Basidiomycetes were isolated in pure mycelia culture to find out their biosynthetic activity.

  11. 江西黄岗山黄腹角雉的食性观察%Observations on Diet of Cabot's Tragopan at Huanggangshan in Jiangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程松林; 程林; 张彩霞; 吴淑玉; 袁荣斌; 毛夷仙

    2013-01-01

    Food composition and behavior of Tragopan caboti were studied with methods of field observation and captive observation simulated natural environment from May, 2004 to June, 2012 in Jiangxi Wuyishan National Nature Reserve. 78 species (categories) were recorded for food intake by T. caboti during the study period. Among of these foods, 74 species belong to higher plants in 39 families and 65 genera, 4 species belong to Agaricales Tricholomataceae, Hymenoptera Formicidae, Araneae Araneidae and Odonata respectively. Research results show that T. caboti is phytophagous and trophic broad with strong ability of ingestion learning and environment suitability. But the feeding habits of T. caboti are significant different in different environment condition.%2004年5月至2012年6月,在江西武夷山国家级自然保护区(黄岗山)采用野外观察和笼养观察法,对黄腹角雉(Tragopan caboti)的食物构成和习性进行了研究.研究期间共记录到黄腹角雉采食物种78种(类),其中,高等植物39科65属74种,伞菌目(Agaricales)口蘑科(Tricholomataceae)、膜翅目(Hymenoptera)蚁科(Formicidae)、蜘蛛目(Araneae)园蛛科(Araneidae)和蜻蜓目(Odonata)各1种.显示黄腹角雉为植食性、食谱广泛的雉类,采食习性学习能力和环境适应性强,在不同环境条件下行为有较大的差异.

  12. Checklist of the Mycobiota of Iguazú National Park (Misiones, Argentina Catálogo de los hongos del Parque Nacional Iguazú (Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Wright

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A check-list of the fungi recorded from Iguazú National Park, one of the best known preserved areas in South America, has been compiled mainly on the basis of Rolf Singer´s and our own collections and publications. Ten species of Dictyosteliales, 4 of Myxomycetes, 4 of Pezizales, 9 of Hypocreales, 31 of other Ascomycetes, 3 Deuteromycotina and 314 of Basidiomycetes are annotated. This last group is by far the best known, and includes 13 species of jelly-fungi, 6 coral fungi, 84 resupinates, 90 Agaricales s. l., 111 polypores of which 26 are poroid Hymenochaetaceae, and 11 of Gasteromycetes. Furthermore, 8 Ascomycetes, 58 Basidiomycetes and 2 Deuteromycotina were determined to genus. Lichens have been excluded. The microfungi of the Park have hardly been explored, and no phycomycetes are recorded, so the number of species included in this checklist is but a mere sample of the rich mycobiota of the Park.Este catálogo de los hongos registrados para el Parque Nacional Iguazú, una de las áreas preservadas mejor conocidas en América del Sur, ha sido confeccionado principalmente sobre la base de las colecciones y publicaciones de Rolf Singer y las propias. Diez especies de Dictyosteliales, 4 de Myxomycetes, 4 de Pezizales, 9 de Hypocreales, 31 de otros Ascomycetes, 3 Deuteromycotina, y 314 de Basidiomycetes han sido anotadas. Este último grupo es de lejos el mejor conocido, e incluye 13 especies de hongos gelatinosos, 6 de hongos clavarioides, 84 de resupinados, 90 de Agaricales s. l., 111 de políporos, de los cuales 26 son Hymenochaetaceae poroides, y 11 de Gasteromycetes. Además, 8 Ascomycetes, 58 Basidiomycetes y 2 Deuteromycotina fueron solo determinados a nivel de género. Los líquenes han sido excluídos. Los microhongos del Parque apenas han sido explorados, y no se han registrado 'ficomicetes', de modo que el número de especies que se presenta aquí son tan sólo un mero muestreo de la micobiota del Parque.

  13. Comparative genomics of the mating-type loci of the mushroom Flammulina velutipes reveals widespread synteny and recent inversions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arend F van Peer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mating-type loci of mushroom fungi contain master regulatory genes that control recognition between compatible nuclei, maintenance of compatible nuclei as heterokaryons, and fruiting body development. Regions near mating-type loci in fungi often show adapted recombination, facilitating the generation of novel mating types and reducing the production of self-compatible mating types. Compared to other fungi, mushroom fungi have complex mating-type systems, showing both loci with redundant function (subloci and subloci with many alleles. The genomic organization of mating-type loci has been solved in very few mushroom species, which complicates proper interpretation of mating-type evolution and use of those genes in breeding programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report a complete genetic structure of the mating-type loci from the tetrapolar, edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes mating type A3B3. Two matB3 subloci, matB3a that contains a unique pheromone and matB3b, were mapped 177 Kb apart on scaffold 1. The matA locus of F. velutipes contains three homeodomain genes distributed over 73 Kb distant matA3a and matA3b subloci. The conserved matA region in Agaricales approaches 350 Kb and contains conserved recombination hotspots showing major rearrangements in F. velutipes and Schizophyllum commune. Important evolutionary differences were indicated; separation of the matA subloci in F. velutipes was diverged from the Coprinopsis cinerea arrangement via two large inversions whereas separation in S. commune emerged through transposition of gene clusters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In our study we determined that the Agaricales have very large scale synteny at matA (∼350 Kb and that this synteny is maintained even when parts of this region are separated through chromosomal rearrangements. Four conserved recombination hotspots allow reshuffling of large fragments of this region. Next to this, it was revealed that large distance subloci

  14. Mushroom host influence on Lycoriella mali (Diptera: Sciaridae) life cycle.

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    O'Connor, L; Keil, C B

    2005-04-01

    Lycoriella mali Fitch (Diptera: Sciaridae) infests mushroom crops early in the crop cycle. Recent observations in mushroom houses indicated a difference in emergence time and size of adult L. mali developing on various strains of commercial mushrooms. Samples of adult flies from isolated mushroom houses growing Portabella mushrooms were significantly heavier then those from oyster mushroom houses, whereas flies from shiitake mushroom houses were lightest in weight. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on four strains and species of Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms. After the adults emerged, females were weighed, mated, and allowed to oviposit. The number of eggs laid increased as the weight of the female increased. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on eight strains and species of mushrooms. Flies were reared for four generations on each host mushroom mycelium then switched to different host mushrooms. Overall, the hybrid strain of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricomycetideae) was the most favorable host for L. mali, whereas the wild strain of A. bisporus was the least favorable host. Mushroom hosts influence developmental time, survivorship, weight, and reproduction of L. mali. PMID:15889722

  15. Conservation of biotrophy in Hygrophoraceae inferred from combined stable isotope and phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzman, Brian H; Ouimette, Andrew; Mixon, Rachel L; Hobbie, Erik A; Hibbett, David S

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional modes of genera in Hygrophoraceae (Basidiomycota: Agaricales), apart from the ectomycorrhizal Hygrophorus and lichen-forming taxa, are uncertain. New δ(15)N and δ(13)C values were obtained from 15 taxa under Hygrophoraceae collected in central Massachusetts and combined with isotopic datasets from five prior studies including a further 12 species using a data standardization method to allow cross-site comparison. Based on these data, we inferred the probable nutritional modes for species of Hygrophorus, Hygrocybe, Humidicutis, Cuphophyllus and Gliophorus. A phylogeny of Hygrophoraceae was constructed by maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear ribosomal 28S and 5.8S sequences and standardized δ(15)N and δ(13)C values were used for parsimony optimization on this phylogeny. Our results supported a mode of biotrophy in Hygrocybe, Humidicutis, Cuphophyllus and Gliophorus quantitatively unlike that in more than 450 other fungal taxa sampled in the present and prior studies. Parsimony optimization of stable isotope data suggests moderate conservation of nutritional strategies in Hygrophoraceae and a single switch to a predominantly ectomycorrhizal life strategy in the lineage leading to Hygrophorus. We conclude that Hygrophoraceae of previously unknown nutritional status are unlikely to be saprotrophs and are probably in symbiosis with bryophytes or other understory plants. PMID:21139028

  16. Potential link between plant and fungal distributions in a dipterocarp rainforest: community and phylogenetic structure of tropical ectomycorrhizal fungi across a plant and soil ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Kabir G; Kennedy, Peter G; Davies, Stuart J; Tan, Sylvester; Bruns, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    *Relatively little is known about diversity or structure of tropical ectomycorrhizal communities or their roles in tropical ecosystem dynamics. In this study, we present one of the largest molecular studies to date of an ectomycorrhizal community in lowland dipterocarp rainforest. *We sampled roots from two 0.4 ha sites located across an ecotone within a 52 ha forest dynamics plot. Our plots contained > 500 tree species and > 40 species of ectomycorrhizal host plants. Fungi were identified by sequencing ribosomal RNA genes. *The community was dominated by the Russulales (30 species), Boletales (17), Agaricales (18), Thelephorales (13) and Cantharellales (12). Total species richness appeared comparable to molecular studies of temperate forests. Community structure changed across the ecotone, although it was not possible to separate the role of environmental factors vs host plant preferences. Phylogenetic analyses were consistent with a model of community assembly where habitat associations are influenced by evolutionary conservatism of functional traits within ectomycorrhizal lineages. *Because changes in the ectomycorrhizal fungal community parallel those of the tree community at this site, this study demonstrates the potential link between the distribution of tropical tree diversity and the distribution of tropical ectomycorrhizal diversity in relation to local-scale edaphic variation.

  17. 高温蘑菇“夏菇93”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@当前我国常规栽培的蘑菇(双孢蘑菇)只能在22℃以下出菇,在自然气候条件下,年栽培1次。9月播种,采菇期集中在10月~次年4月,6~9月高温季节不能栽培,菇房闲置,鲜菇断档。 浙江省农科院成功地培育出适合于夏季栽培的高温型四孢蘑菇“夏菇93”(原名“浙AgH-1)。按其形态学特征属于伞菌目Agaricales,蘑菇科Agaricaceae,蘑菇属Agaricus, 双环蘑菇Agaricus bitorquis(Quel)Sacc.[异名A.edulis(Witt)Moller & Schaeff.syn.等]。该品种已于1999年8月11日通过浙江省品种审定委员会食药用菌专业组现场考察。2000年4月通过浙江省品种审定委员会认定。

  18. Study on the ice nucleation activity of fungal spores (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pummer, B. G.; Atanasova, L.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.; Druzhinina, I. S.; Grothe, H.

    2012-04-01

    Biogenic ice nucleation (IN) in the atmosphere is a topic of growing interest, as, according to IPCC, the impact of IN on global climate is crucial to perform reliable climate model calculations. About 20 years ago IN activity of a few lichen and Fusarium species [1,2] was reported, while all other investigated fungi were IN-negative. However, as the fungal kingdom is vast, many abundant species, especially the Basidiomycota (most mushrooms), were not tested before. Furthermore, the focus of the past studies was on the IN activity of the mycelium as a cryoprotective mechanism, and not on the airborne spores. We carried out oil immersion measurements [3] with spores from 17 different fungal species of ecological, economical or sanitary importance. Most of these species have not been investigated before, like exponents of Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Agaricales (most mushrooms). Apart from F. avenaceum, spores of all measured species showed moderate or no IN activity, supporting the hypothesis that significant IN activity is a rather exclusive property of only a few species within the fungal kingdom. [1] Kieft TL and Ruscetti T: J. Bacteriol. 172, 3519-3523, 1990. [2] Pouleur S et al.: Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 58, 2960-2964, 1992. [3] Marcolli C et al.: Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 5081-5091, 2007.

  19. Ericaceous plant-fungus network in a harsh alpine-subalpine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, H; Tanabe, A S; Ishii, H S

    2016-07-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, plant species and diverse root-associated fungi form complex networks of host-symbiont associations. Recent studies have revealed that structures of those below-ground plant-fungus networks differ between arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal symbioses. Nonetheless, we still remain ignorant of how ericaceous plant species, which dominate arctic and alpine tundra, constitute networks with their root-associated fungi. Based on a high-throughput DNA sequencing data set, we characterized the statistical properties of a network involving 16 ericaceous plant species and more than 500 fungal taxa in the alpine-subalpine region of Mt. Tateyama, central Japan. While all the 16 ericaceous species were associated mainly with fungi in the order Helotiales, they varied remarkably in association with fungi in other orders such as Sebacinales, Atheliales, Agaricales, Russulales and Thelephorales. The ericaceous plant-fungus network was characterized by high symbiont/host preferences. Moreover, the network had a characteristic structure called 'anti-nestedness', which has been previously reported in ectomycorrhizal plant-fungus networks. The results lead to the hypothesis that ericaceous plants in harsh environments can host unexpectedly diverse root-associated fungal taxa, constituting networks whose structures are similar to those of previously reported ectomycorrhizal networks but not to those of arbuscular mycorrhizal ones. PMID:27136380

  20. Potential link between plant and fungal distributions in a dipterocarp rainforest: community and phylogenetic structure of tropical ectomycorrhizal fungi across a plant and soil ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Kabir G; Kennedy, Peter G; Davies, Stuart J; Tan, Sylvester; Bruns, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    *Relatively little is known about diversity or structure of tropical ectomycorrhizal communities or their roles in tropical ecosystem dynamics. In this study, we present one of the largest molecular studies to date of an ectomycorrhizal community in lowland dipterocarp rainforest. *We sampled roots from two 0.4 ha sites located across an ecotone within a 52 ha forest dynamics plot. Our plots contained > 500 tree species and > 40 species of ectomycorrhizal host plants. Fungi were identified by sequencing ribosomal RNA genes. *The community was dominated by the Russulales (30 species), Boletales (17), Agaricales (18), Thelephorales (13) and Cantharellales (12). Total species richness appeared comparable to molecular studies of temperate forests. Community structure changed across the ecotone, although it was not possible to separate the role of environmental factors vs host plant preferences. Phylogenetic analyses were consistent with a model of community assembly where habitat associations are influenced by evolutionary conservatism of functional traits within ectomycorrhizal lineages. *Because changes in the ectomycorrhizal fungal community parallel those of the tree community at this site, this study demonstrates the potential link between the distribution of tropical tree diversity and the distribution of tropical ectomycorrhizal diversity in relation to local-scale edaphic variation. PMID:19878464

  1. Selective isolation of dematiaceous fungi from the workers of Atta laevigata (Formicidae: Attini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, F L A; Attili-Angelis, D; Pagnocca, F C

    2012-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants (Formicidae: Attini) are considered pests in agriculture for their impact in human crops, as they utilize leaf fragments to raise their fungal mutualist (Agaricales: Lepiotaceae). Basically, the basidiomycetous fungus is cultivated to supply food to adult workers and broads; in return, the ants protect it against natural enemies. However, recent studies have claimed that other microorganisms are associated to ant nests where a wide range of interactions may take place. To investigate the occurrence of dematiaceous fungi on the cuticle of Atta laevigata ants, 30 workers were sampled from an adult nest located in the surroundings of the Center for the Studies of Social Insects, UNESP-Rio Claro, SP, Brazil. The use of selective techniques to avoid high-sporulation fungi has been recommended and was tested in this study. To favor the isolation of the desired fungi, heads and cuticle scrapings of ant bodies were inoculated on Mycosel agar and incubated for 3 weeks at 35°C. Morphological and molecular methods were used to identify the filamentous fungi recovered. From 56 isolates, 19 were hyaline filamentous species, and among the remaining 37, some are mentioned as phyto-associated fungi like Alternaria arborescens, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Bipolaris eleusines, Bipolaris zeae, Curvularia trifolii, and Paraphaeosphaeria michotii. These species are reported from A. laevigata bodies for the first time. None of the isolation trials revealed the presence of the parasite Escovopsis or entomopathogenic fungi. The possible spread of the fungi in nature by the ants is discussed.

  2. Arctic root-associated fungal community composition reflects environmental filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaalid, Rakel; Davey, Marie L; Kauserud, Håvard; Carlsen, Tor; Halvorsen, Rune; Høiland, Klaus; Eidesen, Pernille B

    2014-02-01

    There is growing evidence that root-associated fungi have important roles in Arctic ecosystems. Here, we assess the diversity of fungal communities associated with roots of the ectomycorrhizal perennial herb Bistorta vivipara on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and investigate whether spatial separation and bioclimatic variation are important structuring factors of fungal community composition. We sampled 160 plants of B. vivipara from 32 localities across Svalbard. DNA was extracted from entire root systems, and 454 pyrosequencing of ITS1 amplicons was used to profile the fungal communities. The fungal communities were predominantly composed of Basidiomycota (55% of reads) and Ascomycota (35%), with the orders Thelephorales (24%), Agaricales (13.8%), Pezizales (12.6%) and Sebacinales (11.3%) accounting for most of the reads. Plants from the same site or region had more similar fungal communities to one another than plants from other sites or regions, and sites clustered together along a weak latitudinal gradient. Furthermore, a decrease in per-plant OTU richness with increasing latitude was observed. However, no statistically significant spatial autocorrelation between sites was detected, suggesting that environmental filtering, not dispersal limitation, causes the observed patterns. Our analyses suggest that while latitudinal patterns in community composition and richness might reflect bioclimatic influences at global spatial scales, at the smaller spatial scale of the Svalbard archipelago, these changes more likely reflect varied bedrock composition and associated edaphic factors. The need for further studies focusing on identifying those specific bioclimatic and edaphic factors structuring root-associated fungal community composition at both global and local scales is emphasized. PMID:24320873

  3. A checklist of gilled mushrooms (Basidiomycota: Agaricomycetes with diversity analysis in Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Gogoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary is comprised of five distinct compartments.  A total of 138 species of gilled mushrooms belonging to 48 genera, 23 families, five orders of the class Agaricomycetes, division Basidiomycota, have been collected and analyzed. The order Agaricales was was found with the highest number of species (113, followed by Russulales (14, Polyporales (5, Cantharellales (4 and Boletales (2. The species Coprinellus disseminatus and Megacollybia rodmani have shown the highest (8.26 and the lowest density (0.05, respectively.  A total of 24 species, e.g., Termitomyces albuminosus, Marasmius curreyi, Marasmiellus candidus, Leucocoprinus medioflavus, Mycena leaiana, Hygrocybe miniata, Collybia chrysoropha, Gymnopus confluens were common with frequency percentage of 11.9, whereas Megacollybia rodmani with less frequency percentage (2.4 was found only in few quadrates of the sanctuary.  The highly abundant species were Termitomyces medius (91.7 and Coprinellus disseminatus (86.8, and less abundant species were Psilocybe wayanadensis (1.0 and Lepiota sp. (1.0 in the study site.  The order of the species richness index (R compartment wise was 2>3>4>5>1. Both the Shannon diversity index and Simpson diversity index of agarics was maximum (1.88, 0.98 in compartment 2, whereas minimum (1.72, 0.95 in compartment 1 and 5, respectively.  Moreover, the compartment 2 was found very much similar with compartment 3 and very less similar with compartment 1. 

  4. Circadian control sheds light on fungal bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson G; Stevani, Cassius V; Waldenmaier, Hans E; Viviani, Vadim; Emerson, Jillian M; Loros, Jennifer J; Dunlap, Jay C

    2015-03-30

    Bioluminescence, the creation and emission of light by organisms, affords insight into the lives of organisms doing it. Luminous living things are widespread and access diverse mechanisms to generate and control luminescence [1-5]. Among the least studied bioluminescent organisms are phylogenetically rare fungi-only 71 species, all within the ∼ 9,000 fungi of the temperate and tropical Agaricales order-are reported from among ∼ 100,000 described fungal species [6, 7]. All require oxygen [8] and energy (NADH or NADPH) for bioluminescence and are reported to emit green light (λmax 530 nm) continuously, implying a metabolic function for bioluminescence, perhaps as a byproduct of oxidative metabolism in lignin degradation. Here, however, we report that bioluminescence from the mycelium of Neonothopanus gardneri is controlled by a temperature-compensated circadian clock, the result of cycles in content/activity of the luciferase, reductase, and luciferin that comprise the luminescent system. Because regulation implies an adaptive function for bioluminescence, a controversial question for more than two millennia [8-15], we examined interactions between luminescent fungi and insects [16]. Prosthetic acrylic resin "mushrooms," internally illuminated by a green LED emitting light similar to the bioluminescence, attract staphilinid rove beetles (coleopterans), as well as hemipterans (true bugs), dipterans (flies), and hymenopterans (wasps and ants), at numbers far greater than dark control traps. Thus, circadian control may optimize energy use for when bioluminescence is most visible, attracting insects that can in turn help in spore dispersal, thereby benefitting fungi growing under the forest canopy, where wind flow is greatly reduced.

  5. Soil eukaryotic microorganism succession as affected by continuous cropping of peanut--pathogenic and beneficial fungi were selected.

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    Mingna Chen

    Full Text Available Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping.

  6. Soil eukaryotic microorganism succession as affected by continuous cropping of peanut--pathogenic and beneficial fungi were selected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping.

  7. Correspondence of ectomycorrhizal diversity and colonisation of willows (Salix spp.) grown in short rotation coppice on arable sites and adjacent natural stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Toljander, Ylva K; Baum, Christel; Fransson, Petra M A; Taylor, Andy F S; Weih, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are mycorrhizal tree species sometimes cultivated as short rotation coppice (SRC) on arable sites for energy purposes; they are also among the earliest plants colonising primary successional sites in natural stands. The objective of this study was to analyse the degree of colonisation and diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities on willows grown as SRC in arable soils and their adjacent natural or naturalized stands. Arable sites usually lack ectomycorrhizal host plants before the establishment of SRC, and adjacent natural or naturalized willow stands were hypothesized to be a leading source of ectomycorrhizal inoculum for the SRC. Three test sites including SRC stands (Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados, and Salix schwerinii) and adjacent natural or naturalized (Salix caprea, Salix fragilis, and Salix × mollissima) stands in central Sweden were investigated on EM colonisation and morphotypes, and the fungal partners of 36 of the total 49 EM fungi morphotypes were identified using molecular tools. The frequency of mycorrhizas in the natural/naturalized stands was higher (two sites) or lower (one site) than in the corresponding cultivated stands. Correspondence analysis revealed that some EM taxa (e.g. Agaricales) were mostly associated with cultivated willows, while others (e.g. Thelephorales) were mostly found in natural/naturalized stands. In conclusion, we found strong effects of sites and willow genotype on EM fungi formation, but poor correspondence between the EM fungi abundance and diversity in SRC and their adjacent natural/naturalized stands. The underlying mechanism might be selective promotion of some EM fungi species by more effective spore dispersal.

  8. Correspondence of ectomycorrhizal diversity and colonisation of willows (Salix spp.) grown in short rotation coppice on arable sites and adjacent natural stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Toljander, Ylva K; Baum, Christel; Fransson, Petra M A; Taylor, Andy F S; Weih, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are mycorrhizal tree species sometimes cultivated as short rotation coppice (SRC) on arable sites for energy purposes; they are also among the earliest plants colonising primary successional sites in natural stands. The objective of this study was to analyse the degree of colonisation and diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities on willows grown as SRC in arable soils and their adjacent natural or naturalized stands. Arable sites usually lack ectomycorrhizal host plants before the establishment of SRC, and adjacent natural or naturalized willow stands were hypothesized to be a leading source of ectomycorrhizal inoculum for the SRC. Three test sites including SRC stands (Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados, and Salix schwerinii) and adjacent natural or naturalized (Salix caprea, Salix fragilis, and Salix × mollissima) stands in central Sweden were investigated on EM colonisation and morphotypes, and the fungal partners of 36 of the total 49 EM fungi morphotypes were identified using molecular tools. The frequency of mycorrhizas in the natural/naturalized stands was higher (two sites) or lower (one site) than in the corresponding cultivated stands. Correspondence analysis revealed that some EM taxa (e.g. Agaricales) were mostly associated with cultivated willows, while others (e.g. Thelephorales) were mostly found in natural/naturalized stands. In conclusion, we found strong effects of sites and willow genotype on EM fungi formation, but poor correspondence between the EM fungi abundance and diversity in SRC and their adjacent natural/naturalized stands. The underlying mechanism might be selective promotion of some EM fungi species by more effective spore dispersal. PMID:22415721

  9. The mitochondrial LSU rRNA group II intron of Ustilago maydis encodes an active homing endonuclease likely involved in intron mobility.

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    Anja Pfeifer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The a2 mating type locus gene lga2 is critical for uniparental mitochondrial DNA inheritance during sexual development of Ustilago maydis. Specifically, the absence of lga2 results in biparental inheritance, along with efficient transfer of intronic regions in the large subunit rRNA gene between parental molecules. However, the underlying role of the predicted LAGLIDADG homing endonuclease gene I-UmaI located within the group II intron LRII1 has remained unresolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the enzymatic activity of I-UmaI in vitro based on expression of a tagged full-length and a naturally occurring mutant derivative, which harbors only the N-terminal LAGLIDADG domain. This confirmed Mg²⁺-dependent endonuclease activity and cleavage at the LRII1 insertion site to generate four base pair extensions with 3' overhangs. Specifically, I-UmaI recognizes an asymmetric DNA sequence with a minimum length of 14 base pairs (5'-GACGGGAAGACCCT-3' and tolerates subtle base pair substitutions within the homing site. Enzymatic analysis of the mutant variant indicated a correlation between the activity in vitro and intron homing. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that putatively functional or former functional I-UmaI homologs are confined to a few members within the Ustilaginales and Agaricales, including the phylogenetically distant species Lentinula edodes, and are linked to group II introns inserted into homologous positions in the LSU rDNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present data provide strong evidence that intron homing efficiently operates under conditions of biparental inheritance in U. maydis. Conversely, uniparental inheritance may be critical to restrict the transmission of mobile introns. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that I-UmaI-associated introns have been acquired independently in distant taxa and are more widespread than anticipated from available genomic data.

  10. SCREENING OF CONTENT AND DYNAMIC OF ACCUMULATION OF POLYPHENOLS IN SOME BASIDIOMYCETES SPECIES

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    Veligodska A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the total content of polyphenolic substances in Basidiomycetes carpophores from 50 species, of which 27 belong to the order Polyporales and 23 to the order Agaricales. Introduced 23 strains of 8 species of Basidiomycetes. Methods. Gathered wild carpophores dried and crushed to a particle size of 0,1 till 0,01 mm and searching strains were cultured in Erlenmeyyers flasks by surface method on standard glucose-peptone culture medium. Determination of total content of polyphenolic compounds was carried out in ethanol extracts of mycological material by a modified method of Folin-Chokalteu. Completely dry biomass of carpophores and mycelium was determined gravimetrically. Results. There was identified the species of polyporal fungi Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus and Fomes fomentarius and types of agarical mushrooms Stropharia rugosoannulata, Agrocybe cylindracea, Tricholoma flavovirens, Flammulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Fistulina hepatica high in polyphenolic compounds. It was determined the content of polyphenols ranging from more than 60 mg / g completely dry biomass. For introduced strains established dynamics of growth and accumulation of polyphenolic compounds in the mycelium and culture filtrate during fermentation on glucose-peptone medium. All cultures reach a maximum accumulation of biomass on the 12th day of growth. Shizophyllum commune Sc-1101 and 10 and F. velutipes F-202 have been identified as the most productive strains. The lowest accumulation of absolutely dry biomass was recorded for strain P. ostreatus P-192 and strain F. fomentarius Ff-09. Cultures have investigated individual value growth such as biomass accumulation in the applied cultivation conditions, which probably reflects the suitability of the medium for their growth and genotypic characteristics. Strains are overwhelmingly able to accumulate polyphenolic compounds in both mycelium and