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Sample records for agar

  1. Boron Analysis of Alga and Agar-Agar by Prompt Gamma-Ray Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research is to develop Prompt Gamma-Ray Technique and to analyse boron concentration in Alga and Agar-Agar. The equipments were designed to find the suitable position of neutron source and detector and the suitable model of collimator, in order to attenuating background. After that, these equipments were used to determine the concentration of boron in Alga and Agar-Agar

  2. Isolation of a Bacterium Strain Degraded Agar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One in 58 strains of bacteria isolated from the compost showed clear colonies after a few days of growth on the plates containing medium made of only agar and water.Water suspension contained only agar (2 and 8g·L -1 ) with two controls (normal saline,LB medium) was inoculated with the bacterium BR5-1 to see whether there was an increasement of the alive bacteria concentration after 48 h of the growth.The results showed that there was a significant rising of the alive bacteria concentration in the agar susp...

  3. Agar agar-stabilized milled zerovalent iron particles for in situ groundwater remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Micić, Vesna; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-09-01

    Submicron-scale milled zerovalent iron (milled ZVI) particles produced by grinding macroscopic raw materials could provide a cost-effective alternative to nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles for in situ degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in groundwater. However, the aggregation and settling of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension presents a significant obstacle to their in situ application for groundwater remediation. In our investigations we reduced the rapid aggregation and settling rate of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension by stabilization with a "green" agar agar polymer. The transport potential of stabilized milled ZVI particle suspensions in a diverse array of natural heterogeneous porous media was evaluated in a series of well-controlled laboratory column experiments. The impact of agar agar on trichloroethene (TCE) removal by milled ZVI particles was assessed in laboratory-scale batch reactors. The use of agar agar significantly enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in all of the investigated porous media. Reactivity tests showed that the agar agar-stabilized milled ZVI particles were reactive towards TCE, but that their reactivity was an order of magnitude less than that of bare, non-stabilized milled ZVI particles. Our results suggest that milled ZVI particles could be used as an alternative to nZVI particles as their potential for emplacement into contaminated zone, their reactivity, and expected longevity are beneficial for in situ groundwater remediation. PMID:26596889

  4. Sorption of U(VI) on natural sepiolite and sepiolite-agar agar composite adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption of uranium (VI) ions onto clay minerals is one of the significant reactions affecting the transport of uranium in the environment. The use of composite adsorbents for the removal of metal ions and radionuclide from industrial wastes has attracted great interest to researchers in recent years[1]. In this study, natural sepiolite type clay and an organic compound, agar agar, were chosen as the adsorbent material. Composite adsorbent was prepared from sepiolite and agar agar. Adsorption of uranium (VI) on this composite and on natural sepiolite adsorbent was investigated. Thermodynamic investigations were carried out to get more information about the adsorption of uranium. Adsorption of U (VI) has been studied as a function of solution pH, time, temperature and initial concentration of uranium on natural sepiolite and agar agar composite. The maximum sorption yield of U (VI) on composite and on sepiolite from batch experiments is calculated approximately 89% and 76% respectively in the optimum experimental adsorption condition. The adsorption data were fitted to Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms. Using the experimental data obtained different temperatures, thermodynamic constants ΔHdegree, ΔSdegree and ΔGdegree were calculated. The results show that the adsorption process on natural sepiolite and sepiolite-agar agar composite are both egzothermic natures. [1] S. M. Hasany, M. M. Saeed, M. Ahmed, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Vol. 252 (3), 477-484 (2002)

  5. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics. PMID:18274277

  6. Use of agar agar stabilized milled zero-valent iron particles for in situ groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Doris; Velimirović, Milica; Wagner, Stephan; Micić Batka, Vesna; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    A major obstacle for use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles as a nontoxic material for effective in situ degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) is the high production cost. For that reason, submicro-scale milled zero-valent iron particles were recently developed (milled ZVI, UVR-FIA, Germany) by grinding macroscopic raw materials of elementary iron as a cheaper alternative to products produced by solid-state reduction. However, milled ZVI particles tend to aggregate and due to the rather large particle size (d50= 11.9 µm) also rapidly sediment. To prevent aggregation and consequently sedimentation of milled ZVI particles and therefore improve the mobility after in situ application, the use of a stabilizer is considered in literature as a most promising option. In this study, milled ZVI particles (1 g L-1 of particle concentration) were stabilized by environmentally friendly polymer agar agar (>0.5 g L-1), which had a positive impact on the milled ZVI stability. Sedimentation rate was significantly decreased by increasing the suspension viscosity. Column transport experiments were performed for bare and agar agar stabilized milled ZVI particles in commercially available fine grained quartz sand (DORSILIT® Nr.8, Gebrüder Dorfner GmbH Co, Germany) and different porous media collected from brownfields. The experiments were carried out under field relevant injection conditions of 100 m d-1. The maximal travel distance (LT) of less than 10 cm was determined for non-stabilized suspension in fine grained quartz sand, while agar agar (1 g L-1) stabilized milled ZVI suspension revealed LT of 12 m. Similar results were observed for porous media from brownfields showing that mobility of agar agar stabilized particle suspensions was significantly improved compared to bare particles. Based on the mobility data, agar agar stabilized milled zero-valent iron particles could be used for in situ application. Finally, lab-scale batch degradation

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Nano Hydroxyapatite with Agar-Agar Bio-Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Senthilarasan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite used for bone replacement is one of the most active areas of ceramic biomaterials research currently. It is a desirable implant material due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. Agar agar is a biological polymer frequently used in tissue engineering and pharmaceutical for potential use in bone replacement. Nano hydroxyapatite was successfully synthesized by wet chemical precipitation method . In this work nHAp/agar composite were synthesized and characterization of the compound were done by using characterization Fourier transform infrared(FTIR, X-ray diffract ration (XRD, Transmission electron microscope(TEM and Energy dispersive analysis of X-ray spectrum(EDAX.

  8. Characteristic features and dye degrading capability of agar-agar gel immobilized manganese peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz

    2016-05-01

    Immobilization of enzymes has been regarded as an efficient approach to develop biocatalyst with improved activity and stability characteristics under reaction conditions. In the present study, purified manganese peroxidase (MnP) from Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 was immobilized in agar-agar support using entrapment technique. Maximum immobilization yield was accomplished at 4.0% agar-agar gel. The immobilized MnP exhibited better resistance to changes in pH and temperature than the free enzyme, with optimal conditions being pH 6.0 and 50 °C. The kinetic parameters Km and Kcat/Km for free and entrapped MnP were calculated to be 65.6 mM and 6.99 M(-1) s(-1), and 82 mM and 8.15 M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Thermo-stability was significantly improved after immobilization. After 120 h, the insolubilized MnP retained its activity up to 71.9% and 60.3% at 30 °C and 40 °C, respectively. It showed activity until 10th cycle and retained 74.3% residual activity after 3th cycle. The effects of H2O2, ionic strength and potential inhibitors on activity of free and immobilized enzyme were investigated. Moreover, the decolorization of three structurally different dyes was monitored in order to assess the degrading capability of the entrapped MnP. The decolorization efficiencies for all the tested dyes were 78.6-84.7% after 12h. The studies concluded that the toxicity of dyes aqueous solutions was significantly reduced after treatment. The remarkable catalytic, thermo-stability and re-cycling features of the agar-agar immobilized MnP display a high potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:26854887

  9. Pengaruh konsentrasi Sukrosa Dan Agar-agar Terhadap Mutu Permen Jelly Sirsak

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhasanah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find the effect of the sucrose concentration and agar on quality of soursop soft candy. This research was conducted in May-August 2010 at the Laboratory of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, North Sumatera University, Medan, using completely randomized design with two factors, ie : sucrose concentration (S) : (60, 62, 65 and 67%) and agar concentration (A) : (2.5, 2.7, 3.0 and 3.2%). Parameters analyzed were fiber content, moisture content, total solube ...

  10. Pengaruh Perbandingan Buah Naga Merah Dengan Sirsak Dan Konsentrasi Agar-Agar Terhadap Mutu Selai Lembaran

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Yolanda Maria Selina

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed to know the effect of ratio of red dragon fruit with soursop and agar concentration on the quality of slice jam. This research was conducted using a completely randomized design with two factors, namely the ratio of red dragon fruit with soursop (80%:20%, 60%:40%, 50%:50%, 40%:60, and 20%:80%) and the agar concentration (0,5%, 1%, and 1,5%). The parameters analyzed were the level of moisture content, total soluble solids, vitamin C,crude fiber content, crude pectin co...

  11. Improving agar electrospinnability with choline-based deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Uknalis, Joseph; Liu, Shih-Chuan; Gonçalves, Maria P; Liu, LinShu

    2015-09-01

    Very recently our group has produced novel agar-based fibers by an electrospinning technique using water as solvent and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as co-blending polymer. Here, we tested the deep eutectic solvent (DES), (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride/urea prepared at 1:2 molar ratio, as an alternative solvent medium for agar electrospinning. The electrospun materials were collected with an ethanol bath adapted to a previous electrospinning set-up. One weight percent agar-in-DES showed improved viscoelasticity and hence, spinnability, when compared to 1 wt% agar-in-water and pure agar nanofibers were successfully electrospun if working above the temperature of sol-gel transition (∼80 °C). By changing the solvent medium we decreased the PVA concentration (5 wt% starting solution) and successfully produced composite fibers with high agar contents (50/50 agar/PVA). Best composite fibers were formed with the 50/50 and 30/70 agar/PVA solutions. These fibers were mechanically resistant, showed tailorable surface roughness and diverse size distributions, with most of the diameters falling in the sub-micron range. Both nano and micro forms of agar fibers (used separately or combined) may have potential for the design of new and highly functional agar-based materials. PMID:26116384

  12. Poisoning with brown fly agaric, Amanita regalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonen, E; Tarssanen, L; Härkönen, M

    1979-01-01

    Three patients ate different amounts of a common northern mushroom, brown fly agaric, Amanita regalis. All of them believed they had eaten delicious parasol mushrooms, Macrolepiota procera. The symptoms of poisoning began 1--2 hours after ingestion of the mushrooms. All the patients had marked gastrointestinal symptoms: nausea and heavy vomiting. Two had central nervous system manifestations and cholinergic symptoms: hallucinations, confusion, or loss of consciousness as well as copious salivation, or sweating. All patients recovered within 4--24 hours without any damage to liver, kidneys or central nervous system. It seems that cooking the mushrooms does not completely neutralize the toxic agents of Amanita regalis. The analysis of fried mushrooms shows that it may be possible to identify mushrooms reliably from the remains of a meal. PMID:760400

  13. Chocolate agar, a differential medium for gram-positive cocci.

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    Reactions incurred on chocolate agar by gram-positive cocci were correlated with species identity. Darkening and clearing of the medium was usually associated with the species Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Streptococcus faecalis. Yellowing of chocolate agar was associated with alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus. The study demonstrated that reactions occurring on chocolate agar are useful in identifying gram-positive cocci.

  14. Acanthamoeba on Sabouraud's agar from a patient with keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Baradkar, Vasant; Samal, Badhuli; Mali, Swapna A; Kulkarni, Ketaki; Shastri, Jayanthi

    2011-01-01

    A 25-year-old transgender patient came with complaints of watery discharge, red eye and photophobia in the left eye since 2 days. The patient had a history of wearing colored contact lenses since 4 years and cleaning the lens with tap water. Culture of lenses on Mac Conkey and blood agar yielded Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sabouroud's agar showed yeast cells and double-walled cysts of Acanthamoeba species. On further incubation of Sabouroud's agar, the cysts transformed ...

  15. Inhibition of PCR by Agar from Bacteriological Transport Media

    OpenAIRE

    Gibb, Alan Patrick; Wong, Sallene

    1998-01-01

    We observed inhibition of PCR in throat swabs submitted in routine bacteriological transport media. Experimental studies showed that agar, which was extracted with DNA by DNAzol (Gibco BRL, Gaithersburg, Md.), was the inhibitory agent. No inhibitory effect was observed with a transport medium which did not contain agar.

  16. Selected elements in fly agaric Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J; Kunito, T; Kubota, R; Lipka, K; Mazur, A; Falandysz, Justyna J; Tanabe, S

    2007-09-01

    Concentrations of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb, Rb, Se, Sb, Sr, V, Tl and Zn have been determined in the whole fruiting bodies, as well as separately in caps and stalks, of fly agaric collected from three geographically distant sites in northern part of Poland. The elements were determined using ICP-MS, ICP-OES, HG-AAS and CV-AAS, respectively. For elements such as Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Ga, Mo, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, Tl, and V concentrations were similar in the caps and stalks, respectively, and for K, Zn, Ag, Ca, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mg, Rb and Se were greater in the caps, while for Co, Cs and Na in the stalks. For Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sr, Tl and V concentration in the caps showed spatial variations (P<0.05), while for Cu, K, Mg, Na, Se and Zn was independent of the site. The elements such as K with median or mean in the caps between 37,000 and 43,000 microg/g.dm and Mg with 920 and 1,100 microg/g dm were most abundant. Next, within median values range from approximately 100 to 500 microg/g dm were such as Ca, Fe and Al, and in descending order they followed by Rb (100-400 microg/g dm); V, Na, Zn (50-200 microg/g dm); Cu, Mn (10-50 microg/g dm); Cd (10-20 microg/g dm); Se (5 microg/g dm); Ba (<1-3); Cr, Ag, Pb, Sr (<1-2 microg/g dm); Cs, Co, Hg (<1-1 microg/g dm); Ga (<0.5), Sb, Mo and Tl (<0.1 microg/g dm). PMID:17849303

  17. Modified Sabouraud dextrose agar for isolation and identification of dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulajić Nina M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common causative agents of dermatomycoses are fungi belonging to genders Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. Media mainly used for isolation of dermatophytes are mycobiotic agar, dermatophyte test medium Sabouraud agar (original formula or modification by Emmons with or without antibiotics and cycloheximide. Peptones are the most important components of the media, which enable adequate reproductivity in identification of dermatophytes. Standard medium for isolation of dermatophytes is not produced in our country. The aim of the study was to create an optimal easily accessible and economic medium which enables isolation and identification of dermatophytes according to criteria for morphological diagnosis provided by identification guides. We examined 57 strains of Trichophyton, 24 of Microsporum and 5 of Epidermophyton floccosum (E. floccosum. Each strain was seeded on Sabouraud dextrose agar (Torlak Serbia and Montenegro, Sabouraud maltose agar (Torlak, two experimental modified Sabouraud dextrose agar media marked as SA-2 and SA-3 (Torlak Sabouraud-Chloramp- henicole agar (Biomerieux, France Sabouraud-Chloramphenicole agar (Himedia, India, Glucose-peptone agar (Himedia, India and Sabouraud Emmons dextrose Agar with Chloramphenicole and Cycloheximide (Biolife, Italy. Colony morphology of Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes was uni- form on all the media, while morphology of Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum and Microsporum canis (M. canis depended more on the media type. Colonies of E. floccosum were typical and uniform on all the media, as were the control species of Trichophyton schoenleinii (T. schoenleinii and Trichophyton soudanense (T. soudanense. Experimental modified Sabouraud dextrose agar (Torlak marked as SA-3 demonstrated the best results in identification of dermatophytes in this study.

  18. Comparison of Inhibitory Mold Agar to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar as a Primary Medium for Isolation of Fungi▿

    OpenAIRE

    Scognamiglio, Theresa; Zinchuk, Riva; Gumpeni, Pramod; Larone, Davise H.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical specimens cultured on two selective fungal media, inhibitory mold agar (IMA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), were compared with respect to recovery of fungi. Of the 840 fungal isolates recovered, 69.3% grew on both IMA and SDA; 24.9% grew only on IMA; and 5.8% grew only on SDA, showing that IMA is superior (P = 0.003).

  19. Modified Sabouraud dextrose agar for isolation and identification of dermatophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Bulajić Nina M.; Ivanović Dragana M.; Savić Milan Z.

    2005-01-01

    The most common causative agents of dermatomycoses are fungi belonging to genders Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. Media mainly used for isolation of dermatophytes are mycobiotic agar, dermatophyte test medium Sabouraud agar (original formula or modification by Emmons) with or without antibiotics and cycloheximide. Peptones are the most important components of the media, which enable adequate reproductivity in identification of dermatophytes. Standard medium for isolation of derm...

  20. Method for Measuring Changes in Surface Tension on Agar

    OpenAIRE

    Weisberg, David S.; Dworkin, Martin

    1983-01-01

    The surface tension of agar surfaces was determined by measuring the contact angles formed by drops of various hydrophobic liquids on the surface and then calculating the composite surface free energy function by solving a series of simultaneous equations derived from these data. This method was used to measure the change in the surface tension of agar produced by the addition of various concentrations of albumin. The resulting curve was typical of the effect of increasing concentrations of s...

  1. Differentiating Agar wood Oil Quality Using Artificial Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agar wood oil is well known as expensive oil extracted from the resinous of fragrant heartwood. The oil is getting high demand in the market especially from the Middle East countries, China and Japan because of its unique odor. As part of an on-going research in grading the agar wood oil quality, the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is proposed in this study to analyze agar wood oil quality using its chemical profiles. The work involves of selected agar wood oil from low and high quality, the extraction of chemical compounds using GC-MS and Z-score to identify of the significant compounds as input to the network. The ANN programming algorithm was developed and computed automatically via Matlab software version R2010a. Back-propagation training algorithm and sigmoid transfer function were used to optimize the parameters in the training network. The result obtained showed the capability of ANN in analyzing the agar wood oil quality hence beneficial for the further application such as grading and classification for agar wood oil. (author)

  2. Detection of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alane Beatriz Vermelho

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available We present herein an improved assay for detecting the presence of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates. Using different substrates (gelatin, BSA, hemoglobin incorporated into the agar and varying the culture medium composition, we were able to detect proteolytic activities from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus and Serratia marcescens as well as the influence that these components displayed in the expression of these enzymes. For all microorganisms tested we found that in agar-BHI or yeast extract medium containing gelatin the sensitivity of proteinase detection was considerably greater than in BSA-agar or hemoglobin-agar. However, when BSA or hemoglobin were added to the culture medium, there was an increase in growth along with a marked reduction in the amount of proteinase production. In the case of M. luteus the incorporation of glycerol in BHI or yeast extract gelatin-agar induced protease liberation. Our results indicate that the technique described here is of value for detecting extracellular proteases directly in the culture medium, by means of a qualitative assay, simple, inexpensive, straight forward method to assess the presence of the proteolytic activity of a given microorganism colony with great freedom in substrate selection.

  3. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Serum Determined Using the Potassium Permanganate Agar Method Based on Serum Diffusion in Agar

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Zhou; Meijuan Zhang; Hui Liu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a new method for determining total antioxidants in serum and to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of organisms. Design and Methods. Sodium hyposulfite (Na2S2O3) and serum were used to evaluate the linearity and precision of the potassium permanganate agar method. The area of serum diffusion in samples from 30 intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with 44 healthy subjects was determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. Results. The linearity (R 2 in...

  4. Agar/collagen membrane as skin dressing for wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agar, a highly hydrophilic polymer, has a special gel property and favorable biocompatibility, but moderate intension strength in an aqueous condition and a low degradation rate. In order to tailor both properties of mechanical intension and degradation, type I collagen was composited with agar in a certain ratio by drying at 50 0C or by a freeze-dry process. Glutaraldehyde was chosen as a crosslinking agent, and the most favorable condition for crosslinking was that the weight ratio of agar to glutaraldehyde was 66.7 and the pH value about 5. Dynamic mechanical analysis results showed that the single agar membrane had a modulus value between 640 MPa and 1064 MPa, but it was between 340 MPa and 819 MPa after being composited with type I collagen. It was discovered under an optical microscope that the pores were interconnected in the composite scaffolds instead of the honeycomb-like pores in a single type I collagen scaffold or the laminated gaps in a single agar scaffold. The results of an acute toxicity test disclosed that the composites were not toxic to mice although the composites were crosslinked with a certain concentration of glutaraldehyde. The results of gross examinations showed that when the composite membranes or scaffolds were applied to a repair rabbit skin lesion, the composites had a good repair effect without infection, liquid exudation or visible scar in the lesion covered with them. But in the control group, the autologous skin showed necrosis and there were a lot of scar tissues in the lesion site. H and E staining results showed that the repair tissue was similar to the normal one and very few scaffolds or membranes were left without degradation after 2 or 3 weeks. In conclusion, it is proved that type I collagen increases the toughness of the agar membrane, and the agar/type I collagen composites are promising biomaterials as wound dressings for healing burns or ulcers.

  5. Agar/collagen membrane as skin dressing for wounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Lei; Yang Wei; Mao Xuan; Mou Shansong; Tang Shunqing [Biomedical Engineering Institute, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)], E-mail: tshunqt@jnu.edu.cn, E-mail: tmuss@jnu.edu.cn

    2008-12-15

    Agar, a highly hydrophilic polymer, has a special gel property and favorable biocompatibility, but moderate intension strength in an aqueous condition and a low degradation rate. In order to tailor both properties of mechanical intension and degradation, type I collagen was composited with agar in a certain ratio by drying at 50 {sup 0}C or by a freeze-dry process. Glutaraldehyde was chosen as a crosslinking agent, and the most favorable condition for crosslinking was that the weight ratio of agar to glutaraldehyde was 66.7 and the pH value about 5. Dynamic mechanical analysis results showed that the single agar membrane had a modulus value between 640 MPa and 1064 MPa, but it was between 340 MPa and 819 MPa after being composited with type I collagen. It was discovered under an optical microscope that the pores were interconnected in the composite scaffolds instead of the honeycomb-like pores in a single type I collagen scaffold or the laminated gaps in a single agar scaffold. The results of an acute toxicity test disclosed that the composites were not toxic to mice although the composites were crosslinked with a certain concentration of glutaraldehyde. The results of gross examinations showed that when the composite membranes or scaffolds were applied to a repair rabbit skin lesion, the composites had a good repair effect without infection, liquid exudation or visible scar in the lesion covered with them. But in the control group, the autologous skin showed necrosis and there were a lot of scar tissues in the lesion site. H and E staining results showed that the repair tissue was similar to the normal one and very few scaffolds or membranes were left without degradation after 2 or 3 weeks. In conclusion, it is proved that type I collagen increases the toughness of the agar membrane, and the agar/type I collagen composites are promising biomaterials as wound dressings for healing burns or ulcers.

  6. Hyperspectral imaging for detecting pathogens grown on agar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Line, John E.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

    2007-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth pattern, color, etc.) of colonies grown on agar plates has been widely used to tentatively differentiate organisms. However, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate target organisms like Campylobacters from other contaminants grown together on the same agar plates. A hyperspectral imaging system operating at the visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectral region from 400 nm to 900 nm was set up to measure spectral signatures of 17 different Campylobacter and non-Campylobacter subspecies. Protocols for culturing, imaging samples and for calibrating measured data were developed. The VNIR spectral library of all 17 organisms commonly encountered in poultry was established from calibrated hyperspectral images. A classification algorithm was developed to locate and identify Campylobacters, non-Campylobacter contaminants, and background agars with 99.29% accuracy. This research has a potential to be expanded to detect other pathogens grown on agar media.

  7. Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) poisoning, case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satora, Leszek; Pach, Dorota; Butryn, Beata; Hydzik, Piotr; Balicka-Slusarczyk, Barbara

    2005-06-01

    Gathering and eating mushrooms and other plants containing psychoactive substances has become increasingly popular among young people experimenting with drugs. Dried fly agaric Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies were eaten by five young persons (18-21 years of age) at a party in order to evoke hallucinations. Visual and auditory hallucinations occurred in four of them, whereas a 18-year-old girl lost consciousness. The following morning, she went to the Clinic of Toxicology. Due to the fact that not all the active substances present in the fly agaric have been identified, and some of them have an effect after a period of latency, the patient was admitted for several days of observation during which check-up examinations were performed. After four days without any problems, she was discharged. The poisoning regressed with no organ complications. The remaining persons who had eaten the fly agaric were free from any complaints. PMID:15904689

  8. As a Bacterial Culture Medium, Citrated Sheep Blood Agar Is a Practical Alternative to Citrated Human Blood Agar in Laboratories of Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, F. M.; Biribo, S. S. N.; Selvaraj, G.; Oppedisano, F; Warren, S.; Seduadua, A.; Mulholland, E. K.; Carapetis, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Human blood agar (HuBA) is widely used in developing countries for the isolation of bacteria from clinical specimens. This study compared citrated sheep blood agar (CSBA) and HuBA with defibrinated horse blood agar and defibrinated sheep blood agar (DSBA) for the isolation and antibiotic susceptibility testing of reference and clinical strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Reference and clinical strains of all organisms were diluted in brain h...

  9. Improved isolation of Vibro vulnificus from seawater and sediment with cellobiose-colistin agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høi, L.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Dalsgaard, A.

    1998-01-01

    An improved selective medium, cellobiose-colistin (CC) agar, gave a significantly higher (P <0.05) isolation rate of Vibrio vulnificus from water and sediment samples than did modified cellobiose-polymyxin B-colistin (mCPC) agar, In a total of 446 alkaline peptone water preenrichments amended with...... polymyxin B, V. vulnificus was isolated from 154 preenrichments (35%) with mCPC agar and from 179 preenrichments (40%) with CC agar. CC agar gave a higher plating efficiency of V. vulnificus cells than did cellobiose-polymyxin B-colistin (CPC) agar, mCPC agar, or thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS......) agar; the only significant difference was observed with TCBS agar, which gave much lower plating efficiencies than the other selective media. Determination of MICs demonstrated that the concentrations of colistin and polymyxin B in CPC agar inhibit growth of a proportion of V. vulnificus strains....

  10. Characterization of Gluten-free Bread Prepared From Maize, Rice and Tapioca Flours using the Hydrocolloid Seaweed Agar-Agar

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarenga, Nuno Bartolomeu; Cebola Lidon, Fernando; Belga, Elisa; Motrena, Patrícia; Guerreiro, Suse; Carvalho, Maria João; Canada, João

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to check the rheological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of gluten-free bread produced with corn, rice and tapioca flours, using the hydrocolloid seaweed agar-agar. Relatively to wheat bread, it was found that the pH was slightly lower in gluten-free bread. In the crust only the brightness remained significantly different between both bread types, but in the kernel, the parameters a*,b* and L* diverge significantly. The toughness as well as the force of penetration...

  11. MYCELIUM DEVELOPMENT OF HELVELLA CRISPA (Scop.) Fr. ON DIFFERENT AGAR MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan Eren; Perihan Güler; Göksu Yildiz

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the development of mycelium of Helvella crispa (Scop.) Fr. which added the different concentration of glucose and lactose to potato dextrose agar and malt extract agar. For this; glucose and lactose have been added as 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5% concentration to potato dextrose agar and malt extract agar separately. The radial growth speed, morphologic characterizations and pigmentation of mycelium were taken as criteria. The colonization period of mycelium in potato dextrose agar and ma...

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan/Agar Blended Films: Part 2. Thermal, Mechanical, and Surface Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Elhefian, Esam. A.; Mohamed Mahmoud NASEF; Yahaya, Abdul Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan/agar (CS/AG) films were prepared by blending different proportions of chitosan and agar (considering chitosan as the major component) in solution forms. The thermal stability of the blended films was studied using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). It was revealed that chitosan and agar form a compatible blend. Studying the mechanical properties of the films showed a decrease in the tensile strength and elongation at break with increasing agar content. Blending of agar with chitosan...

  13. Maintenance of Leptospira Species in Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun Agar

    OpenAIRE

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; Oyuchua, Malinee; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of Leptospira species in liquid or semisolid medium is time-consuming and at risk of contamination due to the needs of routine subculture and dark field microscopy. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar, we maintained 100 pathogenic Leptospira isolates for 12 months without the need for subculture and confirmed the viability of all isolates by the naked eye.

  14. Hyperspectral Imaging for Detecting Pathogens Grown on Agar Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth...

  15. Agar-agar entrapment increases the stability of endo-β-1,4-xylanase for repeated biodegradation of xylan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Zainab; Shahid, Faiza; Ul Qader, Shah Ali; Aman, Afsheen

    2015-04-01

    Microbial xylanases, specially endo-β-1,4-xylanase catalyzes the hydrolysis of xylan, is considered one of the most significant hydrolases. It has numerous applications but most extensively is utilized in paper and pulp industry as a bio-bleaching agent. Immobilization technique is comprehensively studied with the expectation of modifying and improving enzyme stability and characteristics for commercial purposes. Currently, matrix entrapment technique is applied to immobilize endo-β-1,4-xylanase within agar-agar gel beads produced by Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29. Maximal enzyme immobilization yield was achieved at 2.5% of agar-agar concentration. Optimized conditions demonstrated an increase in the optimal reaction time from 05 min to 30 min and incubation temperature from 50 °C to 60 °C with reference to free enzyme whereas; no effect was observed for optimum pH. Entrapment technique uniquely changed the kinetic parameters of immobilized endo-β-1,4-xylanase (Km: 0.5074 mg min(-1) to 0.5230 mg min(-1) and Vmax: 4773 U min(-1) to 968 U min(-1)) as compared to free enzyme. However, immobilized enzyme displayed broad thermal stability and retained 79.0% of its initial activity at 80 °C up to 30 min whereas; free enzyme completely lost its activity at this temperature. With respect to economic feasibility, the immobilized enzyme showed impressive recycling efficiency up to six reaction cycles. PMID:25603143

  16. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Serum Determined Using the Potassium Permanganate Agar Method Based on Serum Diffusion in Agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Meijuan; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a new method for determining total antioxidants in serum and to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of organisms. Design and Methods. Sodium hyposulfite (Na2S2O3) and serum were used to evaluate the linearity and precision of the potassium permanganate agar method. The area of serum diffusion in samples from 30 intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with 44 healthy subjects was determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. Results. The linearity (R (2) in the linear experiment of Na2S2O3 was 0.994; R (2) in the linear experiment of serum was 0.987) and precision (coefficient of variation of area of high level serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day and coefficient of variation of area of low serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day were all less than 10%) were acceptable using the potassium permanganate agar method. Total antioxidants of serum between the ICU group and the healthy group were different (p = 0.002, two tailed). Conclusions. Total antioxidants in serum can be determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. The total antioxidant capacity of an organism can be evaluated by the amount of total antioxidants in serum. PMID:26347595

  17. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Serum Determined Using the Potassium Permanganate Agar Method Based on Serum Diffusion in Agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To develop a new method for determining total antioxidants in serum and to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of organisms. Design and Methods. Sodium hyposulfite (Na2S2O3 and serum were used to evaluate the linearity and precision of the potassium permanganate agar method. The area of serum diffusion in samples from 30 intensive care unit (ICU patients compared with 44 healthy subjects was determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. Results. The linearity (R2 in the linear experiment of Na2S2O3 was 0.994; R2 in the linear experiment of serum was 0.987 and precision (coefficient of variation of area of high level serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day and coefficient of variation of area of low serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day were all less than 10% were acceptable using the potassium permanganate agar method. Total antioxidants of serum between the ICU group and the healthy group were different (p=0.002, two tailed. Conclusions. Total antioxidants in serum can be determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. The total antioxidant capacity of an organism can be evaluated by the amount of total antioxidants in serum.

  18. Comparison of chromogenic Biolog Rainbow agar Shigella/Aeromonas with xylose lysine desoxycholate agar for isolation and detection of Shigella spp. from foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Lampel, Keith A

    2010-08-01

    Shigella outbreaks are widely reported throughout the world. However, it remains a challenge to isolate Shigella spp. from foods by using conventional microbiological media. The main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel chromogenic medium, Rainbow agar Shigella/Aeromonas (Rainbow agar), for the isolation and detection of Shigella spp. in foods. All four Shigella species, S. sonnei, S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii, were studied. Rainbow agar was compared with tryptic soy agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate agar (XLD), and Salmonella Shigella agar (SSA) for enumeration of Shigella spp. in pure culture. This chromogenic agar and XLD were also used to isolate Shigella spp. in artificially contaminated foods (4.8 log CFU/g of food), including lettuce, parsley, cilantro, spinach, potato salad, and shrimp. The inhibitory effect on Shigella growth by Rainbow agar was between that of XLD and SSA. All vegetables studied showed a moderately high background microflora on XLD and Rainbow agar. With artificially inoculated produce, Rainbow agar recovered about 1 to 2 log CFU more S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii per g of food than did XLD. For potato salad and shrimp, which had low background microflora on Rainbow agar, Rainbow agar was slightly better in recovering Shigella spp. than XLD was in most cases. However, we found that the addition of streptomycin (6.25 mg/liter) to Rainbow agar could facilitate the isolation of Shigella in vegetables tested. In conclusion, Rainbow agar was a much more effective medium than was XLD for the isolation of Shigella spp. from foods. PMID:20819355

  19. Comparison of different agars used in the formulation of buffered charcoal yeast extract medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, P H; Edelstein, M A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of agar type used for buffered charcoal yeast extract medium supplemented with 0.1% alpha-ketoglutarate was tested based on the growth and size of Legionella pneumophila. Oxoid Agar no. 1, Difco Bacto and Bitek agars, and BBL Granulated, Grade A, and Select agars were tested. For colony size the agars were ranked in the following order: Oxoid agar no. 1 much greater than Bacto greater than Bitek approximately Granulated approximately Grade A greater than Select. Colony yield per pl...

  20. An Agar Mount for Observation of Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Timothy Walston and Jeff Hardin Adapted from [*Imaging in Developmental Biology*](http://www.cshlpress.com/link/imagingdevbiop.htm) (ed. Sharpe and Wong). CSHL Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA, 2011 (in press). ### INTRODUCTION The *Caenorhabditis elegans* embryo is particularly amenable to microscopy and embryological studies because of its short developmental time, transparent shell, and nonpigmented cells. The agar mount described in this protocol is an easy way to ...

  1. Individual based simulations of bacterial growth on agar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginovart, M.; López, D.; Valls, J.; Silbert, M.

    2002-03-01

    The individual based simulator, INDividual DIScrete SIMulations (INDISIM) has been used to study the behaviour of the growth of bacterial colonies on a finite dish. The simulations reproduce the qualitative trends of pattern formation that appear during the growth of Bacillus subtilis on an agar plate under different initial conditions of nutrient peptone concentration, the amount of agar on the plate, and the temperature. The simulations are carried out by imposing closed boundary conditions on a square lattice divided into square spatial cells. The simulator studies the temporal evolution of the bacterial population possible by setting rules of behaviour for each bacterium, such as its uptake, metabolism and reproduction, as well as rules for the medium in which the bacterial cells grow, such as concentration of nutrient particles and their diffusion. The determining factors that characterize the structure of the bacterial colony patterns in the presents simulations, are the initial concentrations of nutrient particles, that mimic the amount of peptone in the experiments, and the set of values for the microscopic diffusion parameter related, in the experiments, to the amount of the agar medium.

  2. Use of electron beam on aflatoxins degradation in coconut agar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fungi Aspergillus flavus are capable of producing toxic metabolites, such as aflatoxin, that is one of the most important human carcinogens, according to the 'International Agency for Research on Cancer'. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of electron beam irradiation on degradation of aflatoxin B1 present in laboratorial residues with a dose of 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. The fungi were cultivated in potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 7 days and transferred to a coconut agar medium, incubated at a temperature of 25 deg C for 14 days to produce the laboratorial wastes (coconut agar) containing aflatoxins. The samples were conditioned in petri dish for radiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Electron Accelerator with 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. Aflatoxin B1 was extracted with chloroform and separated on a thin layer chromatography plate (TLC) with chloroform: acetone (9:1). All the control and irradiated samples were analyzed in a Shimadzu Densitometer. The detection limit of this methodology is 0.1μg kg-1. The results indicate that the irradiated samples had a reduction of 75.49 % in the analyzed dose. (author)

  3. Use of electron beam on aflatoxins degradation in coconut agar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: vrogovschi@ipen.br; Aquino, Simone; Goncalez, Edlayne [Instituto Biologico (IB-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2009-07-01

    The fungi Aspergillus flavus are capable of producing toxic metabolites, such as aflatoxin, that is one of the most important human carcinogens, according to the 'International Agency for Research on Cancer'. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of electron beam irradiation on degradation of aflatoxin B1 present in laboratorial residues with a dose of 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. The fungi were cultivated in potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 7 days and transferred to a coconut agar medium, incubated at a temperature of 25 deg C for 14 days to produce the laboratorial wastes (coconut agar) containing aflatoxins. The samples were conditioned in petri dish for radiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Electron Accelerator with 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. Aflatoxin B{sub 1} was extracted with chloroform and separated on a thin layer chromatography plate (TLC) with chloroform: acetone (9:1). All the control and irradiated samples were analyzed in a Shimadzu Densitometer. The detection limit of this methodology is 0.1{mu}g kg{sup -1}. The results indicate that the irradiated samples had a reduction of 75.49 % in the analyzed dose. (author)

  4. Differential recovery of Streptococcus mutans from various mitis-salivarius agar preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljemark, W F; Okrent, D H; Bloomquist, C G

    1976-01-01

    Recoveries of Streptococcus mutans from human dental plaque were lower when plated on mitis-salivarius agar obtained from Baltimore Biological Laboratories as compared with mitis-salivarius agar obtained from Difco Laboratories. However, no difference in recoveries of established laboratory strains of S. mutans was observed between these two agar preparations. PMID:956358

  5. Improved toluidine blue-DNA agar for detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters.

    OpenAIRE

    Lior, H; Patel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Our improved toluidine blue-DNA agar was compared with methyl green DNase test agar for the detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters. The toluidine blue-DNA agar gave clear-cut positive and negative reactions with campylobacter strains belonging to several species.

  6. NMR spectroscopy study of agar-based polymers electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This communication presents the results of preparation and characterization of transparent films obtained from agar and acetic acid. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The film formed by agar (Sigma Aldrich) was dispersed in water and kept under stirring and heating at 100 deg C. Next, glycerol, formaldehyde and different quantities of acetic acid (25 and 50 wt%) were added to this solution. The obtained solution was placed on a glass plate and left to dry for 48 hours in oven at 50 deg C to obtain the films, which were kept under vacuum before characterization. The ionic conductivity of the films display an Arrhenius behavior with activation energy Ea = 78 (25 wt% of acetic acid) and Ea = 87 kJ/mol (50 wt% of acetic acid). The conductivity values were 3:0 X 10-6 and 1:2 X 10-4 S/cm at room temperature and 4:4 X 10-4 and 1:5 X 10-3S/cm at 70 deg C, for the 25 and 50 wt% of acetic acid respectively. To investigate the mechanism of protonic conduction in the polymer proton conductor proton NMR measurements were performed in the temperature range 200-370 K. The 1H-NMR results exhibit the qualitative feature associated with the proton mobility, namely the presence of well defined 1H spin-lattice relaxation maxima at 300 K. Activation energy of the order of 40 kJ/mol was obtained from the 1H-NMR line narrowing data. The ionic conductivity of the film combined with their transparency, flexibility, homogeneity and good adhesion to the glasses or metals indicate that agar-based SPEs are promising materials for used on optoelectronic applications. (author)

  7. NMR spectroscopy study of agar-based polymers electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, R.I.; Tambelli, C.E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos; Raphael, E. [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rey (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Silva, I.D.A.; Magon, C.J.; Donoso, J.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This communication presents the results of preparation and characterization of transparent films obtained from agar and acetic acid. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The film formed by agar (Sigma Aldrich) was dispersed in water and kept under stirring and heating at 100 deg C. Next, glycerol, formaldehyde and different quantities of acetic acid (25 and 50 wt%) were added to this solution. The obtained solution was placed on a glass plate and left to dry for 48 hours in oven at 50 deg C to obtain the films, which were kept under vacuum before characterization. The ionic conductivity of the films display an Arrhenius behavior with activation energy E{sub a} = 78 (25 wt% of acetic acid) and E{sub a} = 87 kJ/mol (50 wt% of acetic acid). The conductivity values were 3:0 X 10{sup -6} and 1:2 X 10{sup -4} S/cm at room temperature and 4:4 X 10{sup -4} and 1:5 X 10{sup -3}S/cm at 70 deg C, for the 25 and 50 wt% of acetic acid respectively. To investigate the mechanism of protonic conduction in the polymer proton conductor proton NMR measurements were performed in the temperature range 200-370 K. The {sup 1}H-NMR results exhibit the qualitative feature associated with the proton mobility, namely the presence of well defined {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation maxima at 300 K. Activation energy of the order of 40 kJ/mol was obtained from the {sup 1}H-NMR line narrowing data. The ionic conductivity of the film combined with their transparency, flexibility, homogeneity and good adhesion to the glasses or metals indicate that agar-based SPEs are promising materials for used on optoelectronic applications. (author)

  8. Element distribution of the barley plant grown in an agar slice suspended culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An agar slice suspended culture was devised for the further study of the barley root. The roots were placed into an agar covered with a nylon cloth and suspended in a water culture vessel. Barley roots grown in the agar developed hardly any root hair. The element contents of the root grown in the agar culture and that in the water culture were measured by neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of K, Mg and Cl in the root grown in the agar were about half of these grown in the water. Na and Mn concentrations were the same and Ca concentration was slightly higher when grown in the agar. The agar system is expected to provide more information to study the root hair. (author)

  9. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized in agar agar and Ca-alginate matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama Chandra [Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Kar, Shaktimay; Ray, Ramesh Chandra [Microbiology Laboratory, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Regional Centre), Bhubaneswar 751019, Orissa (India)

    2010-01-15

    Batch fermentation of mahula (Madhuca latifolia L., a tree commonly found in tropical rain forest) flowers was carried out using immobilized cells (in agar agar and calcium alginate) and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yields were 151.2, 154.5 and 149.1 g kg{sup -1} flowers using immobilized (in agar agar and calcium alginate) and free cells, respectively. Cell entrapment in calcium alginate was found to be marginally superior to those in agar agar (2.2% more) as well as over free cell (3.5% more) as regard to ethanol yield from mahula flowers is concerned. Further, the immobilized cells were physiologically active at least for three cycles [150.6, 148.5 and 146.5 g kg{sup -1} (agar agar) and 152.8, 151.5 and 149.5 g kg{sup -1} flowers (calcium alginate) for first, second and third cycle, respectively] of ethanol fermentation without apparently lowering the productivity. Mahula flowers, a renewable, non-food-grade cheap carbohydrate substrate from non-agricultural environment such as forest can serve as an alternative to food grade sugar/starchy crops such as maize, sugarcane for bio-ethanol production. (author)

  10. ON STAUDE' S NEW GENERIC NAMES FOR AGARICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. DONK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The author concludes that the generic names for agarics first introduced by Staude (1857 have been validly published.When I drew attention to Staude's forgotten "Die Schwamme Mittel-deutschlands" (1857, I felt obliged to conclude that the new generic names for agarics appearing in that work were validly published (Donk, 1949: 319-320, and I still am fully convinced that this conclusion must be upheld. Rogers (1950: 22 submitted that Staude, although referring to Collybia and other genera as G [attungen], did not definitely accept them as genera, since he continued to refer species under them to Agaricus, thereby implying that they were only subgenera or sections; and that Staude, therefore, dit not validly publish these generic names. Rogers's conclusion is untenable for several reasons. If his argumentbecame generally accepted, quite a lot of generic names might be murdered by it: the number of generic names established without simultaneously published new combinations with the new generic name, like those without any mention of species, is considerable. Such an attitude would not only be undesirable from a practical point of view, but would also disregard the declared object of the Code to promote stability of nomenclature. The Code has deliberately and carefully avoided the stipulation that a new generic name requires simultaneously published new combinations; it has even refused to rule that new generic names ought to be associated with binomials, as was stipulated by the former American code! Certainlythis was not done solely to accomodate such special cases as, for example, Tournefortian generic names published after 1753 as an overflow from the pre-binomial period: the decision was for general application. Staude emphatically marked the names in question as generic ones; not only in the introductory pages, but also throughout his more detailed treatment of the agarics he preceded these generic names with "G[attung]" and added generic

  11. Agar-based films for application as polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New types of polymer electrolytes based on agar have been prepared and characterized by impedance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements, UV-vis spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The best ionic conductivity has been obtained for the samples containing a concentration of 50 wt.% of acetic acid. As a function of the temperature the ionic conductivity exhibits an Arrhenius behavior increasing from 1.1 x 10-4 S/cm at room temperature to 9.6 x 10-4 S/cm at 80 deg. C. All the samples showed more than 70% of transparency in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, a very homogeneous surface and a predominantly amorphous structure. All these characteristics imply that these polymer electrolytes can be applied in electrochromic devices.

  12. Growth of strontium oxalate crystals in agar–agar gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P V Dalal; K B Saraf

    2011-04-01

    Single crystals of strontium oxalate have been grown by using strontium chloride and oxalic acid in agar–agar gel media at ambient temperature. Different methods for growing crystals were adopted. The optimum conditions were employed in each method by varying concentration of gel and reactants, and gel setting time etc. Transparent prismatic bi-pyramidal platy-shaped and spherulite crystals were obtained in various methods. The grown crystals were characterized with the help of FT–IR studies and monoclinic system of crystals were supported with lattice parameters = 9.67628 Å, = 6.7175 Å, = 8.6812 Å, = 113.566°, and = 521.84 Å3 calculated from X-ray diffractogram.

  13. Value of the K+ salt of carageenan as an agar substitute in routine bacteriological media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, A D

    1977-01-01

    The K+ salt of carageenan has no distinct advantages as a gelling agent, but it compared favorably with agar in most of the media tested. The difficulty involved in the preparation of blood plates and the results obtained with this medium prohibit its complete acceptance as a substitute for agar in routine solid media. However, it could be a suitable substitute for agar in all other routine bacteriological media. PMID:596869

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan/Agar Blended Films: Part 1. Chemical Structure and Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Esam A. El-Hefian; Mohamed Mahmoud NASEF; Yahaya, Abdul Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan/agar (CS/AG) films were prepared by blending different proportions of chitosan and agar (considering chitosan as the main component) in solution forms. The chemical structure and the morphology of the obtained blended films were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). It was revealed that chitosan and agar form a highly compatible blend and their films displayed homogenous and smooth surface properties compared to ...

  15. Glucose-sucrose-potassium tellurite-bacitracin agar, an alternative to mitis salivarius-bacitracin agar for enumeration of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, J M; Börjesson, A C; Laskowski, L; Kurasz, A B; Testa, M

    1984-01-01

    An agar medium for selective recovery and enumeration of Streptococcus mutans was developed as an alternative to mitis salivarius-bacitracin (MSB) agar. Combinations of dyes, antibiotics, and tellurite were added to a nonselective medium which, because of its sucrose content, allowed easy recognition of S. mutans colonies. Candle jar incubation for 2 days, by comparison with anaerobic incubation, reduced background flora but did not diminish S. mutans recoveries from clinical samples. Quantitative comparisons were made of the simultaneous recoveries of a number of authentic S. mutans serotype representatives and fresh clinical isolates, using various glucose-sucrose-potassium tellurite-bacitracin (GSTB) formulations and mitis salivarius, MSB, and blood agars. Mitis salivarius counts were not detectably different from blood counts, but counts on MSB were distinctly lower. A formulation of the new medium containing 5% glucose 5% sucrose, 0.001% potassium tellurite, 0.3 U of bacitracin per ml (hence GSTB), and 2% agar gave recoveries nearly equal to those on mitis salivarius agar and much greater than those on MSB. The medium yielded readily recognized S. mutans colonies and facilitated detection of intracellular polysaccharide formers upon flooding with I2 reagent. Freshly isolated serotype c, E, and f colonies could often be distinguished from serotype d and g colonies, a distinction made reliable by testing for intracellular polysaccharide. A study of 300 salivary samples revealed GSTB to give significantly higher recoveries than MSB. About 72% of all samples were substantially underestimated for S. mutans with MSB, and 6.7% of samples were falsely negative for S. mutans with MSB. Recovery of background flora on GSTB was as low or lower than on MSB, and both types of agar could be stored for at least 9 weeks without notable change of selectivity. Thus, GSTB agar appears to be simple and reliable to use and requires no anaerobic incubation. Caution is voiced about

  16. Agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C de Castillo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina, were determined by the agar dilution method (MIC. 3.5% of the isolates produced ²-lactamase. A total of 96.5% of ²-lactamase negative isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin (MIC < 2 µgml-1; 14.03% of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC < 2 µgml-1, and 98% of the tested isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin (MIC < 64 µgml-1. The MICs for 95% of the isolates, tested for other drugs were: < 2 µgml-1 for cefoxitin, < 0.06 µgml-1 for cefotaxime, < 0.25 µgml-1 for norfloxacin, < 10 µgml-1 for cephaloridine, < 10 µgml-1 for cephalexin, and < 50 µgml-1 for kanamycin. Antibiotic resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Tucumán, Argentina, appeared to be primarily limited to penicillin and tetracycline, which has been a general use against gonorrhoeae in Tucumán since 1960. Periodic monitoring of the underlying susceptibility profiles of the N. gonorrhoeae strains prevalent in areas of frequent transmission may provide clues regarding treatment options and emerging of drug resistance.

  17. Metformin HCl loaded mucoadhesive agar microspheres for sustained release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokan Bera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, a major interest in the control of blood sugar had been targeted to develop plenty of new formulations. The present work aims at the development of a low cost sustained release system of metformin hydrochloride embedded in microspheres of agar (Gelidium cartilagineum to overcome the frequent dosing of the drug. Models were developed with respect to controlling variables (X 1 , drug: Polymer, X 2 , surfactant concentration, and X 3 , pH of phosphate buffer. The most effective levels of parameters were found as X 1 (1 : 2, X 2 (1.25%, X 3 (phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Instrumental analysis (Fourier transforms infra-red spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, mucoadhesion study, toxicity test and in vivo study were performed with the optimized product. The best batch (A2 exhibited a high drug entrapment efficiency of 84.82 ± 1.23%, swelling index of 3.84 ± 0.38 and 86% of mucoadhesion after 12 h. The in vitro release was also sustained for more than 12 h.

  18. Characteristics of thermoplastic sugar palm Starch/Agar blend: Thermal, tensile, and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaidin, R; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to study the behavior of biodegradable sugar palm starch (SPS) based thermoplastic containing agar in the range of 10-40wt%. The thermoplastics were melt-mixed and then hot pressed at 140°C for 10min. SEM investigation showed good miscibility between SPS and agar. FT-IR analysis confirmed that SPS and agar were compatible and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds existed between them. Incorporation of agar increased the thermoplastic starch tensile properties (Young's modulus and tensile strength). The thermal stability and moisture uptake increased with increasing agar content. The present work shows that starch-based thermoplastics with 30wt% agar content have the highest tensile strength. Higher content of agar (40wt%) resulted to more rough cleavage fracture and slight decrease in the tensile strength. In conclusion, the addition of agar improved the thermal and tensile properties of thermoplastic SPS which widened the potential application of this eco-friendly material. The most promising applications for this eco-friendly material are short-life products such as packaging, container, tray, etc. PMID:27177458

  19. Growth and phenotypic characterization of Legionella species on semisolid media made with washed agar.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, J E; Jones, G. W.; Engleberg, N C

    1993-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila (and 28 Legionella species) grew efficiently on charcoal-free, buffered yeast extract medium made with washed agar and without apparent loss of infectivity for U937 cells. Because charcoal-free, buffered yeast extract is transparent, it is a suitable base for indicator media and pigment detection. In standard media, charcoal apparently prevents agar contaminants from inhibiting Legionella growth.

  20. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans strains by different mitis-salivarius agar preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staat, R H

    1976-01-01

    Several Streptococcus mutans strains were markedly inhibited by mitis-salivarius agar manufactured by Baltimore Biological Laboratories, but little, if any, inhibition was noted using Difco Laboratories' mitis-salivarius agar. Supplementation of the basic medium with sucrose and bacitracin for specific selection of S. mutans resulted in suppression of representative S. mutans type a strains regardless of manufacturer. PMID:1270597

  1. On Shear Wave Speed Estimation for Agar-Gelatine Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional imaging of diagnostic ultrasound is widely used. Although it makes the differences in the soft tissues echogenicities’ apparent and clear, it fails in describing and estimating the soft tissue mechanical properties. It cannot portray their mechanical properties, such as the elasticity and stiffness. Estimating the mechanical properties increases chances of the identification of lesions or any pathological changes. Physicians are now characterizing the tissue’s mechanical properties as diagnostic metrics. Estimating the tissue’s mechanical properties is achieved by applying a force on the tissue and calculating the resulted shear wave speed. Due to the difficulty of calculating the shear wave speed precisely inside the tissue, it is estimated by analyzing ultrasound images of the tissue at a very high frame rate. In this paper, the shear wave speed is estimated using finite element analysis. A model is constructed to simulate the tissue’s mechanical properties. For a generalized soft tissue model, Agar-gelatine model is used because it has properties similar to that of the soft tissue. A point force is applied at the center of the proposed model. As a result of this force, a deformation is caused. Peak displacements are tracked along the lateral dimension of the model for estimating the shear wave speed of the propagating wave using the Time-To-Peak displacement (TTP method. Experimental results have shown that the estimated speed of the shear wave is 5.2 m/sec. The speed value is calculated according to shear wave speed equation equals about 5.7 m/sec; this means that our speed estimation system’s accuracy is about 91 %, which is reasonable shear wave speed estimation accuracy with a less computational power compared to other tracking methods.

  2. Development of agar diffusion method for dosage of gramicidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Reis Solano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Gramicidin, an antimicrobial peptide active against Gram positive bacteria, is commonly used in pharmaceutical preparations for topical use. Considering that only the turbidimetric method has been described in the literature, the present study sought to develop and validate an agar diffusion method for the dosage of gramicidin. The method was developed and validated using the Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341 as a test microorganism. Two designs were used: a 3x3 parallel-line model, and a 5x1 standard curve. The validation demonstrated that the method follows the linear model (r²= 0.994, presenting a significant regression between the zone diameter of growth inhibition and the logarithm of the concentration within the range of 5 to 25.3 µg/mL. The results obtained for both designs were precise, having a relative standard deviation (R.S.D. for intra-day precision of 0.81 for the 3x3 assay and 1.90 for the 5x1 assay. For the inter-day precision, the R.S.D. was 1.35 for the 3x3 and 2.64 for the 5x1. The accuracy was verified and results confirmed to be accurate, having a tolerance interval of 95%, which lay within permitted limits and appropriate trueness. In addition, the method was considered selective, with limit of detection and upper and lower limits of quantification of 2.00, 5.00 and 25.3 µg/mL, respectively. No difference in precision between the designs used in the agar diffusion method was evident (p>0.05. The method proved to be appropriate for the microbiological dosage of the raw material gramicidin.A gramicidina, um peptídeo antimicrobiano ativo contra bactérias Gram positivo, é utilizada em preparações farmacêuticas de uso tópico. Neste trabalho procurou-se desenvolver e validar outro método para o doseamento de gramicidina tendo em vista que somente o método turbidimétrico é descrito. O método de difusão em ágar foi desenvolvido e validado utilizando como microrganismo teste Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341. Foram utilizados

  3. Evaluation of Granada Agar Plate for Detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in Urine Specimens from Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Tamayo, Javier; Gómez-Garcés, José-Luis; Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    The Granada agar plate (GAP; Biomedics SL, Madrid, Spain) was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in urine specimens from pregnant women submitted for testing for asymptomatic bacteriuria and was compared with blood agar (BA [Columbia agar with 5% sheep blood]; bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). The GAP detected 103 out of 105 GBS, whereas BA detected only 50. Use of the GAP could be a good method for the detection of GBS in urine specimens from pregnant women.

  4. New Agar Medium for Testing Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Pyrazinamide

    OpenAIRE

    Heifets, Leonid; Sanchez, Tracy

    2000-01-01

    A new agar medium to perform pyrazinamide (PZA) susceptibility testing with Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been developed. This medium has an acidic pH of 6.0 instead of the usual for agar media, pH 6.8, to provide optimal conditions for PZA activity, and it also differs from conventional Middlebrook 7H10/7H11 agar in that animal serum (fetal or calf bovine or fetal equine serum) is used instead of oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase to support good growth of M. tuberculosis at the low pH of...

  5. Standing Stock, Agar Yield and Properties of Gracilaria salicornia Harvested along the Tanzanian Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Buriyo, A.S.; A.K. Kivaisi

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal biomass variation and agar yield of G. salicornia (C. Ag.) Dawson from Oyster Bay, Dar es Salaam, and Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, were determined, and some properties of the agar examined. Mean biomass and canopy cover values ranged from 21–60 g/m2 and 7– 20 %, respectively. The highest mean biomass and cover values were obtained during the SE monsoon. Agar yield varied from 13.7 to 30.2 % (dry weight) and was highest during the dry NE monsoon period. Alkali treatment genera...

  6. Polymer film deposition on agar using a dielectric barrier discharge jet and its bacterial growth inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, T.-C.; Cho, J.; Mcintyre, K.; Jo, Y.-K.; Staack, D.

    2012-08-01

    Polymer film deposition on agar in ambient air was achieved using the helium dielectric barrier discharge jet (DBD jet) fed with polymer precursors, and the bacterial growth inhibition due to the deposited film was observed. The DBD jet with precursor addition was more efficient at sterilization than a helium-only DBD jet. On the areas where polymer films cover the agar the bacterial growth was significantly inhibited. The inhibition efficacy showed dependence on the film thickness. The DBD jet without precursor also created a modified agar layer, which may slow the growth of some bacterial strains.

  7. Pertumbuhan Duddingtonia flagrans pada Air Liur, Larutan Rumen, Blok Komin, dan Agar Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Zainuddin Ahmad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Duddingtonia flagrans is selected nematophagous fungi as biological control to nematode worm. Theaim of this research was to show that the survival of in vitro tested to D. flagrans mold growth is effectedby artificial saliva, rumen fluid, enzymes and agar-cement and comin block applicator. The testing wasdone two steps : Firstly the conidia’s was multicated and the secondly the growth of D.flagrans tested insaliva, rumen fluid and comin block, agar cement applicator. The result showed that mold could surviveand grow in condition such as in gastrointestinal fluid of sheep and in comin block and in agar-cementapplicator (1 and 2%. It can be concluded that D. flagrans could grow in medium containing rumen fluid,saliva, enzymes and comin block and agar-cement applicator.

  8. Green fabrication of agar-conjugated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic nanoparticles are of great interest both for fundamental research and emerging applications. In the biomedical field, magnetite (Fe3O4) has shown promise as a hyperthermia-based tumor therapeutic. However, preparing suitable solubilized magnetite nanoparticles is challenging, primarily due to aggregation and poor biocompatibility. Thus methods for coating Fe3O4 NPs with biocompatible stabilizers are required. We report a new method for preparing Fe3O4 nanoparticles by co-precipitation within the pores of agar gel samples. Permeated agar gels were then dried and ground into a powder, yielding agar-conjugated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Samples were characterized using XRD, FTIR, TGA, TEM and SQUID. This method for preparing agar-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles is environmentally friendly, inexpensive and scalable.

  9. Storage of pine agaric by irradiation combined with natural low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop the storage method of pine agaric by irradiation, pine agarics irradiated with 1, 2 and 2.5 kGy stored in natural low temperature storage room (15±2℃, RH: 80±5%) and the physicochemical properties were investigated during the 15 days of storage. Veil opening rate of pine agaric was 97% after 7 days storage in control, whereas only 5% in 2-2.5 kGy irradiated groups. Rotting rate after 7 days storage were 28% in control, 5-8% in 2-2.5 kGy irradiated groups. In comparison of weight loss, texture and appearance, 2-2.5 kGy irradiated groups were better than control. Chemical composition of pine agaric was not remarkably changed by the irradiation and storage period except a slight increase in reducing sugar and a decrease in ascorbic acid by the increase of irradiation dose

  10. Optimization of tumor cell culture conditions in soft agar for subsequent immunohistochemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoruzhenko A. I.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this work is to optimize conditions of malignant cells cultivation in soft agar for subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of formed three-dimensional colonies. Methods. Cultivation of breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7 in soft agar, immunohistochemical and im- munofluorescence detection of epithelial antigen and mTOR kinase in cultured cells. Results. We describe a methodical approach to the cultivation of cells in soft agar, which allows to carry out morphological, morphometric and immunochemical analysis of the studied cells. Conclusions. The proposed method provides an additional characteriza tion of cells growing in soft agar, which will be useful in basic research and in evaluation of the effectiveness of anticancer drugs.

  11. A fresh liver agar substrate for rearing small numbers of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Forensically important calliphorids can be reared on a mixture of beef liver and agar. Small pieces of meat, especially fresh or frozen beef liver, will desiccate in 2–6 h, but this simple-to-make feeding substrate remains moist for at least 12 h at 25 and 30°C without desiccation, even in small (5 g) amounts. We determined the survivorship of small numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (first-instar larvae to adult eclosion) raised on 5 g of liver agar and fresh beef liver. We found that all larvae raised on 5 g of liver died due to desiccation, but survivorship on 5 g of liver agar was equivalent to that on larger (50 g) pieces of either liver agar or beef liver.

  12. Pertumbuhan Duddingtonia flagrans pada Air Liur, Larutan Rumen, Blok Komin, dan Agar Semen

    OpenAIRE

    Riza Zainuddin Ahmad; Beriajaya -

    2010-01-01

    Duddingtonia flagrans is selected nematophagous fungi as biological control to nematode worm. Theaim of this research was to show that the survival of in vitro tested to D. flagrans mold growth is effectedby artificial saliva, rumen fluid, enzymes and agar-cement and comin block applicator. The testing wasdone two steps : Firstly the conidia’s was multicated and the secondly the growth of D.flagrans tested insaliva, rumen fluid and comin block, agar cement applicator. The result showed that m...

  13. Preparation and Properties of Non-Crosslinked and Ionically Crosslinked Chitosan/Agar Blended Hydrogel Films

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Nasef, Mohamed; Esam A. El-hefian; Saalah, Sariah; Yahaya, Adul Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogel films of chitosan (Cs) and agar blends of various proportions were prepared using physical solution blending. Some of the obtained films were ionically cross-linked by treatment with calcium chloride solution. The obtained films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) and universal mechanical tester. The non-crosslinked Cs/agar blended films showed lower water swelling, melting tem...

  14. Assessment of formulas for calculating critical concentration by the agar diffusion method.

    OpenAIRE

    Drugeon, H.B.; Juvin, M E; Caillon, J.; Courtieu, A L

    1987-01-01

    The critical concentration of antibiotic was calculated by using the agar diffusion method with disks containing different charges of antibiotic. It is currently possible to use different calculation formulas (based on Fick's law) devised by Cooper and Woodman (the best known) and by Vesterdal. The results obtained with the formulas were compared with the MIC results (obtained by the agar dilution method). A total of 91 strains and two cephalosporins (cefotaxime and ceftriaxone) were studied....

  15. Use of Rambach Propylene Glycol Containing Agar for identification of Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruenewald, R; Henderson, R. W.; Yappow, S

    1991-01-01

    When grown on Rambach Propylene Glycol Containing Agar (Rambach agar), 216 of 230 (93.9%) Salmonella organisms isolated from patients and 54 of 62 (87.1%) Salmonella stock cultures produced a crimson-colored growth. Of the 14 clinical Salmonella isolates which displayed colors other than crimson, 8 were Salmonella typhi, 2 were Salmonella paratyphi A, and 4 belonged to other commonly isolated serotypes. All eight Salmonella stock cultures which failed to produce a crimson color belonged to ra...

  16. Interpretation of MRSASelect Screening Agar at 24 Hours of Incubation ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, Julie; Lui, Betty; Rosmus, Linda; Rennick, Howard; Fuller, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    An incubation time of 24 h at 35 to 38°C is recommended for the optimal performance of MRSASelect (Bio-Rad) chromogenic screening agar. An additional 24 h is required to capture slow-growing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, the normal hours of operation for most laboratories cannot reliably accommodate 24-h interpretation intervals. Daily agar plate interpretations are more likely to occur around 18 h and 42 h of incubation, which may compromise the performance of ...

  17. Assessment of Etest as an Alternative to Agar Dilution for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hsi; Taylor, Thomas H.; Pettus, Kevin; Trees, David

    2014-01-01

    We studied whether the Etest can be used as an alternative to agar dilution to determine antimicrobial susceptibilities of ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime in Neisseria gonorrhoeae surveillance. One hundred fifteen clinical and laboratory isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were tested following the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-approved CLSI standard agar dilution method and, separately, by the Etest according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The MICs were determined a...

  18. Optimizing Grifola sordulenta and Grifola gargal growth in agar and liquid nutrient media

    OpenAIRE

    P. Postemsky; R. González Matute; D. Figlas; N. Curvetto

    2006-01-01

    Grifola sordulenta and Grifola gargal are native edible mushroom species of Argentina. The study of their growth is useful as a first step for the optimized production of those constituents with nutritional, nutriceutical, and pharmacological value. The effect of temperature, pH, and supplements (millet and sunflower seed hulls) on agar medium and the effect of temperature and sunflower seed broth on liquid medium, were evaluated. On malt-yeast-peptone-agar medium, the highest rat...

  19. Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, W.F. [Orion International Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aubert, J.H. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.

  20. Modeling of the Bacillus subtilis Bacterial Biofilm Growing on an Agar Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Guoqing; Hao, Mudong

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are organized communities composed of millions of microorganisms that accumulate on almost any kinds of surfaces. In this paper, a biofilm growth model on an agar substrate is developed based on mass conservation principles, Fick's first law, and Monod's kinetic reaction, by considering nutrient diffusion between biofilm and agar substrate. Our results show biofilm growth evolution characteristics such as biofilm thickness, active biomass, and nutrient concentration in the ...

  1. Immediate differentiation of salmonella-resembling colonies on brilliant green agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    A rapid biochemical system (OBIS) based on immediate enzymatic differentiation of Citrobacter, Proteus, Providencia, Hafnia and Morganella spp. from Salmonella on brilliant green agar was evaluated A total of 96 field isolates from various Salmonella serotypes, 18 Citrobacter freundii and 25...... isolates of other Enterobacteriaceae were tested All Salmonella isolates were identified correctly by the kit, and none of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified as Salmonella. The results indicate complete specificity for Salmonella colonies on brilliant green agar....

  2. Co-precipitation with PVP and Agar to Improve Physicomechanical Properties of Ibuprofen

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Maghsoodi; Farhad Kiafar

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : Ibuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting due to its viscoelastic properties. Additionally its high cohesivity results in low flowability. In this study, co-precipitation of ibuprofen with varying concentration of agar and PVP to optimize properties of Ibuprofen was carried out. Materials and Methods: Co-precipitates of ibuprofen- PVP or agar were prepared by solvent evaporation technique under vacuum condition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X -ray diffraction of ...

  3. Colonyzer: automated quantification of micro-organism growth characteristics on solid agar

    OpenAIRE

    Young Alexander; Addinall Stephen G; Wilkinson Darren J; Lawless Conor; Lydall David A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background High-throughput screens comparing growth rates of arrays of distinct micro-organism cultures on solid agar are useful, rapid methods of quantifying genetic interactions. Growth rate is an informative phenotype which can be estimated by measuring cell densities at one or more times after inoculation. Precise estimates can be made by inoculating cultures onto agar and capturing cell density frequently by plate-scanning or photography, especially throughout the exponential gr...

  4. [GROWTH OF MICROMYCETES FROM DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL NICHES ON AGAR NUTRIENT MEDIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchenko, I M; Yurieva, E M; Voychuk, S I

    2015-01-01

    Radial growth rate of (K(r)) 153 strains 6 species of micromycetes from different ecological niches was studied on 7 agar media: three standard (malt extract agar, potato-dextrose agar, Czapek's agar), and on agar media with plant polymers (carboxymethylcellulose, xylan, soluble starch and apple pectin). Endophytic and plant pathogenic strains (biotrophs) of all studied species did not differ significantly in their ability to grow on nutrient media of different composition--average values of K(r) for these two groups were the same (0,200 and 0,199 mm/h, respectively). Soil micromycetes (saprophytes) characterized by the lowest average growth rate (0,169 mm/h) and significantly differed from the endophytic and plant pathogenic ones. Average of the radial growth rates of studied microscopic fungi were higher on standard nutrient media than with plant polymers ones. Growth parameters of endophytes and plant pathogens of all studied species on various agar media differed from the soil strains. High growth rate of endophytic and plant pathogenic strains of Fusarium poae, Alternaria alternata and Ceratocystis sp. provides them the rapid colonization of plants. Penicillium funiculosum strains equally can exist as saprophytes in soil and as endophytic plant symbionts. A wide range of K(r) variation of endophytic dark pigmented Mycelia sterilia indicates the presence in this group of different species of micromycetes, which have no sporulation. PMID:26638483

  5. Effect of Red Seaweed Polysaccharides Agar (Gracilaria changii) on Thermal Properties and Microstructure of Wheat Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been carried out on the mixture of Gracilaria changii agar (0.1 %, 0.2 %, 0.4 % and 0.8 %) with wheat starch. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed for morphology observation, and starch thermal analysis were carried out to determine the properties of gelatinization and retrogradation. Proximate analysis has been determined for isolated wheat starch and agar. Through SEM, interaction was first observed at 64 degree Celsius for 0.4 % agar but at 0.8 % of agar, a more extensive bridging was formed which enveloped the starch granules. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) result shows that as the addition of agar decreased the onset temperature (To) of gelatinization significantly (p< 0.05) but increased the gelatinized enthalpy (ΔHgel), gelatinized temperature range (Rg) and Peak Height Index (PHI) significantly (p < 0.05). Agar lowered the retrogradation enthalpy (ΔHret), retrogradation range (Rret) and retrogradation percentage (% R) of wheat starch significantly (p < 0.05). (author)

  6. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marol Serhat

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. Methods A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 Trichosporon spp., 4 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 Geotrichum candidum were included. The strains were first identified by germ tube test, morphological characteristics on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek 32 and API 20 C AUX systems. In parallel, they were also streaked onto CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar plates. The results were read according to the color, morphology of the colonies and the existance of halo around them after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. Results The sensitivity and specificity values for C. albicans strains were found to be 99.4, 100% for CHROMagar Candida and 87.0, 75.2% for BiGGY agar, respectively. The sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida to identify C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei ranged between 90.9 and 100% while the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity rates for BiGGY agar were 66.6 and 100% while the specificity values were found to be 95.4 and 100% for C. tropicalis and C. krusei, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the use of CHROMagar Candida is an easy and reliable method for the presumptive identification of most commonly isolated Candida species especially C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The lower sensitivity and specificity of BiGGY agar to identify commonly isolated Candida species potentially limits the clinical usefulness of this agar.

  7. Evaluation of CP Chromo Select Agar for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafi, Mammad; Waldherr, Kerstin; Kundi, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The European Directive on drinking water quality has included mCP agar as the reference method for recovering Clostridium perfringens from drinking waters. In the present study, three media (mCP, TSCF and CP Chromo Select Agar) were evaluated for recovery of C. perfringens in different surface water samples. Out of 139 water samples, using a membrane filtration technique, 131 samples (94.2%) were found to be presumptively positive for C. perfringens in at least one of the culture media. Green colored colonies on CP Chromo Select Agar (CCP agar) were counted as presumptive C. perfringens isolates. Out of 483 green colonies on CCP agar, 96.3% (465 strains, indole negative) were identified as C. perfringens, and 15 strains (3.1%) were indole positive and were identified as Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium bifermentans or Clostridium tetani. Only 3 strains (0.6%) gave false positive results and were identified as Clostridium fallax, Clostridium botulinum, and Clostridium tertium. Variance analysis of the data obtained shows statistically no significant differences in the counts obtained between media employed in this work. The mCP method is very onerous for routine screening and bacterial colonies could not be used for further biochemical testing. The colonies on CCP and TSCF were easy to count and subculture for confirmation tests. TSCF detects sulfite-reducing clostridia, including species other than C. perfringens, and in some cases excessive blackening of the agar frustrated counting of the colonies. If the contamination was too high, TSCF did not consistently produce black colonies and as a consequence, the colonies were white and gave false negative results. On the other hand, the identification of typical and atypical colonies isolated from all media demonstrated that CCP agar was the most useful medium for C. perfringens recovery in water samples. PMID:23816139

  8. Mass production of spores of lactic acid-producing Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 on agar plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Ryosuke

    2013-01-01

    Mass production of sporangiospores (spores) of Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 (identical to NRRL 395 and ATCC 9363) on potato-dextrose-agar medium was studied aiming at starting its L(+)-lactic acid fermentation directly from spore inoculation. Various parameters including harvest time, sowed spore density, size of agar plate, height of air space, and incubation mode of plate (agar-on-bottom or agar-on-top) were studied. Ordinarily used shallow Petri dishes were found out to be unsuitable for the full growth of R. oryzae sporangiophores. In a very wide range of the sowed spore density, the smaller it was, the greater the number of the harvested spores was. It was also interesting to find out that R. oryzae grown downward vertically with a deep air space in an agar-on-top mode gave larger amount of spores than in an agar-on-bottom mode at 30°C for 7-day cultivation. Scale-up of the agar plate culture from 26.4 to 292 cm(2) was studied, resulting in the proportional relationship between the number of the harvested spores/plate and the plate area in the deep Petri dishes. The number of plates of 50 cm in diameter needed for 100 m(3) industrial submerged fermentation started directly from 2 × 10(5) spores/mL inoculum size was estimated as about 6, from which it was inferred that such a fermentation would be feasible. Designing a 50 cm plate and a method of spreading and collecting the spores were suggested. Bioprocess technological significance of the "full-scale industrial submerged fermentation started directly from spore inoculation omitting pre-culture" has been discussed. PMID:23658025

  9. Comparison of selective agars recommended by method ISO 11290-1 and chromogenic agars for the isolation of Listeria sp. in refrigerated sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalyta Marina Benetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria sp. in refrigerated sausages, and to compare the performance of the selective plating media employed in the ISO 11290-1 method (PALCAM and Oxford agars with chromogenic agars (Chromogenic Listeria agars CM 1080 (OCLA and CM 1084. The prevalence of Listeria sp. detected was 52.9%, comprising 13.7% L. monocytogenes strains. The efficacy of the four agars for the isolation of L. monocytogenes proved to be satisfactory. Despite differences in composition of the chromogenic media assessed, these disparities did not affect concordance among results. However, PALCAM agar was shown to suppress other microorganisms more effectively, being more applicable for detecting Listeria strains present in lower quantities. Based on these results, the use of PALCAM agar, in combination with a chromogenic media, is recommended for enhanced isolation of atypical Listeria sp. strains in meat products.Este estudo teve como objetivo a análise da prevalência de Listeria sp. em linguiças resfriadas e a comparação dos meios seletivos utilizados no plaqueamento do método ISO 11290-1 (Ágar PALCAM e Ágar Oxford, e ágares cromogênicos (Ágares Listeria Cromogênico CM 1080 (OCLA e CM 1084 (ISO. A frequência de Listeria sp. foi de 52,9%, sendo que destas, 13,7% corresponderam à L. monocytogenes. A eficácia dos quatro ágares para o isolamento de L. monocytogenes demonstrou-se satisfatória. Apesar de haver algumas diferenças nas composições dos meios cromogênicos analisados, estas não pareceram influenciar nas concordâncias entre os resultados expressos. Contudo, o ágar PALCAM mostrou-se mais eficaz na supressão de outros micro-organismos, aumentando, assim, a possibilidade de detecção de espécies de Listeria presentes em número reduzido. Através deste trabalho sugere-se a utilização do ágar PALCAM associado a um meio cromogênico para aumentar a chance de isolamento de cepas at

  10. Strategies to improve the mechanical strength and water resistance of agar films for food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana M M; Gonçalves, Maria P

    2015-11-01

    Agar films possess several properties adequate for food packaging applications. However, their high cost-production and quality variations caused by physiological and environmental factors affecting wild seaweeds make them less attractive for industries. In this work, native (NA) and alkali-modified (AA) agars obtained from sustainably grown seaweeds (integrated multi-trophic aquaculture) were mixed with locust bean gum (LBG) to make 'knife-coated' films with fixed final concentration (1 wt%) and variable agar/LBG ratios. Agar films were easier to process upon LBG addition (viscosity increase and gelling character decrease of the film-forming solutions observed by dynamic oscillatory and steady shear measurements). The mechanical properties and water resistance were optimal for films with 50 and/or 75% LBG contents and best in the case of NA (cheaper to extract). These findings can help reduce the cost-production of agar packaging films. Moreover, the controlled cultivation of seaweeds can provide continuous and reliable feedstock for transformation industries. PMID:26256341

  11. Antimicrobial and physical-mechanical properties of agar-based films incorporated with grapefruit seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-02-15

    The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 μg/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. PMID:24507339

  12. [DNA and chemical analyses of commercial fly agaric-related products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawahara, Nobuo; Fukiharu, Toshimitsu; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Makino, Yukiko; Goda, Yukihiro

    2005-04-01

    Since June 6, 2002, psilocin and psilocybin-containing fungi (commonly called "magic mushrooms") have been regulated by the Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law in Japan. However, various fly agaric-related products are now entering the Japanese market via the internet. In this study, fly agaric-related products available in this way were investigated for raw materials by DNA analysis and for additives by chemical analysis. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 12S rDNA region suggested that these fly agaric-related products originate from A. muscaria or A. muscaria var. persicina. Furthermore, they were classified into three strains based on the ITS2-LSU nucleotide sequence. Harmine derivatives and/or tryptamine derivatives were detected in some of these products by LC/MS analysis. In accordance with this, the matK gene of Peganum harmala was found in all of the harmine derivative-containing samples. PMID:16018591

  13. Homogeneous Matrix Deposition on Dried Agar for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Microbial Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-11-01

    Matrix deposition on agar-based microbial colonies for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is often complicated by the complex media on which microbes are grown. This Application Note demonstrates how consecutive short spray pulses of a matrix solution can form an evenly closed matrix layer on dried agar. Compared with sieving dry matrix onto wet agar, this method supports analyte cocrystallization, which results in significantly more signals, higher signal-to-noise ratios, and improved ionization efficiency. The even matrix layer improves spot-to-spot precision of measured m/z values when using TOF mass spectrometers. With this technique, we established reproducible imaging mass spectrometry of myxobacterial cultures on nutrient-rich cultivation media, which was not possible with the sieving technique.

  14. Multilaboratory evaluation of an agar diffusion disk susceptibility test for rapidly growing anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, A L; Fuchs, P C; Gerlach, E H; Allen, S D; Acar, J F; Aldridge, K E; Bourgault, A M; Grimm, H; Hall, G S; Heizmann, W

    1990-01-01

    A multilaboratory collaborative study was undertaken to determine whether the anaerobic disk diffusion test of Horn et al. could be performed reproducibly and accurately. Tests with nine different antimicrobial disks were evaluated. Reproducibility of the agar diffusion disk method was similar to that of the reference agar dilution test procedure. The anaerobic disk diffusion procedure was found to be a potentially useful method for testing some antimicrobial agents against rapidly growing anaerobes belonging to the Bacteroides fragilis group. These promising results warrant further investigations and validations. PMID:2406872

  15. Valuation of a new Cromogenic Agar Medium for the detection of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Mancini; Daniela Danieli; Adrio Penni; Marta Mingione; Fabrizio Tosto; Gianluca Puggioni; Paola Varesi; Alessandra Giordano

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli producing ESBL are a major problem in the many different hospitals worldwide causing outbreaks as well as sporadic infections. A novel chromogenic agar medium (ChromID ESBL bioMèrieux, Marcy L’Etoile, France) was tested directly on a total of 162 clinical samples and plated in parallel on to common media including Mac Conkey agar (bioMèrieux, Marcy L’Etoile, France). Colonies presenting a different morphologic aspect and growing on media were identified and tested for suscept...

  16. Encapsulation of Viscous Foods in Agar Gel Tubes for Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kalab, Miloslav

    1988-01-01

    Viscous food is aspirated into a glass capillary tube with the inner diameter of approximately 0.5 mm if the food is to be examined by transmission electron microscopy. If the sample is destined for examination by scanning electron microscopy, it is aspirated into a Pasteur pipette having the diameter of 1.0 mm. In each case, the lower end of the glass tube is sealed with a droplet of 40°C warm 3% agar sol. After the sol solidifies, the pipette is dipped in the same agar sol and a coating, 0....

  17. Hair Sheep Blood, Citrated or Defibrinated, Fulfills All Requirements of Blood Agar for Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Ellen; Pinsky, Benjamin A.; Banaei, Niaz; Baron, Ellen Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and ...

  18. Comparison of Sabouraud dextrose and Pagano-Levin agar media for detection and isolation of yeasts from oral samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Samaranayake, L P; MacFarlane, T W; Williamson, M I

    1987-01-01

    The sensitivities of Sabouraud dextrose agar and modified Pagano-Levin agar for the primary isolation of yeasts and the recovery of multiple yeast species from single clinical samples were compared by using oral-rinse samples. Although there was a highly significant positive correlation between the numbers of yeasts recovered from both media, modified Pagano-Levin agar was far superior in detecting multiple yeast species in a single sample. Of 150 oral samples containing yeasts, 23 (15.3%) co...

  19. Irradiation of silver and agar/silver nanoparticles with argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Wahab, Essam A; El-Maaref, A A; Rawway, Mohammed; Shaaban, Essam R

    2014-01-01

    The irradiation effect of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp on silver and agar/silver nanoparticle samples is studied. The irradiation time dependence of the synthesized silver and agar/silver nanoparticle absorption spectra and their antibacterial effect are studied and compared. In the agar/silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity and the full width at half maximum, FWHM, of the surfa...

  20. Agar diffusion tests with cefuroxime disks for predicting ceftriaxone susceptibility among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Cícero A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of agar diffusion tests using disks of cefuroxime (30µg for predicting ceftriaxone susceptibility in 33 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied. All 7 resistant isolates to ceftriaxone (MIC ³1.0 µg/ml exhibited zones of inhibition <28mm. The procedure can be easily adapted to clinical laboratories.

  1. Is inclusion of Sabouraud dextrose agar essential for the laboratory diagnosis of fungal keratitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sujata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine whether the inclusion of Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA is essential in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis. Materials and Methods: Corneal scrapings of 141 patients with microbial keratitis were smeared and cultured. Sheep blood agar (BA, chocolate agar (CA, SDA, non-nutrient agar (NNA with Escherichia coli overlay, and brain heart infusion broth (BHI were evaluated for time taken for growth and cost. The media were also evaluated experimentally for rate of growth and time taken for identification. Results: Twenty-six of 39 patients positive for fungus in corneal scrapings by microscopy were culture-positive. Fungus grew on BA in 22/39, on CA in 18/39, on SDA in 17/39, on NNA in 17/39, and on BHI in 13/39 cases. Growth on SDA was higher in ulcers with larger infiltrate (6/18 versus 9/13, P = 0.04. Estimated saving with inclusion of only BA/CA was Rs. 600 per patient. Performance of all media was similar in in vitro experiment although the characteristic spores and color were seen earlier on SDA. Conclusion: Fungal keratitis can be reliably confirmed on BA or CA, which support growth of both bacteria and fungus.

  2. Observing Chemotaxis in Vibrio fischeri Using Soft Agar Assays in an Undergraduate Microbiology Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy R. DeLoney-Marino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemotaxis, the directed movement of cells towards or away from a chemical, is both an exciting and complicated behavior observed in many bacterial species. Attempting to adequately visualize or demonstrate the chemotaxic response of bacteria in the classroom is difficult at best, with good models to illustrate the concept lacking. The BSL-1 marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri (a.k.a. Aliivibrio fischeri is easy to culture, making it an ideal candidate for experiments in an undergraduate microbiology course. A number of chemoattractants for V. fischeri have been identified, including a variety of sugars, nucleosides, and amino acids (1, 2. Below presents how the soft agar-based chemotaxis assay can be implemented in the undergraduate laboratory. As bacterial cells migrate towards one or more attractants in soft agar, students can directly observe the chemotaxic behavior of V. fischeri without the need to learn complicated techniques or use specialized equipment. Once the bands of bacterial cells are observed, the migration can then be disrupted by the addition of excess attractant to the soft agar, thereby visualizing what happens once cells are no longer in a gradient of attractant. In addition, soft agar plates lacking attractants can be used to visualize the random movements of bacterial cells that are non-chemotaxing. These exercises can be used in the microbiology laboratory to help students understand the complex behavior of bacterial chemotaxis.

  3. Evolutionary consequences of putative intra- and interspecific hybridization in agaric fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaric fungi of the southern Appalachians including the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are often heterozygous for the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) with >42% of collections showing some level of heterozygosity for indels and/or base-pair substitutions. For these collections, int...

  4. Potato carrot agar with manganese as an isolation medium for Alternaria, Epicoccum and Phoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Thrane, Ulf;

    2009-01-01

    A semi-selective medium for isolation of Alternaria spp., Epicoccum sp. and Phoma spp. from soil and plant samples was developed. The basal medium was a modified potato carrot agar (PCA), containing 10 g/L of potato and carrot. It is known that the target genera sporulate well on standard PCA when...

  5. Mercury in fruiting bodies of Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria (L.: Fr.) Pers. collected from Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Lipka, K.

    2003-05-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined in the fruiting bodies of Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria (L.: FL) Pers. and underlying soil substrate collected from several sites in Poland in 1993-2000 to evaluate mercury status as contaminant and bioindicating features of this species. The samples were collected from the spatially distant sites such as: Zaborski Landscape Park, Mierzeja Wiślana Landscape Park, Wdzydzki Landscape Park, Borecka Forest, Tucholskie Forest, Wieluńska Upland, the communities of Gubin, Manowo, Lubiana and Morag. Total mercury content of caps and stalks of Fly agaric varied widely depending on the sites examined. The range of the mean mercury concentrations for all 17 sites was between 96±10 and 1900±1400 ng/g dry wt for the caps and between 6l±32 and 920±760 ng/g dry wt for the stalks, while between 4.4±3.1 and 150±20 ng/g were noted for soil substrate samples from 9 sites examined. Fly agaric independently of the site examined showed relatively good capacity to accumulate total mercury and BCF values varied between 16±10 and 74±15 for the caps and between 11±8 and 42±10 for the stalks. Nevertheless, relatively high bioconcentration potential of mercury by Fly agaric seems to be specific for that species and under soil mercury concentrations noted no bioindication properties of this mushroom could be observed.

  6. Medium dependant production of corymbiferone a novel product from Penicillium hordei cultured on plant tissue agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overy, David Patrick; Zidorn, C.; Petersen, B.O.;

    2005-01-01

    Medium dependant production and the structure elucidation of corymbiferone (1) from the fungus Penicillitan hordei grown on oatmeal and macerated tulip, yellow onion and red onion agars are reported. Compound 1 possesses an unusual oxygenated aromatic structure with a lactone bridge preventing full...

  7. Isolation of Nocardia asteroides from respiratory specimens by using selective buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, E; Snell, H; Black, B L; Storey, M.; Colby, W D

    1992-01-01

    Nocardiosis is difficult to diagnose clinically and by laboratory methods. A patient presented with disease compatible with pulmonary malignancy, but Nocardia asteroides was isolated on buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar. Investigation revealed that this medium may be a suitable selective primary isolation medium for Nocardia species from respiratory specimens.

  8. Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) Agar

    OpenAIRE

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2015-01-01

    Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar was used to develop a disk diffusion assay for Leptospira spp. Ten pathogenic Leptospira isolates were tested, all of which were susceptible to 17 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doripenem, doxycycline, gentamicin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and tetracycline). All 10 isolates had no zone ...

  9. Cell cytotoxicity and mycotoxin and secondary metabolite production by common penicillia on cheese agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gareis, M.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    Known or potential new fungal starter culture species such as Penicillium camemberti, P. roqueforti, P. nalgiovense, P. caseifulvum, and P. solitum have been cultivated on a cheese agar medium together with the common cheese contaminants P. commune, P. crustosum, P. discolor, P. atramentosum, and...

  10. Investigation of dental alginate and agar impression materials as a brain simulant for ballistic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falland-Cheung, Lisa; Piccione, Neil; Zhao, Tianqi; Lazarjan, Milad Soltanipour; Hanlin, Suzanne; Jermy, Mark; Waddell, J Neil

    2016-06-01

    Routine forensic research into in vitro skin/skull/brain ballistic blood backspatter behavior has traditionally used gelatin at a 1:10 Water:Powder (W:P) ratio by volume as a brain simulant. A limitation of gelatin is its high elasticity compared to brain tissue. Therefore this study investigated the use of dental alginate and agar impression materials as a brain simulant for ballistic testing. Fresh deer brain, alginate (W:P ratio 91.5:8.5) and agar (W:P ratio 81:19) specimens (n=10) (11×22×33mm) were placed in transparent Perspex boxes of the same internal dimensions prior to shooting with a 0.22inch caliber high velocity air gun. Quantitative analysis to establish kinetic energy loss, vertical displacement elastic behavior and qualitative analysis to establish elasticity behavior was done via high-speed camera footage (SA5, Photron, Japan) using Photron Fastcam Viewer software (Version 3.5.1, Photron, Japan) and visual observation. Damage mechanisms and behavior were qualitatively established by observation of the materials during and after shooting. The qualitative analysis found that of the two simulant materials tested, agar behaved more like brain in terms of damage and showed similar mechanical response to brain during the passage of the projectile, in terms of energy absorption and vertical velocity displacement. In conclusion agar showed a mechanical and subsequent damage response that was similar to brain compared to alginate. PMID:27131216

  11. Immediate differentiation of salmonella-resembling colonies on brilliant green agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    A rapid biochemical system (OBIS) based on immediate enzymatic differentiation of Citrobacter, Proteus, Providencia, Hafnia and Morganella spp. from Salmonella on brilliant green agar was evaluated A total of 96 field isolates from various Salmonella serotypes, 18 Citrobacter freundii and 25...

  12. Development of hyperspectral imaging technique for salmonella enteritidis and typhimurium on agar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a common cause of foodborne disease resulting from the consumption of contaminated food products. Although a direct plating method is widely used for presumptive positive screening of pathogenic Salmonella colonies on agar plates, it is labor-intensive, time-consuming and also prone to...

  13. Evaluation of Agar Plates for Direct Enumeration of Campylobacter spp. from Poultry Carcass Rinses

    OpenAIRE

    Oyarzabal, Omar A; Kenneth S. Macklin; Barbaree, James M.; Miller, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    Campy-Cefex, a modification of Campy-Cefex, modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mCCDA), Karmali, CAMPY, and Campy-Line agars were evaluated for their efficiency to isolate and enumerate Campylobacter spp. from poultry carcass rinses. Campy-Cefex and its modification produced the best results but were statistically similar to CAMPY, mCCDA, and Karmali.

  14. EFFECT OF IMPACT STRESS ON MICROBIAL RECOVERY ON AN AGAR SURFACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial stress due to the impaction of microorganisms onto an agar collection surface was studied experimentally. he relative recovery rates of aerosolized Pseudomonas fluorescens and Micrococcus luteus were determined as a function of the impaction velocity by using a moving a...

  15. Cell cytotoxicity and mycotoxin and secondary metabolite production by common penicillia on cheese agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gareis, M.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    Known or potential new fungal starter culture species such as Penicillium camemberti, P. roqueforti, P. nalgiovense, P. caseifulvum, and P. solitum have been cultivated on a cheese agar medium together with the common cheese contaminants P. commune, P. crustosum, P. discolor, P. atramentosum, and P...

  16. Production of microbial medium from defatted brebra (Milletia ferruginea) seed flour to substitute commercial peptone agar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berhanu Andualem; Amare Gessesse

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate and optimize microbial media that substitute peptone agar using brebra seed defatted flour. Methods:Defatted process, inoculums preparation, evaluation of bacterial growth, preparation of cooked and hydrolyzed media and growth turbidity of tested bacteria were determined. Results: Two percent defatted flour was found to be suitable concentration for the growth of pathogenic bacteria:Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Salmonella (NCTC 8385) and Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022) (S. flexneri), while 3%defatted flour was suitable for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) (S. aureus). E. coli (93±1) and S. flexneri (524±1) colony count were significantly (P≤0.05) greater in defatted flour without supplement than in supplemented medium. E. coli [(3.72í109±2) CFU/mL], S. aureus [(7.4í109±2) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(4.03í109±2) CFU/mL] and Salmonella [(2.37í109±1) CFU/mL] in non-hydrolyzed sample were statistically (P≤0.05) greater than hydrolyzed one and commercial peptone agar. Colony count of Salmonella [(4.55í109±3) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(5.40í109±3) CFU/mL] and Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) [(5.4í109±3) CFU/mL] on raw defatted flour agar was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than cooked defatted flour and commercial peptone agar. Biomass of E. coli, S. aureus, Salmonella and Enterococcus faecalis in non-hydrolyzed defatted flour is highly increased over hydrolyzed defatted flour and commercial peptone broth. Conclusions: The defatted flour agar was found to be better microbial media or comparable with peptone agar. The substances in it can serve as sources of carbon, nitrogen, vitamins and minerals that are essential to support the growth of microorganisms without any supplements. Currently, all supplements of peptone agar are very expensive in the market.

  17. Use of Dehydrated Agar to Estimate Microbial Water Quality for Horticulture Irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Dustin P; Fisher, Paul R; Guy, Charles L; Harmon, Philip F; Peres, Natalia A; Teplitski, Max

    2016-07-01

    Petrifilms are dehydrated agar culture plates that have been used to quantify colony forming units (CFU) mL of either aerobic bacteria (Petrifilm-AC) or fungus (Petrifilm-YM), depending on substrate composition. Microbes in irrigation systems can indicate biofilm risk and potential clogging of irrigation emitters. The research objective was to compare counts on Petrifilms versus traditional, hydrated-agar plates using samples collected from recirculated irrigation waters and cultures of isolated known species. The estimated count (in CFU mL) from a recirculated irrigation sample after 7 d of incubation on Petrifilm-YM was only 5.5% of the count quantified using sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with chloramphenicol after 14 d. In a separate experiment with a known species, Petrifilm-YM did not successfully culture zoospores of . Isolates of viable zoospores were cultured successfully on potato-dextrose agar (PDA), with comparable counts with a vegetable juice medium supplemented with the antibiotics pimaricin, ampicillin, rifamycin, pentochloronitrobenzene and hymexazol (PARP-H). The quantification of pv. Begoniaceae on Petrifilm-AC was not significantly different ( < 0.05) than on PDA, but was lower than on Reasoner and Goldrich agar (R2A) or with a hemocytometer. The current formulation of Petrifilm-YM is unlikely to be a useful monitoring method for plant pathogens in irrigation water because of the inability to successfully culture oomycetes. However, Petrifilm-AC was an effective method to quantify bacteria and can provide an easy-to-use on-farm tool to monitor biofilm risk and microbial density. PMID:27380096

  18. Effect of impact stress on microbial recovery on an agar surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S L; Grinshpun, S A; Willeke, K; Terzieva, S; Ulevicius, V; Donnelly, J

    1995-04-01

    Microbial stress due to the impaction of microorganisms onto an agar collection surface was studied experimentally. The relative recovery rates of aerosolized Pseudomonas fluorescens and Micrococcus luteus were determined as a function of the impaction velocity by using a moving agar slide impactor operating over a flow rate range from 3.8 to 40 liters/min yielding impaction velocities from 24 to 250 m/s. As a reference, the sixth stage of the Andersen Six-Stage Viable Particle Sizing Sampler was used at its operating flow rate of 28.3 liters/min (24 m/s). At a collection efficiency of close to 100% for the agar slide impactor, an increase in sampling flow rate and, therefore, in impaction velocity produced a significant decline in the percentage of microorganisms recovered. Conversely, when the collection efficiency was less than 100%, greater recovery and lower injury rates occurred. The highest relative rate of recovery (approximately 51% for P. fluorescens and approximately 62% for M. luteus) was obtained on the complete (Trypticase soy agar) medium at 40 and 24 m/s (6.4 and 3.8 liters/min), respectively. M. luteus demonstrated less damage than P. fluorescens, suggesting the hardy nature of the gram-positive strain versus that of the gram-negative microorganism. Comparison of results from the agar slide and Andersen impactors at the same sampling velocity showed that recovery and injury due to collection depends not only on the magnitude of the impaction velocity but also on the degree to which the microorganisms may be embedded in the collection medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7747946

  19. On the quantitative Amido Black B staining of protein spots in agar gel at low local protein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.T.

    1962-01-01

    Protein spots in agar gel of identical protein content but different in surface area are found to bind different amounts of dye upon staining with Amido Black B. The lower the protein concentration within the agar gel, the more the Amido Black B content of the spot falls short of the value expected

  20. Effect of lignin on water vapor barrier, mechanical, and structural properties of agar/lignin composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-11-01

    Biodegradable composite films were prepared using two renewable resources based biopolymers, agar and lignin alkali. The lignin was used as a reinforcing material and agar as a biopolymer matrix. The effect of lignin concentration (1, 3, 5, and 10wt%) on the performance of the composite films was studied. In addition, the mechanical, water vapor barrier, UV light barrier properties, FE-SEM, and TGA of the films were analyzed. The agar/lignin films exhibited higher mechanical and UV barrier properties along with lower water vapor permeability compared to the neat agar film. The FTIR and SEM results showed the compatibility of lignin with agar polymer. The swelling ratio and moisture content of agar/lignin composite films were decreased with increase in lignin content. The thermostability and char content of agar/lignin composite films increased with increased lignin content. The results suggested that agar/lignin films have a potential to be used as a UV barrier food packaging material for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. PMID:26271435

  1. The bactericidal effect of carbon nanotube/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared light on Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental caries are mainly associated with oral pathogens, and Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic organism. Many methods have been established to eliminate S. mutans from the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT)/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light on S. mutans, as a potential photothermal antimicrobial nanotherapy. A colony-forming unit assay clearly showed that CNT/agar composites attain bactericidal activity after NIR light irradiation; this bactericidal activity is higher than that of graphite (GP)/agar and activated carbon (AC)/agar composites. Furthermore, it was observed that longer irradiation times immobilized S. mutans in the CNT/agar composite.

  2. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  3. The bactericidal effect of carbon nanotube/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared light on Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akasaka, Tsukasa, E-mail: akasaka@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Matsuoka, Makoto [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Meijo Nano Carbon Co. Ltd., Otsubashi bldg. 4F, 3-4-10 Marunouchi, Naka-ku, Nagoya 460-0002 (Japan); Abe, Shigeaki; Uo, Motohiro; Watari, Fumio [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Dental caries are mainly associated with oral pathogens, and Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic organism. Many methods have been established to eliminate S. mutans from the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT)/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light on S. mutans, as a potential photothermal antimicrobial nanotherapy. A colony-forming unit assay clearly showed that CNT/agar composites attain bactericidal activity after NIR light irradiation; this bactericidal activity is higher than that of graphite (GP)/agar and activated carbon (AC)/agar composites. Furthermore, it was observed that longer irradiation times immobilized S. mutans in the CNT/agar composite.

  4. Assessment of agar gel loaded with micro-emulsion for the cleaning of porous surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Gorel

    2010-01-01

    Le système composé d’un gel d’agar-agar et d’une microémulsion présente plusieurs qualités pour extraire des matériaux hydrophobes de couches poreuses. Les propriétés rhéologiques de ce système sont adaptées à un usage en restauration et sont stables pendant plusieurs jours. Les gels permettent la solubilisation du matériau à l’aide de faible quantité de solvant, l’empêchent de créer des auréoles, permettent le contrôle de l’évaporation des solvants et ne laissent pas de résidus de gel dans l...

  5. Compatibilization of HDPE/agar biocomposites with eutectic-based ionic liquid containing surfactant

    CERN Document Server

    Shamsuri, AA; Zainudin, ES; Tahir, PM

    2014-01-01

    In this research, eutectic-based ionic liquid specifically choline chloride/glycerol was prepared at a 1:2 mole ratio. The choline chloride/glycerol was added with the different content of surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide). The choline chloride/glycerol-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide was introduced into high-density polyethylene/agar biocomposites through melt mixing. The mechanical testing results indicated that the impact strength and tensile extension of the biocomposites increased with the introduction of the choline chloride/glycerol-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The scanning electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis results exhibited that significant decrease in the number of agar fillers pull-out, melting point and thermal decomposition temperatures of the biocomposites are also due to the choline chloride/glycerol-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffractometer patterns of the bioc...

  6. Sterilization of MacConkey agar and CLED medium by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacConkey agar and Cystine-Lactose-Electrolyte-Deficient (CLED) agar, media widely used in the bacteriological laboratory and recommended for the detection of urinary tract infections, were sterilized by γ-radiation at a dose of 1.5 Mrad. Both were modified and adapted to radiation sterilization by adding sodium thioglycollate as a radioprotectant, and by increasing their indicator content. The media performed well when tested with different Enterobacteria and other micro-organisms. Growth and change of indicator reaction were equal in irradiated and autoclaved culture media. Culture media were also evaluated after storage for one month at room temperature and at 40C and compared well with freshly autoclaved media. (author)

  7. Growth and study of barium oxalate single crystals in agar gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P V Dalal; K B Saraf

    2006-10-01

    Barium oxalate was grown in agar gel at ambient temperature. The effect of various parameters like gel concentration, gel setting time and concentration of the reactants on the growth of these crystals was studied. Prismatic platy shaped spherulites and dendrites were obtained. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. An attempt is made to explain the spherulitic growth mechanism.

  8. Susceptibilities of genital mycoplasmas to the newer quinolones as determined by the agar dilution method.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, G E; Hooton, T M; Roberts, M C; Cartwright, F D; Hoyt, J

    1989-01-01

    The increasing resistance of genital mycoplasmas to tetracycline poses a problem because tetracycline is one of the few antimicrobial agents active against Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, chlamydiae, gonococci, and other agents of genitourinary-tract disease. Since the quinolones are a promising group of antimicrobial agents, the susceptibilities of M. hominis and U. urealyticum to the newer 6-fluoroquinolones were determined by the agar dilution method. Ciprofloxacin, difloxacin,...

  9. Cytotoxicity of ferrite particles by MTT and agar diffusion methods for hyperthermic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the cytotoxicity of the prepared various ferrites (Fe-, Li-, Ni/Zn/Cu-, Ba-, Sr-, Co-, Co/Ni-ferrites) using MTT assay as well as agar diffusion method. Their cytotoxicity was compared with that of alginate-encapsulated ferrites. In the MTT assay, Fe3O4 and SrFe12O19 ferrite showed the highest cell viability of 90%. Alginate-encapsulated Ba-ferrite was ranked mildly cytotoxic, whereas their ferrite particles were ranked cytotoxic

  10. Cytotoxicity of ferrite particles by MTT and agar diffusion methods for hyperthermic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Se-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Shim, In-Bo; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2005-05-01

    We investigated the cytotoxicity of the prepared various ferrites (Fe-, Li-, Ni/Zn/Cu-, Ba-, Sr-, Co-, Co/Ni-ferrites) using MTT assay as well as agar diffusion method. Their cytotoxicity was compared with that of alginate-encapsulated ferrites. In the MTT assay, Fe 3O 4 and SrFe 12O 19 ferrite showed the highest cell viability of 90%. Alginate-encapsulated Ba-ferrite was ranked mildly cytotoxic, whereas their ferrite particles were ranked cytotoxic.

  11. Correlation of moxalactam (LY127935) susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and agar plate dilution methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, W H; Opfer, B J

    1981-01-01

    Susceptibility of pathogenic aerobic bacteria to moxalactam (LY127935) was compared by two methods, diffusion from 30-microgram disks and agar plate dilution. The two methods gave a satisfactory degree of correlation when compared by linear regression, but the slope of the linear regression was significantly steeper for gram-negative bacilli (Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) than for coccal organisms (streptococci and staphylococci). The largest zone diameters by disk diffusion ...

  12. Enhancing bioaerosol sampling by Andersen impactors using mineral-oil-spread agar plate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Xu

    Full Text Available As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+ and Escherichia coli (G-. In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC. Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05. The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20% were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ∼100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques

  13. FLUCONAZOLE SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF CANDIDA SPECI ES BY DISC DIFFUSION AND AGAR DILUTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Fungal infections with candida species are an import ant cause of morbidity and mortality 1 . Situation is further worsened by increasing resis tance to antifungal drugs 2 .The objective of this study was to evaluate antifu ngal susceptibility pattern of Candida species to fluconazole by disc diffusion and agar di lution method and compare these two methods as far as fluconazole is concerned. MATERIAL & METHODS: Between January 2006 to December 2006, 119 Candida species were isolated fro m 225 sputum samples of patients of pulmonary tuberculosis and immunocomprised patients. RESULTS: Of the 119 Candida isolates 33 (27.73% were Candida albicans, 32 (26.89% were Candida gullermondi, 27 (22.68% Candida tropicalis, 14 (11.76% Candida pseudotropica lis, 7 (5.88% Candida parapsilosis and 6 (5.04% were Candida krusei. The Candida isolates w ere tested for fluconazole by disc diffusion method on Muller hinton agar with 2% glucose and 0. 5 microgram of methylene blue 3 .Amongst the 119 Candida isolates, 17 (14.28% isolates were resistant to fluconazole by disc diffusion method. MIC done by agar dilution method using CLSI guidelines 4. Candida isolates showed growth of 15 (88 .23% Candida strains upto 8 micro gram / ml with 80% inhibition of growth whereas 2 (1.7% isolates showed MIC upto 64 microgr am/ ml. CONCLUSIONS: Candida albicans though a common species other species were i solated in significant number. The results of disc diffusion for fluconazole do not co rrelate with agar dilution method. To cater the need of resource constrained laboratories, it is im portant to have results that correspond to the clinical outcome of antifungal treatment and show c o-relation to those obtained with the reference method as recommended by CLSI guidelines and also be reproducible 5 . Further critical studies are needed

  14. CONSTRUCTION OF AGAR SALT BRIDGE MICROBIAL FUEL CELL (MFC) AND BIOELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Gowramma Buddolla; Chamundeswari Kanneluri Vijaya; Arun kumar Jadguru Matt

    2015-01-01

    In the current study MFC were constructed using PVC Schedule Tee, PVC Schedule Connector, PVC Schedule Slip Cap, Titanium fishing lead, Clear plastic wrap, Rubber bands, Salt Bridge Medium (Sodium chloride, Agar and Water). It mainly consists of anode and cathode chamber connecte dtoa multimeter to complete the circuit. Wires and carbon brushes were us ed to ma ke the c a rbon electrodes. Four different waste water samples were (Stagnant waste water, Dairy waste, Liquid waste c...

  15. Foamlike xanthan gum/clay aerogel composites and tailoring properties by blending with agar

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, LIANG; Schiraldi, David A.; Sánchez Soto, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Foamlike aerogel composites based on renewable xanthan gum (XG) and sodium montmorillonite clay (Na+- MMT) have been prepared using an environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. Additionally, the biobased polysaccharide agar was used to improve the properties of XG/clay aerogels. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed molecular interactions between biopolymers and clay in the aerogel composites. A wide range of microstructures and mechanical properties were obtained w...

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Chromogenic Agar Medium for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, John D.; Davies, Amie; Butterworth, Lynne A.; Hopley, Andrew L. J.; Nicholson, Audrey; Gould, F. Kate

    2004-01-01

    We describe here the development and evaluation of MRSA ID, a new chromogenic agar medium for the specific isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We used S. aureus ID (bioMérieux, La Balme Les Grottes, France) and supplemented it with various antimicrobials, including cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, and methicillin. Cefoxitin proved to be superior to the other antimicrobials for the selection of MRSA from other strains of S. aureus. MRSA ID (c...

  17. An Agar-Based Method for Plating Marine Protozoan Parasites of the Genus Perkinsus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma R Cold

    Full Text Available The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects of the Perkinsus spp. biology. We optimized a DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- containing solid agar medium for plating Perkinsus marinus. This solid medium supported trophozoite propagation both by binary fission and schizogony. Colonies were visible to the naked eye 17 days after plating. We tested the suitability of this method for several applications, including the following: 1 Subcloning P. marinus isolates: single discrete P. marinus colonies were obtained from DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates, which could be further propagated in liquid medium; 2 Subcloning engineered Perkinsus mediterraneus MOE[MOE]: GFP by streaking cultures on plates; 3 Chemical susceptibility: Infusing the DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates with triclosan resulted in inhibition of the parasite propagation in a dose-dependent manner. Altogether, our plating method has the potential for becoming a key tool for investigating diverse aspects of Perkinsus spp. biology, developing new molecular tools, and for biotechnological applications.

  18. Simulation of Bacillus subtilis biofilm growth on agar plate by diffusion–reaction based continuum model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianlong; Wang, Xiaoling; Nie, Kai; Li, Mingpeng; Sun, Qingping

    2016-08-01

    Various species of bacteria form highly organized spatially-structured aggregates known as biofilms. To understand how microenvironments impact biofilm growth dynamics, we propose a diffusion–reaction continuum model to simulate the formation of Bacillus subtilis biofilm on an agar plate. The extended finite element method combined with level set method are employed to perform the simulation, numerical results show the quantitative relationship between colony morphologies and nutrient depletion over time. Considering that the production of polysaccharide in wild-type cells may enhance biofilm spreading on the agar plate, we inoculate mutant colony incapable of producing polysaccharide to verify our results. Predictions of the glutamate source biofilm’s shape parameters agree with the experimental mutant colony better than that of glycerol source biofilm, suggesting that glutamate is rate limiting nutrient for Bacillus subtilis biofilm growth on agar plate, and the diffusion-limited is a better description to the experiment. In addition, we find that the diffusion time scale is of the same magnitude as growth process, and the common-employed quasi-steady approximation is not applicable here.

  19. Agar Plate Method for Detection and Enumeration of Alkylbenzenesulfonate-Degrading Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwada, Kouichi

    1975-01-01

    A simple method for detection and enumeration of alkylbenzenesulfonate (ABS)-degrading microorganisms by using agar plates was developed and used in microbiological studies of coastal marine and polluted river waters. The method depends upon the color responses of neutral red in alkaline medium. Neutral red changes from pink, when it enters into ABS micelles, to yellow, when the ABS is degraded, and does not form micelles. When neutral red-tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane buffer solution and then cationic surfactant solution were sprayed onto the agar surface of ABS-nutrient agar cultures, transparent haloes appeared around the colonies of ABS-degrading microorganisms against a pink background. Viable counts of ABS-degrading bacteria isolated from both seawater and freshwater environments were considerably higher in polluted waters than in less polluted areas. Viable counts of ABS-degrading bacteria averaged 1.5 × 105/ml in samples from the surface water of polluted Tokyo Bay and 3.0 × 104/ml in samples from the surface water of polluted Tamagawa River but were fewer in number in samples from less polluted waters. Images PMID:234155

  20. Calibration of Ge(Li) semiconductor detector by method using agar volume source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ge(Li) semiconductor detector was calibrated for measurements of environmental samples. The radioisotopes used for standard sources are 22Na, 51Cr, 56Co, 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, 144Ce and 241Am. These are mixed with hot agar aqueous solution and fixed uniformly in a cylindrical plastic case in cooling. The agar volume source is advantageous in handling over the fluid aqueous source. The prepared cylindrical standard sources are in diameters 6 and 8 cm and thicknesses 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mm (only for 8 cm diameter). The radioactivities of prepared standard sources are between 0.03 μCi and 0.2 μCi. It takes only a week to make the calibration except data processing. The obtained full energy peak efficiency curves include 5 - 10% error due to preparation of agar source, reference radioactivity data of purchased standard solutions, reference data of branching ratio of gamma-ray and sum effect. The efficiency curves, however, are sufficient for quantitative analysis of environmental samples. (author)

  1. An Agar-Based Method for Plating Marine Protozoan Parasites of the Genus Perkinsus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold, Emma R; Freyria, Nastasia J; Martínez Martínez, Joaquín; Fernández Robledo, José A

    2016-01-01

    The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects of the Perkinsus spp. biology. We optimized a DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- containing solid agar medium for plating Perkinsus marinus. This solid medium supported trophozoite propagation both by binary fission and schizogony. Colonies were visible to the naked eye 17 days after plating. We tested the suitability of this method for several applications, including the following: 1) Subcloning P. marinus isolates: single discrete P. marinus colonies were obtained from DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates, which could be further propagated in liquid medium; 2) Subcloning engineered Perkinsus mediterraneus MOE[MOE]: GFP by streaking cultures on plates; 3) Chemical susceptibility: Infusing the DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates with triclosan resulted in inhibition of the parasite propagation in a dose-dependent manner. Altogether, our plating method has the potential for becoming a key tool for investigating diverse aspects of Perkinsus spp. biology, developing new molecular tools, and for biotechnological applications. PMID:27149378

  2. How do microorganisms influence trace element uptake by plants? Screening in an agar model rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, M.; Robinson, B. H.; Evangelou, M. W. H.; Vachey, A.; Schwitzguebel, J. P.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Schulin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements (TE) are essential for humans and plants, but they may be toxic if their concentration is too high. For this reason, the management of TE in soils is very important. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the uptake of nutrients or TE by plants, for example in a biofortification perspective. Conversely, in some other cases TE uptake by plants should be decreased, for instance to avoid heavy metals entering the food chain via edible crops. Microorganisms living in the rhizosphere affect trace element (TE) uptake by plants. However, due to the complexity of this space and the variety of microorganisms that occur there, it is difficult to isolate the effect of any particular strain. To overcome this hurdle, we developed a system in which we grew plants under sterile conditions in agar and inoculated their rhizosphere with a single, well-defined microbial strain. For many years, agar has been used as a growth substrate for microorganisms and plant tissues. It is cheap, easy to use, and can be autoclaved to ensure its sterility. Because of its widespread use, an experiment conducted using this substrate can be reproduced under the same conditions in any laboratory. In contrast to soil, there is little interaction between the trace elements and the agar matrix. There are many studies investigating the influence of microorganisms on TE uptake by plants. However, so far only a small variety of microorganisms has been tested on few plant species. Therefore, the first objective of our research was to develop a method to rapidly screen a large variety of microorganisms on various plant species. Once this goal was achieved, we sought to study the effect of single, well-defined microbial strains on TE uptake by sunflower and wheat. The substrate for plants growth was a 10% agar solution prepared with modified Hoagland's solution and a TE solution containing 1 mg/kg Pb and molar equivalents of Cu, Ni and Zn. The agar solution was autoclaved and poured into

  3. Evaluation of the Etest Method for Determining Fluconazole Susceptibilities of 402 Clinical Yeast Isolates by Using Three Different Agar Media

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaller, M A; Messer, S. A.; Karlsson, Å.; Bolmström, A.

    1998-01-01

    The performance of the Etest for fluconazole susceptibility testing of 402 yeast isolates was assessed against the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) microdilution broth method. The NCCLS method employed RPMI 1640 broth medium, and MICs were read after incubation for 48 h at 35°C. Etest MICs were determined with RPMI agar containing 2% glucose (RPG), Casitone agar (CAS), and Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) and were read after incubation for 48 h at 35°C. The yeast isolates...

  4. Optimization of the agar-gel method for isolation of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Roepstorff, A.; Rasmussen, T.; Hog, M.; Jungersen, Gregers

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on use of an agar-gel method for recovery of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs were conducted to obtain fast standardized methods. Subsamples of blended tissues of pig liver and lungs were mixed with agar to a final concentration of 1% agar and the larvae ...

  5. Trace amounts of furan-2-carboxylic acids determine the quality of solid agar plates for bacterial culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Hara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many investigators have recognised that a significant proportion of environmental bacteria exist in a viable but non-culturable state on agar plates, and some researchers have also noticed that some of such bacteria clearly recover their growth on matrices other than agar. However, the reason why agar is unsuitable for the growth of some bacteria has not been addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: According to the guide of a bioassay for swarming inhibition, we identified 5-hydroxymethylfuran-2-carboxylic acid (5-HMFA and furan-2-carboxylic acid (FA as factors that inhibit bacterial swarming and likely inhibit extracellular polysaccharide production on agar. The furan-2-carboxylic acids 5-HMFA and FA effectively inhibited the swarming and swimming of several environmental bacteria at concentrations of 1.8 and 2.3 µg L(-1 (13 and 21 nmol L(-1, respectively, which are equivalent to the concentrations of these compounds in 0.3% agar. On Luria-Bertani (LB plates containing 1.0% agar that had been previously washed with MeOH, a mixture of 5-HMFA and FA in amounts equivalent to their original concentrations in the unwashed agar repressed the swarming of Escherichia coli K12 strain W3110, a representative swarming bacterium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Agar that contains trace amounts of 5-HMFA and FA inhibits the proliferation of some slow-growing or difficult-to-culture bacteria on the plates, but it is useful for single colony isolation due to the ease of identification of swarmable bacteria as the non-swarmed colonies.

  6. In vitro/in vivo evaluation of agar nanospheres for pulmonary delivery of bupropion HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Zaki, Mohammad Reza; Fathi, Milad; Jaleh, Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Bupropion HCl is an atypical antidepressant drug with rapid and high first-pass metabolism. Sustained release dosage form of this drug is suggested for reducing its side effects which are mainly seizures. The aim of the present study was to design pulmonary agar nanospheres of bupropion HCl with effective systemic absorption and extended release properties. Bupropion HCl was encapsulated in agar nanospheres by ionic gelation, and characterized for physical and release properties. Pharmacokinetic studies on nanospheres were performed on rats by intratracheal spraying of 5 mg/kg of drug in form of nanospheres compared to intravenous and pulmonary delivery of the same dose as simple solution of the drug. The optimized nanoparticles showed particle size of 320 ± 90 nm with polydispersity index of 0.85, the zeta potential of -29.6 mV, drug loading efficiency of 43.1 ± 0.28% and release efficiency of 66.7 ± 2%. The area under the serum concentration-time profile for the pulmonary nanospheres versus simple solution was 10 237.84 versus 28.8 µg/ml min, Tmax of 360 versus 60 min and the Cmax of 1927.93 versus9.93 ng/ml, respectively. The absolute bioavailability of the drug was 86.69% for nanospheres and 0.25% for pulmonary simple solution. Our results indicate that pulmonary delivery of bupropion loaded agar nanospheres achieves systemic exposure and extends serum levels of the drug. PMID:25835223

  7. Cavitation-enhanced delivery of insulin in agar and porcine models of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiszthuber, Helga; Bhatnagar, Sunali; Gyöngy, Miklós; Coussios, Constantin-C.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted transdermal insulin delivery offers a less painful and less invasive alternative to subcutaneous insulin injections. However, ultrasound-based drug delivery, otherwise known as sonophoresis, is a highly variable phenomenon, in part dependent on cavitation. The aim of the current work is to investigate the role of cavitation in transdermal insulin delivery. Fluorescently stained, soluble Actrapid insulin was placed on the surface of human skin-mimicking materials subjected to 265 kHz, 10% duty cycle focused ultrasound. A confocally and coaxially aligned 5 MHz broadband ultrasound transducer was used to detect cavitation. Two different skin models were used. The first model, 3% agar hydrogel, was insonated with a range of pressures (0.25-1.40 MPa peak rarefactional focal pressure—PRFP), with and without cavitation nuclei embedded within the agar at a concentration of 0.05% w/v. The second, porcine skin was insonated at 1.00 and 1.40 MPa PRFP. In both models, fluorescence measurements were used to determine penetration depth and concentration of delivered insulin. Results show that in agar gel, both insulin penetration depth and concentration only increased significantly in the presence of inertial cavitation, with up to a 40% enhancement. In porcine skin the amount of fluorescent insulin was higher in the epidermis of those samples that were exposed to ultrasound compared to the control samples, but there was no significant increase in penetration distance. The results underline the importance of instigating and monitoring inertial cavitation during transdermal insulin delivery.

  8. Colonization Rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS in Pregnant Women Using GBS Agar Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemi F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Group B streptococci (GBS or Streptococcus agalactiae are members of the normal flora of the female genital tract. GBS normally colonizes the vagina in many women asymptomatically. During labor this organism may infect the newborn, leading to neonatal sepsis and meningitis. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of group B streptococcus in pregnant women by a rapid and easy culture method. It seems that in cases in which GBS carriage is not suspected until the time of labor, using such a quick and specific culture method would be valuable. A total of 330 vaginal swabs were collected from women attending delivery room at Hedayat hospital, Tehran, Iran, from April through July 2008. Cotton swabs contaminated with vaginal fluid were placed into Amies transport medium and transported to the Avicenna laboratory daily. Vaginal specimens were cultured on selective GBS Agar Base medium (ISLAM for isolation and detection of group B streptococcus. The plates were incubated at 35-37°C under anaerobic condition for 24 hours. Incubated S.agalactiae developed orange/red pigmented colonies in GBS agar plates. Among the 330 women, the results of the culture were positive for GBS in 68 women (20.6%. Statistical analyses showed no significant relationship between demographics, reproductive histories and obstetric characteristics of subjects with the test results. Solely the antibiotic therapy was associated with GBS colonization. The results are indicating that the relatively high maternal GBS colonization rate in pregnant women warrants a routine screening and prophylactic treatment of the infected women. Colonization with group B streptococcus can be identified directly by GBS agar medium and decrease the time to detection of GBS.

  9. Optimizing Grifola sordulenta and Grifola gargal growth in agar and liquid nutrient media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Postemsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Grifola sordulenta and Grifola gargal are native edible mushroom species of Argentina. The study of their growth is useful as a first step for the optimized production of those constituents with nutritional, nutriceutical, and pharmacological value. The effect of temperature, pH, and supplements (millet and sunflower seed hulls on agar medium and the effect of temperature and sunflower seed broth on liquid medium, were evaluated. On malt-yeast-peptone-agar medium, the highest rate of mycelial growth and biomass production for both Grifola species was at pH 4. After 20 days culture, both biomass production and colony diameter were significantly higher at 18 C than at 24 C in the case of G. sordulenta, while G. gargal did not grow at 24 C. For both species, addition of milled sunflower seed hulls (0.4% to the medium significantly increased mycelial growth diameter and biomass production. In the case of liquid culture of G. sordulenta, the addition of 26% or 39% sunflower seed broth to the medium significantly increased the mycelial biomass (by almost 3 times compared to the control. There were no differences in the mycelial biomass production at 24 C, irrespective of the sunflower seed broth content, and also the mycelial biomass was much lower than the one obtained at 20 C. G. gargal showed a significant mycelial mass increase (ca. 100% at both 26% and 39% sunflower seed broth at 20 C, while at 24 C there were no significant differences in relation to sunflower seed broth rates compared to control. The best culture conditions for agar and liquid culture of these Grifola species are discussed.

  10. Enhancing Bioaerosol Sampling by Andersen Impactors Using Mineral-Oil-Spread Agar Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-01-01

    As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mine...

  11. Coma in the course of severe poisoning after consumption of red fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Małgorzata A; Pankowska, Sylwestra; Janiak, Marek; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Łazowski, Tomasz; Jankowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Red fly agaric poisoning is rare. It can be consumed for suicidal purposes or its psychedelic effect. The paper describes the case of a young men, who fell into a coma after ingestion of the red toadstools. Quick identification of the poison, early use of gastric lavage and symptomatic treatment resulted in regression of symptoms and lead to the patient's discharge from the hospital on the third day after intoxication. Authors discussing the poisonous alkaloids contained in the red toadtools: ibotenic acid, muscimol, muscasone and muscarine and theirs properties, responsible for the symptoms of intoxication. PMID:26828668

  12. Agaricus geesterani, spec. nov. A very remarkable agaric discovered in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bas, C.; Heinemann, P.

    1986-01-01

    For several years now a very striking agaric is known to occur in the Netherlands that baffles every mycologist who has the luck to see it. As one of us (P.H.) never had this luck, the present study is based on thorough examinations of the material by the other author, while for the rather precarious taxonomic decisions both authors are to be held responsible. At first sight the present species resembles a large Agaricus bitorquis, but on closer examination the differences are obvious and man...

  13. ZYMOGRAM PATTERNS OF EXTRACELLULAR LACCASES OF Pleurotus SPECIES GROWN ON NON-INDUCER AGAR MEDIUM

    OpenAIRE

    M. Téllez-Téllez; C. Sánchez; Díaz, R; G. Díaz-Godínez

    2012-01-01

    Se obtuvo el patrón zimográfico de lacasas extracelulares de diez cepas de Pleurotus crecido sobre agar sin la adición de inductor, usando 2.6-dimethoxifenol, -anisidina y o-tolidina como sustratos. Los patrones zimográficos fueron similares para las cepas de la misma especie, independientemente del sustrato utilizado, seis cepas de P. ostreatus y una cepa de P. ostreatus var. florida mostraron tres isoenzimas, dos cepas de P. pulmonarius mostraron dos isoenzimas y una cepa P. cornucopiae tam...

  14. Micro-agar salt bridge in patch-clamp electrode holder stabilizes electrode potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Xuesi M; Feldman, Jack L.

    2006-01-01

    Maintaining a stable electrode potential is critical for patch-clamp measurements. The electrode potential of conventional patch electrode-holder assembly, where an Ag/AgCl wire is in direct contact with the patch pipette filling solution, is subject to drift if the pipette solution contains a low concentration of chloride ions (Cl−). We developed an agar bridge of 3 M KCl filled in a polyimide microtubing which forms an electrical connection between an Ag/AgCl wire and the pipette solution. ...

  15. Comparison of manual mycobacteria growth indicator tube and epsilometer test with agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Karabulut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antimycobacterial susceptibility tests take weeks, and delayed therapy can lead to spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, rapid, accurate and cost-effective methods are required for proper therapy selection. In this study, the Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT and epsilometer test (Etest methods were compared to the agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The susceptibility tests against isoniazid (INH, rifampin (RIF, streptomycin (STM and ethambutol (ETM of 51 M. tuberculosis complex isolates were analyzed by the MGIT, Etest and agar proportion methods. Results: The concordance between MGIT/Etest and agar proportion methods was 98% for INH and 100% for RIF, STM, ETM. There were not statistically significant differences in results of the susceptibility tests between MGIT/Etest and the reference agar proportion method. Conclusion: The results have shown that MGIT and Etest methods can be used instead of the agar proportion method, because these two methods are more rapid and easier than the agar proportion method.

  16. Amino acid mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and preparation of antimicrobial agar/silver nanoparticles composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using amino acids (tyrosine and tryptophan) as reducing and capping agents, and they were incorporated into the agar to prepare antimicrobial composite films. The AgNPs solutions exhibited characteristic absorption peak at 420 nm that showed a red shift to ∼434 nm after forming composite with agar. XRD data demonstrated the crystalline structure of AgNPs with dominant (111) facet. Apparent surface color and transmittance of agar films were greatly influenced by the AgNPs. The incorporation of AgNPs into agar did not exhibit any change in chemical structure, thermal stability, moisture content, and water vapor permeability. The water contact angle, tensile strength, and modulus decreased slightly, but elongation at break increased after AgNPs incorporation. The agar/AgNPs nanocomposite films possessed strong antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. The agar/AgNPs film could be applied to the active food packaging by controlling the food-borne pathogens. PMID:26076636

  17. Visualization of Biosurfactant Film Flow in a Bacillus subtilis Swarm Colony on an Agar Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Kim, Jung Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Collective bacterial dynamics plays a crucial role in colony development. Although many research groups have studied the behavior of fluidic swarm colonies, the detailed mechanics of its motion remains elusive. Here, we developed a visualization method using submicron fluorescent beads for investigating the flow field in a thin layer of fluid that covers a Bacillus subtilis swarm colony growing on an agar plate. The beads were initially embedded in the agar plate and subsequently distributed spontaneously at the upper surface of the expanding colony. We conducted long-term live cell imaging of the B. subtilis colony using the fluorescent tracers, and obtained high-resolution velocity maps of microscale vortices in the swarm colony using particle image velocimetry. A distinct periodic fluctuation in the average speed and vorticity of flow in swarm colony was observed at the inner region of the colony, and correlated with the switch between bacterial swarming and growth phases. At the advancing edge of the colony, both the magnitudes of velocity and vorticity of flow in swarm colony were inversely correlated with the spreading speed of the swarm edge. The advanced imaging tool developed in this study would facilitate further understanding of the effect of micro vortices in swarm colony on the collective dynamics of bacteria. PMID:26343634

  18. Valuation of a new Cromogenic Agar Medium for the detection of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Mancini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli producing ESBL are a major problem in the many different hospitals worldwide causing outbreaks as well as sporadic infections. A novel chromogenic agar medium (ChromID ESBL bioMèrieux, Marcy L’Etoile, France was tested directly on a total of 162 clinical samples and plated in parallel on to common media including Mac Conkey agar (bioMèrieux, Marcy L’Etoile, France. Colonies presenting a different morphologic aspect and growing on media were identified and tested for susceptibility by VITEK 2 using GN-cards and AST-N013 cards (bioMérieux, Marcy L’Etoile, France Confirmation of ESBL-producing isolates was performed by combinated double disk. We are not find errors.The chromID ESBL appears as an excellent medium for the screening and presumptive identification of ESBLproducing Enterobacteriaceae directly from clinical samples. Further studies with a wider range of clinical specimens are required to confirm this utility.

  19. Biological activities of a neutral water-soluble agar polysaccharide prepared by agarase degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jingxue; Mou Haijin; Jiang Xiaolu; Guan Huashi

    2005-01-01

    Depolymerization of agar was performed using agarase, which was extracted from the cell-free medium of a culture of marine bacterial Alteromonas sp. nov. SY 37-12. After ethanol fractionation and lyophilization, the water-soluble agar polysaccharide (WSAP3) was collected. The anti-tumor activity of the product was determined by using Sarcoma 180 tumor in mouse. The tumor inhibition rate of WSAP3 reached 48.7% at a dose of 64mg kg-1 after 15 days treatment. WSAP3 enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, which suggests that WSAP3 was effective in promoting the antioxidation ability and eliminating danger from free radicals. The result of flow cytometry showed that the WSAP3 had no activities of cell cycle inhibition or apoptosis-inducing activities. The anti-oxidation of WSAP3 was further confirmed by test in vitro, which might play an important role in anti-tumor activity. The immunological regulation of WSAP3, especially its effect on the phagocytosis ratio and phagocytosis index of macrophage was also assayed in test in vivo.

  20. Visualization of Biosurfactant Film Flow in a Bacillus subtilis Swarm Colony on an Agar Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunghoon Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Collective bacterial dynamics plays a crucial role in colony development. Although many research groups have studied the behavior of fluidic swarm colonies, the detailed mechanics of its motion remains elusive. Here, we developed a visualization method using submicron fluorescent beads for investigating the flow field in a thin layer of fluid that covers a Bacillus subtilis swarm colony growing on an agar plate. The beads were initially embedded in the agar plate and subsequently distributed spontaneously at the upper surface of the expanding colony. We conducted long-term live cell imaging of the B. subtilis colony using the fluorescent tracers, and obtained high-resolution velocity maps of microscale vortices in the swarm colony using particle image velocimetry. A distinct periodic fluctuation in the average speed and vorticity of flow in swarm colony was observed at the inner region of the colony, and correlated with the switch between bacterial swarming and growth phases. At the advancing edge of the colony, both the magnitudes of velocity and vorticity of flow in swarm colony were inversely correlated with the spreading speed of the swarm edge. The advanced imaging tool developed in this study would facilitate further understanding of the effect of micro vortices in swarm colony on the collective dynamics of bacteria.

  1. Mechanical and water barrier properties of agar/κ-carrageenan/konjac glucomannan ternary blend biohydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng

    2013-07-01

    Multicomponent hydrogel films composed of agar, κ-carrageenan, konjac glucomannan powder, and nanoclay (Cloisite(®) 30B) were prepared and their mechanical and water barrier properties such as water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water solubility (WS), water uptake ratio (WUR), water vapor uptake ratio (WVUR) were determined. Mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties of the ternary blend film exhibited middle range of individual component films, however, they increased significantly after formation of nanocomposite with the clay. Especially, the water holding capacity of the ternary blend biopolymer films increased tremendously, from 800% to 1681% of WUR for agar and κ-carrageenan films up to 5118% and 5488% of WUR for the ternary blend and ternary blend nanocomposite films, respectively. Water vapor adsorption behavior of films was also tested by water vapor adsorption kinetics and water vapor adsorption isotherms test. Preliminary test result for fresh spinach packaging revealed that the ternary blend biohydrogel films had a high potential for the use as an antifogging film for packaging highly respiring agricultural produce. In addition, the ternary blend nanocomposite film showed an antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:23688456

  2. Evaluation of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin agar for isolation of Yersinia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Kuan Tan

    Full Text Available Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are important food borne pathogens. However, the presence of competitive microbiota makes the isolation of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis from naturally contaminated foods difficult. We attempted to evaluate the performance of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN agar in the differentiation of Y. enterocolitica from non-Yersinia species, particularly the natural intestinal microbiota. The modified CIN enabled the growth of Y. enterocolitica colonies with the same efficiency as CIN and Luria-Bertani agar. The detection limits of the modified CIN for Y. enterocolitica in culture medium (10 cfu/ml and in artificially contaminated pork (10(4 cfu/ml were also comparable to those of CIN. However, the modified CIN provided a better discrimination of Yersinia colonies from other bacteria exhibiting Yersinia-like colonies on CIN (H2S-producing Citrobacter freundii, C. braakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Providencia rettgeri, and Morganella morganii. The modified CIN exhibited a higher recovery rate of Y. enterocolitica from artificially prepared bacterial cultures and naturally contaminated samples compared with CIN. Our results thus demonstrated that the use of modified CIN may be a valuable means to increase the recovery rate of food borne Yersinia from natural samples, which are usually contaminated by multiple types of bacteria.

  3. Gamma radiation effect on agar viscosity for use in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of food radiation processing is increasing worldwide mainly because of its efficiency in the industrial decontamination of packaged food products. Indeed, the process neither introduces any undesirable elements nor increases the temperature, thus allowing the preparation of ready-to-use products which remain stable for long periods at room temperature. The aim of this work was to study the effect of Co-60 gamma radiation on the viscosity of agar. This hydrocolloid derived from seaweed is a galactose polymer with a high hysteresis capacity (great difference among melting and gelification temperature) which is extremely important when used as additive for the food industry. Commercial agar was irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 5 and 10 kGy. Proper dilutions were prepared and the viscosity was measured in a Brookfield model LVDVIII viscosimeters. The relationships viscosity/dose for the temperatures of 45 deg C and 60 deg C were established. The decrease of the viscosity was 71.4% and 49.6% respectively when the applied dose was 10 kGy. The implications of the use of this additive in food irradiation are discussed. (author)

  4. Characterization of internal structure of hydrated agar and gelatin matrices by cryo-SEM

    KAUST Repository

    Rahbani, Janane

    2012-12-26

    There has been a considerable interest in recent years in developing polymer gel matrices for many important applications such as 2DE for quantization and separation of a variety of proteins and drug delivery system to control the release of active agents. However, a well-defined knowledge of the ultrastructures of the gels has been elusive. In this study, we report the characterization of two different polymers used in 2DE: Gelatin, a naturally occurring polymer derived from collagen (protein) and agar, a polymer of polysaccharide (sugar) origin. Low-temperature SEM is used to examine the internal structure of these gels in their frozen natural hydrated states. Results of this study show that both polymers have an array of hollow cells that resembles honeycomb structures. While agar pores are almost circular, the corresponding Gaussian curve is very broad exhibiting a range of radii from nearly 370 to 700 nm. Gelatin pores are smaller and more homogeneous reflecting a narrower distribution from nearly 320 to 650 nm. Overall, these ultrastructural findings could be used to correlate with functions of the polymers. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. An agar gel enzyme assay (AGEA) for simple detection of Salmonella enteritidis antibodies in chicken sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C J; Nagaraja, K V

    1991-01-01

    An agar gel enzyme assay (AGEA) was developed for the detection of antibodies to Salmonella enteritidis (SE). The assay was based on the ability of antibodies to diffuse through an agar gel and react with antigen coated on a polystyrene surface. The antigen-antibody reaction was then made visible by applying an enzyme-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin and the addition, subsequently, of a substrate-containing gel. The color change in circular zones was taken as the indication for the presence of antibodies. The present investigation reports identification of an antigen specific for SE and its use in the development of a relatively simple AGEA procedure. The results of AGEA were compared with those of conventional microagglutination (MA) test and serum plate (SP) test. The percentage agreement between MA and AGEA in positive serum sample was found to be 94.4%, and in negative serum samples it was found to be 88.8%. The present results suggest that the AGEA could be a very useful screening test for the detection of SE antibodies because the assay is inexpensive, specific and simple to perform without much equipment, and give results within a 3-hr period. PMID:1832368

  6. Evaluation of the Granada agar plate for detection of vaginal and rectal group B streptococci in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, E G; Rodríguez, M C; Bartolomé, R; Berjano, B; Cabero, L; Andreu, A

    1999-08-01

    Granada medium was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in vaginal and rectal swabs compared with selective Columbia blood agar and selective Lim broth. From May 1996 to March 1998, 702 pregnant women (35 to 37 weeks of gestation) participated in this three-phase study; 103 (14.7%) of these women carried GBS. In the first phase of the experiment (n = 273 women), vaginorectal specimens were collected on the same swab; the sensitivities of Granada tube, selective Columbia blood agar, and Lim broth were 31.4, 94.3, and 74.3%, respectively. In the second and third phases (n = 429 women), vaginal and rectal specimens were collected separately; the sensitivities of Granada plate, selective Columbia blood agar, and Lim broth (subcultured at 4 h on selective Columbia agar in the second phase and at 18 to 24 h in Granada plate in the third phase) were 91.1, 83.9, and 75%, respectively, in the second phase and 88.5, 90.4, and 63.5%, respectively, in the third phase. There were no statistically significant differences in GBS recovery between the Granada agar plate and selective Columbia blood agar, but the Granada plate provided a clear advantage; the characteristic red-orange colonies produced overnight by GBS can be identified by the naked eye and is so specific that further identification is unnecessary. The use of the Granada tube and Lim broth did not result in increased isolation of GBS. In conclusion, the Granada agar plate is highly sensitive for detecting GBS in vaginal and rectal swabs from pregnant women and can provide results in 18 to 24 h. PMID:10405415

  7. Cryptococcus Neoformans Kokenlerinin In Vitro Fenol Oksidaz Etkinliginin Belirlenmesi ve C. Neoformansı ın Candida Albicans Kolonilerinden Ay1rt Edilmesi i~in Pal Agar ve Niger Seed Agar Besiyerlerinin Karşılaştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    KANTARCIOĞLU, A. SERDA; YÜCEL, Ayhan; Vidottto, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    Cryptococcus Neoformans Kokenlerinin In Vitro Fenol Oksidaz Etkinliginin Belirlenmesi ve C. Neoformans11n Candida Albicans Kolonilerinden Ay1rt Edilmesi i~in Pal Agar ve Niger Seed Agar Besiyerlerinin Karfllaft1r1lmas1

  8. Colonyzer: automated quantification of micro-organism growth characteristics on solid agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput screens comparing growth rates of arrays of distinct micro-organism cultures on solid agar are useful, rapid methods of quantifying genetic interactions. Growth rate is an informative phenotype which can be estimated by measuring cell densities at one or more times after inoculation. Precise estimates can be made by inoculating cultures onto agar and capturing cell density frequently by plate-scanning or photography, especially throughout the exponential growth phase, and summarising growth with a simple dynamic model (e.g. the logistic growth model. In order to parametrize such a model, a robust image analysis tool capable of capturing a wide range of cell densities from plate photographs is required. Results Colonyzer is a collection of image analysis algorithms for automatic quantification of the size, granularity, colour and location of micro-organism cultures grown on solid agar. Colonyzer is uniquely sensitive to extremely low cell densities photographed after dilute liquid culture inoculation (spotting due to image segmentation using a mixed Gaussian model for plate-wide thresholding based on pixel intensity. Colonyzer is robust to slight experimental imperfections and corrects for lighting gradients which would otherwise introduce spatial bias to cell density estimates without the need for imaging dummy plates. Colonyzer is general enough to quantify cultures growing in any rectangular array format, either growing after pinning with a dense inoculum or growing with the irregular morphology characteristic of spotted cultures. Colonyzer was developed using the open source packages: Python, RPy and the Python Imaging Library and its source code and documentation are available on SourceForge under GNU General Public License. Colonyzer is adaptable to suit specific requirements: e.g. automatic detection of cultures at irregular locations on streaked plates for robotic picking, or decreasing analysis time by

  9. Infrared thermography analysis of thermal diffusion induced by RF magnetic field on agar phantoms loaded with magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bante-Guerra, Jose; Macías, J. D.; Caballero-Aguilar, L.; Vales-Pinzón, C.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2013-02-01

    Recently, several treatments for fighting malignant tumors have been designed. However these procedures have well known inconveniences, depending on their applicability, tumor size and side effects, among others. Magnetic hyperthermia is a safe, non-invasive method for cancer therapy. This treatment is applied via elevation of target tissue temperature by dissipation of heat from Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs), previously located within the tumor. The induction of heat causes cell death and therefore the removal of the tumor. In this work the thermal diffusion in phantoms of agar loaded with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is studied using the infrared thermography technique, which is widely used in biology/medicine (e.g. skin temperature mapping). Agar is one of the materials used to simulate different types of body tissues, these samples are known as "phantoms". Agar is of natural origin, low cost and high degree of biocompatibility. In this work the agar gel was embedded with MNPs by coprecipitation and placed in an alternating magnetic field radiation. As a consequence, the energy from the radiation source is dissipated as heat and then transferred from the MNP to the gel, increasing its temperature. For the temperature analysis, the samples of agar gel were stimulated by RF magnetic field generated by coils. Heating was measured with infrared thermography using a Thermovision A20M infrared camera. Thermographic images allowed obtaining the dependence of thermal diffusion in the phantom as a function of the magnitude of the applied RF magnetic field and the load of magnetic particles.

  10. [Cryofractographic study of intercellular junctions in the populations of agar-cultivated Bordetella pertussis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskiĭ, V V; Vaisman, I Sh; Efimova, O G; Chemurzieva, N V

    1985-09-01

    The characteristic feature of replicas obtained from the freeze-fractures of B. pertussis unfixed cultures developing on casein charcoal agar for 1-7 days is the associative growth of highly polymorphic cells, ensured by the ramified system of intercellular connections (IC) formed by the derivatives of the outer layers of the cell wall. This proves that the associative location of bacterial cells, linked by numerous IC, in the preparation is not the artefact appearing in the process of their chemical fixation. In replicas obtained from the freeze-fractures of B. pertussis cultures, previously fixed with glutaraldehyde, osmic acid and uranyl acetate, oval cells with the cytoplasm having a relatively homogeneous structure and with the smoothed-out three-layer cell wall prevail. As a rule, IC are limited to the sites of direct contacts between individual cells. PMID:2866645

  11. Injection of Acanthaster planci with thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS). I. Disease induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Posada, J A; Pratchett, M; Cano-Gómez, A; Arango-Gómez, J D; Owens, L

    2011-12-01

    This is the first report of the successful induction of a transmissible disease in the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci (COTS). Injection of thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS) culture medium into COTS induced a disease characterized by discoloured and necrotic skin, ulcerations, loss of body turgor, accumulation of colourless mucus on many spines especially at their tip, and loss of spines. Blisters on the dorsal integument broke through the skin surface and resulted in large, open sores that exposed the internal organs. Oedema and reddened digestive tissues and destruction of connective fibers were common. Moreover, healthy COTS in contact with these infected animals also displayed signs of disease and died within 24 h. TCBS induced 100% mortality in injected starfish. There was no introduction of new pathogens into the marine environment. TCBS promoted the growth of COTS' naturally occurring Vibrionales to high densities with subsequent symbiont imbalance followed by disease and death. PMID:22303625

  12. Cell types and their status in Chlamydomonas-like algae (Chlorophyceae on agar medium culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.М. Pavlovska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The classification of cell types under agar culture was proposed. Six cell morphotypes were allocated. The statuses were identified depending on the reduction of monade attributes of cells. The variants of transition from one cell morphotype to another under dissolving mucilage were shown. The monade, cocciod, palmeloid and gloeocysta morphotypes approximately equally represented in all clades. The asterococcus and mucogleocysta morphotypes presented only in Reinhardtinia аnd Oogamochlamydinia clades. Any morphotype isn’t typical for all clades of Chlamydomonas-like algae at once. The most of morphotypes numbers (5 from 6 are presented in Reinhardtinia clade. This demonstrates the diversity of the Reinhardtinia clade species. There are only one morphotype presented in Polytominia and Monadinia clades. There are four morphotypes presented in Oogamochlamydinia clade, three – in Moewusinia, two morphotypes – in Chloromonadinia.

  13. Growth of Bacillus cereus on solid media as affected by agar, sodium chloride, and potassium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecchini, M L; Del Torre, M; Donda, S; Maltini, E

    2000-07-01

    The effect of two independent variables: microstructure, as modified by the agar content (1.0, 4.0, 7.0%), and water activity (a(w)), as modified by the NaCl content (0.5, 2.5, 4.5%), in the absence or in the presence of potassium sorbate (0.0; 2,000 ppm) on Bacillus cereus growth on solid media was studied. The time to visible growth (TVG) and the radial growth rate (RGR) of colonies were evaluated. TVG was not affected by microstructure and K-sorbate, although when a(w) was reduced, TVG tended to increase. RGR depended on linear effects of microstructure and a(w) variables and their interaction. When K-sorbate was added to cultural media, RGR was reduced significantly. However, in the presence of K-sorbate, RGR was found to change only when a(w) vas varied. PMID:10914662

  14. Major Proteins of the Amyloplast of Agar and Soil - Grown Potato Tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Simon; Blennow, Andreas; Stensballe, Allan;

    available potato protein sequences. Some of these proteins were demonstrated to localize to the amyloplast stroma for the first time. The micro and mini tuber proteomes were very different. However, starch phosphorylase L-1 was particularly abundant in both proteomes. Moreover, disproportionating enzyme 1......In potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber starch is synthesized and stored in amyloplasts. Amyloplasts were prepared from in vitro or agar-grown micro tubers and from soil-grown mini tubers and subjected to proteome analysis. The quality of amyloplasts was assessed by comparing amyloplast fractions and...... total tuber extracts by SDS-PAGE and the specific activities of marker enzymes for amyloplast, cytosol, mitochondria and the vacuole. SDS-PAGE separated amyloplast and starch granule proteins were in-gel digested with trypsin, analyzed by mass spectrometry, and identified by searches against presently...

  15. Diagnostic Value of Processing Cytologic Aspirates of Renal Tumors in Agar Cell (Tissue) Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedts, F.; Schrik, M.; Horn, T.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective To adapt a method enabling utilization of most of the harvest from a fine needle aspirate in an effort to improve diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of a renal tumor in a single histologic slide. Study Design In a series of 43 renal tumors, 2 fine needle aspirations were performed, 4...... smears were prepared after each aspiration for conventional cytology and the remaining aspirate was processed for the improved agar microbiopsy (AM) method. Conventional cytology slides, AM slides and surgical specimens were diagnosed separately, after which the diagnoses were compared......-initiated, and in 14% too few diagnostic cells were present in the conventional smears for cytologic diagnosis. It was, however, possible to correctly diagnose histologic sections from 97% of AM tissue blocks. In 11 cases this was facilitated with immunochemistry. In only 1 case did the AM tissue block contain...

  16. Tracer diffusion of Co2+ ions in agar gel containing multi-electrolyte systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracer diffusion coefficients of cobalt ions have been measured in the supporting medium containing multi-electrolyte systems of alkali bromides. The electrolyte concentration was varied between 10-6-0.1M at 25 deg C and the diffusion coefficients were determined by zone-diffusion technique using agar gel medium. The trend in the theoretical values of diffusion coefficients is accounted for by considering the relative contribution of mobility function, ionic strength as well as ion size parameter to the theoretical value in different systems. While the deviations between theoretical and experimental values of diffusion coefficients are explained on the basis of various co-occurring effects in ion-gel-water system. (author) 20 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs

  17. Sunflower seed husk agar: A new medium for the differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Z

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A sunflower ( Helianthus annuus seed husk agar medium has been developed and evaluated for differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans on the basis of colony morphology and chlamydospore production. All C. dubliniensis isolates (n=40 produced rough colonies with hyphal fringes and abundant chlamydospores whereas 101 of 105 (96.2% C. albicans isolates produced smooth colonies with no evidence of chlamydospore production. Since this medium is free from oil droplets, chlamydospores can be examined with greater clarity by Dalmau plate technique. This medium provides a simple and cost-effective tool for the presumptive differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans and is particularly suited for clinical microbiology laboratories where biochemical or molecular methods for the differentiation of these two species are not available.

  18. Agar gel immunodiffusion assay to detect antibodies to Type A influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Terra A

    2014-01-01

    The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test is used to detect antibodies to Type A influenza group-specific antigens, i.e., the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) and matrix (M) proteins. Therefore, this test will detect antibodies to all influenza A virus subtypes. AGID is commonly used to screen poultry flocks for avian influenza virus infection. The AGID is a simple and economical serological test. All serological testing has its advantages and disadvantages which should be considered before choosing the optimal test for the laboratory needs. Each laboratory must evaluate the laboratory's resources, the volume of testing, the goal of testing, how the test results are used and what types of samples are being tested in order to select the optimal test. PMID:24899427

  19. Charcoal agar, a new growth medium for the fish disease bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J G; Stevenson, R M

    1985-01-01

    Charcoal is an effective replacement for serum in media for the isolation and culture of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. The medium, KDM-C, contains 10 g of peptone, 0.5 g of yeast extract, 1 g of L-cysteine hydrochloride, 1 g of activated charcoal, and 15 g of agar per liter and is adjusted to pH 6.8 with NaOH before autoclaving. Eight strains of R. salmoninarum grew from dilute inocula as well on KDM-C as on a standard serum-containing medium (KDM-2). The medium was effective for both primary isolations from fish and repeated transfers and has potential value for antigen preparation and physiological studies. Images PMID:4083882

  20. Nutrient Requirements of Renibacterium salmoninarum on Agar and in Broth Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J G; Stevenson, R M

    1993-07-01

    In well-aerated broth cultures, good growth of Renibacterium salmoninarum was obtained in a serum-free medium consisting of 1% peptone, 1% yeast extract, and 0.1% l-cysteine (PYC broth). In contrast, serum or charcoal is required for growth on agar medium. Charcoal treatment of broth media, either before bacterial inoculation or during growth, increased the growth of R. salmoninarum, whereas the surfactants Tween 20 and Tween 80 inhibited growth. l-Cysteine was essential for optimal growth. Other organic sulfur compounds, such as d-cysteine, l-methionine, homocysteine, homocysteine thiolactone, and reduced glutathione, supported only lower levels of growth, while cystine and dithiothreitol did not allow growth. PMID:16348993

  1. Nocardia pigrifrangens sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a contaminated agar plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Zhang, Yamei; Huang, Ying; Maldonado, Luis A; Liu, Zhiheng; Goodfellow, Michael

    2004-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic position of an actinomycete strain isolated from a contaminated agar plate. The strain, designated 7031T, had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of the genus Nocardia. An almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence determined for the strain was aligned with available sequences for nocardiae, and phylogenetic trees were inferred using three tree-generating algorithms. Strain 7031T clustered with the type strains of Nocardia carnea and Nocardia flavorosea, showing low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to these species (97.2 and 97.5 %, respectively). The strain was also distinguished from the closest species by a range of phenotypic properties. It is proposed that the strain be recognized as a novel species of Nocardia, Nocardia pigrifrangens sp. nov., the type strain of which is 7031T (= AS 4.1808T = JCM 11884T). PMID:15388728

  2. Hydrogen production from tofu wastewater by Rhodobacter sphaeroides immobilized in agar gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuh, H. [Utsunomiya Univ., Tochigi (Japan). Agricultural Faculty; National Inst. of Bioscience and Human Technology, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Tomoo; Tsygankov, A.A.; Asada, Yasuo; Miyake, Jun [National Inst. of Bioscience and Human Technology, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    Hydrogen production from the wastewater of tofu factory was examined by using anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides immobilized in agar gels. The maximum rate of hydrogen production observed from the wastewater was 2.l l h(-1) m(2) gel which was even slightly higher than that from a glucose medium (as control). The hydrogen production lasted up to 50 h. The yield of hydrogen was 1.9 ml/ml wastewater or 0.24 ml/mg carbohydrates contained in the wastewater. This yield corresponds to 53% or 65% of that from the glucose medium, according to the different expressions of the yield The TOC (total organic carbon) removal ratio in 85 h reached 41% which was comparable to that from the glucose medium. The immobilization protected the bacterium from the inhibitory effect of ammonium ion. (Author)

  3. Evolutionary consequences of putative intra-and interspecific hybridization in agaric fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Karen W; Petersen, Ronald H; Lodge, D Jean; Bergemann, Sarah E; Baumgartner, Kendra; Tulloss, Rodham E; Lickey, Edgar; Cifuentes, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    Agaric fungi of the southern Appalachian Mountains including Great Smoky Mountains National Park are often heterozygous for the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) with >42% of collections showing some heterozygosity for indels and/or base-pair substitutions. For these collections, intra-individual haplotype divergence is typically less than 2%, but for 3% of these collections intra-individual haplotype divergence exceeds that figure. We hypothesize that high intra-individual haplotype divergence is due to hybridization between agaric fungi with divergent haplotypes, possibly migrants from geographically isolated glacial refugia. Four species with relatively high haplotype divergence were examined: Armillaria mellea, Amanita citrina f. lavendula, Gymnopus dichrous and the Hygrocybe flavescens/chlorophana complex. The ITS region was sequenced, haplotypes of heterozygotes were resolved through cloning, and phylogenetic analyses were used to determine the outcome of hybridization events. Within Armillaria mellea and Amanita citrina f. lavendula, we found evidence of interbreeding and recombination. Within G. dichrous and H. flavescens/chlorophana, hybrids were identified but there was no evidence for F2 or higher progeny in natural populations suggesting that the hybrid fruitbodies might be an evolutionary dead end and that the genetically divergent Mendelian populations from which they were derived are, in fact, different species. The association between ITS haplotype divergence of less than 5% (Armillaria mellea = 2.6% excluding gaps; Amanita citrina f. lavendula = 3.3%) with the presence of putative recombinants and greater than 5% (Gymnopus dichrous = 5.7%; Hygrocybe flavescens/chlorophana = 14.1%) with apparent failure of F1 hybrids to produce F2 or higher progeny in populations may suggest a correlation between genetic distance and reproductive isolation. PMID:23928423

  4. Radiokinetic study on the nucleation of some crystals containing 55+59Fe3+ ions in agar and gelatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiokinetic study is presented on the appearance and growth of *Fe2S3, *Fe(OH)3, *Fe2(C2O4)3, *Fe(IO3)3 crystals in a colloidal medium of agar and gelatine. The values of the diffusion constants through gels of 55+59Fe3+ radioactive cations and of the rate of global growth process of these crystals in agar or gelatine were calculated using the experimental data. A new method for the determination of the starting time for the complex nucleation process was proposed. The formation rate of crystals under study decreases in the order: *Fe(OH)3 > *Fe(IO3)3 > *Fe2S3 > *Fe2(C2O4)3, in agar medium and *Fe(OH)3 > *Fe(IO3)3 > *Fe(C2O4)3 > *FeS3, in gelatine medium. (author)

  5. Zinc-air cell with KOH-treated agar layer between electrode and electrolyte containing hydroponics gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otham, R. [International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yahaya, A. H. [University of Malaya, Dept. of Chemistry, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Arof, A. K. [University of Malaya, Dept. of Physics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2002-07-01

    Zinc-air electrochemical power sources possess the highest density compared to other zinc anode batteries, due their free and unlimited supply from the ambient air. In this experiment zinc-air cells have been fabricated employing hydroponics gel as an alternative alkaline electrolyte gelling agent. Thin KOH-treated agar layer was applied between the electrode-electrolyte interfaces which produced significant enhancement of the cells' capacities, indicating that the application of thin agar layer will improve the electrode-gelled electrolyte interfaces. Promising results have been achieved with porous zinc anode prepared from dried zinc-graphite-gelatinized agar paste; e g. a zinc-air cell employing a porous zinc anode has demonstrated a capacity of 1470 mAh rated at 0.1 A continuous discharge. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Comparison of an agar-gel immunodiffusion test with other serological methods for differentiating Brucella infected from vaccinated cattle.

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    An agar-gel immunodiffusion test was compared with other serological tests for detection of antibodies in the sera of 48 cattle vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19. Two hundred forty-two sera were tested over a 12 month period, and addition of positive reactions for each test resulted in totals of 170 for the card test, 74 for the standard tube-agglutination test, 71 for the 2-mercaptoethanol test, 64 for the dithiothreitol test and 22 for the agar-gel immunodiffusion test.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni assessed by E-test and double dilution agar method in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández H

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility patterns of 108 Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni clinical strains, to six antimicrobial agents was determined by using the E-test and the double dilution agar methods. Using both metods, no strain was found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin, but two (1.8% were resistant to tetracycline and all to aztreonam. Seven (6.5% strains were resistant to ampicillin by the E-test and five (4.6% by the double dilution agar method and by both meyhods. No great discrepancies were observed between both methods.

  8. An Agar Medium Designed for Pyrazinamide Susceptibility Testing Of the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Najafi Mosleh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrazinamide (PZA is an important front-line antituberculosis agent. This drug plays a unique role in shortening the therapy, besides of metabolically active and replicating bacilli; it kills a population of semi-dormant organisms that are not killed by other first-line antituberculosis drugs. The activity of PZA correlates with the acidity of the medium, being most active at PH 5.5 less active at PH 6 and inactive at neutral PH. The problem is that such an acidic environment is quite unfavorable for Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. Therefore the PZA susceptibility testing is difficult and often unreliable because of the acid PH requirement for drug activity. For this reason, many clinical microbiology laboratories do not perform PZA susceptibility testing and most drug-resistance surveys do not have PZA resistance data. For this reason a special condition which could be to support the optimal growth of organisms & allow to performing PZA susceptibility testing at favorable PH has been developed. Methods: The continuously buffered Middlebrook 7H10 agar base with an acidic PH of 6.0 used, to provide optimal conditions for PZA acidity, it also differs from conventional 7H10 medium in that supplemented with animal serum instead of oleic acid to support optimal growth of organism at low PH of 6.0. Individual critical concentrations of PZA were used according to the Hassle- Bausch´s enzyme- substrate activity correlation in this medium made it possible to differentiate between PZA-susceptible and PZA-resistant clinical isolates. Results: During two years survey following results was obtained; approximately 2.6٪ of isolated were identified as PZA-resistance together other drugs resistance, with about 1٪ only PZA-resistance. PZA positive & PZA negative standard strains as control shown the method was used in this study obtains reliable results. Conclusion: Compared to a liquid medium this agar medium also has the following advantages

  9. [An oropharyngeal tularemia case diagnosed by the isolation of Francisella tularensis on human blood agar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Gönül; Arslan, Ilker Burak; Yeşilyurt, Murat; Celebi, Bekir; Kılıç, Selçuk

    2010-10-01

    Tularemia which is a multisystem disease of humans and some animals, is endemic in North America, some parts of Europe and Asia. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is a fastidious gram-negative, intracellular bacterium which requires supplementation with sulphydryl compounds (cysteine, cystine, thiosulphate, isoVitaleX) for growth on common laboratory media. In this report, a case of oropharyngeal tularemia diagnosed by the isolation of the causative agent on non-selective-common microbiological agar, has been presented. The patient was from Yozgat located in central Anatolia where tularemia has not been reported so far. Forty-two years old male was admitted to the hospital with two weeks history of sudden onset fever, headache, generalized aches, sore throat, and cervical tender lump on the left. Physical examination revealed bilateral exudative tonsillitis and tender posterior cervical lymphadenopathy. He has been empirically treated with amoxicilin-clavulanic acid for 7 days with initial diagnosis of acute tonsillopharyngitis. However, he was admitted to the hospital since the symptoms persisted and swelling increased despite antibiotic therapy. Microscopical examination of the Gram and Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears prepared from the surgically drained lymph node revealed PMNL, with no evidence of bacteria. Routine cultures of the lymph node material yielded growth of gram-negative coccobacilli only on human blood agar and the cultures were negative for pyogenic bacteria, acid-fast organisms and fungi. Pathologic examination of the drainage material revealed suppurative inflammation. Lymph node aspirate and serum samples of the patient together with the isolated strain were sent to reference laboratory for further investigation in accordance to the clinical and laboratory findings compatible with tularemia. The isolate was confirmed as F.tularensis by slide agglutination and direct immunofluorescence antibody tests, and identified as F

  10. Comparison of Ashdown's Medium, Burkholderia cepacia Medium, and Burkholderia pseudomallei Selective Agar for Clinical Isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, Sharon J.; Chieng, Grace; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A. B.; Amornchai, Premjit; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Teerawattanasook, Nittaya; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Day, Nicholas P J; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn

    2005-01-01

    Ashdown's medium, Burkholderia pseudomallei selective agar (BPSA), and a commercial Burkholderia cepacia medium were compared for their abilities to grow B. pseudomallei from 155 clinical specimens that proved positive for this organism. The sensitivity of each was equivalent; the selectivity of BPSA was lower than that of Ashdown's or B. cepacia medium.

  11. Cell-on-hydrogel platform made of agar and alginate for rapid, low-cost, multidimensional test of antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Han; Liu, Zhengzhi; Hu, Chong; Ren, Kangning

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a rapidly increasing threat to the effective treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The two major remedies include: (1) using narrow-spectrum antibiotics based on rapid diagnosis; and (2) developing new antibiotics. A key part of both remedies is the antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST). However, the current standard ASTs that monitor colony formation are costly and time-consuming and the new strategies proposed are not yet practical to be implemented. Herein, we report a strategy to fabricate whole-hydrogel microfluidic chips using alginate-doped agar. This agar-based microfabrication makes it possible to prepare inexpensive hydrogel devices, and allows a seamless link between microfluidics and conventional agar-based cell culture. Different from common microfluidic systems, in our system the cells are cultured on top of the device, similar to normal agar plate culture; on the other hand, the microfluidic channels inside the hydrogel allow precise generation of linear gradient of drugs, thus giving a better performance than the conventional disk diffusion method. Cells in this system are not exposed to any shear flow, which allows the reliable tracking of individual cells and AST results to be obtained within 2-3 hours. Furthermore, our system could test the synergistic effect of drugs through two-dimensional gradient generation. Finally, the platform could be directly implemented to new drug discovery and other applications wherein a fast, cost-efficient method for studying the response of microorganisms upon drug administration is desirable. PMID:27452345

  12. Choline chloride based ionic liquid analogues as tool for the fabrication of agar films with improved mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present paper, we test the suitability of Choline-Cl/urea (DES-U) and Choline-Cl/glycerol (DES-G) eutectic mixtures at 1:2 molar ratios for the production of agar biodegradable films. A three-step process is proposed: pre-solubilization of polymer in DES followed by compression-molding and s...

  13. Agar Plates Made from Common Supermarket Substances and Bacillus subtilis Natto as an Inexpensive Approach to Microbiology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz-Josef Scharfenberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To address the possible limitations that financial restrictions may have on students’ independent experimentation at school, we developed and implemented an inexpensive approach for basic microbiology education. We describe four nutrient agars consisting only of everyday substances available from the supermarket or online that we developed to replace standard agars and specific agars. Additionally, we selected Bacillus subtilis natto as an example of a pure-culture species. Our tip first reports the four supermarket-substance agar variants; second, it suggests utilizing them to introduce basic microbiological techniques; and third, it introduces B. subtilis natto in the context of the antibacterial effects of antibiotics as well as of supermarket products which students can bring to class from home. We implemented our approach in microbiology education at school as well as in pre-service teacher education and in in-service teacher professional development courses at our university. Finally, our paper provides worksheets for all the experiments. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 1 practices. If the soil plates described in the activity are opened, a minimum of Biosafety Level 2 is required.

  14. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Camila Cristina; Borsoi, Anderlise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products. PMID:27237112

  15. Effect of alternation of agar and agarose on the green plant differentiation frequency of calli from wild rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ In vitro culture of wild rice was difficult. Recently, we found that high agarose concentration of different media could improve the green plant differentiation frequency of calli from wild rice. We tested the effectiveness of alternation of agar and agarose in different media.

  16. Mercury and its bioconcentration factors in fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) from spatially distant sites in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J; Lipka, K; Mazur, A

    2007-09-01

    Total mercury content has been determined in the fruiting bodies of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and topsoil layer (0-10 cm) collected from 14 spatially distant sites across Poland. Mercury was measured by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) after nitric acid (mushrooms) or nitric acid and sulfuric acid (soil) digestion of the samples. The caps, depending on the site, contained total mercury at mean concentrations from 0.24+/-0.13 to 1.4+/-0.6 microg/g dm (median 0.19-1.4 microg/g dm), and stalks from 0.18+/-0.06 to 0.71+/-0.26 microg/g dm (median 0.18-0.67 microg/g dm). An overall-mean the total mercury content for 204 caps and stalks was, respectively, 0.73+/-0.55 (0.05-3.3 microg/g dm) and 0.43+/-0.33 (0.09-2.3 microg/g dm). PMID:17849304

  17. Internal properties assessment in agar wood trees using ultrasonic velocity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the application of ultrasonic velocity in agar wood trees (Aquilaria crassna) with the purpose of evaluating the relationship of the ultrasonic velocity to the variations of internal properties of trees. In this study, three circular cross-sectional discs from the freshly cut tree were selected as samples. First sample with a big hole (decay) in the middle, second sample with internal resinous and the last one is the sample with no defects. The through transmission ultrasonic testing method was carried out using Tico ultrasonic pulse velocity tester which is from Switzerland. Two-dimensional image of internal properties evaluation by an ultrasonic investigation was obtained using Matlab. The results showed that the ultrasonic wave cannot pass through the internal decay or resinous so that the wave went round it and thus ultrasonic wave velocity significantly decreased by increasing the hole or resinous. The difference in color of the image generated by Matlab software based on variation of ultrasonic velocity between the internal decay area and its surrounding area was obvious. Therefore, the properties of internal properties of the three could be detected by ultrasonic line imaging technique. (author)

  18. Tissue-mimicking agar/gelatin materials for use in heterogeneous elastography phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five 9 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm phantoms, each with a 2-cm-diameter cylindrical inclusion, were produced with various dry-weight concentrations of agar and gelatin. Elastic contrasts ranged from 1.5 to 4.6, and values of the storage modulus (real part of the complex Young's modulus) were all in the soft tissue range. Additives assured immunity from bacterial invasion and can produce tissue-mimicking ultrasound and NMR properties. Monitoring of strain ratios over a 7 to 10 month period indicated that the mechanical properties of the phantoms were stable, allowing about 1 month for the phantom to reach chemical equilibrium. The only dependable method for determining the storage moduli of the inclusions is to make measurements on samples excised from the phantoms. If it is desired to produce and accurately characterize a phantom with small inclusions with other shapes, such as an array of small spheres, an auxiliary phantom with the geometry of the cylindrical inclusion phantoms or the equivalent should be made at the same time using the same materials. The elastic contrast can then be determined using samples excised from the auxiliary phantom. A small increase of about 10% in volume of the cylindrical inclusions occurred-a tolerable increase. Interestingly, the smallest increase (about 5%) occurred in the phantom with the largest elastic contrast

  19. Theoretical and experimental NMR studies on muscimol from fly agaric mushroom (Amanita muscaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupka, Teobald; Wieczorek, Piotr P.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report results of combined theoretical and experimental NMR studies on muscimol, the bioactive alkaloid from fly agaric mushroom (Amanita muscaria). The assignment of 1H and 13C NMR spectra of muscimol in DMSO-d6 was supported by additional two-dimensional heteronuclear correlated spectra (2D NMR) and gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) NMR calculations using density functional theory (DFT). The effect of solvent in theoretical calculations was included via polarized continuum model (PCM) and the hybrid three-parameter B3LYP density functional in combination with 6-311++G(3df,2pd) basis set enabled calculation of reliable structures of non-ionized (neutral) molecule and its NH and zwitterionic forms in the gas phase, chloroform, DMSO and water. GIAO NMR calculations, using equilibrium and rovibrationally averaged geometry, at B3LYP/6-31G* and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ-J levels of theory provided muscimol nuclear magnetic shieldings. The theoretical proton and carbon chemical shifts were critically compared with experimental NMR spectra measured in DMSO. Our results provide useful information on its structure in solution. We believe that such data could improve the understanding of basic features of muscimol at atomistic level and provide another tool in studies related to GABA analogs.

  20. Dense and Cellular Zirconia Produced by Gel Casting with Agar: Preparation and High Temperature Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Tulliani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified gel-casting process was developed to produce both dense and highly porous (40% volume yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP using agar, a natural polysaccharide, as gelling agent. A fugitive phase, made of commercial polyethylene spheres, was added to the ceramic suspension before gelling to produce cellular ceramic structures. The characterization of the microstructural features of both dense and cellular ceramics was carried out by FEG SEM analysis of cross-sections produced by focused ion beam. The mechanical properties of the components were characterized at room temperature by nanoindentation tests in continuous stiffness measurement mode, by investigating the direct effect of the presence of residual microporosity. The presence of a diffuse residual microporosity from incomplete gel deaeration resulted in a decay of the bending strength and of the elastic modulus. The mechanical behavior of both dense and cellular zirconia (in terms of elastic modulus, flexural strength, and deformation at rupture was investigated by performing four-point bending tests at the temperature of 1500°C.

  1. Tissue-mimicking agar/gelatin materials for use in heterogeneous elastography phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Ernest L; Hobson, Maritza A; Shi Hairong; Varghese, Tomy; Frank, Gary R [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1300 University Avenue, Room 1530, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2005-12-07

    Five 9 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm phantoms, each with a 2-cm-diameter cylindrical inclusion, were produced with various dry-weight concentrations of agar and gelatin. Elastic contrasts ranged from 1.5 to 4.6, and values of the storage modulus (real part of the complex Young's modulus) were all in the soft tissue range. Additives assured immunity from bacterial invasion and can produce tissue-mimicking ultrasound and NMR properties. Monitoring of strain ratios over a 7 to 10 month period indicated that the mechanical properties of the phantoms were stable, allowing about 1 month for the phantom to reach chemical equilibrium. The only dependable method for determining the storage moduli of the inclusions is to make measurements on samples excised from the phantoms. If it is desired to produce and accurately characterize a phantom with small inclusions with other shapes, such as an array of small spheres, an auxiliary phantom with the geometry of the cylindrical inclusion phantoms or the equivalent should be made at the same time using the same materials. The elastic contrast can then be determined using samples excised from the auxiliary phantom. A small increase of about 10% in volume of the cylindrical inclusions occurred-a tolerable increase. Interestingly, the smallest increase (about 5%) occurred in the phantom with the largest elastic contrast.

  2. Comparative performance of Thin Layer Agar and Löwenstein-Jensen culture for diagnosis of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglioli, T; Rintiswati, N; Martin, A; Palupi, K R; Bernaerts, G; Dwihardiani, B; Ahmad, R A; Matthys, F; Mahendradhata, Y; Van der Stuyft, P

    2013-11-01

    Sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is cheap and simple but its sensitivity is low. Culture on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) is more sensitive but it takes a long time to yield results. Thin-Layer Agar (TLA) culture was suggested as an equally sensitive and faster alternative. We evaluated the performance of TLA for diagnosing TB in Jogjakarta, Indonesia. People with suspected TB presenting from July 2010 to July 2011 to two chest clinics of the National TB Control Programme network of Jogjakarta were eligible for inclusion. A sputum sample was sent to the Gadjah Mada University microbiology laboratory for concentration, smearing, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture on LJ and TLA. Sensitivity of cultures was evaluated against a composite reference standard (any positive culture). Time to detection of Mycobacteria was recorded. Out of 1414 samples, 164 (12%) were smear positive, 99 (7%) were scanty and 1151 (81%) were negative. On TLA and LJ respectively, 168 (12%) and 149 (11%) samples were positive, 72 (5%) and 32 (2%) were contaminated (κ = 0.64; 95% CI 0.59-0.69, p evaluate the cost-effectiveness and impact of its introduction into programmatic settings are urgently needed. PMID:23738759

  3. Analysis of High Quality Agar wood Oil Chemical Compounds By Means Of SPME/ GC-MS and Z-Score Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the grading of the agar wood oil to the high and low quality is done using manually such as human trained grader. It was performed based on the agar wood oil physical properties such as human experience and perception and the oil colour, odor and long lasting aroma. Several researchers found that chemical profiles of the oil should be utilized to overcome the problem facing by manual techniques for example human nose cannot tolerate with the many oils at the same time, so that accurate result can be obtained in grading the agar wood oil. The analysis involved of SPME/ GC-MS and Z-score techniques have been proposed in this study to analyze the chemical compounds especially from the high quality samples of agar wood oil (Aquilariamalaccensis) from Malaysia. Two SPME fibers were used such as divinylbenzene-carbogen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in extracting the oils compound under three different sampling temperature conditions such as 40, 60 and 80 degree Celsius. The chemical compounds extracted by SPME/ GC-MS were analyzed. The chemical compounds as identified by Z-score as significant compounds were discussed before the conclusion is made. It was found that 10-epi-γ-eudesmol, aromadendrene, β-agar ofuran, α-agar ofuran and γ-eudesmol were highlighted as significant for high quality agar wood oil and can be used as a marker compounds in classifying the agar wood oil. (author)

  4. Agar Technique for the Cultivation In Vitro of Bone-Marrow Colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In solid-state agar cultures certain haemopoietic cells proliferate and form discrete colonies of 200 - 4000 cells. Colony formation is dependent on stimulation by the colony-stimulating factor, and this is achieved by (1) the use of a cell feeder layer, (2) the addition of conditioned medium, or (3) the addition of human or mouse serum or urine containing the factor. All colonies initially contain granulocytic cells which differentiate from myeloblasts to polymorphs as colony growth proceeds. Later colonies develop a second population of phagocytic mononuclear cells (macrophages). The colony-forming-system is simple, readily quantitated and highly reproducible. Linear dose responses occur between the dose of colony-stimulating factor and the number and size of colonies developing from a standard number of bone-marrow cells. In-vitro colony formation has been achieved with haemopoietic cells of the following species: mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, rabbit and human. In the adult mouse, colony-forming cells are located in the bone marrow, spleen and blood and in the embryo, in the yolk sac, liver and spleen. The colony-forming cell appears to be an early member of the granulocytic series. The colony-forming system has been used as a quantitative assay system: (1) to assay levels of colony-stimulating factor in serum and urine and in the chemical- characterization and purification of the factor; and (2) to enumerate the number of colony-forming cells in haemopoietic tissues in response to a variety of experimental procedures and disease states. Since the system is applicable to human bone-marrow cells, it should prove of value in the quantitative assay of (1) survival of human bone marrow on storage, and (2) bone-marrow content of granulocytic precursor cells in various disease states and following various types of therapy. The system is not suitable for the mass production in vitro of haemopoietic cells for therapeutic use. (author)

  5. Preparation and application of agar/alginate/collagen ternary blend functional food packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-Feng; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-09-01

    Ternary blend agar/alginate/collagen (A/A/C) hydrogel films with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and grapefruit seed extract (GSE) were prepared. Their performance properties, transparency, tensile strength (TS), water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water swelling ratio (SR), water solubility (WS), and antimicrobial activity were determined. The A/A/C film was highly transparent, and both AgNPs and GSE incorporated blend films (A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE)) exhibited UV-screening effect, especially, the A/A/C(GSE) film had high UV-screening effect without sacrificing the transmittance. In addition, the A/A/C blend films formed efficient hydrogel film with the water holding capacity of 23.6 times of their weight. Both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The test results of fresh potatoes packaging revealed that all the A/A/C ternary blend films prevented forming of condensed water on the packaged film surface, both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films prevented greening of potatoes during storage. The results indicate that the ternary blend hydrogel films incorporated with AgNPs or GSE can be used not only as antifogging packaging films for highly respiring fresh agriculture produce, but also as an active food packaging system utilizing their strong antimicrobial activity. PMID:26187189

  6. [Clinical symptoms and circumastances of acute poisonings with fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Druzdz, Artur; Naskret, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    Mushroom poisonings in Poland are quite common, especially in summer and autumn, but fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina) are rather rare cause of these intoxications. Fly agaric is a cause of deliberate poisoning, whereas panther cap poisoning also happens accidentally. The main toxins of these two mushrooms are ibotenic acid (pantherine, agarine), muscimol, muscazone and muscaridine. The other bioactive substances are stizolobic and stizolobinic acids and aminodicarboxyethylthiopropanoic acids. All these compounds are responsible for diverse picture of intoxication. An analysis of patients with Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina poisoning hospitalized in the Poznan Departament of Toxicology revealed that symptoms occurred after 30 minutes to 2 hours with vomiting, hallucinations, restlessness, increased psychomotor drive and central nervous system depression. Other antycholinergic symptoms like tachycardia and increased blood pressure, mydriasis, dry and red skin were seen only in a few cases. Acute respiratory failure was the most dangerous symptom observed in the course of poisoning. PMID:22010435

  7. Influence of the NiO nanoparticles on the ionic conductivity of the agar-based electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal Jaber Suliman Abdullah Audeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available NiO nanoparticles with an average size of 15 nm were prepared by a simple, reproducible and low-cost controlled method, using nickel nitrate hexahydrate (Ni(NO32·6H2O. These nanoparticles were added to an agar-based polymer electrolyte formula, resulting, after reflux and solution casting, in a proton conducting membrane. The highest ionic conductivity values of 5.19x10-5 S cm-1 at room temperature and 3.32x10-4 S cm-1 at 80 ºC, were obtained for the sample with 50 wt. % of acetic acid and 0.25 g of NiO. Moreover, the samples showed 75 % of transparency in the visible region, a homogeneous surface and mainly amorphous structure. All the obtained results suggest that agar-based polymer electrolyte with NiO nanoparticles are promising candidates for electrochemical devices application.

  8. Effect of EDTA on Pb(II) Uptake and Translocation by Tumbleweed (Salsola Kali): Agar and Hydroponics Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Aldrich, Mary

    2004-03-31

    Environmental accumulation of Pb represents a worldwide health hazard. While conventional cleanup techniques are generally expensive and soil disturbing, phytoremediation represents an inexpensive friendly option for the removal of contaminants from soil and water. In this research, tumbleweed (Salsola kali) plants exposed for 15 days to Pb(NO3)2 at 80 and 125 ppm in hydroponics and agar media, demonstrated a high capacity to uptake lead. The results showed that the plants cultivated in agar accumulated 25563, 5534 and 2185 mg Pb kg-1 DW in roots, stems and leaves, respectively. Moreover, Pb concentrations found in hydroponically grown tumbleweed plants tissues were 30744, 1511 and 1421 mg kg-1 DW in roots, stems and leaves, respectively. It was observed that EDTA enhanced Pb translocation. No Pb phytotoxic effects were observed during the experimental time period. Cellular structural features were also observed using TEM.

  9. Effects of temperature, shearing time and rate of shear on the viscosity of chitosan/agar-blend solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esam A. El-hefian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a number of aqueous solutions of chitosan/agar blends (with chitosan as the major component were prepared. The effects of temperature, shear rate and shearing time on the rheological property, i.e. the apparent viscosity, were investigated for the blend solutions. Results show that a non-Newtonian behaviour was pronounced at temperatures from 20oC to 50oC for all solutions and that a decrease in viscosity with increasing temperature was also observed. It was also found that all the blend solutions obeyed the Arrhenius equation to different degrees. In addition, shearing time independence was found to occur at a low shear rate only for pure chitosan solution. However, the shearing time independence slowly shifted to occur at higher shear rate with increasing agar content.

  10. Protoplast transformation of recalcitrant alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. with methylated plasmid DNA and a developed hard agar regeneration medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghua Gao

    Full Text Available Among the diverse alkaliphilic Bacillus strains, only a little have been reported to be genetically transformed. In this study, an efficient protoplast transformation procedure was developed for recalcitrant alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. N16-5. The procedure involved polyethylene glycol-induced DNA uptake by the protoplasts and subsequent protoplast regeneration with a developed hard agar regeneration medium. An in vivo methylation strategy was introduced to methylate the exogenous plasmid DNA for improving the transformation efficiency. The transformation efficiency reached to 1.1×10(5 transformants per µg plasmid DNA with methylated plasmid pHCMC04 and the developed hard agar regeneration medium. This procedure might also be applicable to the genetic transformation of other Bacillus strains.

  11. Evaluation of isolation procedures and chromogenic agar media for detection of MRSA in nasal swabs from pigs and veal calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Graveland, Haitske; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Van Nes, Arie; Schoormans, Anky; Broekhuizen-Stins, Marian; Schothorst, Isabella Oosting-Van; Heederik, Dick; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Since the emergence of MRSA in livestock, screening of animals for the detection of MRSA is widely practised. Different procedures are published for animal samples but a systematic comparison of methods has not been performed. The objective of this study was to compare three available commonly used procedures and three chromogenic agars for detecting MRSA in nasal swabs from pigs (n=70) and veal calves (n=100). Procedures 1 and 2 used a pre-enrichment comprising Mueller Hi...

  12. Enumerating actinomycetes in compost bioaerosols at source—Use of soil compost agar to address plate ‘mask

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, Gillian H; Tamer Vestlund, Asli; Aldred, David; Longhurst, Philip J.; Pollard, Simon J. T.

    2007-01-01

    Actinomycetes are the dominant bacteria isolated from bioaerosols sampled at composting facilities. Here, a novel method for the isolation of actinomycetes is reported, overcoming masking of conventional agar plates, as well as reducing analysis time and costs. Repeatable and reliable actinomycetes growth was best achieved using a soil compost media at an incubation temperature of 44 °C and 7 days’ incubation. The results are of particular value to waste management operators...

  13. Impaction onto a Glass Slide or Agar versus Impingement into a Liquid for the Collection and Recovery of Airborne Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Juozaitis, Arvydas; Willeke, Klaus; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Donnelly, Jean

    1994-01-01

    To study impaction versus impingement for the collection and recovery of viable airborne microorganisms, three new bioaerosol samplers have been designed and built. They differ from each other by the medium onto which the bioaerosol particles are collected (glass, agar, and liquid) but have the same inlet and collection geometries and the same sampling flow rate. The bioaerosol concentrations recorded by three different collection techniques have been compared with each other: impaction onto ...

  14. Nutrient limitation leads to penetrative growth into agar and affects aroma formation in Pichia fabianii, P. kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijswijck, Irma M H; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

    2015-01-01

    Among fermentative yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most frequently used as a model organism, although other yeast species may have special features that make them interesting candidates to apply in food-fermentation processes. In this study, we used three yeast species isolated from fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit, S. cerevisiae 131, Pichia fabianii 65 and Pichia kudriavzevii 129, and determined the impact of nitrogen and/or glucose limitation on surface growth mode and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All three species displayed significant changes in growth mode in all nutrient-limited conditions, signified by the formation of metafilaments or pseudohyphae. The timing of the transition was found to be species-specific. Transition in growth mode is suggested to be linked to the production of certain fusel alcohols, such as phenylethyl alcohol, which serve as quorum-sensing molecules. Interestingly, we did not observe concomitant increased production of phenylethyl alcohol and filamentous growth. Notably, a broader range of esters was found only for the Pichia spp. grown on nitrogen-limited agar for 21 days compared to nutrient-rich agar, and when grown on glucose- and glucose- plus nitrogen-limited agar. Our data suggest that for the Pichia spp., the formation of esters may play an important role in the switch in growth mode upon nitrogen limitation. Further biological or ecological implications of ester formation are discussed. PMID:25308873

  15. Comparison of SAR measurement and power distribution patterns in agar and Guy gel for interstitial microwave applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical trials have demonstrated the potential and safety of interstitial microwave hyperthermia. However, a convenient standard for measuring different applicator's performance has not been established yet. The performance of the interstitial antennas was tested by measuring the SAR in muscle equivalent Guy gel and agar-saline gel under static and steady state conditions. In the static situations 120 watts of 915 Mhz microwave power was applied and the temperature in the media was recorded at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm. from the antenna every two seconds for 40 seconds. This was repeated at 1 cm intervals along the entire length of the antenna. In the steady state a constant power was applied to achieve 80C above the ambient at 5 mm from the antenna hot spot. Due to the simplicity of the phantom's geometry, the power deposition pattern could be calculated from the measured temperature distribution conveniently. Similar results are obtained in Guy gel and agar-saline gel under the static condition. However a slightly bigger gradient was noted perpendicular to the antenna axis in the agar. Furthermore, the SAR calculated from the steady state measurement is comparable to the static SAR measurements. Thus, the steady state phantom is recommended to measure the performance of interstitial microwave applicators

  16. Irradiation of silver and agar/silver nanoparticles with argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Wahab, Essam A; El-Maaref, A A; Rawway, Mohammed; Shaaban, Essam R

    2014-01-01

    The irradiation effect of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp on silver and agar/silver nanoparticle samples is studied. The irradiation time dependence of the synthesized silver and agar/silver nanoparticle absorption spectra and their antibacterial effect are studied and compared. In the agar/silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity and the full width at half maximum, FWHM, of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band is increased, however a decrease of the peak intensity with oxygen glow plasma has been observed. In the silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band is increased, however, there is no significant change in the FWHM of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band. The SEM results for both samples showed nanoparticle formation with mean size about 50 nm and 40 nm respectively. Throughout the irradiation time with the argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp, the antibacterial activity of several kinds of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has been examined. PMID:25184109

  17. [Comparison of ertapenem-EMB Agar with traditional methods for screening carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from rectal swabs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perçin, Duygu; Colakoğlu, Selcan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Ekincioğlu, Pınar

    2012-10-01

    Detection of rectal colonization with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is the most important step in the infection control protocols in order to prevent infections caused by CRKP which has an increasing incidence all over the world. In this study, it was aimed to compare the detection rate of 2 mg/L ertapenem EMB agar medium with the other methods recommended by various international guidelines. These methods include direct plate method using ertapenem disc, enrichment method in tryptic soy broth containing 2 mg/L ertapenem and the investigation of the predominant betalactamases in the colonized patients. The lowest inoculum detected by different methods was determined by using simulative challenge test prepared for this purpose. The ability to detect CRKP from rectal swabs was evaluated by using the clinical specimens of 801 patients. For all bacteria isolated, carbapenem susceptibility was evaluated by using E-test method, the presence of beta-lactamases was determined by using modified Hodge test (MHT), and the carbapenemase genes were investigated by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The lowest inoculum detected by ertapenem-EMB agar was 50 CFU/mL whereas the lowest inocula were 1 x 105 and 1 x 103, respectively by tryptic soy broth with ertapenem and direct plate method. No resistance gene were identified by PCR in 13 (39.4%) of 33 isolates, whereas blaOXA-48 was detected in 19 (95%) and blaIMP in 1 (5%) of 20 positive isolates. All of the positive strains were resistant to imipenem and ertapenem, while 2 (10%) strains were found to be susceptible to doripenem and meropenem. While MHT was negative in all strains which were negative for resistance genes, all resistance gene positive strains except one blaOXA-48 strain that was also sensitive to doripenem and meropenem, were found to be positive with MHT. According to the results of PCR, the sensitivities of the three methods were found to be 80%. The specificities, positive and

  18. Changes in human bone marrow colony-forming cells following chemotherapy using an agar diffusion-chamber technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been made of the effects of cyclophosphamide on the early granulocytic precursor cells in the marrow of patients receiving intermittent high doses (5 g) of the drug. This study was designed to investigate the effect of a single cytotoxic agent on normal granulocytic precursor cells; measurements have been made of the initial cytotoxicity, recovery, and changes in proliferation rate. The growth of granulocytic colonies was assayed in agar diffusion chambers. For this, bone marrow cells were suspended in semisolid agar medium, introduced into diffusion chambers for intraperitoneal incubation in radiated (900 rad 60Co γ) mice. The colonies present in the agar were scored 8-9 days later. In addition to measuring the effect of treatment on the colony-forming capacity of the patients' marrow, full dose-response curves were obtained by injecting graded doses of cyclophosphamide into chamber-bearing mice--the method allows some account to be taken of the continuous changes in drug activity, which occurs during its degradation in vivo. Comparison of these results with measurements of the sensitivity of mouse femoral cells under the same conditions or exposed to cyclophosphamide in situ in the donor mouse has been used to detect any effect of the culture environment or the response of the cells. Following treatment with cyclophosphamide, the incidence of colony precursor cells in the patients' marrow has been monitored. Changes in the proliferation rate of these cells during the recovery period have also been estimated by measuring their sensitivity to the S-phase specific drug, cytosine arabinoside. Information on the timing of changes in the incidence and proliferation rate of granulocytic precursor cells may provide guidelines for improving schedules of treatment in an attempt to reduce the attendant bone marrow toxicity

  19. Use of urease-bromothymol blue-agar method for large-scale testing of urine on grain and seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, P A; Ziobro, G C; Ferrera, R S

    1996-01-01

    The current AOAC method (963.28) for large-scale (50 g) testing of urine on grain is based on the reaction of sodium in urine with magnesium uranyl acetate. Detection of sodium suggests that urine is present and that a test for urea is appropriate. Urea is detected with urease-bromothymol blue-paper and is confirmed through its reaction with xanthydrol to form dixanthylurea crystals, which are detected microscopically. The initial nonspecific test for sodium can be influenced by the presence of salt or other sodium compounds. Furthermore, the magnesium uranyl acetate spray used in Method 963.28 potentially exposes the analyst to the aerosol of a volatile, toxic uranium compound. Excess reagents and analyzed test portions must be disposed of as radioactive waste. In addition, Method 963.28 requires several steps to determine the presence of urea. The alternative AOAC method (972.41) tests for the presence of urea from urine on individual seeds. Urea is enzymatically decomposed to ammonia and carbon dioxide by urease. Liberated ammonia shifts the pH, changing the color of the indicator in the agar from yellow to blue. This study adapts Method 972.41 to larger test samples. Up to 25 g grains and seeds are sprayed with urease test agar instead of being individually immersed in the urease test agar. The modified method was used to analyze urea on seeds and grains of 24 plants from 4 families. The method has a limit of detection of one seed contaminated with 1 microgram urea. PMID:8757445

  20. Production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus as determined by tampon disk-membrane-agar method.

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, R N; Reiser, R F; Hehl, G L; Bergdoll, M S

    1987-01-01

    The influence of 17 commercially available tampons on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) by Staphylococcus aureus was investigated by using a tampon disk method. Filter membranes overlaying agar medium (with or without blood) in small petri dishes were spread inoculated with a TSST-1-producing strain of S. aureus. Disks cut from unrolled tampons were pressed and laid on the inoculated membranes; incubation was for 19 h at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 in air. CFU on the membranes ...

  1. Evaluation of the Granada Agar Plate for Detection of Vaginal and Rectal Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, E. García; Rodríguez, M C; Bartolomé, R.; Berjano, B.; Cabero, L.; Andreu, A

    1999-01-01

    Granada medium was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in vaginal and rectal swabs compared with selective Columbia blood agar and selective Lim broth. From May 1996 to March 1998, 702 pregnant women (35 to 37 weeks of gestation) participated in this three-phase study; 103 (14.7%) of these women carried GBS. In the first phase of the experiment (n = 273 women), vaginorectal specimens were collected on the same swab; the sensitivities of Granada tube, selective Columbia b...

  2. Real-Time PCR and Agar Plating Method to Predict Fusarium Verticillioides and Fumonisin B1 Content in Nigerian Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Adejumo, Timothy; Hettwer, Ursula; Nutz, Sabine; Karlovsky, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Eighty maize grain samples collected in Nigeria were investigated for fumonisin B1 (FB1) content and Fusarium verticillioides colonization. F. verticillioides DNA was quantified by species-specific real-time PCR and living propagules of the fungus were counted by agar-plating method. FB1 was detected in 55 (68.7%) of the total samples (mean: 98.5 μg/kg, range: 10 to 714 μg/kg) at 10 μg/kg detection limit. The mean amount of F. verticillioides DNA determined by real-time PCR was 49.7 ...

  3. Enumerating actinomycetes in compost bioaerosols at source—Use of soil compost agar to address plate 'masking'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, G. H.; Tamer Vestlund, A.; Aldred, D.; Longhurst, P. J.; Pollard, S. J. T.

    Actinomycetes are the dominant bacteria isolated from bioaerosols sampled at composting facilities. Here, a novel method for the isolation of actinomycetes is reported, overcoming masking of conventional agar plates, as well as reducing analysis time and costs. Repeatable and reliable actinomycetes growth was best achieved using a soil compost media at an incubation temperature of 44 °C and 7 days' incubation. The results are of particular value to waste management operators and their advisors undertaking regulatory risk assessments that support environmental approvals for compost facilities.

  4. Study of chemical interaction induced by ionizing radiation poly(dimethylsiloxane-g-ethylene oxide) in the poly(n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and agar membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane composed by poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and agar was formulated with and without poly(dimethylsiloxane-g-ethylene oxide) (SEO) irradiated with electron beam with doses between 10-50 kGy. The radiolytic behaviour of each component, PVP, agar and SEO, was studied when irradiated by gamma ray, in the absence and presence of air and water, by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at 77 K. The chemical interaction of SEO with PVP/agar membrane was investigated by: infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, dynamic-mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, gel and swelling analysis. The cytotoxicity of the PVP/agar/SEO membrane was evaluated by cellular suppression. The membrane radicals from PVP (φNC.) and from water (H., OH. and H2O) was observed by EPR at 77K. The agar radicals formed by hydrogen abstraction of C1 and C3 of β-D-galactose and/or C1 and C4 of α-L-galactose, reacted primarily with water radicals in despite of they also took part in the membrane by chemical bond. The radicals from SEO (.CH2∼, .Si∼, .O∼) participated in the inter and intramolecular crosslinking as co-crosslinker by polymeric bridge. The co-crosslinked action depended on its concentration associated to PVP concentration. The presence op acrylates increases the tensile break of the PVP/agar/SEO membrane significantly. (author)

  5. Optimization of the Agar-gel Method for Isolation of Migrating Ascaris suum Larvae From the Liver and Lungs of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Høg M

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on use of an agar-gel method for recovery of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs were conducted to obtain fast standardized methods. Subsamples of blended tissues of pig liver and lungs were mixed with agar to a final concentration of 1% agar and the larvae allowed to migrate out of the agar-gel into 0.9% NaCl at 38°C. The results showed that within 3 h more than 88% of the recoverable larvae migrated out of the liver agar-gel and more than 83% of the obtained larvae migrated out of the lung agar-gel. The larvae were subsequently available in a very clean suspension which reduced the sample counting time. Blending the liver for 60 sec in a commercial blender showed significantly higher larvae recovery than blending for 30 sec. Addition of gentamycin to reduce bacterial growth during incubation, glucose to increase larval motility during migration or ice to increase sedimentation of migrated larvae did not influence larvae recovery significantly.

  6. Dependence of ablative ability of high-intensity focused ultrasound cavitation-based histotripsy on mechanical properties of agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Bigelow, Timothy A; Davis, Gabriel; Avendano, Alex; Shrotriya, Pranav; Bergler, Kevin; Hu, Zhong

    2014-12-01

    Cavitation-based histotripsy uses high-intensity focused ultrasound at low duty factor to create bubble clouds inside tissue to liquefy a region, and provides better fidelity to planned lesion coordinates and the ability to perform real-time monitoring. The goal of this study was to identify the most important mechanical properties for predicting lesion dimensions, among these three: Young's modulus, bending strength, and fracture toughness. Lesions were generated inside tissue-mimicking agar, and correlations were examined between the mechanical properties and the lesion dimensions, quantified by lesion volume and by the width and length of the equivalent bubble cluster. Histotripsy was applied to agar samples with varied properties. A cuboid of 4.5 mm width (lateral to focal plane) and 6 mm depth (along beam axis) was scanned in a raster pattern with respective step sizes of 0.75 and 3 mm. The exposure at each treatment location was either 15, 30, or 60 s. Results showed that only Young's modulus influenced histotripsy's ablative ability and was significantly correlated with lesion volume and bubble cluster dimensions. The other two properties had negligible effects on lesion formation. Also, exposure time differentially affected the width and depth of the bubble cluster volume. PMID:25480051

  7. Use of enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) for monitoring effectiveness of rinderpest vaccination and comparative evaluation with Agar-Gel immunodiffusion test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In line with other countries participating in the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign, Ghana wishes to monitor the success of a national rinderpest vaccination campaign. This involves the collection of sera from throughout the country in an epidemiologically acceptable manner and the use of a serological procedure that can test the sera for the presence of antibodies to the rinderpest virus. A comparison was carried out between an FAO/IAEA ELISA based system and an Agar-Gel Immunodiffusion test for the detection of antibodies to rinderpest virus in cattle. the ELISA was found to be faster than the Agar-Gel test, could handle larger number of samples in a short time and could detect lower levels than of immunoglobulins. Utilising the ELISA system to examine sera collected in two surveys of 3,500 and 1,818 samples from three regions (Greater Accra, Central and Volta regions) a very marked variable rate of seroconversion was demonstrated with levels lower than the desired 85%. It would appear that the primary cause of these lower than expected levels was related to an inadequate cold-chain. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum bonded agar-carbomer hydrogel:a promising tool for biomedical research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filippo Rossi; Marco Santoro; Tommaso Casalini; Giuseppe Perale

    2011-01-01

    Agar-Carbomer (branched poly (acrylic acid)) hydrogel, an injectable bio-resorbable scaffold with a controlled nanostructure specifically designed for neural cell housing, was developed together with a new protocol for building three dimensional biohybrid cell/hydrogel systems. In order to overcome classic strucrural analysis inconveniences due to the high water amount, which affects instruments results and reliability, agar-Carbomer hydrogels were synthesized by microwave-assisted block copolymerizaton together with La3+ salts. Propylene glycol, glycerol and buffered saline solution were used as cross-linking agents and solvent, respectively. Biomaterial properties were not affected by the presence of lanthanum, and were checked via swelling and rheological analysis. Moreover, the presence of La3+ within the polymeric network was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, environmental scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the rare earth presented uniform distribution in the hydrogel network due to the formation of chemical bonds after polymerization without being modified its luminescence emission spectrum that allowed hydrogel detection. These results made the obtained host-guest system a useful tool for analytical research studies concerning regenerative medical applications that could also be potentially taken up within vivo experiments.

  9. Selective assessment of in vitro radiosensitivity of tumour cells and fibroblasts from single tumour biopsies using immunocytochemical identification of colonies in the soft agar clonogenic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assumed selective growth of tumour cells has formed the basis for the use of the soft agar clonogenic assay to test in vitro radio- and chemosensitivity of tumours. However, recent studies have demonstrated that fibroblasts proliferate in soft agar in addition to tumour cells. The present study was initiated to quantify the contaminating growth of non-malignant cells in the modified form of the Courtenay-Mills soft agar assay, in order to establish a reliable assay for estimating tumour cell radiosensitivity in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. DNA flow cytometry analysis confirmed that 'tumour fibroblasts' (fibroblasts obtained from tumour biopsies) grow in soft agar. In contrast, white blood cells did not form colonies. Different media were tested with soft agar, but a selective medium for tumour cells was not found. Therefore, a colony filter-technique combined with an immunocytochemical analysis was developed to quantify the number of tumour cell and fibroblast colonies. In 12 tumour biopsies, 2-33% of the colonies were Cytokeratin AE1-3 positive, whereas 83-100% of the colonies were 5B5 fibroblast antibody positive. The parameter normally reported, the overall SF2 (surviving cell fraction at 2 Gy) based on colonies in agar, was found to be statistically significantly correlated to the fibroblast SF2, but not to the tumour cell SF2. The overall SF2 was significantly different from the tumour cell SF2 in half of the tumours. Furthermore, the tumour cell SF2 was not correlated to fibroblast SF2. In consequence of our findings, correcting for fibroblast contamination is a necessity, when studying in vitro sensitivity of tumour cells. Combining the soft agar clonogenic assay with the new colony filter-technique and the immunocytochemical analysis appear to be useful for making this routine correction and for measuring the in vitro radiosensitivity of both tumour cells and fibroblasts from single tumour biopsies, which is of interest in future

  10. Synthesis and characterization of high-surface-area millimeter-sized silica beads with hierarchical multi-modal pore structure by the addition of agar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millimeter-sized spherical silica foams (SSFs) with hierarchical multi-modal pore structure featuring high specific surface area and ordered mesoporous frameworks were successfully prepared using aqueous agar addition, foaming and drop-in-oil processes. The pore-related properties of the prepared spherical silica (SSs) and SSFs were systematically characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), Hg intrusion porosimetry, and N2 adsorption–desorption isotherm measurements. Improvements in the BET surface area and total pore volume were observed at 504 m2 g−1 and 5.45 cm3 g−1, respectively, after an agar addition and foaming process. Despite the increase in the BET surface area, the mesopore wall thickness and the pore size of the mesopores generated from the block copolymer with agar addition were unchanged based on the SAXRD, TEM, and BJH methods. The SSFs prepared in the present study were confirmed to have improved BET surface area and micropore volume through the agar loading, and to exhibit interconnected 3-dimensional network macropore structure leading to the enhancement of total porosity and BET surface area via the foaming process. - Highlights: • Millimeter-sized spherical silica foams (SSFs) are successfully prepared. • SSFs exhibit high BET surface area and ordered hierarchical pore structure. • Agar addition improves BET surface area and micropore volume of SSFs. • Foaming process generates interconnected 3-D network macropore structure of SSFs

  11. Study of Allelopathic Interaction of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. and Rye (Secale Cereal L. Using Equal-Compartment-Agar Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fariba

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many methods for weed management one of them is using allelopathy in weedmanagement programs. Equal-compartment-agar method was used for studying allelopathic interaction ofwheat and rye. In order to studying of sowing time (delayed sowing, synchronic sowing on allelopathicinteraction of wheat cultivars (Shiraz, Roshan, Tabasi, Niknejad and rye (Secale cereale on primary growthof rye and wheat, an experiment was done as factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with4 replications. According to the results, the inhibitory effect of w heat on rye was more than in synchronicsowing, compared to delayed sowing. Roshan had the highest allelopathic potential on rye, compared to otherwheat cultivars. On the other hands, Roshan cultivar showed the highest sensitivity in the presence of rye. Rootlength showed the most sensitivity to released allelochemicals from wheat cultivars, because root has the mostcontact with allelochemicals.

  12. Black-box modeling to estimate tissue temperature during radiofrequency catheter cardiac ablation: feasibility study on an agar phantom model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study linear deterministic models to predict tissue temperature during radiofrequency cardiac ablation (RFCA) by measuring magnitudes such as electrode temperature, power and impedance between active and dispersive electrodes. The concept involves autoregressive models with exogenous input (ARX), which is a particular case of the autoregressive moving average model with exogenous input (ARMAX). The values of the mode parameters were determined from a least-squares fit of experimental data. The data were obtained from radiofrequency ablations conducted on agar models with different contact pressure conditions between electrode and agar (0 and 20 g) and different flow rates around the electrode (1, 1.5 and 2 L min−1). Half of all the ablations were chosen randomly to be used for identification (i.e. determination of model parameters) and the other half were used for model validation. The results suggest that (1) a linear model can be developed to predict tissue temperature at a depth of 4.5 mm during RF cardiac ablation by using the variables applied power, impedance and electrode temperature; (2) the best model provides a reasonably accurate estimate of tissue temperature with a 60% probability of achieving average errors better than 5 °C; (3) substantial errors (larger than 15 °C) were found only in 6.6% of cases and were associated with abnormal experiments (e.g. those involving the displacement of the ablation electrode) and (4) the impact of measuring impedance on the overall estimate is negligible (around 1 °C)

  13. Comparative Evaluation of the VITEK 2, Disk Diffusion, Etest, Broth Microdilution, and Agar Dilution Susceptibility Testing Methods for Colistin in Clinical Isolates, Including Heteroresistant Enterobacter cloacae and Acinetobacter baumannii Strains▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; de Smet, Anne Marie G. A.; Diederen, Bram M. W.; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; van Keulen, Peter H. J.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria has recently renewed interest in colistin as a therapeutic option. The increasing use of colistin necessitates the availability of rapid and reliable methods for colistin susceptibility testing. We compared seven methods of colistin susceptibility testing (disk diffusion, agar dilution on Mueller-Hinton [MH] and Isosensitest agar, Etest on MH and Isosensitest agar, broth microdilution, and VITEK 2) on 102 clinical isolates collected f...

  14. Comparison of eight different agars for the recovery of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from baby spinach, cilantro, alfalfa sprouts and raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Lin, Andrew; Hammack, Thomas S

    2015-04-01

    The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a recommends several agars for isolating non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); not all have been thoroughly tested for recovering STECs from food. Using E. coli strains representing ten clinically relevant O serogroups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145) in artificially-contaminated fresh produce--bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, cilantro, and raw milk--we evaluated the performance of 8 different agars. Performance was highly dependent upon strain used and the presence of inhibitors, but not necessarily dependent on food matrix. Tellurite resistant-negative strains, O91:-, O103:H6, O104:H21, O113:H21, and O128, grew poorly on CHROMagar STEC, Rainbow agar O157, and a modified Rainbow O157 (mRB) agar. Although adding washed sheep's blood to CHROMagar STEC and mRB agars improved overall performance; however, this also reversed the inhibition of non-target bacteria provided by original formulations. Variable colony coloration made selecting colonies from Rainbow agar O157 and mRB agars difficult. Study results support a strategy using inclusive agars (e.g. L-EMB, SHIBAM) in combination with selective agars (R & F E. coli O157:H7, CHROMagar STEC) to allow for recovery of the most STECs while increasing the probability of recovering STEC in high bacterial count matrices. PMID:25475297

  15. Strain-rate and temperature dependent material properties of Agar and Gellan Gum used in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavi, Alessandro; Cuccaro, Rugiada; Troia, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Agar and Gellan Gum are biocompatible polymers extensively used in several fields of tissue engineering research (e.g. tissue replacement, tissue support, tissue mimicking), due to their mechanical behaviour effectively representative of actual biological tissues. Since mechanical properties of artificial tissues are related to biocompatibility and functionality of medical implants and significantly influence adhesion, growth and differentiation of cells in tissue-engineering scaffolds, an accurate characterization of Young׳s modulus and relaxation time processes is needed. In this study, the strain-rate and temperature dependent material properties of Agarose and one among the numerous kind of Gellan Gum commercially available, known as Phytagel(®), have been investigated. Nine hydrogel samples have been realized with different mechanical properties: the first one Agar-based as a reference material, the further eight samples Gellan Gum based in which the effect of dispersed solid particles like kieselguhr and SiC, as enhancing mechanical properties factors, have been investigated as a function of concentration. Stress-strain has been investigated in compression and relaxation time has been evaluated by means of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts time decay function. Mechanical properties have been measured as a function of temperature between 20 °C and 35 °C and at different strain rates, from ~10(-3)s(-1) and ~10(-2)s(-1) (or deformation rate from ~0.01 mms(-1) to ~0.1 mms(-1)). From experimental data, the combined temperature and strain-rate dependence of hydrogels Young׳s modulus is determined on the basis of a constitutive model. In addition to a dependence of Young׳s modulus on temperature, a remarkable influence of strain-rate has been observed, especially in the sample containing solid particles; in same ranges of temperature and strain-rate, also relaxation time variations have been monitored in order to identify a possible dependence of damping

  16. A modified MacConkey agar for selective enumeration of necrotoxigenic E. coli O55 and probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šplíchalová, Alla; Šplíchal, Igor; Sonnenborn, U.; Rada, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 103, SEP 2014 (2014), s. 82-86. ISSN 0167-7012 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0365 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : MacConkey agar * E. coil O55 * NTEC Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.026, year: 2014

  17. Comparison of Rosco Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks in EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U S; Acar, Ziyap; Olsson, K;

    2013-01-01

    This study compared Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test on Mueller-Hinton agar. The EUCAST-recommended quality control strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas ...

  18. Quantitative Selective PCR of 16S Ribosomal DNA Correlates Well with Selective Agar Plating in Describing Population Dynamics of Indigenous Pseudomonas spp. in Soil Hot Spots

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Kaare; Enger, Øivind; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Thirup, Laila; Torsvik, Vigdis

    1999-01-01

    We used a quantitative PCR method targeting 16S ribosomal DNA using competitive PCR for specific detection of indigenous Pseudomonas DNA in soil hot spots. The amount of Pseudomonas DNA corresponded to the number of culturable Pseudomonas bacteria on Gould’s S1 agar. This represents the first use of PCR for quantification of indigenous bacteria in more than one sample of soil.

  19. A comparison of a new centrifuge sugar flotation technique with the agar method for the extraction of immature Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) life stages from salt marsh soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sampling techniques, agar extraction (AE) and centrifuge sugar flotation extraction (CSFE) were compared to determine their relative efficacy to recover immature stages of Culicoides spp from salt marsh substrates. Three types of samples (seeded with known numbers of larvae, homogenized field s...

  20. Accurate, precise modeling of cell proliferation kinetics from time-lapse imaging and automated image analysis of agar yeast culture arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Lue

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide mutant strain collections have increased demand for high throughput cellular phenotyping (HTCP. For example, investigators use HTCP to investigate interactions between gene deletion mutations and additional chemical or genetic perturbations by assessing differences in cell proliferation among the collection of 5000 S. cerevisiae gene deletion strains. Such studies have thus far been predominantly qualitative, using agar cell arrays to subjectively score growth differences. Quantitative systems level analysis of gene interactions would be enabled by more precise HTCP methods, such as kinetic analysis of cell proliferation in liquid culture by optical density. However, requirements for processing liquid cultures make them relatively cumbersome and low throughput compared to agar. To improve HTCP performance and advance capabilities for quantifying interactions, YeastXtract software was developed for automated analysis of cell array images. Results YeastXtract software was developed for kinetic growth curve analysis of spotted agar cultures. The accuracy and precision for image analysis of agar culture arrays was comparable to OD measurements of liquid cultures. Using YeastXtract, image intensity vs. biomass of spot cultures was linearly correlated over two orders of magnitude. Thus cell proliferation could be measured over about seven generations, including four to five generations of relatively constant exponential phase growth. Spot area normalization reduced the variation in measurements of total growth efficiency. A growth model, based on the logistic function, increased precision and accuracy of maximum specific rate measurements, compared to empirical methods. The logistic function model was also more robust against data sparseness, meaning that less data was required to obtain accurate, precise, quantitative growth phenotypes. Conclusion Microbial cultures spotted onto agar media are widely used for genotype

  1. Kinetics and equilibrium modelling of lead uptake by algae Gelidium and algal waste from agar extraction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pb(II) biosorption onto algae Gelidium, algal waste from agar extraction industry and a composite material was studied. Discrete and continuous site distribution models were used to describe the biosorption equilibrium at different pH (5.3, 4 and 3), considering competition among Pb(II) ions and protons. The affinity distribution function of Pb(II) on the active sites was calculated by the Sips distribution. The Langmuir equilibrium constant was compared with the apparent affinity calculated by the discrete model, showing higher affinity for lead ions at higher pH values. Kinetic experiments were conducted at initial Pb(II) concentrations of 29-104 mg l-1 and data fitted to pseudo-first Lagergren and second-order models. The adsorptive behaviour of biosorbent particles was modelled using a batch mass transfer kinetic model, which successfully predicts Pb(II) concentration profiles at different initial lead concentration and pH, and provides significant insights on the biosorbents performance. Average values of homogeneous diffusivity, D h, are 3.6 x 10-8; 6.1 x 10-8 and 2.4 x 10-8 cm2 s-1, respectively, for Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. The concentration of lead inside biosorbent particles follows a parabolic profile that becomes linear near equilibrium

  2. Microanalysis of Organic Pigments in Ancient Textiles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering on Agar Gel Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Ricci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review some new methods based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS for the nondestructive/minimally invasive identification of organic colorants in objects whose value or function precludes sampling, such as historic and archeological textiles, paintings, and drawing. We discuss in detail the methodology we developed for the selective extraction and identification of anthraquinones and indigoids in the typical concentration used in textiles by means of an ecocompatible homogeneous nanostructured agar matrix. The extraction system was modulated according to the chemical properties of the target analyte by choosing appropriate reagents for the extraction and optimizing the extraction time. The system has been found to be extremely stable, easy to use and produce, easy to store, and at the same time able to be analyzed even after long time intervals, maintaining its enhancement properties unaltered, without the detriment of the extracted compound. Highly structured SERS band intensities have been obtained from the extracted dyes adopting laser light excitations at 514.5 and 785 nm of a micro-Raman setup. This analytical method has been found to be extremely safe for the analyzed substrates, thus being a promising procedure for the selective analysis and detection of molecules at low concentration in the field of artworks conservation.

  3. The evaluation of susceptibility of clinical and environmental Nontuberculosis mycobacterium isolated from Isfahan to Ciprofloxacin by Agar dilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Radaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic which is active against mycobacteria and functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones may evolve rapidly, even during a course of treatment. Nowadays, mycobacteria exhibit resistance worldwide and usage of the fluoroquinolones, particularly in nontuberculous mycobacteria disease, has complicated the related treatments. Materials and methods: A total of 39 clinical and environmental isolates of NTM from microbial collections of Isfahan Microbiology Department and Tuberculosis center were obtained. The isolates were investigated by primary conventional methods consisting of colony characteristics, pigmentation, growth temperature, rate of growth and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. The susceptibility of isolates to the concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 µg/ml of ciprofloxacin was determined by agar dilution method according to the CLSI guideline.Results: Thirty nine isolates were identified by phenotypic tests. The frequency of isolates was as follow: M. fortuitum; 25 cases, M. gordonae; 10 cases, M. smegmatis; 1 case, M.‏conceptionense; 1 case and M. abscessus; 2 cases. All isolates except Mycobacterium abscessus were sensitive to all three concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 µg/ml ciprofloxacin.Discussion and conclusion: Due to the sensitivity of environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria isolates (except M. abscessus and clinical isolates including M. fortuitum and M.‏gordonae to ciprofloxacin, this antibiotic could be regarded as the original drug in the treatment of these infections.

  4. Correlation between Agar Plate Screening and Solid-State Fermentation for the Prediction of Cellulase Production by Trichoderma Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Florencio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability of converting biomass into biofuels and chemicals still requires further development towards the reduction of the enzyme production costs. Thus, there is a growing demand for the development of efficient procedures for selection of cellulase-producing microorganisms. This work correlates qualitative screening using agar plate assays with quantitative measurements of cellulase production during cultivation under solid-state fermentation (SSF. The initial screening step consisted of observation of the growth of 78 preselected strains of the genus Trichoderma on plates, using microcrystalline cellulose as carbon source. The 49 strains that were able to grow on this substrate were then subjected to a second screening step using the Congo red test. From this test it was possible to select 10 strains that presented the highest enzymatic indices (EI, with values ranging from 1.51 to 1.90. SSF cultivations using sugarcane bagasse and wheat bran as substrates were performed using selected strains. The CG 104NH strain presented the highest EGase activity (25.93 UI·g−1. The EI results obtained in the screening procedure using plates were compared with cellulase production under SSF. A correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.977 was obtained between the Congo red test and SSF, demonstrating that the two methodologies were in good agreement.

  5. Comparison of agar gel immunodiffusion test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR in diagnostics of enzootic bovine leukosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malovrh Tadej

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is a retrovirus that induces a chronic infection in cattle. Once infected, cattle remain virus carriers for life and start to show an antibody response within a few weeks after infection. Eradication and control of the disease are based on early diagnostics and segregation of the carriers. The choice of a diagnostic method depends on the eradication programme, money resources and characteristics of the herd to be analysed. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test has been the serological test of choice for routine diagnosis of serum samples. Nevertheless, in more recent years, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA has replaced the AGID for large scale testing. For this purpose, commercially available BLV-ELISA kits were compared to the AGID and to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method performed with two sets of primers, amplifying env region. The ELISA kit based on the p24 core protein was found to be less specific and served as a screening test. The ELISA kit based on the envelope glycoprotein (gpSI served as a verification test and gave a good correlation with the AGID test and PCR method. However, ELISA showed a higher sensitivity than AGID. The p24 based ELiSA was useful for screening a large number of samples, whereas gp51 based ELISA, AGID and PCR were more important for detecting the antibody response against the individual BLV-proteins and therefore for verification of the infection with BLV.

  6. The antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis: A review on agar diffusion and direct contact methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhayati Luddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system are fundamental requirements for successful endodontic treatment. Despite the morphological challenges of the internal root anatomy, root canal irrigants play an important role in the optimization of the root canal preparation, which is essentially a chemo-mechanical procedure. Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most resistant microorganisms that dominants the microbial ecosystem of persistent periradicular lesions in retreatment cases. For that reason, many in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated and compared the antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine at varying concentrations using different experimental models against this microorganism. However, many controversies with regard to the ideal irrigant and concentration do in fact exist. Hence, this review aims to discuss the antibacterial activity of these two main root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis using the agar diffusion and direct contact methods and the possible modulating factors responsible for inconsistent findings among different studies. In addition, the disinfection potential of both chemical agents on gutta percha and Resilon cones are also discussed. The source of this review was conducted through an electronic literature search using PubMed database from December 1997 until December 2011, which analyze the related laboratory investigations of both irrigants, published in major endodontic journals.

  7. Study of chemical interaction induced by ionizing radiation poly(dimethylsiloxane-g-ethylene oxide) in the poly(n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and agar membrane; Estudo da interacao quimica do poli(dimetilsiloxano-g-oxido de etileno) na membrana de poli(n-vinil-2-pirrolidona) e agar induzida com radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi, Aurea de Souza

    1999-07-01

    Membrane composed by poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and agar was formulated with and without poly(dimethylsiloxane-g-ethylene oxide) (SEO) irradiated with electron beam with doses between 10-50 kGy. The radiolytic behaviour of each component, PVP, agar and SEO, was studied when irradiated by gamma ray, in the absence and presence of air and water, by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at 77 K. The chemical interaction of SEO with PVP/agar membrane was investigated by: infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, dynamic-mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, gel and swelling analysis. The cytotoxicity of the PVP/agar/SEO membrane was evaluated by cellular suppression. The membrane radicals from PVP ({phi}NC.) and from water (H., OH. and H{sub 2}O) was observed by EPR at 77K. The agar radicals formed by hydrogen abstraction of C{sub 1} and C{sub 3} of {beta}-D-galactose and/or C{sub 1} and C{sub 4} of {alpha}-L-galactose, reacted primarily with water radicals in despite of they also took part in the membrane by chemical bond. The radicals from SEO (.CH{sub 2}{approx}, .Si{approx}, .O{approx}) participated in the inter and intramolecular crosslinking as co-crosslinker by polymeric bridge. The co-crosslinked action depended on its concentration associated to PVP concentration. The presence op acrylates increases the tensile break of the PVP/agar/SEO membrane significantly. (author)

  8. Historical sources about diseases, death and embalming regarding the family of Jean Antoine Michel Agar, Minister of Finance of Gioacchino Murat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinozzi, S; Gazzaniga, V; Giuffra, V; Fornaciari, G

    2011-06-01

    Among the mummies preserved in the Basilica of San Domenico Maggiore in Naples, there are the bodies of the wife and three children of Jean Antoine Michel Agar, Minister of Finance of Naple's Kingdom during the Monarchy of Joachim Murat (1808-1815). Between 1983 and 1987 paleopathological analyses were performed; in particular, X-ray examination allowed investigation of the health status of the Agar family members and reconstruction of the embalming processes used to preserve the bodies. In addition, an analysis of the historical and archival documents was carried out, to formulate hypotheses about the causes of death, demonstrating how these sources could become important instruments to obtain diagnoses and pathological histories. PMID:22043603

  9. CONTRIBUTION TO DETERMINING THE BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE WATER CHESTNUT TRAPA NATANS L. LAKE OUBEIRA EL-KALA AND DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRIENT AGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED SAHLI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is aims to determining the biochemical composition of the flour water chestnut seeds and the development of a nutrient agar for bacteria and fungi in the presence and absence of oxytetracycline. The culture medium consists of the filtrate recovered after dispersion of the flour of the seeds in distilled water and the agar. The results show in the absence of oxytetracycline, bacterial and fungal strains develop. In the presence of the antibiotic to 0.25 mg·mL-1 and 0.5 mg·mL-1 bacteria are completely inhibited whereas fungi evolve. Statistical analysis reveals the existence of a very highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.001 between the effects of different concentrations of the bactericide deploying Pyrenophora tritici and Septoria nodorum. There is no influence of antibacterial concentrations on the growth of Fusarium sp.

  10. Preparation of nanocellulose from micro-crystalline cellulose: The effect on the performance and properties of agar-based composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2016-01-01

    A facile approach has been performed to prepare nanocellulose (NC) from micro-crystalline cellulose (MCC) and test their effect on the performance properties of agar-based composite films. The NC was characterized by STEM, XRD, FTIR, and TGA. The NC was well dispersed in distilled water after sonication and their size was in the range of 100-500nm. The XRD results revealed the crystallinity of NC. The crystallinity index of NC (0.71) was decreased compared to the MCC (0.81). The effect of NC or MCC content (1, 3, 5 and 10wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the composites were studied. The NC obtained from MCC can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of biodegradable composites films for their potential use in the development of biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:26453846

  11. Development of a mixed antigen agar gel enzyme assay (AGEA) for the detection of antibodies to poxvirus in chicken and turkey sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadese, Theodros; Potter, E A; Reed, W M

    2003-02-01

    A mixed-antigen agar gel enzyme assay (AGEA) was developed to detect antibodies to poxviruses in chicken and turkey sera. The assay combines the principles of immunodiffusion and enzyme assay. For the detection of antibodies to fowl poxvirus (FP), pigeon poxvirus (PP) and turkey poxvirus (TP) in turkey serum samples, the three antigens were combined to form a mixed-antigen assay. To screen for antibodies to FP and PP in chicken serum samples, the two antigens were combined. When FP and PP viruses were combined as antigens, the sensitivity for chicken sera was 64% but the sensitivity of the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) was 34% (PAGEA had a sensitivity of 66.4% while that of AGPT was 25% (P<0.001). PMID:12655123

  12. Structure elucidation of auxofuran, a metabolite involved in stimulating growth of fly agaric, produced by the mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces AcH 505.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simone; Schneider, Kathrin; Süssmuth, Roderich D

    2006-12-01

    Mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces strain AcH 505 stimulates ectomycorrhiza formation between spruce and fly agaric by supporting fungal growth whereas growth of pathogenic fungi is suppressed. A fungal growth promoting substance was isolated and the chemical structure elucidated by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The absolute configuration of the novel fungal growth promoting compound auxofuran (1) was deduced from NMR data with the help of Mosher esters. PMID:17323648

  13. [Assessment of 2 automated microdilution techniques compared to an agar dilution method in determining sensitivity to fosfomycin in strains of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Romero, Yolanda; Regodón-Domínguez, Marta; Wilhelmi de Cal, Isabel; López-Fabal, Fátima; Gómez-Garcés, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenems-resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates has been widely reported. Fosfomycin has been shown to act synergistically with other antimicrobials. The agar dilution method was approved for susceptibility testing for fosfomycin and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, broth microdilution methods are the basis of systems currently used in clinical microbiology laboratories. The results of this study indicate that these methods are acceptable as susceptibility testing methods for fosfomycin against these organisms. PMID:26620604

  14. Comparison of Two Different Disk Diffusion Agar Tests in Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibility for E-Coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedighi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is one of the most common infections during childhood and E-Coli is the more predominant pathogen recovered in UTI. Disk Diffusion agar test is a method of choice because it is cost effective, simple, and now routinely used for detection of antibiotic susceptibility. A rapid increase in antibiotic resistance in our region made the authors to design a study to compare this traditional method with two different disk diffusion agar tests.Materials & Methods: Our study was conducted between 2009 and 2010 in Be’sat teaching hospital on 100 pediatric patients ranged 15 days to 13 years old with positive urine culture for E-coli. Antibiogram detection was performed by disk diffusion agar test with two different kits as Padtan-Teb (made in Iran and Mast (made in the U.K. for Co-trimoxazol, Amikacin, Ceftriaxone, Nalidixic Acid, Cefixime, and Nitrofurantoin. At last the data was analyzed by McNemar test.Results: Co-trimoxazol obtained the lowest (23% Padtan-Teb and 26% Mast and Nitrofurantoin had the highest (86% Padtan-Teb and 97% Mast sensitivity in the two methods which were used in our study. The results were statistically significant for Amikacin, Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, and Nitrofurantoin. The data was analyzed by Mc Memar test.Conclusion: According to our study the results of antibiotic susceptibility were more compatible with other non national Disk diffusion agar test and thus we recommend that our manufactures in Iran should increase the quality of their products.

  15. Brucella abortus 1119-3 O-chain polysaccharide to differentiate sera from B. abortus S-19-vaccinated and field-strain-infected cattle by agar gel immunodiffusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Nielsen, K H

    1988-01-01

    Purified Brucella abortus 1119-3 and Brucella melitensis 16M lipopolysaccharide O-chain polysaccharides were not precipitated in agar gel immunodiffusion by any of 24 sera from vaccinated cattle but were precipitated by 18 of 24 sera from infected cattle. This difference can be used to differentiate sera of cattle vaccinated with B. abortus S-19 from sera of some field-strain-infected cattle.

  16. Evaluation of Remel Spectra CRE Agar for Detection of Carbapenem-Resistant Bacteria from Rectal Swabs Obtained from Residents of a Long-Term-Care Facility

    OpenAIRE

    LaBombardi, Vincent J.; Urban, Carl M.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Chen, Liang; Osorio, Giuliana; Kopacz, Joanna; Labaze, Georges; Segal-Maurer, Sorana

    2015-01-01

    We compared the Remel Spectra CRE agar plate to CDC standard methodology for the isolation of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) from 300 rectal swab specimens obtained from patients residing in a long-term-care facility (LTCF). Multiplex PCR experiments were performed on isolates to identify specific Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) and additional β-lactamases. Of the 300 patients, 72 (24%) harbored CRE and were PCR positive for KPC enzymes. The Remel Spectra CRE plates ...

  17. An investigation of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) infection by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests and hematological applications on the dairy cows in the

    OpenAIRE

    Kale M.; Öztürk F.

    2004-01-01

    Haematological tests (alfa nafthyl acetate esterase ANAE activity, May Grünwald Giemsa staining and total leucocyte counts) were applied to 469 dairy cows, where the enzootic form of bovine leucosis was investigated. In the same 469 dairy cows, a search for antibodies directed against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) was carried out using agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) in blood samples and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in milk samples. Among the 469 animals screened, 90 were positive ...

  18. Antibacterial activity of Green Seaweed Caulerpa racemosa from Takalar Waters against pathogenic bacteria promoting ice-ice diseases in the agar-producing red algae Gracilaria verrucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuddin, Elmi Nurhaidah; Anshary, Hilal; Huyyirnah; Hiola, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    The Ice-ice disease caused by bacterial pathogens which attack the algae tissue resulted white and brittle of seaweed thallus on red seaweed Gracilaria verrucosa farming. Study of antibacterial activity of green seaweed Caulerpa racemosa against the pathogens has been done using method include isolation of bacteria, pathogenicity test with Koch's postulates method, characterization of ice-ice bacteria, extraction of Caulerpa racemosa, and antibacterial test by agar diffusion method. The res...

  19. Advantages of functional single-cell isolation method over standard agar plate dilution method as a tool for studying denitrifying bacteria in rice paddy soil

    OpenAIRE

    Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Tago, Kanako; Uei, Yusuke; Ishii, Satoshi; Isobe, Kazuo; Otsuka, Shigeto; Senoo, Keishi

    2012-01-01

    We recently established a method for isolating functional single cells from environmental samples using a micromanipulator (Functional single-cell (FSC) isolation), and applied it to the study of denitrifying bacteria in rice paddy soil (Ashida et al. 2010. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85:1211–1217). To further examine the advantages and possible disadvantages of the FSC method, we isolated denitrifying bacteria from the same rice paddy soil sample using both FSC and standard agar plate dilution...

  20. A modified MacConkey agar for selective enumeration of necrotoxigenic E. coli O55 and probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splichalova, Alla; Splichal, Igor; Sonnenborn, Ulrich; Rada, Vojtech

    2014-09-01

    An agar selective enumeration of necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli O55 (NTEC2) and probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917, using modified MacConkey agar, was developed to study bacterial interference between these E. coli strains in a gnotobiotic piglet model. Replacement of lactose with saccharose in the agar enables the direct visual enumeration of red colonies of E. coli O55 and yellow colonies of E. coli Nissle 1917 that are co-cultured in the same Petri dish. A total of 336 colonies (168 for each color) were subjected to strain-specific PCR identification with LNA probes. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 96.43%, 95.83%, 95.86% and 96.41% respectively in E. coli O55, and 98.21%, 97.02%, 97.06% and 98.19% respectively in E. coli Nissle 1917. Color-based enumeration of both E. coli strains in colonic contents and mesenteric lymph nodes homogenates of gnotobiotic piglets demonstrated the applicability of this method for the gnotobiotic piglet model of enteric diseases. PMID:25008462

  1. Comparison of M.I.C.E. and Etest with CLSI agar dilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloiza H Campana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate the performance of M.I.C.E. and Etest methodologies to that of agar dilution for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. METHODS: A total of 100 oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected from hospitalized patients at a teaching hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid was performed using the reference CLSI agar dilution method (2009, Etest and M.I.C.E. methodologies. The MIC values were interpreted according to CLSI susceptibility breakpoints and compared by regression analysis. RESULTS: In general, the essential agreement (±1-log2 between M.I.C.E. and CLSI agar dilution was 93.0%, 84.0% and 77.0% for linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin, respectively. Essential agreement rates between M.I.C.E. and Etest were excellent (>90.0% for all antibiotics tested. Both strips (M.I.C.E. and Etest yielded two very major errors for linezolid. Unacceptable minor rates were observed for teicoplanin against CoNS and for vancomycin against S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, linezolid and teicoplanin MICs against all staphylococci and S. aureus, respectively, were more accurately predicted by M.I.C.E. strips. However, the Etest showed better performance than M.I.C.E. for predicting vancomycin MICs against all staphylococci. Thus, microbiologists must be aware of the different performance of commercially available gradient strips against staphylococci.

  2. EFFECTS OF CO-CULTURE AND SALINITY ON THE GROWTH AND AGAR YIELD OF GRACILARIA TENUISTIPITATA VAR LIUI ZHANG ET XIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺丽虹; 吴汪黔生; 钱培元; 朱明远

    2002-01-01

    Gracilaria tenuistipitata var Liui were mono-cultivated and co-cultiv ated with Pinctada martensii under high (33) and low (21) salinity conditions in laboratory. The daily growth rate of the alga was determined. Tissue carbon and nitrogen contents, the yield and fractional compos ition of agar were analyzed. Results showed that: 1. Gracilaria grew better under low salinity conditions, the daily growth rate was twice that under high salinity conditions. Co-cultivated algae grew fa ster than mono-cultivated algae under low salinity conditions, the daily growth rate was about 37.6% highe r. 2. Compared with mono-cultivated algae, tissue nitrogen contents of co-cultivated algae were hi gher, while the C:N ratios were much lower. 3. The agar yields of co-cultivated algae were much lower than those of mono-cultivated algae. Agar yield was found to be negatively correlated to the tissue nitrogen contents, and positively correlated to the C:N ratios. 4. The highest fractional yields obtain ed from co-cultivated algae were extracted with 40% ethanol, while from mono-cultivated algae, the highest fractional yields obtained were extracted with distilled water at room temperature.

  3. Study on the extraction and quality of agar from ahnfeltia pliacta%伊谷藻琼胶的提取工艺及其品质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 付晓婷; 林洪; 许加超; 高昕

    2012-01-01

    Agar is a class of polysaccharide which exists in the cell wall of agar - type red alga. It is widely applied in the food industry, chemical industry, scientific research and other fields. It has unique solidification and stability. The extraction methodology of agar from Ahnfeltia pliacta was studied. Methods of hot water extraction, acid pre - extraction and alkaline pre - extraction were compared. One - factor - at - a - time method and response surface method were carried out to establish the optimal procedure of extraction and bleaching. The result indicated that the optimum extraction condition was: 121℃ for 2 hours, NaOH concentration 1. 2% , and the ratio of material to solvent 1 : 30. The colloid was bleached for 10 minutes in the solution of sodium hypochlorite with a chlorine concentration of 0. 18% and pH value of 5. 39. Based on this research, the high yield and good quality of agar can be prepared and is comparable to those of agar from Gelidiella.%琼胶,是存在于琼胶型红藻多糖细胞壁中的一类多糖[1],它以其独特的凝固性和稳定性广泛的应用在食品工业、化学工业、科学研究及其它领域.本文建立了红藻门伊谷藻琼胶的提取工艺.对热水浸提法,酸预处理浸提法,碱预处理浸提法进行比较,应用单因素试验和响应面优化试验,确定了最佳的提取和漂白工艺.试验结果表明:1.2%的NaOH溶液,料液比1∶30,高压锅121℃提取2h.胶体在有效氯浓度0.18%,pH为5.39的次氯酸钠溶液漂白10min.该工艺的琼胶提取率高,所提取的琼胶品质良好,与石花菜属琼胶品质相当.

  4. Effect of post-treatments and concentration of cotton linter cellulose nanocrystals on the properties of agar-based nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oun, Ahmed A; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-12-10

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were prepared by acid hydrolysis of cotton linter pulp fibers and three different purification methods, i.e., without post purification (CNC1), dialyzed against distilled water (CNC2), and neutralized with NaOH (CNC3), and their effect on film properties was evaluated by preparation of agar/CNCs composite films. All the CNCs were rod in shape with diameter of 15-50 nm and length of 210-480 nm. FTIR result indicated that there was no distinctive differences in the chemical structure between CNCs and cotton linter cellulose fiber. No significant relationship was observed between the sulfate content and crystallinity index of CNCs. The CNC3 showed higher thermal stability than the other type of CNCs due to the less adverse effect on the thermal stability of sulfate groups induced by the neutralization with NaOH. The tensile strength (TS) of agar film increased by 15% with incorporation of 5 wt% of CNC3, on the contrary, it decreased by 10% and 15% with incorporation of CNC1 and CNC2, respectively. Other performance properties of agar/CNCs composite films such as optical and water vapor barrier properties showed that the CNC3 was more effective filler than the other CNCs. In the range of concentration of CNC3 tested (1-10 wt%), inclusion of 5 wt% of CNC3 was the maximum concentration for improving or maintaining film properties of the composite films. The neutralization of acid hydrolyzed cellulose using NaOH was simple and convenient for the preparation of CNC and bionanocomposite films. PMID:26428095

  5. Investigation of the effect of power ultrasound on the nucleation of water during freezing of agar gel samples in tubing vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Hossein; Sun, Da-Wen; Delgado, Adriana; Zhang, Zhihang

    2012-05-01

    Nucleation, as an important stage of freezing process, can be induced by the irradiation of power ultrasound. In this study, the effect of irradiation temperature (-2 °C, -3 °C, -4 °C and -5 °C), irradiation duration (0s, 1s, 3s, 5s, 10s or 15s) and ultrasound intensity (0.07 W cm(-2), 0.14 W cm(-2), 0.25 W cm(-2), 0.35 W cm(-2) and 0.42 W cm(-2)) on the dynamic nucleation of ice in agar gel samples was studied. The samples were frozen in an ethylene glycol-water mixture (-20 °C) in an ultrasonic bath system after putting them into tubing vials. Results indicated that ultrasound irradiation is able to initiate nucleation at different supercooled temperatures (from -5 °C to -2 °C) in agar gel if optimum intensity and duration of ultrasound were chosen. Evaluation of the effect of 0.25 W cm(-2) ultrasound intensity and different durations of ultrasound application on agar gels showed that 1s was not long enough to induce nucleation, 3s induced the nucleation repeatedly but longer irradiation durations resulted in the generation of heat and therefore nucleation was postponed. Investigation of the effect of ultrasound intensity revealed that higher intensities of ultrasound were effective when a shorter period of irradiation was used, while lower intensities only resulted in nucleation when a longer irradiation time was applied. In addition to this, higher intensities were not effective at longer irradiation times due to the heat generated in the samples by the heating effect of ultrasound. In conclusion, the use of ultrasound as a means to control the crystallization process offers promising application in freezing of solid foods, however, optimum conditions should be selected. PMID:22070859

  6. Continuous biosorption of single and binary metal solutions in a fixed-bed column using algae gelidium and granulated algal waste from agar extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar, Vitor; Botelho, Cidália; Martins, Ramiro; Boaventura, Rui

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the biosorption of single (Zn(II) and Cr(III)) and binary (Cd(II)/Zn(II) and Cu(II)/Cr(III)) metal solutions in a packed bed column using algae Gelidium and an algal waste from the agar extraction industry immobilized with polyacrylonitrile. In the sorption process, Zn(II) breaks through the column faster than Cd(II) due to its lower affinity for the biosorbent. An overshoot in the outlet Zn(II) concentration was observed and explained by competitive adsorption between Cd...

  7. Agar de capa delgada: una opción costoefectiva para el diagnóstico rápido de tuberculosis multirresistente

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Sarmiento, José Mauricio; Martínez Negrete, Milton Alfonso; Castrillón Velilla, Diana Marcela; Mejía Espinosa, Sergio Andrés; Mejía Mesa, Gloria Isabel; Zapata Fernández, Elsa María; Rojas Jiménez, Sara; Marín Castro, Andrés Eduardo; Robledo Restrepo, Jaime Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar un análisis de costo efectividad comparando el método de cultivo en agar de capa delgada y el método estándar de proporciones múltiples, utilizados en el diagnóstico de Tuberculosis Multi-drogorresistente (TB MDR).Métodos Estudio de evaluación económica en el cual se evalúan los costos y la efectividad de dos pruebas diagnósticas, ejecutado en la Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas-CIB en Medellín, Colombia.Resultados Se evaluaron 100 pacientes, encontrando una preva...

  8. Evaluation of agar gel immunodiffusion serology using caprine and ovine lentiviral antigens for detection of antibody to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, D P; Evermann, J F; Shropshire, C; VanderSchalie, J; Bradway, D; Gezon, H M; Cheevers, W P

    1994-01-01

    The sensitivity of the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for the detection of antibody to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was investigated with CAEV or ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) as the source of antigen. A total of 218 goat serum specimens were tested for anti-CAEV antibody by AGID and immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled CAEV. In comparison with that of immunoprecipitation, the sensitivity of the CAEV AGID test was 0.91, and that of the OPPV AGID test ...

  9. Effects of PVA, agar contents, and irradiation doses on properties of PVA/ws-chitosan/glycerol hydrogels made by γ-irradiation followed by freeze-thawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/water soluble chitosan (ws-chitosan)/glycerol hydrogels were prepared by γ-irradiation and γ-irradiation followed by freeze-thawing, respectively. The effects of irradiation dose and the contents of PVA and agar on the swelling, rheological, and thermal properties of these hydrogels were investigated. The swelling capacity decreases while the mechanical strength increases with increasing PVA or agar content. Increasing the irradiation dose leads to an increase in chemical crosslinking density but a decrease in physical crosslinking density. Hydrogels made by irradiation followed by freeze-thawing own smaller swelling capacity but larger mechanical strength than those made by pure irradiation. The storage modulus of the former hydrogels decreases above 50 deg. C and above 70 deg. C it comes to the same value as that prepared by irradiation. The ordered association of PVA is influenced by both chemical and physical crosslinkings and by the presence of ws-chitosan and glycerol. These hydrogels are high sensitive to pH and ionic strength, indicating that they may be useful in stimuli-responsive drug release system

  10. Development of a colony lift immunoassay to facilitate rapid detection and quantification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from agar plates and filter monitor membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D T; Lamichhane, C M; Rollins, D M; Carr, L E; Mallinson, E T; Joseph, S W

    1998-07-01

    E. coli O157:H7 is a food-borne adulterant that can cause hemorrhagic ulcerative colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Faced with an increasing risk of foods contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, food safety officials are seeking improved methods to detect and isolate E. coli O157:H7 in hazard analysis and critical control point systems in meat- and poultry-processing plants. A colony lift immunoassay was developed to facilitate the positive identification and quantification of E. coli O157:H7 by incorporating a simple colony lift enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with filter monitors and traditional culture methods. Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes (Millipore, Bedford, Mass.) were prewet with methanol and were used to make replicates of every bacterial colony on agar plates or filter monitor membranes that were then reincubated for 15 to 18 h at 36 +/- 1 degree C, during which the colonies not only remained viable but were reestablished. The membranes were dried, blocked with blocking buffer (Kirkegaard and Perry Laboratories [KPL], Gaithersburg, Md.), and exposed for 7 min to an affinity-purified horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-E. coli O157 antibody (KPL). The membranes were washed, exposed to a 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine membrane substrate (TMB; KPL) or aminoethyl carbazole (AEC; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.), rinsed in deionized water, and air dried. Colonies of E. coli O157:H7 were identified by either a blue (via TMB) or a red (via AEC) color reaction. The colored spots on the PVDF lift membrane were then matched to their respective parent colonies on the agar plates or filter monitor membranes. The colony lift immunoassay was tested with a wide range of genera in the family Enterobacteriaceae as well as different serotypes within the E. coli genus. The colony lift immunoassay provided a simple, rapid, and accurate method for confirming the presence of E. coli O157:H7 colonies isolated on filter monitors or spread plates by

  11. 琼脂铸模法制备透射电镜样品%Agar mould method for TEM dispersal specimen preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白焕红; 付洪兰; 马淑芳

    2001-01-01

    本文介绍用琼脂铸模法制备透射电镜样品,如悬浮培养细胞、细菌、蓝藻、原生动物 和花粉等细小分散的生物样品。该技术不但能将这类样品高度浓缩在一个微小的空间内,而 且可简化样品制备步骤,减少样品损失,提高可观察样品的信息量。%In this paper we introduced an agar mould method for preparation of dispe rsal TEM specim en such as culture cell, bacteria, blue alga, protozoa, pollen etc. This method can concentrate dispersal specimen in a tiny space to obtain more information, not only simplified the procedure of specimen preparation, but also reduced specimen loss.

  12. Survival of clonogenic cells of Lewis lung carcinoma forming colonies in agar cultures in diffusion chambers after γ- and γ-neutron (252Cf)-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clonogenic cells forming colonies in agar cultures in diffusion chambers and those isolated from subcutaneously transplanted Lewis lung carcinoma do not differ in their sensitivity to 60Co γ-rays with respect to tumor growth stages. The dose-survival curves for all studied cells are S-shaped with a small shoulder. A cumulative dose-survival curve for malignant clonogenic cells is characterized by the average value of mean lethal dose D0=2.24 Gy and extrapolation number n=2.0. When exposed to γ-neutron-radiation (252Cf) malignant clonogenic cells exhibit a nearly exponential dose-survival curve with D0=0.56 Gy (with respect to a neutron component). The RBE of γ-neutron radiation (252Cf) is 2.5

  13. An investigation of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL infection by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests and hematological applications on the dairy cows in the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kale M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Haematological tests (alfa nafthyl acetate esterase ANAE activity, May Grünwald Giemsa staining and total leucocyte counts were applied to 469 dairy cows, where the enzootic form of bovine leucosis was investigated. In the same 469 dairy cows, a search for antibodies directed against bovine leucosis virus (BLV was carried out using agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID in blood samples and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in milk samples. Among the 469 animals screened, 90 were positive by ELISA and the haematological tests, while 23 were positive by the AGID test. From these results we would advise heavily infected farms to be eliminated. ELISA and haematological methods, in which ANAE activity, May-Grünwald Giemsa staining and total leucocyte counts were used together, were more reliable and sensitive than the AGID test for detecting EBL.

  14. Two-day hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for yeast and mold enumeration in foods using YM-11 agar: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entis, P

    1996-01-01

    Twenty laboratories participated in a collaborative study to validate a 2-day hydrophobic grid membrane filter method using YM-11 agar for enumeration of yeast and mold in foods. Six naturally contaminated food products were included in the study: garlic powder, raw ground beef, walnuts, flour/meal, orange juice, and yogurt. The test method produced significantly higher results than the 5-day pour plate reference method for orange juice and significantly lower, though numerically similar, results for walnuts and yogurt. Differences between the test and reference methods were not significant for garlic powder, raw ground beef, or flour/meal. Repeatability and reproducibility were similar for both the test and reference methods in all cases. The hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for enumeration of yeast and mold in foods has been adopted by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:8823916

  15. Melatonin Protects Human Cells from Clustered DNA Damages, Killing and Acquisition of Soft Agar Growth Induced by X-rays or 970 MeV/n Fe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, B.; Sutherland, B.; Bennett, P. V.; Cutter, N. C.; Sutherland, J. C.

    2011-06-01

    We tested the ability of melatonin (N-acetyl-5 methoxytryptamine), a highly effective radical scavenger and human hormone, to protect DNA in solution and in human cells against induction of complex DNA clusters and biological damage induced by low or high linear energy transfer radiation (100 kVp X-rays, 970 MeV/nucleon Fe ions). Plasmid DNA in solution was treated with increasing concentrations of melatonin (0.0-3.5 mM) and were irradiated with X-rays. Human cells (28SC monocytes) were also irradiated with X-rays and Fe ions with and without 2 mM melatonin. Agarose plugs containing genomic DNA were subjected to Contour Clamped Homogeneous Electrophoretic Field (CHEF) followed by imaging and clustered DNA damages were measured by using Number Average length analysis. Transformation experiments on human primary fibroblast cells using soft agar colony assay were carried out which were irradiated with Fe ions with or without 2 mM melatonin. In plasmid DNA in solution, melatonin reduced the induction of single- and double-strand breaks. Pretreatment of human 28SC cells for 24 h before irradiation with 2 mM melatonin reduced the level of X-ray induced double-strand breaks by {approx}50%, of abasic clustered damages about 40%, and of Fe ion-induced double-strand breaks (41% reduction) and abasic clusters (34% reduction). It decreased transformation to soft agar growth of human primary cells by a factor of 10, but reduced killing by Fe ions only by 20-40%. Melatonin's effective reduction of radiation-induced critical DNA damages, cell killing, and striking decrease of transformation suggest that it is an excellent candidate as a countermeasure against radiation exposure, including radiation exposure to astronaut crews in space travel.

  16. The effect of reuterin on the lag time of single cells of Listeria innocua grown on a solid agar surface at different pH and NaCl concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Metris, A.; Baranyi, J.; Bjorn Budde, B.

    2007-01-01

    The lag time of single cells of Listeria innocua grown on the surface of Brain Heart Infusion Agar was studied by microscopy and image analysis. An experimental set-up that enabled relocation of the cells on the agar surface was developed and used to collect data from 50 to 100 individual cells at....... Reuterin in combination with low pH inhibited the cell division even more efficiently. A similar effect was observed for the combination of reuterin and sodium chloride. Our experimental set-up provides a good model system for generating data on the lag time of single cells on solid surfaces, which can...

  17. Uji Daya Terima Agar-Agar Dadih Susu Kerbau

    OpenAIRE

    Maisyaroh, Yusnina

    2016-01-01

    Dadih Buffalo milk can be utilized in making of gelatin/jelly . This study aims to determine the acceptability of student in elementary school towards Dadih buffalo milk’s gelatin. This study was an experimental research conducted using two treatment. Gelatin with addition of 700 gr dadih buffalo milk and gelatin with addition of 900 gr dadih buffalo milk . Panellists in this research was 24 students in elementary school . Acceptance data test were analyzed by Friedman’s test. This researc...

  18. Comparison of E. Test and Disk Diffusion Agar in Antibiotic Susceptibility of E. coli Isolated from Patients with Urinary Tract Infection in Shariati Hospital (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is one of the most common bacterial infections and E.coli is known to be as an important cause of UTIs. Because bacterial resistances to antibiotics are increasing, therefore a reliable method of antimicrobial resistance detection is important in treatment of UTIs. The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the performance of disk diffusion agar with E.test for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of E.coli isolated from UTI. This study was carried out on 250 isolates of E.coli from patients with UTI in Shariati Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in year 2005. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method (Iranian and Italian for Trimetoprim sulfhamethoxazole, Gentamysin, Ceftazidim, Nitrofurantoin and Ciprofluxacin and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC determination was performed by E.test for the same set of antimicrobial. All tests were performed on Muller Hinton agar. The results of this study show that disk diffusion agar may be used as a preliminary screen for antibiotic susceptibility testing of E.coli and is less sensitive than Italian disk diffusion and E.test. By comparison of 3 above mentioned methods E.test is the most sensitive and shows the effective dose of antibiotic for treatment and prevention of antibiotic resistance. Comparison of E.test with Iranian disk diffusion agar showed paramount differences in antibiotic agreement (max 37.8 % these differences in case of Ceftazidim and Gentamysin were, respectively 76.8 and 62.2% whereas comparison of E.test with Italian disk diffusion agar showed less difference of antibiotics agreement (max 11.2%.

  19. Effect of Antioxidant Mixtures on Growth and Ochratoxin A Production of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species under Different Water Activity Conditions on Peanut Meal Extract Agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Barberis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixtures of antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA and propyl paraben (PP on lag phase, growth rate and ochratoxin A (OTA production by four Aspergillus section Nigri strains was evaluated on peanut meal extract agar (PMEA under different water activities (aw. The antioxidant mixtures used were: BHA + PP (mM, M1 (0.5 + 0.5, M2 (1.0 + 0.5, M3 (2.5 + 0.5, M4 (0.5 + 1.0, M5 (1.0 + 1.0, M6 (2.5 + 1.0, M7 (5.0 + 2.5 and M8 (10 + 2.5. The mixture M8 completely suppressed mycelial growth for all strains. A significant stimulation in OTA production was observed with mixtures M1 to M5 mainly at the highest aw; whereas M6, M7 and M8 completely inhibited OTA production in all strains assayed; except M6 in A. carbonarius strain (RCP G. These results could enable a future intervention strategy to minimize OTA contamination.

  20. Auxofuran, a Novel Metabolite That Stimulates the Growth of Fly Agaric, Is Produced by the Mycorrhiza Helper Bacterium Streptomyces Strain AcH 505†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedlinger, Julia; Schrey, Silvia D.; Tarkka, Mika T.; Hampp, Rüdiger; Kapur, Manmohan; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2006-01-01

    The mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces strain AcH 505 improves mycelial growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi and formation of ectomycorrhizas between Amanita muscaria and spruce but suppresses the growth of plant-pathogenic fungi, suggesting that it produces both fungal growth-stimulating and -suppressing compounds. The dominant fungal-growth-promoting substance produced by strain AcH 505, auxofuran, was isolated, and its effect on the levels of gene expression of A. muscaria was investigated. Auxofuran and its synthetic analogue 7-dehydroxy-auxofuran were most effective at a concentration of 15 μM, and application of these compounds led to increased lipid metabolism-related gene expression. Cocultivation of strain AcH 505 and A. muscaria stimulated auxofuran production by the streptomycete. The antifungal substances produced by strain AcH 505 were identified as the antibiotics WS-5995 B and C. WS-5995 B completely blocked mycelial growth at a concentration of 60 μM and caused a cell stress-related gene expression response in A. muscaria. Characterization of these compounds provides the foundation for molecular analysis of the fungus-bacterium interaction in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between fly agaric and spruce. PMID:16672502

  1. Auxofuran, a novel metabolite that stimulates the growth of fly agaric, is produced by the mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces strain AcH 505.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedlinger, Julia; Schrey, Silvia D; Tarkka, Mika T; Hampp, Rüdiger; Kapur, Manmohan; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2006-05-01

    The mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces strain AcH 505 improves mycelial growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi and formation of ectomycorrhizas between Amanita muscaria and spruce but suppresses the growth of plant-pathogenic fungi, suggesting that it produces both fungal growth-stimulating and -suppressing compounds. The dominant fungal-growth-promoting substance produced by strain AcH 505, auxofuran, was isolated, and its effect on the levels of gene expression of A. muscaria was investigated. Auxofuran and its synthetic analogue 7-dehydroxy-auxofuran were most effective at a concentration of 15 microM, and application of these compounds led to increased lipid metabolism-related gene expression. Cocultivation of strain AcH 505 and A. muscaria stimulated auxofuran production by the streptomycete. The antifungal substances produced by strain AcH 505 were identified as the antibiotics WS-5995 B and C. WS-5995 B completely blocked mycelial growth at a concentration of 60 microM and caused a cell stress-related gene expression response in A. muscaria. Characterization of these compounds provides the foundation for molecular analysis of the fungus-bacterium interaction in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between fly agaric and spruce. PMID:16672502

  2. Equivalence of Colilert-18 and lactose agar TTC Tergitol (ISO 9308-1:2000) by Spanish Water Directive 98/83/CE; Equivalencia entre el Colilert-18 y el agar lactosa Tergitol TTC (ISO 9308) segun la Directiva de Caliad de Aguas 98/83/CE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Using lactose TTc agar with Tergitol (ISO 9308-1:2000) is the method laid down by the European Union for determining coliform bacteria and Escherichia Coli , although it also allows the use of other methods of recognised reliability, for example Colilert-18 of IDEXX Laboratories. This article reports on a comparative study carried out by eleven laboratories to determine the equivalence between the above method and the alternative Colilerti-18 method. The results obtained provide higher values than the ISO benchmark meted (18 versus 72h). This is attributed essentially to the greater sensitivity of the most probable number (MPN) method in regard to liquid media compare to the membrane filter method. Recently, this method has been approved in Spain. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of resistance in a selected field strain of Haemonchus contortus to ivermectin and moxidectin using the Larval Migration on Agar Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Fortes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is one of the most common and economically significant causes of disease in small ruminants worldwide, and the control programs of parasitic nematodes - including H. contortus - rely mostly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. The consequence of the use of this, as the sole sanitary strategy to avoid parasite infections, was the reduction of the efficacy of all chemotherapeutic products with a heavy selection for resistance. The widespread of anthelmintic resistance and the difficulty of its early diagnosis has been a major concern for the sustainable parasite management on farms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the ivermectin (IVM and moxidectin (MOX effect in a selected field strain of H. contortus with a known resistance status, using the in vitro larval migration on agar test (LMAT. Third stage larvae of the selected isolate were obtained from faecal cultures of experimentally infected sheep and incubated in eleven increasing diluted concentrations of IVM and MOX (6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072 and 6144µg/mL. The dose-response sigmoidal curves were obtained using the R² value of >0.90 and the lethal concentration (LC50 dose for the tested anthelmintic drugs using a four-parameter logistic model. The LC50 value for MOX was significantly lower than IVM (1.253µg/mL and 91.06µg/mL, identifying the H. contortus isolate as considerably less susceptible to IVM compared to MOX. Furthermore, the LMAT showed a high consistency (p<0.0001 and provided to be a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring the resistance status of IVM and MOX in H. contortus field isolate, as well as it may be used for official routine drug monitoring programs under the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA guidance.

  4. Bacteria holding times for fecal coliform by mFC agar method and total coliform and Escherichia coli by Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml) − 1 for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert®-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h—a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types.

  5. Reference characterisation of sound speed and attenuation of the IEC agar-based tissue-mimicking material up to a frequency of 60 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Srinath; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Zeqiri, Bajram

    2015-01-01

    To support the development of clinical applications of high-frequency ultrasound, appropriate tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) are required whose acoustic properties have been measured using validated techniques. This paper describes the characterisation of the sound speed (phase velocity) and attenuation coefficient of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) agar-based TMM over the frequency range 1 to 60 MHz. Measurements implemented a broadband through-transmission substitution immersion technique over two overlapping frequency ranges, with co-axially aligned 50 MHz centre-frequency transducers employed for characterisation above 15 MHz. In keeping with usual practice employed within the technical literature, thin acoustic windows (membranes) made of 12-μm-thick Mylar protected the TMM from water damage. Various important sources of uncertainty that could compromise measurement accuracy have been identified and evaluated through a combination of experimental studies and modelling. These include TMM sample thickness, measured both manually and acoustically, and the influence of interfacial losses that, even for thin protective membranes, are significant at the frequencies of interest. In agreement with previous reports, the attenuation coefficient of the IEC TMM exhibited non-linear frequency dependence, particularly above 20 MHz, yielding a value of 0.93 ± 0.04 dB cm(-1) MHz(-1) at 60 MHz, derived at 21 ± 0.5°C. For the first time, phase velocity, measured with an estimated uncertainty of ±3.1 m s(-1), has been found to be dispersive over this extended frequency range, increasing from 1541 m s(-1) at 1 MHz to 1547 m s(-1) at 60 MHz. This work will help standardise acoustic property measurements, and establishes a reference measurement capability for TMMs underpinning clinical applications at elevated frequencies. PMID:25220268

  6. Detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies by agar gel double immunodiffusion and IgG ELISA in feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrs, V R; Ujvari, B; Dhand, N K; Peters, I R; Talbot, J; Johnson, L R; Billen, F; Martin, P; Beatty, J A; Belov, K

    2015-03-01

    Feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis (URTA) is an emerging infectious disease. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the diagnostic value of detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies using an agar gel double immunodiffusion (AGID) assay and an indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA; and (2) to determine if an aspergillin derived from mycelia of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus can be used to detect serum antibodies against cryptic Aspergillus spp. in Aspergillus section Fumigati. Sera from cats with URTA (group 1: n = 21) and two control groups (group 2: cats with other upper respiratory tract diseases, n = 25; group 3: healthy cats and cats with non-respiratory, non-fungal illness, n = 84) were tested. Isolates from cats with URTA comprised A. fumigatus (n = 5), A. flavus (n = 1) and four cryptic species: Aspergillus felis (n = 12), Aspergillus thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri, n = 1), Aspergillus lentulus (n = 1) and Aspergillus udagawae (n = 1). Brachycephalic purebred cats were significantly more likely to develop URTA than other breeds (P = 0.013). The sensitivity (Se) of the AGID was 43% and the specificity (Sp) was 100%. At a cut-off value of 6 ELISA units/mL, the Se of the IgG ELISA was 95.2% and the Sp was 92% and 92.9% for groups 2 and 3 cats, respectively. Aspergillus-specific antibodies against all four cryptic species were detected in one or both assays. Assay Se was not associated with species identity. Detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies by IgG ELISA has high Se and Sp for diagnosis of feline URTA. PMID:25634077

  7. Isolation and Identification Probiotic Candidates Bacteria from Crossbreed Fries Holland (CFH Colostrum That Grown on Nutrient Agar with Olive Oil and Casein Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusnul Khotimah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the research were to isolate the bovine colostrum indigenous bacteria that potent as probiotics with Nutrient Agar (NA as a growth media. Selected isolate expected to develop as anti-pathogen in food spoilage and digestion. Material used including bovine colostrum taking from lactating Crossbreed Fries Holland (CFH 1-3 days after partus which done compositely. Crossbreed Fries Holland colostrum everyday was taken 250 mL at the same time in the morning and afernoon and then stored at the refrigerator. Research done with qualitative method which analyzes descriptively through isolation step cover: instrument sterilization, dilution, morphology observation and pure culture production, then continued with identification step (gram staining, catalase test, oxidase test, low pH, high bile salt and API Test. Result showed that isolation with NA with olive oil addition obtained 10 bacteria (5 Bacillus genus, 3 Micrococcus genus and Staphylococcusgenus. While at the NA with 1% casein addition obtained 12 pure isolate including: 2 Staphylococcus genus, 5 Bacillus genus, 2 Micrococcus genus and each Streptococcus, Enterobacter and Veillonella was found 1. Catalase and oxidase test resulting in two groups that cover Bacillus and Coccus group. Twenty isolate identified as gram positive bacteria, while two genus such as Enterobacter and Veillonella was identified as gram negative bacteria. Gram positive bacteria tested to determine the species using API test and resulting two dominant bacteria species with code Ic8 for Bacillus coagulans species with 93.7% similarity, Ic12 for Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus with 99.1% similarity.

  8. Identification of non-Listeria spp. bacterial isolates yielding a β-D-glucosidase-positive phenotype on Agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Kalamaki, Mary S; Georgiadou, Sofia S

    2015-01-16

    Agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA) is the mandatory medium used for the detection and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in foods according to the official International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods. On ALOA, Listeria spp. appear as bluish-green colonies due to the production of β-D-glucosidase, an enzyme that cleaves 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, a chromogenic substrate included in the formulation of the medium. The present work reports on bacterial isolates (n=64) from ready-to-eat soft cheeses, which are able to grow on ALOA, forming bluish-green colonies and therefore phenotypically resemble Listeria spp. All isolates were also capable of growing on the selective media PALCAM and RAPID L'mono. The isolates were characterised with biochemical tests including those specified in the ISO standards for the confirmation of Listeria spp. and identified via partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. According to sequencing results the isolates represented 12 different bacterial species or species-groups belonging to seven different genera: Bacillus spp. (B. circulans, B. clausii, B. licheniformis and B. oleronius), Cellulosimicrobium spp. (C. funkei), Enterococcus spp. (E. faecalis, E. faecium/durans), Kocuria spp. (K. kristinae), Marinilactibacillus spp. (M. psychrotolerans), Rothia spp. (R. terrae) and Staphylococcus spp. (S. sciuri and S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus/xylosus). Cellulosimicrobium spp. have never been previously isolated from foods. These results significantly extend the list of bacteria previously known as capable of growing on ALOA as bluish-green colonies and suggest that there may be room for further improvement in the medium's inhibitory properties towards non-Listeria spp., Gram-positive bacteria present in foods. PMID:25462931

  9. A cooled water-irrigated intraesophageal balloon to prevent thermal injury during cardiac ablation: experimental study based on an agar phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great deal of current research is directed to finding a way to minimize thermal injury in the esophagus during radiofrequency catheter ablation of the atrium. A recent clinical study employing a cooling intraesophageal balloon reported a reduction of the temperature in the esophageal lumen. However, it could not be determined whether the deeper muscular layer of the esophagus was cooled enough to prevent injury. We built a model based on an agar phantom in order to experimentally study the thermal behavior of this balloon by measuring the temperature not only on the balloon, but also at a hypothetical point between the esophageal lumen and myocardium (2 mm distant). Controlled temperature (55 0C) ablations were conducted for 120 s. The results showed that (1) the cooling balloon provides a reduction in the final temperature reached, both on the balloon surface and at a distance of 2 mm; (2) coolant temperature has a significant effect on the temperature measured at 2 mm from the esophageal lumen (it has a less effect on the temperature measured on the balloon surface) and (3) the pre-cooling period has a significant effect on the temperature measured on the balloon surface (the effect on the temperature measured 2 mm away is small). The results were in good agreement with those obtained in a previous clinical study. The study suggests that the cooling balloon gives thermal protection to the esophagus when a minimum pre-cooling period of 2 min is programmed at a coolant temperature of 5 deg. C or less. (note)

  10. A cooled water-irrigated intraesophageal balloon to prevent thermal injury during cardiac ablation: experimental study based on an agar phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lequerica, Juan L [Cardiac Research Laboratory, Instituto de Biomedicina, Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Valencia (Spain); Berjano, Enrique J [Institute for Research and Innovation on Bioengineering, Valencia Polytechnic University, Valencia (Spain); Herrero, Maria [Cardiac Research Laboratory, Instituto de Biomedicina, Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Valencia (Spain); Melecio, Lemuel [Cardiac Research Laboratory, Instituto de Biomedicina, Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Valencia (Spain); Hornero, Fernando [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Consorcio Hospital General Universitario, Valencia (Spain)

    2008-02-21

    A great deal of current research is directed to finding a way to minimize thermal injury in the esophagus during radiofrequency catheter ablation of the atrium. A recent clinical study employing a cooling intraesophageal balloon reported a reduction of the temperature in the esophageal lumen. However, it could not be determined whether the deeper muscular layer of the esophagus was cooled enough to prevent injury. We built a model based on an agar phantom in order to experimentally study the thermal behavior of this balloon by measuring the temperature not only on the balloon, but also at a hypothetical point between the esophageal lumen and myocardium (2 mm distant). Controlled temperature (55 {sup 0}C) ablations were conducted for 120 s. The results showed that (1) the cooling balloon provides a reduction in the final temperature reached, both on the balloon surface and at a distance of 2 mm; (2) coolant temperature has a significant effect on the temperature measured at 2 mm from the esophageal lumen (it has a less effect on the temperature measured on the balloon surface) and (3) the pre-cooling period has a significant effect on the temperature measured on the balloon surface (the effect on the temperature measured 2 mm away is small). The results were in good agreement with those obtained in a previous clinical study. The study suggests that the cooling balloon gives thermal protection to the esophagus when a minimum pre-cooling period of 2 min is programmed at a coolant temperature of 5 deg. C or less. (note)

  11. Self-diffusion of Co2+ ions in CoBr2, CoI2 and electrolyte-diffusion of ZnSO4 in agar gel medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-diffusion of Co2+ ions in CoBr2 and CoI2 is reported in the concentration range of 10-5 to 0.25 M in 1% agar gel at 25 deg C. The deviations observed between the experimental and theoretical values of diffusion coefficients are explained by considering different types of interactions occurring in the ion-gel water system. The applicability of the transition state theory to the diffusion of ZnSO4 in agar gel medium is tested by varying the temperature as well as the gel concentration at high concentration of the electrolyte. The activation energy E and D0 value decrease with increasing gel concentration in agreement with the theory. (author)

  12. Ultrasonic agar phantom experiment for comparison of the measurement accuracy of tissue elasticity obtained by displacement vector measurement using lateral modulation with multidimensional autocorrelation and Doppler methods and corresponding one-dimensional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Chikayoshi Sumi, Kunio ShimizuDepartment of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Chiyoda, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Comparison of the measurement accuracy of elasticity was performed through agar phantom experiments, ie, two-dimensional (2D strain tensor components and 2D shear modulus reconstruction obtained by previously developed multidimensional displacement vector measurement methods on the basis of autocorrelation and Doppler methods (2D AM and 2D DM and the corresponding 1D methods. The multidimensional methods yield more accurate and stable results than the corresponding 1D methods. As is shown, however, such 1D methods can also be used when the echo signal-to-noise ratio is high, eg, obtainable by previously developed lateral modulation with parabolic apodizations.Keywords: ultrasound, lateral modulation, displacement vector measurement, accuracy, multidimensional methods, one-dimensional methods, tissue elasticity, strain tensor, shear modulus, agar phantom experiment

  13. Prevalence of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) in Mardan, Hangu and Kohat District of Pakistan; Comparative Analysis of PPRV Suspected serum samples using Competitive ELISA (cELISA) and Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID)

    OpenAIRE

    Misbah Aslam; Muhammad Abubakar; Rehana Anjum; Shamim Saleha; and Qurban Ali

    2009-01-01

    Peste des petits Ruminants (PPR) is an acute, febrile, highly contagious and economically important viral disease of small ruminants. However PPR is more prevalent in sheep and goat. Competitive ELISA, Virus neutrilization test, and RT-PCR are the available techniques for diagnosis of PPR which give rapid detection where as Agar gel immunodiffusion and Counter immunoelectrophoresis were previously used for PPR detection. In this study two serological techniques were compared for PPR diagnosis...

  14. Evaluation of Automated BACTEC MGIT 960 System for Testing Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Four Major Antituberculous Drugs: Comparison with the Radiometric BACTEC 460TB Method and the Agar Plate Method of Proportion

    OpenAIRE

    Tortoli, Enrico; Benedetti, Marta; Fontanelli, Alessandra; Simonetti, M. Tullia

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of BACTEC MGIT 960 for automated testing of the susceptibility of 133 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol. The BACTEC MGIT 960 results were compared with those obtained with the radiometric BACTEC 460TB system, and when there was disagreement, the method of proportion on agar plates was used as a reference method. Strains resistant to the critical concentration of streptomycin, isoniazid, or ethambutol were al...

  15. Agar Disk Diffusion and Automated Microbroth Dilution Produce Similar Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Results for Salmonella Serotypes Newport, Typhimurium, and 4,5,12:i-, But Differ in Economic Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelzer, Karin; Cummings, Kevin J.; Warnick, Lorin D.; Ynte H. Schukken; Siler, Julie D.; Gröhn, Yrjo T.; Davis, Margaret A.; Besser, Tom E.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Data generated using different antimicrobial testing methods often have to be combined, but the equivalence of such results is difficult to assess. Here we compared two commonly used antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, automated microbroth dilution and agar disk diffusion, for 8 common drugs, using 222 Salmonella isolates of serotypes Newport, Typhimurium, and 4,5,12:i-, which had been isolated from clinical salmonellosis cases among cattle and humans. Isolate classification corresp...

  16. Comparison of the Baird-Parker agar and 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate methods for enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in naturally and artificially contaminated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Steven C; Becker, Katie L; Fanslau, Melody A

    2003-11-01

    The recently developed 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate (PFSE) method was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual's Baird-Parker agar spread plate (B-P) method for enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in naturally contaminated, mechanically separated poultry (MSP; n = 92) and raw milk (n = 12). In addition, mozzarella and Parmesan cheeses and hot-smoked rainbow trout and chub were surface inoculated with a three-strain mixture of S. aureus, stored at 5 degrees C, and periodically analyzed with both methods for numbers of S. aureus. For naturally contaminated raw milk and MSP samples, the PFSE method yielded counts that were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from counts obtained using the B-P method. From raw milk and MSP samples, 60% (21 of 35) and 55% (124 of 226), respectively, of confirmed (DNAse-positive) isolates from PFSE plates were identified by further testing as S. aureus. Corresponding S. aureus identification rates for isolates forming typical colonies on B-P plates were 53% (19 of 36) and 50% (125 of 248). For both methods, other staphylococci composed the vast majority of tested isolates that were not identified as S. aureus. For inoculated hot-smoked fish, S. aureus counts from the PFSE method were not significantly different from counts from the B-P method. Compared to the B-P method, significantly lower numbers of inoculated S. aureus were recovered using the PFSE method in analyses of mozzarella cheese stored 28 and 42 days at 4 degrees C. The PFSE and B-P methods were not significantly different for inoculated cheeses at all other sampling times. DNAse-positive isolates from PFSE analyses of inoculated cheeses and smoked fish were identified as S. aureus 98% (51 of 52) and 86% (36 of 42) of the time, respectively, as compared with 100% (58 of 58) and 95% (40 of 42) of the time for typical B-P isolates. Overall, the PFSE and B-P methods appeared to perform similarly in enumeration of S

  17. Evaluation of modified CCD agar for isolation of Campylobacter jejuni%空肠弯曲菌分离培养基改良CCD琼脂的性能测试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何天文; 陈佐威; 苏丽春; 蔡芷荷; 吴清平

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较空肠弯曲菌(Campylobacter jejuni)在国内外四个厂家的改良CCD琼脂上生长的灵敏度及回收率.方法:用哥伦比亚血平板作为参照培养基,根据ISO/TS11133.2-2003标准检验方法对空肠弯曲菌分离培养基进行性能测试.结果:样品本底测试显示,在四个厂家培养基中测试的样品均没有检出可疑的空肠弯曲菌,但厂家②对杂菌的抑制能力较差;各厂家的的改良CCD琼脂灵敏度均可达到10 CFU以内;环凯、厂家①、厂家②、OXOID四个厂家的改良CCD琼脂的回收率分别为83.4%、46.4%、32.4%、89.4%,均能达到ISO/TS11133.2-2003标准检验方法的要求.结论:环凯和OXOID的改良CCD琼脂分离空肠弯曲菌的效果无明显差异,但均优于国内其他两个厂家(P<0.05).%Objective:To compare the sensitivity and recovery rates of four media ( modified CCD agar) for isolation of Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: Using the Columbia blood agar as the reference medium, the performance of four different media for isolation of C. jejuni was evaluated according to ISO/TS11133. 2 -2003 in this study. Results; There were no C. jejuni in the samples;The sensitivity of each modified CCD agar was all within 10 CFU. The recovery rates of modified CCD agar from Huankai, brand No. 1, brand No. 2 and Oxiod were 83. 4% ,46. 4% , 32.4% and 89. 4% respectively, all could meet the requirement of ISO/TS11133. 2 - 2003. Conclusion; There were no obvious differences between Huankai and Oxiod modified CCD agar for isolating C. jejuni, and they were better than other two.

  18. Comparative avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts of Cd, Cu and Zn using filter paper and extruded water agar gels as exposure media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuynck, Sylvain; Lebel, Aurélie; Grumiaux, Fabien; Pernin, Céline; Leprêtre, Alain; Lemière, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    We studied the avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards Cd, Cu, and Zn, trace elements (TEs) tested as chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts. Sub adults were exposed individually using dual-cell chambers at 20+2°C in the dark. Recordings were realised at different dates from 2h to 32h. We used filter paper and extruded water agar gel as exposure media to evaluate the contribution of the dermal and the digestive exposure routes on the avoidance reactions. Exposures to Cu or Cd (10mgmetal ionL(-1)) resulted in highly significant avoidance reactions through the exposure duration. Worms avoided Zn poorly and reactions towards Zn salts varied along the exposure. Worm sensitivity towards TEs differed between salts and this could result from differential toxicity or accessibility of these TE salts to earthworms. The anion in itself was not the determinant of the avoidance reactions since exposures to similar concentrations of these anions using calcium salts did not result in significant avoidance worm behaviour. Avoidance responses towards TEs were higher in the case of water agar exposures than in filter paper exposures. Thus, dermal contacts with TE solutions would elicit worm avoidance but signals from receptors located inside the digestive tract could reinforce this behaviour. The use of extruded water agar gels as the substrate allows checking the real sensitivity of earthworm species towards TEs since the TE concentrations leading to significant avoidance reactions were below those reported in the literature when using TE-spiked soils. PMID:26995062

  19. Verification of Thiosulfate-Citrate-Bile Salts-Sucrose (TCBS)Agar Medium Industrial Standard%硫代硫酸盐-柠檬酸盐-胆盐-蔗糖琼脂培养基行业标准验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙楠; 黄杰; 于婷; 孙彬裕; 高尚先; 曲守方

    2014-01-01

    Objective To verify the application of professional standard for Thiosulfate-Citrate-Bile Salts-Sucrose (TCBS)agar medium.Methods TCBS agar medium produced by different factories are obtained for pH value and microbiological grow test according to the formulated medium standard.pH value and solution of medium are determined and bacterial cultures of the control strains are inoculated in the medium to detected bacterial growth.Results pH value and solution of medium were within the specified range. The control strains grew well. Conclusion As the recommended industrial standard, TCBS agar medium standard may be applied to evaluate and supervise the TCBS agar medium quality in our country.%目的:按照修订的硫代硫酸盐-柠檬酸盐-胆盐-蔗糖(TCBS)琼脂培养基行业标准中的要求进行试验,验证该行业标准的适用性。方法取不同厂家生产的TCBS琼脂培养基,根据TCBS琼脂培养基行业标准的要求,进行pH值、水分的测定和微生物生长试验。测定了TCBS琼脂培养基的pH值和水分,并将质控菌株的培养物接种到受试的培养基平皿中进行微生物生长试验。结果TCBS琼脂培养基的pH值和水分均符合行业标准的规定,且各质控菌株生长良好。结论作为推荐性的国家行业标准,TCBS琼脂培养基行业标准可以用于我国该培养基的质量评价和监管工作的需要。

  20. Radiokinetic study on nucleation process of 65Zn(OH)2, 65Zn3(PO4)2 and 51CrPO4 crystals in gelatin and agar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecal, Al; Palamaru, M.; Chisca, S.; Balan, A.

    1999-01-01

    The nucleation process of 65Zn(OH)2, 65Zn3(PO4)2, and 51CrPO4 crystals in gelatin and agar was studied by using radioactive tracers. The diffusion rate, constants for 65Zn2+ and 51Cr3+ cations through gel, and the reaction rate constants of nucleation process as well as the beginning time of crystal appearance were established. It was found that the reaction rate constant of the low-soluble crystal is higher, and consequently, in a given colloidal medium this parameter varies as follows: k * Zn(PO4)2> k * Zn(OH) 2> k * CrPO 4

  1. Clinical evaluation of agar alginate combined impression preparation of fixed partial denture impressions%藻酸盐联合琼脂印模法制取全冠类义齿印模效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of agar alginate combined impression preparation of a fLxed partial denture impressions.Methods 88 cases of patients with fixed partial dentures were divided into experimental group(group A) and control group(group B).Group A of 45 patients with 93 abutments,the legal system to take an impression of agar and alginate combined impression; group B of 43 patients with 80 base,the use of alginate impression preparation of an impression.Were observed with a magnifying glass impression of the type and number of records the number of abutments,impression defects.Results 63(67.8%) of group A were ideal,30(32.2%) had defects,33(41.2%) of group B were ideal,47(58.8%) had defects,there were significant differences(x2 =19.36,19.28,all P < 0.05).At the cervical margin of bubbles,the gingival sulcus and shoulder were not clear,there was significant difference(x2 =10.46,11.25,all P < 0.05).There were no significant difference in tear or defect of the neck at the edge of the two impression.Conclusion Agar and alginate impression of the legal systemcan take an impression of reduced defects,which is worthy of clinical application%目的 探讨藻酸盐联合琼脂印模法制取全冠类义齿印模的临床效果.方法 将88例全冠类义齿患者按数字表法随机分为两组,观察组45例(93颗基牙)采用琼脂和藻酸盐联合印模法制取印模;对照组43例(80颗基牙)采用藻酸盐印模法制取印模.用放大镜观察两组印模,记录基牙数目、印模缺陷类型与数目.结果 观察组93颗基牙中,63牙印模理想(67.8%),30牙(32.2%)存在印模缺陷,其中前牙5颗,后牙25颗;对照组80颗基牙中,33牙印模理想(41.2%),47牙(58.8%)存在印模缺陷,其中前牙8颗,后牙38颗.两种印模法存在的缺陷都主要集中在后牙部分,观察组和对照组印模间基牙缺陷率差异有统计学意义(x2=19.36、19.28,均P<0.05).从缺陷类型及分布情况看,在

  2. Thin agar layer- versus most probable number-PCR to enumerate viable and stressed Escherichia coli O157:H7 and application in a traditional raw milk pasta filata cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Vincenzina; Riccardi, Maria; Quero, Grazia Marina

    2012-09-17

    A mid-log phase broth culture of Escherichia (E.) coli O157:H7 381 (final concentration 10(4) cfu/mL) was monitored by conventional liquid- and solid-based enumeration techniques combined with PCR while it was subjected to thermal stress in gradually more complex systems (i.e., Tryptone Soya Broth, pasteurized milk and during lab-scale productions of a pasta filata fior di latte cheese obtained from raw or pasteurized milk). Our results highlighted: i) the incapability of the selective medium, ii) the effectiveness of the thin agar layer-PCR method, and iii) the effectiveness of the most probable number (MPN)-PCR method (in comparison with both plating-based methods) in recovering and selectively counting viable and stressed or injured E. coli O157:H7. Moreover, MPN-PCR was superior to both plating-based methods in terms of speed and easiness to get results. The thermal stresses herein applied (heating at 55 °C for 5 and 8 min) were less effective on the pasteurized milk than on the Tryptone Soya Broth and the pathogen was more protected in the raw milk-based matrices than in the pasteurized ones. Moreover, given the contamination level (10(4) cfu/mL of milk) of the strain, the temperature/time of stretching and the hardening and brining conditions herein used, the complete inactivation of the pathogen is not achievable. PMID:22906600

  3. Direct comparison of the Ames microplate format (MPF) test in liquid medium with the standard Ames pre-incubation assay on agar plates by use of equivocal to weakly positive test compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flückiger-Isler, Sini; Kamber, Markus

    2012-08-30

    The Ames microplate format (MPF™) test, which uses liquid media and in 384-well microplates with a readout based on a colour-change, has been used for over 10 years at several major pharmaceutical companies for screening the genotoxic potential of early drug candidates when compound supply is minimal. Meanwhile, Xenometrix has adapted this screen from the two-strain Ames II test for use with five tester strains, in compliance with OECD Guideline 471. A set of 15 equivocal to weakly positive chemicals selected from the National Toxicology Program (NTP) database was tested simultaneously in the Ames microplate format (MPF) and the standard Ames pre-incubation method on agar plates. Such a direct comparison of the two test methods with the same overnight culture(s), chemicals and S9-mix preparation should exclude external variability factors. Thirteen of the 15 chemicals showed concordant results in both tests despite the choice of chemicals that showed varying inter- and even intra-laboratory results in the NTP studies. These results indicate that the Ames MPF™ assay is a reliable predictive tool that can be used like the regular Ames test to evaluate compounds for mutagenicity. PMID:22579797

  4. Prevalence of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV in Mardan, Hangu and Kohat District of Pakistan; Comparative Analysis of PPRV Suspected serum samples using Competitive ELISA (cELISA and Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbah Aslam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits Ruminants (PPR is an acute, febrile, highly contagious and economically important viral disease of small ruminants. However PPR is more prevalent in sheep and goat. Competitive ELISA, Virus neutrilization test, and RT-PCR are the available techniques for diagnosis of PPR which give rapid detection where as Agar gel immunodiffusion and Counter immunoelectrophoresis were previously used for PPR detection. In this study two serological techniques were compared for PPR diagnosis. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative sensitivity of both techniques for PPR detection. For this purpose one hundred and sixty PPR suspected serum samples collected from goats and sheep flocks (unvaccinated from three Districts of NWFP including Mardan, Hangu and Kohat were analyzed in National Veterinary Laboratories, Islamabad. Out of these 160 samples, fifty (50 were found positive for PPR antibodies with cELISA (Prevalence = 31.25%. The cELISA positive serum samples however gave negative results when tested with AGID although the control well was always positive. Thus it was concluded that cELISA technique is more sensitive and specific than AGID for PPR antibody detection. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 89-92

  5. MRI phantoms - are there alternatives to agar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hellerbach

    Full Text Available The suitability of different gelling agents as MRI phantoms was evaluated in terms of homogeneity, gel stability and reproducibility. Time and effort for preparation were also taken into account. The relaxation times of various gel compositions were estimated. Carbomer-980 and Carbopol-974P were determined to be promising novel phantom materials. These gelling agents are readily available, inexpensive and easy to handle given that thermal treatment is not required. Furthermore, the viscoelasticity of their polymer network is pH-dependent. With such characteristics, it was even possible to embed sensitive objects and retrieve them after testing. This was demonstrated with a fiber phantom for Diffusion Weighted MRI applications. Since Carbomer-980 and Carbopol-974P are non-hazardous, they are also suitable for multimodal setups (e.g., MRI as well as ultrasonic imaging.

  6. Tuleval aastal algab agar passivahetus / Madis Filippov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Filippov, Madis

    2011-01-01

    Järgmisel aastal tuleb välja vahetada kehtivusaja lõpu tõttu üle poole miljoni passi ja ID-kaardi, järgnevatel aastatel arvud suurenevad. Kodakondsus- ja migratsiooniosakondades plaanitavad muudatused

  7. Evaluation of Brazilian medical devices using agar diffusion cytotoxicity assay Avaliação de dispositivos médicos brasileiros utilizando o ensaio de citotoxicidade pela difusão em ágar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian N. P. Vidal

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, governmental actions and mechanisms created to protect consumer rights have been linked to a growing effort to guarantee the quality and reliability of products. Samples of condoms (latex, medical devices and blood bags (PVC - polyvinyl chloride have been tested using the agar diffusion assay. This assay evaluates the cytotoxicity induced by biomaterials by measuring the biological reactivity of mammalian cell cultures in contact with these materials. PVC is used in the production of medical devices because of its specific properties, such as flexibility, obtained after the addition of plasticizers (phthalates, which can cause toxicity even at low doses. Latex is a natural elastomer used for surgical gloves and condoms with a formulation that includes dispersion of liquid latex and chemicals, such as antioxidants and a vulcanizing accelerator, both of which are able to induce cytotoxicity. Samples were analyzed by the National Institute of Quality Control in Health - INCQS of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz in accordance with the governmental sanitary surveillance actions on respect to the quality control. We observed an increase in the quality of the products in relation to the results of the agar diffusion assay during the period between 2000 and 2007. This situation, together with other actions, reflects in an improvement in the quality of products that can be translated in the health of the population.Durante as últimas décadas, a disseminação de ações governamentais e os mecanismos criados para proteger os direitos dos consumidores se associaram em crescentes esforços para garantir a qualidade e confiabilidade dos produtos. As amostras de preservativos (látex, dispositivos médicos e bolsas de sangue (PVC - cloreto polivinílico foram testadas utilizando o ensaio de difusão em ágar. O teste avalia a citotoxicidade induzida por biomateriais, medindo a reatividade biológica de culturas de células de mam

  8. Novo meio seletivo-indicador para detecção de Aeromonas e Plesiomonas: ágar UNISC New selective indicator medium for detection of Aeromonas and Plesiomonas: UNISC agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Pereira da Rocha

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se um novo meio seletivo-indicador (ágar UNISC para o isolamento de enteropatógenos clássicos e Aeromonas e Plesiomonas shigelloides. A capacidade de fermentação da xilose é indicada pela coloração amarela (fermentadores ou azul (não fermentadores que, aliada à prova da oxidase, constitui-se em indicador para a detecção de Aeromonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides. A produtividade e seletividade, avaliadas pelos índice de contagem absoluta e índice de contagem relativa indicam-no como uma alternativa aos coprocultivos clássicos porque permite, num só meio, o isolamento de Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Salmonella spp, bem como, Aeromonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides, favorecendo o diagnóstico laboratorial das gastroenterites.We evaluated a new selective indicator medium (UNISC Agar for isolation of classical enteropathogens, Aeromonas spp and Plesiomonas shigelloides. The xylose fermentation capacity is indicated by a yellow color (fermenting agents or blue (no fermenting agent. This, together with the oxidase test, establishes it as an indicator for detecting Aeromonas and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Its productivity and selectivity, as assessed using the absolute count index and relative count index, indicate it as an alternative to the classical feces culturing media. This is because, in a single medium, it enables isolation of Escherichia coli, Shigella spp and Salmonella spp, in addition to Aeromonas and Plesiomonas shigelloides, thereby favoring the laboratory diagnosis of gastroenteritis.

  9. Comparison of in vitro activity of five antifungal agents against dermatophytes, using the agar dilution and broth microdilution methods Comparação da atividade in vitro de cinco agentes antifúngicos para dermatófitos, usando os métodos de diluição em ágar e microdiluição em caldo

    OpenAIRE

    Crystiane Rodrigues Araújo Mota; Karla Carvalho Miranda; Janine de Aquino Lemos; Carolina Rodrigues Costa; Souza, Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e; Xisto Sena Passos; Hildene Meneses e Silva; Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the agar dilution and broth microdilution methods for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, griseofulvin and terbinafine for 60 dermatophyte samples belonging to the species Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. The percentage agreement between the two methods, for all the isolates with < 2 dilutions that were tested was 91.6% for ketoconazole and griseofulvi...

  10. Mycelial growth of strains of Pleurotus ostreatus developed on agar and its correlation with the productivity in pilot production farm Crescimento micelial de cepas de Pleurotus ostreatus em ágar e sua correlação com produtividade em cultivo em escala piloto

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sastre-Ahuatzi; M. Téllez-Téllez; G. Díaz-Godínez; A.M. Montiel-González; Díaz, R; C. Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Radial growth rate, intracellular laccases and proteases activities, and protein content were evaluated in five strains of Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on starch-based and glucose-based agar media containing different concentrations of the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). Productivity of the strains in pilot scale cultivation was also determined. The mycelium of four strains had approximately between 0.6- to 3-fold higher protein content when grown on glucose medium containing 0.01 g/L o...

  11. Studies on prevalence of Strongyloides infection in Holambra and Maceió, Brazil, by the agar plate faecal culture method Estudos sobre a prevalência da infecção por Strongyloides em Holambra e em Maceió, Brasil, pelo método de cultura de fezes em placa de ágar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kobayashi

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in three areas of Brazil was surveyed by a recently developed faecal culture method (an agar plate culture. The Strongyloides infection was confirmed in 11.3% of 432 subjects examined. The diagnostic efficacy of the agar plate culture was as high as 93.9% compared to only 28.5% and 26.5% by the Harada-Mori filter paper culture and faecal concentration methods, when faecal samples were examined simultaneously by these three methods. Among the 49 positive samples, about 60% were confirmed to be positive only by the agar plate culture. These results indicate that the agar plate culture is a sensitive new tool for the correct diagnosis of chronic Strongyloides infection.Foi feito levantamento sobre a prevalência da infecção por Strongyloides stercoralis em três áreas do Brasil, através do desenvolvimento de método de cultura de fezes (cultura em placa de ágar. A infecção por Strongyloides foi confirmada em 11,3% de 432 pacientes examinados. A eficácia do diagnóstico pela cultura em placa de ágar foi de 93,9% comparado com apenas 28,5% e 26,5% pelo método de Harada-Mori de cultura em papel de filtro e método de concentração de fezes, quando amostras de fezes foram examinadas simultaneamente por estes três métodos. Entre as 49 amostras positivas, aproximadamente 60% foram confirmadas como positivas somente pela cultura em placa de ágar. Estes resultados indicam que a cultura em placa de ágar é um novo método sensível para o diagnóstico correto da infecção crônica pelo Strongyloides.

  12. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Detection: Comparison of Two Molecular Methods (IDI-MRSA PCR Assay and GenoType MRSA Direct PCR Assay) with Three Selective MRSA Agars (MRSA ID, MRSASelect, and CHROMagar MRSA) for Use with Infection-Control Swabs▿

    OpenAIRE

    van Hal, S. J.; Stark, D; Lockwood, B.; Marriott, D.; Harkness, J.

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an increasing problem. Rapid detection of MRSA-colonized patients has the potential to limit spread of the organism. We evaluated the sensitivities and specificities of MRSA detection by two molecular methods (IDI-MRSA PCR assay and GenoType MRSA Direct PCR assay) and three selective MRSA agars (MRSA ID, MRSASelect, and CHROMagar MRSA), using 205 (101 nasal, 52 groin, and 52 axillary samples) samples from consecutive known MRSA-infected an...

  13. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure

  14. AGAR-AGAR: a high-efficiency narrow-band imager for ELTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresoldi, Daniela; Felletti, Riccardo; Bianco, Andrea; Conconi, Paolo; De Caprio, Vincenzo; Crimi, Giuseppe; Molinari, Emilio; Riva, Alberto; Riva, Marco; Spanò, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; Toso, Giorgio; Zerbi, Filippo M.

    2006-06-01

    The thinking about possible instruments for the future ELTs has just started and the current phase allows to pursue non-traditional solutions. Following the guidelines of the Science Case for an ELT 1,2 our team searched for possible intersections with innovative technologies we currently deal with in our research. We found that Volume Phase Holographic Gratings and advanced dichroics could be suited to design a non-traditional narrow band imager. We propose in this paper a comparative analysis of a VPHG based and a dichroic based configurations for the imager.

  15. A Semi-Selective agar medium to detect the presence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum in naturally infected cotton seed Meio semi-selectivo para detectar a presença de Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum em sementes de algodoeiro naturalmente infetadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant R Mehta

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A semi-selective agar medium was developed for detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum seed. The basic medium was peptone-sucrose-agar (PSA. Criteria for the semi-selective medium were the typical colony characters of Xam and its pathogenicity on cotton. Several systemic fungicides and antibiotics in different concentrations were tested alone or in combination with others. The final composition of the semi-selective agar medium was established after several attempts in order to inhibit most of the fungal and bacterial saprophytes and favour the development of Xam. It contained PSA + cyclohexamide, cephalexin, pencycuron, triadimenol and tolylfluanid. The bacteria were recovered from naturally infected seeds by the direct plating of 2,000 surface disinfected seeds on the semi-selective medium. The recovery of the pathogen from naturally infected leaf tissues and in dilution plating, on semi-selective medium and on nutrient agar, were comparable. Among the three detection methods tested, the semi-selective medium was found to be the most reliable and quantifiable. Degree of severity of angular leaf spot in the field was not always correlated with the level of infection in the seed. This is the first report of a semi-selective agar medium to detect the presence of Xam in naturally infected cotton seed.Um meio de cultura semi-seletivo foi desenvolvido para detectar Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam em sementes do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum. O meio básico foi peptona-sacarose-ágar (PSA. Os critérios para o meio semi-seletivo foram; as características típicas das colônias de Xam e sua patogenicidade em algodoeiro. Vários fungicidas sistêmicos e antibióticos foram testados sozinhos ou em combinação com outros em diferentes concentrações. A composição final do meio semi-seletivo foi estabelecida após várias tentativas no sentido de inibir a maioria dos fungos e bact

  16. Crecimiento y habilidad decolorante potencial de Hyphomycetes (Deuteromycetes de Río Santiago sobre medio agarizado suplementado con cromóforos sintéticos Growth and potential decolorizing ability of Hyphomycetes (Deuteromycetes from Río Santiago on agar medium supplemented with synthetic chromophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Liberto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la capacidad de Dictyosporium triramosum, Minimidochium parvum y Tetraploa aristata, aisladas de materia orgánica colectada en Río Santiago (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, para crecer y decolorar medios agarizados y suplementados con diferentes cromóforos sintéticos al 0,01 % (p v-1. Cristal violeta y verde brillante redujeron el crecimiento de las 3 cepas revelando los mayores porcentajes de inhibición. Mientras que eosina y rosa de bengala no afectaron a D. triramosum, valores superiores al 50 % de inhibición se observaron en M. parvum y T. aristata. Rojo congo y rojo neutral redujeron a D. triramosum y M. parvum en un 12-17 %, pero no a T. aristata. D. triramosum y T. aristata no resultaron afectados por azul de toluidina, mientras M. parvum fue inhibido por el colorante. Rojo de metilo sólo inhibió a M. parvum y T. aristata. Las 3 cepas probadas revelaron capacidad para decolorar el medio suplementado con azul de toluidina y rojo de metilo. D. triramosum decoloró además el medio suplementado con cristal violeta y rojo congo, y T. aristata el medio con cristal violeta y rojo neutral. Ninguno de los hongos estudiados decoloró los medios con eosina, rosa de bengala y verde brillante.The ability of Dictyosporium triramosum, Minimidochium parvum and Tetraploa aristata, isolated from organic matter collected in Río Santiago (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, to grow and decolorize agar media supplemented with different synthetic chromophores at 0.01% (w v-1 was analyzed. Crystal violet and brilliant green reduced the growth of the three strains showing the highest inhibition percentages. While eosin and rose bengal did not affect D. triramosum, growth inhibition values superior to 50 % were observed for M. parvum and T. aristata. Congo red and neutral red inhibited growth of both D. triramosum and M. parvum in a 12-17%, but those dyes did not reduced T. aristata growth. D. triramosum and T. aristata were not affected

  17. Evaluation of asepsis, agar concentration and culture medium composition methods for in vitro propagation of Pimpinella anisum (Linn.) – Apiaceae
    Avaliação de métodos de esterilização, concentração de ágar e composição de meio de cultura para propagação in vitro de Pimpinella anisum (Linn.) – Apiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Tambosi; Gladys Daniela Rogge-Renner

    2010-01-01

    Pimpinella anisum, is a plant species popularly used as treatment for different diseases, although no studies exist which could prove its pharmacological activity. This species has no known methods of asepsis and adequate conditions to conduct in vitro propagation trials. To assess the most efficient method of seed sterilization and the most favorable concentration of agar and MS salts, five tests of asepsis and tests to evaluate the dry mass increase of germinated seed in 3g/L and 6g/L of ag...

  18. EFFICIENCY OF THE ENRICHMENT BROTHES (LEB1 AND LEB2) AND SELECTIVE AGARS (LPM AND LSAB-CAN) TO ISOLATE BACTERIA OF THE GENUS Listeria IN MEAT AND RESIDUAL WATER OF WASHING CARCASS EFICIÊNCIA DOS CALDOS DE ENRIQUECIMENTO (LEB1 E LEB2) E DOS ÁGARES SELETIVOS (LPM E LSAB-CAN) NO ISOLAMENTO DE BACTÉRIAS DO GÊNERO Listeria EM CARNE BOVINA E ÁGUA RESIDUÁRIA DE LAVAGEM DE CARCAÇA

    OpenAIRE

    Albenones José de Mesquita; Sebastião Timo Iaria; Iolanda Aparecida Nunes

    2007-01-01

    In this paper it was observed the efficiency of enrichment brothes for Listeria (LEB1 and LEB2), associated to the passage of the culture through a 0.25% potassium hidroxide solution, verifying that the secondary enrichment broth (LEB2 and LEB2KOH) was better than the primary enrichment broth (LEB1KOH) for this purpose. On the other hand, lithium chloride-phenylethanol-moxalactam agar and the s...

  19. EFFICIENCY OF THE ENRICHMENT BROTHES (LEB1 AND LEB2 AND SELECTIVE AGARS (LPM AND LSAB-CAN TO ISOLATE BACTERIA OF THE GENUS Listeria IN MEAT AND RESIDUAL WATER OF WASHING CARCASS EFICIÊNCIA DOS CALDOS DE ENRIQUECIMENTO (LEB1 E LEB2 E DOS ÁGARES SELETIVOS (LPM E LSAB-CAN NO ISOLAMENTO DE BACTÉRIAS DO GÊNERO Listeria EM CARNE BOVINA E ÁGUA RESIDUÁRIA DE LAVAGEM DE CARCAÇA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In this paper it was observed the efficiency of enrichment brothes for Listeria (LEB1 and LEB2, associated to the passage of the culture through a 0.25% potassium hidroxide solution, verifying that the secondary enrichment broth (LEB2 and LEB2KOH was better than the primary enrichment broth (LEB1KOH for this purpose. On the other hand, lithium chloride-phenylethanol-moxalactam agar and the selective Listeria agar base, supplemented with cicloheximide, acriflavine and nalidixic acid (LSAIB-CAN showed equivalency, at the statistic point of view (p=0.l442, in relation to the number of positive samples for Listeria spp., although the LSAB-CAN agar had given the greatest number of bacteria isolated from this genus.

    KEY-WORDS: Listeria; enrichment broth; selective agar.

    No presente trabalho verificou-se a eficiência dos caldos de enriquecimento para Listeria (LEB1 e LEB 2 associados à passagem da cultura por uma solução de hidróxido de potássio a 0,25%, constatando-se que o caldo de enriquecimento secundário (LEB2 e LEB2KOH foi superior ao caldo de enriquecimento primário (LEB1KOH. Por outro lado, o ágar cloreto de lítio-feniletanol-moxalactam (LPM e o ágar base seletivo para Listeria, suplementado com cicloheximida, acriflavina e ácido nalidíxico (LSAB-CAN equivaleram-se estatisticamente (p= 0,l442 em relação ao número de amostras positivas para Listeria, embora o ágar LSAB-CAN tenha proporcionado um maior número de isolamentos da bactéria.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Caldo de enriquecimento; ágar seletivo; Listeria.

  20. Imunodifusão em gel de ágar com polissacarídeos de membrana de Brucella abortus 1119-3 no diagnóstico da brucelose bovina Membrane polysaccharides of Brucella abortus 1119-3 in agar gel immunodifusion test in diagnosis of bovine brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Megid

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a prova de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA, utilizando extrato polissacarídico (POLI O, obtido da amostra de B. abortus 1119-3, com os testes de soroaglutinação rápida em placa, de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, de antígeno acidificado e de 2-mercaptoetanol para o diagnóstico da brucelose bovina. O IDGA mostrou alta especificidade, porém sensibilidade inferior aos métodos convencionais.An agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test using the polysaccharide (POLIO O extract obtained from Brucella abortus strain 1119-3, was compared to plate agglutination, tube agglutination, rose bengal plate and mercaptoethanol tests in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. The AGID assay with B. aborturs polysaccharide antigens, presented a greater specificity but lower sensitivity for detecting brucellosis infected animals as compared to the conventional methods of antibody detection.

  1. Digital image quantification of siderophores on agar plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Megan Y; Santelli, Cara M; Duckworth, Owen W

    2016-03-01

    This article presents visual image data and detailed methodology for the use of a new method for quantifying the exudation of siderophores during fungal growth. The data include images showing time series for calibration, fungal exudation, and negative controls, as well as replication accuracy information. In addition, we provide detailed protocols for making CAS assay layer plates, the digital analysis protocol for determining area of color change, and discuss growth media that do and do not work with the layer plate method. The results of these data, their interpretation, and further discussion can be found in Andrews et al., 2016 [1]. PMID:26937467

  2. Investigation of polymer electrolyte based on agar and ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to use natural polymer as ionic conducting matrix was investigated in this study. Samples of agarbased electrolytes with different ionic liquids were prepared and characterized by physical and chemical analyses. The ionic liquids used in this work were 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate, [C2mim][C2SO4], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc] and trimethyl-ethanolammonium acetate, [Ch][OAc]. Samples of solvent-free electrolytes were prepared and characterized by ionic conductivity measurements, thermal analysis, electrochemical stability, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. Electrolyte samples are thermally stable up to approximately 190°C. All the materials synthesized are semicrystalline. The electrochemical stability domain of all samples is about 2.0 V versus Li/Li+. The preliminary studies carried out with electrochromic devices (ECDs incorporating optimized compositions have confirmed that these materials may perform as satisfactory multifunctional component layers in the field of ‘smart windows’, as well as ECD-based devices.

  3. Digital image quantification of siderophores on agar plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Y. Andrews

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents visual image data and detailed methodology for the use of a new method for quantifying the exudation of siderophores during fungal growth. The data include images showing time series for calibration, fungal exudation, and negative controls, as well as replication accuracy information. In addition, we provide detailed protocols for making CAS assay layer plates, the digital analysis protocol for determining area of color change, and discuss growth media that do and do not work with the layer plate method. The results of these data, their interpretation, and further discussion can be found in Andrews et al., 2016 [1].

  4. Detection of bacterioplankton in immersed cadavers using selective agar plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Eiji; Kozawa, Shuji; Tashiro, Noriko; Sakai, Masahiro; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2009-04-01

    We measured bacterioplankton in blood from cadavers retrieved from the sea (n=12), near estuaries (n=4), rivers (fresh water, n=8) and from bathtubs (n=4) as well as from non-drowned victims (n=10) discovered near aquatic environments. Blood from 11 victims drowned in seawater developed bioluminescent and/or blue colonies (oxidase test positive) on selective media containing 2-4% NaCl. Homology analyses of the 16S rRNA gene showed that all of them were marine bacteria (genera: Photobacterium, Vibrio, Shewanella, Psychrobacter). Blood from all victims drowned in rivers generated blue colonies on plates containing 3%, but not 4% NaCl. Homology analyses showed that the blue colonies were generated from bacteria that inhabit fresh water (Aeromonas). None of the blood samples from victims that drowned in bathtubs generated bioluminescent and blue colonies. However, all cadavers contained bacteria that produced unstained colonies (Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, etc.). Among non-drowned victims, blood from two gave rise to blue colonies on plates containing Aeromonas; unstained colonies, Citrobacter, Vagococcus, Proteus, Enterobacter). These results suggested that the presence of numerous bacterioplankton in immersed cadavers could support a conclusion of death by drowning. PMID:19261520

  5. Mupirocin-mucin agar for selective enumeration of Bifidobacterium bifidum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, R.; Rada, V.; Parafati, L.; Musilová, S.; Bunešová, V.; Vlková, E.; Killer, Jiří; Mrázek, Jakub; Kmeť, V.; Svejštil, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 191, č. 1 (2014), s. 32-35. ISSN 0168-1605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : probiotic s * Bifidobacterium bifidum * selective enumeration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2014

  6. Comparison of in vitro activity of five antifungal agents against dermatophytes, using the agar dilution and broth microdilution methods Comparação da atividade in vitro de cinco agentes antifúngicos para dermatófitos, usando os métodos de diluição em ágar e microdiluição em caldo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystiane Rodrigues Araújo Mota

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the agar dilution and broth microdilution methods for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, griseofulvin and terbinafine for 60 dermatophyte samples belonging to the species Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. The percentage agreement between the two methods, for all the isolates with O propósito do presente trabalho foi comparar os métodos de diluição em ágar e diluição em caldo para a determinação de concentração inibitória mínima de fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol, griseofulvina e terbinafina para 60 amostras de dermatófitos pertencentes às espécies, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton. mentagrophytes e Microsporum canis. A porcentagem de acordo entre os dois métodos para todos os isolados testados considerando-se valores < 2 diluições, foram de 91,6% para cetoconazol e para griseofulvina, de 88,3% para itraconazol, de 81,6% para terbinafina e de 73,3% para fluconazol. Uma concordância de 100% foi obtido para isolados de Trichophyton mentagrophytes avaliados com cetoconazol e griseofulvina. Desta forma, até que um método de referência seja padronizado para testar a suscetibilidade in vitro para os dermatófitos, os resultados semelhantes encontrados para os dois métodos fazem com que o método de diluição em ágar possa ser útil no teste de suscetibilidade para estes fungos filamentosos.

  7. Rapid serum agglutination and agar gel immunodiffusion tests associated to clinical signs in rams experimentally infected with Brucella ovis Teste de soro aglutinação rápida e do teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar associados aos sinais clínicos em carneiros infectados experimentalmente com Brucella ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Nakada Nozaki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agar gel immunodiffusion and the rapid serum agglutination tests associated to clinical signs in rams experimentally infected with Brucella ovis. The serological profile during the 12 months of infection showed a large fluctuation of antibodies that favors the failure in the diagnostic. The evaluation of tests after the experimental infection allowed to suggest that none of the tests were able to detect the infection throughout the period of study. The study reinforces the importance of considering the clinical signs to support the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in rams.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o uso do teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar e o teste sorológico de aglutinação rápida comparados aos sinais clínicos em carneiros infectados experimentalmente com Brucella ovis para o diagnóstico confirmatório da brucelose ovina. O perfil sorológico durante os 12 meses pós-infecção mostrou flutuação da resposta por anticorpos, que favorece a falha no diagnóstico. A avaliação dos testes indicou que nenhum dos testes foi capaz de detectar a infecção durante todo o período de estudo. O estudo ressalta a importância de considerar os sinais clínicos para apoiar o diagnóstico confirmatório da infecção por Brucella ovis em carneiros.

  8. Evaluation of asepsis, agar concentration and culture medium composition methods for in vitro propagation of Pimpinella anisum (Linn. – Apiaceae Avaliação de métodos de esterilização, concentração de ágar e composição de meio de cultura para propagação in vitro de Pimpinella anisum (Linn. – Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tambosi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pimpinella anisum, is a plant species popularly used as treatment for different diseases, although no studies exist which could prove its pharmacological activity. This species has no known methods of asepsis and adequate conditions to conduct in vitro propagation trials. To assess the most efficient method of seed sterilization and the most favorable concentration of agar and MS salts, five tests of asepsis and tests to evaluate the dry mass increase of germinated seed in 3g/L and 6g/L of agar and MS in concentrations of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, were carried out. The samples that were immersed in a concentration of 2% sodium hypochlorite for 20 minutes and then washed in distilled water produced 100% of sterile plantlets. The greatest increase in dry mass was obtained with 75% and 100% of MS salts. Furthermore, the different concentrations of agar did not influence the percentage of the plantlets dry mass. Pimpinella anisum é uma planta popularmente utilizada como medicinal para diversas enfermidades, embora não existam estudos que comprovem sua atividade farmacológica. A espécie não apresenta metodologias conhecidas de assepsia e condições adequadas para experimentos de propagação in vitro. Para avaliar a forma mais eficiente de esterilização de sementes da espécie e melhores concentrações de ágar e sais do meio MS, foram feitos cinco testes de assepsia, bem como testes de avaliação do aumento de massa seca a partir de sementes germinadas em ágar 3g/L e 6g/L e MS nas concentrações 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100%. A imersão em solução hipoclorito de sódio 2% por 20 minutos e lavagem em água destilada promoveu 100% de plântulas estéreis. O maior aumento de massa seca foi obtido com concentração de sais do meio MS de 75% e 100%, e as diferentes concentrações de ágar não influenciaram a obtenção de maior percentual de massa de plântulas cultivadas.

  9. Comparação entre os métodos rápidos SimplateR TPC- CI e PetrifilmR AC e os métodos convencionais de contagem em placas para a enumeração de aeróbios mesófilos em sorvetes Comparasion of SimplateR test and Petrifilm with plate count agar method for detection and enumeration of bacteria in ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Souza Sant'ana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A contagem de aeróbios mesófilos ou contagem padrão em placas em um produto alimentício reflete a qualidade da matéria-prima, bem como as condições de processamento, manuseio e estocagem. O método de contagem em placas tradicionais requer 48h de incubação para a posterior leitura dos resultados. Comparou-se dois métodos que parecem ser uma boa alternativa para a contagem padrão em placas: SimplateR TPC-CI e PetrifilmR AC. Também avaliou-se a capacidade inibitória do 2, 3, 5 cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio quando adicionado ao Agar Plate Count. Este corante é incolor na forma oxidada e vermelho quando reduzido pelos microrganismos, devido à formação de formazano. O coe-ficiente de correlação obtido, através de estudos conduzidos com 60 amostras de sorvetes, entre 0,866-0,979 indicou uma equivalente sensibilidade dos métodos testados. Somente a contagem padrão em placas com TTC diferiu signicativamente da contagem padrão em placas.The mesophilic aerobic plate count or standard plate count (SPC of fresh food product reflects conditions of raw product quality, processing, handling and storage. Current standard methods require a 48h incubation period to obtain the results. Two rapid alterantive methods: SimplateTM TPC-CI and PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC Plate were compared to standard methods. Also, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of 2, 3, 5 triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC when added to Plate Count Agar. This dye is colorless in the oxidized form and red when reduced by microorganisms, due to the formation of formazan. Sixty ice cream samples were used in this study to obtain correlation coefficients, which ranged from 0.866-0.979, indicating equivalent sensitivities to existing methods. Only plate count with TTC differed significantly from the standard plate count.

  10. Evaluation of resistance in a selected field strain of Haemonchus contortus to ivermectin and moxidectin using the Larval Migration on Agar Test Avaliação da resistência em um isolado de campo selecionado de Haemonchus contortus à ivermectina e moxidectina usando o Teste de Migração de Larvas em Ágar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Fortes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is one of the most common and economically significant causes of disease in small ruminants worldwide, and the control programs of parasitic nematodes - including H. contortus - rely mostly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. The consequence of the use of this, as the sole sanitary strategy to avoid parasite infections, was the reduction of the efficacy of all chemotherapeutic products with a heavy selection for resistance. The widespread of anthelmintic resistance and the difficulty of its early diagnosis has been a major concern for the sustainable parasite management on farms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the ivermectin (IVM and moxidectin (MOX effect in a selected field strain of H. contortus with a known resistance status, using the in vitro larval migration on agar test (LMAT. Third stage larvae of the selected isolate were obtained from faecal cultures of experimentally infected sheep and incubated in eleven increasing diluted concentrations of IVM and MOX (6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072 and 6144µg/mL. The dose-response sigmoidal curves were obtained using the R² value of >0.90 and the lethal concentration (LC50 dose for the tested anthelmintic drugs using a four-parameter logistic model. The LC50 value for MOX was significantly lower than IVM (1.253µg/mL and 91.06µg/mL, identifying the H. contortus isolate as considerably less susceptible to IVM compared to MOX. Furthermore, the LMAT showed a high consistency (pHaemonchus contortus é uma das causas mais comuns e economicamente significativas de doença em produções de pequenos ruminantes em todo o mundo, e os programas de controle de parasitas nematoides - incluindo H. contortus - baseiam-se principalmente no uso de drogas anti-helmínticas. A consequência da utilização desses compostos, como sendo a única estratégia sanitária para evitar infecções por parasitas, tem sido a redução da eficácia de todos os

  11. Pengaruh Minyak Nilam (Oleum pogostemon) Terhadap Ketahanan Wangi Minyak Lavender (Oleum lavandulae) Dalam Sediaan Gel Pengharum Ruangan Memakai Basis Gel Campuran Agar agar dan Xanthan gum

    OpenAIRE

    Nasarah, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air freshener consists of two types; synthetic and natural. The use of synthetic air freshener has a negative impact on human health and environment. It also has a sharper fragrance that can cause dizziness, whereas natural air freshener has a softer fragrance hence it is more comfortable to use. Objective: To determine whether gelatin and xanthan gum gel base can be made into a gel form, and to determine whether patchouli oil can hold the fragrance of lavender in gel air fresh...

  12. An Agar Medium Designed for Pyrazinamide Susceptibility Testing Of the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strains

    OpenAIRE

    M Najafi Mosleh; K Ghazisaeedi; P. Farnia; F. Mohammadi; AA Velayati

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important front-line antituberculosis agent. This drug plays a unique role in shortening the therapy, besides of metabolically active and replicating bacilli; it kills a population of semi-dormant organisms that are not killed by other first-line antituberculosis drugs. The activity of PZA correlates with the acidity of the medium, being most active at PH 5.5 less active at PH 6 and inactive at neutral PH. The problem is that such an acidic environment is ...

  13. UV-C Inactivation of Francisella tularensis Utah-112 on agar surfaces, stainless steel, and foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisella tularensis has been identified as a microorganism of concern in the field of food security. There is currently very little information on the ability to inactivate F. tularensis on foods using non-thermal processing technologies. The ability of ultraviolet light (UV-C) to inactivate F....

  14. Phenotypic differentiation of species from Aspergillus section Flavi on neutral red desiccated coconut agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atanda, O. O.; Adetunji, M. C.; Ezekiel, C. N.;

    2014-01-01

    isolates produced aflatoxins in the culture medium in varying quantities. Plates of aflatoxigenic A. flavus L strains fluoresced bluish purple/lavender around the colony on the obverse and pastel blue on the reverse side due to aflatoxin B production while those of A. minisclerotigenes, A. parasiticus...

  15. STUDIES ON THE USE OF AMPICILLIN-DEXTRIN AGAR ASAS AEROMONAS RECOVERY MEDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) includes the unregulated chemical and microbiological contaminants the EPA has identified as possibly posing a significant public risk to consumers if present in drinking water (1). There are three bacterial species listed in the CCL (Aeromon...

  16. Multicenter Investigation of Gepotidacin (GSK2140944) Agar Dilution Quality Control Determinations for Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Fedler, Kelley A; Scangarella-Oman, Nicole E; Ross, James E; Flamm, Robert K

    2016-07-01

    Gepotidacin, a novel triazaacenaphthylene antibacterial agent, is the first in a new class of type IIA topoisomerase inhibitors with activity against many biothreat and conventional pathogens, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae To assist ongoing clinical studies of gepotidacin to treat gonorrhea, a multilaboratory quality assurance investigation determined the reference organism (N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226) quality control MIC range to be 0.25 to 1 μg/ml (88.8% of gepotidacin MIC results at the 0.5 μg/ml mode). PMID:27161642

  17. Beringian origins and cryptic speciation events in the fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, J; Laursen, G A; O'neill, K; Nusbaum, H C; Taylor, D L

    2006-01-01

    Amanita muscaria sensu lato has a wide geographic distribution, occurring in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and North, Central and South America. Previous phylogenetic work by others indicates three geographic clades (i.e. 'Eurasian', 'Eurasian-alpine' and 'North American' groups) within A. muscaria. However, the historical dispersal patterns of A. muscaria remained unclear. In our project, we collected specimens from arctic, boreal and humid temperate regions in Alaska, and generated DNA sequence data from the protein-coding beta-tubulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) regions of the ribosomal DNA repeat. Homologous sequences from additional A. muscaria isolates were downloaded from GenBank. We conducted phylogenetic and nested clade analyses (NCA) to reveal the phylogeographic history of the species complex. Although phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of the three above-mentioned clades, representatives of all three groups were found to occur sympatrically in Alaska, suggesting that they represent cryptic phylogenetic species with partially overlapping geographic distributions rather than being allopatric populations. All phylogenetic species share at least two morphological varieties with other species, suggesting ancestral polymorphism in pileus and wart colour pre-dating their speciations. The ancestral population of A. muscaria likely evolved in the Siberian-Beringian region and underwent fragmentation as inferred from NCA and the coalescent analyses. The data suggest that these populations later evolved into species, expanded their range in North America and Eurasia. In addition to range expansions, populations of all three species remained in Beringia and adapted to the cooling climate. PMID:16367842

  18. Colistin-oxolinic acid blood agar: a selective medium for the isolation of Gardnerella vaginalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Colistin-oxolinic acid medium is proposed as a selective isolation medium for Gardnerella vaginalis. The medium is effective in inhibiting staphylococci and gram-negative bacteria while allowing growth of G. vaginalis.

  19. Comparison of Excretory-Secretory and Somatic Antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in Agar Gel Diffusion Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miranzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ornithobilharziosis as one of the parasitic infections may give rise to serious economic problems in animal husbandry. The Aim of the study was to prepare and compare the somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens of O. tur­kestanicum in gel diffusion test. Methods: Excretory-secretory (ES and somatic antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum were prepared from collected worms from mesentric blood vessels of infected sheep. The laboratory bred rabbits were immunized with antigens and then antisera were prepared. The reaction of antigens and antisera was observed in gel diffusion test. Results: ES antigens of this species showed positive reaction with antisera raised against ES and also somatic antigens. Somatic antigens also showed positive reaction with antisera raised against somatic and also ES antigens. Conclusion: The antigenicity of O. turkestanicum ES and somatic antigens is the same in gel diffusion test.

  20. Drug testing using a soft agar stem cell assay on patient and xenograft tumor material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1981 the authors have received 50 tumor samples from 10 different sites; over half were breast or ovary. Of the 27 that were considered suitable for cloning, 11 produced colony formation and 6 of these were drug tested. One ovarian granulosa cell tumor and its xenograft (V7) were tested against several cytotoxic agents. During a period of 16 months, sensitivity to cisplatin was relatively stable but sensitivity to vinblastine was markedly changed when the original tumor cells and original cells stored in liquid nitrogen were compared with xenograft cells. Gross histology of original tumor and xenograft were similar. Chemosensitization in vivo of a breast xenograft (Hx99) to melphalan by misonidazole was investigated. Misonidazole at a total dose of 0.5 g/kg given prior to melphalan (14 mg/kg) was an effective chemosensitizer

  1. Susceptibility testing of Propionibacterium acnes comparing agar dilution with E test.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M.A.; Alperstein, P; France, K.; Vellozzi, E M; Isenberg, H D

    1996-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been identified as a significant agent of nosocomial infections, including endophthalmitis. Data concerning susceptibility of P. acnes to newer beta-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones are limited. Recent reports suggest that quinolones have activity against these organisms sufficient to warrant further study. We undertook a study to select appropriate antimicrobial agents for use in a rabbit model of P. acnes endophthalmitis. We compared the antibiotic suscept...

  2. Teaduspargist võrsub eriti agar gasell / Ain Alvela ; kommenteerinud Seren Eilmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alvela, Ain, 1967-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna tehnoloogiapargi Tehnopol ja Tartu teaduspargi ettevõtlusinkubaatorid pakuvad ettevõtluskeskkonda kiiret arengut taotlevatele ettevõtetele. Tehnopolis on gaselli staatuse saanud 22 firmat, Tartu teaduspargis 13 firmat. AS-ist Proekspert, OÜ-st Interfire. Tabel

  3. Agar pronkssõduriga võitleja sai kanepisuitsetamise eest trahvi / Katrin Rohtla, Siim Randla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rohtla, Katrin, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Aktiivse pronkssõduri vastasena tuntust kogunud Isamaaliidu liige Kalev Rebane sai Läänemaal Peraküla rannas kanepi suitsetamise eest politseilt 9000 krooni trahvi. Isamaa ja Res Publica Liidu liikmed on teinud ettepaneku noormees erakonnast välja arvata. Lisa: Mille eest koostati protokoll?

  4. Upaya Optimalisasi Penghematan Subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (BBM Agar Tepat Sasaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janita Sembiring Meliala

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsidized fuel consumption continues to increase from year to year also put pressure on the state budget so that it becomes increasingly severe. This is caused by the government's energy policy tends to be adaptive and short-term oriented (myopic, so the government pays little attention to aspects of long-term autonomy of the Indonesian economy. Subsidy in the 2011 budget amounted to 33.42% of the total expenditure budget, 86% subsidy is used for energy subsidies and 64.6% the largest share of subsidies. The biggest users of fuel subsidy, is land transportation, with the classification of private vehicles, so it can be said that the subsidy is not received by the appropriate require. Related to this, the challenges that must be faced is the obligation to make a breakthrough in order to encourage domestic savings in fuel consumption and diversification in the use of non-fuel energy sources. There are three policy options as an effort to optimize the fuel subsidy savings. First, restrictions on the use of the fuel subsidy program, unfortunately the prospects of success of this policy is not good considering unprepared infrastructure and the emerging moral hazard. Second, the increase in fuel prices, the authors recommend the price increase to Rp 2000, - taking into account the effects of inflation, and financial savings, for the welfare of the people. Third, the use of CNG and new products from the fuel, this policy option can be run in the long run because it requires a longer preparation in building infrastructure.

  5. Radiosensitivity of Ehrlich ascites tumor clonogenic cells forming colonies in agar cultures in diffuse chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the dependence of survival of Ehrlich ascites tumor clonogenic cells on the 3d and 7th days following inoculation upon radiation dose (60Co-γ-rays) delivered under well oxygenated in vitro conditions. No differences were detected in radiosensitivity of 3- and 7-day Ehrlich ascites tumor cells: in both cases, the ''dose - effect'' curves were S-shaped with a small shoulder and close D0 values

  6. An Agar-Based Method for Plating Marine Protozoan Parasites of the Genus Perkinsus

    OpenAIRE

    Cold, Emma R.; Freyria, Nastasia J.; Joaquín Martínez Martínez; Fernández Robledo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects o...

  7. Isolation on Chocolate Agar Culture of Legionella pneumophila Isolates from Subcutaneous Abscesses in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalie, Laurent; Daviller, Benjamin; Dubois, Damien; Mantion, Benoît; Delobel, Pierre; Debard, Alexa; Prere, Marie-Françoise; Marchou, Bruno; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous infections due to Legionella species have rarely been reported (L. J. Padrnos, J. E. Blair, S. Kusne, D. J. DiCaudo, and J. R. Mikhael, Transpl Infect Dis 16:307–314, 2014; P. W. Lowry, R. J. Blankenship, W. Gridley, N. J. Troup, and L. S. Tompkins, N Engl J Med 324:109–113, 1991; M. K. Waldor, B. Wilson, and M. Swartz, Clin Infect Dis 16:51–53, 1993). Here we report the identification of Legionella pneumophila isolates, from subcutaneous abscesses in an immunocompromised patient, that grew in an unusual medium for Legionella bacteria. PMID:26292305

  8. DETECTION OF BACTERIAL CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES FROM WATER-DAMAGED CEILING TILE MATERIAL FOLLOWING INCUBATION ON BLOOD AGAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples of ceiling tiles with high levels of bacteria exhibited cytotoxic activities on a HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Ceiling tiles containing low levels of bacterial colonization did not show cytotoxic activities on the HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Using a spread plate procedure ...

  9. Modification of the bile salts-Irgasan-brilliant green agar for enumeration of Aeromonas species from food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyts, K; Notebaert, E; Uyttendaele, M; Debevere, J

    2000-06-15

    The present study evaluated the productivity of BIBG medium for the isolation of Aeromonas spp. from food and describes a modification of the BIBG medium (mBIBG) (increased pH (8.7), replacement of xylose by soluble starch as a carbon source, decreased concentration of bile salts) to increase its selectivity and electivity. Using the mBIBG medium, growth of the majority of the Enterobacteriaceae (9/10) was suppressed except for Citrobacter freundii. The mBIBG medium supported growth of Pseudomonas species but a clear distinction between Aeromonas and Pseudomonas colonies could be made. Interpretation of the mBIBG medium should be performed after 24 h of incubation. It was noted that three of the 27 Aeromonas strains tested did not develop on the mBIBG medium. The ability or inability to grow on a selective medium is strain-dependent. Enumeration of Aeromonas species (A. hydrophila LMG 3771, A. caviae LMG 3775, A. veronii biovar veronii LMG 9075, A. veronii biovar sobria LMG 13071) from artificially contaminated foods (shrimp, minced meat (beef/pork), precut leek, and shredded carrots) confirmed that the mBIBG medium is suitable for quantitative recovery of aeromonads (ca. 10(2)-10(7) cfu/g) in the presence of a high background flora (10(5)-10(6) cfu/g). Screening of naturally contaminated foods (vegetables, seafood, meat) for the presence of Aeromonas resulted in three out of 14 food samples showing presumptive Aeromonas colonies on mBIBG. PMID:10868682

  10. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  11. Conventional and microwave pyrolysis of a macroalgae waste from the Agar–Agar industry. Prospects for bio-fuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrera Lorenzo, Nuria; Fuente Alonso, Enrique; Bermúdez Menéndez, José Miguel; Suárez Ruiz, Isabel; Ruiz Bobes, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    [EN] A comparative study of the pyrolysis of a macroalgae industrial solid waste (algae meal) in an electrical conventional furnace and in a microwave furnace has been carried out. It was found that the chars obtained from both pyrolyses are similar and show good properties for performing as a solid bio-fuel and as a precursor of activated carbon. Bio-oils from conventional pyrolysis have a greater number of phenolic, pyrrole and alkane compounds whereas benzene and pyridine compounds are mor...

  12. Potato Dextrose Agar Antifungal Susceptibility Testing for Yeasts and Molds: Evaluation of Phosphate Effect on Antifungal Activity of CMT-3

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu; Tortora, George; Ryan, Maria E.; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Lorne M. Golub

    2002-01-01

    The broth macrodilution method (BMM) for antifungal susceptibility testing, approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), was found to have deficiencies in testing of the antifungal activity of a new type of antifungal agent, a nonantibacterial chemically modified tetracycline (CMT-3). The high content of phosphate in the medium was found to greatly increase the MICs of CMT-3. To avoid the interference of phosphate in the test, a new method using potato dextros...

  13. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg−1 d−1), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg−1 d−1) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg−1 d−1) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed ...

  14. Triclosan in Campy-Cefex Agar to aid in Enumeration of Naturally Occurring Campylobacter spp. in Broiler Ceca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detecting and enumerating Campylobacter from poultry samples can be difficult without highly selective media because of competing microflora. We have found that adding 0.1 µg/ mL of Triclosan, an antibacterial agent, to Bolton enrichment broth prevents overgrowth of non-Campylobacter bacteria and si...

  15. Laboratory Detection of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: Evaluation of Two Screening Agar Plates and Two Confirmation Techniques▿

    OpenAIRE

    Overdevest, I. T. M. A.; Willemsen, I; Elberts, S.; Verhulst, C; Kluijtmans, J.A.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is increasing, making the need for optimized detection techniques more urgent. In this study we investigated the performance of two ESBL-E screening and two ESBL-E confirmation techniques. In accordance with the Dutch national guidelines (www.wip.nl), a collection of 642 highly resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains, as identified by Vitek2, was used to test the performances of two ...

  16. Comparision of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Agar Gel Immunodiffusion test in Detection of MarekAND#8217;s Disease Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manicavasaka Dinakaran

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to identify Marek’s disease virus (MDV antigen by PCR and AGID and to test the significance of PCR and AGID by McNemar’s test in detection of MDV antigen in outbreak in layer flocks. A total of twelve different MD outbreak flocks with varying flock size were selected in this study. Feather follicles were collected from 10 apparently healthy birds, 10 clinically affected birds and 10 dead birds separately in each outbreak. All the samples were subjected to PCR and AGID. In PCR, 42 (35.00%, 68 (56.67% and 106 (88.33% samples were positive to MDV in apparently healthy birds, clinically affected birds and dead birds respectively and in AGID 28 (23.33%, 56 (46.67% and 98 (81.67% samples were positive to MDV in apparently healthy birds, clinically affected birds and dead birds respectively. In testing the significance of PCR and AGID in detecting MDV, significant difference existed between the two tests in feather tips of apparently healthy birds (P < 0.05, whereas there was no significant difference between PCR and AGID in detection of MDV in feather tips of clinically affected and dead birds (P > 0.05. Hence, PCR can be used to screen MDV in apparently healthy birds and AGID can be used to screen MDV in clinically affected and dead birds keeping feasibility and economic consideration. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 212-214

  17. The antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis: A review on agar diffusion and direct contact methods

    OpenAIRE

    Luddin, Norhayati; Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly

    2013-01-01

    Complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system are fundamental requirements for successful endodontic treatment. Despite the morphological challenges of the internal root anatomy, root canal irrigants play an important role in the optimization of the root canal preparation, which is essentially a chemo-mechanical procedure. Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most resistant microorganisms that dominants the microbial ecosystem of persistent periradicular lesions in retreatment...

  18. Identification of Brucella by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. Fast and Reliable Identification from Agar Plates and Blood Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Laura; Vega Castaño, Silvia; Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; González-Cabrero, Sandra; Menegotto, Fabiola; Orduña-Domingo, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Background MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) is a reliable method for bacteria identification. Some databases used for this purpose lack reference profiles for Brucella species, which is still an important pathogen in wide areas around the world. We report the creation of profiles for MALDI-TOF Biotyper 2.0 database (Bruker Daltonics, Germany) and their usefulness for identifying brucellae from culture plates and blood cultures. Methodology/Principal Findings We created MALDI Biotyper 2.0 profiles for type strains belonging to B. melitensis biotypes 1, 2 and 3; B. abortus biotypes 1, 2, 5 and 9; B. suis, B. canis, B ceti and B. pinnipedialis. Then, 131 clinical isolates grown on plate cultures were used in triplicate to check identification. Identification at genus level was always correct, although in most cases the three replicates reported different identification at species level. Simulated blood cultures were performed with type strains belonging to the main human pathogenic species (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis and B. canis), and studied by MALDI-TOF MS in triplicate. Identification at genus level was always correct. Conclusions/Significance MALDI-TOF MS is reliable for Brucella identification to the genus level from culture plates and directly from blood culture bottles. PMID:21151913

  19. Relevance of in vitro agar based screens to characterize the anti-fungal activities of bacterial endophyte communities

    OpenAIRE

    Shehata, Hanan R.; Lyons, Eric M.; Jordan, Katerina S.; Raizada, Manish N

    2016-01-01

    Background Endophytes are microbes that inhabit internal plant tissues without causing disease. Plant microbial communities consist of large numbers of endophyte species. Understanding the functions of these endophytes is a major challenge. An important function of some endophytes is to suppress fungal pathogens. Typically, plant associated microbes are screened for anti-fungal activities in vitro using the high-throughput dual culture screen, but it is not clear whether this method correlate...

  20. Comparision of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Agar Gel Immunodiffusion test in Detection of MarekAND#8217;s Disease Virus

    OpenAIRE

    A. Manicavasaka Dinakaran; G. Selvaraju; Jayalakshmi, K.; T.R. Gopalakrishna Murthy; M. Geetha and S. Saravanan

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify Marek’s disease virus (MDV) antigen by PCR and AGID and to test the significance of PCR and AGID by McNemar’s test in detection of MDV antigen in outbreak in layer flocks. A total of twelve different MD outbreak flocks with varying flock size were selected in this study. Feather follicles were collected from 10 apparently healthy birds, 10 clinically affected birds and 10 dead birds separately in each outbreak. All the samples were subjec...

  1. Comparison of Disk Diffusion and Agar Dilution Methods for Erythromycin and Ciprofloxacin Susceptibility Testing of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, Christiane; Girouard, Yves; Ringuette, Louise; Tsimiklis, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Disk diffusion was a reliable, easy, and inexpensive method for testing the susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni to erythromycin (215 susceptible and 45 resistant isolates) and to ciprofloxacin (154 susceptible, two intermediate, and 124 resistant isolates) using, respectively, an erythromycin disk and ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid disks.

  2. Background and Objective: Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium transferred by foods and is the agent of many sporadic and epidemic diseases in humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and to determinine their antibiotic resistance profile in red meats. Material and Methods: this cross-sectional study was performed on 400 red meat samples obtained from industrial slaughterhouses placed in Kerman, Iran. First, the samples were enriched with Simultaneous Enrichment Broth (SEB, and then plated onto Palcam agar and Tryptic Soy Broth Yeast Extract Broth (TSAYE. After identification of the isolates based on biochemical tests and PCR, the isolates were checked for their antibiotic resistance profile using disk Diffusion Results: of 400 samples, 12 samples (3% were contaminated with different species of Listeria. Using PCR, hly gene was recognized in eight samples (2% of L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in isolation rate of lamb samples compared to cow ones. While all of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin, amikacin and chloramphenicol, they were sensitive to penicillin. Conclusion: in spite of low rate of infection in red meat samples in Kerman city, due to high risk of Listeria contamination in red meats, we recommend applying a routine screening to identify this bacterium in our county.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kargar, M. (PhD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium transferred by foods and is the agent of many sporadic and epidemic diseases in humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and to determinine their antibiotic resistance profile in red meats. Material and Methods: this cross-sectional study was performed on 400 red meat samples obtained from industrial slaughterhouses placed in Kerman, Iran. First, the samples were enriched with Simultaneous Enrichment Broth (SEB, and then plated onto Palcam agar and Tryptic Soy Broth Yeast Extract Broth (TSAYE. After identification of the isolates based on biochemical tests and PCR, the isolates were checked for their antibiotic resistance profile using disk Diffusion Results: of 400 samples, 12 samples (3% were contaminated with different species of Listeria. Using PCR, hly gene was recognized in eight samples (2% of L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in isolation rate of lamb samples compared to cow ones. While all of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin, amikacin and chloramphenicol, they were sensitive to penicillin. Conclusion: in spite of low rate of infection in red meat samples in Kerman city, due to high risk of Listeria contamination in red meats, we recommend applying a routine screening to identify this bacterium in our county

  3. Effectiveness of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae in agar gel formulations against larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, Hany; Adel, M. M.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2012), s. 77-82. ISSN 1895-104X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : anti-desiccant * foliar application * drought Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.818, year: 2012

  4. Experimental hut evaluation of linalool spatial repellent agar gel against Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes in a semi-field system in Bagamoyo, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Tambwe, Mgeni; Mbeyela, Edgar; Massinda, Brian; Moore, Sarah; Maia, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria vector control is in need of new tools to face its current challenges such as the spread of pyrethroid-resistance and the increase of outdoor feeding mosquitoes. New strategies such as spatial repellents need to be evaluated as supplemental tools to existing control measures such as insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying. Linalool is a naturally occurring terpene alcohol commonly found in flowers and spices with reportedly repellent properties. Methods Fo...

  5. Interaction with mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces sp. AcH 505 modifies organisation of actin cytoskeleton in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria (fly agaric).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Silvia D; Salo, Vanamo; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Hampp, Rüdiger; Nehls, Uwe; Tarkka, Mika T

    2007-08-01

    The actin cytoskeleton (AC) of fungal hyphae is a major determinant of hyphal shape and morphogenesis, implicated in controlling tip structure and secretory vesicle delivery. Hyphal growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria and symbiosis formation with spruce are promoted by the mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces sp. AcH 505 (AcH 505). To investigate structural requirements of growth promotion, the effect of AcH 505 on A. muscaria hyphal morphology, AC and actin gene expression were studied. Hyphal diameter and mycelial density decreased during dual culture (DC), and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the dense and polarised actin cap in hyphal tips of axenic A. muscaria changes to a loosened and dispersed structure in DC. Supplementation of growth medium with cell-free bacterial supernatant confirmed that reduction in hyphal diameter and AC changes occurred at the same stage of growth. Transcript levels of both actin genes isolated from A. muscaria remained unaltered, indicating that AC changes are regulated by reorganisation of the existing actin pool. In conclusion, the AC reorganisation appears to result in altered hyphal morphology and faster apical extension. The thus improved spreading of hyphae and increased probability to encounter plant roots highlights a mechanism behind the mycorrhiza helper effect. PMID:17632722

  6. Auxofuran, a Novel Metabolite That Stimulates the Growth of Fly Agaric, Is Produced by the Mycorrhiza Helper Bacterium Streptomyces Strain AcH 505†

    OpenAIRE

    Riedlinger, Julia; Schrey, Silvia D; Tarkka, Mika T.; Hampp, Rüdiger; Kapur, Manmohan; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2006-01-01

    The mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces strain AcH 505 improves mycelial growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi and formation of ectomycorrhizas between Amanita muscaria and spruce but suppresses the growth of plant-pathogenic fungi, suggesting that it produces both fungal growth-stimulating and -suppressing compounds. The dominant fungal-growth-promoting substance produced by strain AcH 505, auxofuran, was isolated, and its effect on the levels of gene expression of A. muscaria was investigate...

  7. Comparison of 3 agar media in Fung double tubes and Petri plates to detect and enumerate Clostridium spp. in broiler chicken intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, M A; Saini, J K; Rude, C M; Beyer, R S; Fung, D Y C; Crozier-Dodson, B A

    2013-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that may lead to necrotic enteritis, resulting in poor feed efficiency and increased mortality in chickens. It is estimated that C. perfringens infects almost 1 million people in the United States every year. The objective of this research was to compare the Fung double tube (FDT) and conventional Petri plates using 3 different media to detect and enumerate Clostridium spp. in chicken intestines. Nine Cobb 500 broilers were randomly selected and euthanized at 21 and 42 d of age for a total of 18 samples. The jejunum and ileum from each broiler were harvested and studied in 2 methods and 3 media combinations, utilizing a 2 × 3 factorial totaling 6 treatments. The 2 methods were FDT and conventional Petri plates, and the 3 media were Shahidi-Ferguson Perfringens (SFP) with egg yolk supplement, polymyxin B, and kanamycin (E); SFP with polymyxin B and kanamycin (P); and SFP with d-cycloserine (C). Enumerations were performed after 24 h of incubation at 37°C. At 21 d, counts using medium C with FDT (4.51 log10 cfu/g) and plates (2.38 log10 cfu/g) were higher (P Clostridium spp. at higher levels (P < 0.001) than the conventional Petri plate method; therefore, the FDT should be implemented and further explored. PMID:23687145

  8. Occurrence of soft sediment deformation at Dive Agar beach, west coast of India: possible record of the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Meshram, D.C.; Sangode, S.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Dhongle, D.; Porate, S.

    -truncated sand dykes, macro-thrust faults, scouring, and inclusion of coral fragments can explain it as a record of tsunami in the west coast. Occurrence of un-decayed consumer plastic material within the deformed layers suggests it as one of the most recent...

  9. Application of microbiological method direct epifluorescence filter techique/aerobic plate count agar in the identification of irradiated herbs and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concetta Campagna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation is a preservation technology used to improve the safety and hygienic quality of food. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability and validity of the microbiological screening method direct epifluorescence filter technique (DEFT/aerobic plate count (APC (EN 13783:2001 for the identification of irradiated herbs and spices. Tests on non-irradiated and irradiated samples of dried herbs and spices were performed. The method was based on the comparison of APC and count obtained using DEFT. In accordance with the standard reference, this method is not applicable to samples with APC<103 colony forming units (CFU/g and this is its main limit. The results obtained in our laboratories showed that in 50% of cases of non-irradiated samples and in 96% of the samples treated with ionising radiation, the method was not applicable due to a value of CFU/g<103.

  10. Comparison of Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube with Culture on RGM Selective Agar for Detection of Mycobacteria in Sputum Samples from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltringham, Ian; Pickering, Julie; Gough, Helen; Preece, Clair L; Perry, John D

    2016-08-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an important cause of pulmonary disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A new culture medium (RGM medium) for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients has recently been reported. The aim of this study was to compare culture of sputum samples on RGM medium with culture using a standard automated liquid culture method. Sputum samples were obtained from 187 distinct patients with CF attending King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Each sample was decontaminated with 3% oxalic acid and inoculated into a mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) that was monitored for 42 days using the Bactec MGIT 960 instrument. Each sample was also cultured, without decontamination, onto RGM medium, which was incubated for 10 days at 30°C. Mycobacteria were isolated from 28 patients (prevalence, 15%). Mycobacteria were detected in 24 samples (86%) using the MGIT and in 23 samples (82%) using RGM medium (P = 1.00). In this setting, RGM medium showed sensitivity equivalent to that of the MGIT for isolation of NTM from the sputum of patients with CF. RGM medium offers a simple, convenient tool that can be embedded into routine culture methods, allowing the culture of all sputum samples that are submitted from patients with CF. PMID:27225412

  11. Production of trichothecenes and other secondary metabolites by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium equiseti on common laboratory media and a soil organic matter agar: An ecological interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbjerg, H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Thrane, Ulf;

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium culmorum and F. equiseti were characterized with regard to production of trichothecenes and other secondary metabolites. Results following growth on laboratory media are interpreted with the aim of increasing the understanding of fungal metabolism in the field environment., While...

  12. The Stringent Response Is Essential for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence in the Rat Lung Agar Bead and Drosophila melanogaster Feeding Models of Infection▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Stefanie L.; Green, Christopher; Stevens, Katarzyna M.; Day, Brad; Erickson, David L.; Woods, Donald E.; Storey, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    The stringent response is a regulatory system that allows bacteria to sense and adapt to nutrient-poor environments. The central mediator of the stringent response is the molecule guanosine 3′,5′-bispyrophosphate (ppGpp), which is synthesized by the enzymes RelA and SpoT and which is also degraded by SpoT. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that a relA mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the principal cause of lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients, was attenuated in virulence in a Dro...

  13. Optimization of the agar-gel method for isolation of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Roepstorff, A.; Rasmussen, T.;

    2001-01-01

    clean suspension which reduced the sample counting time. Blending the liver for 60 sec in a commercial blender showed significantly higher larvae recovery than blending for 30 sec. Addition of gentamycin to reduce bacterial growth during incubation, glucose to increase larval motility during migration...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AGAR LIFT-DNA/DNA HYBRIDIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR USE IN VISUALIZATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF EUBACTERIA ON SOIL SURFACES. (R825415)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractWhile microbial growth is well-understood in pure culture systems, less is known about growth in intact soil systems. The objective of this work was to develop a technique to allow visualization of the two-dimensional spatial distribution of bacterial growth o...

  15. Utilização do ágar suco de tomate (ágar V8) na identificação presuntiva de Candida dubliniensis Utilization of tomato juice agar (V8 agar) in the presumptive identification of Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Sydney Hartz Alves; Carlos Eduardo Linares; Érico Silva de Loreto; Magnus Rodrigues; Diego I. Thomazi; Felipe Souza; Janio M. Santurio

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se a capacidade do ágar suco de tomate (ágar V8) em diferenciar Candida dubliniensis de Candida albicans com base na produção de clamidoconídios. Noventa e três isolados de Candida albicans e vinte e seis de Candida dubliniensis foram incluídos; 100% de Candida dubliniensis formaram clamidoconídios e 92,5% de Candida albicans não evidenciaram estas estruturas. Estes resultados permitem sugerir este meio como recurso alternativo na identificação presuntiva de Candida dubliniensis.We ev...

  16. Evaluación de la eficacia de la prueba de inmunodifusión en gel agar para la detección de anticuerpos contra el virus de la leucosis enzootica bovina Assessment of the Efficacy of the Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Test for the Detection of Antibodies Against the Enzootic Bovine Leukosis Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Zoraida Nava; César Obando; Magaly Bracamonte; Aurico Sousa; Mayra Hidalgo

    2012-01-01

    contra el virus de la leucosis enzoótica bovina (VLEB), comparándola con el ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA). Se procesaron 360 muestras de suero bovino para ambas pruebas, siguiendo las indicaciones del fabricante. El grado de concordancia (GC), valores predictivos (VP) y razones de verosimilitud (RV) fueron determinados y analizados. El GC entre ambas pruebas resultó ser del 86,4%, con un coeficiente Kappa (K) = 0,7. La IDGA detectó una significativa (P

  17. Physiological and molecular studies of deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, P.

    ) powder 1 g Agar powder 1.5 g Seawater 100 ml b) Czapek Dox Agar (1/5 strength) Czapek Dox Agar (CDA) powder 1 g Agar powder 1.5 g Seawater 100 ml c) Corn Meal Agar (1/5 strength) Corn Meal Agar (CMA) powder 0.35 g... Agar powder 1.5 g Seawater 100 ml d) Potato Dextrose Agar (1/5 strength) Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) powder 0.75 g Agar powder 1.5 g Seawater 100 ml e) Sabaraud Dextrose Agar (1/5 strength) Sabaraud Dextrose Agar (SDA...

  18. Marine-derived fungi as a source of proteases

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, T.; Rodrigues, C.; Naik, C.G.

    was placed on seven different media for the isolation of fungal cultures. Seven media used were: Potato dextrose agar, Czapex dox agar, Corn meal agar, Mycological agar, Starch casein agar, V8 agar and Tomato juice agar (Hi Media, Mumbai). Each agar medium... that the micro flora could be isolated without contamination. High numbers of fungi (six) were isolated when 'Corn meal agar was used as isolation medium. This was followed by Starch casein agar with four isolates. Potato Dextrose agar, Czepex dox agar and V8...

  19. 菌落总数检测纸片法与国标方法的比较研究%A Comparative Study of Petrifilm and GB Traditional Agar Plate in Bacteria Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇; 姚卢悦

    2012-01-01

    在利用微生物快速测试纸片和国标法所规定的倾注平板计数法在食品、空气和环节表面环境卫生等几个食品生产企业普遍关注的卫生控制环节进行比较研究和统计分析,力求找出两种测试方法之间的相关性,为全面提升食品企业生产效率,缩短检测流程,以及更好地适应现代化食品品质管理原则提供了新的思路和方法。参照国标GB4789.2—2010和GB15982—1995测试方法,对市场上随机抽取的150份焙烤食品和75个空气及环节表面细菌的采样点,分别用纸片法和国标法进行比对试验。经统计分析,纸片法在食品和空气自然沉降菌检测中与传统的国标方法没有显著差异(p〉0.05),但在环节表面细菌菌落计数检测中与传统的国标方法差异显著(p〈0.05),所得计数结果明显高于传统国标法。%Try to find out the relativity between the new Petrifilm test and the traditional test through total bacteria count tested in food. The air and the surface areas which were very important quality control points in food manufacture. According to the test guideline from the standards GB 4789.2 and GB 15982, compare the total bacteria count difference in food, the air and the surface between the Petrifilm and the traditional methods. Based on the statistic analysis, in food hygiene test and air bacterial sampling test, the result from Petrifilm test was the same with the traditional test shows; in the surface bacterial sampling test, the results showed that the Petrifilm test was much better than the traditional ones.

  20. Performance of the EUCAST disk diffusion method, the CLSI agar screen method, and the Vitek 2 automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing system for detection of clinical isolates of Enterococci with low- and medium-level VanB-type vancomycin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegstad, Kristin; Giske, Christian G; Haldorsen, Bjørg; Matuschek, Erika; Schønning, Kristian; Leegaard, Truls M; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn

    2014-01-01

    Different antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods to detect low-level vancomycin resistance in enterococci were evaluated in a Scandinavian multicenter study (n=28). A phenotypically and genotypically well-characterized diverse collection of Enterococcus faecalis (n=12) and Enterococcus...... careful monitoring of the vancomycin concentration in the plates. Moreover, disk diffusion methodology requires that personnel be trained in interpreting zone edges....

  1. Effect of profilin on cells colony formation in soft agar%原丝蛋白对细胞在软琼脂中集落形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宇; 赵红艳; 赵祯; 张番; 秦丽娟; 马中女

    2002-01-01

    本研究采用原丝蛋白基因低表达的小鼠乳癌温度敏感变异株tsFT101细胞及野生株FM3A细胞,探讨原丝蛋白对细胞在软琼脂中集落形成的影响.应用Lipofection方法向tsFT101细胞内导入原丝蛋白表达基因,使用North-errt blot方法检测各细胞株原丝蛋白mRNA表达水平,观察各细胞株在软琼脂中的集落形成情况.结果可见原丝蛋白mRNA表达水平由高至低的顺序是FM3A细胞、经基因转染的tsFT101细胞及未做处理的tsFT101细胞.在0.33%软琼脂中形成的集落大小与此顺序相对应.结果表明,原丝蛋白的表达水平降低能减弱细胞在软琼脂中集落形成的能力.

  2. Research on ChromID Vibrio Agar for Detection Effect of Vibrio Cholera%弧菌显色培养基(ChromID Vibrio)对霍乱弧菌检测效果的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈飚; 胡兴娟; 汪云泉; 徐君辉

    2010-01-01

    [目的]探讨梅里埃弧菌显色培养基(简称ChromID Vibrio)对霍乱弧菌的检测效果.[方法]通过ChromID Vibrio弧菌显色培养基同硫代硫酸盐-柠檬酸盐-胆盐-蔗糖(简称TCBS)琼脂培养基进行比对,采用阳性菌株直接平板计数、人工污染样品和实际样品检测的方法,对ChromID Vibrio的灵敏性、特异性和检测效果进行了评价.[结果]ChromID Vibrio弧菌显色培养基上霍乱弧菌典型菌落是蓝绿色.阳性菌株直接平板计数及人工污染试验均表明ChromID Vibrio平板的敏感性均比TCBS平板高.对采集的300份实际样品进行检测,都未检出霍乱弧菌.[结论]ChromID Vibrio具有较好的灵敏性、特异性,能提高霍乱弧菌检测效率.

  3. Evaluación de la eficacia de la prueba de inmunodifusión en gel agar para la detección de anticuerpos contra el virus de la leucosis enzootica bovina

    OpenAIRE

    Zoraida Nava; César Obando; Magaly Bracamonte; Aurico Sousa; Mayra Hidalgo

    2012-01-01

    contra el virus de la leucosis enzoótica bovina (VLEB), comparándola con el ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA). Se procesaron 360 muestras de suero bovino para ambas pruebas, siguiendo las indicaciones del fabricante. El grado de concordancia (GC), valores predictivos (VP) y razones de verosimilitud (RV) fueron determinados y analizados. El GC entre ambas pruebas resultó ser del 86,4%, con un coeficiente Kappa (K) = 0,7. La IDGA detectó una significativa (P

  4. Evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana de aceites esenciales y extractos etanólicos utilizando métodos de difusión en agar y dilución en pozo

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Stella Ramírez Aristizabal; Darwin Marín

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana, de seis aceites esenciales y cinco extractos etanólicos de diferentes plantas Colombianas, frente a bacterias Gram positivas y Gram negativas, la evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana se realizó por métodos de difusión y dilución, mostrando diferencias significativas en los resultados de actividad, para los aceites esenciales, no obstante para los extractos los resultados fueron similares independientemente del método empleado.

  5. Ammonia production and its possible role as a mediator of communication for Debaryomyces hansenii and other cheese-relevant yeast species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Mortensen, Henrik Dam; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    lipolytica, and Geotrichum candidum was determined on glycerol medium (GM) agar and cheese agar. The ammonia production was found to vary, especially among yeast species, but also within strains of D. hansenii. In addition, variations in ammonia production were found between GM agar and cheese agar. Ammonia...

  6. Dominant Aerobic Bacterial Community of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax L.1758) Larvae During Weaning from Artemia to Dry Feed in Culture Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    AYAZ, Ayberk; KARATAŞ*, Süheyla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dominant aerobic bacterial community of sea bass larvae during their weaning period in 2 different marine hatcheries in Muğla-Bodrum region. Samplings were made in January, March, and May 2005. Larvae and water samples were diluted in certain ratios and were inoculated to Marine Agar, TCBS Agar, Pseudomonas Agar, King Bee Agar, MRS agar, Blood Agar and Plate Count Agar, in that order. Water temperature, pH, saturation, salinity, and features of the s...

  7. EVALUATION OF CULTURE MEDIA FOR MYCELIAL AND SPORANGIAL PRODUCTION OF PHYTOPHTORA COLOCASIAE.

    OpenAIRE

    G. Padmaja; G Uma Devi; B Kanaka Mahalakshmi; Sridevi, D.

    2015-01-01

    Eight different culture media were used to determine where Phytophthora colocasiae would bet grow and reproduce. Mycelia growth of 86 mm, 79.6 mm, 80.6 mm, 72 mm and 50 mm growth of P. colocasiae were obtained in Carrot Agar, Carrot Potato Agar (CPA) medium, Papaya Sucrose Agar, Host leaf extract agar, Oat meal agar respectively. P. colocasiae grown on Carrot agar for 4-7 days gave Carrot agar was supplement the nutrients to Phytophthora spp. to enhanced production of sporangial growth.

  8. Growth and Cultural Characteristics of Ophiocordyceps longissima Collected in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Gi-Ho; Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of nutritional and environmental factors on Ophiocordyceps longissima mycelial growth. The longest colony diameter was observed on Schizophyllum (mushroom) genetics complete medium plus yeast extract, Schizophyllum (mushroom) genetics minimal medium, and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA); however, malt-extract yeast-extract agar, SDA plus yeast extract, yeast-extract malt-extract peptone dextrose agar, SDA, oatmeal agar, and potato dextrose agar showed higher mycelia de...

  9. ISOLATION OF ENDOPHYTIC ACTINOMYCETES FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ITS MUTATIONAL EFFECT IN BIOCONTROL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Hema Shenpagam N.*, D. Kanchana Devi ** and Sinduja G.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the endophytic actinomycetes were collected from three medicinal plants Azadiracta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Phyllanthus amarus. Endophytic actinomycetes were isolated using different media like Starch casein agar, Starch casein nitrate agar, Actinomycetes isolation agar and Soyabean agar, while it showed more colonies in Starch casein agar. The endophytic actinomycetes were stained and biochemical tests were performed. Antimicrobial compound was purified from the filtr...

  10. 魔芋胶、琼脂及他拉胶对软冰淇淋品质影响研究%Study on the influence of knojac gum,agar and tara gum on soft-serve ice cream quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅森; 何唯平; 陈胜利

    2005-01-01

    对反应软冰淇淋品质的各指标进行测试,以考察魔芋胶、琼脂、他拉胶对软冰淇淋品质的影响.结果表明,在没有乳化剂存在情况下,三种稳定剂相比,琼脂对软冰淇淋浆料黏度和热稳定性基本无影响,对膨胀率、抗溶性和硬度起降低作用,但相对其他2种稳定剂而言抗融性最好,硬度最大;魔芋胶对软冰淇淋浆黏度起增大作用,提高膨胀率,但硬度和抗融性最差;他拉胶对冰淇淋浆料黏度的影响随添加量的增加缓慢增大,对膨胀率、硬度和抗溶性均由降低作用,但对各指标的影响程度稍好于魔芋胶.

  11. CCA培养基同时检测水中总大肠菌群和大肠埃希氏杆菌%Chromocult Coliforms Agar (CCA) Medium for the Simultaneous Detection of Total Coliforms and E.coli in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘路

    2004-01-01

    大肠菌群(Coliforms)和大肠埃希氏杆菌(E. coli)都是判断水体是否存在粪便污染的重要微生物指标.本文介绍了一种可在24 h之内同时检测大肠菌群和大肠埃希氏杆菌数量的CCA培养基.

  12. Drug: D01032 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01032 Crude, Drug Agar (JP16/NF); Powdered agar (JP16); Agar (TN) Agarose [CPD:C01...100 Gelidiaceae Gelidium amansii mucous (freeze dry) Major component: Agarose [CPD:C01399] Therapeutic category of dr...ugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude dr...ugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D01032 Agar (JP16/NF); Powdered agar (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Algae Red algae D01032 Agar PubChem: 7848095 ...

  13. Two new Cystoderma species from high Andean Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saar, I.; Læssøe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador.......ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador....

  14. Lactic Acid and Probiotic Bacteria from Fermented and Probiotic Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    B.K.L. Karna; Virginia L. Barraquio; O. C. Emata

    2007-01-01

    Lactic acid and probiotic bacteria were enumerated and isolated from commercially available yoghurt andprobiotic milk products. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus were enumerated and isolated usingMRS agar incubated anaerobically at 37oC for 72 hrs. M17 agar was used for the enumeration andisolation of Streptococcus thermophilus incubated aerobically at 37oC for 48 hrs. MRS agar and modifiedMRS agar (MRS + L-cysteine + LiCl + Na propionate) were used for the enumeration and isolation ...

  15. Comparison of charcoal- and starch-based media for testing susceptibilities of Legionella species to macrolides, azalides, and fluoroquinolones.

    OpenAIRE

    Pendland, S L; Martin, S J; Chen, C.; Schreckenberger, P C; Danziger, L. H.

    1997-01-01

    We compared growth characteristics of 46 Legionella strains grown on buffered charcoal yeast extract alpha (BCYE alpha) agar and buffered starch yeast extract (BSYE) agar and MICs of macrolides, azalides, and fluoroquinolones for these organisms. Growth was poor and not reproducible on BSYE agar. Growth was excellent on BCYE alpha, and MICs were easy to interpret. BCYE alpha is superior to BSYE for testing susceptibilities of Legionella species by agar dilution.

  16. In Vitro Activities of Daptomycin, Vancomycin, Quinupristin- Dalfopristin, Linezolid, and Five Other Antimicrobials against 307 Gram-Positive Anaerobic and 31 Corynebacterium Clinical Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerrin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

    2003-01-01

    The activities of daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide, and eight other agents were determined against 338 strains of gram-positive anaerobic bacteria and corynebacteria by the NCCLS reference agar dilution method with supplemented brucella agar for the anaerobes and Mueller-Hinton agar for the corynebacteria. The daptomycin MICs determined on Ca2+-supplemented (50 mg/liter) brucella agar plates were one- to fourfold lower than those determined in unsupplemented media. Daptomycin was highly activ...

  17. Easy Measurement of Different Forces of Water Retention by Hydrocolloids through Water Loss at Same Viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    M. Schleißinger; Schmitt, J J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the water binding strength of different polysaccharides (agar-agar, alginate, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, cold swelling starch, guar gum, locust bean gum, pectin, pentosan and xanthan gum). Solutions with similar apparent viscosity were infrared dried with a moisture analyzer at 100°C. Drying times were investigated in order to examine the degree of water binding of hydrocolloids. Agar-agar and cellulose requ...

  18. Selective medium for isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    OpenAIRE

    Slots, J

    1982-01-01

    A selective medium, TSBV (tryptic soy-serum-bacitracin-vancomycin) agar, was developed for the isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, TSBV agar contained (per liter) 40 g of tryptic soy agar, 1 g of yeast extract, 100 ml of horse serum. 75 mg of bacitracin, and 5 mg of vancomycin. The TSBV medium suppressed most oral species and permitted significantly higher recovery of A. actinomycetemcomitans than nonselective blood agar medium. The distinct colonial morphology and positive cat...

  19. Isolation of rhizobacteria from salt tolerant plant species and evaluation of their plant growth-promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez Franco, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria from rhizosphere samples of Hordeum secalinum and Plantago winteri from a natural salt meadow in Hessen, Germany, a natural undisturbed ecosystem, were isolated with emphasis on diazotrophs (NFB & LG agar), phosphate- and phytate-mobilising bacteria (CP & IHP agar), ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, a precursor of ethylene) deaminase-active bacteria (DF agar) as well as IAA (indole-3-acetic-acid)-producing bacteria (LBT agar) as source of potential halotolerant potential growth...

  20. Influence of a Point-to-Plane DC Negative Corona Discharge on Gel Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Klenko; Scholtz, V

    2008-01-01

    Point-to-plane corona discharge is widely used for modifying polymer surfaces for biomedical applications and for sterilization and decontamination. This paper focuses on an experimental investigation of the influence of the single-point and multi-point corona discharge electric field on gel surface. Three types of gelatinous agar were used as the gel medium: blood agar, nutrient agar and Endo agar. The gel surface modification was studied for various time periods and discharge currents. 

  1. Influence of a Point-to-Plane DC Negative Corona Discharge on Gel Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Klenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Point-to-plane corona discharge is widely used for modifying polymer surfaces for biomedical applications and for sterilization and decontamination. This paper focuses on an experimental investigation of the influence of the single-point and multi-point corona discharge electric field on gel surface. Three types of gelatinous agar were used as the gel medium: blood agar, nutrient agar and Endo agar. The gel surface modification was studied for various time periods and discharge currents. 

  2. Selective media for recovery of Haemophilus influenzae from specimens contaminated with upper respiratory tract microbial flora.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapin, K. C.; Doern, G V

    1983-01-01

    Isolation of Haemophilus influenzae from specimens contaminated with upper respiratory tract microbial flora was attempted with three different media: enriched chocolate agar, chocolate agar plus vancomycin, and chocolate agar plus vancomycin, bacitracin, and clindamycin. Recovery rates of H. influenzae from 852 pediatric pharyngeal swab specimens were 6.0, 28.5, and 59.9%, respectively.

  3. A method for comparison of growth media in objective identification of Penicillium based on multi-spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2007-01-01

    -spectral bands as they provide additional information about the chemistry of the fungal colonies. In this study three media [Czapek yeast extract agar (CYA), oatmeal agar (OAT), and yeast extract sucrose agar (YES)] have been compared on their ability to discriminate between the three species. We propose...

  4. Utilização de diferentes meios de cultura na identificação e recuperação de bactérias lácticas

    OpenAIRE

    Potes, Maria Eduarda; Marinho, Artur

    2007-01-01

    Foram isoladas várias colónias bacterianas provenientes de amostras de queijo em duas fases de maturação (3 e 45 dias) inoculadas nos meios de cultura de de Man, Rogosa e Sharpe Agar (MRSA), M17 Agar, Kanamicina Esculina Azida Agar (KA3), APT Agar e Dextrose Triptona Agar (DTA). Com base nas suas características culturais, morfológicas e bioquímicas foram identificados os diferentes géneros de bactérias lácticas (BAL). Uma pequena percentagem (13,96%) dos isolados revelou não ser BAL. O ...

  5. Comparação entre os métodos rápidos SimplateR TPC- CI e PetrifilmR AC e os métodos convencionais de contagem em placas para a enumeração de aeróbios mesófilos em sorvetes Comparasion of SimplateR test and Petrifilm with plate count agar method for detection and enumeration of bacteria in ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson de Souza Sant'ana; Caetano da Conceição; Denise Rosane Perdomo Azeredo

    2002-01-01

    A contagem de aeróbios mesófilos ou contagem padrão em placas em um produto alimentício reflete a qualidade da matéria-prima, bem como as condições de processamento, manuseio e estocagem. O método de contagem em placas tradicionais requer 48h de incubação para a posterior leitura dos resultados. Comparou-se dois métodos que parecem ser uma boa alternativa para a contagem padrão em placas: SimplateR TPC-CI e PetrifilmR AC. Também avaliou-se a capacidade inibitória do 2, 3, 5 cloreto de trifeni...

  6. Influence of substrates, light, filter paper and pH on the sporulation of Cercospora sojina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Erica Gómez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungi require special substrates for their isolation, vegetative growth and sporulation. In experiments conducted in the laboratory, the influence of substrates, light, filter paper and pH on the sporulation of Cercospora sojina conidia, the causal agent of soybean frogeye leaf spot, was assessed. The media potato sucrose agar, V-8 agar, tomato extract agar, soybean leaf extract agar, soybean seed extract agar, soybean meal agar, soybean flour agar and wheat flour agar were tested, added on the surface, with and without filter paper and under two light regimes, with 12 h light at 25°± 2°C and in the dark. A triple factorial 8x2x2 (substrates x light/dark x with/without filter paper design with four replicates was used. V-8 agar medium was employed and the pH was adjusted with HCl 0.1N or NaOH 0.1N before autoclaving to the values: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, and the pH of V-8 agar medium is 6.7. The evaluation was done on the seventh day of incubation. Data underwent regression analysis. Sporulation was maximized on the agar media V-8, seed extract, oat flour, tomato extract, and potato sucrose in the presence of filter paper and 12h light. On V-8 medium, maximal sporulation was obtained with pH 6.7.

  7. Influence of Tableting on Enzymatic Activity of Papain along with Determination of Its Percolation Threshold with Microcrystalline Cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Manu; Sharma, Vinay; Majumdar, Dipak K.

    2014-01-01

    The binary mixture tablets of papain and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP), carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar were prepared by direct compression. Carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar provided maximum protection to enzyme activity compared to MCC and DCP. However, stability studies indicated highest loss of enzyme activity with carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar. Therefore, compression behaviour of different binary mixtures of papain with MCC at different compa...

  8. Novel Selective Medium for Isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, K; Inglis, T. J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei currently relies on the use of Ashdown's selective agar (ASA). We designed a new selective agar (Burkholderia pseudomallei selective agar [BPSA]) to improve recovery of the more easily inhibited strains of B. pseudomallei. B. pseudomallei, Burkholderia cepacia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used to determine the selectivity and sensitivity of BPSA. BPSA was more inhibitory to P. aeruginosa and B. cepacia and should make recognition of Burkholderia spec...

  9. Amylase inhibits Neisseria gonorrhoeae by degrading starch in the growth medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, M R; Gregory, W W; Bruns, D.E.; Zakowski, J J

    1983-01-01

    Highly purified salivary alpha-amylase inhibited the growth of fresh isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on GC agar base medium supplemented with 2% IsoVitaleX (BBL Microbiology Systems). Hydrolysis of starch in the medium by amylase resulted in a negative starch-iodine test. However, purified amylase did not inhibit gonococcal growth on agar plates that contained hemoglobin (chocolate agar). This effect was not caused by inhibition of amylase, since amylase activity was the same in the presenc...

  10. Culture and Identification of Candida Albicans from Vaginal Ulcer and Separation of Enolase on SDS-PAGE

    OpenAIRE

    P. Saravana Bhavan; R. Rajkumar; S. RadhaKrishnan; C. Seenivasan; S Kannan

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans were isolated from patients with clinical symptoms of vaginal ulcer. Culture test for vaginal swab andscrapings were conducted on Sabouraud’s dextrose broth and Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plate respectively. Hichromecandida agar culture was used for differential identification of Candida. Smears from vaginal scrapings were preparedfor gram staining. The suspected strain of Candida was inoculated on corn meal agar medium for chlamydosporeformation. The suspected strain of Candi...

  11. Recommendation of an Appropriate Medium for In Vitro Drug Susceptibility Testing of the Fish Pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum

    OpenAIRE

    Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Irgang, Rute; Núñez, Soledad; Romalde, Jesús L.; Toranzo, Alicia E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, Anacker and Ordal agar, marine agar (MA), and Flexibacter maritimus medium (FMM) were compared with the dilute versions of Mueller-Hinton agar (DMHA) medium recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) for their use in disk diffusion tests with Tenacibaculum maritimum strains and to calculate the MICs of five drugs by the Etest method. Preliminary growth tests performed with 32 strains of this pathogen on each medium revealed that all s...

  12. Evaluation of three newly developed direct plating media to enumerate Listeria monocytogenes in foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiday, P. K.; Brackett, R E; Beuchat, L R

    1989-01-01

    LiCl-phenylethanol-moxalactam Agar (LPMA), ARS Modified McBride Agar, and Modified Vogel Johnson Agar were compared with previously tested plating media in the enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes from pasteurized whole milk, chocolate ice cream mix, Brie cheese, and raw cabbage. LPMA was most suitable for analyzing Brie cheese and cabbage. Gum base-nalidixic acid-tryptone-soya medium (previously tested) was most suitable for analyzing milk and chocolate ice cream mix.

  13. Evaluation of three newly developed direct plating media to enumerate Listeria monocytogenes in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiday, P K; Brackett, R E; Beuchat, L R

    1989-06-01

    LiCl-phenylethanol-moxalactam Agar (LPMA), ARS Modified McBride Agar, and Modified Vogel Johnson Agar were compared with previously tested plating media in the enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes from pasteurized whole milk, chocolate ice cream mix, Brie cheese, and raw cabbage. LPMA was most suitable for analyzing Brie cheese and cabbage. Gum base-nalidixic acid-tryptone-soya medium (previously tested) was most suitable for analyzing milk and chocolate ice cream mix. PMID:2504112

  14. PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALINE PROTEASE FROM BACILLUS TEQUILENSIS STRAINS CSGAB0139 ISOLATED FROM SPOILT COTTAGE CHEESE

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna.K; Jill Shah; Radhika Birmole

    2014-01-01

    An alkaline protease producing strain was isolated from spoilt cottage cheese sample which was identified as Bacillus tequilensis strain SCSGAB0139 on the basis of morphological, cultural, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Primary screening for protease production was carried out by observing for zone of hydrolysis on skim milk agar, GYEA milk agar and gelatin agar plates. Physicochemical parameters like pH of the medium, incubation time and temperature, aeration and...

  15. Dispersion and retrievability of water quality indicators during tidal cycles in coastal Salaya, Gulf of Kachchh (West coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohandass, C.; Jayakumar, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Vethamony, P.

    collection and, transported to onshore laboratory for analysis within 2 hrs of collection. Samples were analyzed for total viable counts (TVC), total coliforms (TC) and fecal coliforms (TFC). Selective media viz., Hi-chrome coliform agar for TC, Rapid... Enterococcus Agar for TFC and Nutrient Agar (prepared with 50% seawater) for TVC were used for enumeration of above bacterial groups. All the media were procured from Hi-Media, Mumbai. Standard microbiological methods (APHA, 1985) were followed for all...

  16. Selective media for isolation of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia from the respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cimolai, N; Trombley, C.; Davidson, A. G.; Wong, L T

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and six specimens from 90 patients with cystic fibrosis were evaluated for the presence of Burkholderia cepacia using a current routine diagnostic protocol as well as a research protocol involving polymyxin B-MacConkey agar without crystal violet, PC agar, OFPVL agar, and a selective brain-heart infusion broth. Ten specimens from eight patients (8.9%) were positive by any method. The selective enrichment broth was the only medium that yielded B cepacia from all 10 positive samples...

  17. Evaluation of Methods To Increase the Sensitivity and Timeliness of Detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Overman, Sue B.; Eley, Douglas D.; Jacobs, Barry E.; Ribes, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Direct culture of rectovaginal specimens on Granada agar was compared to culture on sheep blood agar plate (SBAP) and AccuProbe detection of group B streptococcus from overnight LIM broth enhancement cultures (LIM-SBAP). Both broth-enhanced methods demonstrated excellent sensitivity (97.5% for LIM-SBAP and 93.5% for AccuProbe), while Granada agar demonstrated a sensitivity of only 40.3%.

  18. Morphology of Verticillium dahliae and V. tricorpus on semi-selective media used for the detection of V. dahliae in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Goud, J.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Gams, W.

    2003-01-01

    The morphology of two soil-borne Verticillium species, V. dahliae and V. tricorpus, was studied on two semi-selective agar media, in the absence and presence of soil. Morphology of the fungi differed considerably between the media, with respect to presence and shape of microsclerotia, dark hyphae (i.e. short melanised hyphae attached to the microsclerotia) and dark mycelium (i.e. melanised mycelium throughout the colony). On modified soil extract agar (MSEA), a pectate based agar, V. dahliae ...

  19. Occurrence of Fusarium species in maize grains for silage

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaja V.; Lević J.; Stanković S.; Bijelić Z.; Mandić V.; Stojanović Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Grain samples of two maize hybrids, medium early (ZP434) and late maturity (ZP704), collected during harvest in 2008 were investigated for contamination by fungi. Grains were plated on agar media and grown fungi were identified by morphological macroscopic and microscopic characteristics on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and synthetic nutrient agar (SNA). Species of the genus Fusarium were the most common in both hybrids, and their presence amounted to 33.89% (...

  20. New, simple medium for selective, differential recovery of Klebsiella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás, J. M.; Ciurana, B; Jofre, J T

    1986-01-01

    A highly selective, differential medium for the enumeration and isolation of Klebsiella spp. was developed. With pure cultures, 100% recovery of Klebsiella spp. was observed. Recovery of Klebsiella spp. on MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite (MCIK) agar was as good as or better than on MacConkey-inositol-carbenicillin agar either with pure cultures or environmental samples. Recovery and percent colony confirmation with MCIK agar were greater and easier to obtain than for other proposed Kle...

  1. Contributions to the study of Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga PALL

    1966-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper communicates the results of the laboratory experiments concerning the behaviour of the Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus that produces the clover brown leaf spot, in different culture mediums. The mycelium of the fungus develops at its best on the peptone-glucose-agar medium. The appearance of pycnides of Sporonema phacidioides Desm. type in vitro, has been reported for the fourth time in Romania especially developing on the potatoe-dextrosis-agar and plum-agar mediums.

  2. Molecular Analysis of the Microflora Associated with Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Munson, M A; Banerjee, A.; Watson, T.F.; Wade, W. G.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular techniques have revealed many novel, presumed unculturable, taxa in oral infections. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial community of the middle and advancing front of carious dental lesions by cultural and molecular analyses. Samples were collected with a hand excavator from five teeth with carious lesions involving dentine. Samples were cultured on blood agar and Rogosa agar incubated in air plus 5% CO2 and on fastidious anaerobe agar anaerobically. DNA was als...

  3. Outbreak of Food Poisoning Caused by Lactose-Fermenting Salmonella tuebingen

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning occurred in a cafeteria and involved 102 student nurses. A lactose-fermenting strain of Salmonella tuebingen was isolated. The source was traced to the chicken consumed. Production of H2S was not evident on triple sugar iron but was detected on lysine iron agar. Therefore, the present report emphasizes the importance of bismuth sulfite agar and lysine iron agar for routine use in the isolation of salmonellae from stool.

  4. Different culture media containing methyldopa for melanin production by Cryptococcus species

    OpenAIRE

    Ralciane de Paula Menezes; Mário Paulo Amante Penatti; Reginaldo dos Santos Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Melanin production by species of Cryptococcus is widely used to characterize C. neoformans complex in mycology laboratories. This study aims to test the efficacy of methyldopa from pharmaceutical tablet as a substrate for melanin production, to compare the production of melanin using different agar base added with methyldopa, and to compare the melanin produced in those media with that produced in Niger seed agar and sunflower seed agar by C. neoformans, C. laurentii, and C. alb...

  5. Studies on Bacteriolytic Activities of Marine Labyrinthulids

    OpenAIRE

    Wahid, Md. Iftekharul

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen strains of labyrinthulids were isolated from the coastal area of Kagoshima Bay, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan and from Batan Bay, Panay Island, the Philippines by using diatom double-layer agar plates. The cells of labyrinthulid isolates grew axenically on the bacterial dead cells and extract plus egg yolk agar medium (NSBEY agar). Three representative isolates were demonstrated to belong to the labyrinthulid phylogenetic group (LPG) based on 18S rDNA sequence analysis. In the hydrolys...

  6. Bioperspective of actinomycetes isolates from coastal soils: A new source of antimicrobial producers

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanaporn Srivibool; Morakot Sukchotiratana

    2006-01-01

    Forty five soil samples were collected from four coastal islands on the east coast of Thailand: Chang, Hwai, Lao-yanai in Trat Province and Pai Islands in Chonburi Province. On 3 isolating media, Actinomycetes Isolation Agar, Starch Casein Agar and Glucose Asparagine Agar, 495 isolates of actinomycetes were found. Preliminary test to search for antimicrobial activity was done with Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 885, Staphylococus aureus TISTR 517 (ATCC 25923), Microc...

  7. Prevalence of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter, and Sutterella spp. in human fecal samples as estimated by a reevaluation of isolation methods for Campylobacters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Harrington, C.S.; Gerner-Smidt, P.

    2000-01-01

    isolation of Campylobacter spp. Two charcoal-based selective media, modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and cefoperazone-amphotericin-teicoplanin (CAT) agar, were compared with Skirrow's blood-based medium and with a filter method (filter) applied to a yeast-enriched blood agar. A total...... S. wadsworthensis in enteric disease is needed. We conclude that a range of campylobacteria may cause infections in Denmark....

  8. Penicillium verrucosum in wheat and barley indicates presence of ochratoxin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2003-01-01

    OTA and 17 samples without OTA were investigated using three different media, dichloran yeast sucrose agar (DYSG), dichloran rose bengal yeast extract sucrose agar (DRYES) and dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18). Hundred kernels were plated on each medium and the kind and number of fungal OTA producers...... content in cereals were correlated. More than 7% infestation of P. verrucosum indicated OTA contamination.Significance and Impact of the Study: The developed method could be used as a cereal quality control....

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A SELECTIVE AND INDICATIVE MEDIUM FOR ISOLATION OF ACTINOBACILLUS-PLEUROPNEUMONIAE FROM TONSILS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne; Nielsen, Jens

    In order to isolate ActinobacillIus pleuropneumoniae from mixed bacterial flora a selective and indicative medium was developed. The optimal concentrations of antibiotics were determined for selective chocolate agar (S-TSA) and selective blood agar (S-MBA) using a set of 25 strains of A. pleuropn......In order to isolate ActinobacillIus pleuropneumoniae from mixed bacterial flora a selective and indicative medium was developed. The optimal concentrations of antibiotics were determined for selective chocolate agar (S-TSA) and selective blood agar (S-MBA) using a set of 25 strains of A...

  10. 乳果オリゴ糖 (4G-β-D-galactosylsucrose) が寒天ゲルの物性に及ぼす影響 (第1報)

    OpenAIRE

    広田, 直子; 古内, 幸雄; 三田, コト

    1993-01-01

    In order to utilize lactosucrose (4G-β-D-galactosylsucrose, LS) as a sugar substitute in food, the effects of LS on the physical properties of agar gels were investigated.Two types of agar gels, 0.5 and 1.0 wt%, agar to gels, were prepared. Granulated sugar (G) and LS-35 (Ensuiko Sugar Refining Co., Ltd.) were added as sweeteners to the agar gels to 10% in dry weight in the ratios of G to LS-35 of 100 : 0 (G100), 50 : 50 (G50 : LS50), and 0 : 100 (LS100).No significant differences were found...

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A SELECTIVE AND INDICATIVE MEDIUM FOR ISOLATION OF ACTINOBACILLUS-PLEUROPNEUMONIAE FROM TONSILS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne; Nielsen, Jens

    1995-01-01

    In order to isolate ActinobacillIus pleuropneumoniae from mixed bacterial flora a selective and indicative medium was developed. The optimal concentrations of antibiotics were determined for selective chocolate agar (S-TSA) and selective blood agar (S-MBA) using a set of 25 strains of A. pleuropn......In order to isolate ActinobacillIus pleuropneumoniae from mixed bacterial flora a selective and indicative medium was developed. The optimal concentrations of antibiotics were determined for selective chocolate agar (S-TSA) and selective blood agar (S-MBA) using a set of 25 strains of A...

  12. Different culture media containing methyldopa for melanin production by Cryptococcus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralciane de Paula Menezes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Melanin production by species of Cryptococcus is widely used to characterize C. neoformans complex in mycology laboratories. This study aims to test the efficacy of methyldopa from pharmaceutical tablet as a substrate for melanin production, to compare the production of melanin using different agar base added with methyldopa, and to compare the melanin produced in those media with that produced in Niger seed agar and sunflower seed agar by C. neoformans, C. laurentii, and C. albidus. Two isolates of each species, C. neoformans, C. laurentii, and C. albidus, and one of Candida albicans were used to experimentally detect conditions for melanin production. METHODS: The following media were tested: Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA, brain and heart infusion agar (BHIA, blood agar base (BAB, and minimal medium agar (MMA, all added with methyldopa, and the media Niger seed agar (NSA and sunflower seed agar (SSA. RESULTS: All isolates grew in most of the culture media after 24h. Strains planted on media BAB and BHIA showed growth only after 48h. All isolates produced melanin in MMA, MHA, SSA, and NSA media. CONCLUSIONS: Methyldopa in the form pharmaceutical tablet can be used as a substrate for melanin production by Cryptococcus species; minimal medium plus methyldopa was more efficient than the BAB, MHA, and BHIA in the melanin production; and NSA and SSA, followed by MMA added with methyldopa, were more efficient than other media studied for melanin production by all strains studied.

  13. Effect of cultivation conditions on Seimatosporium hypericinum growth and form morfological structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Zimowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with effects of the air temperature, and the type of medium on the growth and form morfological structures of six Seimatosporium hypericinum isolates tested. St Jonh's Wort extract agar, St Jonh's Wort plant agar and PDA, oatmeal agar has been recognized as most useful for growth and sporulation of S.hypericinum. Mineral agar, appeared the least useful for growth and form acervuli and conidia. S.hypericinum can develop in a wide range of temperature, but the optimum one for the growth and sporulation of the fungus vary between 20°C and 28°C.

  14. Screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers among patients and health care workers of a tertiary care hospital in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathanraj S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 200 subjects were screened for carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA at different sites using oxacillin blood agar and mannitol salt agar with oxacillin. Overall carriage rate was 8.5%, with the highest rate in inpatients (15.6% while the lowest was seen in health care workers (1.8%. The commonest site of colonization was the anterior nares. Oxacillin blood agar was found to be superior to mannitol salt agar with oxacillin for the isolation of MRSA. Male sex and prolonged hospital stay were found to be the major risk factors for MRSA colonization.

  15. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS OR DETECTION OF SECRETED ASPARTYL PROTEINASE IN URINARY ISOLATES OF CANDIDA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Patil

    2014-04-01

    Results: Out of 150 candida species isolated from clinical urine samples 86.6% were C. tropicalis, followed by C. albicans (11.3%, C. glabrata (1.33% and C. dubliniensis (0.6%. SAP detection using Bovine serum agar was 29.3% where as using bovine haemoglobin agar was 18.6%. Conclusions: So we conclude that the bovine serum agar is far superior to bovine haemoglobin agar for detection of SAP. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(2.000: 119-121

  16. Easy Measurement of Different Forces of Water Retention by Hydrocolloids through Water Loss at Same Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schleißinger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the water binding strength of different polysaccharides (agar-agar, alginate, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, cold swelling starch, guar gum, locust bean gum, pectin, pentosan and xanthan gum. Solutions with similar apparent viscosity were infrared dried with a moisture analyzer at 100°C. Drying times were investigated in order to examine the degree of water binding of hydrocolloids. Agar-agar and cellulose required the shortest drying time and differed significantly from the other tested substances indicating that they bind water in a less tight way.

  17. A new selective medium for isolating Pseudomonas spp. from water.

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, C L; Sheikh, W

    1987-01-01

    A new medium, pseudomonas selective isolation agar, was developed to isolate Pseudomonas spp. from water. It consists of 350 micrograms of nitrofurantoin per ml and 2 micrograms of crystal violet per ml in a nutrient agar base. It is more selective for Pseudomonas spp. than are available commercial media. Its ingredients are inexpensive and readily available, and it is easy to prepare.

  18. Cold Plasma Inactivates Salmonella Stanley and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inoculated on Golden Delicious Apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold plasma generated in a gliding arc was applied to outbreak strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley on agar plates and inoculated onto the surfaces of golden delicious apples. This novel sanitizing technology inactivated both pathogens on agar plates, with higher flow rate (40 ...

  19. Effect of water potential on sclerotial production by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in a culture medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes Sclerotinia blight on peanut. Potato dextrose agar medium was prepared and adjusted to various water potentials (-0.4 to -3.4 MPa) using NaCl. Petri plates (9-cm dia) each containing 15 ml of medium were inoculated with a 4-mm agar plug of S. sclerotiorum. Plates w...

  20. ANOMIALIES IN TH ENUMERIATION OF STARVED BACTERIA ON CULTURE MEDIA CONTAINING NALIDIXIC ACID AND TETRACYCLINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culturable counts of antibiotic resistant, genetically engineered fluorescens were determined on antibiotic-containing plate count agar during starvation in water. he mean of the colony counts on plate count agar with or without tetracycline (4.9 x 106 ml) was significantly highe...

  1. Titania powder activation and rutile ceramics structure formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziganshin I.R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of mechanochemical activation (MCA in aqueous medium with various organic additives on commercial titania powder and products made of it has been investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Agar-agar additive has been shown to offer promise for activation of titania powders used in obtaining both dense and porous materials.

  2. Growth rate and trapping efficacy of nematode-trapping fungi under constant and fluctuating temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, A.S.; Larsen, M.; Wolstrup, J.;

    1999-01-01

    The effect of temperature on radial growth and predatory activity of different isolates of nematode-trapping fungi was assessed. Four isolates of Duddingtonia flagrans and one isolate of Arthrobotrys oligospora were inoculated on petri dishes containing either cornmeal agar (CMA) or faecal agar and...

  3. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus collinsii, Aspergillus floridensis, and Aspergillus trinidadensis are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA) and malt extract agar culture (M...

  4. Agent for roentgenocontrast examination of cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water-soluble agent, additionaly containing starch, agar, water, is suggested to increase accuracy of injured cavity diagnostics. The method for roentgenocontrast agent preparation on the base of starch-agar gel is described. Advantages of the agent suggested in comparison with those of roentgenologic cavity investigation used are shown

  5. Isolation and characterization of a novel catalase-negative, urease-positive Campylobacter from cattle faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.; On, S.L.W.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four strains of a phenotypically unique Campylobacter were isolated from the faeces of 26 of 45 cows in a single herd. Isolation involved enrichment and membrane filtration onto blood agar or plating onto cefoperazone amphotericin teicoplanin agar. The strains exhibited phenotypic character...

  6. GROWTH-REGULATING ACTIVITY OF SOME SALTS OF 1-NAPHTHALENACETIC ACID AND 2-NAPHTHOXYACETIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laichici

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The salts of 1-naphthalene acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid with ethanolamine have been synthetized. The two salts have been assessed using Tsibulskaya-Vassiliev biological test using agar-agar as the medium. Statistical processing of the data has been carried out. The good results of the bioassay indicate an auxinic growth-regulating activity of the two salts.

  7. Video-supported analysis of Beggiatoa filament growth, breakage, and movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; Røy, Hans; Schulz-Vogt, Heide N.

    2008-01-01

    A marine Beggiatoa sp. was cultured in semi-solid agar with opposing oxygen-sulfide gradients. Growth pattern, breakage of filaments for multiplication, and movement directions of Beggiatoa filaments in the transparent agar were investigated by time-lapse video recording. The initial doubling time...

  8. Gclust Server: 37252 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion factor required for growth of superficial pseudohyphae (which do not invade the agar substrate) but not for invasive...ed for growth of superficial pseudohyphae (which do not invade the agar substrate) but not for invasive pseu

  9. High-throughput screening assays for antibacterial and antifungal activities of Lactobacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglin, Raffael C; Stevens, Marc J A; Meile, Lukas; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2015-07-01

    We describe high-throughput screening techniques to rapidly detect either antimicrobial activity, using an agar-well diffusion assay in microtiter plates, or antifungal activity using an agar-spot assay in 24-well plates. 504 Lactobacillus isolates were screened with minimal laboratory equipment and screening rates of 2000-5000 individual antimicrobial interactions. PMID:25937247

  10. Time to first fracture affects sweetness of gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the breakdown behaviour on sweetness intensity of gelled model foods. Emulsion-filled gelatine/agar gels varying mainly in fracture strain (eF) were used. The fracture strain was modified by changing either the ratio between gelatine and agar

  11. Pengetahuan Dan Sikap Pasien Diabetes Mellitus Terhadap Kepatuhan Dalam Melaksanakan Diet Yang Dirawat Jalan Di RSU. Pirngadi Medan Tahun 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Sry Agustina

    2012-01-01

    Tujuan Pembangunan kesehatan adalah meningkatkan kesadaran, kemauan dan kemampuan hidup sehat bagi setiap orang. Agar terlaksananya upaya kesehatan tersebut maka dilakukan upaya kesehatan dengan pendekatan pemeliharaan, peningkatan kesehatan, pencegahan dan pemulihan kesehatan. Untuk keberhasilan upaya pembangunan kesehatan tersebut maka masyarakat perlu diikutsertakan agar berpartisipasi aktif dalam upaya kesehatan. Diabetes mellitus (DM) merupakan suatu penyakit menular yang disebabkan b...

  12. Fermentation of Fructooligosaccharides by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria†

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Handan; Hutkins, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria were screened of their ability to ferment fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on MRS agar. Of 28 strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria examined, 12 of 16 Lactobacillus strains and 7 of 8 Bifidobacterium strains fermented FOS. Only strains that gave a positive reaction by the agar method reached high cell densities in broth containing FOS.

  13. [Induction and identification of polyploid of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxiang; Gao, Jianping; Zhao, Xiaoming

    2003-05-01

    In this article, improved agar painting method, with semi-solid of 0.2% colchicine and 0.1% agar, was adopted to treat apical buds of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao seedlings. Obtained plants were proved to be tetraploids by identification of biological characteristics and chromosome numbers. PMID:14535010

  14. SOCIETY FOR GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY M

    Science.gov (United States)

    The analysis of food and water for the presence of bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens is critical for ensuring public health. The traditional approach for bacterial pathogen detection involves enrichment in a suitable growth medium, followed by plating onto selective agar(s) and confirmation...

  15. ISOLATION OF ENDOPHYTIC ACTINOMYCETES FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ITS MUTATIONAL EFFECT IN BIOCONTROL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Shenpagam N.*, D. Kanchana Devi ** and Sinduja G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the endophytic actinomycetes were collected from three medicinal plants Azadiracta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Phyllanthus amarus. Endophytic actinomycetes were isolated using different media like Starch casein agar, Starch casein nitrate agar, Actinomycetes isolation agar and Soyabean agar, while it showed more colonies in Starch casein agar. The endophytic actinomycetes were stained and biochemical tests were performed. Antimicrobial compound was purified from the filtrate by ethanol extraction method. Antagonistic activities of endophytic actinomycetes isolates were tested against bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungi Rhizopus. For the selected isolates antibiotic resistance was checked using various antibiotic discs like Amoxycillin, Penicillin, Rifampicin and Ampicillin. The strains which showed efficient antibacterial activity were selected to study the effect of mutation by physical and chemical method. In this study, UV mutated endophytic actinomycetes increase antibiotic production than non-mutated endophytic Actinomycetes, whereas in chemical mutation it does not increase the antibiotic production.

  16. Seçici Özellikteki Farklı Besiyerlerinin bazı Mayaların Meyveli Yoğurttan Geri Kazanımları Amacı ile Karşılaştırılmaları (İngilizce)

    OpenAIRE

    Ergül, Şule Şenses; Özbaş, Z. Yeşim

    2009-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, yapay olarak aşılanan meyveli yoğurt örneklerinden bazı mayaların izolasyonu için kullanılabilecek farklı besiyerleri karşılaştırılmıştır. Bu amaçla, kontrol besiyeri olarak malt extract agar ve beş farklı seçici besiyeri kullanılmıştır. Bu besiyerleri; malt extract yeast extract %50 fructose glucose agar, malt extract yeast extract %40 sucrose agar, malt extract yeast extract glucose %0.8 peptone agar, malt extract yeast extract glucose %0.1 peptone agar and potato dextrose %50...

  17. Selective media for the isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić Branka M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective media were developed and evaluated for isolation of A. pleuropneumoniae from pig tonsils. Samples were obtained from four pig herds with a clinical history of pleuropneumonia. For isolation of A. pleuropneumoniae 93 pig tonsils were collected at slaughter. Each sample was streaked on to four different selective media (modified PPLO agar (mPPLO Brain-Heart agar (BH, Columbia agar (CA, Miller-Hinton chocolate agar (MHCA containing different combinations of antibiotics, NAD and nystatin. The selectivity of nutritive media is conditioned by the content of antibiotics, as well as by the type of medium used. Mean isolation rate of A. pleuropneumoniae in the investigated herds, was 17.2%. The best results were obtained using PPLO2 agar, 20.4%. The other media supplemented with the mentioned antibiotics gave satisfactory results.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a novel catalase-negative, urease-positive Campylobacter from cattle faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.; On, S.L.W.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four strains of a phenotypically unique Campylobacter were isolated from the faeces of 26 of 45 cows in a single herd. Isolation involved enrichment and membrane filtration onto blood agar or plating onto cefoperazone amphotericin teicoplanin agar. The strains exhibited phenotypic character......Forty-four strains of a phenotypically unique Campylobacter were isolated from the faeces of 26 of 45 cows in a single herd. Isolation involved enrichment and membrane filtration onto blood agar or plating onto cefoperazone amphotericin teicoplanin agar. The strains exhibited phenotypic...... characteristics typical for Campylobacter species. However, they were unusual in that they produced urease and copious H2S in triple sugar iron (TSI) medium, but did not produce catalase. They did not grow aerobically. None of the strains grew on modified cefoperazone charcoal deoxycholate agar (m...

  19. Rheological properties of binary and ternary protein-polysaccharide co-hydrogels and comparative release kinetics of salbutamol sulphate from their matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anita; Kaloti, Mandeep; Bohidar, H B

    2011-03-01

    Rheological properties of binary (AgarGelA and AgarGelB) and ternary (AgarGelAB and GelABAgar) co-hydrogels of agar (polysaccharide) with gelatin A and gelatin B (proteins) were studied to investigate their differential viscoelastic behavior. Two sets of rheological experiments, isochronal temperature and isothermal frequency sweep, were performed and the storage modulii, G' was measured which could be correlated to the gel strengths. Two separate peaks at 70°C and 35°C, corresponding to melting temperatures of agar and gelatin gels respectively, were obtained when derivative of G' with respect to temperature, dG'/dT was plotted against temperature which clearly showed the presence of two separate networks of gelatin and agar interconnected to each other. The results revealed that AgarGelAB was the strongest and AgarGelA was the weakest gel among all the gels studied. In order to see the effect of gel microstructure on drug encapsulation and release behavior, a model drug salbutamol was encapsulated in various gel matrices and the release of the same was seen in phosphate buffer pH 7.4, in simulated gastric fluid pH 1.2 (SGF) and in simulated intestinal fluid pH 6.8 (SIF) media. The drug release behavior universally followed sigmoidal kinetics invariant of gel composition. It is concluded that the hydrogel microstructure influenced the release behavior and best release, in all the three media, could be found with binary gel, AgarGelB, and ternary gel, AgarGelAB. Finally, microstructure of these gels is proposed. PMID:21108963

  20. Evaluation of selective direct plating media for their suitability to recover uninjured, heat-injured, and freeze-injured Listeria monocytogenes from foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D A; Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E

    1988-06-01

    Six direct plating media were evaluated for their suitability to recover uninjured, heat-injured, and freeze-injured cells of four strains of Listeria monocytogenes from four foods. Cells were inoculated into foods to achieve ca. 10(2) to 10(3), 10(4) to 10(5), or 10(5) to 10(6) viable cells per ml or g (low, medium, and high populations, respectively). No appreciable differences in recovery of the four test strains within a treatment were observed. Generally, recovery on all test media was similar and not markedly affected by freeze treatment. Modified Despierres agar and modified McBride Listeria agar yielded poorer recovery of heat-injured cells than did McBride Listeria agar and gum base-nalidixic acid-tryptone soya agar. Overall, gum base-nalidixic acid-tryptone soya agar was best for recovering L. monocytogenes from pasteurized milk and chocolate ice cream mix. Enumeration was complicated by the growth of background microflora present in Brie cheese and cabbage, especially at the low inoculum. Dominguez Rodriguez isolation agar was superior for recovering L. monocytogenes from Brie cheese, whereas modified Despierres agar was best for recovering the organism from cabbage. Direct plating procedures can successfully be utilized for recovering healthy and injured L. monocytogenes from foods containing low populations of background microflora. PMID:3137864

  1. Laboratory evaluation of phenotypic detection methods of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunava Kali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although conventional antibiotic susceptibility tests are most commonly performed for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, the results of these phenotypic tests are dependent on the standardization of the culture conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the conventional phenotypic screening tests in comparison to the mecA gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR. One hundred and two clinical isolates of MRSA identified by the oxacillin disk diffusion were subjected to PCR for the mecA gene and by the cefoxitin disk diffusion test and culture on oxacillin screen agar, mannitol salt agar, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Agar (MeReSA selective medium, for MRSA. Although all 102 isolates were resistant in oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion, 92 (90.1% isolates were positive for the mecA gene. The sensitivities of the mannitol salt agar, MeReSA agar, and oxacillin screen agar were 89.13, 97.82, and 98.91%, respectively. The oxacillin screen agar may be recommended for confirming methicillin resistance in the disk diffusion test in resource-poor settings, where molecular methods are not available.

  2. PERFIL ETIOLÓGICO DA MASTITE BOVINA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE SANTA IZABEL DO OESTE, PARANÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucianne Leigue dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical or sub-clinical mastitis are the main illnesses that affect dairy herds, with impact on the economy, the industry, and with consequence to public health. Considering that the city of Santa Izabel do Oeste is located in the second bigger milk region of Paraná state, and that mastitis cases are epidemiologically classified as ambient or contagious, the purpose of this study was to identify possible etiologic agents of bovine mastitis, by the use of a preliminary, fast and cheap diagnostic method to differentiate these types of illness, to orient treatment and prophylactic measures. Two triplates were employed. Triplate I was composed by blood agar, bile-esculine agar and mannitol-salt agar, while triplate II was composed by MacConkey agar; Baird-Parker agar and sabouraud-dextrose agar with cloranfenicol. Additionally, a tube with sabouraud-dextrose agar with cloranfenicol incubated at room temperature temperature was used for the research of filamentous moulds. It was observed that the great majority of the isolated samples had Staphylococcus coagulase negative, coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, no-fermenters bacilli gram negative, Coryneforms, Streptococcus spp. and Streptococcus agalactiae.

  3. Development of Culture Medium for the Isolation of Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium from Rhizosphere Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Tomoki; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Suga, Haruhisa; Kageyama, Koji; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2016-06-25

    An effective medium designated phosphate separately autoclaved Reasoner's 2A supplemented with cycloheximide and tobramycin (PSR2A-C/T) has been developed for the isolation of Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium strains from the plant rhizosphere. It consists of Reasoner's 2A agar (R2A) prepared by autoclaving phosphate and agar separately and supplementing with 50 mg L(-1) cycloheximide and 1 mg L(-1) tobramycin. A comparison was made among the following nine media: PSR2A-C/T, PSR2A-C/T supplemented with NaCl, R2A agar, R2A agar supplemented with cycloheximide and tobramycin, 1/4-strength tryptic soy agar (TSA), 1/10-strength TSA, soil-extract agar, Schaedler anaerobe agar (SAA), and SAA supplemented with gramicidin, for the recovery of Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium strains from the Welsh onion rhizosphere. Flavobacterium strains were only isolated on PSR2A-C/T, and the recovery rate of Chryseobacterium strains was higher from PSR2A-C/T than from the eight other media. In order to confirm the effectiveness of PSR2A-C/T, bacteria were isolated from onion rhizosphere soil with this medium. Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium strains were successfully isolated from this sample at a similar rate to that from the Welsh onion rhizosphere. PMID:27098502

  4. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Pravin Charles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. Conclusions: We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.

  5. Evaluation of different plate media for direct cultivation of Campylobacter species from live broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potturi-Venkata, L-P; Backert, S; Lastovica, A J; Vieira, S L; Norton, R A; Miller, R S; Pierce, S; Oyarzabal, O A

    2007-07-01

    Accurate identification and optimal culturing procedures for Campylobacter spp. from live broilers are needed for epidemiological studies. Because there is no standardized protocol, we designed and conducted studies to evaluate different selective media for the culturing and isolation of Campylobacter spp. from cecal and fecal samples obtained from battery-reared and commercial broilers. Five media selective for Campylobacter were evaluated: Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, Campy-Line, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar. With contaminated broilers reared in battery cages, Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar revealed similar isolation rates (P > 0.05), whereas Campy-Line showed a lower efficacy (P agar was more consistent for the isolation of Campylobacter from feces, whereas modified Campy-Cefex and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar showed similar isolation rates from cecal samples. Campy-Line agar showed a lower identification rate (P plate medium may influence the efficiency of isolating Campylobacter spp. from broiler chickens by direct plating from fecal or cecal samples. PMID:17575175

  6. Formulasi Inokulan Jamur Pembentuk Gubal Gaharu pada Tanaman Ketimunan (Gyrinops versteegii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE MEGA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the most effective formulation of the gaharu agar wood forming fungi inoculantswhich infect Gyrinops versteegii plants, thus producing high quality agar wood. The method used inthis research is the randomized block design (RBD with three replication. The treatments were twofungi as inoculant applied saperately each and a combination of Rhisopus sp. and Fusarium sp. in theform of solid and liquid. The treatments tested were: (A Fusarium solani fungi inoculant in solid form,(B Rhisopus sp.fungi inoculant in solid form, (C Mixture of Rhisopus sp. and Fusarium solani fungiinoculants in solid form, (D Fusarium solani fungi inoculant in liquid form, (E Rhisopus sp.fungiinoculants in liquid form, (F Mixture of Rhisopus sp. and Fusarium solani fungi inoculants in liquidform, and (G A combination of solid and liquid of Rhisopus sp. and Fusarium solani fungi inoculants.The parameters measured were the agar wood formed: agar wood fragrance level, color of agar woodand resin content of the agar wood. Furthermore, the data is analyzed statistically by analysis ofvariance. The results showed that, treatments of inoculants formulations significantly affects the aromaand resin content of agar wood. Formula of G (a combination of solid and liquid Rhisopus sp. andFusarium solani fungi inoculants and F (a combination of liquid Rhisopus sp. and Fusarium solanifungi inoculants produced agar wood of the highest quality compared to other formulas. Formula Gand F produced each agar wood with black and blackish-brown colour, with strong aroma (fragrance,and a resin content of 7.69% and 6.98%.

  7. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by cinnamon extracts in carrot-kinnow mandarin blends

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Moushumi; Kaur, Sarvnarinder; Ganguli, Abhijit

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon extracts in laboratory prepared Kinnow-mandarin carrot blends challenged with Escerichia coli O157:H7. Freshly squeezed carrot and kinnow-mandarin juices were mixed to obtain a typical blend, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 cultures at 102 CFU/mL with and without cinnamon extracts (0.3%) and stored at 4, 8 and 28°C for up to 10 hours. Counts on tryptic soy agar (TSA) selective medium (Mac conkey sorbitol agar) and thin agar layer (TAL) we...

  8. PERBANDINGAN PERTUMBUHAN STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS INA99 PADA BERBAGAI MEDIA PERBENIHAN PADAT

    OpenAIRE

    Yayuk Yuliarsi; Takarsyah M. Putra; Boedi Oe. Roeslan

    2015-01-01

    Previous study shows that tryptone-yeast extract-cystine-sucrose is choice of the culture media for isolating and growing S. mutans serotype C, but the effectiveness in stepping up the recovery growth of the bacteria has never been compared with that of the blood agar added to yeast extract and sucrose. This study was come to find out the growth of S. mutans serotype-c with blood agar-yest extract-sucrose, S. mutans INA99 serotype-c is identified, sliced, and cultured into blood agar-yeast ex...

  9. Laboratory invesitgations of variability of Ascochyta fabae Speg. isolates obtained from horse bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Józef Filipowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifty five isolates of Ascochyta fabae Speg. were investigated. They were selected from 1650 isolates of this fungus obtained from horse bean seeds in 1974-1976. All the isolates grew and sporulated on Potato Dextrose Agar, Malt Agar and Horse Bean Agar. The rate of their growth amounted to 1-4 mm per 24 hours. The variability of isolates in size of pycnidia and conidia and number of sepia was noticed. A few spores with untypical shapes were observed as well.

  10. Examination of some protective conditions on technological properties of irradiated food grade polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn and cassava starches, agar-agar and kappa carrageenan, polysaccharides used as food additives, were gamma irradiated with doses suitable for microbial decontamination. Starches were analysed in paste and pudding viscosity and paper chromatography; agar and carrageenan, in viscosity and compression tests on gels and custards. Afterwards, substances were added to verify whether they could prevent irradiation technological impairment. Results revealed significant differences between control and irradiated samples in most determinations. No added substance was able to protect the functional properties of these additives. (author)

  11. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF STREPTOMYCES SPP. PRODUCING VANCOMYCIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples obtained from different governments in Egypt were analyzed to determine the presence of types of antibiotic producing actinomycetes using starch-nitrite agar, starch-casein nitrate agar and Czapek's Dox agar as culture media. Different Streptomyces spp. were isolated. The Streptomyces (S.) isolates encountered were S. violochromogens, S. violaceus-nigar and S. orientalis and known as standard Vancomycin producers. The optimum conditions of S. orientalis; incubation period, initial pH and incubation temperature, were determined. In addition, physical properties; appearance, melting point, solubility, mass spectrophotometer of ultra violet (UV) and the effect of gamma rays, were also determined

  12. Comportamiento de la mastitis bovina y su impacto económico en algunos hatos de la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Rodríguez Martínez

    2006-01-01

    Se describe la caracterización de la mastitis en diez hatos representativos de la Sabana de Bogotá, enfocándose al estudio del problema durante dos años de visitas bimensuales. Se realizaron diferentes tipos de pruebas de campo y de laboratorio: manejo del hato en general, registros de producción, California Mastitis Test (CMT), Cultivos bacteriológicos en medios Agar sangre, Agar Mac Conkey, Agar Sabouraud, recuento de células somáticas, en 644 vacas y 2576 cuartos con visitas bimensuales lo...

  13. Exploration of Yeast and Bacteria Contaminants in Seed Culture and Fermented Wort from Gyo Gon Alcohol Distillery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study was made on samples of seed culture and fermented wort from Gyogon alcohol distillery. In all samples bacteria contaminants were observed. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar, Czapek Dox agar, and nutrient agar media and broth. The selected colonies were isolated. Biochemical tests for identification were conducted. The yeast and bacteria contaminants were identified by morphological characteristics and biochemical reactions. The yeast isolated and identified from Gyogon alcohol distillery was Sacchacromyces cerevisiae. The bacteria contaminants isolated and identified were Aeromonas sp. and Pseudomonas sp.

  14. Armpits, Belly Buttons and Chronic Wounds: The ABCs of Our Body Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Chronic Wounds: The ABCs of Our Body Bacteria By Alisa Machalek and Allison MacLachlan Posted April ... treating skin and other conditions. Chronic Wounds and Bacteria Bacteria from human skin grown on agar in ...

  15. Adequacy of Petrifilm™ Aerobic Count plates supplemented with de Man, Rogosa & Sharpe broth and chlorophenol red for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria in salami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castilho, Natália Parma Augusto; Okamura, Vivian Tiemi; Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to assess the performance of alternative protocols to enumerate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in salami. Fourteen cultures and two mixed starter cultures were plated using six protocols: 1) Petrifilm™ Aerobic Count (AC) with MRS broth and chlorophenol red (CR), incubated under aerobiosis or 2) under anaerobiosis, 3) MRS agar with CR, 4) MRS agar with bromocresol purple, 5) MRS agar at pH5.7, and 6) All Purpose Tween agar. Samples of salami were obtained and the LAB microbiota was enumerated by plating according protocols 1, 2, 3 and 5. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the tested protocols, based on culture counts (p0.05). Colonies were confirmed as LAB, indicating proper selectivity of the protocols. The results showed the adequacy of Petrifilm™ AC supplemented with CR for the enumeration of LAB in salami. PMID:26291606

  16. Isolation and characterisation of the marine ultramicrobacterium Sphingomonas sp. strain RB2256

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, F; Gottschal, J.C; Prins, R.A

    1997-01-01

    Indigenous heterotrophic marine bacteria are of great importance to global nutrient cycling. Predominant native bacteria are of ultramicrobacterial dimensions, are not associated with aggregates and must have truly remarkable abilities for substrate capture. Agar media are unsuited for the isolation

  17. Avaliação da produção de melanina por espécies de Cryptococcus em quatro diferentes meios de cultura Evaluation of melanin production by Cryptococcus species in four different culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo dos Santos Pedroso

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade de Cryptococcus spp produzir melanina em meios contendo compostos fenólicos é amplamente utilizada na identificação destas espécies no laboratório. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar a produção desse pigmento em quatro meios de cultura por Cryptococcus sp. Foram testadas 16 cepas de Cryptococcus neoformans, 17 de Cryptococcus albidus, 13 de Cryptococcus laurentii, e 2 de Cryptococcus uniguttulatus nos meios: ágar batata e cenoura, ágar alpiste, ágar semente de girassol e ágar L-dopa. A produção de melanina foi avaliada com base na pigmentação das colônias, e demonstrada em 5 dias de incubação por 93,8% das cepas de Cryptococcus neoformans nos meios ágar batata e cenoura, ágar semente de girassol e ágar L-dopa. Dos isolados de Cryptococcus albidus, 29,4% produziram o pigmento em ágar batata e cenoura e L-dopa, 11,8% em ágar alpiste, e 36% em ágar girassol. De Cryptococcus laurentii, 53,8% produziram em batata e cenoura e em semente de girassol, 61,5% em L-dopa, 84,6% em ágar alpiste. Somente uma cepa de Cryptococcus uniguttulatus produziu fracamente o pigmento em ágar batata e cenoura.The capacity of Cryptococcus spp to produce melanin in media containing phenol compounds is widely used for identifying these species in the laboratory. The aim of the present study was to compare the production of this pigment by Cryptococcus spp. in four culture media. Sixteen strains of Cryptococcus neoformans, 17 of Cryptococcus albidus, 13 of Cryptococcus laurentii and two of Cryptococcus uniguttulatus were tested in the following media: potato-carrot agar, Niger seed agar, sunflower seed agar and L-dopa agar. The melanin production was evaluated on the basis of colony pigmentation. Its production after five days of incubation was demonstrated by 93.8% of the strains of Cryptococcus neoformans in the media of potato-carrot agar, sunflower seed agar and L-dopa agar. From the isolates of Cryptococcus albidus, 29

  18. Sistem Informasi Penjualan Alat Musik Online Toko Istana Musik Medan Berbasis Web

    OpenAIRE

    Ayanda, Rizky

    2015-01-01

    Sistem informasi webpenjualan alat musik online adalahsebuahsisteminformasi yang didesainsesuaidengankeperluandandapatdigunakandengansangatmudah. Sistem informasi webpenjualan alat musik online inisangatbergunauntukparapelanggan memakai sistem informasipenjualan tersebut agar memudahkan untuk membeli serta mengetahui informasi tentang alat-alat musik yang tersedia. 102406108

  19. Isolation of Endophytic Streptomyces Strains from Surface-Sterilized Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sardi, P.; Saracchi, M.; Quaroni, S.; Petrolini, B.; Borgonovi, G. E.; Merli, S.

    1992-01-01

    When the roots of 28 plant species were surface sterilized and incubated on agar medium, endophytic actinomycetes in the root cortex were observed by direct microscopic observation and pure culture techniques.

  20. Analysis of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores from different sporulation media subjected to wet-heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celenk Molva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris endospores in fruit juices is a significant problem for the juice industry since they are able to survive pasteurization subsequently leading to the spoilage. To evaluate the mechanism of wet-heat, structural damage and the leakages of intracellular materials of A. acidoterrestris DSM 3922 spores from different sporulation media was studied at 90°C (15-45 min. For sporulation, Bacillus acidoterrestris agar, Bacillus acidocaldarius agar, potato dextrose agar and malt extract agar were used. Based on the scanning electron microscopy, loss of internal volume and structural integrity were observed following heating which were further confirmed by the leakages of intracellular components. The obtained results suggest that the inactivation of A. acidoterrestris DSM 3922 spores by wet-heat is associated with damage to the coat and inner membrane depending on the sporulation medium composition and heating time.

  1. Biological investigations of Indian phaeophyceae 16. Antibacterial acitivity of phenolic substances, extracted from Sargassum johnstonii Setchell et Gardner collected from Okha, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.P.S.

    Free and hydrolysed phenolic substances were extracted from a dry sample of Sargassum johnstonii using 80% methanol and tested for their antibacterial activity by agar diffusion method. The growth of two gram-positive bacteria tested were inhibited...

  2. The application of cobalt labelling to electron microscopic investigations of serial sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, M

    1984-11-01

    The cobalt labelling technique can be applied to ultrathin serial sections and subsequent electron microscopical investigations with the following modifications: a prolonged, up to 12 h, fixation of the tissue in aldehydes; a shortened, 15 min, postfixation in OsO4; embedding in soft resin block by using a higher proportion of plasticizer in the polimerizing mixture; mounting of 5 micrometers thick serial sections between two layers of Agar-Agar coatings; performing the intensification of the Agar section-Agar sandwich with a physical developer containing a low percentage of the reductive agent; reembedding selected thick sections for ultrathin serial sectioning and staining with uranile acetate and lead citrate. The technique unambiguously shows all labelled profiles, and preserves the fine structural details of the surrounding tissues. PMID:6392759

  3. Eesti kinnas Ameerikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Eestit külastanud Salt Lake City kudumisringi juhendaja Nancy Bush on agar eesti soki- ja kindakudumistehnika tutvustaja Ameerikas. Ta on avaldanud selleteemalise raamatu, ajakirjas "Piecework" ilmus artikkel Aino Praaklist, juures tema kinnaste mustreid ja skeeme

  4. 7 CFR 318.13-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... growing media. Agar or other translucent tissue culture media, buckwheat hulls, clean ocean sand... distribution in mass markets. Such identification will be based on a variety of indicators, including, but...

  5. 'KLEBSIELLA' OCCURRENCE, SIGNIFICANCE AND DETECTION IN WATER SYSTEMS: A PROGRESS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequent occurrence of Klebsiella in coliform colonization problems found in water supply distribution has prompted the development of a new medium (m-Kleb agar) for specific detection. The medium has excellent differential characteristics, and an average 94% Klebsiella recovery ...

  6. Molecular and phenotypic identification of Candida isolates from pregnant women in Ogbomoso, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbami Abidemi Nurat

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The combine uses of chromogenic agar and PCR have the advantage of efficient differentiation and identification of Candida species. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 317-322

  7. MICROBIALLY MEDIATED GROWTH SUPPRESSION AND DEATH OF SALMONELLA IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of compost microflora in the suppression of salmonella regrowth in composted sewage sludge was investigated. Microbial inhibition studies of salmonella growth were conducted on nutrient agar, in composts that had been subjected to different temperatures in compost piles,...

  8. Swarming and complex pattern formation in Paenibacillus vortex studied by imaging and tracking cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingham, C.J.; Jacob, Ben E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Swarming motility allows microorganisms to move rapidly over surfaces. The Grampositive bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits advanced cooperative motility on agar plates resulting in intricate colonial patterns with geometries that are highly sensitive to the environment. The cellular

  9. Development of production methods of volume source by the resinous solution which has hardening

    CERN Document Server

    Motoki, R

    2002-01-01

    Volume sources is used for standard sources by radioactive measurement using Ge semiconductor detector of environmental sample, e.g. water, soil and etc. that require large volume. The commercial volume source used in measurement of the water sample is made of agar-agar, and that used in measurement of the soil sample is made of alumina powder. When the plastic receptacles of this two kinds of volume sources were damaged, the leakage contents cause contamination. Moreover, if hermetically sealing performance of volume source made of agar-agar fell, volume decrease due to an evaporation off moisture gives an error to radioactive measurement. Therefore, we developed the two type methods using unsaturated polyester resin, vinilester resin, their hardening agent and acrylicresin. The first type is due to dispersing the hydrochloric acid solution included the radioisotopes uniformly in each resin and hardening the resin. The second is due to dispersing the alumina powder absorbed the radioisotopes in each resin an...

  10. Production of alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis by different entrapment techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh Chandra Bose

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation evaluates the suitability of different matrices such as calcium alginate, polyacrylamide, agar-agar and gelatin for production of alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis. Isolated from fermented fish using immobilisation approach. Calcium alginate was found to be an effective and suitable matrix for higher alkaline protease productivity compared to other matrices studied. All the matrices were selected for repeated batch fermentation. The average protease production with calcium alginate was 585 U/ml which is 70% higher production over the convention free cell fermentation. Similarly, the protease production by repeated batch fermentation was 380 U/ml with polyacrylamide, 498 U/ml with agar-agar and 438 U/ml with gelatin respectively..

  11. A selective and differential medium for Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L; Owens, L; Smith, S

    1996-01-01

    A new medium, termed Vibrio harveyi agar, has been developed for the isolation and enumeration of V. harveyi. It is possible to differentiate V. harveyi colonies from the colonies of strains representing 15 other Vibrio species with this medium. This medium has been shown to inhibit the growth of two strains of marine Pseudomonas spp. and two strains of marine Flavobacterium spp. but to allow the growth of Photobacterium strains. Colonies displaying typical V. harveyi morphology were isolated from the larval rearing water of a commercial prawn hatchery with V. harveyi agar as a primary isolation medium and were positively identified, by conventional tests, as V. harveyi. This agar displays great potential as a primary isolation medium and offers significant advantages over thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar as a medium for differentiating V. harveyi from other marine and estuarine Vibrio species. PMID:8795252

  12. Screening for Saponins Using the Blood Hemolysis Test. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotheeswaran, Subramaniam

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment for undergraduate chemistry laboratories involving a chemical found in plants and some sea animals. Discusses collection and identification of material, a hemolysis test, preparation of blood-coated agar plates, and application of samples. (CW)

  13. Absence of psilocybin in species of fungi previously reported to contain psilocybin and related tryptamine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Stijve, T.; Kuyper, Th.W.

    1988-01-01

    Seven taxa of agarics reported in literature to contain psilocybin (viz. Psathyrella candolleana, Gymnopilus spectabilis, G. fulgens, Hygrocybe psittacina var. psittacina and var. californica, Rickenella fibula, R. swartzii) have been analysed for psilocybin and related tryptamines with negative results.

  14. Evaluation of Diagnostic PCR for the Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Gouws, Pieter A.; Liedemann, Ilse

    2005-01-01

    Conventional methods for the detection of Listeria in foodstuffs are generally cumbersome and time consuming. The use of primary enrichment in ½ strength Fraser broth and the use of Oxford and RAPID’L. mono agars were assessed in comparison with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for their ability to accurately detect and confirm the presence of L. monocytogenes in food products. Of the 27 food samples tested, 74 % were presumptively positive for Listeria on Oxford agar, while 44 % were presumpt...

  15. Assemblage of benthic diatoms and culturable heterotrophs in shallow-water hydrothermal vent of the D. Joao de Castro Seamount, Azores in the Atlantic Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Mohandass, C.; Cardigos, F.; DeCosta, P.M.; Santos, R.S.; Colaco, A.

    enzymes were isolated on malt extract agar and nutrient agar media respectively, supplemented with starch, carboxymethyl cellulose, xylan, Tween 80 (polysorbate 80 polyoxyethylene) and skimmed milk powder at 1% concentration (W/V). For detection... after flooding the culture plates with Lugol’s iodine solution. Lipase activity was detected by the appearance of white precipitate around the colo- nies. Clear zone in xylan, cellulose and skimmed milk powder-supplemented culture plates confirmed...

  16. Photodynamic inactivation of in vitro bacterial cultures from pressure ulcers Inativação fotodinâmica de culturas de bactérias in vitro provenientes de úlceras de pressão

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho; Ana Paula da Costa Marques; Felipe Abdalla dos Reis; Ana Carulina Guimarães Belchior; Iandara Schettert Silva; Carlos Alexandre Habitante; Daniela Aparecida Sussai

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate in vitro the antibacterial effect of diode laser light of wavelength 650 nm, in association with the photosensitive substance toluidine blue, on the bacteria in infected skin ulcers. METHODS: Samples were collected by means of swabs containing a medium for transporting infected material from skin ulcers. The material was inoculated into culturing medium containing azide blood agar for the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, and MacConkey agar for Gram-negative bacteria, and...

  17. Novel method for selective isolation of actinomycetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, C F; Christensen, D L

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for the selective isolation of actinomycetes from natural mixed microbial populations is described. A nutrient agar medium was overlaid with a 0.22- to 0.45-microns-pore cellulose ester membrane filter, and the surface of the filter was inoculated. During incubation, the branched mycelia of the actinomycetes penetrated the filter pores to the underlying agar medium, whereas growth of nonactinomycete bacteria was restricted to the filter surface. The membrane filter was removed...

  18. Synergistic interactions between Labiatae species and antibiotics on gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains

    OpenAIRE

    Adham, Aveen Nozad

    2015-01-01

    Objective and methods: This study was aimed to evaluate antibacterial activity; type of interaction between chloroform leaves extract of Mentha piperita, Mentha longifolia and Ocimum basilicum together and with antibiotics by agar well diffusion method on isolated bacterial strain and to determine active constituents responsible on antibacterial activity by agar overlay bioautographic method.Results: Mentha piperita exhibited more pronounced inhibition zone (20mm) against Staphylococcus aureu...

  19. Drosophila melanogaster larvae control amylase secretion according to the hardness of food

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Honami; Suzuki, Masataka G.

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae excrete amylase and perform external digestion of their food. In this study, to investigate whether their external digestion ability varies in response to changes in the external environment, we measured the relative amount of amylase excreted by larvae using a new method: the iodine starch agar method (ISAM). Analysis using this method revealed that the amount of amylase excreted by larvae increased in accordance with the increase in the agar concentration. In ...

  20. Identification of Bioaerosols Released from an Egg Production Facility in the Southeast United States

    OpenAIRE

    Wang-Li, Lingjuan; Li, Qianfeng; Byfield, Grace E.

    2013-01-01

    This field study investigated biological characteristics of aerosols emitted from a commercial egg production farm (layer operation). Bioaerosol samples were taken on this farm at five sampling locations covering emission source (inside a layer barn) and four ambient surrounding stations at four wind directions. All-glass impingers (AGI) were used for the field sampling. AGI fluid samples were plated in duplicate on Trypticase Soy Agar for growth of bacteria and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for gr...